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MANAGING FRONT OFFICE OPERATIONS Subject Guide

Managing Front Office Operations #333.8

Michael L. Kasavana & Richard M. Brooks


Eighth Edition

Issued: 2013

STUDENT NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: LECTURER NAME: CONSULTATION TIMES:

________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 2.1 2.2 3. 3.1 3.2 4. 4.1 4.2 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 7. 8. Scheme of work Sources Recommended sources Additional sources Course outline Rationale Course Outline Course objectives Specific Outcomes Critical cross-field outcomes Assessment structure Portfolio of work Final Examination Pass Mark and Pass with Distinction Attendance Policy Assessment Briefing & Tools Suggested Portfolio Tasks Assignments Oral Presentations Review Questions Portfolio cover page and Task weightings 1-4 5

5-6

7-8

8-9

10-25

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1.

SCHEME OF WORK
PAGE. NO. NO. OF PERIODS

WEEK NO.

CHAPTER & TOPIC Ch 1: The Lodging Industry: The Hospitality Industry Size Target markets Levels of service Ownership and affiliation Reasons for traveling Multicultural awareness

EXERCISES / INFORMATION / RESOURCES Classroom activity : Match the pictures Group work : Management Companies

3 - 29

Homework Exercise 1 & 2 MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency Classroom activity : A compass for the Driftwood Inn

Ch 2: Hotel Organisation 1 Organisational Missions Hotel organisation Front office operations 57 - 80 3 MCQ

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 3: Front Office Operations 1&2 The guest cycle Front office system only semiautomated and PMS Front office processes The front desk Telecommunications PMS

Group work : Registration card Homework Exercise 3 103 - 131 4 MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 4: Reservations 2/3 Reservations & sales Types of reservations Reservation inquiry Group reservations 141 - 175 4

Classroom activity : Reservation enquiry script Classroom activity : Expedia.com MCQ Textbook
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WEEK NO.

CHAPTER & TOPIC Reservation Reservation Reservation Reservation Reservation record confirmation maintenance reports considerations

PAGE. NO.

NO. OF PERIODS

EXERCISES / INFORMATION / RESOURCES PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 5: Registration Pre-registration record The registration record Room and rate assignment Method of payment Issuing the room key Fulfilling special requests Creative options Selling the guestroom When guests cannot be accommodated

Classroom activity : Twin towers 911 Group work : Check-in / out video Homework Exercise 4 & 5 189 - 216 4 MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

2&3

Ch 6: Communications and Guest Services Front office communications Interdepartmental communications Guest services Guest relations

Classroom activity : Video Fawlty Towers Group work : Cultural barriers to effective communication 231 - 251 2 MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 7: Security & the lodging industry A growing concern Developing the security program Managements role in security Setting up the security program Elements of security training Security and the Law MCQ 265 - 294 4

Homework Exercise 6

3&4

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

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Ch 8: Front Office accounting Accounting fundamentals Creation and maintenance of accounts Tracking transactions Internal control Settlement of accounts

MCQ Textbook 311 - 331 4 PowerPoint / Transparency

4/5

Ch 9: Check-out and account settlement Check-out and account settlement Department procedures Check-out options Unpaid account balances Account collection Front office records MCQ 339 - 357 4

Homework Exercise 7

5/6

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 10: The role of Housekeeping in Hospitality Operations complete chapter covered in Housekeeping text.

Classroom activity : Playing dirty in your hotel room? 365 - 382 2 MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 11: The Front office Audit 6&7 The front office audit Functions of the front office audit Front office audit process System update 395 - 411 4

MCQ Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

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Ch 12: Planning and evaluating operations Management functions Establishing room rates Forecasting room availability Budgeting for operations Evaluating front office operations MCQ 421 - 465 4

Classroom activity : Calculations

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 13: Revenue management 7/8 Revenue management The concept of revenue management Measuring yield Elements of revenue management Using revenue management Revenue management software MCQ 479 - 521 4

Classroom activity : Short scenarios in revenue management

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

Ch 14: Managing Human Resources complete chapter covered in Housekeeping text. 8 Recruiting Selecting Hiring Orienting Skills training Staff scheduling Staff motivation MCQ 531 - 572 3

Classroom activity : Mind map Group work : Role play 4 step training method

Textbook PowerPoint / Transparency

9 & 10

FINAL EXAMINATION

Chapters 1-14

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2.

SOURCES

2.1

Recommended sources

Kasavana, M.L & Brooks, R.M (2005). Managing Front Office Operations (8th Edition) Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association

2.2

Additional sources

AHLEI Smartbrief Newsletter (http://www.ahla-ei.com) General Hospitality News (http://www.ehotelier.com) General Hospitality News (http://www.hospitalitynet.org) General Hospitality News (http://www.hotelresource.com) International Hotel & Restaurant Association, providing general Hospitality news (http://www.ih-ra.com) Magazine website with Hospitality related articles (http://www.hotelandrestaurant.co.za)

3.

COURSE OUTLINE

3.1

Rationale of Subject

From the time a guest makes a reservation and arrives at a hotel through the time he or she departs, front office personnel play a central role in meeting the guests needs. Guests generally have more contact with the front office than any other hotel department; therefore, to guests, the front office frequently is the hotel. Guests turn to the front office with their questions, requests, comments and complaints. The front office that effectively anticipates and meets these challenges helps the hotel satisfy its guests.

A capable, courteous and professional front office staff can make each guests stay a pleasant experience and ensure the guests willingness to return. In doing so, front office staff members meet the needs of guests while also ensuring the smooth and profitable operation of the hotel. Poorly trained front office employees can do great harm to a hotel, reducing or completely eliminating profits while antagonizing guests and virtually driving them away.

(Kasavana, 2005)

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3.2

Course outline

This course presents a systematic approach to front office procedures by detailing the flow of business through a hotel, from the reservations process to check-out and account settlement. The course also examines the various elements of effective front office management, paying particular attention to the planning and evaluation of front office operations and to human resources management. Front office procedures and management are placed within the context of the overall operation of a hotel.

(http://www.eiacademic.org/productview.aspx?id=1042&viewId=Syllabus)
In Managing Front Office Operations we provide a general introduction to the Hospitality Industry and outline how hotels are organized focusing on the Front Desk Operations. We investigate the flow of guests through our establishment starting from the point of Reservation to their arrival and Registration. We also consider the importance of communication with other departments and with our guests. Whilst the guest is staying with us we must ensure their safety and therefore emphasize security touching on key control and access control. Once the guest has completed their stay he/she will settle their account which requires us to understand the basics of Front Office accounting and Account settlement. Since our activities at the Front Desk so closely relate to our colleagues in Housekeeping, we must have an understanding of their activities as well which leads us to discuss a chapter on the role of Housekeeping Operations. Once the guest has settled their account and departed from our hotel we perform a variety of administrative tasks, including the Front Office Audit (or Night Audit), therefore an entire chapter is dedicated to the completion of this important function. The last few sections of our text focuses on the management functions of Front Office including planning and evaluating operations, revenue management and managing Human Resource issues within our department. Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : The Lodging Industry Hotel Organization Front Office Operations Reservations Registration Communications and Guest Services Security and the Lodging Industry Front Office Accounting Check-out and Account Settlement The Role of Housekeeping in Hospitality Operations The Front Office Audit Planning and Evaluating Operations Revenue Management Managing Human Resources
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4.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

4.1

Specific Outcomes

Objectives: At the completion of this course, students should be able to: 1. Classify hotels in terms of their ownership, affiliation, and levels of service. 2. Describe how hotels are organized and explain how functional areas within hotels are classified. 3. Summarize front office operations during the four stages of the guest cycle. 4. Discuss the sales dimension of the reservations process and identify the tools managers use to track and control reservations. 5. List the seven steps of the registration process and discuss creative registration options. 6. Identify typical service requests that guests make at the front desk. 7. Explain important issues in developing and managing a security program. 8. Describe the process of creating and maintaining front office accounts. 9. Identify functions and procedures related to the check-out and account settlement process. 10. Discuss typical cleaning responsibilities of the housekeeping department. 11. Summarize the steps in the front office audit process. 12. Apply the ratios and formulas managers use to forecast room availability. 13. Explain the concept of revenue management and discuss how managers can maximize revenue by using forecast information in capacity management, discount allocation, and duration control. 14. Identify the steps in effective hiring and orientation.

(http://www.eiacademic.org/prRoductview.aspx?id=1042&viewId=Syllabus)

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4.2

Critical Cross-field Outcomes


Identify and solve problems in which responses display that decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community. Organise and manage oneself and ones activities responsibly and effectively. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation. Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others. Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation. Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively. Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities. Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts. Exploring education and career opportunities. Developing entrepreneurial opportunities.

1. Identifying

2. Working

3. Organising

4. Collecting 5. Communicating

6. Science

7. Demonstrating

8. Individual awareness

5.

ASSESSMENT STRUCTURE

Component Portfolio of work (Continuous Assessment) Final examination

Weighting 50% 50%

Portfolio of Work (continuous assessment guideline) Tests Individual Research Project Case Studies, Application Questions Group Presentations Class Activities i.e. quiz, crossword, debate, worksheet, role-play, simulations etc.

Weighting 30% 10% 25% 10% 25%

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5.1

Portfolio of work

The portfolio is a collection of your work which is assessed on an ongoing basis. The portfolio may contain research assignments, presentations, tests, case studies and other tasks aimed a deepening your understanding of the subject. In addition, these activities will equip you with the skills, knowledge, and experiences needed to successfully pass your exam. Please note that as the

nature of the portfolio activities may be participatory, class attendance is vital to obtain activity competence. The minimum requirement for the portfolio of work in order to gain exam admittance is 60%. The first seven weeks are devoted to build a solid portfolio of evidence. Portfolio results are finalized in week eight.

5.2

Final examination

The total mark allocation for this examination is 150 and the time allocated is three hours. The paper consists of two sections; A and B. Section A comprises 50 multiple choice questions and Section B allows choice of four 25 mark questions to make up 100 marks. These questions are aimed to test the students ability to apply the subject content and to demonstrate an accurate understanding of the subjects outcomes.

