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LI NI U

Trong nhng nm gn y, do s pht trin mnh m ca cng ngh thng tin v vin thng nn nhu cu trao i thng tin ngy cng tng. nc ta bn cnh cc dch v truyn thng, cc dch v phi thoi khc khng ngng c a vo s dng. Vi kh nng hin c ca mng vin thng v mng truy nhp Vit Nam hin nay vic p ng c tt c cc nhu cu ca khch hng l mt vn . Cc cng ngh xDSL trc y cung cp c phn no cc nhu cu ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, vi nhu cu ngy cng tng v kh nng cung cp dch v v c tc ng truyn dn, nht l khi ngi dng khng cn tha mn vi tc hin nay ca cng ngh ADSL, h i hi tc ca dch v cao hn na. Khi cng ngh VDSL s ph hp cho vic cung cp cc dch v bng rng tc cao ti khch hng. VDSL l dch v cho php khch hng c th va truy nhp Internet, va gi in thoi v fax. y l cng ngh c tc truyn dn ln nht trong h cng ngh xDSL. Hin nay, bt u c th nghim ti Vit Nam. Tuy nhin y l mt cng ngh mi nn phi tip tc nghin cu vi mong mun tm hiu su hn v cng ngh ny nht l v kh nng ng dng, vic p dng vo thc t v c tnh ca k thut ca n. c th la chn c phng php ti u nht ng dng vo cho mng Vit Nam. V vy em chn ti Cng ngh VDSL v kh nng ng dng. n tt nghip Cng ngh VDSL c chia lm ba chng gm: Chng 1: Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp. Trnh by mt cch tng qut v xu hng pht trin ca mng vin thng trong thi gian ti v s pht trin cc cng ngh truy nhp bng rng. Chng 2: Cng ngh VDSL. Tm hiu cc c im, c tnh ca k thut VDSL. Chng 3: Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp. Nu ra cc vn cn tn ti trong vic pht trin cng ngh VDSL, v ng dng ca VDSL trong mng quang th ng. Em xin t lng bit n su sc n cc thy c trong Hc Vin v khoa Vin Thng du dt em trong sut qu trnh hc tp em c c nhng kin thc qu bu ngy hm nay. c bit trong thi gian lm n em nhn c s hng dn ch bo tn tnh ca Th.S Nguyn Vit Hng.
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Do hn ch v mt thi gian cng nh trnh ca bn thn nn trong n ny s khng trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em rt mong nhn c s gp ca cc thy c v cc bn n ny c hon thin hn. Em xin chn thnh cm n!

Sinh Vin

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MC LC
LI NI U...............................................................................................................i MC LC................................................................................................................... iii DANH SCH SCH CC HNH V........................................................................v DANH SCH CC BNG BIU.............................................................................vii CC THUT NG VIT TT..............................................................................viii CHNG I TNG QUAN V MNG VIN THNG V MNG TRUY NHP ..................................................................................................................................... 11 1.1 Xu hng pht trin mng vin thng hin nay..................................................11 1.1.1 Xu hng pht trin Vit Nam.................................................................11 1.1.2 Xu hng pht trin trn th gii.................................................................12 1.2 Tng quan v mng truy nhp............................................................................13 1.2.1 Gii thiu chung..........................................................................................13 1.2.2 Cc cng ngh truy nhp bng rng.............................................................18 1.2.2.1 Modem cp............................................................................................18 1.2.2.2 Cng ngh truy nhp s dng cp si quang.........................................19 1.2.2.3 Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn..............................................................19 1.2.2.4 Cng ngh xDSL...................................................................................20 CHNG II CNG NGH VDSL..........................................................................18 2.1 Gii thiu cng ngh VDSL...............................................................................18 2.2 Nhiu .................................................................................................................20 2.2.1 Tp m trng................................................................................................20 2.2.2 Xuyn m.....................................................................................................20 2.2.3 Nhiu tn s v tuyn .................................................................................22 2.2.4 Sng v tuyn bng rng iu bin .............................................................26 2.2.5 S thm nhp ca nhiu radio amateur........................................................27 2.2.6 Nhiu xung .................................................................................................28 2.3 c tnh ca k thut VDSL...............................................................................28 2.3.1 Cc phng php iu ch cho VDSL.........................................................34 2.3.1.1 Phng php iu ch bin cu phng QAM ................................34 2.3.1.2 iu ch CAP........................................................................................40 2.3.1.3 iu ch xung a tn ri rc DMT .......................................................42 2.3.1.4 Vn ISI.............................................................................................47 2.3.1.5 u nhc im ca cc phng php iu ch.....................................48 2.3.2 Phng php truyn dn song cng.............................................................51 2.3.3 u nhc im ca cc phng php truyn dn song cng ......................61
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2.4 M hnh tham chiu ca VDSL..........................................................................62 2.5 M hnh chun ca VDSL..................................................................................65 2.5.1 M hnh giao din........................................................................................65 2.5.2 M hnh giao thc........................................................................................65 2.5.2.1 M hnh tng giao thc.........................................................................65 2.5.2.2 Phn tch chc nng .............................................................................66 2.5.3 Nhng im tham chiu ..............................................................................67 2.6 Thit k mng VDSL.........................................................................................67 2.6.1 M hnh chi ph............................................................................................67 2.6.2 Phn tch thnh phn chi ph........................................................................68 2.6.2.1 Thit b cp...........................................................................................68 2.6.2.2 a im ONU......................................................................................69 2.6.2.3 Thit b ONU........................................................................................69 2.6.2.4 Cc modem VDSL................................................................................70 2.6.3 S nh gi gn ng cho chi ph................................................................70 2.6.3.1 Cc thit b cp......................................................................................70 2.6.3.2 a im ONU .....................................................................................71 2.6.3.3 Thit b ONU .......................................................................................72 2.6.3.4 Cc modem VDSL ...............................................................................73 2.6.4 So snh cc chi ph ca cc Topology.........................................................73 2.6.4.1 Tng chi ph .........................................................................................73 2.6.4.2 Chi ph mi thu bao VDSL..................................................................74 2.6.4.3 Chi ph dung lng...............................................................................77 CHNG III KH NNG NG DNG CA CNG NGH VDSL TRONG MNG TRUY NHP ...............................................................................................76 3.1 Cc vn cn tn ti trong vic pht trin k thut VDSL...............................76 3.2. Trin khai VDSL ti Vit Nam..........................................................................77 3.3 Cc kin trc mng truy nhp s dng cp quang..............................................78 3.3.1 Mng quang th ng .................................................................................79 3.3.2 ATM PON...................................................................................................81 3.3.3 H thng truy nhp quang bng rng da trn mng quang th ng..........82 3.4 Nng cp Mng VDSL ln h thng APON.......................................................84 .................................................................................................................................... 85 KT LUN................................................................................................................. 86 TI LIU THAM KHO.........................................................................................87

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DANH SCH SCH CC HNH V


Hnh 1.1 Tng quan mng truy nhp.......................................................................13 Hnh 1.2 S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp.................................................15 Hnh 1.3 Thit b DLC th h 3.................................................................................16 Hnh 1.4 Thit b truy nhp IP cho th h sau.........................................................17 Hnh 1.5 T phn bng rng ca cc vng trn th gii (30-6-2005)......................23 Hnh 1.6 T phn cc vng s dng DSL (Ngy 30-06-2005)..................................24 Hnh 2.1 Kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL.......................................19 Hnh 2.2 So snh cng ngh VDSL vi cng ngh ADSL.......................................19 Hnh 2.3 Vin cnh nhiu vi VDSL v cng ngh DSL khc trong b trn CO. 20 Hnh 2.4 Vin cnh nhiu vi VDSL v cng ngh DSL khc trong b trn khch hng............................................................................................................................. 21 Hnh 2.5 RFI ingress trong VDSL bi v mt v tr my pht................................23 Hnh 2.6 Phng php gim igress m s dng mt tn hiu theo chiu dc........24 Hnh 2.7 Mch kh RFI ingress................................................................................25 Hnh 2.8 V d RFI egress.........................................................................................26 Hnh 2.9 p ng tn s ca mt tn hiu cha nhiu AWGN...............................28 Hnh 2.10 SNR ca tn hiu v h thng...................................................................29 Hnh 2.11 V d v NEXT..........................................................................................31 Hnh 2.12 SNR my thu khi a tn hiu vo mch vng v b nhiu tc ng.31 Hnh 2.13 nh hng ln nhau gia ADSL v VDSL trong cu hnh FTTEx.....34 Hnh 2.14 S v d minh ho phng php iu ch QAM-16 trng thi........35 Hnh 2.15 Chm im 4-QAM che ph ln mt chm im 16-QAM...................36 Hnh 2.16 S khi b iu ch QAM...................................................................37 Hnh 2.17 Cu trc logic ca mt b iu ch QAM...............................................38 Hnh 2.18 Qu trnh x l tn hiu ca mt b iu ch QAM...............................38 Hnh 2.19 B iu ch CAP.......................................................................................40 Hnh 2.20 S my pht s dng CAP..................................................................42 Hnh 2.21 Nguyn l mt b iu ch DMT..............................................................43 Hnh 2.22 iu ch DMT s dng mt IDFT...........................................................47 Hnh 2.23 My pht VDSL s dng cho phng php DMT.................................47 Hnh 2.24 S khi DFE.........................................................................................48 Hnh 2.25 Mi quan h gia cc trng thi QAM v SNR, BER...........................50 Hnh 2.26 S thu pht theo FDD.........................................................................51

Hnh 2.27 V tr in hnh ca cc knh chiu ln v chiu xung trong FDD......52 Hnh 2.28 Di thng dng cho c hai chiu truyn dn chiu xung v chiu ln trong cc h thng song cng phn chia thi gian...................................................53 Hnh 2.29 Siu khung ca phng php TDD cho php h tr cc t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau............................................................54 Hnh 2.30 NEXT khi trn ln cc h thng FDD i xng v bt i xng..........55 Hnh 2.31 NEXT xy ra khi trn ln cc siu khung TDD i xng v bt i xng............................................................................................................................. 56 Hnh 2.32 Tm cc i trung bnh ca cc h thng song cng VDSL phn thi i xng...................................................................................................................... 60 Hnh 2.33 Tm cc i trung bnh ca cc h thng song cng VDSL phn thi bt i xng 8:1..........................................................................................................61 Hnh 2.34 Cu trc mng VDSL...............................................................................63 Hnh 2.35 Kin trc FTTEx......................................................................................63 Hnh 2.36 Kin trc FTTC........................................................................................64 Hnh 2.37 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub th ng...........................................................64 Hnh 2.38 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub tch cc.............................................................65 Hnh 2.39 M hnh tham chiu giao din.................................................................65 Hnh 2.40 M hnh cc lp giao thc VDSL............................................................66 Hnh 2.41 Phn tch chc nng.................................................................................66 Hnh 2.42 Tng chi ph ca topology vi cc t l o c khc nhau cho trng hp ban u (a) v trng hp thc t (b)...............................................................74 Hnh 2.43 Chi ph cho mi thu bao VDSL vi cc t l o c khc nhau trong trng hp ban u (a) v trong thc t (b)............................................................76 Hnh 2.44 Chi ph ca dung lng vi cc t l o c VDSL khc nhau trong trng hp ban u v trong thc t.......................................................................78 Hnh 3.1 Cc kiu trc mng truy nhp s dng cp quang FTTx.......................79 Hnh 3.2 Mng quang th ng PON.......................................................................81 Hnh 3.3 Theo cu hnh tham chiu ca ITU (G.982).............................................83

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DANH SCH CC BNG BIU


Bng 1.1 Tng s thu bao bng rng v DSL cc vng trn th gii....................22 Bng 1.2 Tng s thu bao bng rng ca mt s quc gia ng u...................23 Bng 1.3 T l thm nhp bng rng ca mt s quc gia ng u.....................24 Bng 1.4 Cc quc gia c s thu bao DSL ln hn 1 triu....................................25 Bng 1.5 12 Quc gia vi hn mt triu thu bao t c qu 14% s thm nhp ng dy in thoi........................................................................................25 Bng 1.6 Cc cng ngh xDSL..................................................................................26 Bng 1.7 Cc ng dng v p ng yu cu ca cng ngh DSL......................28 Bng 2.1 Tc khong cch cc loi VDSL...........................................................19 Bng 2.2 Cc bng tn radio amateur......................................................................27 Bng 2.3 Tc modem VDSL theo ETSI...............................................................30 Bng 2.4 Tc modem VDSL theo ANSI..............................................................30 Bng 2.5 Di tn v tuyn nghip d c ETSI tha nhn..................................32 Bng 2.6 Di tn v tuyn nghip d c ANSI tha nhn..................................32 Bng 2.7 SNR ca cc h thng tho mn BER<10-7.............................................49 Bng 2.8 nh gi chi ph gn ng ca si cp.....................................................71 Bng 2.9 nh gi chi ph gn ng ca a im ONU.........................................71 Bng 2.10 C ONU cn thit trong m hnh AN thc t vi cc t l o c khc nhau............................................................................................................................72 Bng 2.11 nh gi gi tr gn ng cho thit b ONU...........................................72 Bng 2.12 nh gi chi ph gn ng cho modem VDSL.......................................73

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CC THUT NG VIT TT
T vit tt ADC ADSL ANSI APON ATM ATP AWGN BER B-ISDN B-RAS CAP CDMA CO CPE DFE DFT DMT DSLAM ETSI Ex FDD FEC FEXT FFT FSAN Tn ting Anh Analog-to-Digital Converter Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line American National Standards Institute ATM Passive Optical Network Asynchronuos Transfer Mode Access Termination Point Additive White Gauussian Noise Bit Error Ratio B-Inergrated Service Digital Network BroadBand Remote Access Server Carrierless Amplitude and Phase modulation Code Division Multiple Access Central Office Customer Premises Equipment Decision Feedback Equalization Discrete Fourier Transform Discrete Multiple Tone Modulation DSL Access Module European Technical Standards Institute Exchange Frequency Division Duplexing Forward Error Correction Far-End Crosstalk Fast Fourier Transform Full Service Access Network Ngha ting vit Bin i s tng t ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Vin Quc Gia M Mng quang th ng truyn dn khng ng b Phng thc truyn dn khng ng b im tham chiu u cui truy nhp Nhiu Gauss trng cng T s tn hiu trn nhiu Mng s cc dch v tch hp bng rng My ch truy nhp bng rng t xa iu ch bin pha khng sng mang a truy nhp phn chia theo m Trung tm chuyn mch Thit b truyn thng c nhn Phn on hi tip quyt nh Bin i Fourier ri rc iu ch a tn ri rc Khi truy nhp DSL Vin Chun k thut Chu u Tng i Song cng phn chia theo tn s Sa li trc Xuyn m u xa Bin i Fourier nhanh T chc iu hnh mng truy nhp dch vu y
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FTTC/B FTTCab FTTEx FTTH GMS HFC IDFT IFFT IP ISDN LMDS LPF MMDS MPLS NEXT NGN NTE OLT ONU PLOAM PMD PMS PON POTS PSD PSTN RFI SDH SN SNR SONET STM

Fiber To The Curb/Building Fiber To The Cabinet Fiber To The Exchage Fiber To The Home Global System for communication Hybrid Fiber Coaxial

Mobile

Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform Inverse Fast Fourier Transform Internet Protocol Integrated Services Network Low Pass Filter

Digital

Cp quang ti khu vc/cao c Cp quang n t phn phi Cp quang ti tng i Cp quang ti nh H thng truyn thng di ng ton cu Mng lai cp quang cp ng trc Bin i ngc Fourier ri rc Bin i fourier ngc nhanh Giao thc Internet Mng s a dch v Phn phi dch v ni ht B lc thng thp Phn phi dch v a knh a im Giao thc chuyn mch nhn n gin Xuyn m u gn Mng k tip Thit b u cui mng u cui ng dy quang n v mng quang Qun l v hot ng ca tng vt l Mi trng vt l ph thuc c tnh mi trng vt l Mng quang th ng Dch v truyn thng Mt ph cng sut Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng Nhiu tn s v tuyn H thng phn cp k thut s ng b Node dch v T s tn hiu trn nhiu Chun xc nh truyn thng trn cp quang Trng chuyn mch ng
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Multi Protocol Label Switching Near-End Crosstalk Next Generation Network Network Termination Equipment Optical Line Terminal Optical Network Unit Physical Layer Operation and Management Physical Medium Dependent Physical Medium Specific Passive Optical Network Plain Old Teliphone Service Power Spectral Density Public Switch Telephone Network Radio Frequency Interference Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Node Signal to Noise Ratio Synchronous Optical Network Synchronuos Transfer Mode

TC TDMA TE UNI VTU VTU-O VTU-R WDM xDSL

Transmission Convergence Time Division Multiple Access Termination Equipment User Network Interface VDSL Transmission Unit VDSL Transmission Unit CO VDSL Transmission Unit Remote Wavelength Division Multiplexing Digital Subcriber Line

b Lp hi t truyn dn a truy nhp phn chia theo m Thit b u cui Giao din ngi dng mng Khi truyn dn VDSL Khi truyn dn VDSL pha tng i Khi truyn dn VDSL pha thu bao xa Ghp knh a bc sng H cng ngh DSL

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

CHNG I TNG QUAN V MNG VIN THNG V MNG TRUY NHP


1.1 Xu hng pht trin mng vin thng hin nay
1.1.1 Xu hng pht trin Vit Nam
Nhng nm gn y, mng li vin thng Vit Nam c bc pht trin vt bc. 100% tnh, thnh ph c tng i in t k thut s; 88,1% x c in thoi vi trn 6 triu thu bao in thoi, t mc 6 my/100 dn. V mng truyn dn, ngoi mng lin tnh v ni tnh, cn c mng ng trc Bc Nam s dng cp quang v vi ba s. Mng vin thng quc t c 8 trm mt t thng tin v tinh Intersputnik, Intersat v 3 tng i quc t t ti H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh v Nng. Hin nay, mng ny kt ni vi mng cp quang bin quc t TVH (Thi Lan Vit Nam Hng Kng) v mng cp quang SCS (Trung Quc Vit Nam Lo Thi Lan Malaysia - Singapore). ng thi, Vit Nam cng c tham gia khai thc tuyn cp quang bin SEA-ME-WE3 ni t Chu u sang Chu . V thng tin di ng, hai mng VinaPhone v Mobifone ph sng 64/64 tnh, thnh ph vi tng s hn 3 triu thu bao thc hin roaming v ng dng cng ngh mng thng minh (Intelligent Network) gia tng cc loi hnh dch v. V mng truyn d liu, c 2 tng i Frame Relay Gateway quc t t ti H Ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh. V mng bo hiu, hin nay trn mng vin thng Vit Nam s dng c hai loi bo hiu R2 v SS7. Mng bo hiu s 7 (SS7) c a vo khai thc ti Vit Nam theo chin lc trin khai t trn xung di theo tiu chun ca ITU (khai thc th nghim t nm 1995 ti VTN v VTI). Cho n nay, mng bo hiu s 7 hnh thnh vi mt cp STP (im chuyn mch bo hiu) ti 3 trung tm (H Ni, Nng, H Ch Minh) ca 3 khu vc (Bc, Trung, Nam) v phc v kh hiu qu. V mng ng b, hin nay VNPT thc hin xy dng giai on 1 v giai on 2 vi ba ng h ch PRC ti H Ni, Nng, TP H Ch Minh v mt s ng h th cp SSU. Mng ng b Vit Nam hot ng theo nguyn tc ch t c d phng, bao gm 4 cp, hai loi giao din chuyn giao tn hiu ng b ch yu l 2 MHz v 2 Mb/s. Pha 3 ca qu trnh pht trin mng ng b ang c trin khai nhm nng cao hn na cht lng mng v cht lng dch v. Theo nh gi ca cc chuyn gia vin thng, trc s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc mng d liu (dn u l mng Internet vi tc tng 200%/nm) v s thay
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Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

i khng ngng ca cng ngh, mng vin thng Vit Nam nht thit phi c s thay i v cng ngh theo kp nhp pht trin v nhu cu ca ngi s dng. Xu hng pht trin mi hin nay l hi t vin thng - tin hc: hi t v loi hnh thng tin nh: thoi, d liu, m nhc v hnh nh; V ng dng nh: Mng ring o-IP (IPVPN), trung tm-IP (IP-Center) hay bn tin hp nht (Unified Messaging); V hnh thc truy nhp nh: Mng chuyn mch cng cng (PSTN), ng dy thu bao s (xDSL), IP, cp, v tuyn, v tinh; v v thit b nh: in thoi, my tnh, my di ng .... Vic hi t vin thng tin hc phi c thc hin da trn nguyn tc to ra mt mng c h tng thng tin duy nht; da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai cc dch v nhanh chng, a dng, hi t gia thoi v s liu, gia c nh v di ng, gia v tuyn v hu tuyn, v tch hp cng ngh vin thng, tin hc. Yu cu t ra l mng phi c cu trc n gin, linh hot, c tnh m, cung cp cc dch v thoi v truyn s liu trn c s h tng thng tin thng nht... p ng mc tiu a dng ho dch v vi gi thnh thp, gim thiu thi gian a dch v mi ra th trng, gim chi ph khai thc mng v dch v ng thi nng cao hiu qu u t v to ngun doanh thu mi ngoi doanh thu ngoi doanh thu t cc dch v truyn thng. Theo nh hng n nm 2010 ca VNPT, mng li vin thng Vit Nam s c pht trin theo hng tch hp gia hai mng thoi v d liu v a ra m hnh mng th h k tip NGN (Next Generation Network), gm bn lp: lp ng dng v dch v, lp iu khin, lp truyn ti v lp truy nhp.

