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%5,7,6+ 67$1'$5'

%6 ?15919B9
&ode oI pvDFtIFe Iov
'esIgn Dnd
FonstvuFtIon oI g!Dss
veInIovFed p!DstIFs
(*53) pIpIng systems
Iov IndIvIduD! p!Dnts ov
sItes
!C 66.026:62l.644.0?:62l.643.2-036.5:6?8.06?.5-462
Confirmed
January 2009
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%6 ?15919B9
ThIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd, hnvIng
boon ronrod undor fho
dIrocfIon of fho IInsfIcs
Sfnndnrds IoIIcy CommIffoo,
wns ubIIshod undor fho
nufhorIfy of fho Ionrd of
ISI nnd comos
Info offocf on
3l Ocfobor l989
ISI 02-2000
Tho foIIowIng ISI roforoncos
roInfo fo fho work on fhIs
sfnndnrd:
CommIffoo roforonco I!M/9
rnff for commonf 88/35803 C
,6%1 0 5B0 1?499 9
&ommIttees vesponsIE!e Iov tLIs
%vItIsL 6tDndDvd
Tho ronrnfIon of fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd wns onfrusfod by fho IInsfIcs
Sfnndnrds IoIIcy CommIffoo (I!M/-) fo TochnIcnI CommIffoo I!M/9, uon
whIch fho foIIowIng bodIos woro rorosonfod:
IrIfIsh Ionrd of Agromonf
IrIfIsh Cns Ic
IrIfIsh IInsfIcs IodornfIon
IrIfIsh IIumbIng IIffIngs Mnnufncfurors` AssocInfIon
IrIfIsh VnIvo nnd Acfunfor Mnnufncfurors` AssocInfIon
onrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf (IuIIdIng !osonrch IsfnbIIshmonf)
onrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf (ConsfrucfIon IndusfrIos Irocfornfo)
onrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf (Iroorfy SorvIcos Agoncy)
onrfmonf of Trnnsorf
IIocfrIcIfy SuIy Indusfry In IngInnd nnd WnIos
IngInoorIng IquImonf nnd MnforInIs !sors` AssocInfIon
HonIfh nnd Snfofy IxocufIvo
InsfIfufIon of CIvII IngInoors
InsfIfufIon of Cns IngInoors
InsfIfufIon of IroducfIon IngInoors
InsfIfufIon of Wnfor nnd InvIronmonfnI Mnnngomonf (IWIM)
nfIonnI AssocInfIon of IIumbIng, HonfIng nnd MochnnIcnI SorvIcos Confrncfors
IInsfIcs nnd !ubbor InsfIfufo
IInsfIcs !nnd rnInngo Mnnufncfurors` AssocInfIon
!oynI InsfIfufo of IubIIc HonIfh nnd HygIono
SocIofy of IrIfIsh Cns IndusfrIos
Wnfor AufhorIfIos AssocInfIon
Wnfor ComnnIos AssocInfIon
Wnfor !osonrch Confro
Tho foIIowIng bodIos woro nIso rorosonfod In fho drnffIng of fho sfnndnrd,
fhrough subcommIffoos nnd nnoIs:
AssocInfIon of ConsuIfIng IngInoors
onrfmonf of Trndo nnd Indusfry (nfIonnI IngInoorIng !nbornfory)
IodornfIon of CIvII IngInoorIng Confrncfors
InsfIfufIon of MochnnIcnI IngInoors
IIoIIno IndusfrIos CuIId
!AI!A TochnoIogy !fd.
$mendments Issued sInFe puE!IFDtIon
Amd. o. nfo of Issuo Commonfs
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 I
&ontents
Ingo
CommIffoos rosonsIbIo InsIdo fronf covor
Ioroword v
SocfIon l. ConornI
l.l Scoo l
l.2 ofInIfIons l
l.3 AbbrovInfIons l
l.4 SymboIs 2
l.5 InformnfIon nnd roquIromonfs fo bo ngrood nnd documonfod 4
SocfIon 2. osIgn objocfIvos nnd gonornI rocommondnfIons
2.l InsIs of dosIgn 6
2.2 SIzos, dImonsIons nnd foIornncos 6
SocfIon 3. MnforInIs
3.l ThormosoffIng rosIn sysfoms 8
3.2 IIbrous roInforcomonf 8
3.3 Surfnco fIssuos 8
3.4 Aggrognfos nnd fIIIors 8
3.5 ThormoInsfIcs IInors 8
3.6 Comonf for bondIng sIgof nnd sockof joInfs 9
3.? on-mofnIIIc mnforInIs for ofnbIo wnfor nIIcnfIons 9
SocfIon 4. MochnnIcnI roorfIos nnd dosIgn sfross or dosIgn sfrnIn
4.l ConornI l0
4.2 MochnnIcnI roorfIos l0
4.3 osIgn sfross nnd dosIgn sfrnIn ll
4.4 Tomornfuro of dofIocfIon l4
SocfIon 5. osIgn for rossuro confnInmonf
5.l ConornI l6
5.2 Irossuro rnfIngs l6
5.3 !oforonco InmInnfos l6
5.4 oformInIng roforonco InmInnfos l?
5.5 ThIcknoss of roforonco InmInnfos l?
5.6 IdonfIfIcnfIon of InmInnfo consfrucfIon l?
SocfIon 6. AIIownbIo vncuum rnfIng for Ios mndo usIng roforonco
InmInnfos
6.l oformInnfIon of nIIownbIo vncuum 22
6.2 IncronsIng nIIownbIo oxfornnI rossuro 22
6.3 SfIffonIng rIngs 22
SocfIon ?. IIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross nnnIysos nnd fncfors
?.l ConornI 23
?.2 CnIcuInfIon of fomornfuro chnngo for fIoxIbIIIfy nnnIysIs 23
?.3 Sfross nnnIysIs of fIoxIbIo IIng sysfoms 24
?.4 AccommodnfIon of oxnnsIon ns IongIfudInnI comrossIvo sfrnIn 45
SocfIon 8. ConornI Inyouf consIdornfIons
8.l ThormnI offocfs 4?
8.2 SIfo joInfs 4?
8.3 IsoInfIon 4?
8.4 Honf frncIng 4?
8.5 onrby Ios 4?
8.6 VuInornbIIIfy 4?
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%6 ?15919B9
II
ISI 02-2000
Ingo
8.? TrnnsIonf vncuum condIfIons 4?
8.8 VIbrnfIon 4?
8.9 InbrIcnfIons 48
8.l0 ConducfIon of oIocfrIcIfy 48
8.ll ConducfIon of honf 48
8.l2 !oInfIonshI bofwoon cIrcumforonfInI nnd IongIfudInnI
roorfIos of sfrnIghf Io Iongfhs 48
SocfIon 9. IIo suorfs nnd nnchorngos
9.l ConornI 49
9.2 AIIownbIo IondIngs 49
9.3 AIIownbIo dofIocfIon 49
9.4 !ondIng condIfIons 49
9.5 Suorf snn cnIcuInfIons 49
9.6 WInd Ionds 50
SocfIon l0. Mofhods of joInfIng
l0.l ConornI roquIromonfs for InmInnfod joInfs 5l
l0.2 Iuff joInfs In unIInod Ios 53
l0.3 Iuff joInfs In IInod Ios 53
l0.4 SIgof nnd sockof joInfs In unIInod Ios 53
l0.5 SIgof nnd sockof joInfs In IInod Ios 54
l0.6 IInngod joInfs 54
l0.? InvIronmonfnI condIfIons 55
SocfIon ll. QunIIfy nssurnnco
ll.l ConornI 60
ll.2 MnforInIs 60
ll.3 CondIfIons In works 60
ll.4 CondIfIons on sIfo 60
ll.5 WorkmnnshI 60
ll.6 ThormoInsfIcs IInIngs 60
ll.? Snrk fosfIng of woIds 6l
ll.8 !ny-u 6l
ll.9 Curo 62
ll.l0 MnrkIng 62
ll.ll InsocfIon 62
ll.l2 TosfIng 63
AondIx A !oquIromonfs for non-mofnIIIc mnforInIs for uso In
confncf wIfh ofnbIo wnfor 64
AondIx I oformInnfIon of dosIgn sfrnIn from mochnnIcnI fosf dnfn 64
AondIx C ofos on fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross nnnIysIs 66
AondIx ImonsIonnI dosIgn dofnIIs of fIffIngs 69
AondIx I on-dosfrucfIvo fosfIng (T) ?3
AondIx I Irocoduro nrovnI fosfs ?5
AondIx C !onIr rocoduros ??
AondIx H InsocfIon ?9
AondIx J IIbIIogrnhy ?9
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 III
Ingo
IIguro 2.l IIow chnrf of dosIgn rocoduro ?
IIguro 4.l !nIf moduIus/wIndIng nngIo l3
IIguro 4.2 VnrInfIon of fho IoIsson rnfIo wIfh wIndIng nngIo for
fIInmonf-wound Io l3
IIguro 4.3 !oducfIon of sfrnIn cInss rnfIngs ns n funcfIon of
fnfIguo condIfIons In sorvIco l5
IIguro ?.l Tyos of bonds nnd nssocInfod fncfors 26
IIguro ?.2 IIoxIbIIIfy fncfors for smoofh bonds 2?
IIguro ?.3 IIoxIbIIIfy fncfors for mIfrod bonds 28
IIguro ?.4 In-Inno IongIfudInnI SIIs for smoofh bonds 29
IIguro ?.5 In-Inno IongIfudInnI SIIs for mIfrod bonds 30
IIguro ?.6 In-Inno cIrcumforonfInI SIIs for smoofh bonds 3l
IIguro ?.? In-Inno cIrcumforonfInI SIIs for mIfrod bonds 32
IIguro ?.8 Ouf-of-Inno IongIfudInnI SIIs for smoofh bonds 33
IIguro ?.9 Ouf-of-Inno IongIfudInnI SIIs for mIfrod bonds 34
IIguro ?.l0 Ouf-of-Inno cIrcumforonfInI SIIs for smoofh bonds 35
IIguro ?.ll Ouf-of-Inno cIrcumforonfInI SIIs for mIfrod bonds 36
IIguro ?.l2 Tyos of foos nnd nssocInfod fncfors 38
IIguro ?.l3 Sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors for foos 39
IIguro ?.l4 ofnIIs of mouIdod foos 40
IIguro ?.l5 ofnIIs of sof-on or sof-In foos 4l
IIguro ?.l6 Irossuro sfross muIfIIIors for foos 42
IIguro l0.l Iuff joInfs 52
IIguro l0.2 IInngo consfrucfIon 55
IIguro .l ImonsIons of C!I Io fIffIngs ?0
IIguro .2 ImonsIons of non-roforrod C!I fInngod fIffIngs ?2
TnbIo 4.l MochnnIcnI roorfIos of InmInnfo Inyors l0
TnbIo 4.2 Tyos of InmInnfo consfrucfIon l0
TnbIo 4.3 SfrnIn cInss rnfIngs l2
TnbIo 4.4 AIIcnfIon of sfrnIn cInssIfIcnfIons fo onvIronmonfnI condIfIons l2
TnbIo 5.l !oforonco InmInnfos nnd fhoIr roorfIos l?
TnbIo 5.2 !oforonco InmInnfos for consfrucfIon of cInss l sysfoms l8
TnbIo 5.3 !oforonco InmInnfos for consfrucfIon of cInss 2 sysfoms l9
TnbIo 5.4 !oforonco InmInnfos for consfrucfIon of cInss 3 sysfoms 20
TnbIo 5.5 !oforonco InmInnfos for consfrucfIon of cInss 4 sysfoms 2l
TnbIo 5.6 IormIffod mnnufncfurIng foIornncos for roforonco
InmInnfos for sfrnIghf Ios 2l
TnbIo l0.l InfornnI sfo 5l
TnbIo l0.2 OvorIny Iongfhs for buff joInfs 5l
TnbIo l0.3 MInImum sockof dofhs 54
TnbIo l0.4 IInngo nnd boIf dofnIIs for fInngos fo IS l560 CInss l50
dImonsIons l
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fo 24 56
TnbIo l0.5 IInngo nnd boIf dofnIIs for fInngos fo IS 3293 CInss l50
dImonsIons 26 fo 48 5?
TnbIo l0.6 IInngo nnd boIf dofnIIs for fInngos fo IS 4504 TnbIo l0
(I l0) dImonsIons l
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fo 24 58
TnbIo l0.? IInngo nnd boIf dofnIIs for fInngos fo IS 4504 TnbIo l0
(I l0) dImonsIons 26 fo 48 59
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%6 ?15919B9
Iv
ISI 02-2000
Ingo
TnbIo ll.l IrroguInrIfIos nnd IImIfs fhoroon 63
TnbIo .l omInnI dImonsIons for C!I Io fIffIngs 69
TnbIo .2 omInnI dImonsIons for non-roforrod C!I fInngod fIffIngs ?l
TnbIo C.l !onIr rocoduros ??
IubIIcnfIons roforrod fo 80
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 v
)ovewovd
ThIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd Codo of rncfIco hns boon ronrod undor fho dIrocfIon of
fho IInsfIcs Sfnndnrds IoIIcy CommIffoo.
If rovIdos guIdnnco for fho dosIgn nnd consfrucfIon of gInss roInforcod InsfIcs
(C!I) IIng sysfoms, wIfhIn fho boundnrIos of nn IndIvIdunI sIfo or ndjnconf
sIfos. If fhus comIomonfs codos nnd socIfIcnfIons concornod wIfh fho dosIgn nnd
consfrucfIon of n) vossoIs nnd fnnks In roInforcod InsfIcs In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 4994 nnd b) wIfh fho dosIgn nnd orformnnco of IndIvIdunI Ios or fIffIngs In
nccordnnco wIfh IS 6464, for uso ns comononfs of rocoss Innfs. Ior fho
consfrucfIon of C!I Ios nnd fIffIngs for wnfor suIy or soworngo, nffonfIon Is
drnwn fo IS 5480 nnd IS 8005. Ior drnInngo, nffonfIon Is drnwn fo IS 830l, nnd
for IoIInos of C!I, IS 80l0-2.5 shouId bo consuIfod.
ThIs fIrsf odIfIon of fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd hns boon wrIffon ns n codo of rncfIco
nnd Ifs rovIsIons nro oxrossod fhroughouf ns rocommondnfIons. Howovor, If Is
Infondod fhnf uon rovIow, nffor n orIod of uso, n subsoquonf odIfIon wIII
omuInfo IS 806 nnd IS 4994 nnd fnko fho form of n socIfIcnfIon In whIch fho
mnjorIfy of fho rovIsIons wIII bo oxrossod ns roquIromonfs.
Tho objocfIvo of fhIs codo Is fo onsuro fhnf fho dosIgn of C!I IIng sysfoms
wIfhIn Ifs scoo shouId rovIdo for fho mosf sovoro coIncIdonf condIfIons of
fomornfuro, rossuro nnd IondIng. If Is nIIcnbIo fo sysfom comononfs of
oIyosfor, ooxy or furnno rosIn roInforcod wIfh drnwn gInss In fho form of
chood sfrnnd mnf nnd/or wovon rovIng nnd/or wound fIInmonfs nnd wIfh or
wIfhouf fhormoInsfIc IInors, In nomInnI sIzos from 25 fo l 000 In fho mofrIc
sorIos (soo IS 6464). Howovor, nf fhIs fImo, fho dofnIIod confonfs rofIocf fho
gronfor body of oxorIonco wIfh Inch sorIos comononfs In nomInnI sIzos u
fo 48 (l 200) fo whIch If Is fhoroforo nIso nIIcnbIo. Tho codo rovIdos for dosIgn
vnIuos for dosIgn sfrnIn fo bo doformInod In fwo wnys: oIfhor nccordIng fo fho
dosIgn fomornfuro nnd fho sovorIfy of fho sorvIco onvIronmonf In roInfIon fo fho
choIco of rosIn, or ns dorIvod from oxorImonfnI fosf dnfn whoro fho nrorInfo
sfross/onvIronmonf/fomornfuro combInnfIon cnn bo sImuInfod. Tho ossIbIo
InfIuoncos of corrosIon nnd fnfIguo nro consIdorod nnd nrfIcuInr nffonfIon Is nId
fo fIoxIbIIIfy nnnIysIs.
Tho codo IncIudos socfIons on gonornI Inyouf, suorfs nnd nnchorngos nnd joInfs
nnd concIudos wIfh guIdnnco on qunIIfy nssurnnco.
AddIfIonnI InformnfIon rovIdod In nondIcos IncIudos fho foIIowIng.
n) !oforonco fo roquIromonfs nIIcnbIo fo InsfIcs Iowork comononfs
IIkoIy fo como Info confncf wIfh ofnbIo wnfor.
b) Mofhods of fosf for doformInnfIon of fho offocfs of roIovnnf IIquId
onvIronmonfs, on rosIsfnnco fo Iong form hydrosfnfIc rossuro or fo fnfIguo,
whIch rovIdo fncfors fo bo fnkon Info nccounf for urosos of sfross nnnIysIs.
c) CuIdnnco on nccommodnfIon of Iowork oxnnsIon nnd confrncfIon.
d) omInnI dImonsIons of Iongfhs nnd rndII fo bo nssumod or socIfIod for
fIffIngs fo onnbIo fho InIfInI InnnIng of Iowork Inyoufs.
o) ConornI guIdnnco on non-dosfrucfIvo fosfIng.
f) !ocommondnfIons for rocoduro nrovnI fosfIng.
g) oscrIfIons of vnrIous IrroguInrIfIos In Io or fIffIng consfrucfIon fogofhor
wIfh n cInssIfIcnfIon of fhoIr rosocfIvo sIgnIfIcnnco nnd rocommondod
romodInI rocoduro.
h) !ocommondod sfngos of InsocfIon for qunIIfy nssurnnco urosos.
j) A bIbIIogrnhy of roInfod ubIIcnfIons.
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%6 ?15919B9
vI
ISI 02-2000
In soIocfIng fho symboIs nnd unIfs ndofod for fhIs sfnndnrd, nrfIcuInr nccounf
hns boon fnkon of fhoso osfnbIIshod for uso In rosocf of fho socIfIcnfIon nnd
dosIgn of C!I Ios, fIffIngs nnd vossoIs, rImnrIIy In IS 6464 nnd IS 4994 nnd,
for sImIInr dosIgn urosos, for forrous IIng InsfnIInfIons In IS 806. Ior somo
urosos, fhoso comIomonfnry sfnndnrds hnvo soIocfod dIfforIng convonfIons or
ofIons from ono nnofhor. Honco, fo nvoId nssIgnIng n muIfIIIcIfy of monnIngs fo
fho uso of nny IndIvIdunI symboIs wIfhIn fhIs sfnndnrd, If hns boon nocossnry fo
uso for somo nrnmofors nn nIfornnfIvo symboI or unIf fo fhnf whIch mny bo found
In n comIomonfnry or nnnIogous sfnndnrd.
If hns boon nssumod In fho drnffIng of fhIs sfnndnrd fhnf fho dosIgn of C!I IIng
sysfoms Is onfrusfod fo qunIIfIod ongInoors nnd fhnf fho oxocufIon of fhoIr
consfrucfIon Is cnrrIod ouf undor fho dIrocfIon of nrorInfoIy qunIIfIod
suorvIsors.
WA!ICOTI. ThIs codo doos nof nocossnrIIy dofnII nII rocnufIons nocossnry
fo moof fho roquIromonfs of fho HonIfh nnd Snfofy nf Work ofc. Acf l9?4.
AffonfIon shouId bo nId fo nny nrorInfo roguInfIons nnd snfofy rocnufIons,
for oxnmIo concornIng fho oxocufIon of InsfnIInfIons on sIfo, nnd fho rocoduros
nnd fosf mofhods doscrIbod shouId bo oornfod onIy by frnInod orsonnoI.
A IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd doos nof urorf fo IncIudo nII fho nocossnry rovIsIons of n
confrncf. !sors of IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds nro rosonsIbIo for fhoIr corrocf nIIcnfIon.
&omp!IDnFe wItL D %vItIsL 6tDndDvd does not oI Itse!I FonIev ImmunIty
Ivom !egD! oE!IgDtIons.
6ummDvy oI pDges
ThIs documonf comrIsos n fronf covor, nn InsIdo fronf covor, ngos I fo vI,
ngos l fo 80, nn InsIdo bnck covor nnd n bnck covor.
ThIs sfnndnrd hns boon udnfod (soo coyrIghf dnfo) nnd mny hnvo hnd
nmondmonfs Incorornfod. ThIs wIII bo IndIcnfod In fho nmondmonf fnbIo on fho
InsIdo fronf covor.
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6eFtIon 1. *enevD!
1.1 6Fope
ThIs codo of rncfIco gIvos rocommondnfIons for fho
dosIgn, fnbrIcnfIon, InsfnIInfIon, fosfIng nnd
InsocfIon of gInss roInforcod InsfIcs (C!I) IIng
sysfoms, wIfh or wIfhouf fhormoInsfIcs IInIngs,
wIfhIn fho boundnrIos of IndIvIdunI or nssocInfod
sIfos for gonornI chomIcnI ongInoorIng urosos
such ns chomIcnI Innfs, rocoss Innfs, rofInorIos,
sfonm-rnIsIng unIfs, sforngo nnd dIsfrIbufIon doofs
nnd fnnk fnrms.
If Is nrfIcuInrIy nIIcnbIo fo sysfoms bnsod on uso
of Ios hnvIng nn InfornnI dInmofor of 25 mm
fo l 200 mm or oquIvnIonf (nomInnI
sIzos 25 fo l 200) nnd Infondod for uso In fho
fomornfuro rnngo of 30 C fo + ll0 C nnd/or
InfornnI rossuros of u fo l0 bnr In fho cnso of
Ios u fo 600 mmInfornnI dInmofor or u fo 6 bnr
In fho cnso of Ios hnvIng InfornnI dInmofors
gronfor fhnn 600 mm.
ThIs codo doos nof IncIudo rocommondnfIons socIfIc
fo fho nrfIcuInr noods of cross-counfry IoIInos
oufsIdo fho boundnrIos nIrondy doscrIbod or of
undorground or undor-wnfor offIuonf or drnInngo
sysfoms, nIfhough gonornI nsocfs of Ifs guIdnnco
mny bo hoIfuI whoro nof In confIIcf wIfh ofhor codos
of rncfIco for such urosos.
AddIfIonnI InformnfIon or guIdnnco Is rovIdod In
nondIcos concornIng roquIromonfs for
non-mofnIIIc mnforInIs for uso In confncf wIfh
ofnbIo wnfor, doformInnfIon of dosIgn sfrnIn,
fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross nnnIysos, dosIgn dofnIIs of
fIffIngs, non-dosfrucfIvo fosfIng, rocodurnI
nrovnI, InsocfIon nnd ronIr rocoduros.
OTI Tho fIfIos of ISI ubIIcnfIons roforrod fo In fhIs sfnndnrd
nro IIsfod on ngo 80. !oforoncos fo ubIIcnfIons (ofhor fhnn ISI
ubIIcnfIons) nro IdonfIfIod In fho foxf by numbors In squnro
brnckofs nnd nro IIsfod In AondIx J.
1.2 'eIInItIons
Ior fho urosos of fhIs codo fho dofInIfIons gIvon
In IS l?55-l nIy, fogofhor wIfh fho foIIowIng.
1.2.1
& g!Dss
nn nIknII cnIcIum gInss wIfh nn onhnncod boron
frIoxIdo confonf nnd Infondod for nIIcnfIons
roquIrIng onhnncod chomIcnI rosIsfnnco nccordIngIy
OTI ThIs dofInIfIon Is consIsfonf wIfh ISO 20?8:l985 nnd
oquIvnIonf fo I l259-l:l986.
1.2.2
FuvIng
fho chomIcnI roncfIon rosuIfIng In fho fInnI
oIymorIzod roducf
OTI If mny bo offocfod nf nmbIonf fomornfuro or by fho uso
of honf. In corfnIn rosIn sysfoms fho curo hns fo bo offocfod In fwo
sfngos: fho fIrsf sfngo, mny, nnd fho socond sfngo doos, InvoIvo
fho nIIcnfIon of honf. ThIs socond sfngo Is known ns fho
osf-curo.
1.2.3
desIgn tempevDtuve
fho mnxImum fIuId fomornfuro for onch dosIgn
condIfIon fhnf cnn bo ronchod durIng fhnf oornfIng
condIfIon
1.2.4
desIgn pvessuve p
d
fho InfornnI rossuro fo bo usod In cnIcuInfIons fo
osfnbIIsh fho roquIrod sfrongfh of fho comononf
nrf (soo 5.2)
1.2.5
!DmInDte
1)
n rosIn roInforcod wIfh n form of gInss fIbro mnforInI
1.2.6
nomInD! sIze
n numorIcnI dosIgnnfIon of sIzo whIch Is common fo
nII comononfs In n IIng sysfom ofhor fhnn
comononfs dosIgnnfod by oufsIdo dInmofors or by
fhrond sIzo. If Is n convonIonf round numbor for
roforonco urosos nnd Is onIy IoosoIy roInfod fo
mnnufncfurIng dImonsIons
OTI l Ior somo Io sysfoms, nomInnI sIzos nro dosIgnnfod
by foIIowod by n numbor.
OTI 2 Tho nomInnI sIzo () cnnnof bo subjocf fo
monsuromonf nnd fhoroforo Is nof suIfnbIo for urosos of
cnIcuInfIon.
OTI 3 of nII IIng comononfs nro dosIgnnfod by nomInnI
sIzo: for oxnmIo fhormoInsfIcs Ios dosIgnnfod In nccordnnco
wIfh ISO l6l-l nro sIzod In rosocf of fhoIr oxfornnI dInmofor.
1.3 $EEvevIDtIons
Tho foIIowIng nbbrovInfIons nro usod In fwo or moro
socfIons nnd/or nondIcos.
l)
ofInIfIon dIffors from fhnf gIvon In IS l?55-l, for consIsfoncy wIfh IS 4994 nnd IS 6464.
CI confInuous fIInmonfs
CSM chood sfrnnd mnf
C!I gInss roInforcod InsfIcs
T non-dosfrucfIvo fosfIng
.c.d. Ifch cIrcIo dInmofor
SII sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
W! wovon rovIng
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ISI 02-2000
OTI Ior roforonco fo mnforInIs In Iowork comononfs
mndo of unInsfIcIzod oIyvInyI chIorIdo, uso Is mndo In fhIs
sfnndnrd of bofh IVC nnd IVC-!. Tho formor Is usod In
confoxfs whoro Ifs uso mny sfIII bo found fhrough roforonco fo
curronf odIfIons of sfnndnrds such ns IS 3506, IS 3?5? nnd
IS 4346. Tho Inffor Is usod In roforoncos of n gonornI nnfuro, or
fo IS 3505, whoro Ifs uso Is bocomIng osfnbIIshod nnd Is
consIsfonf wIfh fho choIco of symboIs for roconf sfnndnrds
ubIIshod by fho InfornnfIonnI OrgnnIznfIon for SfnndnrdIznfIon
(ISO) for Ios or fIffIngs of such mnforInIs.
Tho symboI uIVC, whIch mny bo found In somo frndo IIfornfuro
nnd gonornI uroso codos of rncfIco, Is nof usod In fhIs
sfnndnrd, bocnuso If Is nof In nccordnnco wIfh IS l?55-l:l982 or
ISO l043-l:l98?.
1.4 6ymEo!s
Ior fho urosos of fhIs codo, fho foIIowIng symboIs
nIy.
$ Iongfh of n fInngo or sfub fInngo
$
g
sfross rnngo durIng n fnfIguo cycIo
E cooffIcIonf for IInonr rogrossIon IIno
% Iongfh of ono Iog of n 90 bond
F consfnnf for n IInonr rogrossIon IIno
& Iongfh of ono Iog of n bond of ofhor fhnn 90
J InfornnI dInmofor of fho smnII ond of n
roducor
' InfornnI dInmofor of fho Inrgo ond of n
roducor
'
I
InfornnI dInmofor of n Io or fIffIng
'
II
InfornnI dInmofor of fho brnnch of n foo
'
II l
InfornnI dInmofors of ndjnconf brnnchos on
n
'
II 2
Iowork sysfom (soo IIguro .l
nnd IIguro .2)
'
IM
InfornnI dInmofor of fho mnIn of n foo
'
nn
dInmofor of fho noufrnI nxIs of n sfIffonIng
rIng on n Io
'
o
oufsIdo dInmofor of Io
'
oufsIdo dInmofor of n sfub fInngo
( moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of n (fInngo) mnforInI
(
!AM
moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of n InmInnfo
(
!AM x
moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of n roforonco
InmInnfo In fho IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon
(
!AM moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of n roforonco
InmInnfo In fho cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon
(
2
dIsfnnco from fho nxIs of fho brnnch of n
fInngod foo fo fho ond of fho mnIn
(
3
dIsfnnco from fho moufh of fho brnnch of n
fInngod foo fo fho boro of fho mnIn
f

nnchor Iond

)
s
fncfor of snfofy
* Iongfh of fho ond of n roducor
l InfornnI dInmofor of n Iooso bnckIng fInngo
+ oxfornnI dInmofor of n Iooso bnckIng fInngo
, socond nxInI momonf of nron (nbouf nn nxIs
fhrough fho confroId normnI fo fho nxIs of
fho Io)
- dIsfnnco bofwoon sfIffonIng rIngs on n Io
-
I l
sncIng bofwoon ndjnconf brnnchos on n
Io-work sysfom nIIcnbIo fo fho InfornnI
dInmofor of fho rosocfIvo brnnchos
-
I 2
-
s
Iongfh of n (sfrnIghf) shoII confrIbufIng fo
fho offocf of n sfIffonIng rIng
/ fncfor fo comonsnfo for fho fhormnI offocfs
of rocoss gnsos or IIquIds rosocfIvoIy
.
n
fnfIguo fncfor
/ snn (of suorfod Iowork) |nIso usod ns n
rofIx for roforonco InmInnfo numbors
soo TnbIo 5.l]
/
I
Iongfh of ovorIny nIong n brnnch
/
OV!
Iongfh of ovorIny (for n joInf)
/
2
sockof dofh (for n comonfod joInf) (for n
rossuro nIIcnfIon)
n rossuro sfross muIfIIIor
0 nIIod bondIng momonf (for fosfIng
rofofyo fInngo dosIgns)
0
I
mnxImum In-Inno bondIng momonf (on n
bond)
0
o
mnxImum ouf-of-Inno bondIng momonf (on
n bond)
0
S
forsIonnI momonf
n numbor of sfross cycIos durIng dosIgn IIfo
n
f
numbor of fnfIguo fosf cycIos fo fnIIuro
n
x
numbor of Inyors of gInss fIbro of fyo x (In n
InmInnfo)
1 fhIcknoss of n sfub fInngo
p InfornnI rossuro (gnugo)
p
d
dosIgn rossuro (InfornnI) (gnugo)
p
o
nIIownbIo oxfornnI rossuro (gnugo)
p
95
95 Iowor confIdonco IImIf of fho InfornnI
rossuro fo roduco Io fnIIuro nffor fho
dosIgn IIfo
3 oInf Iond (nIong n snn of suorfod
Iowork)
4
C mnx
mnxImum comrossIvo unIf IondIng

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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 3
r rndIus of Io or fIffIng boro
5 monn rndIus of n Io bond
5 roof rndIus of n fInngo
6
I
Iongfh of n brnnch ond from fho mnIn Io
boro
6
M
Iongfh of n mnIn Io ond from n brnnch
Io boro
6
s
In shonr sfrongfh
6,)
b
sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor for n bond
6,)
II
In-Inno brnnch sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
6,)
Io
ouf-of-Inno brnnch sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon
fncfor
6,)
T
sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor for n foo
6,)
xI
IongIfudInnI SII undor In-Inno bondIng
6,)
xo
IongIfudInnI SII undor ouf-of-Inno
bondIng
6,)