5.3

Pass mark

You have to achieve a weighted average of 70% in order to pass this subject. Where a student achieves an average mark of 90% and above, such a student passes with distinction.

5.4

Attendance policy

It is a requirement that students attend classes in order to gain a thorough understanding of the course outcomes. Portfolio activities are often participatory in nature which will require student attendance in order to successfully complete these. Successful completion of portfolio activities is crucial in order to gain the minimum exam admittance requirement of 60%. Lecturers will monitor attendance and academic progress on an ongoing basis and schedule individual consultation sessions as and when necessary. Sponsors will be notified if no improvement is evident.

6.

ASSESSMENT BRIEFING & ASSESSMENT TOOLS

6.1

Suggested Portfolio Tasks

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Chapter 1
Classroom activity By looking at the below hotel logos, provide the appropriate hotel market segment, as well as the ownership and affiliation (if applicable). Eg; XYZ hotel Eg; Resort hotel Eg; Independent, chain, franchise, management contract

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Review the pictures below and provide the appropriate level of service expected by each guest. Also give a brief description of each service level. Picture Service level Description

Match the correct description of guest classification to the corresponding picture which best suits this description. Also identify the type of guest from the description provided. Picture Description Type of guest Match A Internet is a top priority for these guests which where historically the 1st market for hotels. B These guests are among the most difficult to understand; they are extremely price sensitive.

C They bring a different set of needs & expectations, may require translation services.

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Guests may be attending a meeting, but are mostly part of an organised tour.

Group work : Research activity

Management companies are organisations that operate properties owned by other entities.
With reference to the above statement, in groups of 4, compile a four page report to illustrate your understanding of how management contracts work hand-in-hand with the daily operations of hotels. It is beneficial to use South African based companies and hotels, although international brands may also be utilised. Pictures may be used to identify your findings but remember this is not a collage. Identify the mission statement of your chosen brand. Your introduction (100-150 words) should tabulate the key elements which separate a guest house from a hotel; as well as a three star hotel from four- and five star properties. (Make use of the SA tourism grading council for this). What differences are evident? Which service standards are missing?

A bibliography must be included and may form as a 5th page to your report. Single line spacing and

14pt size font is required.

Homework Homework Exercise 1 Individual research activity

Visit tourismgrading.co.za to complete the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is star grading? How do you get graded? Are there criteria to be met? Why get graded? What are the minimum requirements needed before one can even apply to be graded? Are there fees involved? Who grades the property? Some establishment use false stars or use stars illegally. What can be done about this? What are some of the consumer benefits related to star graded properties? What is FEDHASA and what relation is there between the grading process?

Homework Exercise 2 Complete the case study from your textbook (pg.39) titled tub for two. This may done along with your management companies group work activity above, but individual submissions are required.
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Chapter 2
Classroom activity Mini case study : A compass for the Driftwood Inn

John Doe has just been transferred to the 250-room Driftwood Inn as front office manager. The Driftwood Inn is a mid-price hotel operated by Nkosi Lodging Management for a local investor. The Inn was opened just over a year ago in a good market and its financial performance to date has been below expectations. In addition, there have been many guest complaints. John has been transferred to the Inn because he is the best front office manager in the Nkosi company. John arrived at the Inn to find a front office with no direction. Employees were not well trained and turnover was high. Only one employee knew how to use the computer system completely. Employees did not know what was expected of them. The reservations clerk complained of getting conflicting instructions from the sales manager and the front desk manager. The previous front desk manager did not venture to the desk very often, preferring to remain in his office and produce reports for the general manager on why revenues were not meeting expectations. When John visited the HR office, he asked to see the front office mission statement, organization chart, and job descriptions. He was told none were available. John read through many guest comment cards and the assistant manager's log. Poor employee attitudes seemed to be a major problem, as did a lack of organization. Finally, John met with various HODs and heard nothing but complaints. The housekeeping manager told John she was never included in departmental meetings. The hotel accountant said the front desk staff never financially balanced at the end of their shifts and the night audit was a disaster because of it. The F&B manager said he made test calls to the reservation department and they never recommended his restaurant. With all this in mind, John has decided to start from scratch in order to meet the Inn's objectives of happy guests and employees, while producing an appropriate profit for the owners. He must develop a mission statement for the department. He must also develop an organization chart and job descriptions. You have been asked to help John with these tasks. Case Number: 3322CB. Adapted by B. Vienings. This case also appears in Case Studies in Lodging Management (Lansing, Michigan: the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute, 1998).
While John is trying to establish stronger working relationships with the other departments, you must: 1. Develop a mission statement for the front office. Keep in mind that this is a mid-price, medium-sized hotel. 2. Develop an organization chart for the department, showing all the different positions. You must also show any relationships outside the department, such as front desk and housekeeping. 3. Determine three strategies that fit into the mission statement of the department pertaining to employee friendliness, speed of check-in, and product information about the inn. 4. Develop two tactics for each strategy above.

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Chapter 3
Group work : Classroom activity

Working with the members from your previous groups, design a registration card for your very own hotel. Make reference to the samples shown in class by your lecturer. Although this is a group task, one copy per member needs to be submitted. Remember to include:

Guest name & surname Terms & conditions Contact info Arrival & departure date Room rate & category

Homework Homework Exercise 3 Mini case study : Analyzing operations at Nomsas Getaway Lodge

The reservations office at Nomsas Getaway Lodge is so busy that the reservations agents do not use the computer system to check room availabilities before recording reservation requests. Their standard procedure is to jot down all the relevant reservation information on a pad of paper, record the information when call volume slows, and then call the guest back to confirm the reservation. Given the fact that the reservations manager, Bradley Lawrence, doesnt trust the computer system, he insists that his staff maintain a reservations rack using typed reservation slips and a set of wooden pockets. Each morning, the reservations agents transfer the reservation slips for those guests expected to arrive that day to the front desk to facilitate a faster check-in. Upon arrival at the front desk, each guest is asked to complete a registration card. The front desk agent matches the information on this card with the reservation slip to ensure proper check-in procedures. Once the guest leaves the desk for the room, the front desk agent, if not too busy, records the check-in in the hotels computer system. Although many guests claim to have a reservation, the front desk agent often fails to find a reservation slip that matches the registration information. The front office manager, Mr. Molefe, has been tracking the number of arriving guests claiming to have made a reservation against the number of successful matches with the reservation slips. He is concerned that less than the number of guests stating reservations were made have reservation slips. The hotel has had to develop new procedures for check-out due to the length of time guests appear to wait in line. At the time of check-out, the front desk agent simply reviews the guests most current folio, settles the account to an acceptable method of payment, and writes down the room number of the guestroom that has been vacated. Sometime later, after the wave of departures, the front desk agent updates the computer system and calls the room numbers down to housekeeping using the hotels intercom system. Case Number: 3323CC. Adapted by B. Vienings. This case also appears in Case Studies in Lodging Management (Lansing, Michigan: the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute, 1998).
After reading the above, answer the questions which follow.

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Discussion Questions 1. What actions should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the reservations department? 2. How effective is the hotels reservation-to-registration linkage? What could be done to improve this situation? 3. What could be done to improve the communication between the front desk and the housekeeping department? 4. How might an efficient computer system reduce or eliminate many of the problems the hotel is now experiencing?

Chapter 4
Classroom activity Reservation enquiry script The class will be divided into six groups by your lecturer and given a hotel & contact number to call using your cellphone. Using your loudspeaker function, contact your given hotel, following the below script. Asses the way the reservation is handled : manner of speaking, persuasion, tone of voice, etc.

Good day, you are speaking to ___________ , I am calling on behalf of my boss who is planning a business trip to JHB/CT/DBN on _____date____. I am enquring about room availability at your hotel. My boss would require a standard room for one night only. Can you tell me if you have anything available and what the rate would be?
Get info. See if the agent tries to upsell or offers any additional info. If pushed to make a reservation, say that you are enquiring at this stage as the trip is not yet definite. Thank the agent for assistance and end the call. Do not give any of your contact information out.

Classroom activity Case study : Expedia.com http://www.hotelmanagement.net/profiles/one-on-one-with-expedia-worldwides-scott-durchslag-full-article One-on-one with Expedia Worldwide's Scott Durchslag. 14 Nov, 2011 by Stephanie Ricca. When many hoteliers think about Expedia, words that come to mind include booking, online travel agent, or if theyre being less diplomaticthe enemy, a necessary evil, or those guys who charge us a boatload to distribute our rooms. Thats not how Scott Durchslag sees the relationship. Durchslag is president of Expedia Worldwide, where he manages the strategy and operations of the eponymous travel booking site. The word hes looking for to describe the relationship between Expedia and hotelsin fact, the word hes looking for to describe the relationship between all players in the travel supply chainis partner. Sounds like a nice, public relations-friendly answer, doesnt it? On the contrary, Durchslag doesnt worry too much about making sure all of his partners like him. Hes more concerned about the traveler. Hes convinced that when travel supplierslike hotel companies, airlines and booking agentswork together to make the consumer travel experience easier on all levels, from end to end, business will prosper.