1.1.2 Xu hng pht trin trn th gii


Th gii ang bc vo k nguyn thng tin mi bt ngun t cng ngh, a phng tin, nhng bin ng x hi, ton cu ho trong kinh doanh v gii tr, pht trin ngy cng nhiu khch hng s dng phng tin in t. Biu hin u tin ca xa l thng tin l Internet, s pht trin ca n l minh ho sinh ng cho nhng ng thi hng ti x hi thng tin. Nn tng cho x hi thng tin chnh l s pht trin ca cc dch v vin thng. Mm do, linh hot v gn gi vi ngi s dng l mc tiu hng ti ca chng. Nhiu loi hnh dch v vin thng mi ra i p ng nhu cu thng tin ngy cng cao ca khch hng. Dch v ngy nay c nhng thay i v cn bn so vi dch v truyn thng trc y (chng hn nh thoi). Lu lng thng tin cuc gi l s ho trn ca cc dch v thoi v phi thoi. Lu lng phi thoi lin tc gia tng v bin ng rt nhiu. Hn na cuc gi s liu din ra trong khong thi gian tng i di so vi thoi thng thng (ch vi pht). Chnh nhng iu ny gy mt p lc cho
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Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

mng vin thng hin nay, phi m bo truyn ti thng tin tc cao vi gi thnh h. mt gc khc, s ra i ca nhng dch v mi ny i hi phi c cng ngh thc thi tin tin. Vic chuyn i t cng ngh tng t sang cng ngh s em li sc sng mi cho mng vin thng. Tuy nhin, nhng loi hnh dch v trn lun i hi nh khai thc phi u t nghin cu nhng cng ngh vin thng mi c lnh vc mng v ch to thit b. Cu hnh mng hp l v s dng cc cng ngh chuyn giao thng tin tin tin l th thch i vi nh khai thc cng nh sn xut thit b. C th khng nh giai on hin nay l giai on chuyn dch gia cng ngh th h c (chuyn mch knh) sang dn cng ngh mi (chuyn mch gi), iu khng ch din ra trong h tng c s thng tin m cn din ra trong cc cng ty khai thc dch v, trong cch tip cn ca cc nh khai thc khi cung cp dch v cho khch hng.

1.2 Tng quan v mng truy nhp


1.2.1 Gii thiu chung
Mng truy nhp gm tt c cc thit b nm gia tng i ni ht v thit b u cui khch hng thc hin chc nng kt ni thu bao n mng chuyn mch cung cp cc dch v tch hp nh thoi, d liu. Mng truy nhp l phn t quan trng v ln nht ca bt k mng Vin Thng no vi chi ph xy dng t nht chim 50% ton b mng. Cht lng v hiu nng ca mng truy nhp nh hng trc tip n kh nng cung cp dch v ca ton b mng Vin Thng.
T cp Hp cp

Tng i

Mng truy nhp

Hnh 1.1 Tng quan mng truy nhp

Mng truy nhp c th chia thnh hai loi ln: c dy v khng dy:
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Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

Mng c dy l mng cp ng, cp quang, cp ng trc hay mng cp lai ghp. Mng khng dy gm mng v tuyn c nh v mng di ng. Mng truy nhp c mt s cng ngh chnh nh sau: Cng ngh s dng ISDN v B-ISDN. Cng ngh s dng modem bng tn thoi. Cng ngh truy xut T1/E1s dng cp thu bao ni ht. Cng ngh s dng modem cp. Cng ngh phn phi dch v a im a knh (MMDS). Cng ngh phn phi dch v ni ht (LMDS). Cng ngh s dng qua v tinh. Cng ngh truy nhp xDSL. Mng truy nhp ngy nay phc tp, n l mng phi hp ca nhiu mi trng truyn dn v cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau phc v cho nhiu loi khch hng vi nhu cu khc nhau trong mt khu vc rng ln v khng ng nht.Mi trng truyn dn chnh trong mng truy nhp hin nay l cp ng (Chim khong 94% ton b mi trng mng), vic tn dng c s h tng rt ln ny l rt cn thit v c li m cng ngh truy nhp ng dy thu bao s xDSL chnh l gii php cho vn ny. Mng truy nhp quang l mc tiu hng ti ca mng truy nhp trong tng lai cung cp cho khch hng cc dch v a dng vi tc v cht lng cao. Ngoi ra, phng thc truy nhp v tuyn cng pht trin rt mnh vi hng trm triu thu bao trn khp th gii cc mng GSM, CDMA, mng truy xut qua v tinh tn dng u im ca phng thc ny cng vi c s h tng sn c phng thc truy nhp c nh v tuyn ra i v ang c pht trin c cc vng th ln n cc khu vc c a hnh him tr. Ngy nay khi m c cu dch v thay i, yu cu ca khch hng khng ch n thun l cc dch v thoi/fax truyn thng m c cc dch v s tch hp vi yu cu bng thng ln, cht lng cao thc y cc cng ngh v thit b truy nhp lin tip ra i vi tc chng mt. Thm ch nhiu dng sn phm cha kp thng mi ho tr nn li thi. Hnh 1.2 cho chng ta thy tin trnh pht trin ca cc thit b truy nhp trong mng Vin Thng.

14

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

u th k 21

Truy nhp IP

Cui thp k 90

NG DLC

Gia thp k 90

V5 DLC

Nm 1970

1-2G DLC

Nm 1890

Cp ng

Hnh 1.2 S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp Dng thit b h tr dch v bng rng u tin v c tch hp pha thu bao l DLC th h 3 hay NDLC ra i vo nhng nm cui th k 20. Thit b ny c nhiu im tng ng vi ATM DSLAM do cng s dng mt cng ngh v kin trc tng t nhau ( hiu thm v DLC xem ph lc A). NDLC th u ni v phi hp hot ng vi nhau to thnh mt mng ATM din rng thng nht, chuyn mch gi

15

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

vi bng thng tng i ln cho php cung cp cc dch v d liu mt cch tng i mm do (Hnh 1.3). c tnh ca dng thit b ny nh sau: Cung cp gii php truy nhp bng rng tm thi qua mng li ATM. S dng cng ngh xDSL truy nhp d liu tc cao. Chun V5.x giao din vi mng PSTN. Kt ni ATM vi mng ng trc hay qua mng IP. H tr cc dch v thoi/fax, ISDN v d liu bng rng.

PSTN DLC EX EX DLC

ATM

B-RAS Trung k Cp ng IP

Hnh 1.3 Thit b DLC th h 3 Tuy nhin dng thit b ny c mt s nhc im sau: Bng thng v dung lng hn ch. Nt c chai trong vng ring truy nhp nu phn ln cc thu bao u s dng dch v xDSL v nt c chai trong mng li ATM. Kh m rng dung lng. Kin trc phc tp, qua nhiu lp (Ip qua ATM qua SDH/DSL). Gi thnh v chi ph tng i cao. Sau DLC th h 3 l dng thit b truy nhp IP hay IP-DSLAM. y l dng thu bao truy nhp tin tin nht hi t nhiu cng ngh nn tng trong mng th h sau
16

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

NGN ( hiu thm v NGN xem ph lc B). Dng thit b ny chy trn nn tng mng IP, IP-AN vi nhng c im sau: Bng thng/ Dung lng hu nh khng hn ch (Trn thc t hu nh khng tc nghn vi bng thng trong khong 1-10Gbps). Truy nhp bng rng IP. D dng m rng v tch hp vi mng NGN (Trn nn mng chuyn mch mm). Cung cp tt c cc dch v qua mt mng Ip duy nht mc d h thng ny vn h tr cc u cui tng t truyn thng. Thit b ny phi hp hot ng vi mng IP qua media gateway. Gi thnh tnh cho tng thu bao v chi ph vn hnh mng thp. Kin trc n gin (IP over SDH).
PSTN POTS PSTN My in thoi IP

Gateway

Chuyn mch mm IP hay MPLS xDSL GATEWAY truy nhp IP hay MPLS switch-router

Hnh 1.4 Thit b truy nhp IP cho th h sau Trong giai on qu hin nay, vic u t vo mng truy nhp mang li hiu qu v mt kinh t v k thut th ngoi gii php ko thm cp ng n khu vc thu bao cn c cch s dng cc thit b truy nhp, hn na ph hp vi xu th tt yu l tin t mng PSTN ln mng NGN khi m mng ni ht cha sn sng h tr cc thit b truy nhp IP tin tin nht th cn phi c dng thit b truy nhp p ng tt c cc yu cu sau: H tr cc giao din PSTN truyn thng, cc u cui analog. C kh nng cung cp cc dch v bng rng v cc dch v mi khc.
17

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

H tr bo hiu V5.x v c th kt ni ti cc tng i ni ht ang s dng (Tc l lm vic nh l thit b DLC). D dng nng cp, tch hp khi chuyn sang mng NGN. m bo thi gian trin khai v chi ph pht thin thu bao khng qu cao. Thit b s dng cho cng ngh xDSL l mt trong nhng gii php hiu qu.

1.2.2 Cc cng ngh truy nhp bng rng


1.2.2.1 Modem cp
L thit b cho php truy xut thng tin tc cao n cc server t xa nh Internet server hay VoD server qua mng truyn hnh cp (Cp ng trc) vi tc thay i ph thuc vo h thng modem cp, kin trc mng cp ng trc v lu lng trn modem. Tc theo chiu xung c th ln n 27Mbps, tuy nhin y l dung lng tng cng ca mi ngi chia ra do cu trc mng dng nhnh, thng th dung lng ca mt thu bao ch t 1-3Mbps. chiu ln c th t c 10Mbps nhng thng l 1-2,5 Mbps u im ca modem cp l tn dng c mng truyn hnh cp sn c nn gim chi ph, cc linh kin tn s cao cn thit cho hot ng ca modem cp tr nn rt r v c bn i tr. Nhng cng do lm vic tn s cao v c n 90% cp i trong nh m cc cp ny thng c lp t vi v, cu th nn d gy nhiu cho tiviv cc thit b khc, gii php y l cn phi i li dy nh. Hn na do vic s dng chung cc knh ng ln nn d gy tc nghn. Cc nh khai thc mng cp ng trc ang tin hnh ci tin h tng mng cp bng cch a thm mng cp quang vo mng cp ng trc thay truyn dn tng t bng truyn dn s c gi l mng lai ghp HFC: Mng HFC cung cp gn 100 knh truyn dn tc cao (6 MHz) cho mi knh phn phi cc lung video tng t, s, d liu ti ngi s dng v c th m rng cc dch v bng rng nh modem cp. Tuy nhin do ng truyn HFC l chung nn bng thngkh dng cho mi knh khi c nhiu ngi s dng khng cao bng DSL.

18

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

1.2.2.2 Cng ngh truy nhp s dng cp si quang


Cp quang c nhiu u im mnh hn so vi cp ng nh si cp quang cho php truyn tn hiu c c ly xa hn, kh nng chng nhiu v xuyn m tt, bng tn truyn dn rt ln m bo cho vic cung cp cc dch v bng rng ti khch hng Mng cp quang chnh l ch cui cng ca cc nh qun l mng Vin thng m rng cc dch v bng hp sang cc dch v bng rng. Tuy nhin, vic xy dng mt mng truy nhp cp quang i hi vn u t ban u rt ln, trong khi mng cp ng ni ht vn cha s dng ht khu hao. Hn na, nhu cu s dng ca mi thu bao hin nay vn cha tn dng ht kh nng ca cp quang nn s gy lng ph. Gii php y l lp t cp quang ti tn cm dn c hay ti cc to nh, cc tr s c quan ln ri t y s s dng cp ng truyn tn hiu ti tng thu bao. Vic tn ti i dy cp ng on cui ny cng l mt trong nhng yu t thc y xDSL pht trin v xDSL hon ton c th cung cp cc gii php truy nhp cho cc dch v tc cao t cc khi ONU ca cu trc mng truy nhp ni trn. Nh vy, cng ngh xDSL l gii php trung gian hu hiu cung cp dch v ti khch hng trc khi c th quang ho mng truy nhp.

1.2.2.3 Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn


Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn c nhiu loi khc nhau. Cng ngh dch v phn phi a im a knh MMDS l hn hp ca cc dch v video v truyn s liu tc cao (chiu xung ln ti 54Mbps). H thng ny cho php cc nh cung cp dch v xa khng c c s h tng c th cung cp cc truy nhp hiu qu ti khch hng. MMDS ang c iu kin thun li pht trin do ngy nay th trng in thoi khng dy v in thoi di ng ang c ch trng. Tuy nhin, do cng tn hiu rt tht thng v phi thc hin tm nhn thng nn vng ph sng b gii hn. Hn na, MMDS s dng h thng v cng ngh mi nn cn c thi gian mng n nh. Dch v phn phi a im ni ht LMDS hay h thng truyn hnh t bo gn ging h thng MMDS, n hot ng di tn 27,5GHz -29,5GHz. V mt l thuyt, LMDS ph sng mt vng vi nhiu t bo nn trnh c tm nhn thng ca MMDS, cc t bo ln cn s dng cng mt tn s nhng phn cc khc nhau, cc vng ti c ph sng bng trm tip vn hay cc b phn x sng th ng. Vi

19

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

kch thc t bo nh LMDS gy kh khn trong vic trin khai cho cc vng ngoi nhng vi my pht cng sut nh hn v vng ph t bo nn c th gi gi thnh u t mc thp. Cng ngh truy nhp qua v tinh c u im v tm ph sng rng, khng b nh hng bi khong cch cng nh cc iu kin a l, tc truyn dn cao (c th ln ti 23Mbps) nhng tr lan truyn ln, cc dch v thng tin v tinh c th b my bay v cc v tinh thp hn che khut, tui th ca v tinh c hn v c xc nh bng lng nhin liu m n mang theo, vic cp php v qun l tn s li phc tp. Hn na, gi ca h thng thng tin v tinh cao nn cng ngh ny vn cha th c ph dng. Mch vng thu bao v tuyn WLL hay thng tin di ng ni vng cng l mt gii php c s dng nhiu ni trn th gii v ang c pht trin ti Vit Nam. Cng ngh ny c pht trin nh mt phng thc b tr cho cc h thng mng cp thu bao, m rng mng in thoi cng cng. Mc d kh nng truyn tc cao khng bng so vi cp ng v chi ph cao hn nhng WLL c nhiu u im trong cc trng hp cn gii quyt nhanh gn v a hnh phc tp. So vi cp ng v cp quang th h thng truy nhp v tuyn chu nh hng ca mi trng truyn dn khc nghit hn.

1.2.2.4 Cng ngh xDSL a. Tnh hnh pht trin ca cng ngh truy nhp bng rng
Tng s thu bao bng rng ton cu t ti 175 triu, so vi 151 triu vo nm cui thng 12 nm 2004. Tng s thu bao DSL ton cu t ti mc 115 triu, so vi 97 triu vo cui thng 12 2004. Nhng k thut truy nhp bng rng khc ti 61,4 triu, so vi 54,5 triu vo cui thng 12 nm 2004. Tng trong 6 thng ca nm 2005 Tng s thu bao bng rng tng 24,5 triu. Tng s thu bao DSL tng 17,7 triu. Nhng thu bao bng rng khc tng 6,8 triu. Trong 12 thng t qu 2 2004, thu bao DSL tng 51%.

20

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

Lin minh Chu u l th trng bng rng ln nht v khu vc DSL ln nht th gii. Trong lin minh Chu u, DSL hin din 81% ca tng s thu bao truy nhp bng rng. Trong khu vc M LaTinh v Trung ng v Chu Phi, DSL chim d tng ng 83% v 79,56%. Ton b DSL tham gia vo tng s th trung bng rng l 65,2%.

21

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

Bng 1.1 Tng s thu bao bng rng v DSL cc vng trn th gii Khu vc Tng s thu Tng s thu T l % ca bao Q2 2005 bao DSL Q2 DSL trong 2005 ton b bng rng Tng s bng rng khc Q2 2005 T l % ca nhng bng rng khc trong ton b bng rng 33,30%

Chu Thi bnh dong nhng nc Chu u khc

40.613.395

27.088.587

66,77%

13.524.808

3.602.474

2.014.074

55,91%

1.588.400

44.09%

M 5.258.830 Latinh Trung ng v 2.212.466 Chu Phi Bc M 44.287.940 Nam v ng 32.868.500 Chu Ton b lin minh 47.501.671 Chu u Ton 176.345.276 Cu

4.364.569

83,00%

894.261

17,00%

1.760.242 18.850.581 22.331.500

79,56% 42,56% 67.94%

452.224 25.437.359 10.537.000

20,44% 57,44% 32,06%

38.485.655 114.895.208

81,02% 65,15%

9.016.016 61.450.068

18,98% 34,85%

M gi nguyn v tr Quc gia ng u vi tng s mt dn s bng rng ln nht trn th gii vi mc 38.200.981 thu bao. Trung Quc chim v tr th hai vi mc 30.843.000 v l quc gia c tng DSL bng rng ln nht th gii vi mc 21.230.000. Th ba l Nht bn vi mc 20.650.500.

22

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

27%

1
19%

2 3 4 5
23%

6 7

25%

2% 1% 3%

Hnh 1.5 T phn bng rng ca cc vng trn th gii (30-6-2005) (Vi cc vng t 1-7 tng ng vi cc vng trong bng 1.1) Bng 1.2 Tng s thu bao bng rng ca mt s quc gia ng u V tr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Quc Gia M Trung Quc Nht Bn Hn Quc Php Anh c Canada Italy Ty Ban Nha i Loan H Lan Brazil c Tng s bng rng Q2 2005 38.200.981 30.843.000 20.650.500 12.260.915 8.323.000 7.961.938 7.878.497 6.086.959 5.460.555 4.094.017 4.025.000 3.566.566 2.562.157 2.117.300

t nht mt trong mi ngi c mt kt ni bng rng trong 16 quc gia (ch c nhng quc gia vi hn mt triu kt ni bng rng).

23

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

Bng 1.3 T l thm nhp bng rng ca mt s quc gia ng u Tng s thm nhp bng rng ca dn s 1 Hn Quc 25,58 2 Hng Kng 22,94 3 H Lan 21,90 4 an Mch 21,47 5 Thy s 20,13 6 Canada 19,19 7 i Loan 17,81 8 B 17,58 9 Israel 16,47 10 Thu in 16,38 11 Nht Bn 16,18 12 Php 13,89 13 Anh 13,71 14 M 13,14 15 c 10,62 16 Ty Ban Nha 10,00 Mi lm Quc Gia c hn mt triu thu bao DSL. Trung Quc l Quc Gia t ti hn 20 triu thu bao DSL. V tr Quc Gia

33%

1 2 3 4
19% 24%

5 6 7

16%

2%

4%

2%

Hnh 1.6 T phn cc vng s dng DSL (Ngy 30-06-2005) (Vi cc vng t 1-7 l cc vng tng ng vi cc vng trong bng 1.1)

24

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

Bng 1.4 Cc quc gia c s thu bao DSL ln hn 1 triu V tr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Quc Gia Trung Quc M Nht Bn Php c Hn Quc Anh Quc Italy i Loan Ty Ban Nha Canada Brazil H Lan c B Thu bao DSL Q2 2005 21.230.000 15.929.322 14.168.000 7.803.000 7.800.000 6.678.107 5.691.000 5.135.000 3.360.000 3.271.771 2.291.259 2.400.957 2.147.000 1.586.000 1.149.350

Mi hai Quc Gia vi hn mt triu thu bao DSL t c qu 14% s thm nhp ng dy in thoi. Nm Quc Gia t c hn 20% s thm nhp DSL ca ng dy in thoi. Bng 1.5 12 Quc gia vi hn mt triu thu bao t c qu 14% s thm nhp ng dy in thoi V tr Q2 2005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quc Gia Hn Quc i Loan Php B H Lan Nht Bn Italy Ty Ban Nha Anh Quc c Canada c Thu bao DSL Q2 2005 6.678.107 3.360.000 7.803.000 1.149.350 2.147.000 14.168.000 5.135.000 3.271.771 5.698.000 1.586.000 2.921.259 7.800.000 S thm nhp ng dy in thoi Q2 2005 28,71 25,65 22,95 22,39 21,47 19,91 18,71 17,49 16,21 14,98 14,63 14,52

25

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

b. Cc cng ngh truy nhp xDSL hin nay


xDSL l mt h cng ngh ng dy thu bao s gm nhiu cng ngh c tc , khong cch truyn dn khc nhau nn c ng dng vo cc dch v khc nhau. Bng di y s lit k cc loi cng ngh v tnh cht ca tng loi. Theo hng ng dng ca cc cng ngh th c th phn thnh 3 nhm chnh nh sau : Cng ngh HDSL truyn dn hai chiu i xng gm HDSL/HDSL2 c chun ho v nhng phin bn khc nh: SDSL, MDSL, IDSL. Cng ngh ADSL truyn dn hai chiu khng i xng gm ADSL/ADSL. Lite (G.Lite) c chun ho v cc cng ngh khc nh CDSL, Etherloop, Cng ngh VDSL cung cp c dch v truyn dn i xng v khng i xng. Bng 1.6 Cc cng ngh xDSL Tn IDSL HDSL Tc 144 Kb/s i xng 1,544Mb/s i xng 2,048Mb/s i xng 1,544Mb/s i xng 2,048 Mb/s i xng 768kb/s i xng, 1,544Mb/s hoc 2,048 Mb/s mt chiu 1,5- 8 Mb/s lung xung 1,544 Mb/s lung ln 26 Mb/s i xng 1352 Mb/s lung xung 1,5-2,3 Mb/s lung ln Khong cch truyn dn 5km 3,6 km 4,5 km S i dy ng s dng 1 i 2 i 3 i

HDSL2

3,6 km 4,5 km

1 i

SDSL

7 km 3 km 5km (tc cng cao th khong cch cng ngn) 300 m 1,5 km (Tu tc )

