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METODO FLEXIBLE

DISEAR LA LOSA EN EL PLANO POR EL METODO FLEXIBLE USANDO LOS


SIGUIENTES DATOS:
f'c=300 kg/cm
k=10 ton/m
qa=10 ton/m
C2
40x40

C1
40x40

40x40
6m

C5

40x40
C3

COL CM
CV
C1
40ton 10
ton
C2
30
5 ton
ton
C3
25
10
ton
ton
C4
35
20
ton
ton
C5
40
15
ton
ton

CT
50
ton
35
ton
35
ton
55
ton
55
ton

40x40
C4
6m

PASO 1: Determinar si es necesaria una losa de cimentacin.


Azreq=P/qa=230ton/10ton/m=23m
B*L=6mx6m=36m
Az>(B*L)/2
23m>18m OK
Por lo tanto es necesario una losa de cimentacin.
PASO 2: Ubicacin de resultante.
XR=Pi*x/P=(((50ton+35ton)0.2m)+((35ton+55ton)5.8m)+(55ton(3m)))/230ton=2.94m
YR= Pi*y/P=(((35ton+55ton)0.2m)+((35ton+50ton)5.8m)+(55ton(3m)))/230ton=2.94m
La resultante se ubica en (2.94,2.94).
PASO 3: Ubicacin de centro de gravedad.
XG=L/6=6/2=3m
YG=B/6=6/2=3m

El centro de gravedad se ubica en (3,3).

PASO 4: Determinar excentricidades.


ex=lXR-XGl=l2.94-3l=0.06m
ey=lYR-YGl=l2.94-3l=0.06m
PASO 5: Cumplir con condiciones de volteo.
ex<L/6 y ey<B/6
0.06<1 y 0.06<1 OK
PASO 6: Verificar que la presin en varios puntos de la losa sea menor que qa.
q=(P/Az)+((Mx*y)/Ix)+((My*x)/Iy)
Mx=P*ey
My=P*ex
Ix=(L*B)/12
Iy=(B*L)/12
q=(230/36)+((230*0.06*y)/((6*6)/12))+((230*.06*x)/((6*6/12))
q=7.67+0.127y+0.127x
q=7.67+0.127(-2.8)+0.127(-2.8) =6.96ton/m
q=7.67+0.127(-2.8)+0.127(2.8) =7.67ton/m
q=7.67+0.127(2.8)+0.127(2.8)=8.38ton/m
q=7.67+0.127(2.8)+0.127(-2.8)=7.67ton/m
Todas las presiones son menores que qa=10ton/m.
PASO 7: Verificar el corte por punzonamiento.
d=45cm
C1
Bo= a+b+d=40+40+45=125cm
Pu=(40*1.2)+(10*1.6)=64ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=64ton*1000/0.75*125*45=15.17kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.4/0.4)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((20*45)/125)+2)300=43.02
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
15.17<18.36 OK

s=20 (esquina)

C2
Bo= a+b+d=40+40+45=125cm
Pu=(30*1.2)+(5*1.6)=44ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=44ton*1000/0.75*125*45=10.43kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.4/0.4)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((20*45)/125)+2)300=43.02 s=20 (esquina)
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
10.43<18.36 OK
C3
Bo= a+b+d=40+40+45=125cm
Pu=(25*1.2)+(10*1.6)=46ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=46ton*1000/0.75*125*45=10.9kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.4/0.4)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((20*45)/125)+2)300=43.02
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
10.9<18.36 OK
C4
Bo=a+b+d=40+40+45=125cm
Pu=(35*1.2)+(20*1.6)=74ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=74ton*1000/0.75*125*45=17.54kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.4/0.4)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((20*45)/125)+2)300=43.02
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
17.54<18.36 OK

s=20 (esquina)

s=20 (esquina)

C5
Bo=2(a+b+(2d))=2(50+50+(2*45))=380cm
Pu=(40*1.2)+(15*1.6)=72ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=72ton*1000/0.75*380*45=5.61kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.5/0.5)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((40*45)/125)+2)300=31.5kg/cm
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc 5.61<18.36 OK

s=40 (central)

PASO 8: Verificar rigidez de la losa.


*Dividir la losa en franjas.