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If you take care of the consumer, over time, that will help other parts of the business take care of itself, he said. Partnership as a core competency, and being able to orchestrate a value chain for an end-toend experience is what will separate the winners from the losers. Consider Durchslags position: He joined Expedia one year ago from his previous role as COO at Skype Technologies. Today Expedia has relationships with 140,000 hotels, nearly 400 airlines, and many other events and elements of a trip. Its various business segments handle transparent travel booking (Expedia), opaque travel booking (Hotwire), hotel booking (Hotels.com), corporate travel (Egencia Business Travel) and more. With an MBA from Harvard University and experience in several mobile business divisions at Motorola, Durchslag has seen travel and technology from many perspectives, especially as a lifelong traveler himself. And his conclusion is that even in todays mobile world, its harder and harder for consumers to travel, largely because theyre juggling so many pieces, from finding a flight to booking a room to actually enjoying their experiences. To deliver that end-to-end delight for travelers, we cant do it alone, he said. Expedia cant do it alone; hotels cant; airlines cant. We need to be invested together in being able to do that. It takes innovation. It takes relationships and a degree of trust. Wait, trust? Trust the necessary evil, the company charging hotels to book rooms for them? Precisely, Durchslag said. In his opinion, its high time for a shift. DISRUPTIVE FORCE I think Expedia was a disruptive force to the [hotel] industry when it came on the scene, he said. Yes, it delivered some tremendous benefits to consumers. Thats a reason it grew so big. But it made an impact to get there. The shift in mindset Durchslag said is necessary for the hotel and OTA industries to move forward is away from the relationship as a zero-sum proposition to being a partnership, a win-win proposition. Right now, hotels set rates and make inventory available on Expedia and similar sites with varying intensity and to target differentoften leisureguests. And while many individual properties enjoy beneficial partnerships with OTAs they work with, the historical 30,000-foot gripe has been that hotels make less per booking from a room booked on an OTA than they do via property-direct channels. E-commerce extends the reach of hotels far beyond the traditional channels of a hotel reservations office, call centre and GDS. Summarize your understanding of E-commerce and the affect you think it has on the reservations department. Included in your discussion should also be the reservation distribution channels as well as the need for travel agents in todays marketplace. Your findings should not exceed two pages.

Chapter 5
Group work : Classroom activity In groups of 4 6 people, you need to create a video demonstrating both a mock check-in and check-out. The scenario may either be something formal or informal, wrong or right, serious or comedic. You have freedom to do this task in whichever manner best suits you and your group. This may be shown to the class for discussion. Classroom activity September 9th, 2011 commemorated the 10 year anniversary of the falling of the twin towers. By assessing the alongside image, compile a report no longer than 300 words. Besides for terrorism, you should discuss how or why this incident happened and what measures couldve been taken to prevent it. Mention how this has affected security measures at hotels, and whether or not it has an impact on guest registration when checking-in. You may also make reference to chapter 7.

14pt size font is required.


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Homework Homework Exercise 4 Mini case study : Speeding up check-in and upselling at the Bartlett House

The Bartlett House is a well-known hotel in Central City. For years, it has served as the center of social occasions and most of the business functions in the city. Knowing that the hotel was starting to show some age, the owners of the Bartlett House decided to sell the hotel to a group of local investors, who appointed John Richards as the new General Manager. One of Johns first challenges is to improve hotel revenues and guest perception of the property. Caroline Kramer is the front desk manager at the Bartlett House. She has been at the hotel for several years and knows the guests and procedures very well. John and Caroline meet to determine what can be done to meet the new owners objectives. John asks Caroline how long it takes to check a guest into the hotel. Caroline answers about five minutes per guest. John recognizes that this is a long time for a guest, especially if there is a long line at the front desk. He also asks Caroline if the front desk upsells. Caroline tells John they did before she got there, and she was told it wasnt very successful. John asks Caroline to develop a plan to improve the speed of check-in and also to upsell guestrooms. This case also appears in Case Studies in Lodging Management (Lansing, Michigan: the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute, 1998). Case Number: 3325CC
Discussion Questions 1. What are the front desk procedures Caroline should look at to speed the check-in process? What other departments should Caroline be working with on this plan? 2. What measures can Caroline recommend to start and sustain an upselling program at the hotel? 3. How can Caroline help her front desk agents to recognize an upselling opportunity? 4. What procedures can Caroline put into place to be sure proper credit is established for each guest, while not slowing down the registration process?

Homework Exercise 5 In no more than one page, research any two hotels (local or international) and describe their use of creative registration.

Chapter 6
Group work : Research activity Case study : Cultural barriers to effective communication

www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/problem/cultrbar.htm Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking--ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases. Stella Ting-Toomey describes three ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second are "behavior constraints." Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication.

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Whether one looks the other person in the eye-or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they are talking--all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture. Ting-Toomey's third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation. All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures.
South Africa is one of the most diverse countries in the world, with 11 official languages and cultures. With reference to the above article, select any one of our cultures and briefly discuss any cognitive, behavioral and emotional constraints which affect communication amongst people in this culture. OR you may choose an international culture if you feel it will be more beneficial to your group. Present your findings in oral format in no more than 10 minutes. Each group member will need a turn to present their input. Highlight any important concerns with regards to your chosen culture, extra credit will be provided for additional information. (eg; In traditional Zulu culture, one is not suppose to call men or elders

by their first names. You are also not suppose to look at them in the eye as this is also seen as a sign of disrespect). Explain how your findings may affect basic hotel operations. (eg; How would you proceed to checkin a gentleman of Zulu tradition if you cant look him in the eyes?)
Remember to check with your fellow classmates that they have not chosen the same discussion topic as you have. Each person is to submit a printed handout of their material.

Classroom activity Video : Fawlty Towers Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom produced by BBC Television and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975 and 1979. Twelve episodes were made (two series, each of six episodes). The show was written by John Cleese and his then wife Connie Booth, both of whom also starred in the show. The first series was produced and directed by John Howard Davies; the second was produced by Douglas Argent and directed by Bob Spiers. The series is set in Fawlty Towers, a fictional hotel in the seaside town of Torquay, on the "English Riviera". The plots centre around tense, rude and put-upon owner Basil Fawlty (Cleese), his bossy wife Sybil (Prunella Scales), a comparatively normal chambermaid Polly (Booth), and hapless Spanish waiter Manuel (Andrew Sachs) and their attempts to run the hotel amidst farcical situations and an array of demanding and eccentric guests. After watching the video clip in class, answer the following questions: 1. Identify three errors made by Manuel when receiving the gnome. 2. Name one thing Manuel did correctly when answering the phone. 3. Pollys wake-up call can be identified as which type of request? Define this.

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4. Answering the telephone is an opportunity for you to portray a professional image as well as a positive image for the property. Assist Manuel by providing 6 telephone skills which he could be informed of. 5. Should the builders wish to complain about Manuals lack of assistance, would their complaint be regarded as attitudinal or service-related? Explain. 6. The complaint Faulty has against OReilly can be termed _______? 7. Mr. Faulty was very abrupt, short & brief with his complaint over the phone. List 6 guidelines which best suit this scenario and which you would recommend to OReilly for handling complaints. 8. Discuss five front office procedures for communicating with guests.

Chapter 7
Homework Homework Exercise 6 South Africa has one of the highest crime rates in the world and hotels have not been excluded from criminal activity. As the FOM of a hotel with a large international traveler base, you have decided to inform your guests with tips to keep in mind whilst they are visiting your property. With this in mind, design a traveler safety tip card to be displayed in your guestrooms. A professional safety tip card, no bigger than A4 in size, printed in colour, must be submitted.

Chapter 9
Homework Homework Exercise 7 Case study : Man who skipped paying hotel bill nabbed through toothbrush he left behind

http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/sideshow/man-skipped-paying-hotel-bill-nabbed-toothbrush-left-143949217.

A man who skipped out on a lodging bill was later caught thanks to a common item left behind in his hotel room. Stephen Evans left a Welsh seaside resort in Llandudno after two nights without paying, according to news.com.au. But Evans left his toothbrush. Police discovered the mouth cleaning instrument in the vacant hotel room, and after having it forensically checked in CSI fashion found a match in their database to Evans, news.com.au reports. Prosecutors said Evans had been kicked out of his home and had no place to stay. So he checked into the hotel using a false name. Evans, 29, who is a plasterer in Llandudno, admitted to the charge of leaving the hotel without settling up the bill. He was ordered to pay $102 for the two nights he had stayed there, and $95 in costs. He was also placed under a four-month curfew, during which he is not allowed to go out from 8pm 8am each day. The incident may now give Evans something more to think about every time he brushes his teeth! By Ron Recinto. Mon, 8 Oct 2012.
Based on the above, complete the questions: 1. Evans left the hotel with no intention of settling his account. What are these types of guests commonly referred to as?

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2. Assess which critical error you think was made by the front desk agent when checking Evans in. 3. Front office policy usually requires guests to specify an eventual method of settlement during registration. Why is this important? 4. Should Evan have approached the desk and checked out accordingly, identify three important functions that usually take place at the check-out and settlement process. 5. Effective front office operations depend on accurate room status information. Briefly discuss the importance of changing the room status once a guest has departed. Include at least three relevant room status terms which are used at the departure stage. 6. Should Evans have checked out, list four methods of settlement available to him. 7. Provide reason as to how you think the hotel noticed the Evans absence? 8. What difficulties arise from late check-outs? 9. Explain how this hotel would use a guest history file in the event that Evans makes another reservation at the property.

Chapter 10
Classroom activity Case study : Playing dirty in your hotel room?

http://www.iol.co.za/travel/travel-tips/playing-dirty-in-your-hotel-room-1.1323120#.UHfIzFGiF7w

A study on contamination levels in hotel rooms led by the University of Houston, presented at the American Society of Microbiology, reported that two of the most contaminated items were TV remote controls and bedside lamp switches. Just as badly contaminated were surfaces more likely to be dirty, such as bathroom toilet seats and sinks, the study said. Of greater concern, the study said, was that some of the highest levels of contamination were found on items on housekeepers' carts, such as sponges and mops. If these items are contaminated, they can lead to cross-contamination of rooms, making entire hotels dirtier. The researchers sampled 18 surfaces in each hotel room, testing the total levels of bacteria and fecal bacteria on each one. Fecal bacteria was found on 81 percent of all surfaces. Among the cleaner surfaces in hotel rooms were bed headboards, curtain rods and bathroom door handles. There are no regulatory limits for contamination of items in hotel rooms, the study said, but its findings suggest possible health risks to people with compromised immune systems. The collaborative report between the University of Houston, Purdue University, and the University of South Carolina, sampled nine hotel rooms, three each in Texas, Indiana and South Carolina. While Katie Kirsch, a recent University of Houston graduate who presented the study, admitted it had a small sample size, she hoped it would lead to a body of research that will eventually develop more effective and efficient housekeeping practices. Being able to identify which items would be high-risk would let housekeeping managers devote more time to cleaning them, making cleaning efforts more valuable and hotel rooms safer, Kirsch said. - Reuters 20 June 2012.
After reading the above, complete the following questions.
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1. Identify the two dirtiest items found in the hotel room. 2. What possible health risks do you think can come from this? 3. Identify two of the more cleaner surfaces. 4. Where were the highest levels of contamination found? 5. The article mentions that cross-contamination of rooms may occur. Briefly explain what is meant by this. 6. From your experience, suggest five more effective and efficient housekeeping practices. 7. Whilst cleaning TV remotes and bedside lamp switches, a form of maintenance could also take place. Identify this and describe how it would be done for both these items. 8. Fecal bacteria was found on 81% of all surfaces. Provide reasons as to how/why this occurred. 9. Besides guestrooms, list any four other areas which the housekeeping department is responsible for cleaning. 10. Identify the first planning activity that takes place when planning the work of the housekeeping department. 11. How do you think the above answer will assist in the problems identified by this article? 12. What indicates how often the TV remote or bedside lamp switch should be cleaned or maintained? 13. Of performance standards and productivity standards, explain which you think have been overlooked in this scenario. 14. Why are two-way communications necessary between front desk and housekeeping?