1 i

ADSL

1 i

VDSL

1 i

26

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

IDSL: (ISDN DSL): Ngay t u nhng nm 1980, tng v mt ng dy thu bao s cho php truy nhp mng s a dch v tch hp (ISDN) hnh thnh. DSL lm vic vi tuyn truyn dn tc 160 Kb/s tng ng vi lng ti tin l 144 Kb/s (2B+D). Trong IDSL, mt u u ni ti tng i trung tm bng mt kt cui ng dy LT (Line Termination), u kia ni ti thu bao bng thit b kt cui mng NT (Network Termination). cho php truyn dn song cng ngi ta s dng k thut kh ting vng. IDSL cung cp cc dch v nh: Hi ngh truyn hnh, ng dy thu ring (leased line), cc hot ng thng mi, truy cp Internet/Intranet. HDSL/HDSL 2: Cui nhng nm 80, nh tin b trong x l tn hiu s thc y s pht trin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s truyn tc d liu cao HDSL (High data rate DSL). Cng ngh ny s dng 2 i dy ng cung cp dch v T1 (1,544 Mb/s), 3 i dy cung cp dch v E1 (2,048 Mb/s) khng cn b lp. S dng m ng truyn 2B1Q tng t s bit/baud thu pht i xng; mi i dy truyn mt na dung lng tc 784 Kb/s nn khong cch truyn xa hn v s dng k thut kh ting vng phn bit tn hiu thu pht. Khi nhu cu truy nhp cc dch v i xng tc cao tng ln, k thut HDSL th h th 2 ra i p ng nhu cu truyn T1, E1 ch trn mt i dy ng vi mt b thu pht nn c nhiu u im : hot ng nhiu tc khc nhau, s dng m ng truyn hiu qu hn m 2B1Q, khong cch truyn dn xa hn, chng nhiu tt hn, c kh nng tng thch ph vi cc dch v DSL khc. Do s dng c tn s thoi nn khng cung cp ng thi c dch v thoi nhng cng ngh ny c s dng rng ri cho cc dch v i xng trong mng ni ht thay th cc ng trung k T1, E1 m khng cn s dng b lp, kt ni cc mng LAN. SDSL: Cng ngh DSL mt i dy (Single pair DSL) truyn i xng tc 784 Kb/s trn mt i dy, ghp knh thoi v s liu trn cng mt ng dy, s dng m 2B1Q. Cng ngh ny cha c cc tiu chun thng nht nn khng c ph bin cho cc dch v tc cao. SDSL ch c ng dng trong vic truy cp trang Web, ti nhng tp d liu v thoi ng thi vi tc 128 Kb/s vi khong cch nh hn 6,7 Km v tc ti a l 1024 Kb/s trong khong 3,5 Km. ADSL: Cng ngh DSL khng i xng (Asymmetric DSL) c pht trin t u nhng nm 90 khi xut hin cc nhu cu truy nhp Internet tc cao, cc dch v trc tuyn, video theo yu cu...ADSL cung cp tc truyn dn khng i xng ln ti 8 Mb/s lung xung (t tng i trung tm ti khch hng) v 16- 640 Kb/s lung ln (t pha khch hng ti tng i) nhng khong cch truyn dn gim i. Mt u im ni bt ca ADSL l cho php khch hng s dng ng thi mt ng dy
27

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

thoi cho c 2 dch v: thoi v s liu v ADSL truyn min tn s cao (4400 Hz1MHz) nn khng nh hng ti tn hiu thoi. Cc b lc c t hai u mch vng tch tn hiu thoi v s liu theo mi hng. Mt dng ADSL mi gi l ADSL lite hay ADSL khng s dng b lc xut hin t u nm 1998 ch yu cho ng dng truy cp Internet tc cao. K thut ny khng i hi b lc pha thu bao nn gi thnh thit b v chi ph lp t gim i tuy nhin tc lung xung ch cn 1,5 Mb/s. Cng ngh ny c xem xt k trong chng 3. VDSL: Cng ngh ny s c ni k hn phn sau.

c. ng lc thc y vic pht trin DSL


Cng ngh DSL c pht trin ngy cng rng ri do n p ng c mt s yu cu v vic cung cp dch v hin ti, ng thi n c h tr bi s pht trin ca cc cng ngh x l tn hiu s. Nhu cu v vic truyn cc tn hiu s nh s liu, Internet tc cao cn di tn cao hn di tn ca tn hiu thoi thng thng, v d: Bng 1.7 Cc ng dng v p ng yu cu ca cng ngh DSL STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ng dng Thoi Truyn hnh nt cao Truyn hnh qung b Truyn hnh theo yu cu m nhc theo yu cu in thoi thy hnh Hc tp t xa Truy nhp c s d liu, ch dn trc tuyn Ti phn mm Yu cu tc chiu xung (kbit/s) 16-64 12000-24000 1500-6000 1500-6000 384-2500 128-1500 384-3000 14-384 384-3000 Yu cu tc chiu ln (kbit/s) 16-64 0 0 1-9 9 128-1500 128-3000 9 9

Vic pht minh ra b vi x l c nng lc ln, gi r cho php m ho v gii m cc hnh nh, m thanh vi tc cao nn ng truyn cho tn hiu ny cng phi c tc tng ng. Tn dng mng cp ng hin c cung cp cc dch v mi, tc cao. Tch hp cc dch v khc nhau trong cng mt mng truy nhp.

d. u nhc im ca xDSL

28

Chng I . Tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp.

So vi cp quang: u im: Chi ph cho mng cp thp. Tn dng c mng cp ng hin ti. Cho php khch hng la chn dch v bng phn mm. C th trin khai dn dn (cho tng thu bao, tng dch v, tng ng dng) do thit b mng pha thu bao thng ch l modem DSL n, phc v mt thu bao. Nhc im: Tc thp hn cp quang. Cp quang thch hp hn cho vic ko di khong cch truy nhp ti nh thu bao, dng cho cc khu vc c xem l kinh t nh cc khu thng mi tp trung nhiu khch hng (DLC). Khng n nh do chu nh hng ca cc ngun nhiu bn ngoi, xuyn m, ting vng thng c trong truyn dn cp ng. Khong cch ng truyn hn ch, ph thuc nhiu yu t khch quan v nh hng ti tc , cht lng tn hiu. So vi truyn dn v truy nhp v tuyn:

Mng v tuyn trin khai tng i nhanh v tit kim c chi ph cho mng ngoi vi, nhng li i hi bng tn v tuyn, hin nay ang phi qun l rt cht, gi cao v c s dng gn ht.

29

n tt nghip i hc

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

CHNG II
2.1 Gii thiu cng ngh VDSL

CNG NGH VDSL

L mt dch v trong h xDSL VDSL (Very high data rate DSL) cung cp cc ng thu bao s vi tc rt cao. Cng nh cc dch v khc trong h xDSL nh ADSL, HDSL, SDSL k thut VDSL c s dng cung cp cc dch v bng rng nh cc knh tivi, truy nhp d liu vi tc rt cao hi ngh qua video, video ng, truyn t hp d liu v tn hiu video trn cng mt ng dy cho cc thu bao dn c v kinh doanh trong lc cha lp t c mng cp quang n tn nh thu bao. Hnh 2.1 m t cc kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL. K thut VDSL s dng phng thc truyn dn ging nh ADSL nhng k thut VDSL c kh nng cung cp s liu vi tc rt cao gn gp 10 ln tc truyn dn ca ADSL (nh hnh 2.2). Tc truyn dn ca VDSL lung xung t ti 52 Mb/s trong chiu di khong 300m, v lung xung t tc thp 1,5 Mb/s vi chiu di cp 3,6km. Tc lung ln trong ch khng i xng (l phng thc m tc truyn dn t pha tng i ti thu bao bng tc truyn dn t thu bao ti tng i) l 1,6- 2,3 Mb/s. Tc lung trong ch i xng l 26 Mbps. Phng thc truyn dn khng i xng rt ph hp cung cp dch v tc cao t pha tng i ti thu bao nn rt hay c s dng trong k thut VDSL. Trong VDSL c hai knh s liu u hot ng tn s cao hn tn s s dng cho thoi v ISDL nn cho php cung cp cc dch v VDSL bn cnh cc dch v ang tn ti. Khi cn tng tc lung xung hoc ch i xng th h thng VDSL s dng k thut trit ting vng. Cng ngh VDSL c ng dng trong truy cp dch v bng rng nh dch v Internet tc cao, cc chng trnh Video theo yu cu. Ngoi vic c kh nng cung cp tc cao hn nhiu so vi tc truyn dn ca k thut ADSL k thut VDSL cn yu cu khong ng nh hn k thut ADSL nn k thut truyn dn ca VDSL khng phc tp bng k thut truyn dn ADSL. Mc d c nhiu u im nh vy nhng k thut ny vn cha c s dng rng ri l v cha la chn c c ch iu ch, bng tn, phng php ghp knh thch hp. Hn na, mt s chipset ca modem s dng k thut VDSL vn cn t nn k thut ny cha c s dng nhiu trong thc t. Tuy nhin y l mt k thut ha hn trong mt vi nm tip theo.

18

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

VDSL c s dng trong cc mch vng ni ht truyn tn hiu t khi mng quang ONU ti cc thu bao. Bng 2.1 m t tc v khong cch t ONU ti thu bao.
H

Dch Cp quang ONU v

VDSL Mng vng Cp ng

VDSL

U B

TE

STM Chuyn mch gi ATM ATM Ton b ATM

STM Chuyn mch gi

Hnh 2.1 Kh nng cung cp dch v ca k thut VDSL Hnh 2.2 So snh cng ngh VDSL vi cng ngh ADSL
50 Mbit/s 40 30 20 10 ADSL VDSL

9 12 15 Khong cch si dng 0,5mm Bng 2.1 Tc khong cch cc loi VDSL Tc thu (Mbit/s) Tc pht (Mbit/s) Khong cch (met)

18

52 6,4 1000- 300 26 3,2 2500- 800 26 26 1000- 300 13 13 1800- 600 13 26 3750- 1200 c th hot ng c cc thit b VDSL phi vt qua c suy hao ng truyn, xuyn knh, s xm nhp ca sng v tuyn RF v cc tc ng xuyn nhiu khc.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

2.2 Nhiu
Cng nh nhng cng ngh khc trong h xDSL, VDSL truyn trn i dy in thoi nn chu tc ng ca mi trng tp m ca bn thn mch vng dy ng.Tp m lm gim t s S/N gy kh khn cho vic xc nh chnh xc tn hiu u thu. Mch vng dy ng c mt s ngun tp m sau:

2.2.1 Tp m trng
Nhn chung c rt nhiu ngun tp m v khi khng th xt ring tng loi ta c th coi chng to ra mt tn hiu ngu nhin duy nht vi phn b cng sut u mi tn s. Tn hiu ny c gi l tp m trng. Tp m nhit gy ra do chuyn ng ca cc electron trong ng dy c th coi nh tp m trng c phn b Gauusia c gi l tp m trng Gaussia cng AWGN. Tp m ny nh hng c lp ln tng k hiu c truyn hay ni cch khc chng c cng vi tn hiu bn tin.

2.2.2 Xuyn m
Cng nh FDM ADSL, VDSL khng c t can nhiu u gn (selfNEXT). Xu hng v nhng k thut khng c self-NEXT, hay t nht vi gii hn self-NEXT, tin trin v vic thc hin c th thc hin tng ln, trong mt s trng hp, thit k n gin c th qu y . Phm vi trin khai ngn ca VDSL t ra kh nng mt vi nhiu mi. Xem xt hai cu hnh trin khai trong hnh 2.3 v 2.4.
Trung tm chuyn mch ng VDSL FEXT VTU-R FEXT CPE

FEXT

FEXT ng xDSL khc

Hnh 2.3 Vin cnh nhiu vi VDSL v cng ngh DSL khc trong b trn CO
ONU ng VDSL VTU-R FEXT CPE ng xDSL khc NEXT 20

Trung tm chuyn mch

FEXT

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Hnh 2.4 Vin cnh nhiu vi VDSL v cng ngh DSL khc trong b trn khch hng Hnh 2.3 i khi c gi l b trn (1) CO. Trong hnh 2.3, VDSL v mt s k thut xDSL khc c hai u c cung cp t CO v dng chung mt nhm kt ni gia CO v mt s ti ch m VDSL c ly ra. Nhng loi khc nhau gia ca NEXT v FEXT m c th tn ti c ch ra trong hnh 2.3. FEXT gia hai im nt thng khng nhn t v khong cch thng ln lm suy gim tn hiu nhiu. Tuy nhin, Nhng ng i FEXT khc cng c th tn ti. D nhng tn hiu FEXT ny s ng k hay khng tu thuc vo cc chiu di ca hai knh cng nh nhng tn s s dng bi cc knh chiu xung v chiu ln. Trong cu hnh c ch ra trong hnh 2.4, tn hiu VDSL c kt thc ti mt ONU xa v xDSL ti CO. Ti mt im, nhng on i dy xon mang nhng tn hiu dng chung mt b kt ni chung. Cu hnh ny i khi c gi l b trn (2) CP. Ch rng iu l khng cn thit cho VTU-R v modem CPE xDSL khc nh v trong cng to nh, nhng nhng i dy xon mang chng phi dng chung mt nhm b kt ni cho mt s chiu di gn tng ng cc im u cui. Hnh 2.4 cng ch ra nhng con ng ng k NEXT v FEXT cho cu hnh b trn CP. S ng k ca nhng con ng FEXT tu thuc vo nh v ONU hay cng nh nhng tn s s dng bi cc knh truyn. Ch rng cc im nt ca mch VDSL c th gp phn NEXT hay l FEXT mt trong hai i vo trong cc im nt ca k thut xDSL khc, tu thuc vo cu hnh trin khai. Tnh linh hot ny tng thm lu tha t do trong mi trong nhiu phn tch. Tm quan trng ph bin cng tn ti trong ADSL v VDSL. Trong cu hnh b trn, ADSL v VDSL c hai c cung cp t CO v dng chung mt nhm b kt ni gia CO v ti im m VDSL c ly ra. (VDSL phi kt thc ti im ny, hay phi c nh tuyn trong mt nhm kt ni khc). khng c NEXT tn ti gia nhng dch v ny ti CO, hai iu kin sau phi c tn ti:
21

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Tn hiu VDSL chiu xung phi khng ln tn hiu chiu ln ADSL (tn hiu VDSL chiu xung phaie bt u cao hn 138 kHz). Tn hiu ADSL chiu xung phi khng ln tn hiu VDSL chiu ln (VDSL chiu ln phi khng ln 138 kHz ti 1,1 MHz). Thm vo, tn hiu ADSL chiu xung c th mt nguyn nhn gy ra mc FEXT trong tn hiu VDSL chiu xung tr khi khong cch gia my pht ADSL ti CO v b nhn VTU-R l nh. Tng t nh vy, FEXT t VDSL c th t ra mt vn ti tn hiu ADSL. khng c NEXT tn ti gia ADSL v VDSL trong cu hnh b trn CP, ph tn s chiu ln v chiu xung ca cc k thut tng ng phi khng ln nhau. Thm vo , FEXT VDSL trong tn hiu ADSL chiu xung phi tm thy, v FEXT ADSL c th xut hin trong VDSL tu thuc vo nh v ca ONU. Nh c chiu di vng lp ngn c h tr bi VDSL, FEXT nh vy thp hn NEXT, phi c mt nh xu tc ng trn ADSL chiu xung. V cn thit loi b NEXT gia h thng ADSL v VDSL v qu thc kh nng FEXT c th gy ra s suy gim qu trnh thc hin, ph phn phi ti VDSL dc xung trn cc knh chiu ln hay chiu xung ADSL khi ADSL v VDSL c hai u c mt. Thm vo , khi giao tip vi nhng k thut khc, cu hnh nh v ca VDSL phi c a vo trong cc trng mc quyt nh nhng im no ghp phn NEXT hay FEXT ti nhng im khc.

2.2.3 Nhiu tn s v tuyn


My thu VDSL phi i ph vi vn nhiu tn s v tuyn (RFI). Vn RFI bao gm li vo (ingress) v li ra (egress). Nguyn nhn ca RFI egress (nhiu tn s v tuyn li vo) l trong bng tn ca sng v tuyn t nhng Anten gn vi mt i cp xon i mang tn hiu VDSL. Mt Anten v tuyn nghip d l mt v d r rng ca mt b lm nhiu RFI ingress.
22

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Hnh 2.5 minh ho trng thi c bn ny.

INGRESS

Trung tm chuyn mch

INGRESS VTU-R ng VDSL

Hnh 2.5 RFI ingress trong VDSL bi v mt v tr my pht Nhn t tc ng ti lng ingress bao gm cng sut u ra ca cc Anten, khong cch gia cc Anten v cp xon i, quan h gia hng v c tnh bo v ca b nhm kt ni, v cn xng ca bn thn i dy xon. Thng, RFI ingress kch thch mi dy trong i dy xon, v vy to ra mt tn hiu ingress theo chiu dc i dy. V s cn xng ca i dy l khng l tng (thng 30 dB n 35 dB cho cc bng tn cao), mt s ingress r ra trong cc tn hiu khc. Cc tn hiu RFI ingress thng rt hp trong di thng khi so snh vi tn hiu VDSL. c im ny l rt c ch, nh ingress s ch nh hng ti mt phn nh ca bng thng c th s dng. Vn khc l tn hiu ingress c th l rt ln khi so snh vi tn hiu VDSL nhn c. Trong trng hp ny, trc ca my thu tng t phi c thit k cn thn n ni khng bo ho. Thm vo , mt s tc ng phi c thc hin bin i tng t ti s (ADC) chnh xc thch hp. Vn y l mt tn hiu ingress

23

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

ln s trao i my chuyn i, v n n nhng bt li ca s chnh xc trn tn hiu khng gi tr ny thay v trn tn hiu thu c VDSL. V tn hiu VDSL c lng t ho vi s khng chnh xc thp hn, nhiu lng t, hay s khng chnh xc bi v qu trnh chuyn i, tng ln, s gim st c nh hng n tc bt c th t c trn knh truyn. ADC phi c kh nng iu khin tn hiu ingress cng nh s chnh xc lng t ho tng xng tn hiu VDSL nhn c. Thm ch sau lng t ho, xa hn na s c lng RFI c th cn thit trong min s. n gin hn thit k ca ADC, trc ca mt my thu VDSL tng t phi trin khai mch gim RFI ingress. Nh rng thng ingress hin din c hai theo chiu dc v s khc nhau trn mt i dy xon i. Hnh 2.6 ch ra mt phng php s dng tn hiu ingress theo chiu dc gim tn hiu ingress kim loi.
RFI
T n hi u khc nhau

my pht VDSL
Cp xo n
-

T n hi u nhn c v i li vo RFI c gim

1\2 + H(f)

t n hi u theo chi u dc

Hnh 2.6 Phng php gim igress m s dng mt tn hiu theo chiu dc B lc c gng lm cho khng cn xng ca i dy xon thc cht l k thut bi vic ingress vn ti tn hiu khc. Nu b lc to ra s khng cn xng hon ho, tn hiu tng u ra c th bao gm ch c tn hiu VDSL thu c. Hnh 2.7 minh ho tng ny theo mt s khi.

24

n tt nghip i hc Tn hiu VDSL khc

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

D(f) RFI ngun L(f)

+ + Tn hiu thu vi RFI ingress c gim

+
H(F)=

D(f) L(f)

Tn hiu VDSL theo chiu dc

Hnh 2.7 Mch kh RFI ingress Vic gim ingress gn chnh xc 35 dB c th t c bi phng php ny. Ch rng n tng ng vi vic thu c hn 5-bit chnh xc trong ADC.

25

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

RFI ingress cng l mt mi quan tm vi VDSL. Egress c minh ho trong hnh 2.8.

EGRESS

EGRESS

Bu in trung tm

EGRESS VTU-R

ng VDSL

Hnh 2.8 V d RFI egress y tn hiu pht ra t i dy xon v c th lm nhiu lon tn hiu bi cc Anten nh v nu nhng tn hiu thu c ny chng cho ln ph VDSL. chng vn ny, cng sut truyn dn VDSL trong min tn s c d tr trong v tuyn hay cc dch v sng v tuyn, phi c h thp. Thng, vic gim 20 dB trong nhng khu vc ny s thch hp nh nhng vn t egress RFI VDSL.

2.2.4 Sng v tuyn bng rng iu bin


Sng v tuyn bng rng thng s dng cho truyn sng v tuyn qung b qua khong cch di. Tn hiu c truyn thng bao gm din vn v nhc. Nhiu trm v tuyn AM c th cng mt lc hot ng trong thnh ph v nh hng ln ng dy in thoi. AM bng rng cho php truyn vi rng tn s trong khong 0,1-2,0 MHz. Tn hiu v tuyn AM c th l cao hn 20dB hoc hn na so vi tn hiu HAM, nhng chng ta cn nh rng cp cn bng thng l tt hn tn s thp (gim t 10 n 15dB). ng thi, khong cch t ct anten AM cho ti ng dy thoi thng l 1 km ch t cng ln hn 10mt, v nng lng tri rng gp 4 ln di thng (gim 6 dB). Do vy, tn hiu v tuyn AM c nhiu PSD khong t -80dBm/Hz n -120 dBm/Hz My pht c th s dng cng sut rt cao ln n 50 KW v c th pht ti cng sut ln nht vo bui ti. Trong c im VDSL AM bng rng c lm m hnh vi mt my pht AM vi mt b iu ch ch s 80%. iu ny c ngha
26

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

rng sng mang khng c kh nhiu hon ton. Tn hiu thng tin c m hnh vi gii hn bng tn nhiu Gauusian chng 5 KHz. V vy, tn hiu sng v tuyn c pht s dng mt rng bng chng 10 KHz. Loi my pht RF mnh m loi ny c th gy ra RFI rt ln ti min ng, nhng ti mt khong cch ln thch hp RFI s nh c iu khin bi cc phng php thch hp.

