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K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

MN: K THUT TRUYN S LIU

N TP
I. CC KHI NIM C BN
1. TC BIT V TC BAUD Tc bit l s bit trong mi giy. Tc baud l s n v tn hiu trong mi giy. Tc baud thng b hn hay bng tc bit. Tc baud xc nh bng thng cn thit truyn tn hiu. Tc bit = tc baud . s bit trong mt n v tn hiu Rbit= Rbaud.n n = log2M Rbit = log2M / Ts = m/ Ts = 1/ Tb * Ts : chu k tn hiu * Tb : thi gian ca mi bit Th d 1: Mt tn hiu analog mang 4 bit trong mi phn t tn hiu. Nu 1000 phn t tn hiu c gi trong mt giy, xc nh tc baud v tc bit. Gii: Tc baud = s n v tn hiu trong 1giy = 1000 baud/giy Tc bit = tc baud x s bit trong mt n v tn hiu =1000 x 4 = 4000bps. Th d 2: Tc bit ca tn hiu l 3000. Nu mi phn t tn hiu mang 6 bit, cho bit tc baud? Gii: Tc baud = tc bit/ s bit trong mi phn t tn hiu = 3000/6 =500 baud/giy V d 3: Mt tn hiu s c 8 mc. Cho bit c th truyn bao nhiu bit cho mi mc? S bit trong mt mc = log2 8 = 3. Nh th mi mc tn hiu c th truyn c c 3 bit.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU V d 4: Gii:

NGUYN QUC NAM

Mt tn hiu s c chn mc. Cho bit c th truyn bao nhiu bit cho mi mc? S bit trong mt mc = log29= 3,17. Mi mc tn hiu truyn i c 3,17 bit. R rng l kt qu ny l khng hin thc. S bit cn truyn i cn l s nguyn l tng ng vi s m 2. Trong trng hp ny th nn dng 4 bit cho mi mc tn hiu truyn. V d 5: Mt knh thoi c ri rc ha, c cu to t mt tn hiu tng t c bng thng tn hiu thoi l 4 KHz. ta cn ly mu tn hiu vi hai ln tn s cao nht (hai mu trong mi Hz). Vi gi s mi mu cn 8 bit, hi tc bit l bao nhiu? Gii: Tc bit c tnh theo: 2 x 4000 x 8 = 64000 bps = 64 Kbps.

2. TN HAO NG TRUYN (TRANSMISSSION IMPAIRMENT)

Hnh 4.1 C 3 dng tn hao: suy gim, mo dng, nhiu. 3.1 Suy gim (Attenuation): L tht thot nng lng. b suy hao, dng b khuch i tn hiu.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM - deciBel (dB): c dng o mnh tng i ca hai tn hiu ti hai im khc nhau. Khi dB m tn hiu b suy gim Khi dB dng tn hiu c khuch i.

+ suy gim (dB ) =10 log10 ( P2 / P 1) Trong : P1 l cng sut pht (im 1) P2 l cng sut thu (im 2)

+ Khuch i (dB ) =10 log10 ( P2 / P 1) Trong : P1 l cng sut vo b khuch i (im 2) P2 l cng sut ra b khuch i (im 3)

V d : Cho mt tn hiu i qua mi trng truyn, cng sut b gim mt na . Hy tnh suy gim theo deciBel (dB). suy gim (dB ) =10 log10 ( P2 / P 1) =
10 log10 (0,5 P 0,3) = 3dB 1 / P 1 ) = 10 log 10 (0,5) =10(

(-3dB tc l gim i 3 dB, tc l cng sut gim i mt na) V d : Tn hiu c khuch i 10 ln, tc l P2 = 10P1. khuch i 10 log10 ( P2 / P1 ) = 10 log10 ( 10 P1 / P1 ) = 10 log10 ( 10 ) = 10( 1 ) = 10dB V d: Mt trong nhng yu t s dng dB l dng php tnh cng trong qu trnh tnh ton tn hao ti nhiu im ni ui nhau.

Hnh 4.2

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Tng deciBel ca ng truyn: P2 P3 P4 P P P 10 log10 ( P4 / P ) = 10[log10 ( 2 ) + log10 ( 3 ) + log10 ( 4 )] 1 ) = 10 log10 ( P P P2 P3 1 P 2 P 3 1 P P P = 10 log10 ( 2 ) +10 log10 ( 3 ) +10 log10 ( 4 ) = 3 + 7 3 = 1dB P P2 P3 1 tn hiu c khuch i. + DUNG LNG KNH SHANNON: Dung lng knh: Xc nh tc truyn d liu cc i theo l thuyt ca mt knh truyn C = B log2(1+S/N) V d 1: Cho c mt knh truyn rt nhiu nhiu (N = ), t s S/N gn bng 0, nhiu qu mnh lm yu tn hiu. Nh th, dung lng truyn lc ny l: C = B log2(1+S/N)= B log2(1+ 0)= B log2(1)= B . 0= 0 iu ny tc l dung lng knh truyn l zr, bt k bng thng, tc l ta khng th truyn tin qua knh ny. V d 2: Tnh tc bit cao nht l thuyt ca mt ng cp UTP, vi bng thng 3000Hz, t s S/N l 3162 ln (35 dB). Nh th, dung lng truyn l thuyt cao nht l: C=Blog2(1+S/N)=3000 log2(1+3162)=3000 log2(3163)= 3000 x11,62= 34.860bps =34,86kbps Nh th, nu mun tng tc truyn d liu trong ng dy UTP, th phi mt l tng bng thng hay ci thin t s S/N. i t dB sang s ln hoc ngc li:
S / N (dB ) = 10 log10 ( S / N lan); S / N lan = 10
S / N ( dB ) 10 S / N ( dB ) 35( dB )

Trong : C[bps]: Dung lng knh. B[Hz] : Bng thng ca knh truyn. S/N : T s cng sut tn hiu trn cng sut nhiu. S[W]: Cng sut tn hiu; N[W]: Cng sut nhiu.