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Chapter 12
Classroom activity For the month of March, Saphiras Love Shack Inn sold all their rooms at a rack rate of R1760-00 p/room p/night. The 120-room hotel reported interim operating results for the monthly budget, as shown in the occupancy history of the week dated 9 15 March below.

Day
Mon 9/3 Tues 10/3 Wed 11/03 Thurs 12/03 Fri 13/03 Sat 14/03 Sun 15/03 TOTALS

Guests
118 145 176 117 75 86 49 766

Room Arrivals
70 55 68 53 35 28 17 326

Room Walk-ins
13 15 16 22 8 6 10 90

Room Res
63 48 56 48 35 26 12 288

No-shows
6 8 4 17 8 4 5 52

Occ rooms
90 115 120 95 50 58 30 558

Overstay rooms
6 10 12 3 7 6 3 47

Understay rooms
0 3 6 18 0 3 3 33

Room check-out
30 30 63 78 80 20 45 346

OOO
7 2 1 3 4 0 0 20

Based on the above, and bearing in mind that the hotel had no more than 7 stayovers throughout the week, calculate the following: (round off to 1 decimal) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Percentage of no-shows Percentage of walk-ins Percentage of overstays Percentage of understays Determine the number of rooms available for sale on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. (using answer from 1) Assuming that total revenue generated for Monday is R60 960-00, calculate the yield statistic for Saphiras Love Shack what does this answer indicate? By using Mondays revenue estimate, also show the average rate p/guest for Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday. (round off to the next Rand)

Below represents Saphiras competitor, Godfreys Quickie Getaway, a 200 room property she uses when determining her competitive set.

Day
Mon 9/3 Tues 10/3 Wed 11/03

Rooms revenue
R23 800 R29 970 R29 014

Rooms occupied
170 185 178

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Determine the ADR for Monday through to Wednesday. What reasons could justify Godfreys low ADR? Calculate the occupancy percentage for these three days. Calculate the RevPar. Forecast the rooms revenue for these days.

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Chapter 13
Classroom activity Case study : Short scenarios in revenue management
Scenario #1 Carolyn Hallie is a frequent guest of the hotel, usually staying a minimum of four days at a time. Because of her patronage and frequent guest recognition, she always receives a special discount of 10 percent. Carolyn always makes her reservations at least three weeks in advance. Aaron Scott is a reservations agent at the Harrison Hotel. Carolyn calls the hotel to make her usual reservation and Scott notices that the hotel is already at 85 percent occupancy due to a large group in town. Questions: What factors should Aaron take into account before quoting Carolyn a rate? Should the fact that she is a frequent guest have any effect on the rate Carolyn is quoted? Scenario #2 Barbara Conrade is a sales manager for the Harrison Hotel. Barbara just received a bulletin from the city Convention and Visitors Bureau with a list of city-wide and large conventions due in town for the next year. She notices a medical group nine months out booked at a local competitor that will fill that hotel. A few hours later, Barbara receives a call from a group leader asking for guestroom and meeting space over the same period as the medical group. The hotel currently has the guestrooms and meeting space to fill the request. Questions: What factors should Barbara consider in deciding whether to take the group? Under what circumstances would it be better to take the group and under what circumstances would it be better to close out group sales and concentrate on transient business for this period? Scenario #3 Bill Hughes is a new sales manager for the Harrison Hotel. Bill calls the Shaw Equipment Company to discuss the companys annual sales meeting, which is coming up in six months. The Shaw group has held this meeting at the hotel for many years. The dates Shaw Equipment usually wants are already taken and the hotel has a contract with the other group, Marvin Manufacturing. However, the hotel has availability a week later, when there is no business on the books at all at this time. Questions: Given this situation, what steps should Bill Hughes take now? What steps might have helped to prevent this situation? Scenario #4 The Harrison Hotel currently operates at approximately 74 percent occupancy for the year. Their rack rate averages about $92, and their cost per occupied room is $18.40. Hotel management knows that the market is very competitive and that an increase in the average rate may result in loss of occupancy. Question: If management increases the rate to $95, what occupancy must the hotel achieve in order to achieve the same net rooms revenue for the hotel? Scenario #5 The director of sales at the St. Clair Hotel, a convention and business-travel property, is attempting to develop a special two-night package that would help the hotel capitalize on the upcoming, city-wide Spring Fling Festival and help boost business during a typically low-occupancy weekend. So far, she knows that she wants to require a minimum two-night stay and double occupancy. In addition, she would like to include breakfast, dinner, and free parking, along with some small Spring Fling logo items. Rack rate is $110 per night. Question: What factors should management consider when making the decision to implement this package? Scenario #6 Mr. Kim Liang has been a frequent guest at the Educational Inn, staying at the Inn at least two nights each month for the past ten months and paying rack rate. When Mr. Liang called to book his most recent two-night stay, a reservations agent quoted him a frequent traveler's discount rate (15 percent below rack rate). Mr. Liang was pleasantly surprised. On the day of his arrival, the hotel was so overbooked it was forced to reject walk-in guests due to a lack of available rooms. Questions: Should the reservations agent have offered Mr. Liang a frequent traveler's discount? Why or why not?

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Scenario #7 Ms. Emily Lynn, reservations manager at the Educational Inn, is aware that the Mid-Atlantic Electronics Vendor convention is scheduled during mid-week (Wednesday and Thursday), six months in the future. As a result, all hotels in the neighboring communities are expected to be operating at 100 percent occupancy. Ms. Barbara Schmidt telephones the Inn and requests a single room for Wednesday night only. Questions: How should Ms. Lynn handle this reservation? What factors should be considered when determining whether to take this reservation? Scenario #8 Room demand at the 95-room Greentree Inn is seasonal. The weather, which has a large impact on the Inn's business, is most beautiful during August and harshest during February. The hotel typically sells out in August, while in February occupancy plummets to extremely low levels. Mr. Arnulfo Rodriguez, a travel agent, calls the Inn hoping to book a group of 30 people during August. He knows that this group plans to eat both breakfast and dinner in the hotel's dining room each day during its four-day stay. Mr. Rodriguez knows his group would appreciate and be influenced by even a minimal discount. Questions: Should the hotel accept this reservation? Why or why not? Scenario #9 Mr. and Mrs. Louis are planning a trip to visit their grandchildren. Knowing that the Educational Inn is near their destination, they call the hotel to make reservations for a four-night stay (Tuesday through Friday). During the week in question, the Educational Inn is facing high demand for both Tuesday and Wednesday nights, while Thursday and Friday appear to have significantly lower occupancy forecasts. While talking with the Louises, the reservations agent, following management instruction, quotes the hotels high rate (the rate applicable to the first night, a high-demand night). Even though they would like to stay at the Inn, the Louises consider the rate too high and decide to stay elsewhere. Questions: Did managements policy of quoting the highest to lowest rates serve the best interests of both the Louises and the Inn? What other strategies could have been used? Scenario #10 During a recent executive committee meeting at the 200-room Harrison Hotel, the reservations manager informed the group that her department is forecasting an extremely low room demand for December. One group that traditionally reserves 100 rooms at the hotel during a weekend in December has canceled its current reservation due to business setbacks. After lengthy discussion of the low occupancy problem, the marketing director suggests developing a special "Getaway Package" featuring a special low room rate designed to appeal to young couples living within a 15-mile radius of the hotel. Questions: Should the Harrison Hotel adopt such a "Getaway Package" promotion? Why or why not? Scenario #11 Today is an extremely low demand day at a destination hotel. Due to an overnight snowstorm, road conditions are hazardous and four groups scheduled to arrive this morning have canceled their room reservations. In addition, there is every indication that most of the other scheduled arrivals will be no-shows. A weary traveler, Ms. Holly Angel, arrives at the Educational Inn around 10 P.M., three hours later than expected. The front desk agent recognizes her as a frequent guest. Questions: Should the front desk agent upgrade her? Why or why not?

Case Number: 33311CA. The following industry experts helped develop this series of minicases: Richard M. Brooks, CHA, Vice President, TWE Group; Dr. Gabor Forgacs, Assistant Professor, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Canada; John J. Hogan, CHA, MHS, DirectorEducation and Training, Best Western International Inc., Phoenix, Arizona; Deborah M. Johnston, Manager of Training, Ramada Franchise Systems, Inc., Mesa, Arizona; Veronica Palacios, Property Training Manager, Days Inn Training, Knoxville, Tennessee; Andrew Rubinacci, Vice President, Revenue Management, Meristar Hotels & Resorts, Inc., Washington, D.C.; and Diana Turney, Regional Revenue Manager, Prime Hospitality Corp., Irving, Texas.

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Chapter 14
Group work : Classroom activity

Recruiting Selecting Turnover

Diversity

In combination with chapter 4 in your housekeeping textbook, draw up a mind map to cover the importance of human resources. Your map will need to include these two chapters, both from front office and housekeeping. You will note there are many similarities between the chapters, but there are a few essential differences which relate to each subject be sure that you highlight these. (Use the surrounding headings as a guide).