2.2.5 S thm nhp ca nhiu radio amateur


Truyn dn v tuyn amateur trong cc bng c ch ra trong bng 2.2. Bng 2.2 Cc bng tn radio amateur Cc bng khai thc HAM (MHz) Tn s thp nht Tn s cao nht 1,81 2,0 3,5 7,0 10,1 14,0 18,068 21 24,89 28,0 4,0 7,1 10,15 14,35 18,168 21,45 24,99 29,7

Cc bng ny chng ln bng truyn dn ca VDSL nhng trnh cc bng truyn dn ca cc DSLs khc. Do , giao thoa v tuyn HAM l vn ln i vi VDSL. Nh khai thc HAM c th s dng cng sut 1,5 KW, nhng s dng cng sut ln nh vy rt him khi s dng cc vng dn c ng hay cc vng c nhiu i dy in thoi. B pht 400W khong cch 20 mt (30 ft) c th gy ra in p cm ng chung theo chiu dc khong 11 vn trn ng dy in thoi. Vi cn bng l 33 dB, in p kim loi tng ng l 300 mV, l 0dBm cng sut trn ng dy Z 0 = 100. Cc nh khai thc HAM s dng bng tn s 2,5kHz lin tc vi m thanh (thoi) hoc tn hiu s (m Morse, FSK), dn ti nhiu PSD xp x -34 dBm/Hz. Trn thc t, cc nh khai thc HAM truyn cc mc thp hn hoc c th cch xa hn 10m khi truyn cc mc cao hn. Tuy nhin iu ny dn n nhiu PSDs trong khong t -35 dBm/Hz n -60 dBm/Hz. Hn na, cc mc in p cao nh vy c th lm bo ho cc thit b in t analog u vo.

27

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Cc nh khai thc HAM chuyn tn s sng mang vi pht mt ln v tn hiu truyn l 0 (iu ch SSB) khi khng c tn hiu. V th, b thu c th khng c kh nng d on c s xut hin ca HAM vo. May mn thay, tn hiu v tuyn HAM l bng hp v v th cc phng php truyn dn c gng nh du cc bng tn hp v t ca cc nhiu ny, thc cht l trnh nhiu hn l c gng truyn qua n. Mt s b thu c cc b lc loi b hiu ng ny.

2.2.6 Nhiu xung


Nhiu xung l xuyn m khng n nh t cc trng in t tm thi gn ng dy in thoi. V d v b pht xung l rt a dng nh m ca t lnh (m t chy/tt), in p iu khin thang my (cc ng dy in thoi trong cc to nh thng chy theo ng ging thang my), v rung chung ca cc my in thoi trong cng b cp. Mi hiu ng ny l tm thi v gy ra nhiu xm nhp vo cc ng dy in thoi qua cng mt c ch c bn nh nhiu RF, nhng thng tn s thp hn nhiu. in p cm ng kim loi thng l vi mV, nhng cng c th cao ti 100 mV. Cc in p nh vy dng nh l nh, nhng s suy gim ln tn s cao trn i dy xon c ngha l thit b thu xung c th l rt ln so vi mc tn hiu DSL nhn c. Cc in p ch ny ph bin gy bi xung c th gp 10 ln v bin . Cc xung thng thng ko di t hng chc n hng trm ln micro giy nhng cng c th ko di ti 3 ms.

2.3 c tnh ca k thut VDSL


T s tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) l t s nng lng ca tn hiu mang thng tin my thu so vi nng lng ca nhiu nhn c. V bn cht SNR m t cht lng ca knh truyn dn. Trong min tn s, SNR c tnh bng cch chia mt ph nng lng (PSD) ca tn hiu mang tin my thu cho mt ph nng lng my pht. V suy hao v nhiu lun bin i theo tn s nn t s SNR l mt hm theo tn s.
PSD -60 dBm/Hz 1 km 24 AWGN f H(f) Tn hiu thu c
2

Hnh 2.9 p ng tn s ca mt tn hiu cha nhiu AWGN

28

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Cng vi xc sut d tn hiu sai nhm v di thng ca knh truyn, SNR xc nh vn tc ln nht m thng tin c th c truyn qua knh truyn. Hnh 2.9 minh ho trng hp a tn hiu vi mt ph cng sut pht phng -60 dBm/Hz vo ng dy cp cn bng c dy 24 di 1km. Nhiu tc ng ch gm nhiu Gauss trng cng (AWGN) vi mc 140dBm/Hz u thu. Hnh 2.10 l SNR nhn c.
80 SNR (dB) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Tn s (MHz) Hnh 2.10 SNR ca tn hiu v h thng Nh phn tch trn, nhiu loi nhiu trn ng dy xon i nh nhiu xung chng hn l khng th lng trc c v li bin i theo thi gian. Khi , t s SNR cng bin i theo thi gian. trnh c nhiu tng ngoi mun lm cho t s SNR suy gim, hu ht cc h thng u khng hot ng tc ti a m knh truyn cho php. Thay vo h thng hot ng u cha d phng nhiu (noise margin). Nh vy, vic s dng d phng d phng cho h thng trnh sai lm do nhiu tng ln khng lng trc c. Yu cu cho cc h thng VDSL c cc cng ty in thoi thit lp qua thc t trong cc nhm tiu chun ANSI T1E1.4 Hoa K v ETSI TM6 Chu u. Mc d T1E1.4 v TM16 l cc nhm tiu chun c lp vi cc c tnh p dng cho cc vng a l khc nhau nhng nhng ngi tham gia xy dng tiu chun u nhn ra c li ch t vic thng nht tiu chun Hoa K v Chu u. V vy h c gng to ra nhng yu cu lu di cho h thng VDSL.
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

C ANSI v ETSI u h tr cc t s tc d liu gia chiu xung v chiu ln trong VDSL bt i xng v tc d liu ca VDSL i xng. ETSI gi modem h tr tc d liu bt i xng l modem class I v modem h tr tc d liu i xng l modem class II. ETSI a ra bng kt hp tc payload ca modem VDSL theo bng 2.3 v 2.4. Nh vy, ETSI khuyn ngh t s gia dng d liu chiu xung v Chiu ln l 6:1, 3:1, 1:1. Tuy nhin mt s thnh vin ca ETSI li khuyn ngh rng nn loi b tc i xng 36,864 Mbps thuc nhm II v n cn d liu tc cao ch hot ng c vi mt s rt t cc ng dy in thoi rt ngn nhng li lm tng phc tp v gi thnh ca modem. ANSI cng xc nh tc bit cho c hai ch hot ng i xng v bt i xng. Bng 2.4 l tc d liu ca VDSL theo ANSI. Theo t s tc d liu ca chiu xung v chiu ln l 8:1, 4:1 v 1:1. Bng 2.3 Tc modem VDSL theo ETSI Modem Class I Downstream rate (kbps) 6 1024 12 1024 24 1024 6 1024 12 1024 24 1024 36 1024 Upstream rate (kbps) 2 1024 2 1024 4 1024 6 1024 12 1024 24 1024 34 1024

II

Bng 2.4 Tc modem VDSL theo ANSI Loi dch v Khng i xng Downstream rate (Mbps) 52 34 hay 38,2 26 19 13 6,5 34 26 19 13 6,5 4,3 2,3 Upstream rate (Mbps) 6,4 4,3 3,2 2,3 1,6 1,6 hay 0,8 34 26 19 13 6,5 4,3 2,3

i xng

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Hnh 2.11 V d v NEXT


- 80 - 90 -100 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 0

4 5 Tn s (MHz)

10

Hnh 2.12 SNR my thu khi a tn hiu vo mch vng v b nhiu tc ng


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10

4 5 Tn s (MHz)

10

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Hnh 2.11 V d v NEXT do 10 ng dy ADSL gy ra v nhiu trng GAUSS trung bnh 140dBm/Hz. Hnh 2.12 SNR my thu khi a tn hiu 60dBm/Hz vo mch vng B v b nhiu tc ng. Nh ni trn, tn hiu truyn trong khng kh c th nh hng n ng dy in thoi lm ph hu tn hiu VDSL. Ngc li, tn hiu VDSL trn cc ng dy in thoi cng lm nh hng v ph hu cc tn hiu v tuyn. V l do ny, c ANSI v ETSI u qui nh cc modem VDSL phi gii hn mt ph cng sut pht mc khng ln hn 80dBm/Hz trong gii tn v tuyn nghip d c trong vng a l ca h. nh v ca cc gii tn v tuyn nghip d c ETSI v ANSI tha nhn c lit tng ng trong cc bng 2.5 v 2.6. Bng 2.5 Di tn v tuyn nghip d c ETSI tha nhn Tn s u bng (MHz) 1,810 3,500 7,000 10,100 14,100 18,068 21,000 28,000 Tn s cui bng (MHz) 2,000 3,800 7,100 10,150 14,350 18,168 21,450 29,100

Bng 2.6 Di tn v tuyn nghip d c ANSI tha nhn Tn s u bng (MHz) 1,800 3,500 7,000 10,100 14,000 18,068 21,000 28,000 Tn s cui bng (MHz) 2,000 4,000 7,300 10,150 14,350 18,168 21,450 29,700

Mt ph cng sut pht m t cng sut pht ca tn hiu mang tin c phn b theo tn s nh th no khi tn hiu c a vo knh truyn ng ra ca my pht. Chng hn, nu ton b cng sut 10 mW c a vo ng dy v my pht nng lng u trong di tn 1 MHz th mt ph cng sut pht l hng s v bng

32

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

10-5 mW/Hz. ng bao mt ph cng sut pht xc nh mt ph cng sut cc i cho php theo chiu tn s. Cng sut cc i c ETSI v ANSI cho php u l 11,5 dBm. Tuy nhin, ETSI v ANSS li khc nhau trong cch nng lng phn b theo tn s. C hai t chc tiu chun ny u a ra ng bao xc nh ng bao xc nh ph cng sut pht ti a v c hai u buc modem u c kh nng gim mt cng sut n 80dBm/Hz trong gii tn v tuyn nghip d. ANSI xc nh mt ph cng sut cc i bao gm ba la chn cho nh iu hnh h thng VDSL nh sau: PSD enhancement (on/off): Off: mt ph cng sut pht b gii hn gi tr ln nht l 60dB/Hz. On: mt ph cng sut pht c th tng trn 60dB/Hz. Vic tng mt cng sut pht c gim st bi mt ng bao mt ph cng sut pht v b kim gi tng cng sut 11,5 dBm. ADSL compatibility (on/ off): On: mt cng sut pht di tn di 1,104 MHz b gii hn -90dBm/Hz. Off: mt ph cng sut pht trong gii tn ny c th t c trng thi PSD enhancement. RF emission notching (on/off): On: mt ph cng sut pht trong gii tn v tuyn nghip d b gii hn -80dBm/Hz. Off: mt ph cng sut pht trong gii tn v tuyn nghip d c th t c trng thi PSD enhancement. ETSI cng xc dnh mt s cc ng bao mt ph cng sut pht (PSD mash) tu theo tnh hung s dng. Khi VDSL c ONU s dng (trong cu hnh FTTcab) th c hai chiu chiu ln v chiu xung u c chung mt ng bao mt ph cng sut pht. Khi VDSL c tng i ni ht s dng th hai chiu chiu ln v chiu xung c hai ng bao khc nhau. S khc nhau gia cc ng bao cng c th thy c trong tm tn s t 0 n 176 kHz tu theo c hay khng c POST/ISDN bn cnh cc h thng VDSL. Cc ng bao mt ph cng sut pht mnh m hn cng c nh ngha cho vic s dng cc mng m hu ht hay i khi tt c cc u c chn ngm v s bc x vo di tn v tuyn nghip d khng kh l khng ng k. Cui cng, ETSI cng yu cu cc modem phi c kh nng
33

n tt nghip i hc

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

gim mt ph cng sut khng qu 80dBm/Hz trong cc di tn v tuyn nghip d. Nu c th pht trin c VDSL th cc h thng VDSL phi tng hp vi cc tn hiu ca cc dch v khc trong cng mt cho cp. H thng DSL b VDSL nh hng nhiu nht l ADSL. Trong mt vi cu hnh, VDSL c th nh hng mnh n ADSL tr khi c thit k cn thn. Trong mt s cu hnh khc VDSL li b ADSL nh hng ngc li. Trong cu hnh FTTEx nhiu i dy xon ta ra t mt tng i ni ht c th mang tn hiu ADSL, truyn vi mt ph cng sut pht 40dBm/Hz trong khi cc ng dy khc c th mang tn hiu VDSL vi mt ph cng sut pht t -60dBm/Hz cho cc thu bao gn tng i hn nh minh ho hnh 2.13. Trong cu hnh ny, nh hng ca VDSL ln ADSL l khng ng k. VDSL
CO ADSL

Hnh 2.13 nh hng ln nhau gia ADSL v VDSL trong cu hnh FTTEx

2.3.1 Cc phng php iu ch cho VDSL


Trong cc h thng truyn dn c th truyn c tn hiu i xa v tng tc truyn dn tn hiu ngi ta s dng cc phng php iu ch tn hiu. iu ch l mt khi nim dng ch mt phng php s dng mt sng mang truyn tn hiu. Tn hiu sng mang c tn s cao v cng sut ln iu ch tn hiu. Tn hiu gc s lm thay i tn s, pha, bin hoc ng thi cc tham s . Mi kiu thay i cc tham s khc nhau s c mt loi iu ch ring. Tn hiu iu ch c th l tn hiu s hay tng t. Trong h thng VDSL, ngi ta cng s dng cc phng php iu ch chnh l QAM, DMT v CAP.

2.3.1.1 Phng php iu ch bin cu phng QAM


QAM s dng sng hm sin v sng hm cos vi cng tn s tn s cu thnh chuyn i thng tin. Sng chuyn ng thi qua mt knh n. V bin (bao gm tn hiu v cng ) ca mi sng c s dng truyn thng tin (di dng cc bt). t nht mt chu k (v hn th) ca sng c gi chuyn i mt tp hp bt

34

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

trc khi mt tp hp bt mi c gi. iu ch QAM dng trong nhiu nm v c s cho nhiu pht minh modem bng tn thoi. Mt v d n gin:
Since magnitude Since magnitude

y Xc nh
Cos x

y
Cos x

Xc nh chm im dng sng 4 bt vo

chiu x im

ln chm

Tm im gn nht 4 bt u ra

gi qua knh v nhn

Hnh 2.14 S v d minh ho phng php iu ch QAM-16 trng thi Mt v d ca mt h thng iu ch QAM ci c th gi 4 bit thng tin cho mi k hiu QAM xut hin trong hnh 2.14. 4 bt thng tin c pht nh x ti mt trong 16 im trn mt chm im QAM. Ch rng 4 bt thng tin, 16 im cho php 1 im duy nht cho bt c s kt hp no ca cc bt. x v y cu thnh im cc bt m n c nh x ch r bin ca sng hm sin v hm cos truyn qua knh truyn. Tc l gi tr x v y ca mi im tng ng vi bin ca sng sin v sng cos c truyn trn knh. My thu v my pht c hai bit c trc php nh x nh x gia t hp cc bt v mt im. Sau sng hm sin v cos c truyn qua knh, my thu khi phc v c lng c bin ca mi sng (thng, s dng qu trnh cn bng v x l tn hiu). Bin ca cc tn hiu ny c chiu ln chm im ng nht vi chm im pha pht. 1 ln na bin sng hm cos hp thnh x, v cng sin hp thnh y. Thng tp m v s mo m trn knh v thit b in t hp thnh trong my pht v my thu lm cho cc im b chiu sai lch so vi v tr ca cc im trn chm im. Tuy nhin, My thu s la chn im no trn chm im c v tr gn nht vi im va thu c. im ny sau c nh x sang 4 bt
35

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

s dng cng phng php nh x s dng trong my pht (nhng nh x trong hng ngc nhau ). Nu qu nhiu tp m c mp my thu, im chiu x trn chm im c th gn im sai hn im nhn bit chnh xc, cho kt qu li. V d ny thng gi l 16-QAM v chm im c 16 im. Tu thuc s bt thng tin trn mi k hiu. V d, nu 2 bt cho mi k hiu truyn dn, mt chm im 4 im c th l cn thit v b iu ch c th c gi l 4-QAM. Hnh 2.15 ch ra mt chm im 4-QAM che ph trn mt chm im 16-QAM. Nng lng trung bnh ca mi k hiu l gn nh nhau . Ch rng khong cch gia cc im trong chm im 4-QAM (c ghi l d4) l ln hn khong cch gia cc im trong chm im 16-QAM (c ghi l d 16). V vy trn cng 1 knh nhiu nhiu hn tt yu gy ra li nhiu hn khi s dng 4-QAM hn l s dng 16-QAM ni khc i, 16-QAM cn SNR ln hn 4-QAM.
d4 d16


im 16 QAM im 4 QAM

Hnh 2.15 Chm im 4mt chm im 16-QAM

QAM che ph ln

Mt s khi ca mt b iu ch QAM ch ra trn hnh 2.16. Dng d liu t ngi s dng i vo b iu ch. Ti y d liu c chia thnh hai na, iu iu ch thnh hai phn trc giao vi nhau ri t hp thanh tn hiu cu phng v truyn trn knh truyn dn. Nhnh ca b iu ch ci m mang bin sng hm cos thng c gi l nhnh pha. Bin hm cos c gi l pha, hay thnh phn I.
36

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Nhnh ca b iu ch m dng mang bin sng hm sin c gi l nhnh cu phng. Bin hm sin c gi l cu phng, hay thnh phn Q.
My pht sng hm cos

tp hp cc bt u vo

Gi tr x Tm gi tr ( x,y) Gi tr y My pht sng hm sin

Nhnh I

dng sng u ra Nhnh Q

Hnh 2.16 S khi b iu ch QAM C s ton hc ca QAM

Tnh trc giao gia 1 sng hm sin v hm cos cho php chng ta truyn d liu ng thi qua mt knh truyn dn. Tnh ton chu k n ca mi sng, nguyn l trc giao c th minh ho bi phng trnh 2.1.

0 sin(

2 2 ) cos( )dt = 0 t t

(2.1)

Trong phng trnh 2.1 l hm c bn.

l chu k ca sng hm sin hay hm

cos. V thuc tnh cu phng, hm sin v hm cos i khi c gi

37

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Mt v d ca b gii iu ch QAM ch ra trong hnh 2.17 v


phn cos phn sin Tm bin c lng x c lng y

Ly dng sng u vo

Tch ra thnh sin + cos

Tm bin

Tm im gn nht

2.18.

Hnh 2.17 Cu trc logic ca mt b iu ch QAM

My pht sng hm cos x dng sng nhn x Nhnh Q B Nhnh I C Trn D c Tm im gn nht

lng x E c

Trn

lng y

My pht sng hm sin

Hnh 2.18 Qu trnh x l tn hiu ca mt b iu ch QAM u vo ca khi ny n t knh truyn v u ra chiu x ln chm im ca b nhn. Nu n tha nhn rng knh l khng b mt mt v u nhn tch pha l hon ho, khi n khng kh

38

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

vit phng trnh cho mi im trong hnh 2.17 v 3.18 cho mi k hiu i. Trong phng trnh 2.2 a tn hiu u vo ti im A.
V A (t ) = X i cos(t ) + Yi sin(t )

(2.2)

Trong phng trnh 2.2, Xi l bin ( tn hiu v cng ) ca sng hm cos c m ho b nh my pht, v Y i l bin ( tn hiu v cng ) ca hm sin c m ho ti b my pht. Sau khi qua nhng khi nhn im B v C, tn hiu c dng nh phng trnh 2.3 v 2.4.
VB (t ) = X i cos(t ) 2 + Yi sin(t ) cos(t )

(2.3) (2.4)

VC (t ) = X i cos(t ) sin(t ) + Yi sin(t ) 2

Tn hiu ti im B v C sau khng ph thuc vo qua nhng khi trn. Nhng khi ny trn qua mt chu k n v xc lp li sau mi k hiu. Nhng chuyn i trong hnh 2.17 v 2.18 v d tiu biu u ra ca b trn cui ca mi chu k trn. Tn hiu ti im D v im E v vy c th oc vit nh phng trnh 2.5 v 2.6.
VD (t ) = VB (t ) dt
0

X i cos 2 ( t ) +Yi sin( t ) cos( t ) dt = 0 Y sin( t ) cos( t )dt 0 i

X i cos 0

( t ) dt +

X i X +0= i 2 2

(2.5)

VE (t ) = Vc (t ) dt

= =

0 X i cos(t ) sin(t ) +Yi sin


( t ) dt
2

0 X i cos(t ) sin(t )dt + 0 Yi sin

( t )dt

(2.6)

Ch rng gii hn s ti 0 trong phng trnh 2.5 v phng trnh 2.6 c l v c tnh cu phng ca hm sin v hm cos. Phn tch by cho rng nhng xung bng tn c s trong b iu ch thng to thnh cc k hiu trc khi nhn bi cc sng hnh sin v cos l cc xung n gin vi bin ng nht trong sut ton b chu k k hiu. Ni chung, mt b lc c th c th c s dng to thnh xung trc hm trn. Nu b lc c th c mt p ng ca p(t), sau tn hiu c truyn cho k hiu i s l dng c ch trong phng trnh.
39

n tt nghip i hc
V (t ) = X i p (t i ) cos(t ) + Yi p (t i ) sin(t )

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

(2.7)

2.3.1.2 iu ch CAP
Tng t nh mt b iu ch QAM, mt b iu ch bin v pha khng sng mang (CAP) s dng mt chm im m ho cc bt ti my pht v gii m cc bt ti my thu. Gi tr x v y kt qu t qu trnh m ho c s dng kch hot mt b lc s. Mt b iu ch CAP xut hin trong hnh 2.19. Tm cc gi tr (x,y)
Xung gi tr Xi Xung gi tr Yi A B h(t) C nhnh i Dng sng u ra h(t) D nhnh i

Nhn cc bit u vo

Hnh 2.19 B iu ch CAP B iu ch c hai nhnh - mt l nhnh pha v mt l nhnh cu phng. Xung p ng cc b lc s l i bin i hilbert hay n gin, mt i hilbert. Hai chc nng ci to ra mt i hilbert l trc giao ti ci khc. Ni chung, bt c i hilbert no hp l c th c dng to ra mt b iu ch CAP; Tuy nhin, s b sung ngy nay ca CAP s dng mt sng hnh sin v cos vi mt xung truyn dn. c bit, b gii iu ch CAP c thc hin vi mt b lc s thay v cc b nhn pha v cu phng. Khi so snh mt b iu ch CAP v b iu ch QAM, xem xt cc in p ti cc im khc nhau trong hnh 2.19. Cho rng b iu ch ny s dng phng php m ho cng chm sao, cng c chm sao, cng tc k hiu nh iu ch QAM trn y. Tn hiu ti mi im c th c vit nh phng trnh 2.8 v 2.9
V A (t ) = X i (i )

(2.8)
40

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VB (t ) = Yi (i )

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

(2.9) Ch rng c hai lng l cc xung a tn n gin, ci s kch hot b lc s trong b iu ch. a ra xung p ng li cc b lc trong b iu ch, u ra ca hai b lc c tm thy bi s xon li n gin nh u vo c ch ra bi phng trnh 2.10 v 2.11.
VC = X i (i ) h(t ) = X i(i)h(t )d = X i h(t i) 0 VD = Yi (i ) h(t )

(2.10)

= 0

Yi(i) h(t ) d =Yi h(t i)

(2.11)

Trong cc phng trnh ny, c tnh b sng lc c s dng t c c hai kt qu u ra ca b iu ch tu k hiu i c a ra trong phng trnh 2.12
VE (t ) = X i h(t i ) + Yi h(t i )

(2.12)

So snh phng trnh 2.12 ti u ra ca b iu ch QAM vi hnh dng c ch ra trong phng trnh 2.7, ch rng c hai c th ng nht nhau nu phng trnh 2.13 v 2.14 hiu rng.
h(t i ) = p (t i ) cos( )
h(t i ) = p (t i ) sin( )

(2.13)

(2.14) Nu mt h thng c thit k xa hn nh 2.14 c th c nh phng trnh 2.15 v 2.16.


h(t i ) = p (t i ) cos (t i ))
h(t i ) = p (t i ) sin (t i ))

= , khi phng trnh 2.13 v


(2.15) (2.16)

C hai phng trnh ny l ng v i l mt s nguyn. Cc xung thi gian p ng ca cc b lc vi khng tu thuc vo i khi tr thnh phng trnh 2.17 v phng trnh 2.18.
h(t ) = p (t ) cos(t )
h(t ) = p (t ) sin( t)

(2.17) (2.18)

Nhng kt qu ny quan trng v chng ch ra mt cch hp l quan h tc k hiu v tn s trung tm ca mt h thng CAP v QAM cho php min thi gian dng sng l ging ht. Cho mi quan h khc ca w v t - Tha nhn rng chng l cng qua mt h
41

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

thng CAP v QAM - N c th c ch rng h thng iu ch khng ging bi mt s lun phin. l, dng sng s ging nhau nu mt tp hp chm sao c s dng cho m ho v gii m l lun phin nhau v ngun gc ca mt phng.