S / N lan = 10 10 = 10 10 = 103,5 = 3162 S / N (dB ) = 10 log10 (3162) = 35dB

ln

K THUT TRUYN S LIU V d: (Sinh vin t lm):

NGUYN QUC NAM

1. o lng hiu nng ca ng dy cp UTP (bng thng 4 KHz), khi tn hiu l 10 volt th nhiu l 5 volt. Tc truyn d liu ti a l bao nhiu ? 2. Mt ng dy c t s tn hiu trn nhiu (S/N) l 1000 ln v bng thng l 4000 Hz, tnh tc truyn d liu ti a theo Shannon? 3. Mt tn hiu i t im A n im B. Ti im A, cng sut ca tn hiu l 100 watt, ti im B cng sut cn li 90 watt, tnh suy hao theo dB? 4. Mt knh truyn c suy hao l 10 dB. Khi cho tn hiu 5 watt i qua th cng sut thu bao nhiu? 5. Mt tn hiu i qua ba b khuch i ni ui nhau, mi b c li 4 dB. Hy cho bit li tng? Tn hiu c khuch i bao nhiu ln?

3. TM BNG THNG : Bng thng ca tn hiu hn hp l sai bit gia tn s cao nht v thp nht c trong tn hiu ny. Th d 1: Nu phn tch tn hiu tun hon thnh 5 sng hi sin c tn s ln lt l 100, 300, 500, 700 v 900 Hz. Cho bit bng thng ca tn hiu? V ph vi gi s l tt c sng hi u c gi tr ln nht l 10V. Gii: Gi fh l tn s cao nht, fl l thp nht, v B l bng thng, th B = fh - fl = 900 100 = 800 Hz Ph ch gm 5 gai nhn xut hin ti cc tn s 100, 300, 500, 700 v 900 Hz .

Th d 2: Tn hiu tun hon c bng thng l 20 Hz. Tn s cao nht l 60 Hz, tm tn s thp nht? V ph ca tn hiu sng hi c bin ging nhau.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU Gii:

NGUYN QUC NAM

Gi fh l tn s cao nht, fl l thp nht, v B l kh sng, th B = fh - fl 20 = 60 fl fl =60 20 = 40 Hz Ph cha tt c cc tn s c gi tr nguyn.

Th d 3: Mt tn hiu hn hp khng tun hon c bng thng l 200 kHz, c tn s trung tm l 140 kHz, v bin nh l 20 V. Hai gi tr bin ti hai tn s cc tr l 0. V tn hiu trong min tn s. Gii: Tn s thp nht phi l 40 kHz v tn s cao nht l 240 kHz.

a) Bng thng dng cho ASK(amplitude shift keying):: Tn hiu sng mang (carrier signal): Trong truyn dn analog th thit b pht to ra tn s sng cao tn lm nn cho tn hiu thng tin. Tn hiu nn ny c gi l sng mang hay tn s sng mang. Thit b thu c chnh nh thu tn s sng mang trong c tn hiu s c iu ch v tn hiu mang thng tin c gi l tn hiu iu ch. Khi phn tch ph tn hiu iu ch ASK, ta c gi tr ph nh hnh v trong c cc yu t quan trng l sng mang fc gia, cc gi tr fc Nbaud/2 v fc + Nbaud/2 hai bin.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM Hnh 4.3

Bng thng cn thit cho ASK c tnh theo: BW = (1+d) . Nbaud= (1+d) . Rbaud Rbaud Trong : BW: bng thng Rbaud, Nbaud: tc baud d: l tha s lin quan n iu kin ng dy (c gi tr b nht l 0) Ta s thy l bng thng ti thiu cn cho qu trnh truyn th bng tc baud. Th d 4 : Tm bng thng ca tn hiu ASK truyn vi tc bit 2 kbps. Ch truyn bn song cng.

Gii: Trong ASK, tc bit bng tc baud. Tc baud l 2000, nn tn hiu ASK cn c bng thng ti thiu bng tc baud. Nh th, bng thng ti thiu l 2000 Hz. Th d 5: Tn hiu ASK c bng thng l 5000 Hz, tm tc bit v tc baud? Gii: Trong ASK th tc baud bng bng thng, tc l tc baud l 5000, ng thi do tc bit bng tc baud nn tc bit l 5000 bps. Th d 10: Cho bng thng h thng truyn ASK 10 kHz (1 kHz n 11 kHz), v ph ASK song cng ca h thng. Tm tn s sng mang v bng thng ca mi hng, gi s khng c khong trng tn s gia hai hng. Gii: Do h thng ASK song cng nn bng thng trong mi chiu l BWmi hng = (1/2). BWh thng = 10khz / 2 = 5khz = 5.000 Hz Tn s sng mang l tn s gia, nh hnh 5.26: fc thun = 1.000 + 5.000/2 = 3500 Hz fc nghch = 11.000 - 5.000/2 = 8500 Hz

K THUT TRUYN S LIU b) Bng thng ca FSK:

NGUYN QUC NAM

Bng thng cn thit truyn dn FSK chnh l tc baud ca tn hiu cng vi dch tn s (sai bit gia hai tn s sng mang hnh v BW = /fC0 - fC1/+ Nbaud = f + Nbaud Tuy ch c hai tn s sng mang, nhng qu trnh iu ch cng to ra tn hiu hn hp l t hp ca nhiu tn hiu n gin, vi cc tn s khc nhau. Th d 11: Tm bng thng ti thiu ca tn hiu FSK truyn vi tc bit 2kbps. Ch truyn dn bn song cng v cc sng mang cch 3kHz. Gii: Tn hiu FSK dng hai tn s fC0 v fC1, nn; BW = (fC1 - fC0 )+ Tc baud Do trong trng hp ny th tc bit bng tc baud, nn BW = (fC1 - fC0 )+ Tc baud = (3.000) + 2.000 = 5.000 Hz Th d 12: Tm tc bit ln nht ca tn hiu FSK nu bng thng ca mi trng l 12khz v sai bit gia hai sng mang t nht l 2kHz, ch truyn song cng. Gii: Vi ch truyn song cng, th ch c 6.000 Hz l c truyn theo mi hng (thu hay pht). i vi FSK, khi c fC1 v fC0 l tn s sng mang. BW = (fC1 - fC0 )+ Tc baud Nn Tc baud = BW - (fC1 - fC0 ) = 6.000 2.000 = 4.000 baud/s ng thi, do tc baud bng tc bit nn tc bit cng l 4.000 bps