I cIrcumforonfInI SII undor In-Inno bondIng


6,)

o cIrcumforonfInI SII undor ouf-of-Inno


bondIng
W fhIcknoss of fho InmInnfo
W
d
dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco InmInnfo
W fhIcknoss of n bnckIng fInngo
W
I
fhIcknoss of fho wnII of fho brnnch on n foo,
ndjnconf fo fho mnIn
W
CSM
fhIcknoss of n (modoI) Io of CSM
consfrucfIon
W
M
fhIcknoss of fho roforonco InmInnfo(s) of fho
mnIn of n foo
7
n
nmbIonf fomornfuro
7

rocoss fomornfuro
7
d
dosIgn fomornfuro chnngo
7
o
oquIvnIonf fomornfuro chnngo
X uIfImnfo fonsIIo unIf sfrongfh
X
x
uIfImnfo fonsIIo unIf sfrongfh In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon
X

uIfImnfo fonsIIo unIf sfrongfh In fho


cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon
: dIsfrIbufod Iond (nIong suorfod Iowork)
:
x
mnss of gInss roInforcomonf or unIf nron of
ono Inyor of fyo x
:
w
wInd IondIng (dIsfrIbufod, nIong oxosod
Iowork)
[ vnrInbIo nIhnnumorIc chnrncfor, o.g. gInss
roInforcomonf fyo x whoro x cnn bo
roIncod by n socIfIc numornI or chnrncfor
fo IdonfIfy fho nrfIcuInr fyo
;
x
unIf moduIus of gInss roInforcomonf fyo
x
;
!AM
InmInnfo unIf moduIus
;
!AM d
dosIgn InmInnfo unIf moduIus
;
!AM x
InmInnfo unIf moduIus In fho IongIfudInnI
dIrocfIon
;
!AM
InmInnfo unIf moduIus In fho
cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon
\
l
owor for fho Io fncfor of n bond ns n
funcfIon of fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor
\
2
owor for fho Io fncfor of n bond ns n
funcfIon of sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
\
3
owor for fho Io fncfor of n foo ns n
funcfIon of sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
\
4
owor for fho Io fncfor of n foo ns n
funcfIon of rossuro sfross muIfIIIor

IInonr fhormnI oxnnsIon cooffIcIonf


l
cooffIcIonf for fho Io fncfor of n bond ns n
funcfIon of fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor
2
cooffIcIonf for fho Io fncfor of n bond ns n
funcfIon of sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
3 cooffIcIonf for fho Io fncfor of n foo ns n
funcfIon of sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor
4
cooffIcIonf for fho Io fncfor of n foo ns n
funcfIon of rossuro sfross muIfIIIor
funcfIon of

fo roInfo rossuro Inducod


sfrnIn fo fhormnIIy Inducod sfrnIn
corrocfIon fncfor for fho offocf of InfornnI
rossuro on fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor

x
corrocfIon fncfor for fho offocf of InfornnI
rossuro on IongIfudInnI SII

corrocfIon fncfor for fho offocf of InfornnI


rossuro on cIrcumforonfInI SII
IncromonfnI chnngo In n qunnfIfy
(o.g. 7 soo ?.2.2)

d
dosIgn sfrnIn

r
rosIn frncfuro sfrnIn

x
IongIfudInnI sfrnIn Inducod by InfornnI
rossuro

(l0 I ?)
rodIcfod sfrnIn fo cnuso fnIIuro nffor l0
?
cycIos (of n fonsIIo fnfIguo fosf)
cIrcumforonfInI sfrnIn
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4
ISI 02-2000
1.5 ,nIovmDtIon Dnd vequIvements to
Ee Dgveed Dnd doFumented
1.5.1 ,nIovmDtIon to Ee supp!Ied Ey tLe
puvFLDsev
Tho foIIowIng InformnfIon shouId bo suIIod by fho
urchnsor nnd shouId bo fuIIy documonfod. Iofh fho
rocommondnfIons rovIdod fhroughouf fho
sfnndnrd nnd fho documonfod Ifoms shouId bo
snfIsfIod boforo n cInIm of comIInnco wIfh fhIs
sfnndnrd cnn bo mndo nnd vorIfIod.
n) Irocoss condIfIons.
l) MnforInIs fo bo hnndIod (nnmos,
conconfrnfIons nnd roInfIvo donsIfIos)
IncIudIng IIkoIy ImurIfIos or confnmInnnfs.
2) osIgn rossuro (or vncuum) IncIudIng fosf
roquIromonfs nnd dosIgn fomornfuro.
3) OornfIng rossuro (or vncuum) nnd
fomornfuro.
4) Modo of oornfIon, o.g. rocoss cycIIng
condIfIons.
5) Any nbrnsIon or orosIon robIoms whIch
mny bo oncounforod.
b) SIfo condIfIons.
l) nfuro of nmbIonf nfmoshoro IncIudIng
nny oxfromos of fomornfuro.
2) SuorImosod Ionds, o.g. wInd, snow nnd
nssocInfod Iowork.
3) !onds Imosod by orsonnoI durIng orocfIon
nnd oornfIon.
4) SoIsmIc IondIng.
c) ofnIIs of nny socInI or nddIfIonnI fosfs or
InsocfIon roquIrod nnd whoro fhoso nro fo bo
cnrrIod ouf (soo 11.1 nnd 11.12).
d) !oquIromonfs for fosfIng (soo socfIon ll).
o) nmo of InsocfIng AufhorIfy, If nIIcnbIo.
f) !oquIromonfs for nckngIng, dosnfch nnd
InsfnIInfIon.
g) IInngo sfnndnrd nnd rnfIng (soo 10.6).
wIndIng nngIo, roInfIvo fo fho IongIfudInnI
nxIs of fIInmonf wIndIng
b fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor
b
b
fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor of n bond
b
I
In-Inno fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor of n bond
b
o
ouf-of-Inno fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor of n bond
b
s
fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor of n sfrnIghf of comosIfo
consfrucfIon, o.g. CSM + W!
b
s CSM
fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor of n sfrnIghf CSM Io of
mnfchIng X
!AM d
fo n Io of comosIfo
consfrucfIon
Io fncfor

b
Io fncfor of n bond

T
Io fncfor of n foo

Z
Io fncfor of n rossurIzod foo
e fho IoIsson rnfIo
e
x
fho IoIsson rnfIo, gIvIng sfrnIn In fho
cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon cnusod by sfross
In fho nxInI dIrocfIon
e
x
fho IoIsson rnfIo, gIvIng sfrnIn In fho nxInI
dIrocfIon cnusod by sfross In fho
cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon
e
l2
fho IoIsson rnfIo, gIvIng sfrnIn In
dIrocfIon 2 cnusod by sfross In dIrocfIon l
e
2l
fho IoIsson rnfIo, gIvIng sfrnIn In
dIrocfIon l cnusod by sfross In dIrocfIon 2
g
bI
non-dIrocfIonnI bondIng sfross nf n brnnch
g
c
combInod sfross
g
cI
brnnch combInod sfross
g
Cd
dosIgn comrossIvo sfross
g
d
dosIgn sfross
g
mnx b
mnxImum sfross In n bond In fIoxuro
g
mnx f
mnxImum sfross In n fnfIguo fosf
g
mnx s
mnxImum sfross In n sfrnIghf Io In
fIoxuro
g
n
mnxImum sfross durIng n fnfIguo cycIo
g
S
forsIonnI sfross
g
SI
brnnch forsIonnI sfross
g
x
IongIfudInnI sfross
g
xb
IongIfudInnI bondIng sfross
g
x
IongIfudInnI rossuro sfross
g cIrcumforonfInI sfross
g
b
cIrcumforonfInI bondIng sfross
g

cIrcumforonfInI sfross Inducod by InfornnI


rossuro nf n foo
g
(l0 I ?)
osfImnfod sfross fhnf wouId cnuso fnIIuro
In l0
?
cycIos durIng fnfIguo fosfIng
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 5
1.5.2 5equIvements to Ee Dgveed Dnd
doFumented
Tho foIIowIng Ifoms fo bo ngrood bofwoon fho
urchnsor (or fho InsocfIng AufhorIfy, whoro
nrorInfo) nnd fho mnnufncfuror shouId bo fuIIy
documonfod. Iofh fho rocommondnfIons rovIdod
fhroughouf fho sfnndnrd nnd fho documonfod Ifoms
shouId bo snfIsfIod boforo n cInImof comIInnco wIfh
fhIs sfnndnrd cnn bo mndo nnd vorIfIod.
n) !osIn sysfom fo bo usod (soo 3.1).
b) Tyo of chomIcnI bnrrIor fo bo usod,
fhormoInsfIc or fhormosoffIng, nnd nny
nddIfIonnI corrosIon bnrrIor (soo 4.2.2.5).
c) osIgn dofnIIs (soo socfIon 2).
l) IssonfInI dImonsIons, IncIudIng foIornncos,
rofornbIy on n drnwIng.
2) osIgn cnIcuInfIons wIfh roforoncos.
3) omInnI fhIcknoss, IncIudIng foIornnco, of
corrosIon-rosIsfnnf IInIng (fhormoInsfIcs or
goI conf) whIch doos nof confrIbufo fo sfrongfh
(soo 3.5 nnd 4.2.2.5).
4) Iorm(s) of roInforcomonf IncIudIng fyo,
numbor nnd nrrnngomonf of IndIvIdunI Inyors
(soo 5.3).
5) Iorm(s) of IocnI sfIffonIng, whoro usod
(soo 6.3).
6) ofnIIs of fhormoInsfIcs IInIngs
(soo 11.6.1).
?) Cnskof mnforInIs nnd dofnIIs.
d) Whoro fho dosIgn Incorornfos roInforcomonf
wIfh dIrocfIonnI roorfIos, fho orIonfnfIon of fho
fIbros (soo 4.2.2.3).
o) Suorfs (soo ?.4 nnd socfIon 9).
f) Any modIfIcnfIon fo fho nrovod dosIgn.
g) Whoro sIfo fnbrIcnfIon Is omIoyod, fho socInI
rocoduros fo bo ndofod (soo 10.1.6, 11.3
nnd 11.4).
h) !onIr of InmInnfo dofocfs nnd mofhod of
ronIr (soo 11.B nnd AondIx C).
I) Whofhor nn nIfornnfIvo woIdIng mofhod Is fo bo
usod (soo 11.6.3).
j) Tho rovIsIon of socInI fosf InmInnfos nnd fho
oxfonf of fho mochnnIcnI fosfIng fo bo cnrrIod ouf
oIfhor on cuf-oufs or ronrod InmInnfos
(soo 11.5).
k) If fho rofofyo fosfs nro nof fo bo wIfnossod by
fho urchnsor, nnd fho InsocfIng AufhorIfy,
whoro nIIcnbIo (soo 10.1.?).
I) Tho nnfuro of rofofyo fosfs, fho hydrnuIIc fosf
rossuro If If Is hIghor fhnn fho dosIgn rossuro
nnd fho IImIfs of cycIIc vnrInfIons fo doformIno
fnfIguo sfrongfh (soo 10.6 nnd 4.3.4).
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ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 2. 'esIgn oEJeFtIves Dnd genevD!
veFommendDtIons
2.1 %DsIs oI desIgn
2.1.1 $Im oI desIgn
Tho nIm of dosIgn Is fho nchIovomonf of nn
nccofnbIo robnbIIIfy fhnf sysfoms boIng dosIgnod
wIII orform snfIsfncforIIy durIng fhoIr Infondod
IIfo. WIfh nn nrorInfo dogroo of snfofy, fho
sysfom shouId susfnIn nII fho sfrossos nnd
doformnfIons of normnI consfrucfIon nnd uso.
2.1.2 'esIgn pvoFeduve
Tho dosIgn of C!I IIng sysfoms shouId rovIdo
for fho mosf sovoro coIncIdonf condIfIon of
fomornfuro, rossuro nnd IondIng. Whoro fwo or
moro dIsfIncf condIfIons occur fhoy shouId bo
sonrnfoIy ovnIunfod usIng fho nIIcnbIo dosIgn
rossuro, dosIgn fomornfuro nnd IondIngs In onch
cnso consIdorod. If Is ossonfInI fo consIdor fhnf fho
mosf sovoro condIfIons for rossuro confnInmonf
dosIgn mny nof bo fho snmo ns fho mosf sovoro
condIfIons for fIoxIbIIIfy nnnIysIs.
A fIow chnrf fo summnrIzo fho dosIgn rocoduro
onvIsngod by fho codo Is gIvon In IIguro 2.l nnd
IncIudos roforoncos fo fho suorfIng socfIons of fhIs
codo ns nrorInfo.
2.2 6Izes dImensIons Dnd to!evDnFes
2.2.1 1omInD! sIzes Dnd dIDmetevs
Iofh nomInnI nnd ncfunI Io sIzos nnd/or
dInmofors mny bo soIocfod fo mnfch fhoso of nn
osfnbIIshod roducf socIfIcnfIon, for comnfIbIIIfy
of joInfIng nnd mnrkIng. !nIoss ofhorwIso fhus
socIfIod, fho nomInnI sIzo of Ios nnd nssocInfod
fIffIngs shouId bo In nccordnnco wIfh n), b) or c) ns
nIIcnbIo.
Ior fho urosos of fhIs sfnndnrd, nomInnI sIzos In
nccordnnco wIfh n) hnvo boon nssumod fo bo
IndIcnfIvo of fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io, In
nrfIcuInr In rosocf of fho urosos of 5.4
nnd TnbIo 5.2 fo TnbIo 5.5 IncIusIvo, 10.4 nnd
TnbIo l0.3 fo TnbIo l0.? IncIusIvo nnd for
AondIx .
n) 8nlineJ pipe V\VWenV. Tho nomInnI sIzo of
Ios nnd fIffIngs shouId bo ono of fho foIIowIng
vnIuos:
40 50 80 l00 l50 200 250 300 350
400 450 500 550 600 650 ?00 ?50
800 850 900 950 l 000 l 050 l l00
l l50 l 200
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId docInro fho ncfunI
InfornnI dInmofor (In mm) of fho Ios nnd
fIffIngs roInfod fo fho roIovnnf nomInnI sIzo.
b) /ineJ pipe V\VWenV XVing e[WrXJeJ pipe DnJ
noXlJeJ fiWWingV. Tho nomInnI sIzo of fho Io
shouId bo bnsod on fho nomInnI sIzo of fho
oxfrudod Io (soo 3.5).
OTI Accounf shouId bo fnkon, on sIzIng of fho sysfom, of
nny consoquonfInI roducfIon of fho boro sIzo boIow fhnf of
unIInod Io.
c) /ineJ pipe V\VWenV XVing fDEriFDWeJ liningV.
Tho nomInnI sIzo of Io nnd fIffIngs shouId bo
ono of fho sIzos IIsfod In n).
2.2.2 2tLev dIDmetevs
!ImIfIng vnIuos for soIocfod dImonsIons nro
rocommondod for joInfs, IncIudIng dIfforoncos
bofwoon boros (soo 10.1.4), ovorIny Iongfhs
(soo 10.1.5), sockof dImonsIons (soo 10.4) nnd
fhormoInsfIcs IInIngs (soo 11.6).
omInnI vnIuos for soIocfod dImonsIonnI dosIgn
dofnIIs of C!I fIffIngs nro gIvon, fo nssIsf joInf
Inyouf (soo B.2 nnd AondIx ).
2.2.3 7o!evDnFes
Tho foIIowIng foIornncos shouId bo nIIod.
n) 3ipeV DnJ fiWWingV. ToIornncos on dImonsIons of
Ios nnd fIffIngs of C!I shouId bo In nccordnnco
wIfh 19.1 of IS 6464:l984.
b) )lDngeV. MnnufncfurIng foIornncos on fInngos
shouId bo In nccordnnco wIfh 26.4.4.2 of
IS 6464:l984.
c) 5eferenFe lDninDWeV. MnnufncfurIng foIornncos
for roforonco InmInnfos In fho form of sfrnIghf
Ios nro gIvon In TnbIo 5.6.
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ISI 02-2000 ?
* ! rorosonfs !nmInnfo.
)Iguve 2.1 )!ow FLDvt oI desIgn pvoFeduve
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ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 3. 0DtevID!s
3.1 7LevmosettIng vesIn systems
Tho fhormosoffIng rosIns usod for fho mnnufncfuro
of Ios nnd fIffIngs mny bo of n numbor of fyos.
Thoro nro mnny rosIn sysfoms In onch fyo nnd fho
roorfIos of fhoso sysfoms vnry, osocInIIy wIfh
rosocf fo chomIcnI rosIsfnnco nnd fomornfuro of
dofIocfIon |honf dIsforfIon fomornfuro (soo 4.4)].
!osIn sysfoms shouId comIy wIfh n roIovnnf
IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd, ns nIIcnbIo. Thus, for oxnmIo,
oIyosfor rosIn sysfoms shouId comIy wIfh fho
roquIromonfs of IS 3532.
In ordor for fho chomIcnI roncfIon fo fnko Inco,
rosuIfIng In fho fInnI oIymorIzod roducf,
hnrdonors, cnfnIysfs nnd nccoIornfors shouId bo
nddod fo fho rosIn In nccordnnco wIfh fho
mnnufncfuror`s rocommondnfIons.
Tho nmounf of hnrdonor, cnfnIysf nnd/or nccoIornfor
usod shouId bo rognrdod ns crIfIcnI, ns If cnn nffocf
bofh fho rnfo of roncfIon nnd oxfonf of fho curo.
If Is rocommondod fhnf fho fomornfuro of
dofIocfIon of fho rosIn (soo 4.4), whon monsurod In
nccordnnco wIfh IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lA nnd usIng
rosIn curod nccordIng fo n schoduIo rorosonfnfIvo of
fhnf usod for fho fInIshod Iowork, shouId In nII
cnsos bo nf Ionsf 20 C hIghor fhnn fho dosIgn
fomornfuro (soo 1.2.3).
If roquIrod, fho rosIn fo bo usod for fho oufor Inyors
of fho Io or fIffIng mny Incorornfo Igmonfs, dyos
or socIfIc uIfrnvIoIof IIghf nbsorbors fo rovonf fho
frnnsmIssIon of !V IIghf nnd/or for IdonfIfIcnfIon
urosos.
3.2 )IEvous veInIovFement
Ixcof for nIfornnfIvo surfnco fIssuos (soo 3.3) nII
fIbrous roInforcomonf shouId bo dorIvod from
confInuousIy drnwn fIInmonfs of I gInss (ll46)
2)
(soo nofo) nnd usod In fho foIIowIng forms nIono or In
nny combInnfIon subjocf fo comnfIbIIIfy wIfh fho
rosIn sysfom usod.
n) Chood sfrnnd mnf In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 3496.
b) Wovon fnbrIc In nccordnnco wIfh IS 3396-l,
IS 3396-2 or IS 3396-3 ns nIIcnbIo.
c) Wovon fnbrIc In nccordnnco wIfh IS 3?49.
d) !ovIngs In nccordnnco wIfh IS 369l.
OTI Such gInss IncIudos oIfhor nIumIno-borosIIIcnfo gInss or
nIumIno-cnIco-sIIIcnfo gInss, In oIfhor cnso ofIonnIIy confnInIng
ofhor oxIdos, mnInIy nIumInIum frIoxIdo, Incorornfod for
onhnncod corrosIon rosIsfnnco nnd fhon somofImos doscrIbod ns
I.C! gInss.
3.3 6uvIDFe tIssues
TIssuos ofIonnIIy Incorornfod Info fho suorfIcInI
Inyors of fho InfornnI nnd/or oxfornnI surfncos of n
C!IIo or fIffIng shouId bo mndo fromono or moro
of fho foIIowIng:
n) gInss mnforInIs In nccordnnco wIfh 3.2;
b) C gInss (soo 1.2.1);
c) wovon or non-wovon foxfIIos bnsod on oIyosfor
or ncryIIc fIbros.
3.4 $ggvegDtes Dnd II!!evs
Tho rosIn usod shouId confnIn onIy fIIIors ns
roquIrod for vIscosIfy confroI; fhoy shouId bo IImIfod
fo n mnxImum of 5 of fho mnss of fho rosIn nnd
shouId nof Inforforo wIfh fho cnnbIIIfy fo vIsunIIy
Insocf fho InmInnfo.
SocInI nddIfIvos, such ns nggrognfos, grnhIfo nnd
fIro rofnrdnnfs, ofc., shouId onIy bo usod fo Imnrf
socInI roorfIos, o.g. sfIffnoss, conducfIvIfy.
3.5 7Levmop!DstIFs !Inevs
If fhormoInsfIcs IInors nro usod, fho mnforInIs
shouId bo soIocfod on fho bnsIs of rosIsfnnco fo fho
fIuId fo bo cnrrIod.
If unInsfIcIzod oIyvInyI chIorIdo (IVC-!) Is fho
socIfIod IInor mnforInI, IVC Io comIyIng wIfh
IS 3505 or IS 3506 shouId bo usod. Ior Ios of
nomInnI sIzos u fo 500 (mofrIc sorIos) fho grndo of
mnforInI usod shouId bo suIfnbIo for fho
mnnufncfuro of Io In nccordnnco wIfh IS 3505 or
IS 3506, doondIng uon fho nood fo snfIsfy fho
roquIromonfs of 3.?. Ior nomInnI sIzos gronfor
fhnn 500 unInsfIcIzod IVC shoof comIyIng wIfh
IS 3?5?, nnd ns nocossnry 3.? of fhIs sfnndnrd,
shouId bo usod for fnbrIcnfIon (soo 11.6).
!ocommondod IImIfs for fho fhIcknoss of IInors nro
gIvon In 11.6.1.
ConornI guIdnnco on fho fnbrIcnfIon nnd nssombIy of
fhormoInsfIcs IInors Is gIvon In socfIon oIovon,
IncIudIng rocommondnfIons In 11.6 nnd 11.? for fho
ronrnfIon nnd fosfIng of woIdod joInfs.
SocInIIzod IInors mndo of mnforInIs such ns
chIorInnfod oIyvInyI chIorIdo (IVC-C), III, IVI,
ITII, ICTII |oIy (chIorofrIfIuoroofhyIono)] nnd
ofhyIono-chIorofrIfIuoroofhyIono cooIymor
(ICTII) mny bo roquIrod for vory dIffIcuIf
condIfIons.
2)
Torm no. In nccordnnco wIfh IS 344?:l962.
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3.6 &ement Iov EondIng spIgot Dnd
soFket JoInts
If mny bo nocossnry fo onsuro fhnf fho bondIng
comonf wIII bo snfIsfncfory for fho chomIcnI
condIfIons socIfIod, nnd fo fnko nccounf of fho
comonf mnnufncfuror`s rocommondod IImIfs for fho
nmbIonf condIfIons roquIrod for fho bondIng sysfom
fo curo roorIy.
OTI !ocommondod IImIfs for comonfod sockof nnd sIgof
joInfs nro gIvon In 10.4.
3.? 1on-metD!!IF mDtevID!s Iov potDE!e
wDtev Dpp!IFDtIons
If fho sysfom Is Infondod for uso In confncf wIfh
ofnbIo wnfor, If Is ossonfInI fhnf fho roquIromonfs
dofnIIod In AondIx A nro Incorornfod Info fho
socIfIcnfIons for fho mnforInIs whon In fho form of
fho sysfom comononfs, o.g. Ios, fIffIngs,
comonfod joInfs, IInIngs.
Tho mnrkIng roquIromonfs In socIfIcnfIons for such
Ios nnd fIffIngs shouId bo consIsfonf wIfh fho
corrosondIng roquIromonfs of IS 5480-l (fho Ioffor
I sof In n box fhus ).
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%6 ?15919B9
l0
ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 4. 0eFLDnIFD! pvopevtIes Dnd desIgn stvess
ov desIgn stvDIn
4.1 *enevD!
ThIs socfIon gIvos roforrod dosIgn vnIuos for
mochnnIcnI roorfIos. If nIso gIvos dosIgn vnIuos
for dosIgn sfrnIn nccordIng fo dosIgn fomornfuro
nnd dogroo of sovorIfy of sorvIco onvIronmonf In
roInfIon fo choIco of rosIn. As nn nIfornnfIvo nnd
whoro doomod nrorInfo, dosIgn sfrnIn mny bo
dorIvod from oxorImonfnI fosf dnfn on Ios or
InmInnfos undor sfross In fho chomIcnI onvIronmonf
nnd nf fho dosIgn fomornfuro. Tho Inffor nronch
Is IIkoIy fo roduco n hIghor dosIgn sfrnIn fhnn fhnf
dofInod In fho nbsonco of fosf dnfn; If wIII fhoroforo
bo nffrncfIvo for hIgh-cosf confrncfs, or for rocurronf
mnforInI/onvIronmonf/fomornfuro combInnfIons.
AIIownbIo dosIgn sfrnIn shouId fnko Info nccounf
fnfIguo IondIngs usIng fho mofhod gIvon In 4.3.4.
ArosfrIcfIon on dosIgn sfrnIn nIIcnbIo whon usIng
rosIns wIfh Iow frncfuro sfrnIn Is dofnIIod In 4.3.5.
orIvnfIon of dosIgn vnIuos for mochnnIcnI
roorfIos of fIInmonf-wound Io Is gIvon In 4.2.2
nnd rosfrIcfIons on dosIgn sfrnIn for such Io
In 4.3.6.
Tho uso of nddIfIonnI gInss Inyors ns n corrosIon
bnrrIor nnd Ifs sIgnIfIcnnco In Io dosIgn
cnIcuInfIons Is doscrIbod In 4.2.2.5.
OTI AffonfIon Is drnwn fo n gonornI rocommondnfIon In
rosocf of fho fomornfuro of dofIocfIon of fho rosIn In 3.1.
4.2 0eFLDnIFD! pvopevtIes
OTI Whoro nIIcnbIo, If Is consIdorod dosIrnbIo fo work In
forms of unIf Iond (I.o. forco or unIf wIdfh or unIf mnss of gInss)
rnfhor fhnn sfrossos (I.o. forco or unIf nron).
4.2.1 /DmInDte !Dyevs
TnbIo 4.l gIvos dosIgn vnIuos for mochnnIcnI
roorfIos of InmInnfo Inyors for uso In fho
mnnufncfuro of Io nnd fIffIngs. Thoso vnIuos nro
nIso rocommondod ns fho mInImum nccofnbIo
roorfIos for InmInnfo Inyors of mnnufncfurod
Iowork.
7DE!e 4.2 7ypes oI !DmInDte FonstvuFtIon
7DE!e 4.1 0eFLDnIFD! pvopevtIes oI !DmInDte !Dyevs
7ype oI
!DmInDte
)ovm oI FonstvuFtIon
Tyo l AII chood sfrnnd mnf (CSM)
consfrucfIon wIfh nn InfornnI nnd nn
oxfornnI surfnco fIssuo roInforcod
Inyor
Tyo 2 Chood sfrnnd mnf (CSM) nnd
wovon rovIng (W!) consfrucfIon wIfh
nn InfornnI nnd nn oxfornnI surfnco
fIssuo roInforcod Inyor
Tyo 3 Chood sfrnnd mnf (CSM) nnd
muIfI-fIInmonf rovIng consfrucfIon
wIfh nn InfornnI nnd nn oxfornnI
surfnco fIssuo roInforcod Inyor
7ype oI vesIn 7ype oI g!Dss veInIovFement
8!tImDte tensI!e
unIt stvengtL (X)
8nIt modu!us (;)
/Dp sLeDv
stvengtL (6
s
)
0etLod oI test
%.3 oI %6 646419B4 %.4 oI %6 646419B4 %.5 oI %6 646419B4
IoIyosfor nnd
ooxIdo
/mm wIdfh
(or kg/m
2
gInss)
/mm wIdfh
(or kg/m
2
gInss)
Chood sfrnnd mnf 200 l4 000 ?.0
Wovon rovIngs 250 l6 000 6.0
!nIdIrocfIonnI wovon
rovIngs 450 25 000 6.0
ConfInuous rovIngs 500 28 000 6.0
Iurnno Chood sfrnnd mnf l40 l4 000 5.0
Wovon rovIngs l60 l6 000 4.0
!nIdIrocfIonnI wovon
rovIngs 250 25 000 3.5
ConfInuous rovIngs 280 28 000 3.5
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4.2.2 /DmInDtes
4.2.2.1 7\peV of lDninDWeV. Ior fho urosos of fhIs
sfnndnrd, If Is convonIonf fo cInssIfy fho
consfrucfIon of InmInnfos Info fhroo fyos ns
doscrIbod In TnbIo 4.2.
4.2.2.2 'eVign YDlXeV for noJXlXV DnJ WliF/neVV.
osIgn vnIuos for fyo l nnd fyo 2 InmInnfos nnd
for fyo 3 InmInnfos wIfh n wIndIng nngIo of 55
nro gIvon In TnbIo 5.l for fho foIIowIng nrnmofors:
n) InmInnfo unIf moduIus;
b) dosIgn fhIcknoss.
VnIuos for fho dosIgn moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
InmInnfo, (
!AM
, cnn bo obfnInod usIng oqunfIon (4.2)
|soo 4.2.2.6 c)].
4.2.2.3 'eVign XniW noJXlXV for filDnenW ZoXnJ
pipeV. If confInuous rovIngs nro fIInmonf wound nf
nn nngIo of fo fho Io nxIs, vnIuos of
cIrcumforonfInI nnd IongIfudInnI unIf moduIus
shouId bo fnkon from IIguro 4.l.
osIgn cnIcuInfIons shouId fnko nccounf of fho
nnIsofroIc sfIffnoss of fIInmonf wound Ios nnd
fho comIox sfrnIn rosonso nnd shouId nnnIyso for
fho mnxImum rIncInI sfrnIn. Ior such urosos,
nffonfIon Is drnwn fo 9.2.? of IS 4994:l98?.
4.2.2.4 'eVign YDlXeV for Wle 3oiVVon rDWio e. osIgn
vnIuos nIIcnbIo for fho IoIsson rnfIo nro
doondonf uon fho fyo of InmInnfo: fhus for fyo l
nnd fyo 2 InmInnfos n dosIgn vnIuo of 0.3 Is
rocommondod whorons for fyo 3 InmInnfos fho
dosIgn vnIuo shouId bo soIocfod ns n funcfIon of fho
dIrocfIon of sfross nnd fho nngIo of wIndIng ns
shown In IIguro 4.2.
4.2.2.5 $JJiWionDl ForroVion EDrrier. AddIfIonnI
Inyors of gInss roInforcomonf mny bo socIfIod by fho
urchnsor or mnnufncfuror fo fnko nccounf of
chomIcnI dogrndnfIon nnd/or orosIon. Any such
Inyors shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf whon
doformInIng fhormnI oxnnsIon ond Ionds nnd In
fIoxIbIIIfy nnnIysIs (soo socfIon ?) buf nof In nny
ofhor dosIgn cnIcuInfIon.
4.2.2.6 /DninDWe YDlXeV. MochnnIcnI roorfy
vnIuos for socIfIc Io nnd fIffIng wnII InmInnfos
shouId bo cnIcuInfod from fho vnIuos gIvon In
TnbIo 4.l, nnd fho soIocfod mnssos of gInss
roInforcomonf fo bo usod In fho wnII InmInnfos ns
foIIows for mnnufncfurod Iowork (soo 4.2.2.5).
n) /DninDWe XniW noJXlXV. Tho unIf moduIus of
fho wnII InmInnfo cnn bo cnIcuInfod from fho
foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
b) /DninDWe WliF/neVV. Tho InmInnfo fhIcknoss Is
doondonf on fho fyo of gInss roInforcomonf nnd
rosIn usod. Tho mnnufncfuror shouId sfnfo fho
fhIcknoss of fho InmInnfo boIng offorod.
c) /DninDWe noJXlXV. Tho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy
for fho InmInnfo Is obfnInod from fho foIIowIng
oqunfIon:
whoro
4.3 'esIgn stvess Dnd desIgn stvDIn
4.3.1 'etevmInDtIon
osIgn sfrnIn shouId bo doformInod ns doscrIbod
In 4.3.2 or 4.3.3.
osIgn sfross nnd dosIgn sfrnIn nro roInfod fhrough
fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho InmInnfo fhus:
whoro
OTI osIgn sfrnIn Is fho shorf-formvnIuo of nIIownbIo sfrnIn.
Iocnuso of fho offocfs of croo, sfrnIn wIII Incronso wIfh fImo. If
mny somofImos bo nocossnry fo fnko fhIs Info nccounf usIng nn
nrorInfo vnIuo of croo moduIus, o.g. whoro Iong-form Io
dofIocfIon Is crIfIcnI. In gonornI fho offocfs of croo nro smnII nnd
mny bo nogIocfod.
;
!AM
= n
l
:
l
;
l
+ n
2
:
2
;
2
+...n
x
:
x
;
x
(4.l)
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus
(In /mm);
n
x
Is fho numbor of Inyors of gInss
roInforcomonf of fyo x;
;
x
Is fho unIf moduIus of gInss
roInforcomonf fyo x |In /mm wIdfh
(or kg/m
2
gInss)];
:
x
Is fho mnss of gInss roInforcomonf or
unIf nron (In kg/m
2
) In ono Inyor of
fyo x.
(4.2)
(
!AM
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
InmInnfo (In MIn);
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus
(In /mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm) oxcIudIng nny
corrosIon bnrrIor (soo 4.2.2.5).
g
d
=
d
(
!AM
(4.3)
g
d
Is fho dosIgn sfross (In MIn);