Hnh 2.20 S my pht s dng CAP Hnh 2.20 a ra mt s my pht c th dng cho iu ch CAP.

2.3.1.3 iu ch xung a tn ri rc DMT


DMT c xy dng da trn c s tng ca QAM. Hnh dung c hn 1 b m ho chm im. Mi b m ho thu 1 tp hp bt m c m ho s dng 1 b m ho chm im nh oc miu t trong phn QAM. Gi tr u ra t b m ho chm im to li nhng bin sng hm sin v hm cos. Tuy nhin, 1 s khc nhau l tn s ca hm sin v hm cos thng s dng cho mi b m ho chm im. Tt c cc sng hm sin v hm cos sau tng hp li v c cng nhau v c gi qua knh truyn . Dng sng ny l 1 k hiu n gin DMT, din t bi biu nh hnh 2.21.

42

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

b m ho 1 Bin 1

Cc bt u vo


Bin

Pht cc sng hnh sin v hnh cos ti tn s =f1

b m ho 2 Bin 2

Cc bt u vo

Bin

Pht cc sng hnh sin v hnh cos ti tn s =f2

dng sng u ra

b m ho n Bin n

Cc bt u vo

Bin

Pht cc sng hnh sin v hnh cos ti tn s =fn

Hnh 2.21 Nguyn l mt b iu ch DMT Tha nhn rng n c th tch ri hm sin v hm cos ti cc tn s khc nhau ti b thu, mi tp hp cc sng c th c gii m c lp trong cng phng php v vy mt tn hiu QAM c th c gii m v cho kt qu cc bt ra bi b cc b gii m chm im. Ch rng tng s dng nhng tn s khc nhau truyn thng tin l khng duy nht vi DMT. Truyn hnh v truyn thanh s dng nh l nhng k thut. S khc nhau y l DMT c 1 b thu iu chnh ti tt c cc knh ngay lp tc ci
43

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

khc ch iu chnh ch ti 1 knh duy nht. Mt s tn s dng knh tn s trong DMT l tn s cc bin (hay cc bin), tn hiu hay l tn hiu DMT, v nhng knh ph. C l s khng r rng trong tho lun trc l khng chc chn v vy dng sng trong mi bin l tch hon ton t ci khc. Nu trng hp ny khng tho mn, tip y vic gii m cho mi bin l khc v cc sng hm sin v cos trong mi bin l c th b sai lc i t nhng bin khc. Mt cha kho DMT l ci m nhng tn s hm sin v cos dng trong mi bin nn l s nguyn ln mt tn s chung v chu k k hiu ,

, s nghch o ca tn s chung .

Tn s dng chung ny s c cp ti nh l nhng tn s c s. T s phn tch cho QAM xong, ngi ta c th khng nh rng cc sng hm sin v cos ti cc tn s c s to ra cc hm c s. bo m rng nhiu khng thot ra gia cc bin ngi ta phi ch ra c rng sng hm sin v hm cos t bt c bin no l trc giao ti sng hm sin v cos ca bt c bin khc, v ton hc, tnh trc giao c th c vit nh phng trnh 2.19.

0 cos(nf t ) cos(mf t ) = 0 0 cos(nf t ) sin(mf t ) = 0 0 sin(nf t ) sin( mf t ) = 0


tip cng thc 2.19 cho phng trnh 2.22.

(2.19) (2.20) (2.21)

y n v m l cc s nguyn khc nhau, v f l tn s c s radian s phn tch Ch rng nu n = m, khi chu k th nht s hi t v 1/2T, khi n tip theo nh phng trnh 2.5. Quan h trong phng trnh 2.20 v phng trnh 2.21 c th tng nh vy ch ra c hon ton iu trong phng trnh 2.20 s trc giao c gi ngay c lc n = m, tng t xem xt theo hng phng trnh 2.1. V vy b gii iu ch ca mt k hiu DMT da trn s trc giao ca sng hm sin v hm cos ti cc tn s khc nhau cng nh gia sng hm sin v cos ti cng tn s. Qui trnh iu ch v gii iu ch trong hnh 2.20 l nhng phng php lp ca vic to v tch sng 1 k hiu DMT. Nhng phng php ny c th rt n iu da trn 1 s thc hin thc t, v thc t khng phi l phng php h thng DMT thc hin. hiu r hn, cch m mt s thc hin c n gin ho, xem xt tng ca 1 hm sin v cos trong khong thi gian t. Nh l dng sng c th c vit nh phng trnh 2.23.

44

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

0 cos(nf t ) cos(mf t )
=

0 2 cos((n m)f t + 2 sin(n + m)f t )dt


sin(( n m)f t ) 2f ( n m)
sin(( n +m)f t ) + ] 2f ( n +m)
0

=[ =

sin((n m)

2 2 t ) sin(( n + m) t) + 2 f (n m) 2 f (n + m)
X n cos(nf t ) +Yn sin( nf t )

(2.22)

= 0 cho cc s nguyn n, m v n = m. s(t) = 0

cho 0< t (2.23) cho cc trng hp khc

Nh mt tn hiu biu din s c mt ca mt bin n, hay mt cch d hiu bin n n, ti mt k hiu DMT n. Nu s(t) ly mu ti mt tc 2*N*f f, kt qu khc khng ca tn hiu c a ra trong phng trnh 2.24.
s k = X n cos(n f k k ) + Yn sin( n f ) 2 Nf f 2 Nf f

= X n cos(

nk
N

) +Yn sin(

nk
N

cho 0< k 2N

(2.24)

Trong mt h thng DMT, N c th hin din cho 1 bin ln nht truyn dn 1 tn hiu. Tn hiu ny ti 1 tn s ca Nf f. V nh l Nyquist pht biu rng tn s mu cho mt h thng phi bng 2 ln tn s ln nht ca h thng, khi 2Nf f c chn. Nu chng ta s dng bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT) ca s k s dng 2N im trong bin i, kt qu nh phng trnh 2.25.
S m = ( X n cos(
0 2N

nk
N

) + Yn sin(

nk
N

))e

j 2km N

(2.25)

N ( X n jYn )

cho m = n cho m = 2N n

N ( X n + jYn )

Bi v DFT

0 cho cc trng hp khc phn tch 1 tn hiu sang nhng thnh phn vng tn s ca

n, cho kt qu nh l phng trnh 2.25 khng l ngc nhin. nh gi 1 cch n gin qua 2N im bin i, tn hiu ch c nng lng ti duy nht mt tn s. Gi tr khc 0 ti 2 im xut hin trong vng tn s l v, trong vng tn s tn s l kt qu sau khi bin i 1 quang ph 2 mt. Tt c cc gi tr thc trong min thi gian (ph hp vi sk), 2N im s biu l s i xng lin hp phc v trung tm ca cc
45

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

im. y l tng t c c thnh phn nhng tn s dng v tn s m kt qu t 1 bin i fourier. Gi tr 0 trong phng trnh 2.25 l kt qu t khng nng lng c c mt ti nhng tn s c miu t bi nhng im ny. Thc cht, phng trnh 2.25 trnh by s trc giao ca hm sin v hm cos ti nhng tn s khc nhau, cng nh ti nhng tn s ging nhau. Kt qu ca phng trnh 2.25 gi ra 1 phng php khc em li mt k hiu DMT. Thay v nh x u ra ca b m ho chm im sang bin ca mt hm sin v cos, u ra c th nh sang s phc trong mt vct. Gi tr t X hay l trc cos c th miu t phn thc ca s phc, v gi tr Y, hay cng sin c th miu t phn o ca vct. Nu u ra ca tt c cc b m ho c m ho sang vc t. Khi mi im vc t trnh by 1 bin DMT. Nu N bin ra khi h thng DMT, vct phc hp c th c N nhp vo. Bao gm c lin hp phc ca gc vct nhp vo vct ny nh l vct mi c s i xng lin hp phc. Mt s bin i fourier ngc (IDFT) trn vect ny sau c th to ra 1 min thi gian thc tng ng ti b iu ch DMT gc nh trong hnh 2.21. Hnh 2.22 ch ra phng php mi ny ca qu trnh iu ch DMT. Hnh 2.22 cng ch ra mt phng php gii iu ch DMT. Ch rng n da trn c s hot ng ngc ca b iu ch khi 1 DFT c dng thay v 1 IDFT. Cch tip cn ny tr nn c hng bi v DFT i t min thi gian n min tn s. V gi tr min thi gian l thc, u ra ca khi DFT c s i xng lin hp phc. Ch c mt na u ra l cn thit a vo gii m chm sao. Vic thc hin y thng dng bin i fourier nhanh (FFT) v bin i fourier ngc nhanh (IFFT) thu c b iu ch v gii iu ch.

Cc bt vo

Gn bin v m ho

B iu ch Thm sau 2N vi lin hp phc

2N im IFFT

2N

Song song ti b chuyn ni tip

2N u ra thc ti knh Knh

Cc bit ra

Gn bin v m ho

Tch lin hp phc

2N

2N im FFT

2N

ni tip ti b chuyn song song

Gii iu ch

2N u ra thc t knh

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Hnh 2.22 iu ch DMT s dng mt IDFT

Hnh 2.23 My pht VDSL s dng cho phng php DMT

2.3.1.4 Vn ISI
Knh truyn lm mo tn hiu truyn i v lm cho cc k hiu lin tip uyn nhiu ln nhau bng mt hin tng gi l ISI (Intersymbol Interference). my thu s dng mt b phn on (equalizer) gim ISI v v vy ci thin c vic thc hin ca h thng trong khi vn gi thit b mc khng qu phc tp. Kh nng ca b phn on trong vic phc hi tn hiu truyn ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh kiu b phn on, chiu di cc mch lc ca n. Nhn chung, cc b phn on phi tuyn thc hin tt hn cc b phn on tuyn tnh v cc mch lc di thc hin tt hn cc mch lc ngn. B phn on tt nht l b phn on hi tip quyt nh (DFE), l mt loi mch phn on phi tuyn s dng 2 mch lc v mt thit b ra quyt nh hi phc li tn hiu truyn i. Hnh 2.24 minh ho s khi n gin ca mt DFE. B ri mc (Slicer) quyt nh im no trong cc im trong chm sao iu ch l gn vi tn hiu nhn c nht. Sau b ri mc hi tip li lch tn hiu hi phc so vi tn hiu nhn c tr vo tn hiu nhn c k tip. V l thuyt cch ny c th loi tr mt phn ISI. Sau b lc hi tip li nh gi lng ISI cn li. Sau b lc hi tip nh gi li lng ISI cn li. Khi mt ln na ng ra ca b lc hi tip c tr khi ng ra ca b lc nhn c tn hiu th lng ISI cn li cng trit tiu.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Mc d DFE l mt b phn on tt nht nhng n c mt vi nhc im. Trc tin, mi sai lm ca b ri mc u c hi tip v dng pht ra s nh gi sau ny ca ISI cn li. Nh vy li mt bit c th dn n nhiu quyt nh li lin tip lm gim i s phng khng nhiu ca c h thng. Khi cng nhiu li c hi tip v h thng cng ti t . iu ny ngi ta gi l s lan truyn li. Feedforward Filter

Slicer

Feedback Filter Hnh 2.24 S khi DFE gim bt s lan truyn li ca DFE, ngi ta s dng mt k thut gi l precoding. Precoding loi tr c s lan truyn li nhng li i hi phi thay i my pht dn n tng cng sut pht. Precoding cng loi tr c kh nng ca mt k thut cho php DFE t cu hnh nhanh chng khi khi ng m khng cn lin h vi my pht gi l k thut Blind training. Trong phng php iu ch nhiu sng mang, Mt knh truyn c chia thnh nhiu knh c lp nhau, mi knh c mt sng mang ring l. DMT l iu ch nhiu sng mang thc hin truyn dn rt tt vi phc tp tng i.

2.3.1.5 u nhc im ca cc phng php iu ch a. Phng php DMT Do iu ch DMT s dng a sng mang truyn dn cc tn hiu vi bng tn hp cho mi sng mang nn DMT c mt s u im, nhc im sau:
u im Truyn c tc bit ti a trong cc khong bng tn nh. Linh hot trong vic iu chnh tc ng truyn. Mi knh con mang mt s bit c th ph thuc vo t s S/N. Do bng vic iu chnh s bit trn mt knh, DMT c th t ng iu chnh tc bit d liu. Nhc im Thit b rt t v phc tp.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Trong iu kin thc t do c nhiu xung t k thut din ra mnh vi cc iu kin k thut khng t mc ti u vic p dng DMT vo l gp nhiu kh khn. b. Phng php CAP u im CAP da trn QAM mt cch trc tip nn n l mt k thut hon thin d hiu. C th thch ng tc nh vic thay i kch c chm sao m ho hoc bng cch tng hoc gim bng tn. Mch thc hin n gin. Nhc im Do khng c sng mang nn nng lng suy gim nhanh trn ng truyn v tn hiu thu ch bit bin m khng bit pha do u thu phi c b thc hin chc nng quay nhm xc nh chnh xc im tn hiu. c. Phng php QAM do iu ch QAM s dng mt sng mang n nn QAM c mt s u nhc im sau: u im C th thch ng tc nh vic thay i kch c chm sao m ho hoc bng cch tng hoc gim bng tn. QAM c hiu qu mnh m hn DMT trong cc iu kin thay i v QAM i hi tnh ton t hn, kch thc nh hn, iu c ngha tiu th t nng lng t hn v gi r hn. Mch thc hin n gin. Nhc im Tuy nhin, s trng thi ca QAM cng ln t s tn hiu trn tp m cng phi ln m bo cng mt t l BER cho php. SNR cn thit cho cc h thng m bo BER< 10 -7 c thng k theo bng sau:

Bng 2.7 SNR ca cc h thng tho mn BER<10-7

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

S bt/k hiu 4 6 8 9 10 12 14

QAM QAM 16 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM 512 QAM 1024 QAM 4096 QAM 16384

SNR (dB) 21.8 27.8 33.8 36.8 39.8 45.8 51.8

S tng quan gia SNR vi t s li bit BER ph thuc vo s trng thi m s dng m ho c m t trn hnh 2.25.
BER QAM-64 Vng khng chp nhn c QAM-32 10-7 10-10 QAM-16 QAM-4 SNR (dB)

21,8

27,8

Hnh 2.25 Mi quan h gia cc trng thi QAM v SNR, BER Nh vy m bo BER cho php, nu t hp bt cng ln th yu cu cng sut pht cng cao v chnh l hn ch chnh y cao tc bt trn knh truyn.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

2.3.2 Phng php truyn dn song cng


Hu ht cc h thng FDD u xc nh hai knh hay nhiu hn v t nht l mt knh truyn dn chiu chiu ln v mt knh cho truyn dn chiu chiu xung. Cc knh ny tch ri nhau v tn s nn gi l song cng phn tn. Vn trong thc hin cc h thng song cng phn tn l rng v v tr cc di tn dnh cho cc knh truyn dn chiu ln v chiu xung. Hnh 2.26 l mt s thu pht theo FDD n gin.

Hnh 2.26 S thu pht theo FDD Hnh 2.27 minh ho trng hp song cng phn tn n gin nht cung cp mt di tn chiu ln v mt di tn chiu xung. Nh hnh v minh ho, di tn chiu ln

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

POST ISDN

Dowstream fL MHz

Upstream fH MHz

POST ISDN

Dowstream fL MHz

Upstream fH MHz

Hnh 2.27 V tr in hnh ca cc knh chiu ln v chiu xung trong FDD C th c b tr c th nm trn hay nm di di tn chiu xung. Mt h thng DSL kh thi c th hot ng trn cc ng dy tm c ly t 300 m n 1,5 km hay di hn. Nh ni nh cc phn trc, suy hao ng dy s ngy cng nhanh cng vi tn s trn cc vng thu bao di. V vy di ng dy thu bao cng tng th di tn hu dng ca ng dy s cng gim. cho php truyn dn thnh cng, c hai knh chiu xung v chiu ln phi c b tr trong di tn hu dng. Nu di tn hu dng nh hn f L th hoc l knh chiu xung hoc l knh chiu ln b bin mt lm cho truyn dn song cng khng thc hin c. Mt iu cn bn khc cn lu khi thit k cc h thng song cng phn tn l rng di ca cc knh chiu xung v chiu ln. S la chn ng n cc rng di ph thuc vo tc d liu cn thit v t s tc d liu gia hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln. V tr gii thng thch hp cho truyn ti d liu bt i xng 8:1 khc nhiu so vi v tr di thng h tr tc d liu i xng. Vic la chn rng di cc knh chiu xung v chiu ln thm phc tp khi xt n cc ng dy c di khc nhau lm cho cc t s SNR v cc di thng hu dng cng khc nhau. Chng hn v tr di thng thch hp cho dch v bt i xng t l 8:1 trn ng dy di 300 m khc rt nhiu so vi v tr di thng cho dch v bt i xng trn ng dy di 1.5 km. h tr tm tc d liu, tm s d liu rng v truyn dn hai chiu trn ng dy c di khc nhau, cc h thng h thng song cng phn tn phi cung cp cc chiu xung v chiu ln c rng di bin thin lm tng thm phc tp ca h thng v c bit l cc b lc tong t. Mt ngoi l l khi mt h thng song cng phn tn DMT cho php b tr cc phn knh chiu xung v chiu
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

ln tu bng cch cung cp mt tp phn knh di thng y cho mi chiu. Sau , mi phn knh c s dng cho chiu chiu xung v chiu ln. Mc d k thut ny yu cu hai b bin i Fourier ri rc DFT kch thc y trong tt c cc modem vn lm tng phc tp ca h thng, n vn lm cho cc yu cu tng t tr nn d dng cung cp s linh ng ln trong vic b tr di tn ca phng php song cng phn tn. Tri ngc vi VDSL song cng phn tn tch ri rc cc knh VDSL chiu xung v chiu ln theo tn s, cc h thng TDD (song cng phn chia thi gian) h tr truyn dn theo hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln trong mt di tn duy nht nhng trong cc khong thi gian khc nhau. Hnh 2.28 minh ho di tn duy nht c cc h thng song cng phn chia thi gian s dng. S dng rng di phn knh theo thi gian c kt hp vi vic dng cc siu khung. Mt siu khung bao gm mt khong thi gian dnh cho truyn dn chiu chiu ln, mt khong thi gian bo v, mt khong thi gian dnh cho truyn dn chiu chiu xung v mt khong thi gian bo v khc. di cc khong thi gian truyn dn theo chiu chiu xung v chiu ln l nhng s nguyn ln chu k k hiu DMT. Mt siu khung c k hiu l A-Q-B-Q, vi A v B l s cc k hiu tng ng b tr cho chiu chiu xung v chiu ln v hai k hiu Q biu din khong thi gian bo v m bo cho tr lan truyn ca knh v cho php p ng di suy gim gia thi gian pht v thu.