Khi truyn dn trn di tn c s th bng thng cn thit l t l vi tc bit (bit rate); nu ta mun truyn bit nhanh hn, th cn phi c bng thng rng hn.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

Th d 5: Tm bng thng cn c ca knh truyn thng tn s thp nu cn gi vi tc 1 Mbps dng phng php truyn trn di tn c s. Gii: Li gii cn ty theo mc chnh xc cn c: a. Bng thng ti thiu, l B = (tc bit)/2, tc l 500 KHz b. Tt hn th dng hi bc mt v bc ba, tc l B = 3 x 500KHz = 1,5 MHz c. Tt hn na l hi bc mt, bc ba v bc nm, B = 5 x 500 KHz = 2,5 MHz Th d 6: Ta dng hai knh thng tn s thp c bng thng l 100 KHz, cho bit tc truyn bit ti a l bao nhiu? Gii: Tc truyn bit ti a c th t c nu ta dng sng hi bc mt. Tc bit l 2 x (bng thng hin c), tc l 200 Kbps. 4. M HA V IU CH 4.1 ASK (amplitude shift keying; iu ch s bin ): + Khi nim: L qa trnh ly cc bit 1 v 0 lm thay i bin ca tn hiu sng mang (tn s v pha khng thay i).

V d: Gi s c sng mang vc(t)=Vcmsin(2fct + 0); 0 vc1(t)=Vcm1 sin(2fct + 1800)Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit; mt loi n v tn hiu 1 vc2(t)=Vcm2 sin(2fct + 1800)Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit; mt loi n v tn hiu Gi s Vcm2 > Vcm1; V d: Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 01010, bit tc bit l 5 bps. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php ASK. Vi tn s sng mang l fc bng 20Hz, bin i vi bit 1 l 5V, bin i vi bit 0 l 2V v pha ban u ca sng mang l 1800. a. Hy v tn tn hiu ASK. b. Tn hiu ASK c phi l tn hiu iu ho hay khng? Gii thch. c. Tnh tc Baud.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Gii: Cho: d liu, Rb, ASK, fc, bin , pha ban u. a. V tn tn hiu ASK. 0 vc1(t)=2sin(2.20t+1800) V; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit 1 vc2(t)=5sin(2.20t+1800) V; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit Chu k bit Tb=1/ Rb=1/5 = 200ms Chu k sng mang Tc=1/ fc =1/20 = 50ms Vy Tb= 4 Tc 1 chu k bit cha 4 chu k sng mang

b. Tn hiu ASK khng phi l tn hiu iu ho.V c 2 bin . c. Tc Baud: Nbaud = Rbaud= 5 baud/s (ASK Rbit = Rbaud) V d: (Sinh vin t lm) Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 110100000000, bit tc bit l 5 kbps. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php ASK. Vi tn s sng mang l fc bng 10 kHz, bin i vi bit 1 l 5V, bin i vi bit 0 l 0V v pha ban u ca sng mang l 00. a. V tn hiu s trn theo cc dng m: NRZ-L, Manchester v B8ZS b. Hy v tn hiu ASK trong 5 bit u tin.

c. Tnh tc Baud. + Khuyt im: ASK thng rt nhy cm vi nhiu bin . Nhiu ny thng l cc tn hiu in p xut hin trn ng dy t cc ngun tn hiu khc nh hng c ln bin ca tn hiu ASK. Phng php ASK thng dng v c gi l OOK (on-off keying). Trong OOK, c mt gi tr bit tng ng vi khng c in p. iu ny cho php tit kim ng k nng lng truyn tin.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

+ Bng thng ASK: C v s tn s (khng tun hon). Sng mang fc gia, cc gi tr fc Nbaud/2 v fc + Nbaud/2 hai bin.

Bng thng cn thit truyn tn hiu ASK c tnh theo cng thc sau:: BW = fmax fmin = (fc + Nbaud/2) (fc Nbaud/2) = Nbaud= Rbaud BWASK = Rbaud Trong : BW: Bng thng [Hz] Rbaud, Nbaud: tc baud [baud/s] Vy bng thng ti thiu cn cho qu trnh truyn tn hiu ASK bng tc baud (1 hng-trn ng dy). Thc t BW =(1+d)Nbaud; d: l tha s lin quan n iu kin ng dy (c gi tr b
nht l 0)

V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 01010, tc bit l 5 bps, c iu ch bng phng php ASK. Tn s sng mang fc= 20Hz. Bin i vi bit 1 l 5V, bin i vi bit 0 l 2V. Pha ban u ca sng mang l 1800. a. Tnh tc Baud. b. Tnh bng thng ca tn hiu ASK trn. c. V ph ca tn hiu ASK trn. Gii: a. Tnh tc Baud.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Tn hiu ASK, Rbaud= Rbit=5 baud/s b. Tnh bng thng ca tn hiu ASK trn. ASK, BW = Rbaud=5 (Hz); c. V ph ca tn hiu ASK trn.

V d: (Sinh vin t lm) Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 1101000011110, bit tc bit l 5 kbps. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php ASK. Vi tn s sng mang l fc bng 10 kHz, bin i vi bit 1 l 5V, bin i vi bit 0 l 0V v pha ban u ca sng mang l 900. a. b. c. d. e. V tn hiu s trn theo cc dng m: NRZ-I, Manchester vi sai v HDB3. Hy v tn tn hiu ASK trong 5 bit cui. Tnh tc Baud. (5000 Baud/s) Tnh bng thng ca tn hiu ASK trn. (5 kHz) V ph ca tn hiu ASK trn.