d
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;
(
!AM
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
InmInnfo (In MIn).
(
!AM
;
!AM
W
d
--------------- =
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ISI 02-2000
4.3.2 0etLod $. 8se oI deIIned desIgn stvDIn
vD!ues
4.3.2.1 'eVign VWrDin FlDVVifiFDWion V\VWen. In fhIs
nronch vnIuos of dosIgn sfrnIn nro rosfrIcfod fo
fhoso gIvon In TnbIo 4.3 nnd cInssIfIod nccordIngIy.
4.3.2.2 6eleFWion of JeVign VWrDin YDlXe. TnbIo 4.4
oxrossos rocommondod sfrnIn cInss rnfIngs, nnd
honco nIIownbIo dosIgn sfrnIn vnIuos, In forms of
fomornfuro (soo 4.3.2.3) nnd chomIcnI
onvIronmonf cInssIfIcnfIons (soo 4.3.2.4)
nrorInfo fo fho choson Io wnII mnforInI.
Tho vnIuos gIvon In TnbIo 4.3 nro nIIcnbIo fo Iow
fnfIguo condIfIons (Ioss fhnn l 000 cycIos); ofhorwIso
fhoy shouId bo modIfIod nccordIng fo 4.3.4. Tho
dosIgn sfrnIn IImIfnfIons of 4.3.5 nnd 4.3.6 shouId
nIso bo Imosod whon nIIcnbIo.
7DE!e 4.3 6tvDIn F!Dss vDtIngs
7DE!e 4.4 $pp!IFDtIon oI stvDIn
F!DssIIIFDtIons to envIvonmentD! FondItIons
4.3.2.3 7enperDWXre FlDVVifiFDWionV. Tho
cInssIfIcnfIon of O!MA! or HICH fomornfuro
usod In TnbIo 4.4 doonds on fho roInfIonshI of
onch dosIgn fomornfuro (soo 1.2.3) fo fho
fomornfuro of dofIocfIon of fho rosIn whon
monsurodInnccordnnco wIfhIS 2?82:Mofhod l2lA
wIfh fho rosIn curod fo n schoduIo rorosonfnfIvo of
fhnf fo bo nIIod fo fho fInIshod Iowork.
Tho crIforIn usod nro ns foIIows.
n) O!MA! fomornfuro: fho dosIgn
fomornfuro shouId bo nf Ionsf 40 C boIow fho
fomornfuro of dofIocfIon of fho choson rosIn
(soo 4.4).
b) HICH fomornfuro: fho dosIgn fomornfuro
shouId bo nf Ionsf 20 C boIow buf nof moro
fhnn 40 C boIow fho fomornfuro of dofIocfIon of
fho choson rosIn (soo 4.4).
4.3.2.4 &lDVVifiFDWion of FleniFDl FonJiWionV. Tho
cInssIfIcnfIon of MI! or SIVI!I chomIcnI
condIfIons usod In TnbIo 4.4 doonds on fho Ioss In
fIoxurnI sfrongfh cnusod by fho chomIcnI
onvIronmonf whon unsfrossod InmInnfo socImons
ns nonr ns ossIbIo fo buf nof oxcoodIng 6 mm In
fhIcknoss, nnd subjocfod fo n curo schoduIo
sImuInfIng fhnf fo bo usod for fho fInIshod Iowork,
nro fofnIIy Immorsod for n mInImum of 6 monfhs nf
fho dosIgn fomornfuro.
n) MI! chomIcnI condIfIons: fhIs condIfIon
nIIos whon fho Ioss In fIoxurnI sfrongfh Is Ioss
fhnn 20 of fho orIgInnI vnIuo whon monsurod In
nccordnnco wIfh IS 2?82:Mofhod l005.
b) SIVI!I chomIcnI condIfIons: fhIs condIfIon
nIIos whon fho Ioss In fIoxurnI sfrongfh Is moro
fhnn 20 buf Ioss fhnn 50 of fho orIgInnI vnIuo
whon monsurod In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 2?82:Mofhod l005.
If fho Ioss of fIoxurnI sfrongfh Is gronfor fhnn 50
of fho orIgInnI vnIuo, fhon fho mnfrIx fIbro sysfom
shouId bo doomod unsuIfnbIo nnd nof usod, oxcof
wIfh nn nrorInfo fhormoInsfIc IInor
(soo 4.3.2.6).
Tho sfrongfh Ioss dnfn from whIch n chomIcnI
cInssIfIcnfIon cnn bo mndo wIII gonornIIy bo
nvnIInbIo from fho rosIn mnnufncfuror.
4.3.2.5 'eVign VWrDin loDJing fDFWorV. Whon vnIuos
of dosIgn sfrnIn fnkon from TnbIo 4.3 nro modIfIod
nccordIng fo 4.3.4, 4.3.5 or 4.3.6, fho dosIgn sfrnIn
ndofod shouId bo fhnf from TnbIo 4.3 whIch Is
cIososf fo, buf nof gronfor fhnn, fho dorIvod vnIuo. If
fho dorIvod vnIuo Is Ioss fhnn 0.0009 fhon fho sfrnIn
cInss rnfIng concornod shouId bo doomod unsuIfnbIo
for fho roosod sorvIco.
4.3.2.6 8Ve of D WlernoplDVWiFV liner. Whon n
fhormoInsfIcs IInor Is usod fhroughouf n Io
sysfom, MI! chomIcnI condIfIons shouId bo
nssumod whon soIocfIng n dosIgn sfrnIn from
TnbIo 4.3. osIgn sfrnIn IondIng fncfors fnkon
from 4.3.4, 4.3.5 nnd 4.3.6 shouId fhon bo nIIod.
&!Dss 'esIgn stvDIn
CInss l 0.00l8
CInss 2 0.00l5
CInss 3 0.00l2
CInss 4 0.0009
&LemIFD!
FondItIons
(soo 4.3.2.4)
7empevDtuve FondItIons
(soo 4.3.2.3)
1250$/ +,*+
MI! CInss l CInss 2
SIVI!I CInss 3 CInss 4
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ISI 02-2000 l3
)Iguve 4.1 8nIt modu!us/wIndIng Dng!e
OTI e
l2
Is fho IoIsson rnfIo gIvIng sfrnIn In dIrocfIon 2 cnusod by sfross In dIrocfIon l; e
2l
Is fho IoIsson rnfIo gIvIng sfrnIn In
dIrocfIon l cnusod by sfross In dIrocfIon 2; Is fho wIndIng nngIo roInfIvo fo fho IongIfudInnI nxIs.
)Iguve 4.2 9DvIDtIon oI tLe 3oIsson vDtIo wItL wIndIng Dng!e Iov II!Dment-wound pIpe
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l4
ISI 02-2000
4.3.3 0etLod %. 'evIvDtIon oI desIgn stvDIn
Ivom meFLDnIFD! test dDtD
As nn nIfornnfIvo fo fho nronch of 4.3.2, n
mnxImum dosIgn sfrnIn mny bo dorIvod from
mochnnIcnI fosf dnfn orfnInIng fo sfrossod
socImons oxosod fo fho rocoss fIuId nf fho dosIgn
fomornfuro. ofnIIs of oxorImonfnI mofhods nro
gIvon In AondIx I. VnIuos of dosIgn sfrnIn so
doformInod shouId bo modIfIod, ns nocossnry, In
nccordnnco wIfh 4.3.4, 4.3.5 nnd 4.3.6.
osIgn sfrnIns obfnInod by fhIs mofhod couId bo
sIgnIfIcnnfIy hIghor fhnn fhoso obfnInod by mofhod
A (4.3.2).
4.3.4 'esIgn Iov IDtIgue
In cnsos whoro dosIgn IondIngs Incorornfo n
sIgnIfIcnnf cycIIc or fIucfunfIng sfross comononf,
dosIgn sfrnIns shouId bo downrnfod by dIvIdIng by n
fnfIguo fncfor, .
n
, dorIvod from oqunfIon (4.4).
ThIs oqunfIon IInks fho fnfIguo fncfor fo fho
oxocfod mngnIfudo of sfross vnrInfIons so fhnf Iow
sfross rnngo vnrInfIons nro gIvon Ioss sIgnIfIcnnco
fhnn hIgh sfross rnngo vnrInfIons.
InfIguo IondIngs shouId bo dIscounfod for Ioss
fhnn l 000 cycIos, or If fho sfross rnngo of sfross
cycIos Is Ioss fhnn 0.2 (20 ) of fho dosIgn sfross.
whoro
IxnmIo: Ior 3 l0
6
cycIos wIfh n mngnIfudo
of 4 MIn nnd n dosIgn sfross of l0 MIn,
.
n
= l + 0.25(4/l0) (6.4?? 3) = l.35
A convonIonf monns for doformInIng fho chnngo In
sfrnIn cInss rnfIngs ns n funcfIon of fnfIguo
condIfIons In sorvIco for sysfoms dosIgnod usIng
mofhod A Is rovIdod ns IIguro 4.3. Tho mnxImum
ossIbIo Incronso In sfrnIn cInss rnfIngs Is 3,
I.o. from cInss l (dosIgn sfrnIn = 0.00l8) fo cInss 4
(dosIgn sfrnIn = 0.0009) (soo TnbIo 4.3). WIfhIn n
gIvon zono, fho rosuIfIng dosIgn Is ossImIsfIc. If fho
condIfIons wouId roquIro n sfrnIn cInss rnfIng fo bo
gronfor fhnn cInss 4 (dosIgn sfrnIn = 0.0009), If Is
nof ossIbIo fo uso mofhod A ns fho bnsIs for fho
dosIgn.
4.3.5 'esIgn stvDIn !ImItDtIons Iov !owIvDFtuve
stvDIn vesIns
Whon n rosIn of Iow frncfuro sfrnIn (Ioss fhnn 0.02)
Is usod, fho InmInnfo dosIgn sfrnIn,
d
, shouId snfIsfy
fho roInfIonshI In fho foIIowIng oxrossIon:
whoro
4.3.6 'esIgn stvDIn !ImItDtIons Iov II!Dment
wound pIpes
Ior Ios mnnufncfurod usIng confInuous rovIngs
fIInmonf wound nf nny nngIo bofwoon l5
nnd ?5 fo fho Io nxIs, n rIgorous nnIsofroIc
oInsfIc nnnIysIs shouId bo cnrrIod ouf fo confIrmfhnf
fho dosIgn sfrnIn dorIvod ns In 4.3.2 or 4.3.3 Is nof
oxcoodod undor dosIgn condIfIons. Tho nnnIysIs
shouId nIIowfor fho InforncfIon bofwoon normnI nnd
shonr sfrnIn. WIfhouf such nn nnnIysIs fho dosIgn
sfrnIn ndofod shouId bo no gronfor fhnn 0.0009.
Whon confInuous rovIngs nro fIInmonf wound nf nny
nngIo Ioss fhnn l5 fo fho Io nxIs, fho
cIrcumforonfInI unIf moduIus of such rovIngs shouId
nof bo fnkon Info nccounf In doformInIng fho vnIuo
of (
!AM
for cnIcuInfIng fho dosIgn sfross (soo 4.3.1).
Whon confInuous rovIngs nro fIInmonf wound nf nny
nngIo gronfor fhnn ?5 fo fho Io nxIs, fho
IongIfudInnI unIf moduIus of such rovIngs shouId
nof bo fnkon Info nccounf In doformInIng fho vnIuo
of (
!AM
for cnIcuInfIng fho dosIgn sfross (soo 4.3.1).
4.4 7empevDtuve oI deI!eFtIon
OTI Tho form honf dIsforfIon fomornfuro nnd fho
nbbrovInfIon HT hnvo boon usod rovIousIy, In nrfIcuInr by
IS 6464:l984 nnd IS 4994:l98?, fo doscrIbo fho roorfy
monsurod by fho mofhod doscrIbod In IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lA buf
fho form fomornfuro of dofIocfIon Is curronfIy usod for fhIs
roorfy by fhIs fosf mofhod nnd by IS 3532.
Whon roquIrod fho fomornfuro of dofIocfIon of fho
rosIn whon monsurod In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lA, shouId In nII cnsos bo nf
Ionsf 20 C hIghor fhnn fho dosIgn fomornfuro
(soo 4.3.2.3) usIng fho rosIn curod nccordIng fo fho
schoduIo rorosonfnfIvo of fhnf fo bo usod for fho
fInIshod Iowork.
.
n
= l + 0.25($
%
/%
n
) (!og
l0
(n) 3) (4.4)
.
n
Is fho fnfIguo fncfor;
n Is fho numbor of sfross cycIos durIng dosIgn
IIfo;
$
%
Is fho sfross rnngo durIng n fnfIguo cycIo
(In MIn);
%
n
Is fho mnxImum sfross durIng n fnfIguo cycIo
(In MIn).

d
X 0.l
r
(4.5)

r
Is fho rosIn frncfuro sfrnIn.
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ISI 02-2000 l5
)
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.
3

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ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 5. 'esIgn Iov pvessuve FontDInment
5.1 *enevD!
ThIs socfIon gIvos n rnngo of socIfIc roforonco
InmInnfos fhnf shouId bo usod for rossuro
confnInmonf. TnbIo 5.l gIvos fho rnngo nnd
roorfIos of fhoso InmInnfos.
If mofhod A In 4.3.2 Is usod fo soIocf dosIgn sfrnIn
fhon roforonco fo TnbIo 5.2 fo TnbIo 5.5 wIII rovIdo
fho roquIrod InmInnfo fo soIocf from TnbIo 5.l.
ShouId mofhod I In 4.3.3 bo usod fo obfnIn fho
dosIgn sfrnIn fhon fho mInImum roquIrod dosIgn
unIf moduIus for fho InmInnfo ;
!AM d
shouId bo
cnIcuInfod In nccordnnco wIfh 5.4.
A roforonco InmInnfo wIfh n InmInnfo unIf moduIus
fhnf Is oqunI fo or gronfor fhnn ;
!AM d
shouId bo
soIocfod from TnbIo 5.l.
5.2 3vessuve vDtIngs
IIo sysfoms shouId bo rnfod for ono of fho foIIowIng
sorIos of rossuros oxrossod In bnrs
3)
:
l, 2
l
/
2
, 4, (5), 6, (8), l0,
whoro fho rnfIngs oxrossod In nronfhosos shouId
bo rognrdod ns non-roforrod.
Tho rossuro rnfIng shouId bo nof Ioss fhnn fho
dosIgn rossuro, p
d
, whoro fho dosIgn rossuro
shouId bo nof Ioss fhnn:
n) fho rossuro fhnf wIII oxIsf In such nrfs of fho
sysfom whon fho rossuro-roIIovIng dovIco(s)
sfnrf(s) fo roIIovo, or fho sof rossuro of fho
rossuro-roIIovIng dovIco(s), whIchovor Is fho
hIghor;
b) fho mnxImum rossuro fhnf cnn bo nffnInod In
sorvIco whoro fhIs rossuro Is nof IImIfod by n
roIIovIng dovIco.
Tho vnIuo of fho dosIgn rossuro, p
d
, fo bo usod In
cnIcuInfIons shouId IncIudo fho sfnfIc hond whoro
nIIcnbIo, unIoss fhIs Is fnkon sonrnfoIy Info
nccounf In fho oqunfIon.
5.3 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes
A rnngo of roforonco InmInnfos In forms of InmInnfo
unIf moduIus nnd dosIgn fhIcknoss Is gIvon In
TnbIo 5.l for fhroo fyos of consfrucfIon for roufIno
uso. Thoso nro:
n) 7\pe 1. AII chood sfrnnd mnf consfrucfIon
(CSM) wIfh nn InfornnI nnd oxfornnI surfnco
fIssuo roInforcod Inyor.
b) 7\pe . Chood sfrnnd mnf/wovon rovIng
consfrucfIon (CSM/W!) wIfh nn InfornnI nnd
oxfornnI surfnco fIssuo roInforcod Inyor. Ior
unIInod C!I Io, fhoro shouId bo n mInImum
of l.2 kg/m
2
of CSMboforo fho fIrsf Inyor of W!Is
nIIod.
Ior fhormoInsfIcs-IInod C!I Io, fhoro shouId
bo n mInImum of 0.6 kg/m
2
of CSM boforo fho
fIrsf Inyor of W! Is nIIod. Tho rnfIos of
CSM/W! by mnss of gInss IIo wIfhIn fho
foIIowIng rnngos.
l) !nmInnfo roforonco !25 fo !30:
4.0 X (CSM:W!)
2) !nmInnfo roforonco !40 fo !l00:
6.0 : (CSM:W!) : 2.5
3) !nmInnfo roforonco !l20 fo !350:
2.2 : (CSM:W!) : l.l
In ordor fhnf bonds nffnIn fho fIoxIbIIIfy nnd
sfross fncfors gIvon In ?.3.1, mnforInI roorfIos
for fyo 2 InmInnfos for bonds shouId bo
orfhofroIc wIfh n nomInnI
cIrcumforonfInI/IongIfudInnI rnfIo of l : l.
c) 7\pe . Chood sfrnnd mnf/fIInmonf rovIng
consfrucfIon (CSM/CI) wIfh nn InfornnI nnd
oxfornnI surfnco fIssuo roInforcod Inyor. Ior
unIInod C!I Io, fho CSM Is on fho InfornnI
wnII nffor fho surfnco fIssuo roInforcod Inyor nnd
shouId bo n mInImum of l.2 kg/m
2
of gInss. Ior
fhormoInsfIcs-IInod C!I Io, fhoro shouId bo n
mInImum of 0.6 kg/m
2
of CSM boforo fho fIrsf
Inyor of CI Is nIIod. Tho vnIuos In TnbIo 5.l nro
for sfrnIghf Ios IncorornfIng n wIndIng nngIo
of 55.
In ordor fhnf bonds nffnIn fho fIoxIbIIIfy nnd
sfross fncfors gIvon In ?.3.1, mnforInI roorfIos
for fyo 3 InmInnfos for bonds shouId bo
orfhofroIc wIfh n nomInnI
cIrcumforonfInI/IongIfudInnI rnfIo of 2 : l.
Tho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho InmInnfo, (
!AM
, cnn
bo cnIcuInfod by uso of oqunfIon (4.2) (soo 4.2.2.6).
3)
l bnr = l0
5
/m
2
= l0
5
In.
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7DE!e 5.1 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes Dnd tLeIv pvopevtIes
n
5.4 'etevmInIng veIevenFe !DmInDtes
Tho roquIrod dosIgn sfrnIn shouId bo obfnInod by
mofhod A (soo 4.3.2) or by mofhod I (soo 4.3.3).
If fho cInss of Ios hns boon soIocfod by mofhod A,
fhon fho roquIrod roforonco InmInnfo cnn bo
obfnInod dIrocfIy fromTnbIo 5.2 fo TnbIo 5.5. Whoro
mofhod I hns boon usod nnd n dosIgn sfrnIn
obfnInod fhnf Is dIfforonf fromfho cInss rnfIngs fhon
fho dosIgn unIf moduIus shouId bo obfnInod from
fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
Tho soIocfod roforonco InmInnfo shouId hnvo n unIf
moduIus ;
!AM
fhnf Is oqunI fo or gronfor fhnn fho
dosIgn unIf moduIus ;
!AM d
.
5.5 7LIFkness oI veIevenFe !DmInDtes
Iocnuso of fho wIdo rnngo of rosIn donsIfy nnd gInss
confonf If Is nof ossIbIo fo gIvo rocIso vnIuos of
fhIcknoss.
TnbIo 5.6 IIsfs ormIffod mnnufncfurIng foIornncos
for roforonco InmInnfos.
Ior fyo 3 InmInnfos wIfh wIndIng nngIos ofhor
fhnn 55, fho fhIcknoss shouId bo cnIcuInfod usIng
n fhIcknoss vnIuo of 0.?5 mm or kg/m
2
gInss.
5.6 ,dentIIIFDtIon oI !DmInDte
FonstvuFtIon
Tho consfrucfIon of Ios nnd fIffIngs shouId bo
IdonfIfIod by fyo (soo 5.3), InmInnfo roforonco
numbor (soo TnbIo 5.l) nnd nomInnI sIzo
(soo, o.g. TnbIo 5.4), o.g. TYII l ! l00 600.
/DmInDte
veIevenFe
/DmInDte
unIt
modu!us
;
!AM
'esIgn tLIFkness W
d
(soo 5.5)
/DmInDte
veIevenFe
/DmInDte
unIt
modu!us
;
!AM
'esIgn tLIFkness W
d
(soo 5.5)
7ype 1 7ype 2 7ype 3 7ype 1 7ype 2 7ype 3
/mm mm mm mm /mm mm mm mm
!25
!30
!40
!50
!60
!80
!l00
!l20
!l40
25 000
33 000
42 000
50 000
58 800
80 000
l00 000
l20 000
l40 000
4.50
6.00
?.60
9.00
l0.6
l4.8
l8.l
2l.?
25.3
4.50
5.50
6.00
?.50
8.50
ll.5
l4.0
l6.5
l9.5
4.50
5.20
5.90
6.?0
8.?0
l0.6
l2.5
l4.4
!l60
!l80
!200
!225
!250
!2?5
!300
!350
l60 000
l80 000
200 000
225 000
250 000
2?5 000
300 000
350 000
28.9
32.5
36.l
40.?
45.2
49.?
54.2
63.3
2l.0
24.0
25.5
29.5
32.5
36.0
39.0
45.5
l6.3
l8.l
20.0
22.4
24.?
2?.l
29.4
34.l
n
To doformIno vnIuos for fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho InmInnfo, soo 4.2.2.6.
(5.l)
;
!AM d
Is fho dosIgn unIf moduIus (In /mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm);
3
d
Is fho dosIgn rossuro (InfornnI) (gnugo)
(In bnr);
(
!AM
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
InmInnfo (In MIn);

d
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn.
;
!AM d
'
I
p
d
(
!AM
20(
!AM

d
p
d
( )
---------------------------------------------- =
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ISI 02-2000
7DE!e 5.2 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes Iov FonstvuFtIon oI F!Dss 1 systems (soo 4.3.2)
1omInD!
pIpe sIze
3vessuve vDtIngs (EDv)
1 2
1
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4 5 6 B 10
40
50
80
l00
l50
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
?00
?50
800
850
900
950
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
!25
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!25
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n
!30
n
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
!30
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!40
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!25
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!25
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n
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!40
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!25
!25
!30
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!50
!60
!80
!l00
!l00
!l20
!l20
!l40
!l60

!25
!25
!30
!40
!50
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!80
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 l9
7DE!e 5.3 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes Iov FonstvuFtIon oI F!Dss 2 systems (soo 4.3.2)
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200
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300
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400
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500
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600
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!25
!25
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!200
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!25
!25
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!25
!25
!30
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!l00
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20
ISI 02-2000
7DE!e 5.4 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes Iov FonstvuFtIon oI F!Dss 3 systems (soo 4.3.2)
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300
350
400
450
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!l40
!l40

!25
!25
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!30
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7DE!e 5.5 5eIevenFe !DmInDtes Iov FonstvuFtIon oI F!Dss 4 systems (soo 4.3.2)
7DE!e 5.6 3evmItted mDnuIDFtuvIng
to!evDnFes Iov veIevenFe !DmInDtes Iov
stvDIgLt pIpes
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n
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7ype oI
!DmInDte
(soo 5.3)
3evmIssIE!e devIDtIons pev Fent ve!DtIve
to desIgn tLIFkness W
d
(soo TnbIo 5.l)
l
2
3
W
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20
W
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W
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22
ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 6. $!!owDE!e vDFuum vDtIng Iov pIpes mDde
usIng veIevenFe !DmInDtes
6.1 'etevmInDtIon oI D!!owDE!e
vDFuum
Tho mnxImum ormIssIbIo oxfornnI rossuro for n
Io consfrucfod from n roforonco InmInnfo
(soo TnbIo 5.l) wIfhouf sfIffonIng rIngs shouId bo
doformInod by fho oqunfIon:
whoro
6.2 ,nFveDsIng D!!owDE!e extevnD!
pvessuve
Whoro fho nIIownbIo oxfornnI rossuro doformInod
In nccordnnco wIfh 6.1 Is foo Iow for fho Infondod
dufy fho foIIowIng ofIons nro nvnIInbIo.
n) To uso n roforonco InmInnfo wIfh n hIghor unIf
moduIus.
b) To uso sfIffonIng rIngs.
If ofIon n) Is fo bo usod fhon fho cnIcuInfIon In 6.1
shouId bo roonfod wIfh fho now InmInnfo unIf
moduIus boIng usod, ofhorwIso soo 6.3.
6.3 6tIIIenIng vIngs
If If hns boon docIdod fo uso sfIffonIng rIngs fho
foIIowIng oqunfIons shouId bo usod fo cnIcuInfo fho
dIsfnnco bofwoon sfIffonIng rIngs nnd fho socond
momonf of nron (momonf of InorfIn) of fho sfIffonIng
rIng:
n) Isfnnco bofwoon sfIffonIng rIngs
b) Socond momonf of nron
whoro
Tho ormIssIbIo Iongfh of shoII, -
s
, whIch mny bo
rognrdod ns offocfIvoIy confrIbufIng fo fho nmounf of
fho sfIffonIng rIng socfIon shouId bo obfnInod from
fho foIIowIng oqunfIon rovIdIng fhnf -
s
Is nof fnkon
fo bo gronfor fhnn -:
whoro
3
o
= (20;
!AM
/W
d
)
s
) {W
d
/('
I
+ 2W
d
)}
3
(6.l)
3
o
Is fho nIIownbIo oxfornnI rossuro
(In bnr);
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus (In /mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io
(In mm);
)
s
Is fho fncfor of snfofy (4 unIoss
ofhorwIso ngrood).
- = (25;
!AM
/)
s
p
o
) {W
d
/('
I
+ 2W
d
)}
l.5
(6.2)
, = 0.0l8 ('
I
+ 2W
d
) -'
nn
2
p
o
W
d
/;
!AM
(6.3)
, Is fho socond nxInI momonf of nron of fho
sfIffonIng rIng socfIon nbouf Ifs noufrnI nxIs
(In mm
4
);
- Is fho dIsfnnco bofwoon sfIffonIng rIngs
(In mm);
'
nn
Is fho dInmofor of fho noufrnI nxIs of fho
sfIffonIng rIng (In mm).
-
s
= 0.?5 {('
I
+ 2W
d
)W
d
}
0.5
(6.4)
-
s
Is fho Iongfh of shoII (In mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 23
6eFtIon ?. )!exIEI!Ity Dnd stvess DnD!yses Dnd IDFtovs
?.1 *enevD!
IIos nnd IoIIno comononfs In gInss roInforcod
InsfIcs cnn bo consIdorod In fho snmo wny ns
comononfs In nny ofhor mnforInI wIfh fho snmo
form of fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors.
Tho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor Is fho rnfIo of fho fIoxIbIIIfy of
fho comononf fo fho fIoxIbIIIfy of nn oquIvnIonf
sfrnIghf Io. SImIInrIy fho sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon
fncfors nro onch n rnfIo of fho onk sfross In n
comononf undor n IondIng sysfom fo fho sfross In
oquIvnIonf sfrnIghf Io. SuorfIng InformnfIon Is
gIvon In AondIx C nnd fhrough roforoncos.
WIfh fho rnngo of consfrucfIons nvnIInbIo nnd fho
roInfIvo onso of fnbrIcnfIon In dIfforonf fhIcknossos
nnd ofhor dImonsIons If Is ossonfInI fhnf dofnIIs of
fho comononf nnd fho cInss of Io nro nvnIInbIo ns
woII ns fho sfross nrnmofors. Tho mofhod of
fnbrIcnfIon cnn Infroduco vnrInfIons In fhIcknoss of
n comononf whIch musf bo kof wIfhIn IImIfs fo
onsuro fho roIInbIIIfy of fho sfross fncfors.
Tho mnxImum sfross usod In fho cnIcuInfIon of
sfross fncfors Is fho mnxImum mombrnno sfross In
fho dIrocfIon of fho comononf nxIs nnd for fho
roforrod mnforInI dIrocfIon.
Iy fho nnfuro of fho mnforInIs In rosIn nnd gInss,
fho moduIus of gInss roInforcod InsfIcs mnforInIs Is
Iow comnrod wIfh mofnIs nnd hIgh IocnI
doformnfIon mny occur nf roInfIvoIy Iow sfrossos. In
such cnsos consIdornfIon shouId bo gIvon fo fho
ossIbIIIfy of oInsfIc InsfnbIIIfy.
?.2 &D!Fu!DtIon oI tempevDtuve FLDnge
Iov I!exIEI!Ity DnD!ysIs
?.2.1 3Ipe !DmInDte
Whon consIdorIng honfIng or cooIIng of fho
unInsuInfod Io wnII by fho rocoss fIuId fho monn
fomornfuro chnngo of fho Io wnII shouId bo
cnIcuInfod usIng ns nIIcnbIo oqunfIon (?.l) If
honfIng occurs or oqunfIon (?.2) If cooIIng occurs,
fhoso oqunfIons boIng:
Ior oxnnsIon fho Iowosf oncounforod nmbIonf
fomornfuro shouId nIy nnd for confrncfIon fho
hIghosf oncounforod nmbIonf fomornfuro shouId
nIy.
In somo cIrcumsfnncos chnngos In nmbIonf
fomornfuro cnn bo moro Imorfnnf In fho dosIgn of
fho IIng fhnn fomornfuro chnngos In fho fIuId.
Tho monn fomornfuro chnngo of fho Io wnII
shouId fhon bo fnkon ns fho I!!! fomornfuro
dIfforonco bofwoon fho nIIcnbIo nmbIonf
fomornfuro nnd fho nssumod orocfIon
fomornfuro. Iurfhor guIdnnco nnd oxnmIos on
fho sIgnIfIcnnco of fhormnI offocfs In fIoxIbIIIfy nnd
sfross nnnIysos nro gIvon In AondIx C.
?.2.2 (xtensIon due to pvessuve
A IongIfudInnI sfrnIn
x
Is roducod whon n Io Is
rossurIzod. To onnbIo fhIs fo bo IncIudod In fho
fIoxIbIIIfy cnIcuInfIon fho IongIfudInnI sfrnIn cnn bo
rorosonfod by nn oquIvnIonf Incronso In
fomornfuro cnIcuInfod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
OTI Ior fyo l nnd fyo 2 Ios (soo TnbIo 4.2), whoro
;
!AM x
= ;
!AM
nnd Y

[ = , oqunfIon (?.3) sImIIfIos fo bocomo:


7
d
= / (7

7
n
) (?.l)
7
d
= / (7
n
7

) (?.2)
whoro
7
d
Is fho dosIgn fomornfuro chnngo fo bo usod
for fIoxIbIIIfy nnnIysIs;
7

Is fho rocoss fomornfuro;


7
n
Is fho nmbIonf fomornfuro;
/ Is fo bo fnkon ns 0.85 for IIquIds nnd 0.8 for
gnsos.
(?.3)
7
o
Is fho Incronso In fomornfuro nocossnry
fo roduco IongIfudInnI sfrnIn oquIvnIonf
fo
x
(In K);
p Is fho InfornnI rossuro (gnugo) (In bnr);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io
(In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);

Is fho IInonr fhormnI oxnnsIon


cooffIcIonf, In K
l
, for fho InmInnfo In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon;
Y
x
Is fho IoIsson rnfIo gIvIng sfrnIn In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon cnusod by sfross In
fho cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon;
;
!AM [
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus (In /mm)
In fho IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon;
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus (In /mm)
In fho cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon.
7
o
= p('
I
+ W
d
)/l20 ;
!AM