POST ISDN

Dowstream 300 kHz fH MHz

Hnh 2.28 Di thng dng cho c hai chiu truyn dn chiu xung v chiu ln trong cc h thng song cng phn chia thi gian

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

Trong cc h thng VDSL song cng phn chia thi gian ca hng Texas Instrument, thi gian ca mt siu khung l 20 k hiu ( 500 s ). Tng s ca A v B l 18 k hiu v cn li 2 k hiu Q. Cc gi tr ca A v B c nh iu hnh khai thc chn theo t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln cn thit. Chng hn, nu c tnh nhiu theo hai chiu truyn dn chiu xung v chiu ln l nh nhau v ci A bng B s cho kt qu cu hnh h tr truyn dn i xng. Ci A = 16 v B = 2 s to ra t tc d liu gia hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln l 8:1. Khi ci A = 12 v B = 6 th h tr t s tc gia hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln l 2:1. Hnh 2.29 minh ho cc siu khung h tr truyn dn t s tc d liu gia chiu chiu xung v chiu ln l 8:1, 2:1 v 1:1.
Q

16 k hiu downstream

2 k hiu upstream
Q

12 k hiu downstream

6 k hiu upstream
Q

9 k hiu downstream

9 k hiu upstream

Hnh 2.29 Siu khung ca phng php TDD cho php h tr cc t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau Vic s dng siu khung cho php cc h thng song cng phn thi b p vi cc khc bit trong mc nhiu gia hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln. Chng hn, nu nhiu trong chiu chiu ln nghim trng hn so vi chiu chiu xung th h thng song cng phn chia thi gian c th b tr thm nhiu k hiu cho chiu chiu ln b li. Trong trng hp truyn dn i xng th thay v cn siu khung 9-Q-9Q th h thng c th s dung siu khung 8-Q-10-Q v kt qu s tng thm c ly thng tin vi cng mt tc yu cu. S dng song cng phn chia theo thi gian yu cu cc modem ang tch cc trong mt cho cp phi c ng b vi mt clock ca siu khung chung sao cho mi truyn dn theo chiu chiu xung xy ra ng b v mi truyn dn theo chiu chiu ln cng xy ra chnh xc cng lc trn mi ng dy. Nu khng s dng mt cu trc siu khung chung th cc ng dy
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

h tr song cng phn thi trong cng mt cho cp c th gy ra xuyn knh u gn vi nhau lm gim tc d liu m chng c th h tr c. m bo hot ng ng b, mi modem song cng phn chia theo thi gian tng i ni ht hay ONU phi ng b vi clock siu khung chung. C nhiu phng php cung cp clock nh vy. Chng hn, c th tch ra t clock 8 kHz t mng, ly t mt trong cc modem song cng phn chia theo thi gian.

POST ISDN

Dowstream fL MHz

Upstream fH MHz

POST ISDN

Dowstream fL MHz

Upstream fH MHz

Hnh 2.30 NEXT khi trn ln cc h thng FDD i xng v bt i xng

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

VDSL khc vi cc h thng DSL khc do n c th h tr c thng tin i xng ln bt i xng vi tc d liu ca hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln khc nhau. Bit rng s b gii tn song cng phn tn cho cc dch v i xng v bt i xng l khc nhau, khi thc hin cc cu trc siu khung song cng phn thi thch hp th vn l dch v i xng v i xng c th cnh nhau trong cng mt cho cp c khng? Tht khng may l khi b tr gii tn hoc khong thi gian thch hp li cho kt qu khng tng hp ph bt k h thng l song cng phn thi hay song cng phn tn. Hnh 2.31 NEXT xy ra khi trn ln cc siu khung TDD i xng v bt i xng
Q

16 k hiu downstream
Q

2 k hiu upstream

9 k hiu downstream

9 k hiu upstream

Hnh 2.30 minh ho b tr ph tn trong mt h thng song cng phn tn. S b tr trn h tr truyn dn i xng v di h tr truyn dn bt i xng t s 8:1. Phn t xm l di tn xy ra xuyn knh u gn. V th, vic trn ln cc h thng VDSL song cng phn tn i xng v bt i xng trong cng mt cho cp gy ra xuyn knh u gn trong mt phn di tn truyn dn, nhng trong mi khong thi gian. Nh vy, khng c mt s b tr no cho song cng phn tn c h tr cho c cc dch v i xng v bt i m khng lm suy gim mt trong hai hay c hai dch v. Cc h thng song cng phn chia theo thi gian cng to ra s suy gim tng t khi h cc cu trc siu khung i xng v bt i xng trong cng mt cho cp. Hnh 2.31 l trng hp xu nht khi mt ng dy h tr truyn dn 8:1 c cu trc siu khung 16-Q-2-Q gn mt ng dy h tr truyn dn i xng c cu trc siu khung 9-Q-9-Q. Lu rng siu khung 9-Q-9-Q c dch i theo thi gian mt chu k k hiu ti thiu ho khong chng ln gia cc k hiu chiu xung trn ng truyn dn 8:1 v k hiu chiu ln trn ng dy truyn dn i xng. Tuy nhin, vn cn 5 k hiu b tc ng bi xuyn nhiu u gn. Trong khi xuyn knh u gn trong trng hp song cng phn tn ch xy ra trong mt phn ca ph tn trong mi thi gian th xuyn knh u gn ca song cng
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

phn chia theo thi gian tri rng ra trn mi ton b gii tn nhng ch trong mt phn thi gian. Mc nghim trng ca xuyn knh u gn trong c hai trng hp ph thuc vo s khc nhau gia cc t s ca ng truyn em trn ln. Vn chnh to ra s khng tng hp gia cc ng dy i xng v bt i xng khng phi l s yu km hiu qu ca h thng song cng phn tn hay song cng phn chia theo thi gian m vn l c tnh i v i nhiu tc ca VDSL. Cu trc siu khung s dng trong song cng phn chia theo thi gian cho php h tr c i xng vi mt tm cc t s d liu gia hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln khc nhau trong cng mt my thu pht. T s tc d liu cn thit xc nh trong hu ht trng hp ci t bng phn mm cc gi tr thch hp ca A v B. Hn na, nu c tnh nhiu ca hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln khc nhau nhiu th cu trc siu khung c th c sa i b p vo s khc bit. Hu ht cc modem song cng phn tn u h tr cc t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau khng bng song cng phn thi. h tr nhiu t s nh vy, cc modem song cng phn tn phi c kh nng thay i gii thng ca cc knh chiu xung v chiu ln vn thng phi cn n cc b lc tng t phn chia gii thng nhanh chng. S phc tp v tiu tn nng lng ca cc my thu pht ph thuc vo phc tp ca cc b lc phn chia gii thng v t l vi cch chn la gii thng m modem cung cp. Nh ni cc phn trn, ANSI v ETSI yu cu cn phi h tr cc t s 1:1, 3:1, 4:1, 6:1 v 8:1. phc tp ca kh nng h tr tt c cc t s ny trn tt c cc di ng dy c th c s lm cho khng th thc hin c. gim bt s phc tp nhiu nh cung nhng phn cng khc nhau cho tng t s tc d liu chiu xung v chiu ln khc nhau. Tuy nhin, vic s dng cc phn cng khc nhau s s linh ng khi thay i dch v. minh ho ti sao cn phi c cc phn cng c kh nng h tr cc t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau, hy xt vic s dng VDSL trong cc vng ng dn c v cc thnh ph ln. Trong cc cng ny, cc ng dy ca cc thu bao dn dng v cc thu bao doanh nghip c th chung vi nhau trong mt cho cp. Nhiu nh khai thc v iu hnh ng rng cc khch hng doanh nghip thng yu cu dch v i xng trong khi cc khch hng dn dng li yu cu dch v bt i xng cho vic truy cp Internet, video on demandNh phn tch trn, vic trn ln cc dch v i xng v bt i xng gy ra s khng tng hp ph cho vic b tr tn s ca song cng phn tn v thi gian ca song cng phn thi. V vy, h tr cng mt lc cc dch v i xng v bt i xng vi nhiu tc d liu khc nhau l khng
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

thc t tr khi c mt s tho thun v b tr cc khong thi gian/ tn s. Tuy nhin, hu ht cc khch hng doanh nghip yu cu dch v trong nhng ngy lm vic trong khi cc khch hng dn dng yu cu cc dch v vo bui chiu hoc cc ngy ngh. Cc modem VDSL c kh nng cung cp nhiu t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau cho php cc nh khai thc v iu hnh dch v cung cp dch v i xng vo ban ngy v dch v bt i xng vo ban m. Bng cch ny, cc nh iu hnh v khai thc dch v c th cung cp tc dch v cn thit cho c khch hng doanh nghip cng nh cc khch hng dn dng c ng day nm trong cung mt cho cp. Nh m t trn, phc tp ca mt modem song cng phn tn ph thuc vo s kiu b tr di tn m n h tr. Modem h tr mi t s tc d liu chiu xung so vi chiu ln khc nhau ca VDSL trn mi ng dy s rt phc tp v gi thnh s rt cao, c bit l khi s dng nhiu b lc tng t tch di thng. Tri li, cc h thng song cng phn thi c th cung cp modem n gin hn c phn x l s tn hiu cng nh phn tng t. Vi cc modem song cng phn thi da trn k thut DMT th s phc tp gim nhiu nh vo vic dng chung phn cng cho c my thu v my pht. Vic s chung phn cng c th thc hin c l do cc chc nng thu pht ca mt modem DMT u c nhiu tng ng: c hai u tnh ton cc php bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT) thng c thc hin bng gii thut FFT. V c ch song cng phn thi c s dng nn modem c th thu v pht trn nhng khong thi gian khc nhau. Kt qu l ch cn mt phn cng tnh DFT cho mi modem. FFT ny s dng trn tt c cc tn s v khong thi gian ca siu khung ch tr cc khong bo v Q. Hn na, phn cng tng t cng c tit kim v modem song cng phan thi thu v pht tn hiu trn cng mt di tn. Trong mt thi im th chiu no khng s dng s tt ngun i v nh vy s tit kim in nng tiu th. Tri li cc modem song cng phn tn phi lun cung cp ngun cho c hai chiu pht v thu. Cn lu rng s dng song cng phn thi vi cc phng php iu ch mt sng mang nh CAP hay QAM s khng gim c s phc tp thit b nh nu. V cc my pht v thu tn hiu mt sng mang rt khc nhau nn cn phi c phn cng thu v pht tch bit cho mi modem mt sng mang v nh vy chng tit kim c g khi thc hin song cng phn thi. Trn thc t, cn thy rng gii php song cng phn thi da trn iu ch CAP/QAM c gi thnh cao hn nhiu so vi gii
58

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

php song cng phn tn mt sng mang v chng phi dng cc b lc DFE di rng hn v phc tp hn cng nh cn phi c cc b bin i tn hiu ADC, DAC tc nhanh hn. S tit kim ca h thng song cng phn thi da trn iu ch DMT l gi thnh h v t tn in. Nh ni, cc modem cc tng i ni ht v ONU phi c ng b ton b h thng khng b tc ng bi xuyn knh u gn. V l do ny cn phi c mt clock chung cho cc siu khung. Tht khng may l cc nh iu hnh khai thc xem s phn b ca cc clock chung ny l mt cng vic kh khn. Cc nh iu hnh khai thc rt ngi chu trch nhim khi cung cp mt clock chung, tin cy cho nhng thu bao trong mng ca minh. H lo lng khi ngun clock chung ny b hng s lm cho h b cc khch hng kin tng. Kt qu l, cc nh iu hnh FSAN khuyn co nn s dng song cng phn tn cho vic song cng VDSL. Khi xt n cc yu cu ca h thng VDSL c th thy r rng l vic song cng phn thi c u im hn song cng phn tn khi s dng trn c s iu ch DMT. Tuy nhin, yu cu cn phi ng b ca song cng phn thi li gy kh khn cho cc nh cung cp dch v trong mt mi trng t do. V vy, s song cng cho VDSL hin nhin l song cng phn tn. Trong cc phn trc cho thy rng p ng cc yu cu ca VDSL th s kt hp gia iu ch DMT v song cng phn thi s cho kt qu tt nht. Phn ny a ra cc kt qu o c vic thc hin thc t cc h thng nh vy. Kim tra tm c ly cc i nh gi tm c ly ng di nht ca mt h thng khi hot ng nhng tc cho hai chiu chiu xung v chiu ln c nh v vi cng mt mc nhiu cho c hai chiu. Hnh 2.32 v tm cc i trung bnh o c ca 5 h thng VDSL song cng phn thi da trn DMT hot ng cc tc d liu i xng khc nhau vi mc nhiu cho c hai chiu chiu ln v chiu xung cng l 6dB v t s sai bit khng qu 10 -7. th cho thy tc i xng 13 Mbps c th h tr ng dy 0,5 mm (24 AWG) di n gn 1,4 km v h tr ng dy 0,4 mm (26AWG) di n gn 1,1 km. Tc i xng 26 Mbps c th ti trn ng dy 0,5 mm di n 850 m v 0,4 mm di n 700 m.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

20/20

26/20

Tc d liu
0,5 mm 0,4 mm

Hnh 2.32 Tm cc i trung bnh ca cc h thng song cng VDSL phn thi i xng Hnh 2.33 v tm c ly cc i trung bnh ca mt h thng VDSL song cng phn thi da trn DMT khi c cu hnh h tr truyn dn bt i xng 8:1 vi mc nhiu cho c hai chiu l 6 dB v t s sai bit khng qu 10 -7 c hai chiu. Tc kt hp chiu xung 26 Mbps v chiu ln 3,2 Mbps trn i dy ng knh 0,5 mm c th di n 1,3 km v trn i dy ng knh 0,4 mm c th di n 1,5km. Tc kt hp chiu xung 52 Mbps v chiu ln 6,4 Mbps trn i dy ng knh 0,5 mm c th di n 700 m v trn i dy ng knh 0,4 mm c th di ti 600 m. Vic o c c thc hin t nht l 5 i dy t 5 vng khc nhau trn th gii to ra gi tr trung bnh trn.

60

n tt nghip i hc Di (m) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10/10 0,5 mm 0,4 mm 16/10 20/20

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

26/20

Tc d liu

Hnh 2.33 Tm cc i trung bnh ca cc h thng song cng VDSL phn thi bt i xng 8:1

2.3.3 u nhc im ca cc phng php truyn dn song cng


a. Phng php FDM u im
Trit tiu c NEXT v v hai di tn s cch nhau bng bng tn bo v. Khng cn s ng b gia pht v thu. c pht trin t lu nn c s chn mui v cng ngh. Khng i phi ng b nhp ng h ca cc modem. Khng yu cu phi dung ho gia cht lng ca cc dch v tc thp v tc cao. Cht lng ca h thng c th d on trc. Thm hoc thay i cc khch hng cng khng lm thay i cht lng ng truyn ti khch hng hin ti, min l vic thc hin k cng.
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Nhc im Khng s dng hiu qu bng thng v lung ln v lung xung hai di tn khc bit nhau v cn c di tn bo v. Thnh phn tn s cao s b suy gim. Tc lung xung di tn cao nn b gim nhanh chng khi c ly truyn dn tng do suy hao min tn s cao nhanh. Vn xy ra hin tng nhiu xuyn m vi cc k thut xDSL khc. Do truyn tn s cao.

b. Phng php TDM u im


S dng hiu qu bng thng v khng c khong bo v gia cc bng thng. Khng b nh hng nhiu v tc ng truyn khi truyn dn ti min tn s cao.

Nhc im
i hi phi ng b nhp ng h ca cc modem. Trong qu trnh pht trin dch v vic thay i cc khch hng s lm nh hng ti cht lng ng truyn ti cc khch hng hin ti.

2.4 M hnh tham chiu ca VDSL


Phn ln cc DSL ch yu c d nh s dng t mt CO ti khch hng v th yu dng t nhng b ghp phn phi si quang. Tri ngc vi VDSL. VDSL s ch yu c dng cho nhng vng lp t mt n v mng quang (ONU ), ci m c c im l t ti ni cch xa khch hng khng ln hn 1km. Mt s cc vng lp VDSL ni trc tip ti CO. Si quang kt ni trc tip ONU ti CO. VDSL truyn dn qua mt cp xon i thng dng cho vi ngn feet t ONU ti khch hng. Nh thy trn hnh 2.34. Nhu cu VDSL c pht trin bi nhm tiu chun T1E1.4 m t cc tc v khong cch t ONU ti pha khch hng. Cp t mng ti ONU c th c kt ni trc tip ti ONU, hnh trn ( phng php ni vi ba thit b vi nhau dc theo but, qun l cc tn hiu i vi tng thit b ), hay qua b tch quang th ng.

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Hnh 2.34 Cu trc mng VDSL


ONU VDSL

Kt ni trc tip

Mng
Mng ni tip

Mng quang th ng

Cng ngh VDSL hng ti vic cung cp truyn dn tc cao trn ng dy thu bao in thoi c di khng qu 1,5km. Mng in thoi thng c 2 dng kin trc vng thu bao. Nhng ni dn c dy c hay thnh ph c nhiu khch hng gn tng i ni ht nn VDSL c th c cung cp trc tip t tng i ni ht. cu hnh ny gi l cu hnh fiber-to-the-exchange ( FTTEx ) v c minh ho hnh 2.35. ng dy xon i
CO/LEX

Khch hng

Hnh 2.35 FTTEx

Kin trc

Khi thc hin cp quang m rng vo su mng hn th cng ngh VDSL dng b ONU trong cu hnh fiber- to- the- cabinet ( FTTCab ) nh minh ho trn hnh 2.36.

ng dy xon i CO/LEX Fiber ONU Khch hng


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Hnh 2.36 Kin trc FTTC Knh truyn dn l mi trng vt l dng chuyn tn hiu mang thng tin t im ny n im khc. Trong mng in thoi ni ht knh truyn dn l cc i dy xon c ch to bng cch xon i 2 i dy ng cch in vi nhau. Sau nhiu dy li c xon cht vi nhau to thnh si cp. T tng i ni ht hay ONU cc i cp s to ra v tng i dy xon s r ra cung cp dch v cho thu bao. Trong cu trc FTTCab s c hai kin trc c s dng l cu trc Hub th ng v kin trc Hub tch cc.
Hub th ng VDSL VDSL Set- top Box or PC Set- top Box or PC Set- top Box or PC

VDSL

LPF POTS

LPF

VDSL POTS Khch hng

Hnh 2.37 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub th ng Cu trc Hub th ng cho php kt ni trc tip nhiu my thu pht VDSL pha khch hng cui ca ng dy. Hnh 2.37 nu r c th ca cu trc NT th ng yu cu khong cch t pha ONU khng ln hn 100m ti n v khch hng dng VDSL, v vy phi to cho n thch hp hn cho cc ng quang ti cc ct quang v cc ng dng trong cc to nh. Cu trc ny c s dng cho tiu chun k thut dng DAVIC VDSL, trong tiu chun ny s dng iu ch bin pha khng sng mang cho tc 13; 25, 92 v 51 Mbit/s thu v 1,6 Mbit/s cho pht qua i dy xon. Cu trc Hub tch cc ch trn hnh 2.38 cho php c nhng sn phm ln hn (c v bng tn v phm vi) bng vic dng mt cu hnh im ti im cho vng lp truyn dn. Hub tch cc bao gm mt b thu pht n VDSL, v cc ng ni tch bit ti mi cng (c ch ra) hoc l mt ng bus trong nh thu bao (khng ch ra).
Set- top Box or PC Hub VDSL VDSL tch cc POTS Khch hng Set- top Box or PC Set- top Box or PC

LPF POTS

LPF

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Hnh 2.38 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub tch cc

2.5 M hnh chun ca VDSL


2.5.1 M hnh giao din
Hnh 2.39 minh ho m hnh tham chiu giao din chung cho tng truy nhp cp ng ca mng VDSL. Cc ng dy thng ng ch cc giao tip chun. Cc b tch dch v tch cc tn hiu VDSL ra khi cc tn hiu ca cc dch v c tn s thp hn nh POST hay
V Network (V) Interface U2_O U1_O U1_R U2_R VTU-R NT1 T/S User (T) Interface

VTO-O

Splitter UTP

Splitter

POST or ISDN to CO

POST or ISDN to CPE

ISDN chng hn. Hnh 2.39 M hnh tham chiu giao din

2.5.2 M hnh giao thc


2.5.2.1 M hnh tng giao thc
Lp hi t truyn dn (TC) c chia thnh mt phn c tnh thch nghi chuyn vn ( TPS-TC: transport protocol specific-TC ) v mt phn c tnh mi trng vt l ( PMS-TC: Physical Medium Specific-TC ). Cc lp ca VDSL c m t hnh 2.40.

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ONU Transport Protocol (e.g.ATM) TPS-TC Private PMS-TC PMD

-O

-R

NT Transport Protocol (e.g.ATM) TPS-TC Private

I-O I-R

PMS-TC PMD

Physical TP Media V U1

Internal Interface S/T

Hnh 2.40 M hnh cc lp giao thc VDSL

2.5.2.2 Phn tch chc nng


VDSL c cc ng dng trong vn chuyn d liu ca cc giao thc khc nhau. Ti liu hin ti nhm vo vn chuyn ca ATM v STM ( SDH ), nhng my thu li VDSL l dung lng ca nhng ng dng ph thm vo trong tng lai. Nhng cu trc bn trong ca cc lp giao thc TPS-TC l c tnh ng dng. Hnh 2.41 ch ra phn tch ng dng ca VDSL vi cc im tham chiu kt hp.
Optical Network Unit (ONU) VDSL Application -O TPS-TC Application Independent VDSL Link Network Termination (NT) Application Independent
I1_R

TPS-TC

VDSL Application

TC
TBD

I_O

U1_O

U1_R

-R

TBD

TC

TBD

TBD

SDH ATM

SDH ATM
PMS-TC

SDH PMD PMD PMS-TC ATM

SDH

ATM

Hnh 2.41 Phn tch chc nng

Cc b tch dch v khng ch ra

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2.5.3 Nhng im tham chiu


im tham chiu V: ti giao din mng vt l gia VTU-O v ONU. Nhng im tham chiu U: nhng tn hiu ISDN/POST c th cng mi trng vt l nh tn hiu VDSL bi cc b tch ang s dng. V vy, im tham chiu U1 xem mi trng i dy ng ang mang cc tn hiu hn hp, trong khi im tham chiu U2 ch r ch trong cc cng modem VDSL. Cc im tham chiu S v T: im tham chiu u cui truy nhp (ATP) ch r bo v v u cui phn phi cp.