+ Bng thng ca h thng truyn tn hiu thay i theo ch truyn: ng dy c 1 hng truyn (ch n cng): bng thng ca ng dy ti thiu bng bng thng ca tn hiu: BWh thng min = BWng dy min = BWtn hiu. ng dy c 2 hng truyn nhng khng ng thi (ch bn song cng): bng thng ca ng dy ti thiu bng bng thng ca tn hiu: BWh thng = BWng dy = BWtn hiu= BWmi hng . ng dy c 2 hng truyn ng thi (ch song cng): bng thng ca ng dy ti thiu: . BWhthng=BWngdymin =BWhng1 +BWhng2+BWbo v=2.BWtn hiu+BWbo v BWbo v: di tn s bo v 2 hng.(l tng bng 0) V d: Tnh bng thng h thng truyn tn hiu ASK vi tc bit l 2 kbps. Ch truyn dn bn song cng.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

Gii: V h thng bn song cng nn: BWh thng = BWmi hng V iu ch ASK nn Rbit = Rbaud x 1= Rbaud Suy ra BWmi hng = BWASK = Rbaud = Rbit = 2000Hz Bng thng ti thiu ca h thng l BWh thng =2kHz. V d (Sinh vin t lm): Tnh bng thng h thng truyn tn hiu ASK vi tc bit l 2 kbps. Ch truyn dn song cng. V d : Cho tn hiu ASK c bng thng 5kHz, tnh tc bit v tc baud. Gii: 5kHz=5000Hz; V iu ch ASK nn Rbit = Rbaud x n = Rbaud x 1= Rbaud. M BWASK = Rbaud ; Suy ra tc baud Rbaud = BWASK =5000 baud/s; Suy ra tc bit Rbit = Rbaud =5000 bps; (C BWASK tnh c Rbit , Rbaud ) V d: Cho bng thng ca h thng truyn d liu ASK l 10 kHz (fmin=1 kHz n fmax=11 kHz), ch truyn song cng. Gi s khng c khong trng tn s gia hai hng (BWbo v=0). a. V ph ca h thng ASK trn. b. Tnh bng thng ca mi hng. c. Tnh tn s sng mang mi hng (Hng thun v hng nghch). Gii: Cho BWh thng = 10kHz; fmax = 11kHz =11.000 Hz; fmin = 1kHz = 1000Hz ; song cng; BWbo v = 0 a. V ph ASK ca h thng song cng

K THUT TRUYN S LIU b. Tnh bng thng ca mi hng.

NGUYN QUC NAM

Do h thng ASK song cng nn BWh thng = 2. BWmi hng + BWbo v Suy ra BWmi hng = BWtn hiu ASK = (1/2). BWh thng = 10kHz / 2 = 5kHz = 5.000 Hz c. Tnh tn s sng mang mi hng (fc2= Hng thun v fc1= hng nghch). Tn s sng mang l tn s gia: + fc1 Hng nghch (tn s thp):

fmin = fc1 Rbaud /2 = fc1 BWASK/2 = fc1 BWmi hng /2 Suy ra fchng nghch = fc1 = fmin+ (1/2). BWmi hng = 1.000 + 5.000/2 = 3500 Hz + fc2 Hng thun (tn s cao):

fmax = fc2 + Rbaud /2 = fc2 + BWASK/2 = fc2 + BWmi hng /2 Suy ra fchng thun = fc2 = fmax - (1/2). BWmi hng = 11.000 - 5.000/2 = 8500 Hz

V d: (Sinh vin t lm) Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 1101000011110. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php ASK. H thng truyn song cng vi bng thng l 10 kHz (fmin=2,5 kHz n fmax=12,5 kHz). Gi s khng c khong trng tn s gia hai hng (BWbo v=0). Bit bin i vi bit 1 l 5V, bin i vi bit 0 l 0V v pha ban u ca sng mang l 900. a. V tn hiu s trn theo cc dng m: Manchester vi sai v AMI. Cc dng m ho trn dng tn hiu no c kh nng ng b v thnh phn DC bng zr. b. V ph ca h thng ASK trn.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM c. Tnh bng thng ca mi hng. (5000Hz) d. Tnh tn s sng mang mi hng (Hng thun v hng nghch). e. Hy v tn hiu ASK trong 5 bit cui cho hng thun.( fc2=10kHz) 5.3.2 FSK (frequency shift keying): +Khi nim: L phng php m tn s ca tn hiu sng mang thay i biu din cc bit 1 v 0 (bin v gc pha khng thay i).

V d: gi s c sng mang vc(t)=Vcmsin(2fct + 0); Bit 0 ng vi sng mang vc1(t) = Vcm sin(2fc1t+1800); Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit Bit 1 ng vi sng mang vc2(t) = Vcm sin(2fc2t+1800): Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit Gi s fc2 > fc1; V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 01101, tc bit l 5 bps, c iu ch bng phng php FSK. Bin sng mang l 5V, tn s i vi bit 1 l 20Hz, tn s i vi bit 0 l 10Hz v pha ban u ca sng mang l 1800. a. V tn tn hiu FSK. b. Tn hiu FSK c phi l tn hiu iu ho hay khng? Gii thch. c. Tnh tc Baud. Gii: a. V tn tn hiu FSK 0 vc1(t) = Vcm sin(2fc1t+1800)=5sin(2.10t+1800) V; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit 1 vc2(t) = Vcm sin(2fc2t+1800)=5sin(2.20t+1800) V; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit Chu k bit Tb=1/ Rb=1/5 = 200ms Chu k sng mang bit 0; Tc1=1/ fc1=1/10 =0,1s= 100ms Chu k sng mang bit 1; Tc2=1/ fc2=1/20 = =0,05s= 50ms Vy Tb= 2Tc1 =4Tc2 1 chu k bit cha 2 chu k sng mang f c1 v cha 4 chu k sng mang fc2.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

b. Tn hiu FSK khng phi l tn hiu iu ho.V tn s thay i. Tng qut: FSK l tn hiu tng t khng tun hon c. Tc Baud: Mt n v tn hiu mang 1 bit nn Rbit = Rbaud Suy ra Rbaud= 5 baud/s Tn hiu FSK : Rbit = Rbaud V d: (Sinh vin t lm) Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 110100000000, bit tc bit l 5 kbps. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php FSK. Bin sng mang l 5V, tn s i vi bit 1 l 20kHz, tn s i vi bit 0 l 10kHz v pha ban u ca sng mang l 00. a. b. c. d. V tn hiu s trn theo cc dng m: NRZ-L, Manchester v B8ZS. (5.1) Hy v tn tn hiu FSK trong 5 bit u tin. Tnh tc Baud.( Rbit = Rbaud) Tn hiu FSK c phi l tn hiu tun hon hay khng? Gii thch.