7
o
p '
I
W
d
+ ( )
20

--------------------------
l
2;
!AMx
--------------------
e
[
;
!AM
---------------------
,
_
=
l
3
---
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%6 ?15919B9
24
ISI 02-2000
?.3 6tvess DnD!ysIs oI I!exIE!e pIpIng
systems
?.3.1 )DFtovs Iov Eends
?.3.1.1 )le[iEiliW\ fDFWorV. Iocnuso of ovnIIznfIon of
fho cross socfIon durIng bondIng, fho fIoxIbIIIfy of n
Io bond Is gronfor fhnn fhnf of nn oquIvnIonf
Iongfh of sfrnIghf Io of fho snmo wnII consfrucfIon
nnd dInmofor. Tho rnfIo of fhoso fIoxIbIIIfIos Is
known ns fho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor nnd Is cnIcuInfod by
fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
Thoso nro fnkon for bofh In-Inno (suffIx I) nnd
ouf-of-Inno (suffIx o) bondIng.
Thus, If fho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfors nro known for n
nrfIcuInr bond, sImIo bonm fhoory cnn bo usod fo
rodIcf ond Ionds nnd dofIocfIon.
Subjocf fo n corrocfIon fncfor (soo ?.3.1.3), fho
fIoxIbIIIfy fncfors nro rImnrIIy n funcfIon of fho Io
fncfor. Tho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfors nnd Io fncfors nro
gIvon by oqunfIons (?.5) nnd (?.6) rosocfIvoIy:
whoro
?.3.1.2 &onVWDnWV for FDlFXlDWing fle[iEiliW\ fDFWorV
for EenJV XnJer ]ero gDXge preVVXre. Iocnuso of fho
mofhods of fnbrIcnfIon fho Io wnII fhIcknoss for
C!I bonds Is vnrInbIo nnd IrroguInr. A survoy of
bonds fromn vnrIofy of commorcInI sourcos rovonIod
fhnf fho wnII fhIcknoss nf fho, Infrndos rnngos
from l.l fImos fo 2 fImos fho nomInnI vnIuo nnd nf
fho oxfrndos rnngos from l fImos fo l.5 fImos fho
nomInnI vnIuo, I.o. fho mnxImum nnfIcInfod monn
wnII fhIcknoss for commorcInIIy fnbrIcnfod bonds
Is l.?5 fImos fho nomInnI vnIuo.
Tho vnIuos gIvon In IIguro ?.l for \
|soo oqunfIon (?.5)] for smoofh nnd mIfrod bonds
rosocfIvoIy nnd gIvon for for fho fhroo InmInnfo
fyos ns nIIcnbIo nro consIdorod ndoqunfo for Io
bonds wIfh n monn wnII fhIcknoss nround fho
Infrndos of l.?5 fImos fho nomInnI vnIuo or Ioss
(soo OTI) nnd rovIdod fhnf for fyo 3 InmInnfos
fho cIrcumforonfInI sfIffnoss: IongIfudInnI sfIffnoss
rnfIo for fho InmInnfo (o.g. ;
!AM
/;
!AM [
or
(
!AM
/(
!AM [
) Is nof gronfor fhnn 2 : l
(soo IIguro 4.l).
VnIuos for b
I
nnd b
o
mny bo obfnInod ns n funcfIon of

b
dIrocfIy from IIguro ?.2 nnd IIguro ?.3 for
smoofh or mIfrod bonds rosocfIvoIy for Ios nof
subjocf fo InfornnI rossuro (ofhorwIso soo ?.3.1.3).
OTI If fho wnII fhIcknoss oxcoods fhIs IImIf, If wIII bo
nocossnry fo monsuro Ifs fIoxIbIIIfy nnd fhnf of nn oquIvnIonf
sfrnIghf undor In-Inno bondIng. Ior guIdnnco on how fo
undorfnko such ovnIunfIons, nffonfIon Is drnwn fo roforonco |l]
nnd nIso fo fho gronf dIffIcuIfy In obfnInIng roIInbIo vnIuos from
oxorImonfnI rosuIfs, nrfIcuInrIy for smnII dInmofor Ios,
bocnuso of fho III-condIfIonod oqunfIon whIch hns fo bo usod.
?.3.1.3 &orreFWion fDFWor for inWernDl preVVXre. Tho
fIoxIbIIIfy of Io bonds wIfh Iow Io fncfors (Inrgo
boro/fhIn wnII) Is nffocfod by InfornnI rossuro. ThIs
roducos fho fondoncy of fho bond fo ovnIIzo nnd
honco docronsos fho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor. Tho corrocfIon
fncfor cnn bo cnIcuInfod from fho foIIowIng
oqunfIon (whIch Is roroducod for convonIonco
In IIguro ?.l: for bnckground InformnfIon, nffonfIon
Is drnwn fo roforonco |l]).
whoro
?.3.1.4 6WreVV inWenViW\ fDFWorV for EenJV. Iocnuso of
ovnIIznfIon of fho cross socfIon durIng bondIng fho
sfrossos In n Io bond nro gronfor fhnn fhoso In n
sfrnIghf Io of fho snmo wnII consfrucfIon nnd
dInmofor undor fho snmo bondIng momonf. Thoso
rnfIos nro known ns fho sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors
(SIIs) nnd nro obfnInod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
b = b
b
/b
s
(?.4)
b Is fho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfor;
b
b
Is fho fIoxIbIIIfy of n bond;
b
s
Is fho fIoxIbIIIfy of n sfrnIghf.
b
(I or o)
=
l

b
\
l
(?.5)

b
= W
d
5/r
2
(?.6)

b
Is fho Io fncfor nIIcnbIo fo n bond;

l
nnd \
l
nro oxorImonfnIIy doformInod
cooffIcIonfs nnd owors rosocfIvoIy (soo ?.3.1.2);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
5 Is fho monn Io bond rndIus (In mm);
r Is fho Io boro rndIus (In mm).
= |l + 2.53
d
5
l/3
rW
d
4/3
]
l
(?.?)

J
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;
5 Is fho monn Io bond rndIus (In mm);
r Is fho Io boro rndIus (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
6,)
b
= g
mnx b
/g
mnx s
(?.8)
6,)
b
Is fho sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor;
g
mnx b
Is fho mnxImum sfross In bond (In MIn);
g
mnx s
Is fho mnxImum sfross In sfrnIghf
(In MIn).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 25
Iour 6,)V nro roquIrod fo qunnfIfy fho rIncInI
sfrossos In n bond, I.o.:
n) IongIfudInnI 6,) undor In-Inno bondIng
(suffIx [i);
b) cIrcumforonfInI 6,) undor In-Inno bondIng
(suffIx i);
c) IongIfudInnI 6,) undor ouf-of-Inno bondIng
(suffIx [o);
d) cIrcumforonfInI 6,) undor ouf-of-Inno
bondIng (suffIx o).
As wIfh fho fIoxIbIIIfy fncfors fho sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors nro rImnrIIy funcfIons of fho
Io fncfor, In fhIs cnso
b
|soo oqunfIon (?.6)], nnd
mny bo subjocf fo n corrocfIon fncfor (soo ?.3.1.6)
nnd, nddIfIonnIIy, n rossuro sfross muIfIIIor
(soo ?.3.1.?).
Thoso funcfIons fnko fho form
whoro
?.3.1.5 &onVWDnWV for FDlFXlDWing VWreVV
inWenVifiFDWion fDFWorV for EenJV XnJer ]ero gDXge
preVVXre. Tho vnrInfIon In Io wnII fhIcknoss
dIscussod In ?.3.1.2 mnkos nccurnfo rodIcfIon of
mnxImum sfrossos In bonds ImossIbIo. Tho
nronch ndofod In fhIs sfnndnrd Is fo rovIdo
vnIuos whIch nro unIIkoIy fo bo oxcoodod In rncfIco.
Asurvoy of n rnngo of Ios fromn vnrIofy of sourcos
rovonIod fhnf fho Iowor bound monn fhIcknoss of fho
Io wnII In fho rogIon of fho Infrndos Is l.l fImos
fho nomInnI vnIuo. Tho vnIuo gIvon In IIguro ?.l for
\
2
|soo oqunfIon (?.9)] nnd gIvon for
2
for onch of fho
fhroo InmInnfo fyos for smoofh nnd mIfrod bonds
rosocfIvoIy nro vnIId for bonds whIch nro known fo
hnvo n monn crofch wnII fhIcknoss of nf
Ionsf l.l fImos fho nomInnI vnIuo. If If Is susocfod
fhnf n Io bond or n bnfch of bonds nro boIow fhIs
IImIf, If wIII bo nocossnry fo doformIno, by fosfIng,
fho sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors.
VnIuos for 6,)
xI
, 6,)
I
, 6,)
xo
nnd 6,)
o
cnn bo
obfnInod ns n funcfIon of
b
dIrocfIy from IIguro ?.4
fo IIguro ?.ll IncIusIvo, ns nIIcnbIo.
6,)
b
=
2

b
\2
(?.9)

2
nnd \
2
nro oxorImonfnIIy doformInod
cooffIcIonfs nnd owors, rosocfIvoIy
(soo ?.3.1.5).
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%6 ?15919B9
26
ISI 02-2000
%ends
7ype
6mootL 0Itved
3Ipe IDFtov
(?.6)
n
)!exIEI!Ity IDFtov
b =
l

\
l
(= l)
(?.5)
n
b =
l

\
l
(= 0.83)
(?.5)
n
/DmInDte type 1 2 3 1 2 3

l
,n-p!Dne l.0 l.0 0.? 0.9 0.9 0.64
2ut-oI-p!Dne l.0 l.0 0.? 0.9 0.9 0.64
&ovveFtIon IDFtov = (l + 2.53
d
5
l/3
rW
d
4/3
)
l
(?.?)
n
6tvess IntensIIIFDtIon IDFtov
6,) = (
x
or

)
2

\
2
(=
2/3
)
(?.9)
n
/DmInDte type 1 2 3 1 2 3

2
,n-p!Dne /ong.
&IvF.
0.96
l.84
0.96
l.60
0.?6
l.60
0.65
l.4?
0.69
l.3?
0.5
l.2
2ut-oI-
p!Dne
/ong.
&IvF.
l.l
l.8
l.03
l.42
0.56
l.58
0.86
l.?2
0.86
l.4
0.5l
l.53
&ovveFtIon
IDFtov
/ong.
x
= (l + 2.53
d
5
l/3
rW
d
4/3
)
l
(?.l0)
n
&IvF.

= (l + l.l
d
5
2/3
r
5/6
W
d
3/2
)
l
(?.ll)
n
3vessuve stvess
mu!tIp!Iev n
l.0 l.3
or
0.83(l r/5)/(l r/5)
whIchovor Is fho gronfor
(soo ?.3.1.?)
n
IqunfIon roforoncos.
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?.3.1.6 &orreFWion fDFWorV for inWernDl preVVXre.
!nrgo dInmofor Ios wIfh n Iow Io fncfor (Inrgo
boro/fhIn wnII) nro nffocfod by InfornnI rossuro.
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InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors. Tho corrocfIon fncfors
x
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IongIfudInnI sfross nnd

for cIrcumforonfInI
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oqunfIons (whIch nro roroducod for convonIonco
In IIguro ?.l).
whoro fho ofhor forms corrosond fo fhoso usod for
oqunfIon (?.?).
?.3.1.? 3reVVXre VWreVV nXlWiplierV for EenJV. Ior
mIfrod bonds, fho nIIcnbIo rossuro sfross
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Ior smoofh bonds, fho nIIcnbIo
rossuro sfross muIfIIIor Is
oIfhor l.0or 0.83 whIchovor Is
fho gronfor, whoro r Is fho Io boro rndIus, In
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mIIIImofros.
?.3.2 )DFtovs Iov tees
?.3.2.1 )le[iEiliW\ fDFWorV for WeeV. In nII cnsos,
I.o. oqunI or unoqunI, mouIdod or fnbrIcnfod, fho
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IndIcnfod In IIguro ?.l2.
?.3.2.2 6WreVV inWenVifiFDWion fDFWorV for WeeV. Tho
sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor Is non-dIrocfIonnI nnd Is
rImnrIIy n funcfIon of fho Io fncfor nnd cnn bo
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whoro
Ior fhIs uroso, fho Io fncfor for foos
T
Is
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whoro
Ior mouIdod foos whoro fho crofch fhIcknoss Is
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IndIcnfod In IIguro ?.l4 nnd IIguro ?.l5 fho
vnIuos gIvon for
3
nnd \
3
for oqunfIon (?.l2) nnd
In IIguro ?.l2 nIy.
Ior sof-on or sof-In foos whoro fho crofch fhIcknoss
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gIvon for oqunfIon (?.l2) nnd In IIguro ?.l2 wIII
roduco n consorvnfIvo vnIuo of sfross
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?.3.2.3 3reVVXre VWreVV nXlWiplier for WeeV.
CIrcumforonfInI rossuro sfross g

nf n foo juncfIon
Is obfnInod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
Tho vnIuo of fho rossuro sfross muIfIIIor cnn bo
obfnInod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro

x
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5
l/3
rW
d
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l
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= (l + l.l
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r
5/6
W
d
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l
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6,)
T
=
3

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\3
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T
Is fho Io fncfor nIIcnbIo fo fho foo;
6,)
T
Is fho sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor;

3
nnd \
3
nro oxorImonfnIIy doformInod
cooffIcIonfs nnd owors whIch for bofh oqunI nnd
unoqunI foos (soo IIguro ?.l2) mny bo fnkon
ns 0.66 nnd 0.5 rosocfIvoIy.

T
= 2W
M
/'
I
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W
M
Is fho fhIcknoss (In mm) of fho roforonco
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shown In IIguro ?.l2 nnd, ns
nIIcnbIo, IIguro ?.l4 or IIguro ?.l5;
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho mnIn body of
fho foo (soo IIguro ?.l2) (In mm).
g

= np ('
IM
+ W
M
)/20W
M
(?.l4)
'
IM
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of mnIn of foo
(In mm);
W
M
Is fho fhIcknoss (In mm) of fho roforonco
InmInnfo(s) of fho mnIn of fho foo ns
shown In IIguro ?.l2 nnd, ns
nIIcnbIo, IIguro ?.l4 or IIguro ?.l5;
p Is fho InfornnI rossuro (gnugo) (In bnr);
n Is fho rossuro sfross muIfIIIor
|soo oqunfIon (?.l5) nnd IIguro ?.l2
nnd IIguro ?.l6].
n =
4

Z
\4
(?.l5)

4
nnd \
4
nro oxorImonfnIIy doformInod
cooffIcIonfs nnd owors whIch for bofh oqunI nnd
unoqunI foos (soo IIguro ?.l2) mny bo fnkon
ns l.4 nnd 0.25 rosocfIvoIy;

z
Is fho Io fncfor nIIcnbIo fo fho foo. Ior nn
oqunI foo If Is obfnInod usIng oqunfIon (?.l6) nnd
for nn unoqunI foo If Is obfnInod usIng
oqunfIon (?.l?) (bofh of whIch nro roroducod for
convonIonco In IIguro ?.l2).
(?.l6)
Z
'
I
2W
M
----------- =
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%6 ?15919B9
38
ISI 02-2000
whoro
Ior sof-on or sof-In foos whoro fho crofch fhIcknoss
Is nomInnIIy 2.5 fImos fhnf of fho body, fho
cooffIcIonf
4
nnd fho owor \
4
wIII roduco n
consorvnfIvo vnIuo of sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor.
ThormoInsfIcs-IInod foos cnn bo consIdorod ns
unIInod.
(?.l?)
'
II
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho brnnch
(In mm);
W
I
Is fho wnII fhIcknoss of fho brnnch ndjnconf
fo fho juncfIon (soo IIguro ?.l2) (In mm);

Z
'
II
2W
I
----------
,

_
2
2W
M
'
IM
-----------
,

_
=
W
M
Is fho fhIcknoss (In mm) of fho roforonco
InmInnfo(s) of fho mnIn of fho foo ns shown
In IIguro ?.l2 nnd, ns nIIcnbIo,
IIguro ?.l4 or IIguro ?.l5;
'
IM
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of mnIn of foo
(soo IIguro ?.l2) (In mm).
7ees (quD! 8nequD!
MouIdod
InbrIcnfod
(sof-on or sof-In)
IIoxIbIIIfy fncfor l.0
Sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon
fncfor (soo ?.3.2.2)
6,)
T
= 0.66
T
0.5
(?.l2)
n
IIo fncfor (?.l3)
n
Irossuro sfross muIfIIIor n = l.4
z
0.25
(?.l5)
n
IIo fncfor (?.l6)
n
(?.l?)
n
n
IndIcnfos oqunfIon roforonco.
)Iguve ?.12 7ypes oI tees Dnd DssoFIDted IDFtovs

T
2W
M
'
I
---------- =

Z
'
I
2W
M
---------- =
Z
'
II
2W
I
---------
,
_
2
2W
M
'
IM
----------
,
_
=
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 43
?.3.3 &D!Fu!DtIon oI mDxImumFomEIned stvess
?.3.3.1 *enerDl. Tho cnIcuInfIon of fho mnxImum
combInod sfross shouId consIdor:
n) rossuro-Inducod sfrossos;
b) bondIng sfross Inducod by oxnnsIon or
confrncfIon ovor fho fofnI dosIgn fomornfuro
rnngo;
c) bondIng sfrossos cnusod by fho woIghf of Io
nnd, whoro nIIcnbIo, InsuInfIon nnd Io
confonfs;
d) bondIng sfrossos cnusod by oxfornnI IondIngs
IncIudIng wInd;
o) bondIng sfrossos nrIsIng from movomonf of
nnchors, guIdos, suorfs or sImIInr.
?.3.3.2 0D[inXn FonEineJ VWreVV. Tho mnxImum
combInod sfross shouId nof oxcood fho mnxImum
dosIgn sfross for fho InmInnfo nf nny IocnfIon.
?.3.3.3 &onEineJ VWreVV VWrDiglWV DnJ EenJV. Tho
combInod sfross vnIuo on sfrnIghfs nnd bonds
shouId bo fho mnxImum vnIuo obfnInod from fho
foIIowIng oqunfIons;
or
whoro
?.3.4 6tvess equDtIons stvDIgLts Dnd Eends
?.3.4.1 &irFXnferenWiDl VWreVV. Tho fofnI
cIrcumforonfInI sfross g

Is fho sum of fho


cIrcumforonfInI rossuro sfross g

nnd fho
cIrcumforonfInI bondIng sfross g
b
, I.o.
whoro vnIuos for fhoso cIrcumforonfInI sfrossos mny
bo obfnInod ns foIIows.
n) &irFXnferenWiDl preVVXre VWreVV
whoro
b) &irFXnferenWiDl EenJing VWreVV
Ior sfrnIghf Ios, g
b
shouId bo fnkon ns zoro.
Ior bonds:
whoro
?.3.4.2 /ongiWXJinDl VWreVV. Tho fofnI IongIfudInnI
sfross g
x
Is fho sum of fho IongIfudInnI rossuro
sfross g
x
nnd fho IongIfudInnI bondIng
sfross, g
xb
, I.o.
whoro vnIuos for fhoso IongIfudInnI sfrossos mny bo
obfnInod ns foIIows:
n) /ongiWXJinDl preVVXre VWreVVeV g
x
ThIs mny bo cnIcuInfod for bofh sfrnIghf Ios
nnd bonds from fho oqunfIon
b) /ongiWXJinDl EenJing VWreVV
l) Ior sfrnIghf Io
g
c
= (g

2
+ 4g
S
2
)
0.5
(?.l8)
g
c
= (g
x
2
+ 4g
S
2
)
0.5
(?.l9)
g
c
Is fho combInod sfross (In MIn);
g

Is fho cIrcumforonfInI sfross (In MIn);


g
x
Is fho IongIfudInnI sfross (In MIn);
g
S
Is fho forsIonnI sfross (In MIn).
g

= g

+ g
b
(?.20)
g

= np ('
I
+ W
d
)/20W
d
(?.2l)
n Is fho rossuro sfross muIfIIIor for n
sfrnIghf Io (= l) or n bond ns nIIcnbIo
(soo ?.3.1.? nnd IIguro ?.l);
p Is fho InfornnI rossuro (gnugo) (In bnr);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
g
b
= {('
I
+ 2W
d
)/2,} {(0
I
6,)
I
)
2
+
+(0
o
6,)
o
)
2
}
0.5
(?.22)
0
I
Is fho mnxImum In-Inno bondIng
momonf (In mm);
0
o
Is fho mnxImum ouf-of-Inno bondIng
momonf (In mm);
6,)
I
Is fho cIrcumforonfInI sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor, In-Inno
(soo ?.3.1.4 nnd IIguro ?.l);
6,)
o
Is fho cIrcumforonfInI sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor, ouf-of-Inno
(soo ?.3.1.4 nnd IIguro ?.l);
, Is fho socond momonf of nron nbouf nn
nxIs fhrough fho confroId normnI fo fho
nxIs of fho Io (In mm
4
);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho fIffIng
(In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
g
x
= g
x
+ g
xb
(?.23)
g
x
= p('
I
+ W
d
)/40W
d
(?.24)
g
xb
= {('
I
+ 2W
d
)/2,} (0
I
2
+ 0
o
2
)
0.5
(?.25)
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%6 ?15919B9
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ISI 02-2000
2) Ior bonds
whoro for oqunfIons (?.24), (?.25) nnd (?.26)
(ns nIIcnbIo)
?.3.4.3 7orVionDl VWreVV. Ior bofh sfrnIghfs nnd
bonds fho forsIonnI sfross g
S
(In MIn) Is gIvon by:
whoro
?.3.5 &omEIned stvess EvDnFL FonneFtIons
Tho combInod sfross nf n brnnch juncfIon shouId bo
doformInod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
?.3.6 6tvess IunFtIons EvDnFL FonneFtIons
?.3.6.1 &irFXnferenWiDl preVVXre VWreVV. Tho
cIrcumforonfInI rossuro sfross g

shouId bo
doformInod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
?.3.6.2 1on-JireFWionDl EenJing VWreVV. Tho
non-dIrocfIonnI bondIng sfross nf brnnch juncfIons
shouId bo fho gronfosf vnIuo nIIcnbIo fo onch of
fho fhroo connocfIons doformInod ns foIIows:
n) fho bondIng sfross nf brnnch from connocfIon
on mnIn, g
bI
, ns gIvon by fho oqunfIon:
whoro
g
xb
= {('
I
+ 2W
d
)/2,} {(0
I
6,)
xI
)
2
+
+ (0
o
6,)
xo
)
2
}
0.5
(?.26)
p Is fho InfornnI dosIgn rossuro (gnugo)
(In bnr);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
, Is fho socond momonf of nron nbouf nn
nxIs fhrough fho confroId normnI fo fho
nxIs of fho Io (In mm
4
);
0
I
Is fho mnxImum In-Inno bondIng
momonf (In mm);
0
o
Is fho mnxImum ouf-of-Inno bondIng
momonf (In mm);
6,)
xI
Is fho IongIfudInnI sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon
fncfor undor In-Inno bondIng (soo ?.3.1.4
nnd IIguro ?.l);
6,)
xo
Is fho IongIfudInnI sfross InfonsIfIcnfIon
fncfor undor ouf-of-Inno bondIng
(soo ?.3.1.4 nnd IIguro ?.l).
g
S
= 0
S
('
I
+ 2W
d
)/4, (?.2?)
0
S
Is fho mnxImum forsIonnI momonf
(In mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
, Is fho socond momonf of nron nbouf nn nxIs
fhrough fho confroId normnI fo fho nxIs of
fho Ios (In mm
4
).
g
cI
= {(g

+ g
bI
)
2
+ 4 g
SI
2
}
0.5
(?.28)
g
cI
Is fho brnnch combInod sfross (In MIn);
g

Is fho brnnch cIrcumforonfInI rossuro


sfross (In MIn);
g
bI
Is fho non-dIrocfIonnI bondIng sfross
(In MIn);
g
SI
Is fho brnnch forsIonnI sfross (In MIn).
g

= np ('
I
+ W
M
)/20W
M
(?.29)
n Is fho rossuro sfross muIfIIIor
|soo oqunfIon (?.l5) nnd IIguro ?.l2 nnd
IIguro ?.l6];
p Is fho InfornnI rossuro (gnugo) (In bnr);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of mnIn boro nf
juncfIon of brnnch (In mm);
W
M
Is fho mInImum fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo(s) of fho mnIn nf fho brnnch
connocfIon (soo IIguro ?.l4 nnd
IIguro ?.l5).
g
bI
= {('
I
+ 2W
d
)/2,} {(0
I
6,)
II
)
2
+
+ (0
o
6,)
Io
)
2
}
0.5
(?.30)
0
I
Is fho In-Inno momonf: oIfhor mnIn
nccordIng fo cnso (In mm);
0
o
Is fho ouf-of-Inno momonf: oIfhor
mnIn nccordIng fo cnso (In mm);
6,)
II
Is fho In-Inno brnnch sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor;
6,)
Io
Is fho ouf-of-Inno brnnch sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor;
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of mnIn boro
nf juncfIon of brnnch (In mm);
, Is fho socond momonf of nron of fho
mnIn nbouf nn nxIs fhrough fho
confroId normnI fo fho nxIs of fho mnIn
(In mm
4
);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 45
b) Tho bondIng sfross nf fho brnnch juncfIon from
fho brnnch connocfIon shouId bo doformInod ns
for fho mnIn connocfIons buf wIfh fho In- nnd
ouf-of-Inno momonfs boIng fhoso nIIcnbIo fo
fho brnnch connocfIon. Tho rndIus shouId bo fhnf
of fho brnnch. Tho momonf of InorfIn shouId bo
fhnf cnIcuInfod usIng fho brnnch rndIus nnd fho
Iossor of fho mnIn fhIcknoss or brnnch fhIcknoss
muIfIIIod by fho ouf-of-Inno sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfor of fho brnnch.
c) Tho forsIonnI sfross nf fho brnnch juncfIon
shouId bo fho vnIuo nIIcnbIo nf nny connocfIon,
whoro fho forsIonnI sfross Is ns dofInod for
sfrnIghf nnd bonds In ?.3.4.3.
?.4 $FFommodDtIon oI expDnsIon Ds
!ongItudInD! FompvessIve stvDIn
Iocnuso of fho Iow oInsfIc moduIus of C!I If Is
ossIbIo fo donI wIfh fhormnI oxnnsIon In n wny
whIch Is nof offon rncfIcnbIo wIfh mofnIIIc Io
sysfoms. If n sfrnIghf Iongfh of C!I Io Is
rosfrnInod bofwoon nnchors If cnn bo honfod (wIfhIn
IImIfs) wIfh oxnnsIon rovonfod by fho nnchors,
I.o. fho oxnnsIon whIch wouId fnko Inco If fho Io
woro froo fo oxnnd Is nbsorbod ns nn nxInI sfrnIn. A
Io run fronfod In fhIs wny Is usunIIy roforrod fo ns
n rosfrnInod Io sysfom.
SIgnIfIcnnf fonfuros of fhIs mofhod nro:
n) Tho mofhod Is bosf suIfod fo IoIInos whIch
Incorornfo roInfIvoIy Iong sfrnIghf runs.
b) Tho mofhod Is moro gonornIIy usod for smnIIor
sIzos of Io bocnuso of fho hIgh nnchor Ionds
gonornfod by Inrgor Ios. As nn oxnmIo
n l50 mm nomInnI boro C!I Io wIfh n l0 mm
fhIck wnII wouId gonornfo nn nnchor Iond of
nbouf 50 k for n fomornfuro dIfforonco of 60 K.
c) Tho Io suorfs bofwoon fho nnchors hnvo fo
rovonf fho Io buckIIng ns n sfruf. CrndIo fyo
suorfs wIfh ovorsfrns nro offon usod. Tho
suorfs shouId bo rIgIdIy nffnchod fo fho Innf
sfooIwork or ofhor suorfIng sfrucfuros.
Hnngors nro nof snfIsfncfory bocnuso fhoy do nof
rovonf InfornI movomonf of fho Io.
d) Thoso nrfs of fho Io run whIch nro nof fuIIy
rosfrnInod shouId bo consIdorod sonrnfoIy from
n fIoxIbIIIfy vIowoInf nnd, If nocossnry, nnnIysod
by fho mofhods gIvon In ?.3.
o) ComrossIvo sfross Inducod by n fomornfuro
rIso cnn docny fhrough roInxnfIon of fho Io
mnforInI nnd, on cooIIng, fonsIIo sfross cnn bo
gonornfod. Tho fofnI fonsIIo sfross wIII bo much
gronfor If fho Io Is nIIowod fo cooI undor
rossuro bocnuso of fho nxInI fonsIIo sfross
nrIsIng from fho IoIsson offocf. !nIoss ofhorwIso
sfnfod, fho nnchor shouId bo cnnbIo of rosIsfIng
oqunI nnd oosIfo Ionds In fho nxInI dIrocfIon.
IgnorIng dofIocfIon In rosonso fo ond fhrusf fho
nnchor Iond f

Is gIvon by:
whoro
f) Tho IongIfudInnI comrossIvo sfross Inducod by
fho fomornfuro rIso wIII rosuIf In n
cIrcumforonfInI fonsIIo sfrnIn, bocnuso of fho
IoIsson rnfIo offocf. Tho sum of fhIs sfrnIn nnd
fho cIrcumforonfInI sfrnIn Inducod by rossuro
shouId nof oxcood fho dosIgn sfrnIn. Whoro %
x
Is
nognfIvo, fho cIrcumforonfInI sfrnIn shouId bo
cnIcuInfod for fyo l nnd fyo 2 InmInnfos usIng
oqunfIon (?.32) or for fyo 3 InmInnfos usIng
oqunfIon (?.33).
whoro
f

= (
!AM
7
d

{W
d
('
I
+ W
d
)} (?.3l)
f

Is fho nnchor Iond (In );


(
!AM
Is fho oInsfIc moduIus of fho InmInnfo
(In MIn);
7
d
Is fho dosIgn fomornfuro chnngo (In K);

Is fho IInonr fhormnI oxnnsIon


cooffIcIonf;
W
d
Is fho InmInnfo fhIcknoss (In mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm).