Hiring

Orientation Motivation Scheduling


Group work : Role play

Skills Training

(This activity may be combined with or related to a similar activity in your Housekeeping subject guide).
Throughout this chapter you will be learning about the 4-step training method. Use this training method to prepare, present, practice and follow-up a chosen front office skill. (eg; How to answer a telephone). Your training session should last no longer than 10 minutes You are encouraged to make use of visual aids (PowerPoint, DVD, flipcharts, etc.) This is a group assignment and you will be assessed by your peers (see peer assessment provided) 3 4 people in a group Creativity will be most beneficial awarding you maximum marks!

Chapter 3, 8, 11
TAKE NOTE: Activities will be demonstrated for you during your Opera computer lesson. At any point your lecturer may decide to use these as a component to contribute to your front office portfolio mark.

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6.2. Level Descriptors


Structure and Presentation

Mark
5/Excellent

Description
Introduction, Conclusion, Layout, Heading Introduction Excellent, clear and complete statement of purpose, goals and sections to follow. Conclusion Alternative solutions are considered, showing awareness that different interpretations of evidence may be possible. Layout Information presented using professional graphic design. Each section and question is started on a new page. Diagrams and charts are positioned for easy reference to text.

Professional Layout:
Cover page Title page Table of contents List of figures Introduction Body of assignment Conclusion Appendices References Headings All headings are clear, easy to identify and numbered for accurate referencing. Headings provide appropriate hierarchical information. Introduction Clear statement of purpose, goals and sections to follow. Conclusion Some limits or objections to the conclusion are acknowledged. Layout Graphic design is very good. All sections and questions are started on new pages. Diagrams and charts are positioned in appropriate text. Headings Most headings are easy to identify and numbered for accurate referencing. Numbering provide appropriate hierarchical information. Introduction Statement of purpose and majority of goals and sections to follow. Conclusion - A conclusion is based on evidence for one view only. Layout Graphic design is good. Sections and questions are started on new pages. Diagrams and charts are positioned appropriately. Headings Headings are easily identified. Numbering is done appropriately. Introduction Vague statement of purpose, goals and sections to follow. Conclusion A conclusion is stated without reference to supporting evidence. Layout Graphic design is mostly not suitable for professional project. Sections and questions are not started on new pages. Diagrams and charts are hard to link to appropriate text. Headings Headings are not clearly identifiable. No consistent numbering sequence. Introduction Introduction of topic with no clear purpose, goals or sections to follow. Conclusion No clear conclusion regarding findings made in research. Layout Poor graphic design. Sections and questions are not started on new pages. Diagrams and charts are poorly placed. Headings No, or unclear headings. No apparent numbering. Contents, Page numbering, Headers/Footers Contents list of components organised in order that they appear. Detail is provided regarding the titles or descriptions of each section or sub-section. Page numbers are provided that are aligned to the right of the page for easy reference to content. Page numbering All pages before page 1 of the introduction use lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi etc.). All pages beginning with page 1 of the Introduction use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4 etc.) Page numbers are not displayed on the title page, first page of the table of contents, page 1 of the introduction and the appendix divider page. Headers/Footers Headers and footers are used to provide referencing to research or student information. Student accurately made use of at least 4 of the above mentioned techniques Student accurately made use of at least 3 of the above mentioned techniques Student accurately made use of at least 2 of the above mentioned techniques Student failed to or poorly constructed the contents page, did not number pages or made use of headers or footers. Formal, Detailed, Accurate Bibliography Sources of information are assessed for reliability as a basis for selection of relevant information from a wide variety of sources. References to these sources are clear and fully detailed following the Harvard method as per example below: Bupp, Irwin C., Jr. and Robert Trietel. (1996) The Economics of Computer Power. Boston: MIT. Relevant information is selected from a variety of sources. References to sources are clear, but limited in detail. Information from a limited range of additional sources is included, although some may be irrelevant or inappropriate to the study. Sources are identified by incomplete or inadequate references. Page 26

4/Very Good

3/Good

2/Fair

1/Poor

5/Excellent

4/Very Good 3/Good 2/Fair 1/Poor

5/Excellent

4/Very Good 3/Good

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5/Excellent 4/Very Good 3/Good 2/Fair 1/Poor 5/Excellent 4/Very Good 3/Good 2/Fair 1/Poor

5/Excellent 4/Very Good 3/Good 2/Fair 1/Poor Excellent 90 100% Very Good 80 90% Good 70 80% Fair 60 70% Poor Below 60% 10/Excellent

8/Very Good

6/Good

4/Fair

2/Poor

Very little information is given beyond that provided by the original stimulus material. Sources of information are not mentioned. Information was not gathered beyond the provided text. Sources of information is not mentioned. Relevant diagrams in appropriate sections Pictures, diagrams, charts and or tables are used appropriately and effectively to convey information or illustrate concepts. Visual material is used to convey information or illustrate concepts. Visual material is merely decorative, rather than informative. There is little or no visual material (charts, graphs, pictures, etc.) Visual material is inappropriate. Language use, grammar, spelling The writing is concise, with full and effective use of relevant scientific terminology. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are almost faultless. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are generally sound, with adequate use of appropriate technical or scientific vocabulary. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of variable quality, with limited use of appropriate technical or scientific vocabulary. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of fair quality, with slight use of appropriate technical or scientific vocabulary. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of poor quality, with little or no use of appropriate technical or scientific vocabulary. Overall professionalism, appearance, impression Considerable care has been taken to match presentation and format to present issues and conclusions clearly and effectively to a chosen audience. Information is organised for effective communication of ideas, with content listing, page numbering etc as appropriate to aid location of key elements. The writing has an appropriate sequence or structure. The writing has acceptable sequence or structure. The writing has little or no structure. Content & Information Considers how different views described in the study can be supported by detailed scientific explanations. The quality of scientific evidence in sources is evaluated in relation to the reliability of any claims made. Provides a detailed review of the scientific knowledge needed to understand the issues studied. Claims and opinions are linked to the scientific evidence they are based on. Provides a basic outline of the main scientific ideas which are relevant to the case. Science content and data in sources is recognised. Provides some review of the scientific knowledge needed to understand the issues studies. Little use of scientific data. Only superficial mentions of science explanations, often not correctly applied to the case. Sources are uncritically quoted without distinguishing between scientific evidence and unsupported claims. Insight & Originality Excellent, effective presentation of case. Logical, organised and accurate description of main issues. Identification of key points of case and suggestion of approaches for their solution. Comprehensive understanding of current ideas and controversies relating to the case topics. Evidence of critical evaluation and discussion of solutions. Able to extrapolate using evidence from the literature and critically evaluate evidence. Effective presentation of case. Logical, organised and accurate description of main issues. Identification of key points of case and suggestion of approaches for their solution. Very good understanding of current ideas and controversies relating to case topics. Critical evaluation and ability to understand available evidence. Good description of case. Accurate report of main issues. Identification of key points of case and suggestion of approaches for their solution. Good understanding of current ideas ad controversies relating to the case topics. Some critical evaluation and ability to understand evidence available. Fair description of case. Little logic in organisation of description of main issues. Vague identification of key points of case and suggestion of approaches for their solution. No apparent understanding of current issues and controversies relating to case topics. Little evaluation and ability to understand evidence available. Poor presentation of case and inadequate understanding of main problems. Inaccurate identification of key points of case and suggestion of approaches for their solution. Poor evaluation and ability to understand evidence available.

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Oral Presentation
Oral Presentation Assessment Tool

Assessment Criteria

EXCELLENT

GOOD

AVERAGE

BELOW AVERAGE

NOT YET COMPETENT

Introduction

10

Eye Contact

10

Clearly Explained Non Verbal Communication Visual Aids Group Participation Extra Information All Questions Answered Originality

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Conclusion

10

Totals

MARK ACHIEVED %

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
Chapter 1 The Lodging Industry
7. The owner/manager of the Dew Drop Inn has a great deal of flexibility in responding to changes in local market conditions but cannot afford broad advertising exposure and pays relatively high prices for supplies. The Dew Drop Inn is probably a(n) ______________ property. a. chain property b. franchisee c. corporate d. independent 8. A group of investors is planning to develop a conference center on the outskirts of a major city. Financing opportunities depend on assuring the bank that the property will be operated by a professional staff. Which of the following would be the best option for the investors if none of them has a hospitality management background? a. forming a hotel chain b. contracting with a management company c. joining a referral group d. becoming an independent property 9. Which of the following types of hotels would likely appeal most to pleasure/leisure travelers? a. airport hotels b. resort hotels c. residential hotels d. convention hotels 10. Which of the following are primarily designed to create and sustain brand loyalty among guests? a. quality service initiatives b. frequent traveler programs c. amenity innovations d. internal marketing programs

1. Identifying smaller groups within a target market and developing products and services to satisfy these groups is called: a. franchising. b. market segmentation. c. demand marketing. d. supply marketing. 2. Which of the following is often a characteristic of an extended-stay hotel? a. several kinds of food and beverage services b. recreational and exercise facilities c. conference and meeting rooms d. limited housekeeping services 3. Which of the following features or services is likely to be found at an economy/limited service property? a. banquet rooms b. small meeting rooms c. room service d. uniformed services 4. The level of service quality in hotels is determined by: a. independent rating services. b. increasing service variability. c. consistent service delivery. d. the variety of amenities offered. 5. Hotels that maintain a relatively high ratio of staff members to guests are likely to provide _____________ service. a. economy/limited b. mid-range c. world-class d. quality 6. Which of the following types of hotels is least likely to offer uniformed guest services? a. world-class service hotels b. first-class service hotels c. mid-range service hotels d. economy/limited service hotels
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Chapter 2
1.

Hotel Organization

7.

Which of the following best describes a mission statement? a. a description of a companys target markets and how to reach them b. a five-year operational plan for increasing revenues c. a statement of the organizations unique purpose d. an explanation of the activities an organization must perform to achieve its defined goals Activities and standards that an organization must successfully perform or achieve to effectively carry out its mission are called: a. strategies. b. tactics. c. goals. d. responsibilities. On a hotel organization chart, solid lines indicate relationships that involve: a. direct accountability. b. a high degree of communication and cooperation. c. functional equality. d. an indirect reporting relationship. In a a. b. c. d. In a the: a. b. c. d. large full-service hotel, the front office manager reports to the: general manager. chief engineer. rooms division manager. security director. large full-service hotel, the catering director is most likely to report to general manager. food and beverage director. director of marketing and sales. front office manager. 8.