+ Bng thng ca tn hiu FSK: Ph FSK l t hp ca hai ph ASK tp trung quanh 2 tn s: fC1 (bit 0) v fC2 (bit 1).

Bng thng ca tn hiu FSK: BWFSK = fmax fmin BWFSK = fmax fmin = fC2 + (1/2)Rbaud -[ fC1- (1/2)Rbaud ]

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

BWFSK = /fC2 - fC1/+ Rbaud = f + Nbaud = f + Rbaud BWFSK = f + Rbaud ; ( so snh Bng thng ca tn hiu ASK BWASK =Rbaud ); f =/fC2 - fC1/ : lch tn s ca 2 sng mang Nbaud = Rbaud: Tc baud Rbit = Rbaud Vy nu bit lch tn s ca 2 sng mang v tc baud th ta c th xc nh bng thng ca tn hiu FSK. V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 01101, tc bit l 5 bps, c iu ch bng phng php FSK. Bin sng mang l 5V, tn s i vi bit 1 l 20Hz, tn s i vi bit 0 l 10Hz v pha ban u ca sng mang l 1800. a. Tnh tc Baud. b. Tnh bng thng ca tn hiu FSK trn. c. V ph ca tn hiu FSK trn. Gii: a. Tnh tc Baud. FSK, Rbaud = Rbit = 5baud/s b. Tnh bng thng ca tn hiu FSK trn. BWFSK = f + Rbaud = /20 10/ + 5 = 15Hz c. V ph ca tn hiu FSK trn.

So snh dng ph ca ASK v FSK:

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM + u im FSK so vi ASK : FSK trnh c hu ht cc dng nhiu bin . + Khuyt im FSK so vi ASK: Nu cng mt tc bit th Bng thng FSK ln hn Bng thng ASK. V d 11: Tnh bng thng nh nht ca h thng FSK, bit tc bit 2kbps, ch truyn dn bn song cng v cc sng mang cch nhau 3kHz ( lch tn s). Gii: Tm tt: Rbit = 2kbps= 2000bps ; f = 3kHz = 3000Hz; Ch truyn bn song cng; Tnh BWh thng min= ? V h thng truyn bn song cng nn: BWh thng min= BWmi hng= BWFSK = f + Rbaud Trong FSK, Rbit =Rbaud ; suy ra Rbaud = 2000 baud/s Suy ra BWh thng min = f + Rbaud = 3.000 + 2.000 = 5.000 Hz = 5 kHz; Vy bng thng nh nht ca h thng FSK trn l 5 kHz. V d (SV t lm): Tnh bng thng nh nht ca h thng FSK, bit tc bit 2kbps, ch truyn dn song cng v cc sng mang cch nhau 3kHz ( lch tn s). V d (SV t lm): Tnh bng thng ln nht ca h thng FSK, bit tc bit 2kbps, ch truyn dn song cng v cc sng mang cch nhau 3kHz ( lch tn s). V d (SV t lm): Tnh bng thng nh nht ca h thng FSK, bit tc bit 2kbps, ch truyn dn song cng v cc sng mang cch nhau 3kHz ( lch tn s) , bng thng bo v l 1kHz. V d 12: Tnh tc bit cc i ca tn hiu FSK nu bng thng ca h thng l 12kHz v lch tn s ca gia hai sng mang t nht l 2kHz, ch truyn song cng. + Tm tt: + Gii: Xc nh BWFSK= BWmi hng V h thng truyn song cng nn BWh thng= 2.BWmi hng + BWbo v (BWbo v=0) Suy ra: BWmi hng= BWFSK =(1/2)BWh thng = 12kHz/2 = 6kHz= 6.000Hz H thng FSK; Ch truyn song cng;

fmin = 2kHz= 2000Hz;


BWh thng = 12khz=12.000Hz; Tnh Rbit max ?

K THUT TRUYN S LIU Xc nh Rbit Suy ra Rbit= BWmi hng - f (1) Theo (1) Khi fmin Rbit Max

NGUYN QUC NAM

Trong FSK: BWFSK = BWmi hng = f + Rbaud ; Rbit = Rbaud.

Suy ra Rbit Max = BWmi hng - fmin= 6.000 2.000 = 4.000 bps = 4 kbps Vy tc bit cc i ca tn hiu FSK l 4 kbps. V d (Sinh vin t lm): Tnh tc bit nh nht ca tn hiu FSK nu bng thng ca h thng l 12kHz v lch tn s ca gia hai sng mang ln nht l 2kHz, ch truyn song cng. V d (Sinh vin t lm): Tnh tc bit nh nht ca tn hiu FSK nu bng thng ca h thng l 12kHz v lch tn s ca gia hai sng mang ln nht l 2kHz, ch truyn bn song cng. V d: (Sinh vin t lm) Cho mt tn hiu s c dng nh phn nh sau: 1101000011110. Tn hiu s c iu ch bng phng php FSK, lch tn s l 5kHz. H thng truyn song cng vi bng thng l 22,5 kHz (fmin=2,5 kHz n fmax=25 kHz). Gi s khong trng tn s gia hai hng l 2,5 kHz (BWbo v=2,5 kHz). Bin sng mang l 5V, pha ban u ca sng mang l 900. a. V tn hiu s trn theo cc dng m: RZ, Manchester vi sai v AMI. Cc dng m ho trn dng tn hiu no c kh nng ng b v thnh phn DC bng zr. b. V ph ca h thng FSK trn. c. Tnh bng thng ca mi hng. (10kHz) d. Tnh tn s sng mang mi hng (Hng thun v hng nghch). e. Hy v tn tn hiu FSK trong 5 bit cui cho hng tn s thp, tn s i vi bit 1 l 10kHz, tn s i vi bit 0 l 5kHz. f. V ph y h thng FSK trn. 5.3.3 PSK (phase shift keying): +Khi nim: Pha ca sng mang thay i biu din cc bit 1 v 0 (bin v tn s khng i).