= (%

e
%x
)/(
!AM
(?.32)

= (%

e
x
%
x
) (
!AM
(?.33)

Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;


%

Is fho cIrcumforonfInI sfross (In MIn);


e Is fho IoIsson rnfIo;
%
x
Is fho IongIfudInnI sfross (In MIn);
(
!AM
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
roforonco InmInnfo In fho
cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon;
e
x
Is fho IoIsson rnfIo gIvIng sfrnIn In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon cnusod by sfross
In fho cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon
nssumIng n bnInncod consfrucfIon.
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%6 ?15919B9
46
ISI 02-2000
OTI e
x
/(
!AM x
= e
x
/(
!AM
whoro
g) Tho IongIfudInnI sfrnIn Incronsos wIfh fho
oxnnsIon fomornfuro rnngo. CnIcuInfIon of fho
mnxImum sfrnIn shouId bo IncIudod for:
l) fhormnI oxnnsIon;
2) fho mnss of fho Io nnd Ifs confonfs;
3) nny InIfInI curvnfuro of fho Io ns
fnbrIcnfod. Tho curvnfuro shouId bo nssumod
fo bo downwnrd.
Ior unIInod C!I Iowork fho nIIownbIo
comrossIvo sfrnIn cnn bo fnkon ns l.25 fImos
fho nIIownbIo sfrnIn from socfIon 4.
h) On n rosfrnInod Io run fho nnchorIng of fho
Io shouId bo fho Insf oornfIon fo bo cnrrIod ouf.
ThIs Is nrfIcuInrIy so If fho sIfo joInfs nro
ovorwrnod buff joInfs; If fho nnchors nro fIxod
boforo joInfIng nny forcos or momonfs nrIsIng
from fomornfuro chnngos durIng fho curIng of
fho rosIn mny rovonf sound joInfs boIng mndo.
I) Anchors shouId bo cnnbIo of rosIsfIng bofh
fonsIIo nnd comrossIvo forcos. ConsIdornfIon
shouId bo gIvon fo rocoduros fo bo usod durIng
nny modIfIcnfIons or ronIr.
e
x
Is fho IoIsson rnfIo gIvIng sfrnIn In fho
cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon cnusod by sfross In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon nssumIng n bnInncod
consfrucfIon;
(
!AM x
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho roforonco
InmInnfo In fho IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon (In MIn).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 4?
6eFtIon B. *enevD! !Dyout FonsIdevDtIons
B.1 7LevmD! eIIeFts
Iocnuso of fho hIgh cooffIcIonf of oxnnsIon,
fhormnI oxnnsIon nnd confrncfIon nImosf nIwnys
InfIuoncos fho choIco of roufo nnd/or mofhod of
suorfIng. ThormnI offocfs shouId bo consIdorod nf
nn onrIy sfngo In dosIgn.
B.2 6Ite JoInts
As wIfh cnrbon sfooI, roorIy mndo sIfo buff joInfs
nro Ioss IIkoIy fo Ionk In sorvIco fhnn fInngod joInfs.
SIfo buff joInfs hnvo fho nddIfIonnI ndvnnfngos fhnf
Iongfhs nnd nIIgnmonfs of fnbrIcnfod Iocos cnn bo
ndjusfod on sIfo If fho Iocos nro doIIvorod fo sIfo
ovor Iongfh. Whorovor ossIbIo sIfo joInfs shouId bo
osIfIonod In nccossIbIo osIfIons nwny from
suorfs nnd fIffIngs. Tho osIfIons of joInfs mny bo
dIcfnfod In nrf by fho dImonsIons of fIffIngs nnd fho
roInfIvo osIfIons of brnnchos. omInnI dImonsIons
consIdorod suIfnbIo for C!I fIffIngs nro gIvon
In AondIx .
B.3 ,so!DtIon
IsoInfIon for mnInfonnnco urosos cnn
convonIonfIy bo cnrrIod ouf by fho romovnI of n
fInngod bond foIIowod by bInnkIng off. If fhIs Is nof
ossIbIo nnd IsoInfIon Is fo bo nchIovod by fho
InsorfIon of n sII Info In n fInngod joInf, If shouId
bo borno In mInd fhnf fho joInf shouId nof bo nrfod
by drIvIng In wodgos bocnuso fhIs wIII dnmngo fho
fInngos.
Tho joInf fo bo usod for IsoInfIon shouId bo shown nf
fho dosIgn sfngo nnd shouId bo In n osIfIon whoro
fho fInngo cnn In rncfIco bo jnckod nnrf, o.g. If
shouId nof bo In n sfrnIghf run of Io bofwoon fwo
nnchors. If froquonf IsoInfIon for mnInfonnnco Is
nocossnry, consIdornfIon shouId bo gIvon fo fho
rovIsIon of n sII rIng nnd jnckIng rIngs. Tho
jnckIng rIngs, If usod, shouId bo mouIdod InfogrnIIy
wIfh fho Io onds durIng fnbrIcnfIon. IsoInfIon Is
cnrrIod ouf by:
n) romovIng fho fInngo boIfs;
b) IncIng fho bnckIng fInngos ngnInsf fho jnckIng
rIngs nnd forcIng fhom nnrf usIng scrowod rods
nnd nufs;
c) roIncIng fho sII rIng by n sII Info, roIonsIng
fho bnckIng fInngos nnd boIfIng fho joInf u.
B.4 +eDt tvDFIng
Honf frncors shouId bo sIrnIIy wound on fo C!I
Io In ordor fo dIsfrIbufo fho honf ovonIy round fho
Io wnII. IIocfrIcnI frncIng Is gonornIIy moro
convonIonf buf cnro shouId bo fnkon fhnf fho frncors
nro nof wound foo fIghfIy on fo fho Iowork or fhoy
mny bo dnmngod whon fho Io oxnnds.
If sfonm frncIng Is usod fho frncor Io shouId nof
como Info confncf wIfh fho C!I.
B.5 1eDvEy pIpes
IossIbIo Ionkngo or ofhor offocfs from nonrby Ios
shouId bo consIdorod, o.g. n C!I Io shouId nof bo
run nIongsIdo n sfonmmnIn wIfh fInngod joInfs; n jof
of sfonm from n fInngo Ionk cnn soon cnuso n C!I
Io fo fnII.
B.6 9u!nevDEI!Ity
C!I Iowork shouId nof bo run In vuInornbIo
osIfIons, o.g. whoro If cnn bo hIf by mnInfonnnco
frucks or ofhor vohIcIos. SmnII brnnchos cnn nIso bo
vuInornbIo, o.g. n smnII brnnch cnrryIng n bIood
vnIvo for n bIock-nnd-bIood sysfom cnn onsIIy bo
dnmngod.
Tho rosIns usod for C!I nro gonornIIy InfInmmnbIo.
If Is rocommondod fhnf nf Ionsf fho oufsIdo Inyor of
fho Io confnIns n fIro rofnrdnnf chomIcnI fo
rovonf fInmo srond, buf ovon so fho Io Is IIkoIy
fo bo dnmngod by fIro.
If C!I Is usod for nIr ducfIng fho InsIdo Inyor shouId
nIso bo fIro rofnrdnnf, fo rovonf fho srond of fInmo
down fho ducf. If Is bosf, In rncfIco, fo socIfy fIro
rofnrdnnf rosIn for fho whoIo of fho Io wnII
InmInnfo.
B.? 7vDnsIent vDFuumFondItIons
IIowork sysfoms shouId bo chockod for ossIbIo
frnnsIonf Iow rossuro condIfIons. IIow condIfIons
whIch wouId nof hnrm n sfooI Io cnn coIInso n
C!I Io If If hns nof boon consfrucfod fo rosIsf
vncuum. Ior oxnmIo In n Iong vorfIcnI Io
cnrryIng IIquId from nn oIovnfod vossoI fo n Iowor
IovoI, If nn IsoInfIng vnIvo nonr fho vossoI Is
suddonIy cIosod, fho momonfum of fho fIowIng
IIquId couId cnuso n nrfInI vncuum.
B.B 9IEvDtIon
VIbrnfIon of n IoIIno, ovon If If doos nof ovorsfross
fho mnIn run, cnn cnuso dnmngo In fwo wnys.
n) Tho Io cnn bo dnmngod by chnfIng In
suorfs.
b) Irnnch IInos cnn bo ovorsfrossod.
IossIbIo vIbrnfIons nrIsIng from, for oxnmIo,
rossuro uIsos, fnIIIng coIumns of IIquId or wInd
offocfs shouId bo consIdorod durIng dosIgn. Tho
Iowork shouId nIso bo chockod for vIbrnfIon
durIng commIssIonIng nnd nddIfIonnI suorfs or
brncos mny bo fIffod If nocossnry nnd whoro
nccofnbIo fo fho dosIgn.
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%6 ?15919B9
48
ISI 02-2000
B.9 )DEvIFDtIons
Tho Iowork shouId bo dosIgnod so fhnf ns much of
fho fnbrIcnfIon ns ossIbIo cnn bo dono In fho
worksho. AondIx gIvos dImonsIonnI dosIgn
dofnIIs of fIffIngs. IIffIngs hnvIng nomInnI
dImonsIons In nccordnnco wIfh TnbIo .l shouId bo
usod unIoss If Is ossonfInI (o.g. bocnuso of snco
IImIfnfIons) fo mnko uso of fIffIngs In nccordnnco
wIfh TnbIo .2.
InbrIcnfIon by hnnd mofhods monns fhnf qunIIfy
cnn vnry. !Igorous InsocfIon nnd suorvIsIon Is
nocossnry In fho worksho nnd on sIfo fo onsuro
sound nnd roIInbIo Iowork.
B.10 &onduFtIon oI e!eFtvIFIty
C!I Is n oor conducfor of oIocfrIcIfy; honco:
n) C!I Ios do nof conducf sfrny curronfs
b) SfnfIc chnrgos cnn buIId u on fho Io surfnco
unIoss ncfIon Is fnkon fo roduco fho rosIsfIvIfy of
fho InmInnfo, o.g. by IncIudIng conducfIvo fIIIors.
B.11 &onduFtIon oI LeDt
C!I Is n oor conducfor of honf, whIch hns fho
foIIowIng consoquoncos.
n) Tho rnfo of conducfIon of honf fhrough fho Io
In n Innf fIro wIII bo much Ioss fhnn for mofnIIIc
Ios. A C!I Io mny survIvo nnd confnIn fho
fIuId for Iongor fhnn n mofnIIIc ono, osocInIIy If
fho InmInnfo hns n fIro rofnrdnnf surfnco.
b) Thoro Is Ioss nood fo InsuInfo hof Ios nnd
rnroIy nny nood fo InsuInfo for orsonnoI
rofocfIon.
B.12 5e!DtIonsLIp Eetween
FIvFumIeventID! Dnd !ongItudInD!
pvopevtIes oI stvDIgLt pIpe !engtLs
Tho IongIfudInnI sfross duo fo rossuro Is u fo hnIf
fho cIrcumforonfInI sfross doondIng on fho IondIng.
Honco If InfornnI rossuro woro fho onIy
consIdornfIon, If wouId bo sonsIbIo for fho Io wnII
InmInnfo fo hnvo vnIuos of unIf moduIus nnd !TS In
fho cIrcumforonfInI dIrocfIon fwIco fhoso In fho
IongIfudInnI dIrocfIon.
In rncfIco for rocoss Iowork whIch Is
InformIffonfIy suorfod nnd subjocf fo
fomornfuro chnngos, fhoro wIII bo bondIng Ionds
cnusIng IongIfudInnI fonsIIo sfrossos on ono sIdo of
fho Io nnd comrossIvo sfrossos on fho ofhor sIdo.
Tho fonsIIo sfrossos wIII bo nddIfIvo fo fho
IongIfudInnI sfross nrIsIng from InfornnI rossuro.
To rovIdo for fhIs nddIfIonnI IongIfudInnI fonsIIo
sfross If Is normnI rncfIco fo mnko fho IongIfudInnI
unIf moduIus nnd uIfImnfo fonsIIo unIf sfrongfh (X
x
)
of fho Io wnII sImIInr fo fho cIrcumforonfInI
moduIus nnd uIfImnfo fonsIIo unIf sfrongfh (X

).
Ior nnIsofroIc Ios fuII consIdornfIon of fho
IondIng Is roquIrod fo doformIno fho mosf offIcIonf
wIndIng nngIo.
ofo fhnf nny oxfornnI rossuro (or vncuum)
roquIros socInI consIdornfIon (soo socfIon 6).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 49
6eFtIon 9. 3Ipe suppovts Dnd DnFLovDges
9.1 *enevD!
Whorovor ossIbIo fho dosIgn of suorfs, nnchors
nnd socondnry sfooIwork shouId bo In nccordnnco
wIfh IS 39?4-l nnd IS 39?4-2.
Tho oufsIdo dInmofor of n nrfIcuInr Io shouId bo
doformInod from fho mnnufncfuror boforo ordorIng
brnckofs. Whoro fho suorf mnkos uso of cInms n
rubbor Insorf shouId bo osIfIonod bofwoon fho Io
nnd cInm. Tho InfornnI dInmofor of fho cInm
shouId nIIow for fho fhIcknoss of fho Insorf.
IS 39?4 Is bnsod on sfooI rncfIco. Tho foIIowIng
socfIons of IS 39?4 shouId onIy bo usod for C!I
Io nffor consIdorIng fho foIIowIng oxcofIons:
IS 39?4-l
n) socfIon 5: nIIcnbIo, oxcof fhnf ! boIfs nnd
hooks shouId nof bo usod;
b) socfIon 6: nof nIIcnbIo fo C!I Iowork;
c) socfIon ?: nof nIIcnbIo fo C!IIowork whon
fho Io rosfs on n roIIor;
d) TnbIo l3 fo TnbIo l6: nof nIIcnbIo.
IS 39?4-2
n) socfIon 9: wIfh C!I Iowork, buIId u Insfond
of usIng suorf Iugs;
b) socfIon l0: wIfh C!I Iowork, duckfoof
suorf shouId bo fubuInr onIy. TnbIo ll(n) Is nof
nIIcnbIo. Tho duckfoof shouId bo l50 mm
dInmofor or fho Io dInmofor, whIchovor Is fho
Iossor.
9.2 $!!owDE!e !oDdIngs
9.2.1 3Ipes mDde oI type 1 ov type 2 !DmInDtes
(soo TnbIo 4.2)
If Is rocommondod fhnf onIy 25 of fho nIIownbIo
IongIfudInnI fonsIIo IondIng bo usod for suorfIng
fho Io (IonvIng 50 for rossuro confnInmonf nnd
fho romnInIng 25 for fhormnI offocfs).
In no cnso shouId fho mnxImum comrossIvo unIf
IondIng 4
C mnx
oxcood fho vnIuo gIvon by fho
foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
9.2.2 3Ipes mDde oI type 3 !DmInDtes
(soo TnbIo 4.2)
Tho consfrucfIon of fyo 3 Ios Is nnIsofroIc.
Thoroforo fho suorf of fyo 3 Ios noods socInI
consIdornfIon bocnuso n nomInnI Incronso In
IongIfudInnI IondIng couId Iond fo romnfuro
cIrcumforonfInI fnIIuro.
9.3 $!!owDE!e deI!eFtIon
Ior nII fhroo fyos of Ios fho dofIocfIon shouId bo
IImIfod fo l/300 of fho snn bofwoon suorfs.
9.4 /oDdIng FondItIons
Tho suorf snns shouId bo chockod for
combInnfIons of fho foIIowIng Ionds.
n) !nIformIy dIsfrIbufod fonds:
l) mnss of Iowork;
2) confonfs of Iowork;
3) InggIng on Iowork;
4) wInd Ionds on Iowork.
b) Conconfrnfod Ionds comrIsIng:
l) ormnnonf oInf Ionds;
2) fomornry oInf Ionds, such ns fho forco
oxorfod by n Iond (orson) of l00 kg mInImum
nf mId-snn on nny Io of moro fhnn l00 mm
nomInnI dInmofor.
9.5 6uppovt spDn FD!Fu!DtIons
9.5.1 6Imp!y suppovted
IIIng sysfoms suorfod on hnngnrs shouId bo
consIdorod fo bo sImIy suorfod. Tho snn shouId
bo IImIfod fo roduco dofIocfIons nof
oxcoodIng l/300 of fho snn. Tho Iongfh of fho snn
mny bo cnIcuInfod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIons.
n) !nIformIy dIsfrIbufod Iond:
b) Conconfrnfod fond:
whoro
4
C mnx
= W
d
%
Cd
= 0.58 W
d
;
!AM
/'
I
)
s
(9.l)
4
C mnx
Is fho mnxImum comrossIvo unIf
IondIng (In /mm);
%
Cd
Is fho dosIgn comrossIvo sfross
(In MIn);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus (In /mm);
'
I
Is fho InsIdo dInmofor (In mm);
)
s
Is fho snfofy fncfor, whIch shouId fnko fho
vnIuo 4 unIoss ofhorwIso ngrood.
/ = ((
!AM
'
I
3
W
d
/l0:)
0.33
(9.2)
/ = ((
!AM
W
d
'
I
3
/l63)
0.5
(9.3)
/ Is fho Iongfh of snn (In mm);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io
(In mm);
: Is fho dIsfrIbufod Iond (suffIx w for wInd
Iond) (In /mm);
3 Is fho oInf Iond (In );
(
!AM
Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of fho
InmInnfo (In MIn);
W
d
Is fho InmInnfo wnII fhIcknoss (In mm);
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ISI 02-2000
9.5.2 (nFDstv
Tho sysfom cnn bo consIdorod oncnsfro whon
nnchorod. Tho Iongfh of fho snn cnn bo cnIcuInfod
ns foIIows.
n) !nIformIy dIsfrIbufod Iond:
b) Conconfrnfod Iond:
9.6 :Ind !oDds
WInd IondIng shouId bo fnkon ns n dIsfrIbufod Iond
cnIcuInfod In nccordnnco wIfh CI 3:Chnfor V-2.
/ = ((
!AM
'
I
3
W
d
/2:)
0.33
(9.4)
/ = ((
!AM
'
I
3
W
d
/43)
0.5
(9.5)
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 5l
6eFtIon 10. 0etLods oI JoIntIng
10.1 *enevD! vequIvements Iov
!DmInDted JoInts
10.1.1 6tvengtL
Tho sfrongfh of nII joInfs, nrfIcuInrIy
cIrcumforonfInI, IongIfudInnI, fIoxurnI nnd forsIonnI
sfrongfhs, shouId bo nof Ioss fhnn fhnf of fho
Iowork.
Whon fosfod In nccordnnco wIfh IS 5350-C5, usIng
doubIo ovorInod joInf fosf Iocos, fho In shonr
sfrongfh shouId nof bo Ioss fhnn ? MIn
4)
for ooxIdo
nnd oIyosfor rosIn bnsod joInfs nnd 5 MIn
4)
for
furnno rosIn bnsod joInfs.
10.1.2 6uvIDFe pvepDvDtIon
IrIor fo joInfIng, Ios nnd fIffIngs shouId bo
nbrndod fo romovo fho rosIn-rIch surfnco nnd oxoso
fho gInss fIbros ovor nn nron oxfondIng nf
Ionsf 25 mmboyond fho joInf ovorIny. If Is ossonfInI
fo rohIbIf fho uso of nrnffIn wnx In fhIs nron.
10.1.3 -Igs
A jIg or ofhor oquIvnIonf dovIco shouId bo omIoyod
fo onsuro fhnf fho Ios nro mnInfnInod wIfh fho
joInf fncos hoId rIgIdIy In roInfIon fo onch ofhor. Tho
rosfrnInfs shouId bo Ioff In Inco unfII fho joInf hns
ndoqunfo mochnnIcnI sfrongfh such ns wouId bo
nffnInod ono hour nffor goInfIon of fho rosIn or whon
fho surfnco hnrdnoss moofs nny nIIcnbIo
roquIromonfs.
10.1.4 ,ntevnD! step
Tho boros of ndjnconf Ios for joInfIng shouId bo
such fhnf fho InfornnI sfo on comIofIon of fho buff
joInf shouId nof oxcood fho nIIcnbIo vnIuo gIvon
In TnbIo l0.l.
7DE!e 10.1 ,ntevnD! step
10.1.5 2vev!Dy
Tho mInImum vnIuos for ovorIny Iongfhs for
roforonco InmInnfos nro gIvon In TnbIo l0.2
(soo nofo).
7DE!e 10.2 2vev!Dy !engtLs Iov Eutt JoInts
Tho Iongfh of fho fIrsf Inyor shouId bo 50 mm
mInImum or oqunI fo fho Iongfh of fho fnors nnd
succossIvo Inyors shouId Incronso unIformIy In
Iongfh fo rovIdo fho mInImum fofnI wIdfh nnd
fhIcknoss of ovorIny.
A mInImum of l.2 kg/m
2
of CSM shouId bo nIIod
InIfInIIy. Wovon rovIng cIofh mny bo Incorornfod In
subsoquonf Inyors nIfornnfIng wIfh CSMInyors, buf
nn oufor Inyor of CSMnnd nn oufor rosIn rIch Inyor
shouId bo rovIdod.
Tho qunnfIfy of gInss roInforcomonf usod In fho
ovorIny shouId bo such ns fo roduco n dosIgn unIf
moduIus of nf Ionsf l.25 fImos fhnf of fho Io wnII,
oxcof fhnf fhIs roquIromonf doos nof nIy fo
sho-fnbrIcnfod fIffIngs for whIch fho nIIcnbIo
fncfor Is : l.
Whon joInfIng Ios of dIfforonf wnII fhIcknoss fho
roquIromonfs for ovorIny Iongfh nnd InmInnfo
shouId corrosond fo fhoso of fho fhInnor wnII Io.
4)
l MIn = l /mm
2
.
3Ipe nomInD! sIze
0DxImum IntevnD! step
8n!Ined
7Levmop!DstIFs
!Ined
mm mm
! fo nnd
IncIudIng 200 mm 2 l
Abovo 200 mm fo
boIow 450 mm 3 l
450 mm nnd nbovo 4 l
3Ipe !DmInDte no.
(soo TnbIo 5.l)
0InImum ovev!Dy !engtL (/
OV!
)
3o!yestev Dnd
epoxIde
)uvDne
mm mm
!25
!30
!40
!50
!60
!80
!l00
!l20
!l40
!l60
!l80
!200
!225
!250
!2?5
!300
!350
l50
l50
200
250
300
400
500
550
650
?50
850
950
l 050
l l50
l 250
l 400
l 600
200
250
300
350
400
500
650
800
900
l 050
l l50
l 300
l 450
l 800
l 800
l 950
2 250
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ISI 02-2000
OTI Subjocf fo n mInImum vnIuo of l50 mm, fho vnIuos
In TnbIo l0.2 woro dorIvod usIng fho oqunfIon
whoro
10.1.6 6tDtement oI detDI! oI sIte JoInts
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId rovIdo fuII dofnIIs of fho
rocoduros ho roosos fo foIIow whon cnrryIng ouf
sIfo joInfs. Thoso dofnIIs shouId IncIudo fho
numbors of Inyors nnd grnmmngos nnd fyos of
gInss roInforcomonf fo bo usod nnd dofnIIs of jIgs or
ofhor dovIcos fo bo usod.
10.1.? 3voFeduve vD!IdDtIon
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId rovIdo ovIdonco fhnf fho
mofhod ho roosos for sho or sIfo joInfs moofs fho
rocommondnfIons of fhIs codo. ThIs
rocommondnfIon mny bo mof by, for oxnmIo,
ovIdonco of rIor oxorIonco or fosfs on rofofyos fo
fho snfIsfncfIon of fho InsocfIng ongInoor.
/
OV!
= 2)
s

d
;
!AM
/6
s
or 0.5'
I
, whIchovor Is fho gronfor,
/
OV!
Is fho mInImum ovorIny Iongfh (In mm);
)
s
Is fho fncfor of snfofy, whIch shouId bo roInfod fo fho
cInss of Io (soo 4.3.2.1 nnd TnbIo 4.3) ns foIIows:
CInss )
s
l 8
2 l0
3 l2
4 l6

d
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus doformInod In fho nxInI
dIrocfIon (In /mm);
6
s
Is fho In shonr sfrongfh (In MIn);
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of fho Io or fIffIng (In mm).
)Iguve 10.1 %utt JoInts
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 53
10.2 %utt JoInts In un!Ined pIpes
Iuff joInfs shouId bo fnbrIcnfod In nccordnnco wIfh
fho dofnII shown In IIguro l0.l, fho onds of fho Io
boIng chnmforod bnck fo n mInImum fnor of l In 6,
fo Ionvo n roof fnco squnro fo fho nxIs of fho Io
nnd 2 mm fo 3 mm fhIck. Tho Io onds shouId bo
nbrndod fhon buffod fogofhor nnd hoId rIgIdIy In
osIfIon wIfh n mnxImum gn of 3 mm nnd fho
nIIcnbIo foIornnco on InfornnI nIIgnmonf.
Tho chnmforod, nbrndod nnd cuf surfncos shouId bo
confod wIfh fho socIfIod rosIn nnd fho gn bofwoon
fho onds fIIIod wIfh rosIn nsfo. Affor nIIowIng fho
rosIn nsfo fo sof hnrd, nny oxcoss shouId bo ground
off such fhnf fho wIdfh of fho nsfo Inyor Is Ioss
fhnn l0 mm. Whoro ossIbIo n snrk fosf shouId
fhon bo nIIod fo chock for orosIfy. Any In hoIos
shouId bo ground ouf nnd ronsfod. Tho gInss fIbro
ovorIny shouId fhon bo nIIod confrod on fho joInf.
Tho InforIor of joInfs shouId, whoro nccossIbIo, bo
sonIod wIfh n mInImum of l.2 kg/m
2
of CSM nnd
surfnco fIssuo Inyor. ThIs InfornnI Inyor shouId nof
bo consIdorod In moofIng fho unIf moduIus
roquIromonf.
10.3 %utt JoInts In !Ined pIpes
Iuff joInfs shouId bo fnbrIcnfod In nccordnnco wIfh
fho dofnIIs shown In IIguro l0.l.
Tho onds of fho Io shouId bo ronrod by cuffIng
bnck fho roInforcomonf for n suffIcIonf dIsfnnco,
whIch shouId bo nof Ioss fhnn l0 mm, fo onsuro fhnf
no gInss fIbros nro IncIudod In fho fhormoInsfIcs
woId. Tho roInforcomonf shouId bo chnmforod bnck
nf n mInImum fnor of l In 6 nnd fho surfncos
nbrndod.
Tho IInor shouId bo cuf fo roduco n roof fnco squnro
fo fho nxIs of fho Io nnd fho onds shouId bo
chnmforod fo nn IncIudod nngIo of 60 nnd
dogronsod. Tho Io onds shouId bo buffod fogofhor
nnd hoId rIgIdIy In osIfIon wIfh n mnxImum gn
of l.5 mm nnd fho nIIcnbIo foIornnco on InfornnI
nIIgnmonf.
Tho IInIng shouId bo woIdod nnd fho woId snrk
fosfod usIng n fomornry onrfhIng sfrI. Affor snrk
fosfIng hns shown fhnf fho woId In fho
fhormoInsfIcs IInIng Is snfIsfncfory, fho
roInforcomonf shouId bo buIIf u In succossIvo
Inyors confrod on fho woId. Tho rocommondnfIons
gIvon In 10.2 shouId bo foIIowod whoro nIIcnbIo.
10.4 6pIgot Dnd soFket JoInts In
un!Ined pIpes
InrnIIoI or fnor sIgof nnd sockof joInfs mny bo
usod. Tho sockof mny bo formod ns nn InfogrnI nrf
of fho Io or fIffIng or mny bo nrf of n sockof
couIIng. Sockof joInfs shouId moof fho foIIowIng
IImIfs.
n) Ior Ios bnsod on oIyosfor or ooxIdo rosIns,
fho dofh of fho sockof shouId bo oqunI fo or
gronfor fhnn fho nIIcnbIo vnIuo gIvon In
TnbIo l0.3, ofhorwIso, for Ios bnsod on furnno
rosIns, fho vnIuo shouId bo Incronsod by n fncfor
of l.4.
OTI Subjocf fo n mInImum vnIuo of 25 mm, fho mInImum
sockof dofhs gIvon In TnbIo l0.3 woro dorIvod usIng fho
foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
b) Tho mnnufncfuror shouId rovIdo n comonf
comnfIbIo wIfh fho rocoss condIfIons for whIch
fho Io Is Infondod.
c) Tho joInf shouId bo dosIgnod so fhnf fho
fhIcknoss of fho comonf Is bofwoon 0.l5 mm
nnd l.5 mm.
d) Tho bond bofwoon fho Io, sockof nnd comonf
shouId gIvo n mInImumsfrongfh of ? MIn
5)
whon
n fyo fosf Is orformod In nccordnnco wIfh fho
mofhod doscrIbod In IS 5350-C5 usIng doubIo
ovorIn joInfs ns fosf Iocos.
o) Tho mnnufncfuror shouId sfnfo fho mInImum
fomornfuro nnd mnxImum humIdIfy undor
whIch fho bondIng comonf curos fo rovIdo n good
joInf. Tho mnnufncfuror shouId rovIdo rocIso
dofnIIs of fho mofhod of nssombIy nnd roof of Ifs
orformnnco.
/
2
= )
s

d
;
!AM
/6
s
/
2
Is fho sockof dofh (for comonfod joInf for
rossuro) (In mm);
)
s
Is fho fncfor of snfofy, whIch shouId bo roInfod fo
fho cInss of Io (soo 4.3.2.1 nnd TnbIo 4.3) ns
foIIows:
CInss )
s
l 8
2 l0
3 l2
4 l6
6
s
Is fho In shonr sfrongfh (In MIn) for whIch n
vnIuo of ? hns boon nssumod |soo d)];

d
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus, doformInod In fho
nxInI dIrocfIon (In /mm).
5)
l MIn = l /mm
2
.
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%6 ?15919B9
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ISI 02-2000
f) If rncfIcnbIo fho InforIor of fho joInfs shouId bo
froshIy nbrndod fo romovo gInss nnd shouId bo
sonIod wIfh n InmInnfo confnInIng n mInImum
of 900 g/m
2
CSM whIch shouId bo covorod by n
surfnco fIssuo Inyor nnd sonIIng conf.
7DE!e 10.3 0InImum soFket deptLs
10.5 6pIgot Dnd soFket JoInts In !Ined
pIpes
Whon IVC-! Is fho IInIng mnforInI InjocfIon
mouIdod fIffIngs wIfh sockofs suIfnbIo for soIvonf
comonfIng mny bo usod. In such cnsos fho foIIowIng
roquIromonfs shouId nIy.
n) IVC-! Io shouId conform fo fho
roquIromonfs of oIfhor IS 3505 or IS 3506 nnd
shouId nof oxcood l50 mm nomInnI sIzo.
b) IIffIngs shouId conform fo fho roquIromonfs of
IS 4346-l. Tho uso of mouIdod sfub or fuII fnco
fInngo fIffIngs wIfh sockofs shouId nof bo
consIdorod ormIssIbIo.
c) SoIvonf comonf for joInfs In IVC-! IInIngs
shouId comIy wIfh fho roquIromonfs of
IS 4346-3 nnd shouId bo choson such fhnf fho
chomIcnI rosIsfnnco of fho joInf Is nIIcnbIo for
fho chomIcnI condIfIons of fho Io.
d) JoInfIng rocoduros shouId foIIow fho
rocommondnfIons of CI 3l2-2.
o) Ioforo nIIcnfIon of fho gInss roInforcomonf
nII oxfornnI sfos nf fho joInfs shouId bo bIondod
Info fho Io surfnco wIfh n mInImum fnor of l
In 6 usIng n fIIIod rosIn nsfo.
f) Tho dosIgn fomornfuro of sysfoms
IncorornfIng InjocfIon mouIdod fIffIngs shouId
nof oxcood 40 C nnd fho dosIgn rossuro shouId
nof oxcood 6 bnr.
10.6 )!Dnged JoInts
IInngod joInfs nro cInssIfIod nccordIng fo fyo ns
foIIows.
n) Tyo A: sfub fInngo wIfh bnckIng fInngo.
b) Tyo I: fuII fncod fInngo wIfhouf bnckIng rIng.
c) Tyo C: fuII fncod fInngo wIfh bnckIng rIng.
IuII fncod fInngos mny bo usod wIfh fuII fncod
gnskofs buf shouId nof bo usod for mnfIng fo rnIsod
fnco fInngos.
Irofofyo fosfIng shouId bo cnrrIod ouf on nII fInngo
dosIgns fo show fhnf fho fInngod joInf wIII sonI
undor fho combInod forco of mnxImum dosIgn
rossuro nnd nIIod bondIng momonf whon
cnIcuInfod from fho foIIowIng oqunfIon:
whoro
1omInD!
pIpe sIze
0InImum soFket deptL (/
2
)
3vessuve (EDv)
X 2.5
X 4 X 6 X 10
mm mm mm mm
X 40
50
65
80
l00
l25
l50
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
?00
?50
800
850
900
950
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
25
36
40
40
50
60
65
?5
l00
l00
l00
l00
l05
l05
ll0
ll0
ll5
ll5
l20
l20
l25
l35
l45
l50
l50
l50
l50
l90
25
36
40
40
50
65
65
?5
l00
l00
l00
l00
l05
ll0
ll0
ll5
ll5
l20
l20
l20
l30
l35
l45
l50
l50
l80
200
200
25
36
40
40
50
65
?0
?5
l00
l00
ll0
l20
l20
l25
l40
l50
l60
l?5
l90
200
2l5
225
240
250
250
280
320
320
25
36
40
40
50
65
?5
80
l00
l00
l20
l35
l45
l65
l80
200
220
235
250
265
285
300
325