Judy works in the rooms division of a large hotel. Her primary responsibilities are to sell guestrooms, register guests, and maintain guest accounts. Judy works in the ______________ department. a. front office b. reservations c. sales d. uniformed services Which of the following departments employs the largest staff in the rooms division? a. the front office b. reservations c. uniformed services d. housekeeping Which of the following hotel divisions or departments would be primarily responsible for maintaining the grounds surrounding a hotel? a. rooms division b. uniform services department c. housekeeping department d. engineering division

2.

3.

9.

4.

5.

10. Which of the following allows employees to vary the times they start and end work? a. compressed work schedule b. flextime c. job sharing d. reasonable accommodation

6.

Which of the following areas of a hotel is a support center? a. hotel operated gift shop b. food and beverage department c. housekeeping department d. front office department
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Chapter 3

Front Office Operations

1. Which of the following is a primary front office concern during the occupancy stage of the guest cycle? a. security b. account settlement c. room assignment d. maintaining the guest history record 2. Uniformed service functions are primary activities in which of the following stages of the guest cycle? a. pre-arrival and arrival b. arrival and occupancy c. occupancy and departure d. arrival and departure 3. A business traveler arrives without a reservation at the Downtown Plaza Hotel. He has several bags with product samples from his business and will be demonstrating them to clients over the next few days. Which of the following types of rooms would best meet the travelers needs? a. connecting rooms b. adjacent rooms c. a suite d. adjoining rooms 4. Sylvia Pennypincher checks into room 207 for a one-night stay. Early the next morning, Pennypincher leaves the hotel without paying her bill. When checking the 4 P.M. housekeeping report, the front desk finds room 207 listed as vacant and ready for sale and realizes that the guest was a: a. due out. b. sleeper. c. skipper. d. sleep out. 5. On March 1, a guest checks into room 233 and reserves the room for the next three nights. On March 2, the occupancy report from the front desk would list the status of room 233 as: a. DNCO (did not check out). b. a late check-out. c. a sleeper. d. a stayover.

6. Which of the following front office forms typically contains personal guest data, the length of stay, and the method of settlement? a. room rack slip b. registration card c. information rack slip d. credit card voucher 7. Which of the following eliminates the need for a telephone operator to intervene and record the times and charges of calls made by in-house guests? a. call detection b. automated call dispensing c. a call accounting system d. a premium-call system 8. Which of the following types of front office software enables a hotel to generate rooms reports, revenue reports, and forecasting reports? a. general management software b. guest accounting software c. rooms management software d. reservations management software 9. Which of the following front office applications of a computer-based property management system monitors predetermined guest-credit limits? a. reservations module b. guest accounting module c. rooms management module d. point-of-sale module 10. Which of the following system interfaces with a hotels property management system allows guest account transactions to be quickly transmitted from remote revenue centers and posted automatically to electronic guest folios? a. a point-of-sale system b. general ledger software c. financial reporting software d. an inventory control system

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Chapter 4

Reservations

1. The average length of stay of guests at the Ultra Resort is six days. To avoid losing revenue from no shows during peak season, the resort requires guests to pay room charges in full before their day of arrival. This type of reservation is best described as: a. advance deposit. b. prepayment. c. MCO. d. corporate. 2. Mr. Barnes made a reservation at the Metro Hotel. He arrived at 9 P.M. only to find that the hotel was full. The room held for him was released for sale at 6 P.M. Based on this information, which of the following types of reservations did Mr. Barnes probably make? a. non-guaranteed reservation b. credit card guaranteed reservation c. travel agent guaranteed reservation d. corporate guaranteed reservation 3. Central reservations offices typically exchange room availability information with member properties and communicate reservation transactions: a. weekly. b. daily. c. hourly. d. as they occur. 4. If a guestrooms status is blocked, which of the following is true? a. b. c. d. The guestroom has been set aside for use by a group and may be reserved only by a member of that group. The guestroom has been reserved by a member of a group that has a contract with the hotel for a number of rooms. The guestroom is among a number of rooms that cannot be reserved or assigned until all other rooms outside the block are sold. The guestroom is an out-of-order room.

6. Which of the following is the greatest advantage of a computerized reservation system? a. creation of waiting lists for high demand periods b. generation of daily expected arrivals lists c. generation of a report summarizing reservations by room type d. improved accuracy of room availability information 7. The Always-Booked Hotel sent Ms. Garcia a no-show bill for room and tax charges. Upon receiving the bill, she called the hotel and was able to have the bill rescinded because she had a: a. confirmation number. b. credit card guaranteed reservation. c. travel agent guaranteed reservation. d. non-guaranteed reservation. 8. Which of the following reservation system reports would help managers assess the volume of reservations activity on a daily basis? a. an expected arrivals and departures report b. a rooms availability report c. a regret and denial report d. a reservations transaction report 9. Which of the following front office computer applications would help managers track commissions payable to agents for booking business at their hotels? a. reservations module b. rooms management module c. guest accounting module d. financial management module 10. Which of the following terms is used to classify lost business when potential guests choose not to make a reservation? a. denial b. regret c. turnaway d. no show

5. The status of a groups reservation changes from blocked to booked as: a. the cut-off date approaches. b. the cut-off date passes. c. group members reserve rooms. d. group members cancel rooms.
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Chapter 5

Registration

1. The Ultra Hotel is a 600-room, fully computerized property. To speed the check-in process, the vast majority of guests are preregistered by accessing information from: a. global distribution systems. b. reservation records. c. point-of-sale systems. d. credit/debit card companies. 2. Guests are likely to have a no-post status in the hotels sales outlets when their method of payment at check-in is: a. cash in advance. b. VISA. c. MasterCard. d. American Express. 3. The report that indicates which rooms are occupied and which guests are expected to check out the following day is called the: a. registration record. b. occupancy report. c. housekeeping status report. d. room status discrepancy report. 4. In the short term, a rooms readiness for sale is determined by its _____________ status. a. reservation b. housekeeping c. registration d. preregistration 5. To avoid room status discrepancies, the housekeeping status report should be compared with the ___________ report. a. housekeeping b. occupancy c. room status discrepancy d. Registration

6. At the Burnt Tree Hotel, meals are priced separately from guestroom charges. This arrangement is called the _______________ Plan. a. American b. Modified American c. European d. Asian 7. Which of the following is issued by credit card companies to assure hotels that a guests credit card is valid? a. status code b. approval/denial number c. transaction code d. authorization code 8. The maximum amount in credit card charges a hotel can accept without requesting special authorization on behalf of a credit card holder is called the: a. room rate range. b. PIA. c. floor limit. d. post status. 9. A hotels practice of extending credit to guests by agreeing to bill the guest or the guests company for charges is called: a. direct billing. b. account billing. c. transfer settlement. d. pre-authorized settlement. 10. If an arriving guest would like the assistance of a bellperson, after assigning the guestroom the front desk agent should: a. hand the guestroom key to the guest, introduce the bellperson, and tell the bellperson the room number. b. introduce the bellperson, hand the key to the bellperson, and tell the guest the room number. c. introduce the bellperson and hand the key to the guest without stating the room number. d. introduce the bellperson and hand the key to the bellperson without stating the room number.

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Chapter 6

Communication and Guest Service

1. Which of the following is the preferred way to handle telephone messages for guests? a. Place the message slip in the guests mail and message rack slot until the guest requests it. b. Slide the message slip under the door of the guests room. c. Time-stamp the message slip, place it in an envelope, and deliver it to the guests room as soon as possible. d. Time-stamp the message slip, place it in the guests mail and message rack slot, and switch on any in-room message indicators. 2. After checking in to room 208 shortly before 2 P.M., Ms. Roberts reported to the front desk an annoying faucet leak in her room. At 8 P.M. that evening, Julia, one of the front desk agents, called Ms. Roberts to confirm that the faucet was fixed and to ask if there was anything else the hotel could do to make her stay more comfortable. The call to Ms. Roberts was prompted by Julias review of the front desks: a. reader board. b. information directory. c. transaction file. d. arrival list. 3. At check-in, Mr. Stubbs asked for directions to the nearest automatic teller machine. To help Mr. Stubbs, the front desk agent would refer to the front desks: a. reader board. b. information directory. c. log book. d. group rsum book. 4. The City Center Hotel is hosting the regional conference of a mechanical engineers association. Several late arrivals attending the conference inquired at the front desk about that evenings off-site entertainment function. Front desk agents would find the information recorded in the: a. reader board. b. information directory. c. log book. d. group rsum book.

5. Janet, the new front office manager at the Crystal Center Hotel, needed an overview of the recurring problems, issues, and activities at the front desk in relation to guest services. The general manager suggested that part of her orientation should be to carefully review the front desks: a. reader board. b. information directory. c. transaction file. d. arrival list. 6. Joe Gontram, the sales manager of a mid-service suburban hotel, regularly visits competing hotels in the area to discover which groups they are hosting and what functions are being held at them. Joe would be able to unobtrusively gather this information from each hotels: a. reader board. b. information directory. c. log book. d. group rsum book. 7. Which of the following is a recommended procedure for handling a guest complaint? a. Give the guest your undivided attention. b. Tell the guest what can be done, offering choices for resolution. c. Suggest that the problem is not as serious as the guest believes. d. a and b 8. Split folios are most often requested by __________ travelers. a. pleasure/leisure b. business c. international d. elderly 9. Adele called the front desk to complain that the air conditioning in her guestroom was not working. This is an example of a(n) __________ complaint. a. service-related b. attitudinal c. mechanical d. unusual 10. How should hotel personnel regard guest complaints? a. Every complaint should be welcomed as an opportunity to enhance guest relations. b. Complaints should be viewed as inconvenient interruptions to the work routine. c. Complaints should be ignored, if possible. d. Guest complaints should not be taken seriously unless the guest is angry.