C1
40x40

D
C2
40x40

FRANJA 2
50x50
C5
FRANJA 1

40x40
C3
E
F
1.5m

FRANJA 3

J
3m

40x40
C4
K
1.5m

*Para poder usar el mtodo flexible debe cumplir con:


l>1.75/
l=luz libre entre columnas
=((ki*b)/(4EI))^1/4
ki=k*s
s=(b+1)/(2b)
E=2.4^1.5(4000)f'c
I=b*h/12
h=d+rec

FRANJA 1=FRANJA 3
l>1.75/
520>1.75/
s=(150+1)/(2*150)=0.51
ki=10ton/m*0.51=5.1ton/m
E= E=2.4^1.5(4000)300=257595.031kg/cm
I=(150*50)/12=1562500kg/cm
=((5.1*150)/(4*257595.031*1562500))^1/4=0.0039
1.75/=374.82cm
520>374.82 OK
FRANJA 2
l>1.75/
520>1.75/
s=(300+1)/(2*300)=0.5
ki=10ton/m*0.5=5ton/m
E= E=2.4^1.5(4000)300=257595.031kg/cm
I=(300*50)/12=1562500kg/cm
=((5*300)/(4*257595.031*1562500))^1/4=0.0046
1.75/=376.68cm
520>374.82 OK
PASO 9: Determinar el acero de refuerzo necesario para cada franja.
*Determinar las presiones en las esquinas de las franjas.
q=7.97+0.127y+0.127x
q=7.97+0.127(3)+0.127(-3)=7.6ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(3)+0.127(-1.5)=7.79ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(3)+0.127(1.5)=8.17ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(3)+0.127(3)=8.36ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-3)+0.127(1.5)=7.41ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(3)+0.127(1.5)=8.17ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-1.5)+0.127(-3)=7.03ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-1.5)+0.127(3)=7.79ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-3)+0.127(-3)=7.6ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-1.5)+0.127(-3)=7.03ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(1.5)+0.127(-3)=7.41ton/m
q=7.97+0.127(-3)+0.127(-3)=7.6ton/m

*Promediar las presiones de cada franja.


FRANJA 1 (ABMN)
qMN=(7.6+7.03)/2=7.32ton/m
qAB=(7.6+7.79)/2=7.7ton/m
FRANJA 2 (BCFJ)
qBC=(7.79+8.17)/2=7.98ton/m
qFJ=(7.41+7.03)/2=7.22ton/m
FRANJA 3 (CDJK)
qCD=(8.17+8.36)/2=8.27ton/m
qJK=(7.6+7.41)/2=7.5ton/m

*Realizar diagramas de cortante y momento.


FRANJA 1
55ton

35ton

10.98ton/m
11.55ton/m

30.31ton
2.2ton

-24.69ton
-32.8ton
0.22ton*m

-0.11ton*m
-47.34ton*m

7.32ton/m(1.5m)=10.98ton/m
7.7ton/m(1.5m)=11.55ton/m
11.55-10.98=0.57
6m=0.57
0.2=0.019=11ton/m
5.8=0.551=11.53 ton/m
(10.98+11)/2=10.99ton/m
(11+11.53)/2=11.27ton/m
(11.53+11.55)/2=11.54ton/m
As=Mu/(FyJd)=47.34(10^5)/(0.9*4200*0.9*45)=30.92cm
Asmin=((0.8f'c)/Fy)(bd)=((0.8300)/4200)(150)(45)=22.27cm
Asmin=14/Fy(bd)=14/4200(150*45)=22.5cm
30.92/2.85=11#6
s=(1.5-0.05)/(11-1)=0.15=15cm
As=11#6@15cm
AST=0.003bd=0.003(150)(45)=20.25cm
20.25/1.27=16#4
s=(1.5-.05)/(16-1)=0.1=10cm
AST=16#4@10cm

FRANJA 2
55ton

21.66ton/m
23.94ton/m
66.69ton

81.8ton

11.69ton

100.04ton*m
245.4ton*m

7.22ton/m(3m)=21.66ton/m
7.98ton/m(3m)=23.94ton/m
23.94-21.66=2.28
6m=2.28
3=1.14=22.8ton/m
(21.66+22.8)/2=22.23ton/m
(22.8+23.94)/2=23.37ton/m
(11.53+11.55)/2=11.54ton/m
As=Mu/(FyJd)=245.4(10^5)/(0.9*4200*0.9*45)=160.3cm
Asmin=((0.8f'c)/Fy)(bd)=((0.8300)/4200)(300)(45)=24.53cm
Asmin=14/Fy(bd)=14/4200(300*45)=45cm
160.3/5.06=32#8
s=3/(32-1)=0.09=9cm
As=32#8@9cm
AST=0.003bd=0.003(300)(45)=40.5cm
40.5/2.85=15#6
s=3/(15-1)=0.2=20cm
AST=15#6@20cm