2.6 Thit k mng VDSL


2.6.1 M hnh chi ph
Mng cn c nng cao s u t c th c phn sang u t cc thit b cp (si, cc loi cp mi ...), u t cc dch v c bn (cc thit b u cui ng dy quang v n v mng quang) v u t c th cho cc dch v (i modem DSL). Th nht hai hnh thc u t mo him cao ban u phi lm trc khi bt c thu bao no c kt ni. u t dch v c th tu thuc vo s cc thu bao c kt ni v cho nn c kt hp vi mo him ti chnh thp hn. Tng chi ph ca VDSL nng cp c th hin trong phng trnh (6.1): Ctot = Ccable + Csite + CONU + COLT + COAM + Crest Ctot = Chi ph tng. Ccable = Chi ph cc thit b cp: nghin cu, si. Csite = Chi ph ca nh ONU v ci t. CONU = Chi ph ca ONU: thit b, cng sut. COLT = Chi ph ca OLT: thit b, cng sut, ci t. CVDSL = NT v LT, ci t thit b. COAM = Thit b OAM, chi ph OAM sau ci t. Crest = Chi ph c th khc. u t mo him cao ban u to bi u t thit b cp v u t dch v c bn, Ccable, Csite, CONU v COLT trong phng trnh. u t c th dch v mo him thp hn trong to bi CVDSL chi ph OAM, COAM c phn ra trong c hai nhm, thit b OAM sang u t dch v c bn v dch v OAM sau lp t ti chi ph c th dch v. Cng nh mt s chi ph khc, ging chi ph ca ONU, cng b tc ng bi s lng thu bao VDSL v bi vy c th c tch ri trong c hai nhm. (6.1)

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2.6.2 Phn tch thnh phn chi ph


Nh ch trong phng trnh (6.1) tng chi ph ca VDSL nng cp bao gm mt vi thnh phn khc nhau. Trong nghin cu su hn, ch c chi ph cable, a im, ONU v VDSL l c cu thnh. iu c tnh ton nh chi ph c th VDSL rng n khng tn ti nh trong bng rng khc v k thut truy nhp. Cng nh chi ph OAM v OLT l quan trng nhng c quyt nh ngoi nghin cu ny. c bit OLT l chuyn mch d liu quang ci c s dng kt ni s lng ln cc ONU ti cc mng d liu v c th s dng bi k thut khc hn VDSL. Phn chi ph ca OAM bao gm c trong chi ph ca thit b ONU, bi vy phn cn li c th c xem nh chi ph m cng nh trong cng la chn bng rng khc.

2.6.2.1 Thit b cp
Chi ph cp to bi chi ph ca cc si mi ci c lp t trong mng truy nhp. S u t cn thit tu vo kiu khu vc c th. Ni cc ng mi c lp td cc si hin ti c c s dng hay khng. Cng nh s la chn cu trc si cng nh k hoch bo v cn thit c nh hng ln trn cc u t cn thit. Mc d thit b cp to mt phn ngha ca tng chi ph n khng cha ng s ri ro ln. Cp c lp t c kh nng c s dng nh th no, cho rng mc dch lu di ti mng FTTH. gim chi ph trong tng lai n c th suy xt kch thc cp c lp t tu thuc nhu cu c nh gi tng lai. Cng thm cc chi ph gy ra bi mt cp ln hn c th l hp l bi vic tit kim chi ph ci t mi trong tng lai. Mt khc ngi ta cho rng mt s thu nhp chc chn s to ra bi u t thu c trong mng cp, bi vy qu nhiu s khng cn thit dung lng tha cho mc ch tng lai khng c chp nhn. Mt s loi cn li c tm thy l qu cp c lp t. Vic lp t cc cp mi l cng vic mi ngy ngi iu hnh hin nay. iu ny c ngha l ngi iu hnh khng c nhiu s khng r rng trong nh gi chi ph cp hay trong nhn t chi ph khc sau tng chi ph cp. Chi ph thit b si mi c th c tch ra trong cc phn ring bit nhau: Ph tn nghin cu, tu thuc vo kiu vng v chi ph ca si. Chi ph cp, bao gm cp mi v cng vic lp t n. Chi ph cp v ph tn nghin cu l tng xng vi chiu di nhu cu cp mi. Mt s nh gi ca tt c chiu di cp c th c tnh vi s gip ca hnh hc. Vic chn phng php bo v cng c mt tc ng ng k trn cc thit b cp. V d n cn phi c hai ng tch bit ti mi ONU. Loi nhu cu ny c th ch ra cc kt ni theo hnh ch nht iu khng tn ti trong mng hin nay.
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Chi ph ca cp c th hin nh trong phng trnh (6.2). Ccable = Cfibre ( loi cp, chiu di ) + Cwork ( loi vng, meter ) + Cend ( s lng ng ) (6.2) Ccable = tng chi ph cp. Cfibre = chi ph ng. Cwork = chi ph nghin cu v chi ph cng vic lp t. Cend = chi ph ca vic a cp c lp t vo s dng, kt cui ca si cp. Nh trong phng trnh (6.2) chi ph ng cp tu thuc vo chiu di dng c o cp mi, loi cp, kiu vng v s lng cc ng c mang vo s dng. Chi ph si cp (Cfibre) v chi ph mang vo cp c lp t a vo s dng (C end) to ra mt phn trng thi ca chi ph tr khi kiu vng khng cc tc ng trn nhng ci ny. S giao ng ln nht l rc ri vi cng vic nghin cu v lp t (C work) trong phng trnh. Mt phm vi t 3-56 Euro/m tu thuc vo kiu vng c ngh. Mc chi ph c th cao hn s cn thit, ti mc 120 Euro/m nu khng th s dng cc si hin ti v cc si mi phi chn di ng nha trong khu vc thnh ph.

2.6.2.2 a im ONU
Mt vn vi cu trc FTTcab v FTTC l tm mt v tr thch hp cho ONU. y tha nhn rng mt v tr c th c tm thy vi chi ph hp l. V s quan trng ca chi ph a im trong quan h ti chi ph ONU khc n c quyt nh rng iu ny nn iu khin tch t chi ph ONU khc. Bi vy nu s pht trin tng lai ca chi ph so snh n chc chn rng gi thit b ONU s gim trong khi chi ph ca c o mt a im cho ONU gn nh khng gim xung hn. Csite = Cbuilding (kiu vng, loi ONU) + Cinstallation (kiu vng, c ONU) Csite = tng chi ph a im. Cbuilding = chi ph cng vic xy dng. Cinstallation = chi ph lp t thit b ONU. (6.3)

2.6.2.3 Thit b ONU


Chi ph ci t v xy dng l phn ca chi ph a im ONU. Chi ph thit b ONU c to bi chi ph thit b cn thit cho cc to nh mt ONU trong a im ONU, chi ph ngha, gi, th cn thit v thit b cng sut d phng. Nhng ci ny bao gm chi ph biu hin trong phong trnh (6.4). CONU = Cframe (c ONU) + Ccards (ONU) + Cpower (c ONU) (6.4)

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CONU = Tng chi ph ONU. Cframe = chi ph ca gi v ngn cn thit cho cc th ci t. Ccards = chi ph ca th si, th OAM, n v cng sut. Cpower = chi ph thit b cho cng sut d phng, c qui

2.6.2.4 Cc modem VDSL


Chi ph ca modem VDSL khng ging chi ph khc th hin y trong mt phng php rt quan trng. Nh cc chi ph khc cn to ti thi im ca to nh mng VDSL vi ch c d bo kh nng c th s lng ca thu bao VDSL, chi ph modem VDSL m t sau khi kt ni VDSL c yu cu bi khch hng. iu ny c ngha l mo him thp hn ng k nu so snh vi cc thnh phn chi ph khc. Chi ph ca modem VDSL v vic lp t chng c th hin trong phng trnh (6.5). CVDSL = Cmodem (s thu bao VDSL) + Cinstallation (s thu bao VDSL) (6.5) CVDSL = tng chi ph VDSL. Cmodem = chi ph ca th VDSL trong ONU (LT) v ti thu bao (NT). Cinstallation = chi ph lp t mt thu bao VDSL mi.

2.6.3 S nh gi gn ng cho chi ph


Ch c nh gi chi ph gn ng y c th hin v khng bit v mc chi ph ca cc thnh phn VDSL l bao nhiu s trong mt vi nm khi mng VDSL c xy dng. Tuy nhin mt s c gng c t to ra gi tr nh kh nng thc t c th nht so snh vi ci khc n ni chi ph sau y phn tch s so snh v nhy c th a ra t nht mt s ch s ca phn ln gii hn ca mng. Cho mi thnh phn nh gi chi ph thp, trung bnh, cao c a ra phn tch nhy c th thc hin c.

2.6.3.1 Cc thit b cp
y tha nhn rng phn ln nht ca chi ph cp c to bi chi ph cng vic lp t, Cwork trong 2.6.2.1, phng trnh (6.2). Loi cp c s dng c mt nh hng chi ph nh hn cht t trn chi ph. Kiu vng c tnh n nh gi chi ph nh thp, trung bnh, cao. Chi ph ca cp c ci t mang vo s dng l quan trng nu so snh vi cc chi ph khc. y tha nhn rng bao gm c cc chi ph khc. Xem xt cc loi cp vi 48, 24 v 12 si. Thm ch c ln hn c th c ci t. c bit nu cch dng ti cc mc ch khc nh CATV c th c on trc. Trong m hnh mng truy nhp, loi cp c ci t trong cc cch sau: Kt ni AB v BC: 48-si cp. Kt ni CD v CE: 24-si cp. Kt ni BF, CF, DF v EF: 12-si cp. Chi ph ca cc si cp v cng vic ci t c nh gi sau:
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

48 ng cp: 4 Euro/m, lm vic 13 Euro/m. 24 ng cp: 2,5 Euro/m, lm vic 12,5 Euro/m. 12 ng cp: 1,5 Euro/m, lm vic 11,5 Euro/m. Nh thy t chi ph c nh gi tha nhn rng phn chnh ca chi ph c to bi chi ph ca vic lp t di nh gi thp hn 5 Euro/m nh gi trung bnh c th hin trn v nh gi cao cao hn 10 Euro/m. Kt qu nh gi chi ph c th hin trong bng 2.8. Bng 2.8 nh gi chi ph gn ng ca si cp Cp (si) 48 24 12 Low 12 10 8 nh gi chi ph (Euro/m) Medium 17 15 13 High 27 25 23

2.6.3.2 a im ONU
Theo phng trnh (6.3) c biu hin trong 6.2.2 l kiu vng v c ONU l cc nhn t chnh sau chi ph ca a im ONU, C site trong phng trnh. Trong nh gi chi ph tha nhn rng kiu vng c tnh n bi phn bit chi ph trong nh gi cao thp, trung bnh v cao. c bit c ONU c mt nh hng trn chi ph ci t nhng y c ca c tnh n ch ti chi ph thit b ONU. Tha nhn rng a im ONU c xy dng theo mt cch n ni ONU c thay th trong s l thch hp. nh gi chi ph ca ONU c a ra trong bng 2.9. Bng 2.9 nh gi chi ph gn ng ca a im ONU a im ca ONU LE AN nh gi chi ph (Euro/m) Low Medium 5000 10000 10000 20000 High 15000 30000

Nh thy trong bng trn chi ph ca a im ti v tr LE l c tch ra t chi ph ca v tr trong AN. Tha nhn rng phn ln v tr LE c khong trng cho a im mt ONU trong khi AN mt nh mi cn c thng xuyn hn. Cng tha nhn rng s thot ra cng sut in l c gi tr ti v tr LE trong khi ti v tr AN trong nhiu trng hp n phi c xy dng. Gi tr c th hin trong bng 2.9 l nh gi gi tr trung bnh. Mt s v tr AN c c tm thy t cc to nh hin nay v mt s to nh cn thit ca a im mi hon ton, kt qu trong s khc nhau chi ph cao tu thuc vo a im.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

2.6.3.3 Thit b ONU


Chi ph ONU ch yu b nh hng bi c ONU cn thit cng c ch ra trong phng trnh (6.4) ca 2.6.2.3. Tha nhn rng y c ONU y chc chn tn ti v c cn thit khc c thu c bi ch c mt phn ONU ang ph y. N c quyt nh rng mt c ONU nh c cn n mt phn trong topology ni m c mt s cn thit t ONU gn cc thu bao. c bit c ONU ln hn c ch ti topology vi cc vng ONU ln hn ni s lng cc thu bao c kh nng mi ONU c th cao. Tha nhn rng c ONU l 25, 250, v bi s ca 250. Trong thc t ca m hnh AN. ONU 50 v ONU 250 l tng xng vi phn ln cc trng hp nh ch trong bng 10. C ONU ln hn ch cn cho ONU t ti v tr LE, ONU (A) trong bng. Kt qu tng t c th c tnh cho trng hp khng thay i ban u cng nh da trn s lng thu bao c kh nng ti mi ONU. nh gi chi ph gn ng c th hin trong bng 11. Nhng nh gi ny bao gm ch thit b ci c t ti v tr ONU loi tr cc th ng VDSL ci c tnh n trong chi ph modem VDSL. Bng 2.10 C ONU cn thit trong m hnh AN thc t vi cc t l o c khc nhau Topology FTAB FTAC Potential Subs/ONU ONU(A) ONU(B) ONU(A) ONU(C) ONU(A) ONU(B) ONU(C) ONU(D/E) ONU(312) ONU(130) ONU(56) ONU(51)
ONU50

FTABCDE FTF

1870 735 4044 470 1872 572 298 209 312 130 56 51
-250

5% 93 36 202 23 93 28 14 10 15 6 2 2
ONU250

VDSL Subs with certain rates 10% 15% 20% 25% 187 280 374 468 73 110 147 183 404 606 808 1011 47 70 94 117 187 280 374 468 57 85 114 143 29 44 59 74 20 31 41 52 31 46 62 78 13 19 26 32 5 8 11 14 5 7 10 12
500ONU500 or bigger

30% 561 220 1213 141 561 171 89 62 93 39 16 15

-50

Bng 2.11 nh gi gi tr gn ng cho thit b ONU

72

n tt nghip i hc ONU Size 50 250 5001 7502 10002 12502 15002


1 2

Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL. Cost estimates [Euro] Medium 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000

Low 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000

High 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000

vi ch c ONU(A) v ONU(C) trong m hnh AN vi t l o c ti 30%. Vi ch c ONU(A) trong m hnh AN vi t l o c ti 30%.

2.6.3.4 Cc modem VDSL


Chi ph modem VDSL ch c tr gi y ci m b nh hng trc tip bi s lng cc thu bao VDSL c kt ni nh ch ra trong phng trnh (6.5) ca phn 6.2.4. Nhng chi ph ny cha ng s mo him nh nht bi v u t c th c tao ra sau khi cc thu bao cho dng cc dch v. nh gi chi ph cc modem VDSL bao gm ti c hai chi ph cc u mt v lp t c biu hin trong bng 2.12. c bit bn hay hn cc VDSL LT l c ho nhp trong mt th VDSL ci c ci t ti mt ngn trong ONU. chnh xc nh gi chi ph nn chu tc ng khi mt th c ci t. iu d dng ny l khng c tnh n v ch c nh gi mi thu bao VDSL l c ghi r trong bng. Bng 2.12 nh gi chi ph gn ng cho modem VDSL
Modem VDSL Low 300 nh gi chi ph ( Euro) Medium 600 High 900

2.6.4 So snh cc chi ph ca cc Topology


2.6.4.1 Tng chi ph
Tng chi ph c c lng ca mng truy nhp cn thit nng cp trong cc topology khc nhau c biu th trong hnh 2.42. N cng c ch ra chi ph c to ca cc thnh phn khc nhau nh th no. Vi t l o c thp t l ln chi ph c bn v chi ph mng cp, a im, v chi ph ONU c th c lu . Khi t l o c tng, t l mo him chi ph modem VDSL thp, ngay c khi t l s lng thu bao, tng ln ng k. Nh qu trnh thm nhp tng t 5 n 30% t l chi ph modem VDSL ca tng chi ph trong thc t tng trong FTAB topology t 30 n 77%, trong FTAC topology t 31 n 73% trong FTABCD t 22 n 58% v FTF t 7 n 31%.trong trng hp khng thay i cng xu hng c th c ch . Nu chi ph ca thc t v trng hp ban u c so snh c th ch rng FTABCDE v FTF topology c cng tng chi ph. S khc nhau nh gy ra bi s
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

thay i c ONU cn thit. C t s khc nhau ln trong trng hp ca FTAB v FTAC topology. Trong thc t tng chi ph l ln hn ng k. iu ny gy ra bi phn phi thc c cung cp, ci t thu bao gn LE hn, trong VDSL vng c kh nng hn nhng g c t trong trng hp ban u.

(a)

(b) Hnh 2.42 Tng chi ph ca topology vi cc t l o c khc nhau cho trng hp ban u (a) v trng hp thc t (b)

2.6.4.2 Chi ph mi thu bao VDSL


Nu chi ph tng c tch ri ra bi s lng cc thu bao VDSL kt qu l chi ph ca mi thu bao VDSL:
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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

CVDSL- sub = Ctot / NVDSL - sub CVDSL = chi ph mi thu bao VDSL. Ctot = chi ph tng ca mng nng cp. NVDSL - sub = s lng cc thu bao VDSL.

(6.6)

Trong hnh 2.43 kt qu c ch ra cho cc topology c nghin cu vi cc t l o c khc nhau. Nh ngay c khi ngh rng chi ph tng FTF topology c mc chi ph ln nht cho mi thu bao hn rt nhiu c bit trong trng hp t l o c thp ni chi ph tng cao c tch ri bi mt s lng thp cc thu bao VDSL c kt ni. Thm ch ti mt t l o c 30% FTF topology chi ph khong hai ln mi thu bao hn topology ti im kia. Trong trng hp khng thay i chi ph mi thu bao trong FTABCD topology l ti gn u kia ca FTAB v FTAC. Hay thm ch nu trng hp khng thay i v thc t c so snh c th ch rng mc chi ph ca FTABCDE l khng ging nhau v chi ph FTAB v FTAC thp hn thc t. iu ny gy ra bi s lng ln thu bao che ph bi FTAB v FTAC trong thc t. Vi cng thit b thu bao c che ph thp hn trong trng hp khng thay i ban u, cho kt qu mc chi ph cho mi thu bao VDSL cao hn. Nu chi ph mi cu hnh thu bao VDSL c xem xt c th dng nh chi ph FTAB v FTAC l nh nhau. Trong trng hp khng thay i chi ph ca FTAC t hn ng k v trong trng hp thc t FTAB c mc chi ph thp hn ng k. Trong trng hp khng thay i vic nng cp ln FTABCD c th thc hin ti 10%-15% t l o c. Thm ch ti t l o c 5% chi ph khc nhau c th thp hn 800Euro. Trong trng hp thc t vic nng cp ti FTABCD c th c xem xt ti t l o c cao hn 5% so vi trong trng hp ban u. iu ny c ngha l khong 15% - 20% t l o c.

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

(a)

(b)

Hnh 2.43 Chi ph cho mi thu bao VDSL vi cc t l o c khc nhau trong trng hp ban u (a) v trong thc t (b)

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

2.6.4.3 Chi ph dung lng


Tnh ton chi ph ca tng chi ph dung lng c tch ri bi bi tng dung lng truyn dn ca tt c cc thu bao c kt ni. Cng kt qu dnh c nu mi thu bao VDSL c tch ri bi dung lng ln nht trung bnh: Ccap = CTOT / ( NVDSL - sub * CAPAVE ) = CVDSL - sub / CAPAVE Ccap = chi ph ca dung lng. CTOT = tng chi ph ca mng nng cp. NVDSL- sub = s lng thu bao VDSL. CAPAVE = dung lng ln nht trung bnh. Kt qu tnh ton c ch trong hnh 2.44. C th xy ra, va tn s mang tng va chi ph ca dung lng gim. T hnh c th thy rng tc gim khc nhau ng k trong cc topology khc nhau. Trong FTF thay i chi ph ca dung lng l gn nh ng k nh c ch ra trong c hai cu hnh. Trong trng hp khng i hnh dng FTF yu cu chi ph thp nht ca dung lng ngay t 25% t l o c. Trong trng hp thc t gi tr chi ph ca topology FTF l khong nh th, nhng c khi mc chi c cung cp bi FTAB v FTABCDE trong trng hp thc t. Ngay t thp hn 10% t l o c chi ph ca dung lng trong FTABCD l r hn FTAC. Nu tiu chun chnh cho qu trnh la chn c gim n mc ti thiu chi ph ca dung lng, kt qu ny biu th cc k hoch khc nhau cho trng hp ban u v trng hp thc t. Trong trng hp ban u ngay khi ti 5% t l o c FTABCD c th c tnh ton n, nh cc chi khc nhau ti cc topology khc l hu nh khng tn ti. Ti t l o c 10% FTABCD cung cp mc chi ph thp nht. FTF c th xem xt n ngay khi ti 15%-20%. Trong trng hp thc t topology FTAB c mc chi ph dung lng rt thp nu so snh vi cc s la chn khc. Mc chi ph l khc nhau gia FTABCD v FTF bt u ti mc chp nhn c l 20% - 25% t l o c. Mc chi ph ca FTAC l cao ngc nhin, nng cp ti cc topology khc dng nh l t hp dn hn nu nu s la chn c da trn chi ph ca dung lng. (6.7)

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Chng II. Cng ngh VDSL.

(a)

(b) Hnh 2.44 Chi ph ca dung lng vi cc t l o c VDSL khc nhau trong trng hp ban u v trong thc t

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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

CHNG III KH NNG NG DNG CA CNG NGH VDSL TRONG MNG TRUY NHP
3.1 Cc vn cn tn ti trong vic pht trin k thut VDSL
M ng
Mt trong nhng kh khn hin nay ca k thut VDSL l cha c chun qui nh c ch m ho v phng php bo hiu nn hai phng php iu ch n sng mang v a sng mang u ang c nghin cu s dng. Trong nhm n sng mang m CAP vt tri hn hn so vi m SLC v ang c mt s hng nghin cu a vo s dng nh hng Orckit. M DMT v m WDMT thc cht cng da trn mt nguyn tc. M DMT hin nay ang c s dng cho k thut ADSL v cng c s dng nhiu cho k thut VDSL. Hai loi m ny u c nhng u im ring, chng hn nh m CAP c u im v cng sut tiu th, v ng c trng v gi thnh nhng li khng linh ng v hin nay cha hot ng c tt c cc tc chun. Ngc li m DMT li c u im l cung cp ng c trng hu nh ti u cho cc knh c chia, n hi i vi nh hng ca tn s radio, d dng thch nghi vi s thay i knh v iu kin nhiu bn ngoi, hot ng tt c cc tc chun, khng chu nh hng mnh ca nhiu tp m xung. Nhng cc modem VDSL s dng m DMT c ng c trng nh cc modem VDSL s dng m Cap li yu cu cng sut tiu th ln gp 4 ln. Hn na, do khc phc vic ng c trng ca DMT chu nh mnh ca tn hiu HF nn phc tp ca modem VDSL s dng m ny tng ln. Hai iu ny dn n gi thnh ca loi modem dng m ny cao hn.