OTI Tho vnIuos gIvon nro nIIcnbIo fo Ios bnsod on


oIyosfor or ooxIdo rosIns. Ior Ios bnsod on furnno rosIns,
fho vnIuos shouId bo Incronsod by n fncfor of l.4.
0= 2, {(
d
(p'
I
/4W)}/('
I
+ 2W
d
) (l0.l)
0 Is fho nIIod momonf (In mm);
, Is fho socond momonf of nron (In mm
4
);
( Is fho moduIus of oInsfIcIfy (In MIn);

d
Is fho dosIgn sfrnIn;
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor (In mm);
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 55
!nIoss fhoro nro rocords of snfIsfncfory oornfIng
orformnnco onch fInngo dosIgn shouId bo rovod by
fosf. Tho fosf rossuro on fInngo joInfs u fo 600 mm
shouId bo sIx fImos fho rnfod rossuro for fho Ios
wIfh n rossuro rnfIng u fo l0 bnr. In fho cnso of
gnskof Ionkngo n Iowor rossuro mny bo
ngrood. IIguro l0.2 nnd TnbIo l0.4 fo TnbIo l0.?
gIvo guIdnnco on fInngo consfrucfIon nnd
dImonsIons.
10.? (nvIvonmentD! FondItIons
JoInfIng shouId onIy bo cnrrIod ouf undor
onvIronmonfnI condIfIons comnfIbIo wIfh
roducIng snfIsfncfory joInfs.
Tho nIr fomornfuro durIng joInfIng shouId bo nf
Ionsf 5 CunIoss socInI nrrnngomonfs nro ngrood fo
onsuro fhnf fho rosIn sysfom wIII goI nnd curo
snfIsfncforIIy. Thoso socInI nrrnngomonfs mny fnko
fho form of IocnI snco honfIng or nIIcnfIon of n
honfIng bInnkof. !ndor nII fomornfuro condIfIons
fho rosIn sysfomshouId bo formuInfod such fhnf fho
rosIn In fho joInf goIs wIfhIn l h nffor fho
nIIcnfIon of fho roInforcomonf Inyors hns boon
comIofod.
JoInfIng shouId nof bo ormIffod undor dow oInf
(condonsnfIon) condIfIons. Whon nocossnry, fho
joInf nron shouId bo rofocfod from IncIomonf
wonfhor condIfIons.
OTI l Abovo 40 mm nomInnI boro fyos I
nnd C fo bo usod onIy by ngroomonf bofwoon fho
urchnsor nnd fho mnnufncfuror.
n) IIo wnII CSM nnd W! confInuIng
Info fInngo fnco.
b) AddIfIonnI gInss roInforcomonf ns
roquIrod fo gIvo fInngo fhIcknoss.
To bo fnorod on fo fho hub.
OTI 2 Tho nddIfIonnI gInss roInforcomonf
mny bo IncIudod In oIfhor n) or c).
c) IInnI ovorIny of l.2 kg/m
2
CSM
ncross fInngo Info hub.
d) Hub fhIcknoss : 1/.
OTI 3 ThIs roquIromonf mny bo snfIsfIod by
Io wnII roInforcomonf nIono.
o) SfooI bnckIng fInngo nof Ioss
fhnn 6 mm fhIck nnd fInf ovor fho fuII
bonrIng nron fo bo usod for rossuro
dufIos.
OTI 4 Tho cIonrnnco bofwoon fho boro of fho
bnckIng fInngo nnd fho oufsIdo dInmofor of fho
hub shouId bo ns smnII ns rncfIcnbIo.
OTI 5 Ior fInngo dImonsIons soo TnbIo l0.4
fo TnbIo l0.? ns nIIcnbIo.
Sfub fInngos: 7ype $
)Iguve 10.2 )!Dnge FonstvuFtIon
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%6 ?15919B9
60
ISI 02-2000
6eFtIon 11. 4uD!Ity DssuvDnFe
11.1 *enevD!
IIowork nnd fIffIngs roducod fo fhIs codo of
rncfIco shouId onIy bo mndo by fhoso
mnnufncfurors who nro comofonf nnd suIfnbIy
oquIod fo fuIfII nII fho roquIromonfs of qunIIfy
nssurnnco.
ComIInnco wIfh fhoso rocommondnfIons shouId bo
domonsfrnfod by documonfnfIon, sysfoms nnd
rocords ns roquIrod by fho roIovnnf Inrfs of IS 5?50
or nnofhor qunIIfy sysfom oquIvnIonf fo I 29000,
I 2900l, I 29002 or I 29003 ns nIIcnbIo.
Ior InsocfIon urosos, osocInIIy for fho
nssossmonf of fhIcknoss, sfrucfuro or hysIcnI
IrroguInrIfIos such ns doInmInnfIon, somo guIdnnco
on non-dosfrucfIvo fosfIng (T) Is gIvon
In AondIx I.
11.2 0DtevID!s
AII mnforInIs shouId bo corfIfIod or ofhorwIso bo
shown fo conform fo fho roIovnnf IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds
or oquIvnIonf.
AII mnforInIs shouId bo sforod In nccordnnco wIfh
fho mnforInI suIIor`s rocommondnfIons.
ocumonfnfIon of fhoso roquIromonfs shouId bo
mnInfnInod for rocord urosos.
11.3 &ondItIons In wovks
Mnnufncfuro of Iowork nnd fIffIngs shouId bo
undor confroIIod onvIronmonfnI condIfIons of
fomornfuro, humIdIfy nnd cIonnIInoss consIsfonf
wIfh good ongInoorIng rncfIcos. Adoqunfo nIr
movomonf nnd IIghf shouId bo mnInfnInod nf nII
fImos consIsfonf wIfh fncfory rocoduros.
Tho fomornfuros of fho workIng nron shouId bo
mnInfnInod nbovo l5 C for nny InmInnfIng rocoss.
ShouId InmInnfIng hnvo fo bo cnrrIod ouf nf n Iowor
fomornfuro fhnn l5 C fhon socInI rocoduros
mny bo ndofod fo onsuro fhnf fho rosIn wIII curo
snfIsfncforIIy. Howovor, In no cnso shouId fho
mnxImum roorfIon of curIng ngonf oxcood fho
rocommondnfIons of fho rosIn suIIor.
11.4 &ondItIons on sIte
IorIodIc InsocfIons shouId bo orgnnIsod fo chock
comIInnco wIfh fho rocommondnfIons of 10.?.
11.5 :ovkmDnsLIp
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId show fhnf fho fnbrIcnfors
nnd InmInnfors hnvo boon Insfrucfod In fho
fochnIquos nnd skIIIs roquIrod fo roduco fho
Iowork nnd fIffIngs In nccordnnco wIfh fhIs codo.
ComIInnco wIfh fhIs rocommondnfIon shouId bo
domonsfrnfod oIfhor by documonfod ovIdonco of
frnInIng or, whoro fhIs Is nof nvnIInbIo, by fho
mnnufncfuro of fosf snmIos In nccordnnco
wIfh AondIx I.
11.6 7Levmop!DstIFs !InIngs
11.6.1 *enevD!
Tho fhIcknoss of fho IInIng shouId nof oxcood l0 mm
for fho InfornnI surfnco of fho Io or 6 mm for n
fInngo fnco unIoss fho IInIng Is bnsod on IVC nnd
Infondod for uso whon fho oornfIng fomornfuro Is
nbovo 40 C, In whIch cnso oxorIonco hns shown
fhnf fho uso of fhIcknossos In oxcoss of 4.5 mm cnn
Iond fo robIoms In sorvIco.
Ixcof for IInIngs mndo of II, fho mInImum
fhIcknoss of fho IInIng shouId bo 3 mm unIoss
ofhorwIso ngrood, In whIch cnso for IInIngs bnsod on
IVC fho mInImum fhIcknoss shouId nof bo Ioss
fhnn 2.5 mm. In fho cnso of II IInIngs, fho
mInImum fhIcknoss shouId bo l.5 mm for IInIng
Ios hnvIng n nomInnI InfornnI dInmofor of u
fo 80 mm or 2.0 mm for IInIng Inrgor Ios.
OTI To onnbIo comIInnco wIfh fho forogoIng IImIfs gIvon for
fhIcknoss, nffonfIon Is drnwn fo fho fncf fhnf fho
rocommondnfIons gIvon In 3.5 do nof ImIy fhnf oxfrudod IVC
rofIIos for uso ns IInIngs nro nocossnrIIy fo bo mndo In
nccordnnco wIfh fho dImonsIonnI or roInfod orformnnco
roquIromonfs of IS 3505 or IS 3506, nrfIcuInrIy for IInIngs for
Ios hnvIng n nomInnI InfornnI dInmofor In oxcoss of l00 mm.
!InIngs of II, IVI, III, ICTII nnd ICTII
shouId hnvo bondod fnbrIc bnckIngs or nn ofchod
surfnco fo rovIdo fho corrocf bond.
IVC surfncos shouId oIfhor:
n) bo rImod usIng n soIvonf bnsod rImor; or
b) bo roInforcod InIfInIIy wIfh n bondIng rosIn nnd
CSM roInforcomonf.
AII woIdors ongngod on fnbrIcnfIon shouId bo
nrovod boforo fnbrIcnfIon commoncos. AII IVC
shoof shouId bo sfross roIIovod In nn ovon
nf l20 5 C for n mInImum of 20 mInufos.
AII shoof formIng oornfIons roquIrIng hIgh
doformnfIon, such ns rIghf nngIod foIds or smnII
rndIus bonds, shouId bo orformod wIfh nssIsfnnco
of honf.
AII woIds shouId bo fuIIy onofrnfIng nnd froo from
nofchos nnd InhoIos.
AII woIds shouId bo ground fInf wIfhIn l mm of fho
surfnco. Tho woId nron shouId bo fonfhorod by
nIIcnfIon of n fhIxofroIc rosIn nsfo of fho
bondIng rosIn.
Tho fhIxofroIc nsfo shouId confnIn 30 cnrbon or
grnhIfo fo fncIIIfnfo snrk fosfIng nffor
mnnufncfuro.
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 6l
Tho sfrongfh of nII woIds shouId bo nf Ionsf ?0 of
fho sfrongfh of fho nronf mnforInI If fosfod In
nccordnnco wIfh AondIx C of IS 4994:l98?. Tho
sfrongfh of nII woIds wIfh nn InfornnI sonIIng run
nnd nII mnchIno woIds shouId bo nf Ionsf 85 of fho
sfrongfh of fho nronf mnforInI whon sImIInrIy
fosfod.
Tho mofhod of ronIrIng nny woId IrroguInrIfIos
shouId bo by ngroomonf nnd shouId doond on fho
numbor, sIzo, fyo nnd dIsfrIbufIon of nny such
IrroguInrIfIos.
11.6.2 +ot gDs we!dIng
AII woIds shouId consIsf of n mInImum of fhroo runs
of 3 mm dInmofor woIdIng rod. AII fInngos nnd nII
Iowork nbovo 24 Inchos I(nomInnI boro) shouId
hnvo nn nddIfIonnI sonIIng run nIIod fo fho Innor
surfnco of fho Io whoro nccossIbIo.
Comrossod nIr or nIfrogon shouId bo froo from
moIsfuro, dIrf nnd oII.
In nII cnsos fho grndo of fho fIIIor rod shouId bo
comnfIbIo wIfh fho mnforInI boIng woIdod.
AII odgos fo bo woIdod shouId bo chnmforod nf nn
nngIo of 60 fo fho surfnco. Ioforo woIdIng
commoncos fho odgos fo bo woIdod, fogofhor wIfh
fho fIIIor rod, shouId bo cIonnod nnd dogronsod nnd
nny fnbrIc bnckIng sfrIod for n dIsfnnco of 3 mm
fo 6 mm fo onsuro fhnf no fIInmonfs nro IncIudod In
fho woId.
11.6.3 2tLev we!dIng metLods
!so of woIdIng mofhods ofhor fhnn fhoso doscrIbod
In 11.6.1 or 11.6.2, such ns mnchIno buff fusIon,
shouId bo ngrood.
11.? 6pDvk testIng oI we!ds
AII woIds shouId bo snrk fosfod.
IIfhor n.c. or d.c. snrk gonornfors mny bo usod. Tho
ouf-uf voIfngo of fho gonornfor shouId bo 20 kV
mInImum wIfh n snrk Iongfh of nbouf 20 mm
oxcof for fosfIng IInIngs X 4 mm fhIck, In whIch
cnso fho oufuf voIfngo mny bo roducod fo nof Ioss
fhnn 5 kV/mm fhIcknoss of fho IInIng If fho IInIng
wouId ofhorwIso bo dnmngod by fosf condIfIons
usIng 20 kV.
Cnro shouId bo fnkon nof fo Iof fho snrk Iny on ono
Inco ns fhIs mny cnuso dogrndnfIon.
MofnIIIzod fno, wIro or ofhor conducfIng mnforInI
shouId bo usod ns n fomornry onrfhIng modIum.
Tho robo shouId bo movod ovor fho woId so fhnf fho
dIsfnnco bofwoon fho robo nnd onrfhIng modIum Is
nIwnys Ioss fhnn fho snrk Iongfh.
SuffIcIonf fImo shouId oInso bofwoon woIdIng nnd
snrk fosfIng fo onsuro fhnf fho woIdod nron hns
cooIod nnd confrncfod fo Ifs fInnI shno.
InIfInI snrk fosfIng shouId bo cnrrIod ouf nffor fho
fIrsf run of fIIIor rod hns boon doosIfod.
IInnI snrk fosfIng shouId bo cnrrIod ouf on
comIofIon of fho Insf woIdIng run or, In fho cnso of
Io sysfoms hnvIng n ormnnonf onrfhIng modIum,
nffor comIofIon of fho curo of fho roInforcIng
InmInnfo.
11.B /Dy-up
Iroor Iny-u shouId onsuro fhnf fho Io
consfrucfIon consIsfs of fho Innor IInor bnckod
by l.2 kg/m
2
chood sfrnnd mnf (CSM) gInss fIbro
Imrognnfod wIfh fho rosIn foIIowod by fho roquIrod
Inyors of rosIn Imrognnfod CSM or ofhor
roInforcomonf nnd fInIshod wIfh n rosIn-rIch fIssuo
roInforcod oufor surfnco Inyor.
ThormoInsfIcs surfncos shouId bo cIonnod nnd
dogronsod rIor fo nIIcnfIon of fho bondIng Inyor.
Tho rImor or bondIng rosIn shouId bo dosIgnnfod
socIfIcnIIy fo romofo ndhosIon bofwoon fho IVC
IInor nnd fho InmInnfo rosIn nnd shouId nof IImIf fho
orformnnco of fho Io.
Ior C!I Io fho Innor surfnco (somofImos roforrod
fo ns fho goI conf) nnd oufor surfnco shouId bo
rosIn rIch nnd roInforcod wIfh ono or fwo Inyors of
C-gInss or synfhofIc fIbro fIssuo. Tho fhIcknossos of
fhoso surfncos shouId bo 0.25 mm fo 0.5 mm for
surfncos roInforcod wIfh ono Inyor or 0.5 mm
fo 0.8 mm for surfncos roInforcod wIfh fwo Inyors of
fIssuo.
Tho gInss confonf by mnss of InmInnfo Inyors
roInforcod by chood sfrnnd mnf shouId bo 25
fo 40 , for wovon rovIng cIofh 45 fo 60 , nnd for
confInuous rovIngs 50 fo ?5 .
Tho fhIcknoss of fho rosuIfIng roforonco InmInnfos
for sfrnIghf Ios shouId comIy wIfh fho nIIcnbIo
foIornnco gIvon In TnbIo 5.6.
Tho roquIsIfo nmounfs of rosIn, cnfnIysf nnd
nccoIornfor, nnd ormIffod nddIfIvos shouId bo
nccurnfoIy monsurod nnd fhoroughIy mIxod. Tho
nmounfs of mIxod rosIn nnd roInforcomonf usod In
fho InmInnfo nnd fho numbor nnd fyo of Inyors
suIIod shouId bo rocordod. Tho rocords shouId bo
mndo nvnIInbIo If roquIrod.
ComIofo woffIng ouf of onch Inyor of roInforcomonf
Is ossonfInI nnd shouId bo nchIovod by roIIIng or
ofhor monns. IxcossIvo roIIIng rossuro shouId bo
nvoIdod so ns nof fo dIsfurb fho dIsfrIbufIon of fho
roInforcomonf or bronk fho fIbro sfrnnds.
Tho mInImumbond sfrongfh of fho roInforcomonf of
fho IInIng shouId bo 5 MIn In dIrocf shonr whon
fosfod In nccordnnco wIfh AondIx C of
IS 4994:l98?.
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ISI 02-2000
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId onsuro fhnf good ndhosIon
Is obfnInod bofwoon succossIvo Inyors of fho
InmInnfo nnd bofwoon Io Iongfhs nnd nddod
fIffIngs oIfhor by nrorInfo schoduIIng of fho
mnnufncfurIng oornfIon or by romovIng fho surfnco
of fho curod rosIn fo oxoso fho fIbros.
Adjnconf Iocos of CSM or wovon rovIng
roInforcomonf shouId bo ovorInod by nof Ioss
fhnn 25 mm. Tho odgos shouId bo workod ouf by
brushIng wIfh n sfIIIng ncfIon nnd nII joInfs
shouId bo sfnggorod fhrough fho fhIcknoss of fho
InmInnfo.
Cnro shouId bo fnkon In nIyIng fho nIIcnbIo
fonsIon fo fho gInss roInforcomonf durIng
nIIcnfIon so fhnf fho roInforcomonf doos nof sng
nwny from fho mouId or mnndroI. ThIs mny bo
nssIsfod by fho uso of n IIghf scrIm noffIng. In ordor
fo rovonf rosIn drnInngo Ios shouId bo
confInuousIy rofnfod rIor fo goInfIon.
Any sIIIngo, drIs or runs whIch mny fInko Iooso
nffor curIng shouId bo romovod.
AII cuf odgos shouId nf fho nrorInfo sfngo bo
confod wIfh rosIn so fhnf no gInss fIbros nro oxosod.
AII crovIcos bofwoon joInfod socfIons shouId bo fIIIod
whoro nccossIbIo wIfh rosIn nsfo.
In fho cnso of oIyosfor rosIn bnsod InmInnfos, nffor
nIIcnfIon of fho fInnI oufor surfnco fIssuo Inyor on
Ios, fIffIngs nnd joInfs, n fIow conf
confnInIng 0.4 fo 0.6 by mnss of nrnffIn wnx In
fho rosIn shouId bo nIIod fo mInImIzo fho offocfs of
nIr InhIbIfIon. ThIs fIow conf shouId nof bo nIIod
In nrons whIch subsoquonfIy form nrf of n joInf
ronrnfIon (soo 10.1.2).
!ocommondod IImIfs for InmInnfo IrroguInrIfIos nro
gIvon In TnbIo ll.l. !nmInnfos confnInIng
IrroguInrIfIos on fho rocoss surfnco whIch InfrIngo
fhoso IImIfs shouId bo rojocfod.
!nmInnfos confnInIng on fho non-rocoss surfnco
IrroguInrIfIos whIch InfrIngo fhoso IImIfs shouId bo
oIfhor roIncod or ronIrod by grIndIng ouf fho
nffocfod nron nnd roInmInnfIng oxcof for fhoso
confnInIng crncks, whIch shouId bo rojocfod. Ior
guIdnnco on ronIr rocoduros soo AondIx C.
11.9 &uve
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId curo nII Ifoms In
nccordnnco wIfh fho rosIn mnnufncfuror`s
rocommondnfIons. Whonovor ossIbIo fhIs shouId bo
dono nf fho mnnufncfuror`s works nnd shouId
IncIudo nn oIovnfod fomornfuro osf curo for fhroo
hours nf 80 C.
Ior nggrossIvo soIvonf dufIos fho mInImum fInnI
osf curo fomornfuro shouId bo l05 C. ofo fhnf
In nII cnsos nn InIfInI osf curo nf n roducod
fomornfuro Is nIso ossonfInI.
In nII cnsos fho curIng rocoduro shouId bo such ns
fo roduco InmInnfos whIch snfIsfy fho nIIcnbIo
surfnco hnrdnoss roquIromonfs, fho soIvonf fosf nnd
fho rosIdunI sfyrono confonf.
SocInI consIdornfIon shouId bo gIvon fo rosIns
confnInIng fIIIors, nrfIcuInrIy cnrbon or grnhIfo, fo
onsuro fhnf fho rosonco of fho fIIIor doos nof InhIbIf
fho rosIn curo.
ArorInfo rocnufIons shouId bo fnkon fo
mInImIzo sfyrono Ioss, drnInngo nnd Iow oxofhorm,
osocInIIy In InmInnfos Ioss fhnn 6 mm fhIck.
11.10 0DvkIng
Inch Io nnd fIffIng shouId bo ormnnonfIy
mnrkod fo IncIudo fho foIIowIng InformnfIon:
n) mnnufncfuror`s nnmo or IdonfIfIcnfIon mnrk;
b) nomInnI sIzo (soo 2.2.1);
c) rossuro rnfIng (soo 5.2);
d) rosIn fyo (soo 3.1);
nnd ns nIIcnbIo
o) fhormoInsfIcs IInor mnforInI (soo 3.5);
f) suIfnbIIIfy for uso wIfh ofnbIo wnfor (soo 3.?);
g) vncuum rnfIng (soo socfIon 6);
h) roforonco dofnIIs of roducf socIfIcnfIon for
fho Io or fIffIng, o.g. fho numbor nnd dnfo of
ubIIcnfIon of nn nIIcnbIo IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd.
11.11 ,nspeFtIon
Tho mnnufncfuror shouId hnvo n sonrnfo
InsocfIon donrfmonf nof rosonsIbIo fo fho
roducfIon donrfmonf.
Tho urchnsor`s Insocfor shouId hnvo froo nccoss fo
fho works of fho mnnufncfuror nnd hIs ngrood
sub-confrncfor nf nII ronsonnbIo fImos. Ho shouId bo
nf IIborfy fo Insocf fho work nf nny sfngo, oIfhor nf
fho mnnufncfuror`s works or on sIfo, nnd fo rojocf
nny mnforInIs or workmnnshI fhnf doos nof
conform fo fho rocommondnfIons of fhIs codo. Ho
shouId Insocf nII fosf Iocos usod for nssossIng fho
comofonco of joInfors nnd InmInnfors, wIfnoss
somo of fho mnnufncfuro nnd cnrry ouf nn
nssossmonf of nII fosfs.
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 63
7DE!e 11.1 ,vvegu!DvItIes Dnd !ImIts tLeveon
AII Iowork nnd fIffIngs shouId bo Insocfod by fho
mnnufncfuror In nccordnnco wIfh AondIx H.
AII Ifoms of Iowork nnd fIffIngs shouId confnIn nn
IdonfIfIcnfIon roforonco ormnnonfIy nffnchod.
11.12 7estIng
AII rossuro nnd vncuum fosfs shouId bo cnrrIod ouf
In fho rosonco of fho InsocfIng ongInoor.
Whoro Iowork Is roquIrod fo bo hydrnuIIcnIIy
fosfod fho fosf rossuro shouId bo l.3 fImos fho
dosIgn rossuro. Tho rossuro shouId bo mnInfnInod
for n mInImum of 30 mIn, durIng whIch orIod no
Ioss of rossuro by Ionkngo shouId bo nIIowod.
AII fosfs shouId bo cnrrIod ouf wIfh wnfor nf
nmbIonf fomornfuro. Snfofy rocnufIons shouId bo
fnkon fo onsuro fhnf fho sysfom Is nof
ovor-rossurIzod.
Whoro Iowork Is roquIrod fo bo vncuumfosfod fho
fosf rossuro shouId bo l.3 fImos fho dosIgn
rossuro (nognfIvo vnIuo) or fuII vncuum, whIchovor
gIvos fho Iossor oquIvnIonf oxfornnI rossuro. Tho
fosf rossuro shouId bo hoId for n mInImum
of 30 mIn.
On comIofIon of fho fosf Iowork fIffIngs shouId
bo oxnmInod oxfornnIIy nnd, whoro rncfIcnbIo,
InfornnIIy. Any ovIdonco of dnmngo, crnckIng or
crnzIng of fho Innor rosIn surfnco shouId bo cnuso for
rojocfIon.
Tho gnskofs usod In fho rossuro fosfIng shouId bo
fhoso socIfIod for fho IIng sysfom whon InsfnIIod.
Tosf corfIfIcnfos In duIIcnfo shouId bo suIIod fo
fho urchnsor.
,vvegu!DvIty ,nnev (pvoFess) suvIDFe (*53 pIpewovk) 2utev (non-pvoFess) suvIDFe Dnd pIpe wD!!
IIIsfors ono Mnx. 6 mm dInmofor, l.5 mm hIgh
ChIs ono Mnx. 6 mm rovIdod If doos nof
onofrnfo fho roInforcIng InmInnfo
Crncks ono ono
CrnzIng ono SIIghf
ry sofs ono Mnx. l0/m
2
wIfh nono gronfor
fhnn l00 mm
2
In nron
Infrnod nIr ono nf surfnco. If In InmInnfo l.5 mm
dInmofor mnx. nnd 2/cm
2
mnx.
3 mm dInmofor mnx.; no moro fhnn 3
of fho nron
Ixosod gInss ono ono
Ixosod cuf odgos ono ono
IoroIgn mnffor ono ono If If nffocfs fho roorfIos of fho
InmInnfo
IIfs Mnx. 3 mm dInmofor 0.5 mm doo,
numbor nof oxcoodIng l or l0
4
mm
2
nron
Mnx. 3 mm dInmofor l.5 mm doo,
numbor nof oxcoodIng l or l0
4
mm
2
nron
Scoros Mnx. 0.2 mm doo Mnx. 0.5 mm doo
Surfnco orosIfy ono ono
WrInkIos Mnx. dovInfIon 20 of wnII fhIcknoss
buf nof oxcoodIng 3 mm
Mnx. dovInfIon 20 of wnII fhIcknoss
buf nof oxcoodIng 4.5 mm
Shnr dIsconfInuIfy Mnx. 0.5 mm (soo nIso 10.1.4) Mnx. l mm
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64
ISI 02-2000
$ppendIx $ 5equIvements Iov
non-metD!!IF mDtevID!s Iov use In
FontDFt wItL potDE!e wDtev
Whon usod undor fho condIfIons for whIch fhoy nro
dosIgnod, non-mofnIIIc mnforInIs In confncf wIfh or
IIkoIy fo como Info confncf wIfh ofnbIo wnfor shnII
comIy wIfh IS 6920-l.
OTI l Iroducfs for InsfnIInfIon nnd uso In fho !nIfod
KIngdom whIch nro vorIfIod nnd IIsfod undor fho !K Wnfor
IIffIngs IyoInws Schomo
6)
nro doomod fo snfIsfy fho
roquIromonfs of fhIs cInuso.
OTI 2 IondIng fho doformInnfIon of suIfnbIo monns of
chnrncforIzIng fho foxIcIfy of Ionchnfos from mnforInIs In confncf
wIfh ofnbIo wnfor, mnforInIs nrovod by fho onrfmonf of fho
InvIronmonf CommIffoo on ChomIcnIs nnd MnforInIs of
ConsfrucfIon for uso In IubIIc Wnfor SuIy nnd SwImmIng
IooIs nro consIdorod froo from foxIc hnznrd for fho urosos of
comIInnco wIfh fhIs cInuso. A IIsf of nrovod chomIcnIs nnd
mnforInIs Is nvnIInbIo from fho TochnIcnI Socrofnry of fhnf
CommIffoo nf fho onrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf, Wnfor
IvIsIon, !omnoy Houso, 43 Mnrshnm Sfroof,
!ondon SWlI 3IY.
$ppendIx % 'etevmInDtIon oI desIgn
stvDIn Ivom meFLDnIFD! test dDtD
%.1 'etevmInDtIon oI desIgn stvDIn oI *53
pIpe Ey Fveep vuptuve
%.1.1 3ULQFLSOH
Monsuromonfs of fnIIuro orIods for fosf Iocos of
Io whon subjocfod fo vnrIous InfornnI rossuros
by n soIocfod IIquId onvIronmonf nro usod fo
osfImnfo fho 95 Iowor confIdonco IImIf for fho
rossuro fhnf wouId roduco fnIIuro of fho Io In
fho dosIgn sorvIco IIfo. ThIs IImIf Is usod In
conjuncfIon wIfh n known or monsurod vnIuo for fho
nIIcnbIo InmInnfo unIf moduIus fo cnIcuInfo fho
rodIcfod 95 Iowor confIdonco IImIf of sfrnIn fo
roduco Io fnIIuro nf fho dosIgn sorvIco IIfo.
%.1.2 $SSDUDWXV
Tho nnrnfus shnII Incorornfo fho foIIowIng
Ifoms:
n) ono or moro fnnks confnInIng wnfor fo
submorgo fho fosf Iocos (soo %.1.3);
b) dovIcos fo sonI fho onds of onch fosf Ioco nnd
whIch frnnsmIf fho onfIro ond Iond fo fho onds of
fho fosf Ioco;
c) n monns of hydrosfnfIcnIIy rossurIzIng onch
fosf Ioco IndoondonfIy.
%.1.3 7HVW SLHFHV
Tosf Iocos shnII bo cuf from Io(s) of fho snmo
cInssIfIcnfIon fo n Iongfh whIch shnII nof bo Ioss fhnn
fhnf nocossnry fo rovIdo n cIonr Iongfh bofwoon fho
ond sonIs of l.5 fImos fhoIr normnI nomInnI
dInmofor. A mInImum of 25 fosf Iocos of oqunI
Iongfh Is roquIrod.
%.1.4 7HVW FRQGLWLRQV
Tho fosfs shnII bo conducfod nf l8 C unIoss fho
Ios nro roquIrod for nn nIIcnfIon InvoIvIng
fomornfuros hIghor fhnn 30 C, In whIch cnso fho
fosfs shnII bo conducfod nf fho mnxImum sorvIco
fomornfuro.
%.1.5 3URFHGXUH
Monsuro nnd rocord fho monn InfornnI dInmofor of
onch fosf Ioco fo nn nccurncy of l mmnnd fho monn
wnII fhIcknoss fo nn nccurncy of 0.5 mm. IIII fho fosf
Iocos wIfh fho soIocfod IIquId onvIronmonf
rossurIzod fo fho soIocfod rossuro (soo %.1.6) nnd
ndjusfod orIodIcnIIy fo koo If wIfhIn 6 of fho
soIocfod fosf rossuro unfII fnIIuro occurs, whoro
fnIIuro Is IndIcnfod by fho frnnsmIssIon of fho fosf
fIuId fhrough fho fosf Ioco wnII In nny mnnnor,
whofhor If bo wnII frncfuro, IocnIIzod IonkIng or
wooIng ns ovIdoncod by n confInuous Ioss of
rossuro In oxcoss of 0.2 or hour of fho fosf
rossuro. ofo fho fImo bofwoon rossurIznfIon nnd
fnIIuro for onch fosf Ioco.
%.1.6 7HVW VFKHGXOH
Chooso for uso nf Ionsf fIvo rossuro IovoIs so ns fo
obfnIn nf Ionsf fIvo fnIIuros In onch of fho foIIowIng
fImo bnnds:
%.1.? &DOFXODWLRQ
!so fho Ionsf squnros mofhod fo doformIno fho
consfnnfs E nnd F for fho rogrossIon IIno:
whoro
CnIcuInfo fho 95 Iowor confIdonco IovoI of
rossuro rodIcfod fo roduco fnIIuro nf fho dosIgn
sorvIco IIfo (soo nofo l).
6)
InformnfIon Is nvnIInbIo from W!c Wnfor IyoInws AdvIsory SorvIco, 660 Ajnx Avonuo, SIough, IorkshIro, S!l 4IC.
Innd l l0 h fo 50 h
Innd 2 > 50 h fo 250 h
Innd 3 > 250 h fo l 250 h
Innd 4 > l 250 h fo 6 250 h
Innd 5 > 6 250 h
Iog (fImo) = E Iog (rossuro) + F (I.l)
Iog (rossuro) Is fho Indoondonf vnrInbIo fo bo
obfnInod (soo nofo l).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 65
ObfnIn fho dosIgn sfrnIn for fnIIuro nf fho dosIgn
sorvIco IIfo from fho oqunfIon:
whoro
OTI l Tho mofhod of obfnInIng fho rogrossIon IIno by Ionsf
squnros nnd fho 95 Iowor confIdonco IovoI of rossuro cnn bo
found In ASTM 2992-?l.
OTI 2 If fho vnIuo of ;
!AM
Is nof known, If mny bo obfnInod by
orformIng burn-off fosfs In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 2?82:Mofhod l002 fo doformIno fho mnss of gInss In n fosf
Ioco for onch Io fosfod nnd usIng fho Iny-u nfforn for fho
Io nnd monn vnIuos for fho roquIrod mnss of gInss fo cnIcuInfo
fho unIf moduII nnd InmInnfo unIf moduIus In nccordnnco
wIfh 4.2.2.6.
OTI 3 Tho rocodIng vnIuo of 26 Incorornfos n snfofy
fncfor of l.3.
%.1.B 7HVW UHSRUW
Tho fosf roorf shnII IncIudo fho foIIowIng:
n) fho sIzo nnd cInssIfIcnfIon of fho Io;
b) grnhs of Iog rossuro nnd Iog fImo fo fnIIuro,
fogofhor wIfh n Iof of fho sfrnIghf IIno obfnInod
by Ionsf squnros nnd fho vnIuos of E nnd F
|soo oqunfIon (I.l)] wIfh fhoIr corroInfIon
cooffIcIonf;
c) fho rodIcfod 95 Iowor confIdonco vnIuo of
sfrnIn roducIng fnIIuro nf fho dosIgn IIfo (I.o.
d
);
d) fho doscrIfIon of fho IIquId usod fo rossurIzo
fho fosf Iocos;
o) n roforonco fo fhIs mofhod of fosf,
o.g. cInuso %.1 of IS ?l59:l989;
f) fho dnfos bofwoon whIch fho rossuro fosfs
woro conducfod.
%.2 'etevmInDtIon oI envIvonmentD! eIIeFts Ey
IDtIgue tests on *53 pIpe mDtevID!
%.2.1 3ULQFLSOH
ThIs mofhod doscrIbos fho fosf rocoduro fo
comnro fho offocfs of n fIuId onvIronmonf on C!I
Io mnforInI wIfh fhnf of n roforonco fIuId
onvIronmonf by fnfIguo fosfs.
%.2.2 $SSDUDWXV
%.2.2.1 )DWigXe nDFline, cnnbIo of hoIdIng n sfrI
of C!I mnforInI nnd nIyIng nn nIfornnfIng fonsIIo
forco nf n froquoncy of l0 Hz fo l5 Hz nnd rocordIng
fho ondurnnco fo fnIIuro.
%.2.2.2 $n enYironnenWDl FlDnEer, cnnbIo of
oncIosIng fho fosf Ioco nnd confnInIng fho fIuId
onvIronmonf roquIrod fo bo In confncf wIfh fho fosf
Ioco (soo 4.3.3).
%.2.3 7HVW SLHFHV
SfrIs of mnforInI hnvIng dImonsIons In nccordnnco
wIfh ASTM 3093-?6 ns nIIcnbIo shnII bo cuf
from fho Io wnII, If fho Io dInmofor Is Inrgo
onough, ofhorwIso from bonrds fnbrIcnfod In fho
snmo Iny-u ns fho Io mnforInI. AII cuf odgos
shouId bo sonIod usIng fho mnfrIx rosIn.
%.2.4 7HVW FRQGLWLRQV
Tho fosfs shnII bo conducfod nf l8 C unIoss fho
Ios nro roquIrod for nn nIIcnfIon InvoIvIng
fomornfuros hIghor fhnn 30 C, In whIch cnso fho
fosfs shouId bo conducfod nf fho mnxImum sorvIco
fomornfuro.
%.2.5 3URFHGXUH
Mounf n fosf Ioco In fho fnfIguo mnchIno wIfh nrf
or nII of fho fosf Ioco surroundod by nn
onvIronmonfnI chnmbor confnInIng n socIfIod
IIquId onvIronmonf In confncf wIfh fho fosf Ioco.
SoIocf nnd nIy n fonsIIo fnfIguo fosf nf l0 Hz
fo l5 Hz usIng n onk forco fhnf wIII roduco fnIIuro
of fho fosf Ioco, by frncfuro, In fho
rnngo l0
3
fo 3 l0
6
cycIos. !ocord fho onk forco
nIIod nnd fho numbor of cycIos fo fnIIuro.
%.2.6 7HVW VFKHGXOH
Ior onch IIquId onvIronmonf, roonf fho rocoduro
gIvon In %.2.5 unfII n mInImum of l2 fosf Iocos
hnvo boon fosfod In nII usIng nf Ionsf four onk
sfross IovoIs choson fo cnuso fho rosuIfs from fho
fnIIuros of fho fosf Iocos fo bo srond ovor nII fho
foIIowIng ondurnnco bnnds:
%.2.? &DOFXODWLRQ
!so fho Ionsf squnros mofhod (soo nofo l) fo
doformIno fho consfnnfs E nnd F for fho rogrossIon
IIno for:
whoro