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Chapter 7

Security and the Lodging Industry


6. A hotels contract security company should be responsible for supervising: a. the hotels in-house security team. b. the hotels security director. c. contract security employees. d. off-duty police officers working as security officers for the hotel. 7. Even where the law permits security officers to make a citizens arrest, they should do so only: a. when a guest is under suspicion of burglary. b. when a guest is under suspicion of credit card fraud. c. if a sworn police officer cannot respond in time. d. after receiving the approval of the hotels general manager. 8. Which of the following is an appropriate action for a hotels in-house security officer? a. asking questions following an incident b. use of deadly force c. search of a guests room for evidence d. detaining all suspects involved in an incident 9. Compensatory damages are awarded: a. b. c. d. to punish a defendant for outrageous conduct. to the plaintiff for pain and suffering. only when punitive damages are also awarded. based on the emotions of the plaintiff.

1. At the SafeWay Hotel, each room attendant is issued one electronic key that is coded to provide access to the rooms he/she is assigned to clean for that day. These keys are called: a. floor keys. b. section masters. c. building masters. d. E-keys. 2. Which of the following statements about a hotel security program is false? a. Due to lost or stolen keys, hotels typically stock extra keys for each safe deposit box. b. Hotels evict visitors who have no specific reason for being on the property. c. Electronic locking systems recode keys every time a new guest checks in. d. Most guestroom locks have a deadbolt mechanism. 3. Which of the following is a common hotel security procedure? a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. require identification before issuing a room key to guests never mention a guests room number aloud issue E-keys to all hotel managers and supervisors a and b Standard security procedures apply across the lodging industry. Managers should look upon the theft of hotel towels, ash trays, and so on as just the cost of doing business. Security information for employees should be tailored to fit the needs of their specific jobs. Hotels are required by law to have security staff available and on the property 24 hours a day.

4. Which of the following statements about lodging security issues is true?

5. The general manager of a large, mid-market hotel wants to hire off-duty police officers as part-time security staff. Which of the following statements about off-duty police officers is false? a. They may be better able to identify known criminals. b. They are oriented more toward crime prevention than the apprehension of criminals. c. They may have superior training in dealing with emergencies. d. They might be fatigued after already working a full duty shift.
Issued: 2013

10. Which of the following factors helps in determining foreseeability at a given property? a. the visibility of local police in the surrounding community b. the prior incidence of that type or similar types of crime on the premises c. the crime rate of the surrounding community d. b and c

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Chapter 8

Front Office Accounting

1. Mr. Dubois departed the Metro Hotel without settling his account. Responsibility for collecting the account would fall to the: a. front desk agent on duty when Mr. Dubois departed. b. front office manager. c. fraud department. d. accounting department. 2. Ms. Sylvan paid an advance deposit of $300 when she reserved a room at the Convention Center Hotel. Upon check-in, her account would have a: a. debit balance of $300. b. credit balance of $300. c. no-post status. d. house limit status. 3. Ms. Tremain works in an office complex adjacent to the Travelers Inn and joined the Inns health club. Membership entitles her to use the fitness facilities during her lunch hour and use a guestroom to change and shower. Her account at the front desk would be classified as a(n) _______________ folio. a. non-guest b. guest c. master d. employee 4. The difference between total payments and total charges to an account is called the: a. account receivable. b. account balance. c. debit. d. credit. 5. A summary grouping of accounts is called a(n): a. folio. b. account balance. c. ledger. d. invoice. 6. Which of the following types of guests would be least likely to have a high balance account?

a. b. c. d.

a a a a

business traveler paying by credit card leisure traveler paying by credit card paid-in-advance guest meeting planner paying by direct bill

7. If a guest account is approaching its floor limit, it may be identified by the front office auditor as a(n) ____________ account. a. high risk b. unbalanced c. restricted-purchase d. PIA 8. Cash disbursed by the hotel on behalf of a guest and charged to the guests account is called a(n): a. charge purchase. b. paid-out. c. allowance. d. due back. 9. After the first night of her three-night stay, Ms. Welk complained about the noise from the lounge on the floor below her room. The front desk agent assigned Ms. Welk another room for the rest of her stay and decreased her folio balance by $25 as compensation for the inconvenience. This type of transaction is called a(n): a. account correction. b. account allowance. c. account transfer. d. cash advance. 10. Mr. Blythe and one of his important clients, Mr. Dye, were staying at the James Hotel. They had dinner together in the hotels restaurant and Mr. Dye charged the bill to his room while Mr. Blythe was out of the dining room. Later that night, Mr. Blythe asked the front desk agent to take the restaurant charge off his clients bill and put it on his own account. This transaction is called a(n): a. account correction. b. account allowance. c. account transfer. d. cash advance.

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Chapter 9

Check-Out and Account Settlement

1. When a guest checks out and settles his or her account, the rooms status changes from occupied to: a. stayover. b. on-change. c. due out. d. ready for sale. 2. At registration, Mr. Virgo used his credit card to establish credit with the hotel. At check-out, Mr. Virgo can settle his account by: a. credit card. b. cash. c. approved direct billing. d. all of the above. 3. Which of the following is a front office procedure that occurs during the departure stage of the guest cycle? a. checking for mail and messages b. updating the account aging schedule c. posting outstanding charges d. a and c 4. All of the following settlement methods transfer a guests account balance from the guest ledger to the city ledger except: a. cash payment in full. b. credit card payment. c. direct billing. d. combined settlement methods. 5. Mr. Vaughn used the express check-out service during his stay at the Boston Marquee Hotel. When he received his credit card bill, the amount charged to his account was greater than the total recorded on his express check-out folio. This was probably due to: a. paid-outs. b. double billing. c. late charges. d. accounting errors.

6. Which of the following settlement options will work with express check-out and self check-out? a. cash payment b. credit card payment c. direct billing d. b and c 7. Establishing an accounts receivable billing policy and procedure includes determining the: a. number of days between billings. b. amount of anticipated room sales. c. estimated occupancy for the next 30 days. d. nature of pre-settlement verification activities. 8. The point-of-sale system at the hotels restaurant crashed during the night audit. The next morning, the front office manager and the restaurant manager implemented a manual back-up system of paper vouchers to minimize: a. walk-outs. b. walk-ins. c. late charges. d. due backs. 9. Adding charges and a note signature on file to a guests previously settled credit card account is: a. illegal. b. a common practice for collecting late charges. c. a typical way to handle skippers. d. the usual way hotels settle disputed guest bills. 10. In most instances, the information needed for a guest history record can be gathered from: a. the guests registration card and folio. b. a questionnaire sent to past guests. c. the front desk agents observations at check-out. d. the front office log book and relevant group rsums.

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Chapter 10

The Role of Housekeeping in Hospitality Operations

1. Which of the following results from a communication problem between housekeeping and the front office? a. lock-out situations b. late check-outs c. on-change rooms d. room status discrepancies 2. Which of the following reports are used by the executive housekeeper to schedule rooms for cleaning? a. the current days occupancy report b. the previous nights occupancy report c. the current housekeeping status report d. the previous days housekeeping status report 3. Laura, the executive housekeeper at the Kings Arms Hotel, wants to purchase new vacuums for the room attendants. In order to complete her cost/benefit analysis, she needs information about the frequency and costs of repairs to the current vacuums. Which of the following documents kept by the engineering/maintenance department would give Laura the information she needs? a. preventive maintenance records b. equipment data cards c. equipment history records d. scheduled maintenance records 4. Final responsibility for the cleanliness and overall appearance of banquet and meeting rooms usually rests with the: a. general manager. b. convention services staff. c. banquet staff. d. housekeeping staff. 5. Housekeepings cleaning responsibilities are typically determined by the: a. b. c. d. general manager. executive housekeeper. rooms division director. manager of operations.

6. Which of the following is used to plan the work of the housekeeping department by specifying items cleaned and maintained by housekeeping staff? a. job breakdowns b. performance standards c. work orders d. area inventory lists 7. Which of the following planning tools helps the executive housekeeper specify the quality of work needed to clean or maintain items within a particular area of the hotel? a. performance standards b. a calendar plan of special cleaning projects c. an area frequency list d. productivity standards 8. Which of the following statements is true? a. b. To determine realistic productivity standards, an executive housekeeper should conduct time and motion studies on all tasks necessary to clean and maintain each item on an areas inventory list. Before determining the number of guestrooms that a room attendant should be expected to clean during a work shift, the executive housekeeper must first establish performance standards for guestroom cleaning. A calendar plan for deep cleaning of guestrooms should schedule the majority of work for periods of high occupancy. Productivity standards for guestroom cleaning are uniform throughout the lodging industry. Differences between actual expenses and budgeted expenses are called variances. Productivity standards for room attendants are the same for economy hotels and all-suite hotels. The executive housekeeper should review performance standards at least once a year. Performance standards for guestroom cleaning vary from hotel to hotel within the lodging industry.

c. d.

9. Which of the following statements is false? a. b. c. d.

10. Which of the following would be considered part of non-recycled inventories maintained by the housekeeping department? a. cleaning supplies b. cribs c. floor buffers d. irons

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Chapter 11

The Front Office Audit


7. The Roadside Inn is an 80-room motel with only one or two front desk agents on duty at any time. To ensure that no single employee is wholly responsible for accounting for all phases of a transaction, room and room tax charges should be posted by the: a. general manager. b. day shift desk agent. c. accounts receivable clerk. d. front office auditor. 8. Which of the following is typically considered the most important outcome of the front office audit? a. the daily operations report b. department detail and summary reports c. reconciliation of room status discrepancies d. verification and posting of room rates 9. The first step in a typical front office routine is to: a. verify all room rates. b. post room and tax charges. c. balance all departments. d. complete outstanding postings. 10. Which of the following is an online internal accounting file that supports account postings originating from an operating department? a. update file b. master folio c. control folio d. variance folio

1. Performing the front office audit requires attention to: a. staffing considerations. b. security issues. c. guest credit restrictions. d. wage rates. 2. Which of the following is a function of the front office audit? a. b. c. d. ensuring the separation of front office job functions balancing all front office accounts resolving room status discrepancies b and c

3. Preparing a daily summary of the cash, check, and credit card activities that occurred at the front desk is the role of the: a. front office manager. b. front office auditor. c. controller. d. front desk supervisor. 4. All the accounts listed on a high balance report are: a. guest and non-guest accounts that have reached or exceeded assigned credit limits. b. non-guest accounts. c. guest accounts that are due to check out the next day. d. guest accounts that have reached or exceeded assigned credit limits. 5. Independent documentation by different hotel departments that verifies transactions posted to guest accounts enables the front office auditor to: a. monitor high balance accounts. b. reconcile front office accounts with revenue center and departmental records. c. resolve room status discrepancies. d. ensure proper room and tax postings. 6. Which of the following is a supporting document verifying a hotel/guest transaction? a. the cash register tape from a hotels coffee shop b. guest checks from a hotels dining room c. a transcript of maintenance repairs d. a and b
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a.