V d: gi s c sng mang vc(t)=Vcmsin(2fct + 0); 0 vc1(t)=Vcm sin(2fct+ 01) ; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit 1 vc2(t)=Vcm sin(2fct+ 02) ; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Thng thng ta chn 02 , 01 sao cho lch pha ca 2 tn hiu l ln nht max = /02 - 01/= 1800 V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 01101, tc bit l 5 bps, c iu ch bng phng php PSK. Bin 5V. Tn s sng mang 20Hz. Pha i vi bit 1 l 1800, pha i vi bit 0 l 00. a. V tn tn hiu PSK. b. Tn hiu PSK c phi l tn hiu iu ho hay khng? Gii thch. c. Tnh tc Baud. Gii: a. V tn tn hiu PSK 0 vc1(t) = Vcm sin(2fct + 01) =5 sin(2.20t + 00) V ; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit 1 vc2(t) = Vcm sin(2fct + 02) = 5 sin(2.20t + 1800) V; Tn ti trong 1 chu k bit Chu k bit Tb=1/ Rb=1/5 = 200ms Chu k sng mang Tc=1/ fc=1/20 = 50ms Vy Tb= 4Tc 1 chu k bit cha 4 chu k sng mang fc.

b. Tn hiu PSK khng phi l tn hiu iu ha.V c 2 pha. c. Tc Baud: Nbaud = Rbaud= Rbit =5 baud/s Vy trong PSK hoc 2-PSK tc bit bng tc baud; Rbaud= Rbit 2-PSK (BPSK; Binary): Tn hiu PSK c 2 pha. ( c 2 loi tn hiu, mi loi cha 1 bit) 2n-PSK : Tn hiu PSK c 2n pha. ( c 2n loi tn hiu, mi loi cha n bit) V d:
Tn hiu 4 PSK (22 PSK) : Tn hiu PSK c 2 2 =4 pha. ( c 4 loi tn hiu, mi loi cha 2 bit) Tn hiu 8 PSK (23 PSK) : Tn hiu PSK c 2 3 =8 pha. ( c 8 loi tn hiu, mi loi cha 3 bit)

+ Bng thng ca PSK: Dng ph ca PSK ging ASK nn Bng thng ca PSK ging bng thng ASK

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

BW2-PSK = Rbaud ;Nbaud=Rbaud: Tc baud Tng qut: BW2n -PSK = Rbaud + u im PSK (2-PSK, BPSK): Khng b nh hng nhiu bin Bng thng hp (nh hn bng thng ca FSK) + So snh bng thng v nh hng ca nhiu bin ln cc tn hiu PSK, ASK, FSK: BWASK = Rbaud ; nhiu bin ; BWFSK = f + Rbaud ; khng b nh hng nhiu bin ; BWPSK = Rbaud ; khng b nh hng nhiu bin Vy tn hiu PSK khng b nh hng ca nhiu bin v c bng thng nh nht Tn hiu PSK kh iu ch hn ASK v FSK + Gin trng thi pha: 0 vc1(t)= 5 sin(2.20t+00) V ; 1 vc2(t)= 5 sin(2.20t+1800)

Vy tn hiu PSK khng b nh hng ca cc dng nhiu tc ng nh ASK, ng thi cng khng b nh hng ca yu t bng thng rng nh FSK. iu ny c ngha l mt thay i nh ca tn hiu cng c th c my thu pht hin, nh th thay v ch dng hai thay i ca tn hiu t mt bit, ta c th dng vi bn s thay i thng qua dch pha ca hai bit. + 4-PSK (QPSK- Quadrature- cu phng):
Tn hiu 4 PSK (22 PSK) : Tn hiu 4-PSK c 2 2 =4 pha. ( c 4 loi tn hiu, mi loi cha 2 bit)

V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 0110101100, tc bit l 10 bps, c iu ch bng phng php 4-PSK(QPSK). Bit sng mang c bin 5V, tn s 20Hz v pha c biu din nh sau: 00 pha 00 ; 01 pha 900 ; 10 pha 1800 ; 11 pha 2700 (900).

K THUT TRUYN S LIU a. V tn tn hiu QPSK. c. Tnh tc Baud.

NGUYN QUC NAM

b. Tn hiu QPSK c phi l tn hiu iu ho hay khng? Gii thch. d. V gin trng thi pha ca tn hiu QPSK. Gii: a. V tn tn hiu QPSK
Tn hiu QPSK ( 4-PSK) c 4 pha. ( c 4 loi tn hiu), mi pha mang thng tin 2 bit.

Theo bi ta c cc loi tn hiu trong QPSK nh sau: 00 vc1(t)= Vcm sin(2fct + 01) = 5 sin(2.20t+00) V ; Tn ti trong 2 chu k bit 01 vc2(t)= Vcm sin(2fct + 02) = 5 sin(2.20t+900)V; Tn ti trong 2 chu k bit 10 vc3(t)= Vcm sin(2fct + 03) = 5 sin(2.20t+1800)V ; Tn ti trong 2 chu k bit 11 vc4(t)= Vcm sin(2fct + 04) = 5 sin(2.20t -900); V Tn ti trong 2 chu k bit Chu k bit Tb=1/Rb=1/10 =0,1s=100ms Chu k sng mang Tc=1/ fc=1/20 =0,05s= 50ms Vy Tb= 2Tc 1 chu bit cha 2 chu k sng mang fc. Vy 2Tb= 4Tc 2 chu bit cha 4 chu k sng mang fc. Vy tn hiu QPSK ca tn hiu s 0110101100 nh sau:

b. Tn hiu QPSK khng phi l tn hiu iu ha. V c pha thay i. c. Tc Baud: Nbaud = Rbaud= (1/2)Rbit =5 baud/s Vy trong 4-PSK (QPSK) Rbit= 2.Rbaud Tng qut h thng 2n-PSK, Rbit= n.Rbaud

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM d. Gin trng thi pha QPSK:

Tng qut h thng 2n-PSK, cc pha cch nhau 3600/2n + Bng thng ca QPSK: Ging bng thng ASK

BW = Rbaud Nbaud=Rbaud: Tc baud + u im QPSK: khng b nh hng nhiu bin , nu cng 1 bng thng cho trc th tc ca d liu ln hn tc ca cc phng php iu ch khc (2-PSK, ASK, FSK). + Tng t, ta cng c cc phng php iu ch pha khc 2n - PSK, c n bit biu din 1 pha, khong cch gia cc pha l 3600/2n. T , c th pht trin ln 8PSK. Thay v dng gc 900, ta thay i tn hiu t cc gc pha 450. Vi 8 gc pha khc nhau, dng ba bit (mt tribit), theo quan h gia s bit to thay i vi gc pha l ly tha ca hai. ng thi 8PSK cng cho php truyn nhanh gp 3 ln so vi 2 PSK, nh minh ha hnh 33.