d
= p
95
'
I
/26;
!AM
(I.2)
p
95
Is fho 95 Iowor confIdonco IImIf of fho
InfornnI rossuro (gnugo) (In bnr) fo
roduco fnIIuro nf fho dosIgn IIfo;
'
I
Is fho InfornnI dInmofor of Io (In mm);
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus (In /mm)
(soo nofos 2 nnd 3).
Innd l l0
3
fo l0
4
cycIos
Innd 2 l0
4
fo l0
5
cycIos
Innd 3 l0
5
fo l0
6
cycIos
Innd 4 l0
6
fo 3 l0
6
cycIos
!og n
f
= E !og %
mnx f
+ F (I.3)
n
f
Is fho numbor of cycIos fo fnIIuro;
%
mnx f
Is fho Ionk sfross (In MIn) of fho cycIo.
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%6 ?15919B9
66
ISI 02-2000
oformIno by oxfrnoInfIon fho sfross %
(l0I?)
fhnf
wouId cnuso fnIIuro In l0
?
cycIos. CnIcuInfo fho
sfrnIn nf l0
?
cycIos,
(l0I?)
by usIng fho oqunfIon:
whoro
OTI l Tho mofhod of obfnInIng fho rogrossIon IIno by Ionsf
squnros nnd fho 95 Iowor confIdonco IovoI of rossuro cnn bo
found In ASTM 2992-?l.
OTI 2 If fho vnIuo of ;
!AM
Is nof known, If mny bo obfnInod by
orformIng burn-off fosfs In nccordnnco wIfh
IS 2?82:Mofhod l002 fo doformIno fho mnss of gInss In n fosf
Ioco for onch Io fosfod nnd usIng fho Iny-u nfforn for fho
Io nnd monn vnIuos for fho roquIrod mnss of gInss fo cnIcuInfo
fho unIf moduII nnd InmInnfo unIf moduIus In nccordnnco
wIfh 4.2.2.6.
%.2.B 7HVW UHSRUW
Tho roorf shnII IncIudo fho foIIowIng:
n) fho sIzo nnd cInssIfIcnfIon of fho mnforInI;
b) fho nnfuro nnd sfrongfh of fho onvIronmonf;
c) grnhs of Iog n
f
nnd Iog sfross for onch
onvIronmonf fogofhor wIfh n Iof of fho sfrnIghf
IIno obfnInod by Ionsf squnros nnd fho vnIuos of E
nnd F |soo oqunfIon (I.3)] wIfh fhoIr corroInfIon
cooffIcIonf;
d) fho oxfrnoInfod vnIuo of sfross (In MIn) fhnf
wouId cnuso fnIIuro nf l0
?
cycIos for onch
onvIronmonf;
o) fho osfImnfod sfrnIn nf l0
?
cycIos;
f) n roforonco fo fhIs mofhod of fosf,
o.g. cInuso %.2 of IS ?l59:l989;
g) fho dnfo of fosfIng.
$ppendIx & 1otes on I!exIEI!Ity Dnd
stvess DnD!ysIs
&.1 (xpDnsIon FoeIIIFIents
&.1.1 *53 XQOLQHG
Tho oxnnsIon cooffIcIonf vnrIos bofwoon 20 l0
6
nnd 30 l0
6
or C, I.o. bofwoon l.? nnd 2.5 fImos
fhnf of cnrbon sfooI doondIng on fho fyo(s) of
roInforcomonf usod In fho Io wnII. ConsfrucfIons
usIng onIy CSM nro nf fho uor ond of fho rnngo.
IncorornfIon of confInuous rovIng Info fho
consfrucfIon, whofhor wound dIrocfIy on fo fho Io
or nIIod ns wovon rovIng cIofh, roducos fho
cooffIcIonf. Tho cooffIcIonf for n nrfIcuInr
consfrucfIon shouId bo obfnInod from fho fnbrIcnfor.
&.1.2 *53 OLQHG
As wIfh C!I, fho cooffIcIonf vnrIos wIfh fho fyo(s)
of roInforcomonf usod buf fho rosonco of fho IInIng
nIso nffocfs fho cooffIcIonf of oxnnsIon, o.g. IVChns
n cooffIcIonf of 80 l0
6
or C. Af Iowfomornfuro,
I.o. u fo nbouf 40 C, fho IVC rofnIns Ifs sfIffnoss
nnd honco Incronsos fho cooffIcIonf of fho comosIfo.
Af hIghor fomornfuros fho sfIffnoss of fho IVC
rogrossIvoIy docronsos nnd fho cooffIcIonf of fho
comosIfo corrosondIngIy docronsos unfII nf
fomornfuros of 60 C nnd nbovo fho offocf of fho
IVC cnn bo Ignorod. Tho cooffIcIonf of oxnnsIon of
IVC-IInod C!I vnrIos
from 20 l0
6
fo 45 l0
6
or C doondIng on fho
oornfIng fomornfuro nnd fho fyo of
roInforcomonf usod In fho Io wnII.
&.2 &D!Fu!DtIon oI tempevDtuve FLDnges
Iocnuso of fho hIgh cooffIcIonfs of oxnnsIon nnd
Iow nIIownbIo sfrossos fho oxnnsIon of C!I nnd
IInod C!I Iowork ovor smnII fomornfuro rnngos
cnn bo sIgnIfIcnnf. ThIs monns fhnf fho fomornfuro
nf whIch fho orocfod Iongfh of fho Iowork Is
doformInod Is Imorfnnf.
n) Ior Iowork In whIch nII sIfo joInfs wIII bo of
fho fInngod fyo fho orocfod Iongfh of fho
Iowork Is, In fhoory, osfnbIIshod In fho
fnbrIcnfor`s worksho nf fho roInfIvoIy sfondy
fomornfuro fhoroIn. In rncfIco, howovor,
Iowork mny bo modIfIod or ronIrod on sIfo nnd
fho orocfod Iongfh wIII fhon nIfor doondIng on
fho nmbIonf fomornfuro nf fho fImo.
b) Ior Iowork In whIch fho sIfo joInfs nro
ovor-wrnod buff joInfs If Is normnI rncfIco fo
fnbrIcnfo fho Iowork fo bo cuf fo Iongfh on sIfo
nf joInf osIfIons. Tho orocfod Iongfh wIII ngnIn
doond on fho nmbIonf fomornfuro nf fho fImo of
orocfIon.
c) Whon dosIgnIng Iowork or cnrryIng ouf
fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross nnnIysIs If mny bo unwIso fo
fry fo rodIcf fho fomornfuro nf whIch fho
Iowork wIII bo orocfod, modIfIod or ronIrod.
Tho rocommondod ruIos nro ns foIIows.
l) ([pDnVion WenperDWXre rDnge. CnIcuInfo
fhIs nssumIng fhnf fho orocfod Iongfh wIII bo
osfnbIIshod nf fho mInImum nmbIonf
fomornfuro fhroughouf fho yonr or 0 C,
whIchovor Is fho hIghor. Ior fho IrIfIsh IsIos
uso 0 C.
2) &onWrDFWion WenperDWXre rDnge. CnIcuInfo
nssumIng fhnf fho orocfod Iongfh wIII bo
osfnbIIshod nf fho mnxImum nmbIonf
fomornfuro fhroughouf fho yonr. Ior fho !K
uso 30 C.