Chapter 12

Planning and Evaluating Operations


b. c. d.

1. The front office manager and the human resources manager of the Metro Convention Hotel plan to meet and develop selection criteria that will help the hotel hire the best job applicants for open front office positions. Their work will affect which of the following management functions the most? a. evaluating b. leading c. controlling d. staffing 2. Which of the following is a special room rate offered to guests in affiliated organizations such as travel agencies and airlines because of potential referral business? a. commercial rate b. incentive rate c. promotional rate d. complimentary rate 3. The Snow Ski Resort offers a special rate that includes the room charge, breakfast and dinner, and all-day lift tickets. This is an example of a ____________ rate. a. corporate b. group c. rack d. package plan 4. Rate wars among the economy, rooms-only properties in a warm-weather destination area have resulted in paper-thin profit margins for most of the competing properties. This situation can result from a __________ approach to pricing. a. market condition b. rule-of-thumb c. Hubbart Formula d. cost mark-up 5. Which of the following statistics helps the front office manager decide whether to sell rooms to walk-in guests on nights when the hotel nears full occupancy? a. percentage of walk-ins b. percentage of no-shows c. multiple occupancy percentage d. average daily rate 6. The percentage of overstays is equal to:

the number of overstay rooms divided by the number of expected room check-outs. the number of overstay rooms divided by the number of actual room check-outs. the number of stayover rooms divided by the number of expected room arrivals. the number of overstay rooms divided by the number of reservations.

7. Given the following data, calculate the percentage of understays: Number of room no-shows 30 Number of room walk-ins 60 Number of overstay rooms 40 Number of understay rooms 20 Number of room reservations 300 Number of room arrivals 340 Number of expected check-outs 380 a. b. c. d. 6.67% 5.89% 5.26% cannot be determined from data

8. Given the following data, forecast annual rooms revenue: Total rooms 80,500 Rooms available for sale 80,000 Occupancy percentage 80% Reservations 65,000 Average daily rate $80 a. b. c. d. $5,152,000 $5,120,000 $4,160,000 cannot be determined from data

9. Which of the following statistics is most helpful to managers when estimating expenses for front office operations? a. average daily rate b. average cost per guest c. average rate per guest d. cost per occupied room 10. Departmental income statements are called: a. line items. b. revenue summaries. c. schedules. d. consolidations.

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Chapter 13

Revenue Management

1. The DeLong Hotel has three different rate categories of rooms. Forecasts show midweek low-demand dates for the higher-priced executive floor rooms. Using principles of capacity management, the reservations manager should: a. overbook rooms in lower-priced categories and, if necessary, upgrade arriving guests to higher-priced rooms. b. raise the rates for the executive floor rooms. c. offer the executive floor rooms as part of a midweek escape package to local couples with children. d. a and c 2. Which of the following revenue management methods might reject a reservation request for a one-night stay, even though rooms are available for that particular night? a. capacity management b. discount allocation c. duration control d. reverse yield 3. The potential average single rate would equal the rack rate of single rooms if the hotel: a. did not vary its single rate by room type. b. sold only single rooms. c. had 100 percent occupancy. d. used a weighted average to calculate the potential average rate. 4. The Bocker Hotel has three types of single rooms. There are 80 type A rooms with a rack rate of $75; 90 type B rooms with a rack rate of $80; and 100 type C rooms with a rack rate of $90. What is the potential average single rate for the hotel? a. $79.80 b. $81.50 c. $82.22 d. $83.90 5. The Royal Flint Hotel has 380 rooms. At 70 percent occupancy, 120 of the 266 rooms sold are normally occupied by more than one person. The multiple occupancy percentage would be __________ percent. a. 31.6 b. 45.1 c. 64.3 d. 70.0
Issued: 2013

6. Given the following revenue management is: Multiple Occupancy Percentage Rate Spread Potential Average Single Rate Actual Average Rate Achievement Factor a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. $85. $95. $107.50. $117.50.

data, the potential average rate 50% $20 $97.50 $85.00 79.1%

7. In revenue management, the yield statistic is equal to: potential rooms revenue divided by actual rooms revenue. the occupancy percentage times the achievement factor. the average daily rate times the rate spread. the occupancy percentage times the average daily rate.

8. Given the following revenue management data, the room rate achievement factor is __________ percent. Occupancy Percentage 72% Actual Average Rate $95 Potential Average Rate $125 Rate Spread $15 a. c. 75. 86. b. 76. d. 90

9. When attempting to maximize revenue and determining whether to accept additional group business, managers should consider the: a. group booking pace. b. booking lead time. c. wash factor. d. displacement of transient business. 10. What is the hurdle rate? a. b. c. d. the number of rooms that are set aside to fulfill minimum length-ofstay requirements on a given date the highest rate at which a room can be sold on a given date, based on revenue management projections the number of rooms that are set aside as closed to arrival on a given date the lowest rate at which a room can be sold on a given date, based on anticipated demand
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Chapter 14

Managing Human Resources

1. David works as a bellperson and as a front desk agent at the 400-room Horizon Hotel. Working two different positions helps him maintain full-time employment status at the hotel and brings variety to his work. The front office benefits from Davids skills because the manager can schedule him to work while staffing around other employees vacations and absences. Which of the following best describes the internal recruiting strategy that the front office manager used with David? a. cross-training b. succession planning c. pay for performance d. job sharing 2. Marys current position at the 500-room Sun Resort Hotel is second-shift front office supervisor. She directs the work of the entire front office staff during the 3 P.M. to 11 P.M. shift. Several years ago, Mary returned to the work force after 20 years of raising a family. She was hired at the hotel as a reservations agent. The front office manager quickly recognized Marys solid work habits and her ability to work well with the staff. After Marys first year of employment, the manager provided the kind of coaching and professional development opportunities that eventually qualified Mary for her current position. Which of the following best describes the internal recruiting strategy that the front office manager used to help advance Marys career and fill a key position in the department? a. cross-training b. succession planning c. pay for performance d. job sharing 3. Recent bookings at the 250-room Carefree Resort have dramatically changed next months occupancy forecast from a traditionally low 60 percent to a very busy 85 percent. Which of the following recruiting strategies would be least appropriate for the rooms division manager to take to quickly staff up the front desk, uniformed services, and housekeeping departments? a. temporary employment agencies b. leased employees c. posting job openings d. employee referrals
Issued: 2013

4. Which of the following types of interview questions is most likely to lead job applicants to respond with answers they feel the interviewer wants to hear? a. open-ended questions b. eclectic questions c. stress questions d. closed-ended questions 5. When Ricardo, the front office manager of a 250-room hotel, sat down to interview Robin for an open front desk position, he immediately found out they graduated from the same high school. Throughout the rest of the interview, Ricardo evaluated Robins responses in a favorable light. Which of the following selection errors or biases affected Ricardos interview with Robin? a. devils horns effect b. similarity error c. contrast error d. halo effect 6. Carrie, the reservations manager at a downtown convention hotel, always interviews many applicants for an open position. She tends to identify an early favorite, then from that point on compare all the other applicants to that person. Which of the following errors or biases is most likely to affect Carries selection technique? a. devils horns effect b. similarity error c. contrast error d. halo effect

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7. Lois, the newly hired front office manager at the 450-room Traverse Hotel, inherited a department without a formal training program. Most of the current staff learned their jobs by following an experienced employee for two days and then doing the best they could on their own. This led to inconsistent performance and low guest satisfaction ratings. Loiss first step toward creating a systematic training program would be to: a. evaluate the current staff and terminate underperforming employees. b. conduct a job analysis for each front office position. c. identify the top performers in the department and coach them as department trainers. d. ask open-ended questions of all the employees to determine the state of their morale. 8. An effective way to help employees practice a task during a training session is to: a. have them demonstrate the task. b. administer a test to identify what they need to review. c. provide them with a copy of the appropriate job breakdown. d. have them watch you demonstrate the task. 9. Which of the following focuses training techniques on the actual on-thejob application of what is learned in training sessions? a. coaching b. cross-training c. job analysis d. job expansion 10. Which of the following focuses on an employees job performance and outlines steps the employee can take to improve job skills and performance? a. job analysis b. referral program c. incentive program d. performance appraisal

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Portfolio of Evidence
Chapter 1 14 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 9 10 12 14 14 8, 11, 13 17 Activity Class participation : Overall discussion activities Group work : Management companies Homework Exercise 1 : Star grading Case study : A compass for the Driftwood Inn Group work : Registration card Homework Exercise 3 : Nomsas Getaway Lodge Expedia.com report feedback Video : Check-in/check-out Twin towers Homework Exercise 5

Student number: ___________


Point Average % Load 5% 2,5% 5% 2% 5% 2% 5% 5% 2,5% 2% 5% 5% 5% 2% 5% 5% 2% 5% 2,5% 30% 100% Percentage Achieved

Group work : Oral barriers to effective communication Video : Fawlty Towers Homework Exercise 6 : Security poster Homework Exercise 7 : Toothbrush Case study : Playing dirty in your hotel room Class participation : Calculations activity Group work : HR mind map Group work : Role play 4 step training method Opera Activities Mid term test Totals

Please take note that the above is simply a guideline. Activities and % may be changed/added/removed at the lecturers discretion.

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