+ Bng thng dng cho 2n -PSK: Bng thng ti thiu dng cho truyn dn 2 n -PSK th tng t nh ca ASK (Bng tc Baud). Bng thng ti thiu dng cho truyn dn 2n -PSK th tng t nh ca ASK, tuy nhin tc bit ti a th ln hn nhiu ln. Tc l tuy c cng tc baud ti a gia

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM ASK v PSK, nhung tc bit ca PSK dng cng bng thng ny c th ln hn hai hay nhiu ln nh minh ha hnh 5.34.

Hnh 4.4 V d 13: Tm bng thng ca h thng QPSK(4 PSK), vi tc 2kbps theo ch bn song cng. Gii: V h thng bn song cng nn BWh thng= BWmi hng= BWQPSK Phng php iu ch 4 PSK, 1 pha (n v tn hiu) cha 2 bit, Rbit = 2x Rbaud ; Suy ra Rbaud = (1/2). Rbit=1000 baud/s; M BWPSK = Rbaud ; Suy ra BWQPSK = 1000Hz. BWh thng= BWmi hng= BWQPSK = 1000Hz. V d 14: Cho tn hiu 8PSK c bng thng 5.000 Hz, tm tc bit v tc baud? Gii: Phng php iu ch 8 PSK, 1 pha (n v tn hiu) cha 3 bit, Rbit = 3x Rbaud ; M BW8-PSK = Rbaud ; Suy ra Rbaud =5000 baud/s ; Suy ra Rbit = 3x Rbaud =15.0000 bps=15kbps ; 5.3.4 QAM (quadrature Amplitude Modulation - iu ch bin cu phng) PSK b gii hn t kh nng phn bit cc thay i gc pha nh ca thit b, iu ny lm gim tc bit. + Khi nim: QAM l phng thc kt hp gia ASK v PSK sao cho ta khai thc c ti a s khc bit gia cc n v tn hiu. (QAM l qu trnh ly d liu s lm thay i bin v pha ca sng mang, tn s khng thay i) V d: Cho mt tn hiu s 101100001000010011110111, tc bit l 24 bps, c iu ch bng phng php 8-QAM (8 loi n v tn hiu), tn s sng mang 16Hz, gin pha nh hnh v. a. V tn tn hiu 8-QAM. b. Tn hiu 8-QAM c phi l tn hiu iu ho hay khng? Gii thch.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU c. Tnh tc Baud.

NGUYN QUC NAM

d. Tnh bng thng 8-QAM.

Gii: a.V tn tn hiu 8-QAM. 000 vc1(t)= Vcm1 sin(2fct + 01) = 2 sin(2.16t+00) V ; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 001 vc2(t)= Vcm2 sin(2fct + 01) = 5 sin(2.16t+00)V; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 010 vc3(t)= Vcm1 sin(2fct + 02) = 2 sin(2.16t +900)V ; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 011 vc4(t)= Vcm2 sin(2fct + 02) = 5 sin(2.16t +900); V Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 100vc5(t)= Vcm1 sin(2fct + 03) = 2sin(2.16t+1800) V ; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 101 vc6(t)= Vcm2 sin(2fct + 03) = 5 sin(2.16t+1800)V; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 110 vc7(t)= Vcm1 sin(2fct + 04) = 2 sin(2.16t-900)V ; Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit 111 vc8(t)= Vcm2 sin(2fct + 04) = 5 sin(2.16t -900); V Tn ti trong 3 chu k bit Chu k bit Tb=1/ Rb=1/24 (s); Chu k sng mang Tc=1/ fc=1/16 (s); Ta c 3Tb = 2Tc, suy ra 3 chu bit s tn ti 2 chu k sng mang

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Tn hiu s 101100001000010011110111


Amplitude Bit rate : 24 Baud rate : 8 3 bits 3 bits 110 111
011 010

3 bits 3 bits 3 bits 100 001 101

3 bits 3 bits 3 bits 000 010 011

Time
101 100
1 baud 1 baud 1 baud 1 baud 1 baud 1 baud 1 baud 1 baud

000 110 111

001

3Tb=2Tc

1 second
8-QAM 2 amplitude, 4 phases

b. Tn hiu 8-QAM khng phi l tn hiu iu ho, v c nhiu bin v nhiu pha. c. Tnh tc Baud. Rbaud = (1/3)Rbit = 8 baud/s d. Tnh bng thng 8-QAM. Bng thng ca tn hiu QAM bng bng thng ASK v bng tc baud BWQAM = BWASK = Rbaud; Suy ra BWQAM = 8Hz. + Tng t ta cng c cc dng iu ch 2n-QAM. Vi n l s bit cha trong mt n v tn hiu, 2n : l s loi n v tn hiu. Quan h hnh hc ca QAM c th th hin di nhiu dng khc nhau nh trong hnh sau, trong minh ha 3 cu hnh thng gp ca 16-QAM.