(l0I?)
= %
(l0I?)
W
d
/;
!AM
(I.4)
%
(l0I?)
Is fho osfImnfod sfross (In MIn) fhnf
wouId cnuso fnIIuro In l0
?
cycIos;
W
d
Is fho dosIgn fhIcknoss of fho roforonco
InmInnfo (In mm);
;
!AM
Is fho InmInnfo unIf moduIus |In /mm
(or kg/mm
2
gInss)] (soo nofo 2).
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000 6?
&.3 *enevD! FonsIdevDtIons In DFFommodDtIng
expDnsIon Dnd FontvDFtIon
&.3.1 WIfh somo Iowork nrrnngomonfs
(o.g. comIox smnII boro InsfnIInfIons wIfh smnII
fomornfuro chnngo) If Is ossIbIo fo docIdo by
InsocfIon fhnf no socInI nffonfIon noods fo bo
gIvon fo oxnnsIon nnd confrncfIon. Whon ho fnkos
such n docIsIon fho ongInoor Is In offocf judgIng:
n) fhnf fho Iowork wIII nof Imoso unnccofnbIo
Ionds on nnchor oInfs such ns vossoI or um
brnnchos I.o. fhnf If Is fIoxIbIo onough;
b) fhnf fho bonds nnd foos, whIch nro gonornIIy
fho oInfs of hIghosf sfross In Iowork, nro nof
ovor-sfrossod, bonrIng In mInd fhnf C!I Is nof
cnnbIo of doformIng InsfIcnIIy IIko sfooI.
Ior Inrgor dInmofor Iowork If Is offon nocossnry,
ovon fnkIng Info nccounf fho hIgh nnfurnI fIoxIbIIIfy
of C!I(nbouf l0 fo 35 fImos fhnf of cnrbon sfooI), fo
fnko socInI ncfIon fo nccommodnfo oxnnsIon nnd
confrncfIon, nrfIcuInrIy If fomornfuro chnngos In
fho Iowork nro Inrgo. CnIcuInfIons nro usunIIy
roquIrod fo mnko suro fhnf nnchor Ionds nnd
Iowork sfrossos nro Iow onough.
&.3.2 As fho Io dInmofor Incronsos fho Iowork
bocomos Ioss fIoxIbIo nnd nIso fho sfross
InfonsIfIcnfIon fncfors nf bonds nnd foos cnn
Incronso. If Is offon nocossnry, nrfIcuInrIy If
fomornfuro chnngos In Iowork nro Inrgo, fo mnko
socInI rovIsIon fo nccommodnfo oxnnsIon nnd
confrncfIon nnd fo mnko cnIcuInfIons fo onsuro fhnf
nnchor IondIngs nro nccofnbIo nnd sfrossos nro
wIfhIn nIIownbIo IImIfs.
Tho condIfIons fhnf nood fo bo consIdorod nro ns
foIIows.
n) ormnI oornfIon, whIch mny fnko sovornI
forms nrfIcuInrIy wIfh socfIonnIIzod sysfoms.
b) Sfnrf-u, shufdown nnd nbnormnI oornfIons.
Ior n sysfomcnrryIng IIquId nbnormnI oornfIon
mny IncIudo fho Iowork (or nrf of If) bocomIng
omfy whIIo sfIII hof or bocomIng coId whIIo sfIII
fuII of IIquId.
c) !nId dorossurIzIng, whIch mny cnuso
sIgnIfIcnnf fomornfuro offocfs.
d) SfonmIng or wnshIng ouf.
o) TosfIng.
f) !oIIof or ofhor dIschnrgo of Iowork confonfs
fo nfmoshoro, ofhor Ios or vossoIs. ThIs mny
cnuso roncfIons on fho Iowork.
g) !omovnI of Iowork nnd/or ofhor oquImonf
for mnInfonnnco or ofhor ronsons.
&.3.3 Ioforo fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfrossos cnn bo nnnIysod
fho foIIowIng InformnfIon hns fo bo obfnInod:
n) mnss or unIf Iongfh of Io nnd confonfs;
b) oxnnsIon cooffIcIonf of Io mnforInI;
c) moduIus of oInsfIcIfy of Io mnforInI;
d) Io wnII fhIcknoss In nII nrfs of fho sysfom;
o) fyo nnd nmounf of roInforcomonf (nddIfIonnI
fo fho roInforcomonf of fho Io wnII) nf nII bonds
nnd foos;
f) Iongfhs ovor fInngos nnd mnssos of nII vnIvos
nnd ofhor In-IIno Ifoms;
g) rossuro In fho Iowork;
h) fho nIIownbIo sfross(os) In fho mnforInI;
j) fho oornfIng fomornfuro of fho IIno.
&.3.4 If fho Iowork confIgurnfIon Is sImIo, nn
nrrnngomonf drnwIng or skofch Is ndoqunfo for
urosos of fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross nnnIysIs. If fho
Iowork confIgurnfIon Is comIox, nn IsomofrIc
drnwIng of onch comIofo socfIon of Iowork
roquIrIng nnnIysIs shouId bo ronrod. Tho
IsomofrIc vIow shouId show nII fonfuros whIch nro
sIgnIfIcnnf for fho uroso of fIoxIbIIIfy nnd sfross
nnnIysIs, I.o. nII fho InformnfIon IIsfod In &.3.3
fogofhor wIfh fho foIIowIng.
n) Tho osIfIons of roosod nnchors. Whoro
movomonf of fho nnchor occurs, o.g. nf vossoI
nozzIos duo fo oxnnsIon of fho vossoI, fho
mngnIfudo nnd dIrocfIons of movomonfs shouId
bo gIvon.
b) Tho osIfIons nnd fyos of roosod suorfs
nnd guIdos. Tho wny(s) In whIch fho Iowork Is
consfrnInod by fho suorfs nnd guIdos shouId bo
IndIcnfod. Tho chnrncforIsfIcs of nny srIng
suorfs shouId bo gIvon.
c) Any sIgnIfIcnnf chnngos In fho rossuro wIfhIn
fho sysfom, o.g. fo n chnngo In sfnfIc hond nf n rIso
or fnII In fho Iowork.
Somo oInfs fo nofo nro ns foIIows.
l) If srIng suorfs nro usod fo nIIow vorfIcnI
movomonf of fho Iowork fo fnko Inco durIng
sorvIco, socInI consIdornfIon shouId bo gIvon fo
fho Ionds whIch fho srIngs cnn oxorf on fho
Iowork whon If Is In n coId/omfy condIfIon. If
fho Innf oornfos on n bnfch bnsIs, fho vnrInfIons
In srIng Iond cnn bo n fncfor In fnfIguo of fho
Iowork. !ndosIrnbIo srIng Ionds cnn offon bo
rovonfod or confroIIod by fho uso of IImIf sfos
on fho srIngs.
2) CoId uII (or ush) shouId nof bo usod In fho
dosIgn of C!I or IInod C!I Iowork bocnuso:
I) fnbrIcnfIon nnd orocfIon of fho Iowork nro
nof suffIcIonfIy oxncf fo bo suro fhnf fho
roquIrod coId uII wIII bo nchIovod;
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ISI 02-2000
II) fho nmounf of coId uII wouId hnvo fo bo
roInfod fo fho fomornfuro of fho Iowork on
orocfIon. AmbIonf fomornfuro chnngos nnd/or
oxosuro fo sunIIghf cnn cnuso sIgnIfIcnnf
dImonsIonnI chnngos In C!I buf bocnuso of
fho oor honf conducfIvIfy of fho mnforInI If
wouId nof bo ossIbIo fo know fho nvorngo
fomornfuro of fho Io wnII nnd honco nof
ossIbIo fo doformIno fho roquIrod coId uII.
&.4 $FFommodDtIon oI expDnsIon usIng
Ee!!ows unIts
&.4.1 As fnr ns ossIbIo fho uso of boIIows unIfs
shouId bo IImIfod fo nIIcnfIons In whIch fho
boIIows nccommodnfo oxnnsIon nxInIIy, I.o. fhoy
nro onIy comrossod/oxfondod. Ofhor mofhods,
o.g. frnnsvorso dIsIncomonf of n sIngIo boIIows or
nn nrfIcuInfod boIIows sysfom, cnn bo usod buf fhoy
nood socInI consIdornfIon nnd oxorf ndvIco shouId
bo obfnInod.
&.4.2 Whoro C!I nnd IInod C!I Iowork nro usod
for n corrosIon rosIsfnnf nIIcnfIon fho boIIows
unIfs usod shouId nIso bo corrosIon rosIsfnnf.
Throo mnIn fyos nro usod ns foIIows.
n) 37)( EelloZV XniWV. Ior hIgh rossuro
nIIcnfIons mouIdod unIfs nro usod buf fhoso
nccof roInfIvoIy smnII nmounfs of
comrossIon/oxfonsIon. Ior Iow rossuro dufIos
mnchInod ITII unIfs cnn bo usod whIch wIII
nccof Inrgor nmounfs of comrossIon/oxfonsIon
buf whIch nro roInfIvoIy fIImsy.
b) 5einforFeJ rXEEer EelloZV XniWV. Thoso cnn
onIy bo usod If n fyo of rubbor oxIsfs whIch Is
suIfnbIo for fho dufy. Tho roInforcomonf shouId
bo nn nrorInfo synfhofIc fIbro for corrosIon
rosIsfnnco.
c) *53 EelloZV XniWV. IIoxIbIIIfy Is nchIovod by
usIng fho fhInnosf rncfIcnbIo wnII consfrucfIon.
So fnr fhoso unIfs hnvo boon dovoIood for sIzo
uso In Io-work of nomInnI sIzo ?50 or Inrgor;
unIfs of smnII nomInnI sIzo wouId bo sfIffor buf
mny sfIII bo fonsIbIo. AIIcnfIons fo dnfo hnvo
boon on dufIos wIfh vory Iow rossuros or
sucfIons. Any nIIcnfIon InvoIvIng sIgnIfIcnnf
rossuro wouId roquIro cnrofuI consIdornfIon
bocnuso comrossIon/oxfonsIon Is nchIovod by
dofIocfIon of fInf Info dInhrngms.
&.4.3 ofo fhnf fho normnI ruIos for fho dosIgn of
cnrbon sfooI Iowork IncorornfIng boIIows unIfs
nIy nIso fo C!I nnd IInod C!I Iowork
(soo roforonco |2]). IxnmIos of ruIos whIch nIy fo
nxInI boIIows unIfs nnd whIch nro froquonfIy brokon
nro ns foIIows.
n) OnIy ono boIIows unIf shouId bo fIffod bofwoon
fwo ndjnconf nnchors.
b) Anchors shouId bo dosIgnod fo wIfhsfnnd fho
worsf combInnfIon of ossIbIo IondIngs. Tho
offocfs of rossuro fhrusf, boIIows sfIffnoss,
frIcfIon, nnd, In fho cnso of vorfIcnI IInos, dond
woIghf shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf.
c) Tho Io run bofwoon ndjnconf nnchors shouId
bo sfrnIghf.
d) Tho Io shouId bo roorIy guIdod.
&.4.4 Whon consIdorIng fho rnngo of movomonf of
nn nxInI boIIows unIf bofh oxnnsIon nnd
confrncfIon shouId bo consIdorod. Tho boIIows unIf
shouId bo nbIo fo nccof fho whoIo of fho ossIbIo
oxnnsIon movomonf Ius fho whoIo of fho ossIbIo
confrncfIon movomonf.
([Dnple. A mnIn l00 m Iong wIII run In n sfrnIghf
IIno bofwoon Innf Ifoms whIch ncf ns nnchors. If Is
fo bo sIfod In fho IrIfIsh IsIos nnd wIII oornfo
nf 90 C. Tho choson nxInI boIIows unIf hns n noufrnI
Iongfh of 200 mm. Tho nIIownbIo boIIows dofIocfIons
nro 25 mm comrossIon nnd 25 mm oxfonsIon from
fho noufrnI osIfIon. If fho oxnnsIon cooffIcIonf of
fho mnIn Is 30 l0
6
or dogroo, howmnny boIIows
unIfs nro noodod
IxnnsIon of fho mnIn bofwoon 0 C nnd 90 C
= l00 000 30 l0
6
90
= 2?0 mm.
ConfrncfIon of fho mnIn bofwoon 30 C nnd l0 C
= l00 000 30 l0
6
40
= l20 mm.
Thus onch boIIows unIf shouId bo nbIo fo
nccommodnfo 2?0/8 = 34 mm of Io oxnnsIon
nnd l20/8 = l5 mm of Io confrncfIon.
Whon fho mnIn Is InsfnIIod or modIfIod or
ronIrod onch boIIows unIf shouId bo sof fo Iongfh
of 200 25 + 34 = 209, sny 2l0 mm (from whIch
oInf If cnn nccommodnfo l5 mm Io confrncfIon
(whIch oxfonds fho boIIows) nnd 35 mm Io
oxnnsIon (whIch comrossos fho boIIows)
Sovon InformodInfo nnchors nro roquIrod.
!oquIrod fofnI boIIows movomonf = 2?0 + l20
= 390 mm
umbor of boIIows unIfs roquIrod = 390/(25 + 25)
= 8
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$ppendIx ' 'ImensIonD! desIgn
detDI!s oI IIttIngs
omInnI dImonsIons for fho Iongfhs nnd rndII of
C!I Iowork fIffIngs IIIusfrnfod In IIguro .l nro
gIvon In TnbIo .l whIch comrIso roforrod vnIuos
fo bo nssumod or socIfIod for fho uroso of
ronrIng nn InIfInI Io-work Inyouf drnwIng. Tho
sysfom Inyouf wIfh Ifs rosuIfIng goomofrIc nnd
onvIronmonfnI condIfIons cnn bo usod fogofhor wIfh
fho rocoss condIfIons nnd Iowork confonfs ns n
bnsIs for chockIng fhnf fho roosod InmInnfo
consfrucfIons for fho comononf Ios nnd fIffIngs
snfIsfy fho IImIfIng dosIgn crIforIn In nccordnnco
wIfh fhIs sfnndnrd nnd ofhorwIso for chnngIng fho
Inyouf nnd/or comononf sfrucfuro ns nrorInfo.
An nIfornnfIvo sof of dImonsIons, for roInfIvoIy
shorf nfforns of fInngod fIffIngs ns IIIusfrnfod
In IIguro .2, Is gIvon In TnbIo .2. IIffIngs In
nccordnnco wIfh TnbIo .2 shouId nof bo socIfIod
unIoss If Is ossonfInI fo uso fInngod fIffIngs wIfh
shorfor Iog Iongfhs fhnn fhoso obfnInod by
buff-joInfIng sfub fInngos fo fIffIngs In nccordnnco
wIfh IIguro .l nnd comIyIng wIfh TnbIo .l. In
oIfhor cnso, bonds nnd roducors mny bo fInngod on
ono or bofh onds: foos mny bo fInngod on ono, fwo or
fhroo Iogs.
Ior unoqunI foos In nccordnnco wIfh TnbIo .2,
uso (
3
ns nIIcnbIo fo fho brnnch nomInnI sIzo
nnd (
2
ns nIIcnbIo fo fho mnIn IIno nomInnI sIzo.
7DE!e '.1 1omInD! dImensIons Iov *53 pIpe IIttIngs
1omInD!
pIpe sIze
$!! dImensIons In mm (see )Iguve '.1 Iov tLeIv !oFDtIon)
'
IM
, '
II
, '
or J
$ 5 % & 6
I
or 6
M
-
Il
or -
I2
n
*
40
50
80
l00
40
50
80
l00
l50
l50
l?5
200
ll5
l50
225
300
l65
200
2?5
350
l00
l25
l50
l?5
?5
?5
?5
l00
l00
l25
l25
l50
50
50
50
50
l50
200
250
300
l50
200
250
300
225
2?5
300
350
225
300
250
300
300
3?5
325
3?5
l?5
200
l?5
200
l50
200
225
2?5
200
225
250
2?5
?5
?5
?5
?5
350
400
450
500
350
400
450
500
400
450
4?5
500
350
400
450
500
450
500
550
600
250
2?5
2?5
300
325
325
425
425
325
350
3?5
400
l00
l00
l00
l00
550
600
650
?00
550
600
650
?00
550
600
4?5
500
550
600
650
?00
650
?00
?50
800
325
325
350
3?5
525
525
500
525
425
450
4?5
500
l00
l00
l00
l00
?50
800
850
900
950
?50
800
850
900
950
525
550
5?5
600
625
?50
800
850
900
l 050
850
900
950
l 000
l 050
400
425
425
450
4?5
5?5
600
650
6?5
?25
525
5?5
600
625
650
l00
l00
l00
l00
l00
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
650
6?5
?00
?25
?50
l l00
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
l l00
l l50
l 200
l 250
l 300
500
525
525
550
5?5
?50
800
825
8?5
900
6?5
?00
?50
??5
800
l00
l00
l00
l00
l00
n
-
Il
Is fho vnIuo corrosondIng fo '
IIl
nnd -
I2
Is fho vnIuo corrosondIng fo '
II2
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)Iguve '.1 'ImensIons oI *53 pIpe IIttIngs
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7DE!e '.2 1omInD! dImensIons Iov non-pveIevved
n
*53 I!Dnged IIttIngs
1omInD!
pIpe sIze
$!! dImensIons In mm (see )Iguve '.2 Iov !oFDtIon)
* (
3
(
2
5 % & '
IIl
or '
II2
-
Il
or -
I2
b
40
50
80
l00
l00
l25
l50
l50
l50
l?5
200
200
l?5
200
250
250
ll5
l50
225
300
225
2?5
3?5
450
l50
200
250
2?5
40
50
80
l00
l00
l25
l25
l50
l50
200
250
300
l?5
l?5
200
200
225
250
2?5
2?5
300
350
400
425
225
300
250
300
400
4?5
450
500
2?5
300
300
325
l50
200
250
300
200
225
250
2?5
350
400
450
500
200
250
250
300
2?5
325
325
400
450
525
550
650
350
400
450
500
550
650
?00
800
350
425
425
500
350
400
450
500
325
350
3?5
400
550
600
650
?00
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
650
?00
?50
?50
550
600
650
?00
850
900
950
l 000
525
550
5?5
5?5
550
600
650
?00
425
450
4?5
500
?50
800
850
900
950
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
500
500
500
800
800
900
950
950
?50
800
850
900
950
l 050
l l00
l 250
l 300
l 350
600
625
?50
?50
800
?50
800
850
900
950
525
5?5
600
625
650
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
400
400
500
500
500
500
500
600
600
600
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l00
l l50
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
l 400
l 450
l 600
l 650
l ?00
800
850
950
9?5
l 000
l 000
l 050
l l00
l l50
l 200
6?5
?00
?50
??5
800
n
Tho vnIuos gIvon In fhIs fnbIo for fho dImonsIons shown In IIguro .2 shouId nof bo socIfIod unIoss If Is ossonfInI fo uso fInngod
fIffIngs wIfh shorfor Iog Iongfhs fhnn fhoso obfnInod by buff-joInfIng sfub fInngos fo fho fIffIngs shown In IIguro .l wIfh
dImonsIons In nccordnnco wIfh TnbIo .l.
b
-
Il
Is fho vnIuo corrosondIng fo '
IIl
nnd -
I2
Is fho vnIuo corrosondIng fo '
II2
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OTI l IIffIngs In nccordnnco wIfh fhIs fIguro nnd fho dImonsIons gIvon In TnbIo .2 shouId nof bo socIfIod unIoss If Is ossonfInI
fo uso fInngod fIffIngs wIfh shorfor Iog Iongfhs fhnn fhoso obfnInod by buff-joInfIng sfub fInngos fo fho fIffIngs (soo B.9).
OTI 2 Ior unoqunI foos, uso (
3
nIIcnbIo fo fho brnnch nomInnI sIzo nnd (
2
nIIcnbIo fo fho mnIn IIno nomInnI sIzo.
)Iguve '.2 'ImensIons oI non-pveIevved *53 I!Dnged IIttIngs
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$ppendIx ( 1on-destvuFtIve testIng
(1'7)
(.1 ,ntvoduFtIon
Of fho rnngo of T mofhods commonIy usod for
mofnIs onIy uIfrnsonIc fochnIquos cnn bo rondIIy
nnd usofuIIy omIoyod for C!I. Moroovor fho
vnrInfIons of uIfrnsonIc fosfIng whIch cnn bo nIIod
nro vory rosfrIcfod nnd fho InformnfIon gnInod mny
roquIro cnrofuI InforrofnfIon.
SohIsfIcnfod ncousfIc (AI) fochnIquos hnvo boon
omIoyod In roconf yonrs In fho !SA for
roof-fosfIng of C!I vossoIs. Tho mofhod Is
fhoroforo covorod brIofIy horo nIfhough Ifs roufIno
uso for C!I Io hns yof fo bocomo fochnIcnIIy
osfnbIIshod.
Tho uso of fho fochnIquos dIscussod horo Is nof nn
ossonfInI fonfuro of fhIs codo buf fhoy mny bo usod
fo nssIsf In qunIIfy nssurnnco whon ngrood bofwoon
suIIor nnd urchnsor.
(.2 8!tvDsonIF testIng
(.2.1 *HQHUDO
ThIs cInuso rovIdos guIdoIInos for fho nIIcnfIon of
uIfrnsonIc oxnmInnfIon fo C!I Io sysfoms. Tho
uso of uIfrnsonIc oquImonf on n roufIno bnsIs wIII
gonornIIy bo IImIfod fo fho monIforIng of Io wnII
fhIcknoss nnd fho dofocfIon nnd sIzIng of nrons of
doInmInnfIon or Inck of fIbro wof-ouf.
Tho uIfrnsonIc roorfIos of C!I sovoroIy IImIf fho
rnngo of uIfrnsonIc oquImonf whIch cnn bo usofuIIy
omIoyod, for oxnmIo, nngIod shonr wnvo robos of
fho fyo wIdoIy usod In fho fosfIng of mofnIIIc
comononfs nro nof usod for C!I.
Tho succossfuI nIIcnfIon of uIfrnsonIc fosfIng on
C!I roquIros n knowIodgo of fho IImIfnfIons of fho
fochnIquos nnd nn undorsfnndIng of fho rIncIIos
undorIyIng fho dosIgn nnd mnnufncfuro of C!I
oquImonf. CorfnIn IrroguInrIfIos whIch mny bo
consIdorod undosIrnbIo In mofnIIIc comononfs nro
nof sIgnIfIcnnf In C!I InmInnfos.
(.2.2 ,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQ
Tho mofhod of mosf gonornI usofuInoss Is fho uIso
ocho fochnIquo omIoyIng n sIngIo frnnsducor whIch
oornfos ns bofh n frnnsmIffor nnd rocoIvor of
uIsod uIfrnsound, nIIowIng monsuromonfs fo bo
mndo wIfh nccoss fo ono sIdo of fho comononf onIy.
In C!I uIfrnsonIc wnvos nro nrfInIIy rofIocfod nf
boundnrIos bofwoon succossIvo gInss roInforcomonf
Inyors. Tho dogroo of rofIocfIon Incronsos wIfh
IncronsIng froquoncy nnd Is nIso doondonf on fho
fyos of roInforcomonf Inyor concornod nnd on fho
form of fho Inforfnco (whofhor rosIn-rIch, for
oxnmIo). Tho muIfIIo rofIocfIons whIch nrIso In
fhIs mnnnor cnn rondor InforrofnfIon of uIfrnsonIc
sIgnnIs ImrncfIcnbIo In n uIso-ocho mofhod. To
ovorcomo fhIs robIom If Is nocossnry fo uso n
suffIcIonfIy Iow uIfrnsonIc froquoncy. Too Iow n
froquoncy, howovor, cnn rovonf rosoIufIon of fho
rofIocfod sIgnnI In fho fhIcknoss rnngo of Inforosf
bocnuso of fho corrosondIngIy Inrgo wnvoIongfh
concornod. A snfIsfncfory comromIso Is found
wIfhIn fho uIfrnsonIc froquoncy rnngo of
nbouf 0.5 MHz fo l MHz (comnrod wIfh fho 5 MHz
froquoncy offon usod wIfh mofnIs).
In rncfIco hIghIy dnmod comrossod-wnvo
frnnsducors nro omIoyod for C!I, hnvIng n confrnI
froquoncy wIfhIn fho nbovo rnngo nnd roducIng
shorf (brond bnnd) uIfrn-sonIc uIsos. Tho
uIfrnsound rongnfos In n dIrocfIon normnI fo fho
confncf surfnco.
SInco fho surfnco of C!I Io mny nof bo vory
smoofh, fho coIous uso of n suIfnbIo couInnf
gronso mny bo nocossnry. Ior fho snmo ronson uso of
nn uIfrnsonIc robo wIfh n soff rubbor fncIng on Ifs
confncf surfnco mny bo ndvnnfngoous.
Thoro nro n numbor of commorcInIIy nvnIInbIo
Insfrumonfs suIfnbIo for uso wIfh C!I. Somo nro
rImnrIIy dosIgnod fo rovIdo dIgIfnI rond-ouf buf
fhoso shouId nIso hnvo n socondnry oufuf fo nIIow
uIfrnsonIc sIgnnIs fo bo dIsInyod on nn oscIIIoscoo.
Such n fncIIIfy nIIows cross-chockIng of fho dIgIfnI
oufuf nnd Incronsos fho oornfor`s confIdonco In
fho roIInbIIIfy of fho dIgIfnI InformnfIon In fho
rosonco of fho muIfIIo sIgnnIs nrIsIng fromnrfInI
rofIocfIons nf roInforcomonf Inforfncos. In nddIfIon,
fho fncIIIfy nIds fho InIfInI soffIng u of fho
oquImonf If fhoro nro froquonf chnngos In fho
nnfuro of fho nIIcnfIons. If nIso Incronsos fho
numbor of qunIIfy confroI nIIcnfIons fhnf mny bo
covorod.
(.2.3 (TXLSPHQW FDOLEUDWLRQ
CnIIbrnfIon of fho oquImonf shouId bo cnrrIod ouf
bofh ImmodInfoIy rIor fo fosfIng nnd nf roguInr
InforvnIs fhoronffor.
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CnIIbrnfIon bIocks shouId bo fnbrIcnfod fo bo ns cIoso
ns ossIbIo In comosIfIon fo fho Io wnII InmInnfo
fo bo fosfod. Sonrnfo cnIIbrnfIon bIocks nro
ndvIsnbIo for CSM, CSM/W! nnd fIInmonf-wound
C!I. If Is nof gonornIIy nocossnry, howovor, fo
cnIIbrnfo for rosIn fyo sInco fho vnrInfIon of fho
voIocIfy of sound wIfh rosIn fyo Is roInfIvoIy
InsIgnIfIcnnf.
Tho voIocIfy of fho sound vnrIos moro wIfh
fomornfuro fhnn In mofnIs. A chnngo In
fomornfuro of 20 C mIghf rosuIf In somo
cIrcumsfnncos In orror ns gronf ns 20 In nn
uIfrnsonIcnIIy monsurod fhIcknoss. ConsoquonfIy
cnIIbrnfIon bIocks shouId bo fho snmo nomInnI
fomornfuro ns fho comononf undor oxnmInnfIon.
AfmoshorIc humIdIfy chnngos nro nof Imorfnnf.
Whoro IrroguInrIfIos nro fo bo nccurnfoIy sIzod,
cnIIbrnfIon bIocks shouId confnIn IrroguInrIfIos of
fho nrorInfo form. In nrfIcuInr, fho osIfIon nnd
orIonfnfIon of IrroguInrIfIos nrfIfIcInIIy Infroducod
Info cnIIbrnfIon bIocks shouId bo sImIInr fo fhoso
IIkoIy fo bo found In rncfIco.
ConsIdornfIon shouId bo gIvon fo fho rofonfIon of
cuf-offs from Io brnnchos, or cuf-oufs from
mnIns, sInco fhoso cnn rovIdo vnIunbIo roforonco
mnforInI for subsoquonf uIfrnsonIc monsuromonfs.
(.2.4 7KLFNQHVV PHDVXUHPHQWV
MofnIIIc Ios nro mndo by somI-nufomnfIc
mnchIno-bnsod roducfIon roufos nnd nro suIIod
nf n socIfIod fhIcknoss wIfh n smnII nssocInfod
foIornnco. C!I InmInnfos on fho ofhor hnnd confnIn
unnvoIdnbIo vnrInfIons In fhIcknoss nf, for oxnmIo,
roInforcomonf ovorIns. !oIInnco on onIy n smnII
numbor of fhIcknoss monsuromonfs mny fhoroforo
roduco mIsIondIng concIusIons.
Tho vnrInfIon In fho voIocIfy of uIfrnsonIc wnvos
wIfh gInss confonf In C!I Is roInfIvoIy smnII u fo
nbouf 50 gInss (m/m). AssumfIon of n sound
voIocIfy of 2 3?0 m/s nf 0.5 MHz fo l.0 MHz
froquoncy nnd nf nmbIonf fomornfuros wouId gIvo
fhIcknoss orrors boIow + 5 ovor n wIdo rnngo of
InmInnfo vnrInfIons. WhIIsf fhIs Inck of sonsIfIvIfy
fo gInss confonf confrIbufos fo fho nccurncy of C!I
fhIcknoss fosfIng If nIso monns fhnf somo cnro Is
roquIrod In fho InforrofnfIon of uIfrnsonIc
fhIcknoss dnfn. Monsuromonf of n nrfIcuInr
fhIcknoss uIfrnsonIcnIIy gIvos no nssurnnco In
rosocf of gInss confonf, bocnuso fho InmInnfo
nrnmofor Is gonornIIy of mosf sIgnIfIcnnco. Tho
uIfrnsonIc fhIcknoss fosf monsuros fho frnnsIf fImo
of nn uIfrnsonIc uIso whIch Is fhon frnnsInfod Info
n InmInnfo fhIcknoss by nIIcnfIon of n voIocIfy
fncfor (osfnbIIshod by monsuromonf on n cnIIbrnfIon
bIock of fho dosIrod comosIfIon).
Tho nbovo shorfcomIng In fho usofuInoss of
uIfrnsonIc fhIcknoss fosf rosuIfs shouId bo cIonrIy
rocognIzod by fho usor.
(.2.5 ,UUHJXODULWLHV RU GLVFRQWLQXLWLHV
!IfrnsonIc wnvos nro rondIIy rofIocfod fromnIr/rosIn
Inforfncos In fho form of doInmInnfIons, crncks, dry
joInfs nnd rogIons wIfh Inck of fIbro wof-ouf. Tho
uIfrnsonIc fochnIquo fhoroforo nIIows rondy
dofocfIon of such dIsconfInuIfIos. ThoIr sIzIng
roquIros InforrofIvo skIIIs, ossIbIy combInod wIfh
cnrofuIIy ronrod cnIIbrnfIon bIocks. If shouId bo
nofod fhnf crnck-IIko (Innnr) dofocfs nro nof rondIIy
dofocfod whon fho Inno of fho dofocf IIos In fho
dIrocfIon of rongnfIon of fho uIfrnsonIc wnvos,
I.o. normnI fo fho robo confncf fnco.
CnrofuI consIdornfIon musf ngnIn bo gIvon fo
InforrofnfIon of rosuIfs. In nrfIcuInr, sonsIbIo
nccofnnco crIforIn musf bo dofInod for fho numbors
nnd sIzos of nrfIcuInr fyos of IrroguInrIfy. Ior
oxnmIo, n IImIfod oxfonf of doInmInnfIons Is
robnbIy nccofnbIo In mnny nIIcnfIons; on fho
ofhor hnnd wIdosrond doInmInnfIon wouId IndIcnfo
n vory oor qunIIfy of Iny-u or n fnuIf In fho
mnnufncfurIng rocoss. VoIds rofIocf uIfrnsonIc
wnvos nnd nro fhoroforo ossIbIo fo dofocf.
QunnfIfIcnfIon of fofnI voId confonf wouId, In
gonornI, roquIro n sorIos of cnIIbrnfIon
monsuromonfs on InmInnfos wIfh vnryIng dogroos of
voIdngo, nnd nIso fho uso of socInIIzod fochnIquos
ofhor fhnn fho snmIo uIso ocho mofhod. As wIfh
ofhor dIsconfInuIfIos soundIy bnsod nccofnnco
crIforIn wouId bo ossonfInI.
(.2.6 7KHUPRSODVWLFVOLQHG *53 FRPSRQHQWV
In comononfs whoro fhoro Is ndhosIon bofwoon
C!I nnd fho fhormoInsfIcs IInor n mnjorIfy of fho
uIfrnsonIc wnvo onorgy nssos fhrough fho
Inforfnco. Honco n uIso ocho uIfrnsonIc fosf wIII
monsuro n frnnsIf fImo corrosondIng fo fho
InmInnfo nnd IInIng combInod. Tho voIocIfy of sound
In fho fhormoInsfIcs mnforInI, whIch mny dIffor
sIgnIfIcnnfIy from fhnf In fho InmInnfo, cnn bo
osfnbIIshod by monns of n cnIIbrnfIon Ioco.
KnowIodgo of fhIs voIocIfy nnd of fho fhIcknoss of
fho IInor wIII fhon onnbIo fho fhIcknoss of fho
InmInnfo fo bo dorIvod vory sImIy from uIfrnsonIc
rosuIfs on fho IInor/InmInnfo combInnfIon.
Whoro fhoro Is no bond bofwoon C!I nnd IInor fhon
uIfrnsonIc wnvos wIII bo sfrongIy rofIocfod from fho
Inforfnco. Honco such rogIons cnn bo rondIIy
dofocfod nnd sIzod by fho uIso ocho mofhod nnd
rosuIfs comnrod wIfh nn nccofnnco crIforIon for
fhIs fyo of dIsconfInuIfy.
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(.3 $FoustIF emIssIon testIng
Tho oxnmInnfIon of C!I oquImonf usIng ncousfIc
omIssIon fochnIquos Is n comIox oornfIon of whIch
fhoro Is IImIfod oxorIonco wIfhIn fho !K.
Tho mofhod InvoIvos fho monIforIng of ncousfIc
sIgnnIs gonornfod wIfhIn n C!I comononf by
mIcro-fnIIuro mochnnIsms durIng rossuro fosfIng.
!sofuI InforrofnfIon of fho sIgnnIs roquIros n
consIdornbIo knowIodgo of fho bohnvIour of
fIbro-comosIfo sfrucfuros undor sfross, wIfh nn
undorsfnndIng of fho sourcos of ncousfIc sIgnnIs
whIch such mnforInIs gonornfo nnd of fho
oquImonf usod fo rocord nnd nnnIyso fhoso sIgnnIs.
Tho mnjor rncfIcnI work In fho fIoId hns boon fhnf
of fho CommIffoo on AcousfIc ImIssIon from
!oInforcod IInsfIcs (CA!I), n workIng nrfy of fho
CorrosIon !osIsfnnf CommIffoo of fho IInsfIcs
Indusfry (SII) of !SA. ThIs work hns boon
concornod wIfh fho fosfIng of C!I fnnks nnd vossoIs
nnd n Inrgo numbor of such comononfs hnvo boon
nnnIysod usIng fho mofhods of nccofnnco crIforIn
dofInod by CA!I. Tho rIncIIos of fho CA!I
nronch wouId rorosonf n sonsIbIo sfnrfIng oInf
for ncousfIc fosfIng of C!I Io. Howovor, fho
nccofnnco crIforIn dofInod In forms of numbors nnd
mngnIfudos of ncousfIc sIgnnIs dofocfod nood fo bo
fnIIorod fo n nrfIcuInr goomofry nnd sIzo of
comononf, nnd ossIbIy nIso fo Ifs comosIfIon. A
roroquIsIfo of roufIno qunIIfy confroI of C!I Io
comononfs by ncousfIc omIssIon mofhods wouId
fhoroforo bo fho nnnIyfIcnI fosfIng of n consIdornbIo
numbor of IIko nrfs, robnbIy combInod wIfh fho
dosfrucfIvo oxnmInnfIon of somo of fhoso nrfs.
OnIy by such fosfIng couId ronIIsfIc nnd monnIngfuI
nccofnnco crIforIn bo dofInod.
(.4 2tLev metLods
(.4.1 5DGLRJUDSKLF PHWKRGV
ConvonfIonnI rndIogrnhIc fochnIquos nro IIkoIy fo
offor ndvnnfngos ovor uIfrnsonIc mofhods In rnro
Insfnncos onIy. Ior crnck-IIko dIsconfInuIfIos, fhoy
offor hIghosf sonsIfIvIfy for dIsconfInuIfIos orIonfod
normnI fo fho nccoss surfnco: fhoso IrroguInrIfIos for
whIch uIfrnsonIc mofhods nro vory InsonsIfIvo.
Crnck-IIko IrroguInrIfIos of fhIs orIonfnfIon
(I.o. normnI fo roInforcomonf Inyors) nro vory
unIIkoIy fo bo found In nowIy fnbrIcnfod C!I Io
comononfs.
(.4.2 (GG\ FXUUHQW PHWKRG
ThIcknoss fosfIng by monns of nn oddy curronf
mofhod Is onIy fonsIbIo If n suIfnbIo mofnIIIc fIIm or
Info Is broughf Info confncf wIfh ono fnco of fho
C!I comononf, whIIsf fho oddy curronf robo Is
nIIod fo fho ofhor. ThIs roquIromonf for
sImuIfnnoous nccoss fo bofh sIdos of fho C!I
InmInnfo Is IIkoIy fo IImIf nIIcnfIon of fho mofhod.
(.4.3 3RWHQWLDO PHWKRGV
Tho foIIowIng nro somo ofhor T mofhods whIch
mIghf In fufuro rovIdo fho bnsIs for roufIno qunIIfy
confroI rocoduros buf whIch roquIro furfhor
dovoIomonf.
n) !IfrnsonIc socfroscoy, In whIch fho
froquoncy socfrum of rofIocfod uIfrnsonIc uIsos
nro nnnIysod nnd whIch couId bo usod, for
oxnmIo, fo monsuro fho numbor of
roInforcomonf Inyors In n InmInnfo.
b) !ndInfIon bnck scnffor monsuromonfs, whIch
mIghf bo usod fo monsuro gInss confonf of n
InmInnfo.
c) ThormnI uIso fhormogrnhy, In whIch n C!I
comononf Is subjocfod fo n bursf of honf fromnn
Infonso sourco nnd fhon oxnmInod by nn Infrn-rod
fochnIquo fo rovonI fomornfuro dIsconfInuIfIos
nssocInfod wIfh hysIcnI dIsconfInuIfIos nnd
doInmInnfIons.
$ppendIx ) 3voFeduve DppvovD! tests
).1 *enevD!
Whon socIfIod, fho mnnufncfuror shouId mnko
rocoduro fosf Iocos sImuInfIng Io, fIffIngs nnd
joInf rocoduro for fho work roquIrod for fho
confrncf.
Irocoduro fosf Iocos shouId nof bo Igmonfod.
AII rocoduro fosf fnbrIcnfIons shouId bo mndo In
fho rosonco of fho InsocfIng ongInoor undor
condIfIons sImuInfIng fhoso fo bo usod on fho whoIo
of fho confrncf, IncIudIng surfnco ronrnfIon,
jIggIng nnd osIfIonnI roquIromonfs.
).2 3voFeduve test we!ds
Tho fosf Info shnII Incorornfo n 200 mm Iong buff
woId mndo by joInfIng fwo Iocos of 3 mm shoof
onch 200 mmIong nnd 200 mmwIdo. Tho woId shnII
bo mndo In fho snmo mnnnor ns fho roducfIon
woIds nnd shnII IncIudo nf Ionsf ono sfo nnd sfnrf In
onch run.
).3 3voFeduve test JoInts
Tosf joInfs shnII bo mndo bofwoon Iongfhs of Io
nof Ioss fhnn l00 mm Iongor fhnn fho joInf ovorIny
wIdfh.
).4 3voFeduve test IIttIngs
Whon socIfIod, fosf fIffIngs of fyos fo bo usod on
fho confrncf shouId bo mndo.
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AII fosf Iocos shouId bo submIffod fo fho InsocfIng
ongInoor for vIsunI oxnmInnfIon nnd, If nccofnbIo,
fho mnnufncfuror shouId sond fho fosf Ioco fo fho
urchnsor for dosfrucfIvo fosfIng. ThIs shouId
IncIudo, ns nIIcnbIo, rossuro fosfIng, fonsIIo
fosfIng, socfIonIng nnd oIIshIng nnd doformInnfIon
of gInss confonf; fho fosfs boIng soIocfod fo
doformIno whofhor fho rocoduro fosf Iocos comIy
wIfh fho nIIcnbIo nrfs of fho codo or socIfIcnfIon.
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l. IO, M.I. nnd KITCHIC, !. Sfrossos nnd
fIoxIbIIIfy fncfors for muIfI-mIfrod Io bonds
subjocfod fo InfornnI rossuro combInod wIfh
oxfornnI IondIng. -oXrnDl of 6WrDin $nDl\ViV, VoI. ?,
o. 2, . 9? fo l08, l9?2.
2. HO!MI, I. Hnndbook of IndusfrInI IIowork
IngInoorIng. McCrnw HIII, l9?3.
3. AO, ChomIcnI Innf nnd ofroIoum rofInory
IIng, ASMI Codo for rossuro IIng,
ASI/ASMI I3l.3, l98?.
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000
80
3uE!IFDtIons veIevved to
IS 806, 6peFifiFDWion for JeVign DnJ FonVWrXFWion of ferroXV piping inVWDllDWionV for DnJ in FonneFWion ZiWl
lDnJ EoilerV
?)
.
IS l560, 6peFifiFDWion for VWeel pipe flDngeV (noninDl Vi]eV
l
/
2
in Wo 4 in) for Wle peWroleXn inJXVWr\.
IS l?55, *loVVDr\ of WernV XVeJ in Wle plDVWiFV inJXVWr\.
IS l?55-l, 3ol\ner DnJ plDVWiFV WeFlnolog\.
IS 2?82, 0eWloJV of WeVWing plDVWiFV.
IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lA, 'eWerninDWion of WenperDWXre of JefleFWion XnJer D EenJing VWreVV of 1.S 03D of
plDVWiFV DnJ eEoniWe.
IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lI, 'eWerninDWion of WenperDWXre of JefleFWion XnJer D EenJing VWreVV of .4 03D of
plDVWiFV DnJ eEoniWe.
IS 2?82:Mofhod l2lC, 'eWerninDWion of WenperDWXre of JefleFWion XnJer D EenJing VWreVV of rigiJ
WlernoVeWWing reVin EonJeJ lDninDWeJ VleeW.
IS 2?82:Mofhod l002, 'eWerninDWion of loVV on igniWion.
IS 2?82:Mofhod l005, 'eWerninDWion of fle[XrDl properWieV. 7lree poinW neWloJ.
IS 3293, 6peFifiFDWion for FDrEon VWeel pipe flDngeV (oYer 4 inFleV noninDl Vi]e) for Wle peWroleXn inJXVWr\.
IS 3396, :oYen glDVV fiEre fDEriFV for plDVWiFV reinforFenenW.
IS 3396-l, 6peFifiFDWion for loon-VWDWe fDEriFV.
IS 3396-2, 6peFifiFDWion for JeVi]eJ fDEriFV.
IS 3396-3, 6peFifiFDWion for finiVleJ fDEriFV for XVe ZiWl pol\eVWer reVin V\VWenV.
IS 344?, *loVVDr\ of WernV XVeJ in Wle glDVV inJXVWr\.
IS 3496, 6peFifiFDWion for ( glDVV fiEre FloppeJ VWrDnJ nDW for Wle reinforFenenW of pol\eVWer reVin V\VWenV.
IS 3505, 6peFifiFDWion for XnplDVWiFi]eJ pol\Yin\l FlloriJe (39&-8) preVVXre pipeV for FolJ poWDEle ZDWer.
IS 3506, 6peFifiFDWion for XnplDVWiFi]eJ 39& pipe for inJXVWriDl XVeV.
IS 3532, 6peFifiFDWion for XnVDWXrDWeJ pol\eVWer reVin V\VWenV for loZ preVVXre fiEre reinforFeJ plDVWiFV.
IS 369l, 6peFifiFDWion for glDVV fiEre roYingV for Wle reinforFenenW of pol\eVWer DnJ of epo[iJe reVin V\VWenV.
IS 3?49, 6peFifiFDWion for ZoYen roYing fDEriFV of ( glDVV fiEre for Wle reinforFenenW of pol\eVWer reVin
V\VWenV.
IS 3?5?, 6peFifiFDWion for rigiJ 39& VleeW.
IS 39?4, 6peFifiFDWion for pipe VXpporWV.
IS 39?4-l, 3ipe lDngerV VliJer DnJ roller W\pe VXpporWV.
IS 39?4-2, 3ipe FlDnpV FDgeV FDnWileYerV DnJ DWWDFlnenWV Wo EeDnV.
IS 4346, -oinWV DnJ fiWWingV for XVe ZiWl XnplDVWiFi]eJ 39& preVVXre pipeV.
IS 4346-l, ,njeFWion noXlJeJ XnplDVWiFi]eJ 39& fiWWingV for VolYenW ZelJing for XVe ZiWl preVVXre pipeV
inFlXJing poWDEle ZDWer VXppl\.
IS 4346-3, 6peFifiFDWion for VolYenW FenenW.
IS 4504, 6peFifiFDWion for flDngeV DnJ EolWing for pipeV YDlYeV DnJ fiWWingV. 0eWriF VerieV.
IS 4994, 6peFifiFDWion for JeVign DnJ FonVWrXFWion of YeVVelV DnJ WDn/V in reinforFeJ plDVWiFV.
IS 5350, 0eWloJV of WeVW for DJleViYeV.
IS 5350-C5, 'eWerninDWion of EonJ VWrengWl in longiWXJinDl VleDr.
IS 5480, 6peFifiFDWion for glDVV fiEre reinforFeJ plDVWiFV (*53) pipeV DnJ fiWWingV for XVe for ZDWer VXppl\ or
VeZerDge.
IS 5480-l, 'inenVionV nDWeriDlV DnJ FlDVVifiFDWion.
IS 5480-2, 'eVign DnJ perfornDnFe reqXirenenWV.
IS 5?50, 4XDliW\ V\VWenV.
IS 5?50-l, 6peFifiFDWion for JeVign/JeYelopnenW proJXFWion inVWDllDWion DnJ VerYiFing.
IS 5?50-2, 6peFifiFDWion for proJXFWion DnJ inVWDllDWion.
?)
!oforrod fo In fho foroword onIy.
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI 02-2000
IS 5?50-3, 6peFifiFDWion for finDl inVpeFWion DnJ WeVW.
IS 6464, 6peFifiFDWion for reinforFeJ plDVWiFV pipeV fiWWingV DnJ joinWV for proFeVV plDnWV.
IS 6920, 6XiWDEiliW\ of non-neWDlliF proJXFWV for XVe in FonWDFW ZiWl ZDWer inWenJeJ for lXnDn FonVXnpWion
ZiWl regDrJ Wo Wleir effeFW on Wle qXDliW\ of Wle ZDWer.
IS 6920-l, 6peFifiFDWion.
IS 8005, 6eZerDge
8)
.
IS 80l0, &oJe of prDFWiFe for pipelineV
8)
.
IS 80l0-2.5, *lDVV reinforFeJ WlernoVeWWing plDVWiFV.
IS 830l, &oJe of prDFWiFe for EXilJing JrDinDge.
CI 3, &oJe of EDViF JDWD for Wle JeVign of EXilJingV.
CI 3:Chnfor V, /oDJing.
CI 3-2, :inJ loDJV.
CI 3l2, &oJe of prDFWiFe for plDVWiFV pipeZor/ (WlernoplDVWiFV nDWeriDl).
CI 3l2-2, 8nplDVWiFi]eJ 39& pipeZor/ for Wle FonYe\DnFe of liqXiJV XnJer preVVXre.
ASTM 2992-?l, 6WDnJDrJ neWloJ for oEWDining l\JroVWDWiF JeVign EDViV for reinforFeJ WlernoVeWWing
reVin pipe DnJ fiWWingV.
ASTM 3093-?6, 7enVile properWieV of fiEre reVin FonpoViWeV.
ISO l6l-l, 7lernoplDVWiFV pipeV for Wle WrDnVporW of flXiJV 1oninDl oXWViJe JiDneWerV DnJ noninDl
preVVXreV 3DrW 10eWriF VerieV.
ISO l043-l, 3lDVWiFV 6\nEolV 3DrW 1%DViF pol\nerV DnJ Wleir VpeFiDl FlDrDFWeriVWiFV.
ISO 20?8, 7e[Wile glDVV <DrnV 'eVignDWion.
I 29000, 4XDliW\ nDnDgenenW DnJ qXDliW\ DVVXrDnFe VWDnJDrJV. *XiJelineV for VeleFWion DnJ XVe.
I 2900l, 4XDliW\ V\VWenV. 0oJel for qXDliW\ DVVXrDnFe in JeVign/JeYelopnenW proJXFWion inVWDllDWion
DnJ VerYiFing.
I 29002, 4XDliW\ V\VWenV. 0oJel for qXDliW\ DVVXrDnFe in proJXFWion DnJ inVWDllDWion.
I 29003, 4XDliW\ V\VWenV. 0oJel for qXDliW\ DVVXrDnFe in finDl inVpeFWion DnJ WeVW.
I l259, *lDVV.
I l259-l, 7erninolog\ relDWing Wo glDVV W\peV DnJ groXpV.
8)
!oforrod fo In fho foroword onIy. L
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%6 ?15919B9
ISI
389 ChIswIck HIgh !ond
!ondon
W4 4A!
%6, %vItIsL 6tDndDvds ,nstItutIon
ISI Is fho Indoondonf nnfIonnI body rosonsIbIo for ronrIng
IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds. If rosonfs fho !K vIow on sfnndnrds In Iuroo nnd nf fho
InfornnfIonnI IovoI. If Is Incorornfod by !oynI Chnrfor.
5evIsIons
IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds nro udnfod by nmondmonf or rovIsIon. !sors of
IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds shouId mnko suro fhnf fhoy ossoss fho Infosf nmondmonfs or
odIfIons.
If Is fho consfnnf nIm of ISI fo Imrovo fho qunIIfy of our roducfs nnd sorvIcos.
Wo wouId bo grnfofuI If nnyono fIndIng nn Innccurncy or nmbIguIfy whIIo usIng
fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd wouId Inform fho Socrofnry of fho fochnIcnI commIffoo
rosonsIbIo, fho IdonfIfy of whIch cnn bo found on fho InsIdo fronf covor.
ToI: 020 8996 9000. Inx: 020 8996 ?400.
ISI offors mombors nn IndIvIdunI udnfIng sorvIco cnIIod I!!S whIch onsuros
fhnf subscrIbors nufomnfIcnIIy rocoIvo fho Infosf odIfIons of sfnndnrds.
%uyIng stDndDvds
Ordors for nII ISI, InfornnfIonnI nnd foroIgn sfnndnrds ubIIcnfIons shouId bo
nddrossod fo Cusfomor SorvIcos. ToI: 020 8996 900l. Inx: 020 8996 ?00l.
In rosonso fo ordors for InfornnfIonnI sfnndnrds, If Is ISI oIIcy fo suIy fho
ISI ImIomonfnfIon of fhoso fhnf hnvo boon ubIIshod ns IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds,
unIoss ofhorwIso roquosfod.
,nIovmDtIon on stDndDvds
ISI rovIdos n wIdo rnngo of InformnfIon on nnfIonnI, Iuroonn nnd
InfornnfIonnI sfnndnrds fhrough Ifs !Ibrnry nnd Ifs TochnIcnI HoI fo Ixorfors
SorvIco. VnrIous ISI oIocfronIc InformnfIon sorvIcos nro nIso nvnIInbIo whIch gIvo
dofnIIs on nII Ifs roducfs nnd sorvIcos. Confncf fho InformnfIon Confro.
ToI: 020 8996 ?lll. Inx: 020 8996 ?048.
SubscrIbIng mombors of ISI nro kof u fo dnfo wIfh sfnndnrds dovoIomonfs
nnd rocoIvo subsfnnfInI dIscounfs on fho urchnso rIco of sfnndnrds. Ior dofnIIs
of fhoso nnd ofhor bonofIfs confncf MomborshI AdmInIsfrnfIon.
ToI: 020 8996 ?002. Inx: 020 8996 ?00l.
&opyvIgLt
CoyrIghf subsIsfs In nII ISI ubIIcnfIons. ISI nIso hoIds fho coyrIghf, In fho
!K, of fho ubIIcnfIons of fho InfornnfIonnI sfnndnrdIznfIon bodIos. Ixcof ns
ormIffod undor fho CoyrIghf, osIgns nnd Infonfs Acf l988 no oxfrncf mny bo
roroducod, sforod In n rofrIovnI sysfom or frnnsmIffod In nny form or by nny
monns oIocfronIc, hofocoyIng, rocordIng or ofhorwIso wIfhouf rIor wrIffon
ormIssIon from ISI.
ThIs doos nof rocIudo fho froo uso, In fho courso of ImIomonfIng fho sfnndnrd,
of nocossnry dofnIIs such ns symboIs, nnd sIzo, fyo or grndo dosIgnnfIons. If fhoso
dofnIIs nro fo bo usod for nny ofhor uroso fhnn ImIomonfnfIon fhon fho rIor
wrIffon ormIssIon of ISI musf bo obfnInod.
If ormIssIon Is grnnfod, fho forms mny IncIudo roynIfy nymonfs or n IIconsIng
ngroomonf. ofnIIs nnd ndvIco cnn bo obfnInod from fho CoyrIghf Mnnngor.
ToI: 020 8996 ?0?0.
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