FRANJA 3
35ton

50ton

10.98ton/m
11.55ton/m

18.96ton
2.26ton

-16.44ton
-47.74ton
0.23ton*m

-81.4ton*m
-95.97ton*m

7.51ton/m(1.5m)=11.27ton/m
8.27ton/m(1.5m)=12.41ton/m
12.41-11.27=0.57
6m=1.14
0.2=0.038=11.31ton/m
5.8=1.1=12.37 ton/m
(11.31+11.27)/2=11.29ton/m
(11.31+12.37)/2=11.84ton/m
(12.37+12.41)/2=12.39ton/m
As=Mu/(FyJd)=95.97(10^5)/(0.9*4200*0.9*45)=62.69cm
Asmin=((0.8f'c)/Fy)(bd)=((0.8300)/4200)(150)(45)=22.27cm
Asmin=14/Fy(bd)=14/4200(150*45)=22.5cm
62.69/5.06=13#8
s=(1.5-0.05)/(13-1)=0.12=12cm
As=11#6@15cm
AST=0.003bd=0.003(150)(45)=20.25cm
20.25/1.27=16#4
s=(1.5-.05)/(16-1)=0.1=10cm
AST=16#4@10cm

*Verificar el cortante para cada franja.


FRANJA 1
Vu=Vu/bd=32.8(10)/(0.75*150*45)=6.47 kg/cm
Vc=0.53f'c=0.53300=9.17
Vu<Vc OK
FRANJA 2
Vu=Vu/bd=81.8(10)/(0.75*300*45)=8.07 kg/cm
Vc=0.53f'c=0.53300=9.17
Vu<Vc OK
FRANJA 3
Vu=Vu/bd=47.74(10)/(0.75*150*45)=9.4 kg/cm
Vc=0.53f'c=0.53300=9.17
Vu<Vc OK

11#6@15cm

32#8@9cm

13#8@12cm
C2

C1
13#8@12cm

1.5m

3m

C5

32#8@9cm

11#6@15cm
40x40
C3
1.5m

40x40
C4
3m

1.5m

1.5m

METODO RIGIDO
DISEAR LA LOSA EN EL PLANO POR EL METODO FLEXIBLE USANDO LOS
SIGUIENTES DATOS:
f'c=300 kg/cm
k=10 ton/m
qa=10 ton/m

C2
50x50

C1
50x50

COL
C1

CM
60ton

CV
10 ton

CT
70 ton

C2

60 ton

10 ton

70 ton

C3

60 ton

10 ton

70 ton

C4

60 ton

10 ton

70 ton

C5

65 ton

15 ton

80 ton

50x50
6m

C5

50x50

50x50
C4

C3
6m

PASO 1: Determinar si es necesaria una losa de cimentacin.


Azreq=P/qa=3600ton/10ton/m=36m
B*L=6mx6m=36m
Az>(B*L)/2
36m>18m OK
Por lo tanto es necesario una losa de cimentacin.
PASO 2: Ubicacin de resultante.
XR=Pi*x/P=(((70ton+70ton)0.25m)+((80ton)3m)+(70ton+70ton(5.75m)))/360ton=3m
YR= Pi*y/P=(((70ton+70ton)0.25m)+((80ton)3m)+(70ton+70ton(5.75m)))/360ton=3m
La resultante se ubica en (3,3).

PASO 3: Ubicacin de centro de gravedad.


XG=L/6=6/2=3m
YG=B/6=6/2=3m
El centro de gravedad se ubica en (3,3).

