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John Dryden

Cricelyn D. Magamong MAT-English URS-Morong, Rizal

John Dryden

John Dryden (9 August 1631 – 12 May 1700)  was an influential English poet. translator.  Regarded by many scholars as the father of modern English poetry and criticism . and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. literary critic.

which more closely matches the form of the original Latin title) is a critical examination of English literature presented in dialogue form. .An Essay of Dramatic Poesy SUMMARY: An Essay of Dramatic Poesy (sometimes also referred to as Of Dramatic Poesy) An Essay.

. and Ben Jonson--the greatest English playwright. dramatic rules were spelled out by Aristotle which the current--and esteemed--French playwrights follow.Four Critics: 1) Eugenius--favors the moderns over the ancients. according to Crites--followed the ancients' example by adhering to the unities. arguing that the moderns exceed the ancients because of having learned and profited from their example. 2) Crites--argues in favor of the ancients: they established the unities.

in two hours and a half." . basing this opinion of the French writer's close adherence to the classical separation of comedy and tragedy. we run through all the fits of Bedlam. For Lisideius "no theater in the world has anything so absurd as the English tragicomedy . .3) Lisideius--argues that French drama is superior to English drama. .

He also favors English drama--and has some critical things to say of French drama:"those beauties of the French poesy are such as will raise perfection higher where it is. but are not sufficient to give it where it is not: they are indeed the beauties of a statue. but not of a man. but does not disparage the ancients." .4)Neander (thought to represent Dryden)--favors the moderns.

modern poets have built upon the foundation laid by the ancients. while Eugenius disagrees. Egenius’s main argument is that just as the ancient built upon the foundation of poets who came before them. Crites says that they will never be able to duplicate (much less surpass) the achievements of the ancients. . This part of the discussion very much resembles standard debates between the ancients and moderns: Crites’s main argument is that all of the conventions of modern literature come from the ancients.The discussion begins when the characters comment on the terrible poems that the scenic battle will no doubt inspire.

. the combatants decide to restrict their discussion to one form of literature: drama. while Neander cites the richer emotional content and wit of the Elizabethans. Lisideius then enters the argument in order to defend the strict formalism of the modern French dramatists. blank verse or elegantly-composed rhyming verse. Eventually. the discussion evolves into a discussion on whether or not rhymed verse is the most appropriate for the stage. particularly Shakespeare. with the main point of contention being whether the requirement for verisimilitude is better filled with plain prose. Each of the characters has a tenable position here. From there.

Moderns 2) Unities 3) French vs.Five issues: 1) Ancients vs. Tragicomedy 5) Appropriateness of Rhyme in Drama . English Drama 4) Separation of Tragedy and Comedy vs.

He relies heavily on Corneille--and through him on Horace--which places him in a pragmatic tradition. . and as such he deals in his criticism with issues of form and morality in drama. However. Dryden is a neoclassic critic. tied down to the classical unities or to notions of what constitutes a "proper" character for the stage. he is not a rule bound critic.

large scope of tragicomedy and Shakespeare) over being (the static perfection of the ideal-imitating Classical/French/Jonsonian drama). The main point of Dryden's essay seems to be a valuation of becoming (the striving. natureimitating. .

An Essay of Dramatick Poesie By John Dryden . To the Right Honourable CHARLES LORD BUCKHURST. .

by little and little. went breaking. disputed the command of the greater half of the Globe. [1] It was that memorable day. some cross the River. and in a dreadful suspence of the event. and leaving the Town almost empty. the commerce of Nations. in the first Summer of the late War. mov'd against each other in parallel lines. While these vast floating bodies. when our Navy ingag'd the Dutch: a day wherein the two most mighty and best appointed Fleets which any age had ever seen. every one went following the sound as his fancy led him. under the happy conduct of his Royal Highness. into the line of the Enemies. . and the riches of the Universe. others down it. all seeking the noise in the depth of silence. some took towards the Park. and our Country men. being alarm'd with it. the noise of the Cannon from both Navies reach'd our ears about the City: so that all men. on either side. which we knew was then deciding.

Crites. Lisideius and N eander.. it was the fortune of Eugenius.(up to 122) . [2] Amongst the rest. to be in company together: three of them persons whom their witt and Quality have made known to all the Town: and whom I have chose to hide under these borrowed names. that they may not suffer by so ill a relation as I am going to make of their discourse.

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Magamong MAT-English URS-Morong.Alexander Pope Cricelyn D. Rizal .

Alexander Pope .

appeared when he was twenty-three. satirist. critic. Alexander Pope wrote his first verses at the age of 12. and one of the greatest poets of Enlightenment. His breakthrough work. .Alexander Pope(1688-1744)  English essayist. AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM (1711).

begun. anonymously. ….is a didactic poem in heroic couplets. as early as 1705. ….An Essay on Criticism …. .is at once a treatise of literary theory and working manual of versification. and published. perhaps. in 1711. is one of the first major poems written by the English writer Alexander Pope (1688–1744).

and public responsibility. and part three puts forth a means of reformation and restoration in literary endeavors. impartiality. . emphasizing in particular the basic precepts of clarity.An Essay on Criticism  It is divided into three parts: part one creates a vision of the golden era of art and criticism. part two presents a vision of decay and disorder in literary criticism.

The poem covers a range of good criticism and advice. It also represents many of the chief literary ideals of Pope's age. .An Essay on Criticism  It is a verse essay written in the Horatian mode and is primarily concerned with how writers and critics behave in the new literary commerce of Pope's contemporary age.

Ten Censure wrong for one who Writes amiss. than mis-lead our Sense Some few in that. (1–8) .Pope contends in the poem's opening couplets that bad criticism does greater harm than bad writing: 'Tis hard to say. but Numbers err in this. less dang'rous is th' Offence. To tire our Patience. Now One in Verse makes many more in Prose. . if greater Want of Skill Appear in Writing or in Judging ill... A Fool might once himself alone expose. But. of the two.

In the next line. it "whispers through the trees"..g. literature requires worthy criticism. With sure returns of still expected rhymes. Wher'er you find "the cooling western breeze".Despite the harmful effects of bad criticism. settling for easy and cliché rhymes: And ten low words oft creep in one dull line: While they ring round the same unvaried chimes. Pope delineates common faults of critics. (347–353) . . e. The reader's threatened (not in vain) with "sleep" . . If crystal streams "with pleasing murmurs creep".

/ As those move easiest who have learned to dance" (362– 363). not chance. Homer. This is a testament to his belief that the "Imitation of the ancients" is the ultimate standard for taste. Aristotle. Pope also says: "True ease in writing comes from art. not born. Pope refers to ancient writers such as Virgil. . meaning poets are made.Throughout the poem. Horace and Longinus.

the "Essay" concludes with a reference to Pope himself. Walsh.  An Essay on Criticism was famously and fiercely attacked by John Dennis. the Dunciad. who is mentioned mockingly in the work. . Dennis also appears in Pope's later satire. the last of the critics mentioned. was a mentor and friend of Pope who had died in 1710. As is usual in Pope's poems.  Consequently.

Part II is also the source of this famous line: “To err is human. to forgive divine”  The line "Fools Rush In Where Angels Fear to Tread" from Part III has become part of the popular lexicon. and has been used for and in various works. .

a threnody by William Mason.The death of Alexander Pope from Museus. . and John Milton. and Geoffrey Chaucer prepare to welcome him to heaven. Dianaholds the dying Pope.Edmund Spenser.

the end .

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