Phng php ghp knh


Hai phng php ghp knh TDD v FDD u ang c nghin cu s dng. Phng php FDD c u im l c ch ng b d hn phng php TDD v cc dch v hin nay ang s dng l cc dch v FDD in hnh. Tuy vy phng php ghp knh TDD li c u im l pht trin chn mui, c linh ng cao, gi thnh thp v yu cu cng sut tiu th thp hn phng php FDD.

Mu chun v nhiu
Hin nay cha c mu chun v nhiu cho modem VDSL. Vic ny mt phn l do nhiu ca ng dy ph thuc vo nhiu yu t (nh kiu dy, iu kin lp t) nn kh khn a ra m hnh chung.

Nhiu v tuyn
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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

Trong trng hp s dng cp treo trong mng ni ht (local loop), th tn hiu VDSL khi truyn to ra mt trng in c kh nng giao thoa vi gii tn v tuyn, lm nhiu tn hiu v tuyn v ngc li.

S pht x ca cp treo
Theo nghin cu ca cc chuyn gia thuc phng th nghim BT, th tn hiu pht ra t modem VDSL c PSD c -60dBm/Hz truyn qua mng cp treo c tn s nm trong di tn v tuyn c th lm nhiu cc tn hiu v tuyn. Cc chuyn gia a ra khuyn ngh l cc tn hiu t modem VDSL c tn s nm trong di tn v tuyn phi nh hn 80dBm/Hz.

Hot ng dng i xng hay khng i xng


Hin nay cc modem VDSL khng ng thi cung cp c c hai loi dch v i v khng i xng. Trong tng lai s thit k loi modem ny.

Cc u thu v u pht linh ng


Cng vi l do trn, cc chuyn gia ang khuyn ngh thit k loi modem c u pht c cu hnh ph hp vi c hot ng i xng v khng i xng.

3.2. Trin khai VDSL ti Vit Nam


p ng nhu cu s dng Internet trong cc to nh cao tng, VDC chnh thc th nghim dch v Internet s dng cng ngh VDSL ti H Ni. Theo cng ty VDC, hin i tng s dng dch v ny l khch hng thuc khi cng ty, vn phng trong cc to nh. i tng khch hng ny thng c nhu cu cung cp dch v mng nh Web, mail, ftp, do s t chc mng li nh khch hng lease-line th phi s dng a ch IP Public. Khch hng s c cp mt s subnet ring hoc mt vi a ch trong di a ch ca mng Internet Vit Nam.

Cc VDSL tnh theo kh nng s dng thc t khch hng


S dng dch v ny, khch hng s c cung cp dch v truyn s liu bng rng: Truy nhp Internet, lin lc bng VPN, xy dng trang WebTuy nhin, trong giai on du, VDC ch mi trin khai dch v truy nhp Internet bng rng. Tc truy nhp dch v c th t 64kbps ti 2Mbps hoc cao hn khi dng uplink l wireless hoc nhiu ng E1. Khch hng cng c th s dng VPN clinet base tng tnh bo mt khi kt ni vo mng dng ring nc ngoi. Cc dch v c th c tnh trn gi, theo thi gian hoc theo lu lng s dng tu theo kh nng v thc t s dng ca khch hng. Khch hng thu mt ng truyn c tc gii hn, cc s c tnh c nh trn gi theo tc gii hn ch khng theo thi gian dung lng s dng. Tnh cc theo thi gian da
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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

theo tc gii hn ca ng truyn v thi gian truy nhp mng. Cch tnh cc ny ph hp vi khch hng truy nhp mng bnh thng. Cch tnh cc theo lng s dng c tnh trn tc gii hn v lu lng thc t khch hng s dng.

Khch hng c th va gi in thoi, fax v truy nhp Internet


Internet tc cao VDSL l dch v cho php khch hng c th va truy nhp Internet, va gi in thoi v fax. S dng dch v ny, khch hng khng phi thc hin vic vo, ra mng v khng phi quay s mi khi mun vo mng Internet. iu ny p ng c nhu cu ca ngi s dng cng nh tit kim chi ph v thi gian cho khch hng. u im ca dch v VDSL l chi ph thp, cc thit b u cui r, lp t n gin li p ng c tc cao truy nhp khi truy nhp Internet. Tc download ca dch v ny cn bng t 64 Kbps n 5 Mbps. Dch v ny s c kt ni t mng VDC ti cc to nh s dng lease-line truyn thng hoc mt kt ni bng rng ti nh cung cp dch v mng. Vic kt ni ch yu da trn cc cng ngh cung cp mng bng rng nh cng ngh ADSL, cng ngh VDSL v cng ngh wireless. Thc t trong cc to nh ti Vit Nam hin nay, vic s dng cng ngh VDSL l hp l nht. Bi v cng ngh ny cho cc to nh vn phng, khu nh th hay cc cng ty, x nghip vi di ng cp kt ni khng qu 100 mt s gii quyt nhu cu kt ni Internet cho cc khch hng c m hnh mng co nhiu c im ging cc thu bao Internet trc tip.

3.3 Cc kin trc mng truy nhp s dng cp quang


Cp quang l phng tin truyn dn hu tuyn c tc cao nht hin nay. Vic a cp quang vo mng truy nhp mi ch bt u. Hin nay gi cp quang v thit b quang tng i cao so vi cp ng nhng ang c xu hng gim lin tc. Thm vo , bng thng khng l, khi lng v kch thc b so vi cp ng l nhng li th rt quan trng. Cp quang nh hn cp ng c 23 ln v c tit din nh hn 36 ln. Trong mng thnh th vn c rt nhiu cp nhng tnh nng ny tr nn rt quan trng. Cp quang c th d lp t vo cc h thng cng ngm sn c. Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc dch v bng rng, vic a cp quang trong mng truy nhp s cho php: D dng hn trong bc chuyn i sang mng truy nhp th h sau, cung cp bng thng theo yu cu. Nng cao tin cy v cht lng dch v. Nng cao kh nng cnh tranh

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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

Cung cp cc dch theo yu cu bng hp hin nay mt cch tt hn. M rng tm hot ng ca cc tng i. C thm doanh thu nh cc dch v mi. Kh nng qun l mng truy nhp s c ci thin.
Service User Exchange VB5 OLT OLT OLT OLT PON Local Cabinet

Node
SN SN SN SN

Exchange
VDSL or ADSL ONU ONU ONU VDSL
NTE NTE

UNI FTTExch FTTCab FTTC/ FTTB FTTC/ FTTH

VDSL NTE
NTE

ADSL- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line/Loop NTE- Network Termination Equipment OLT- Optical Line Termination ONU- Optical Network Unit PON- Passive Optical Network VDSL- Very high-speed Digital Subscriber Line/Loop

Hnh 3.1 Cc kiu trc mng truy nhp s dng cp quang FTTx
C th trin khai mng truy nhp s dng cp quang bng nhiu cch khc nhau, tu thuc vo thit b v cng ngh m ta la chn. Mt s kin trc mng ph bin da trn mng quang th ng (PON) nh sau: FTTCab: Fiber To The Cabinet (cp quang n t phn phi). FTTC/B: Fiber To The Curb/Building (cp quang n khu vc/cao c). FTTH: Fiber To The Home (cp quang n nh).

3.3.1 Mng quang th ng


Mng quang th ng PON l gii php tng i r tin a cp quang vo mng truy nhp. C th ni PON gn lin vi nhng n lc gim gi thnh mng cp quang s dng khng ch trong mng truyn dn ng trc, m dng truyn dn trong mng truy nhp thu bao. c bit ca PON l ch s dng cc b tch quang th ng, khng dng cc thit b ghp knh, chnh v th gi
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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

thnh tng i thp. Vi PON ta c th trin khai nhiu cu hnh mng khc nhau FTTx. Tuy ra i v c s dng u tin trong mng truy nhp quang, nhng v nhiu l do PON cha c trin khai thc s rng ri. Thi trng thit b PON c th ni l kh khim tn vi tng doanh thu 35 triu USD nm 2000 ( M, theo FCC), tuy nhin tng trng kh mnh trong thi gian gn y. Probe Reseach d bo tc tng trng ca th trng thit b mng quang th ng trong vi nm ti l khong 60%. Th trng PON cng nh ton nghnh cng nghip vin thng gp nhiu bin ng trong thi gian gn y, mc d vy nhiu nh khai thc vn tip tc trin khai mng quang th ng. PON l cng ngh mng truy nhp cnh tranh trc tip vi GigE v SDH. Thit b GigE v SDH lin tc gim gi, c bit l thit b Gigabit Ethernet, to ra p lc ln i vi th trng PON. Tuy nhin EPON, l kt hp gia cu trc quang th ng v Ethernet, trong nhiu trng hp l gii php hp l cho last mile ca mng truy nhp. Cng ngh mng quang th ng c th m t ngn gn nh sau: Mng PON l mng im n a dim. Mt si quang duy nht c th ti 1,25 Gbps chia s cho ti a 64 i tng s dng. C ba giao thc lp 2 ch yu dng cho mng quang th ng, theo th tng dn ca gi: BPON: Broadband PON. EPON: Ethernet PON. APON: ATM PON.

ONU

ONU

Fiber

Router

Building Passive optical splitter

OLT

Interne t

Copper to home/SME

ONU
RT/DSLAM

PoP/Central office

ONU
Coax to home

Cable distribution node

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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

Hnh 3.2 Mng quang th ng PON

(1)

Optical Line Terminal (OLT) gim st v duy tr cht lng dch v khi tch/ghp tn hiu t/n nhiu u cui khc nhau.

(2)

Passive Optical Splitter gi mt phn tn hiu ng xung ti tng u cui v a tn hiu ng ln vo on cp quang chnh truyn v OLT (tc tn hiu xung c tch ra v tt c u cui nhn c tn hiu ging ht nhau). POS khng cn ngun. Optical Network Unit (ONU) thc hin chuyn i gia tn hiu quang ca PON v tn hiu ca thit b khch hng (ATM, Ethernet).

(3)

trnh xung t khi cc ONU ng thi gi d liu v OLT c th s dng phng php WDM hay khe thi gian. Tuy nhin gii php WDM kh t tin v c th gy ra nhiu vn trong mng. Chnh v vy gii php dng khe thi gian l ph bin nht. Vic cp pht khe thi gian cho ONU c th l tnh hay ng.

3.3.2 ATM PON


Cc h thng APON l cc PON da trn ATM qua SONET/SDH. Cc PON cng c bit bi tn tip th hn BPON, hay Broadband PON, trnh s kh hiu mt s ngi dng nhng ngi tin tng rng cc PON c th ch cung cp cc dch v ATM ti cui cc ngi dng. S giao thip APON v BPON s c s dng thay th nhau. Cc APON c nh ngha bi nhm ITU-T G983 v FSAN. SONET/SDH l mt chun cng nghip vin thng cho cc kt ni quang tc cao qua cc khong cch di. SONET h tr mt cu trc vng, n c th c trin khai im ti im (trng hp bin i). Thm vo mng thoi v d liu, SONET h tr mt s loi ch s bo hiu v thc hin mt s tnh nng kim tra. ATM l giao thc chy trn SONET. ATM s dng 53 byte t bo (5 byte mo u v 48 byte ti trng). V c ca t bo l c nh, s thc hin ATM c th m bo hiu qu cht lng dch v, bng tn cho php, m bo tr, ATM c thit

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Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

k h tr cho c hai ti trng thoi v d liu, v vy n l thch hp tt vi cc ng dng fiber- to-the- home. OLT cho mt trin khai APON c th h tr cc a APON vi mt s t s tch ca mi 32 thu bao hay 64, tu vo cung cp. APON c th c trin khai hai si ti mi khch hng (mt chiu ln v mt cho chiu xung), hay s dng WDM nh mt si ti mi khch hng. WDM tch ri si bi chiu di bc sng trong hai hay hn nhiu hai knh. s thc hin APON s dng mt knh cho lu lng chiu ln, mt cho lu lng chiu xung, v mt kh nng cho cng ngh bng rng nh video. Mt s m rng cho tng lai c th ca APON l super PON. Mc ch cu trc ca mt super PON bao gm mt tng ca cc b tch quang th ng. Cu trc l tng s c th h tr 2048 ngi s dng v vi khong cch 100 km, vi 2,5 Gbps cho chiu xung v 311 Mbps cho chiu ln.

3.3.3 H thng truy nhp quang bng rng da trn mng quang th ng
G.938.1 l chun APON ban u. T khi bt u ca n vo nm 1998, c 7 chun khc nhau a ra nh l mt phn ca nhm G.938.1 v m rng k thut ca G.938.1. Chun nh ngha tc danh ngha cho APON i xng 155,52 Mbps hay 622,08 Mbps, hay bt i xng 622,08Mbps cho hng chiu xung v 155,52Mbps cho hng chiu ln, truyn dn c th qua 1 si n s dng WDM hay qua 2 si, mt cho truyn dn trong mi hng, phm vi 2 hp l khc nhau ca h thng l 20 km. Khong cch ln nht gia S/R v R/S nhng im trong biu trong hnh 3.3 cng l 20 km. Chun cng ch r mt ch s tch c h tr nh nht ca 16 hay 32 ngi dng cho mi PON.
R/S Optical Disstribution NetWork ONU S/R

ONU

OLT

S: im trn cp quang ch sau OLT (Chiu xung)/ ONU (Upstream), im kt ni quang (b ni quang hay ch ni quang). R: im trn cp quang ch sau ONU (Chiu xung)/ OLT (Upstream), im kt ni quang (b ni quang hay ch ni quang).
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n tt nghip i hc

Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

Hnh 3.3 Theo cu hnh tham chiu ca ITU (G.982) Giao thc APON hot ng khc nhau trong cc hng chiu xung v hng chiu ln. Trong hng chiu xung, APON hot ng ti tc OC3 (155Mbps) hay OC12 (622Mbps). Trn mt si n s dng WDM, truyn chiu xung ti 1480-1580 nm. Cho hai si, truyn dn ti 1260-1360 nm. Ti 155 Mbps, khung APON bao gm 56 t bo ATM (khe thi gian); 54 cho d liu v 2 cho cc hot ng v qun l tng vt l (PLOAM). T bo PLOAM c chn vo cho mi 28 khe thi gian. Ti 622 Mbps, mt khung APON l di 224 khe di vi 216 t bo ATM ca d liu v 8 t bo ca PLOAM. Tt c cc b thu chiu xung thu tt c cc t bo v loi b nhng ci khng dnh cho chng, da trn thng tin a ch ATM. Tu theo loi bng rng ca PON, d liu ngi dng chiu xung c khuy hay trn, s dng mt kho khuy pht ra bi ONU cung cp mt mc thp bo v cho d liu ngi dng chiu xung. Trong hng chiu ln, chun ghi r tc OC3 v OC12, vi c hai 1 WDM v chiu di sng 2 si 1260-1360nm. Truyn dn chiu ln c iu chnh vi mt h thng TDMA. My pht c cho bit khi c pht bi xc nhn ca thng bo tr cp qua cc t bo PLOAM thu c. Chiu ln APON thay i ATM v s dng 56 byte t bo ATM, vi 3 byte thm vo header c s dng cho thi im bo v, m u cc bit, v mt b phn cch trc khi bt u 53 byte t bo ATM thc. K thut bo v cho APON c trong ph lc ca G.983.1. Bn cu hnh song cng c th c th hin nh v d. H thng song cng si: hai si quang gia OLT v b tch.

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n tt nghip i hc

Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

OLT- ch c h thng song cng: 2 si gia OLT v b tch vi 2 cng u vo v u ra trn pha OLT ca b tch v 2 OLT qua PON ti trung tm chuyn mch. H thng song cng y : ng nht hai cu hnh, nhng c 2 pha iu kin ONU v cc b tch. Song cng tng phn: cho php ch c mt s ONU song cng vi iu kin pha OLT song cng.

3.4 Nng cp Mng VDSL ln h thng APON


T s phn tch cng ngh VDSL trong chng II v s phn tch APON trong chng III. Ta c th thy rng vic chuyn t mng VDSL ln h thng APON l mt qu trnh thay th c s chuyn t mng truy nhp hin nay ln mng quang ho. Trc ht i hi cn phi quang ho mng truy nhp. Yu cu ny cn phi c thi gian chuyn tt c nhng ng dy cp ng c hin nay thay th bng h thng cp quang. Thay th cc thit b k thut khng cn ph hp cho mng quang mi nht l cc thit b k thut khng ng b vi h thng mng quang. V d c th l cc thit b chuyn i quang in v ngc li trn ng truyn dn phi c ct d. V vic xc nh a hnh ca tng vng cng nh yu cu dch v ca cc vng khc nhau, cc vn ny sinh khc cng nh tiu ch k thut ca cc thit b mng nn vic nh c mng khng c chnh xc nn vic nng cp trong thc t cn c nhiu vn khc y ch l nhng xut mang tnh yu cu l thuyt, nhng g m em thu c qua nghin cu ti ny.

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n tt nghip i hc

Chng III. Kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh VDSL trong mng truy nhp.

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KT LUN
Ni dung ca n ch ra c tnh hnh pht trin ca mng vin thng v mng truy nhp ni chung v cng ngh xDSL ni ring. T ch ra c vic p dng cng ngh VDSL vo Vit Nam l mt thun li ln trong vic pht trin v p c cht lng ngy cng cao ca cc dch v bng rng trong tnh hnh mng cha c quang ho hon ton v thc y qu trnh tin ln mng NGN t mng PSTN. Trong chng I tuy mi gii thiu tng quan v mng vin thng v mng truy nhp nhng chng ta cng phn no thy c tnh hnh pht trin ca mng vin thng v mng truy nhp ngy nay. Nht l chng ta thy c tnh hnh pht trin ca cc cng ngh truy nhp bng rng hin nay m c th l cng ngh xDSL qua con s thng k vo ngy 30-6-2005 ca Q2 2005. Chng II chng ta hiu c phn no v cc c tnh k thut ca VDSL nh cc k thut iu ch, truyn dn song cng, m hnh trin khai ca cng ngh, chi ph cho vic thit k mng VDSLTuy vic tm hiu cc c tnh k thut ca VDSL mi ch dng li chng mc no nhng chng ta cng hiu c mt phn v k thut VDSL t tm ra c hng hp l trin khai cng ngh ny vo Vit Nam trn c s tm ra c nhng u im v nhc im ca n. Chng III ch ra nhng vn cn tn ti trong vic pht trin cng ngh ny, vic th nghim VDSL ti Vit Nam, v a ra c cu hnh s dng cng ngh VDSL trong mng quang th ng. y l c s p dng cng ngh VDSL vo mng quang cha c quang ho hon ton v l bc tin a mng VDSL ln mng APON khi mng truy nhp c quang ho hon ton. Sau mt thi gian tm hiu l thuyt em c c mt s hiu bit nht nh v cng ngh VDSL p dng trong mng truy nhp vin thng v hot ng ca n. Nhng yu t nh hng n vic cung cp bng tn cho ngi s dng v cch thc hot ng ca mng. Tuy nhin, do hn ch v trnh cng nh thi gian, em vn cha th a ra ht c nhng c tnh k thut ca cng ngh ny cng nh nu ra c phng n ti u cho vic ng dng cng ngh ny vo Vit Nam. Nht l hin nay khi m cng ngh VDSL2 va ra i vi tc c a ln cao hn nhiu so vi cng ngh VDSL. Em hy vng trong tng lai s c th hon thnh tip ti ny c c ci nhn su sc v r rng hn v tm hiu v cng ngh VDSL2 c th so snh c vi cng ngh VDSL hin nay, xem xt tnh kh thi khi p dng v thc t

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Tm hiu v cng ngh VDSL ca Bu in thnh ph Hi Phng. [2] Nguyn Quc Vit D2000VT, n tt nghip Nghin cu mng ring o trong mng th h sau, Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng, 2004. [3] L Th c D99VT, n tt nghip Nghin cu trin khai cng ngh ADSL trong mng vin thng Vit Nam, Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng, 2003. [4] Bi th Qun D2000VT, n tt nghip Tnh ton lu lng trong mng s dng cng ngh ADSL, Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng, 2004. [5] Nguyn B Hng, Nguyn Vnh Nam, ti nghin cu khoa hc Nghin cu s dng k thut DSL cho mng truy nhp Vit Nam, m s 110-99-TCT-AP-VT, Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng, 2000. [6] Dr. Dennis J. Rauschmayer, Macmillan Technical, McGrow Hill, 1999. [7] ADSL/VDSL principle,

Thomas Starr, John M.Cioffi, Perter Siverman, Understanding Digital Subscireber Line Technology , Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

[8] Transmission and Multiplexing (TM); Access transmission system on metallic access cables; Very hight speed digital subscriber line (VDSL), ETSI TS 101 270-2 v1.1.1 (2001-2002). [9] Fernado Ramirez-Mireles, Ph.D, The Bennifits Of Dicrete Mutil-Tone (DMT) Modulation for VDSL Systems, Ikanos Communications, 2000. [10] Martin Sehlstedt,RFI UNIVERSITET, 2000. Cancellation in VDSL, LULEA TEKNISKA

[11] Harri ManTyla, Design of Very hight speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) Networks, HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 21-6-1999. [12] Wen-mei W.Hwu, DSP Microarchitectures,University of lllinois, UrbanaChampaign 1999. [13] Adjelka Kelic, Networking Technology Adoption: System Dynamics Modeling of Fiber- to- The- Home, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005. [14] http://www.ADSL.com.

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