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# Name : Adam Okoe Mould

## Title : Charles Law

Criteria : DCP, CE

Raw Data

Lamp

1.85 0.36
2.1 0.40
2.35 0.44
2.52 0.47
2.88 0.50
3.11 0.52
3.53 0.55
3.77 0.61
4.03 0.64
4.50 0.67
4.53 0.69

Resistor

## Voltage / V ± 0.01V Current / A ± 0.01A

1.63 0.48/0.44
2.10 0.56
2.76 0.74
3.01 0.81
3.33 0.9
3.92 1.05
4.34 1.17

Observations

As the current increased, the lamp became brighter and brighter and also became warmer
and warmer. For both the resistor and lamp, as current increased voltage increased.
Analysis of ohmic and non-ohmic characteristics

## Graph of Voltage against Current for the lamp and resistor

y
4.5 Lamp Resistor
4

3.5

2.5

1.5
e/
g
lta
o
V
1

0.5

x
-0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
Current / A

## Comment on Graph and Processed Results

For both the resistor and the current the lines of best fit were upward sloping indicating
that as voltage increased, current increased
For the resistor;
A straight line almost passing through the origin is observed.
The gradient is constant. This indicated that the resistance is constant. Hence, the resistor
is an ohmic conductor.
For the lamp;
An upward sloping curve is observed.
The gradient of the slope becomes steeper and steeper as the current increases. This
indicated that the resistance becomes greater and greater as the current increases. Hence,
the lamp is a non-ohmic conductor.
Conclusion

For the resistor, as the graph of voltage against current showed a line of best fit with a
constant gradient, it indicated that the resistance was constant. Therefore, the resistor
exhibited ohmic characteristics. For the lamp, as the graph of voltage against current
showed a line of best fit with an increasing gradient, it indicated that the resistance was
constant. Therefore, the resistor exhibited non-ohmic characteristics.

Sources of Error

1. The circuit was used for a long time. Hence heat could have generated in the
conducting wires causing the resistance to increase and the voltage measured to
decrease

## Improvements to the Investigation

1. For each conductor, i.e. the lamp and the resistor use a different set of wires so
that the error of heated wires will be minimized. Also the experiment could be
carried out quickly to minimize the extent to which the wires heat up.