Trng hp u dng 3 bin v 12 pha, gim thiu tt nhiu do c t s gia gc pha v bin ln nh ITU - ngh. Trng hp th hai, 4bin v 8 pha, theo yu cu ca m hnh OSI, khi quan st k, ta s thy l cu hnh theo dng ng trc, khng xut hin yu t giao nhau gia cc

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM bin v pha. Thc ra, vi 3 x 8 ta c n 32 kh nng. Tuy nhin khi mi s dng phn na kh nng ny, th sai bit gc pha o lng c gia tng cho php c tn hiu tt hn ri. Thng thng th QAM cho thy t b nh hng ca nhiu hn so vi ASK (do c yu t pha) + Bng thng ca QAM: Bng thng ti thiu cn cho truyn dn QAM th ging nh ca ASK v PSK, ng thi QAM cng tha hng u im ca PSK so vi ASK. + So snh tc bit/tc baud: Gi s tn hiu FSK c dng truyn tn hiu qua ng thoi c th gi 1200 bit trong mt giy (1200 bps). Mi tn s thay i biu din mt bit; nh th th cn c 1200 phn t tn hiu truyn trong 1s. Trong tc baud, cng l 1200 bps. Mi thay i ca tn hiu trong h thng 8QAM, c biu din dng ba bit, nh th vi tc bit l 1200 bps, th tc baud ch l 400. Trong hnh 38, cho thy h thng dibit c tc baud ch bng phn na tc bit, v trong h tribit th tc baud ch cn mt phn ba tc bit, v trng hp quabit th tc baud ch cn mt phn t tc bit. Bng B.1 nhm so snh tc bit v tc baud trong nhiu phng php iu ch s - tng t. Dng iu ch
S bit trong mt n v tn hiu

Bits/Baud

Tc Baud N N N N N N N N

Tc Bit N 2N 3N 4N 5N 6N 7N 8N

ASK, FSK, 2-PSK 4-PSK, 4-QAM 8-PSK, 8-QAM 16-QAM 32-QAM 64-QAM 128-QAM 256-QAM

1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7 Bit 8 Bit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

V d 15: Gin trng thi pha gm 8 im cch u nhau trn mt vng trn. Bit tc bit l 4800 bps, hy tnh tc baud . Gii: y l dng 8PSK (23 =8) Cc pha cch nhau 3600/8 = 450 Mt n v tn hiu cha 3 bit.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM Nh th tc baud l Rbaud = (1/3)Rbit = 4.800/3 = 1600 baud/s V d 16: Tnh tc bit ca tn hiu 16QAM, bit tc baud l 1000. Gii: Gii: y l dng 64 QAM (26 =64) Mt n v tn hiu cha 6 bit. Nh th tc baud l Rbaud = (1/6)Rbit = 72.000/6 = 12.000 baud. 5.4 CHUYN I TNG T - TNG T (iu ch tng t) + Khi nim: L qu trnh thay i mt trong cc thng s ca sng mang cao tn (Dng iu ho) bi tn hiu tin tc (d liu tng t). + S khi: y l dng 16 QAM (24 =16) Mt n v tn hiu cha 4 bit. Nh th tc bit l Rbit= 4 Rbaud = 1.000 x 4 = 4.000 bps.

V d 17: Tm tc baud ca tn hiu 64QAM bit c tc bit 72.000 bps.

+ Sng mang cao tn (Dng iu ha) c 3 thng s : Bin , tn s v pha nn ta c 3 phng php iu ch tng t l: AM (Amplitude Modulation): iu bin (iu ch bin ) FM (Frequency Modulation) ): iu tn (iu ch tn s) PM (Phase Modulation) ): iu pha (iu ch pha)

5.4.1 iu bin (AM): + Khi nim: L phng php m bin sng mang c thay i theo tn hiu iu ch (tin tc), tn s v gc pha sng mang khng i.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM - Tn hiu iu ch (tin tc) tr thnh hnh bao ca sng mang. Tn hiu AM c bin thay i theo tn hiu tin tc.

+ Bng thng ca tn hiu AM: BWAM = 2 Fi max= 2 BWi

Vi Fi max: l tn s cc i ca tin tc. BWi (BWm): l bng thng ca tin tc. + Chun AM trong truyn thanh: Bng thng ca tn hiu thoi thng l 5 KHz. Bng thng cc i ca 1 knh AM l 10 KHz. FCC (Federal Communication Commission- Tiu ban thng tin lin bang-chun M) mi i AM c bng thng l 10 KHz.

+ Cc i AM pht cc tn s sng mang t 530 kHz n 1700 KHz (540 kHz n 1600 KHz). Cc tn s pht ny phi cch vi t nht l 10 KHz (mt bng thng AM) nhm trnh giao thoa.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU NGUYN QUC NAM +V d: Nu mt i pht dng tn s 1100 KHz th tn s sng mang k khng c php nh hn 1110 KHz.

V d 18: Cho tn hiu tin tc vi bng thng 4KHz, hy tm bng thng ca tn hiu AM. Gi s khng xt theo qui nh ca FCC. Gii: BWi= 4KHz Tn hiu AM c bng thng BWAM = 2 BWi= 2 x 4KHz = 8 KHz 5.4.2 FM (iu tn): + Khi nim: L qu trnh m tn s sng mang bin thin theo bin tn hiu tin tc, bin v pha ca sng mang khng i.

+ Bng thng tn hiu FM: BWt = BWFM = 2 (Fi max+ fm ) = 10. BWi Vi : Fi max l tn s cc i ca tin tc. fm : l di tn cc i. BWi = BWm : l Bng thng ca tin tc.

K THUT TRUYN S LIU

NGUYN QUC NAM

Bng thng ca tn hiu m thanh khi pht theo ch stereo thng l 15 KHz. Mi i pht FM cn mt bng thng ti thiu l 150 KHz. C quan FCC cho php bng thng mi knh FM 200 KHz (0,2 MHz) Di tn t 88 MHz n 108 MHz, Cc i phi c phn cch t nht 200 KHz trnh trng sng mang. Tm t 88 MHz n 108 MHz c khong 100 knh FM, c th pht cng lc 50 knh.

+ Chun FM trong truyn thanh:

V d 19: Cho tn hiu tin tc c bng thng 4 MHz, c iu ch FM. Hy tm bng thng ca tn hiu FM , khng xt n qui nh ca FCC. Gii: Theo cng thc tnh bng thng ca FM: BWt = BWFM = 2 (Fi max+ fm ) = 10. BWi M BWi = 4MHz Nn BWt = BWFM = 10 x 4 MHz = 40 MHz.