PASO 4: Determinar excentricidades.


ex=lXR-XGl=l3-3l=0m
ey=lYR-YGl=l3-3l=0m
PASO 5: Cumplir con condiciones de volteo.
ex<L/6 y ey<B/6
0<1 y 0<1 OK
PASO 6: Verificar que la presin en varios puntos de la losa sea menor que qa.
q=(P/Az)+((Mx*y)/Ix)+((My*x)/Iy)
Mx=P*ey
My=P*ex
Ix=(L*B)/12
Iy=(B*L)/12
q=(360/36)+((360*0*y)/((6*6)/12))+((360*0*x)/((6*6/12))=10t/m
q< qa=10ton/m.
PASO 7: Verificar el corte por punzonamiento.
d=70cm
C1=C2=C3=C4
Bo= a+b+d=50+50+70=170cm
Pu=(60*1.2)+(10*1.6)=88ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=88ton*1000/0.75*170*70=9.86kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.4/0.4)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((20*70)/170)+2)300=47.87
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
9.86<18.36 OK

s=20 (esquina)

C5
Bo=2(a+b+(2d))=2(50+50+(2*70))=480cm
Pu=(65*1.2)+(15*1.6)=102ton
Vu=Pu/Bod=102ton*1000/0.75*480*70=4.05kg/cm
Vc=0.53(1+2/)f'c=0.53(1+(2/(0.5/0.5)))300=23.53kg/cm
Vc=0.27(((s*d)/Bo)+2) f'c=0.27(((40*70)/170)+2)300=36.63kg/cm
Vc=1.06f'c=1.06300=18.36kg/cm
Vu<Vc
4.05<18.36 OK
PASO 8: Verificar rigidez de la losa.
*Dividir la losa en franjas.

C1
50x50

D
C2
50x50

FRANJA 2
50x50
C5
FRANJA 1

FRANJA 3

50x50
C3
E

F
1.5m

3m

50x50
C4
K
1.5m

*Para poder usar el mtodo rigido debe cumplir con:


l<1.75/
l=luz libre entre columnas
=((ki*b)/(4EI))^1/4
ki=k*s
s=(b+1)/(2b)
E=2.4^1.5(4000)f'c
I=b*h/12
h=d+rec

s=40 (central)

FRANJA 1=FRANJA 3
l<1.75/
500<1.75/
s=(150+1)/(2*150)=0.51
ki=10ton/m*0.51=5.1ton/m
E= E=2.4^1.5(4000)300=257595.031kg/cm
I=(150*75)/12=5273437.5kg/cm
=((5.1*150)/(4*257595.031*5273437.5))^1/4=0.0034
1.75/=508.7cm
520>508.7 OK
FRANJA 2
l<1.75/
500<1.75/
s=(300+1)/(2*300)=0.5
ki=10ton/m*0.5=5ton/m
E= E=2.4^1.5(4000)300=257595.031kg/cm
I=(300*70)/12=10546875kg/cm
=((5*300)/(4*257595.031*10546875))^1/4=0.0034
1.75/=509.7
520>509.7 OK

*Realizar diagramas de cortante y momento.


FRANJA 1=FRANJA 3
70ton

70ton

64.15ton
5.83ton

-5.85ton
-64.17ton

0.67ton*m

0.73ton*m

-175.74ton*m

(140/(6*1.5))1.5=23.33ton/m
As=Mu/(FyJd)=175.74(10^5)/(0.9*4200*0.9*70)=73.8cm
Asmin=((0.8f'c)/Fy)(bd)=((0.8300)/4200)(150)(70)=34.64cm
Asmin=14/Fy(bd)=14/4200(150*70)=35cm
73.8/5.06=15#8
s=(1.5-0.05)/(15-1)=0.1=10cm
As=15#8@10cm
AST=0.003bd=0.003(150)(70)=33.75cm
33.75/2.85=12#6
s=(1.5-.05)/(12-1)=0.13=13cm
AST=12#6@13cm
Vu=Vu/bd=64.17(10)/(0.75*150*70)=4.07 kg/cm
Vc=0.53f'c=0.53300=9.17
Vu<Vc OK

FRANJA 2

80ton

39.99ton

40.01ton

199.97ton*m

(80/(6*3))3=13.33ton/m
As=Mu/(FyJd)=199.97(10^5)/(0.9*4200*0.9*70)=83.97cm
Asmin=((0.8f'c)/Fy)(bd)=((0.8300)/4200)(300)(70)=69.28cm
Asmin=14/Fy(bd)=14/4200(300*70)=70cm
83.97/5.06=17#8
s=3/(17-1)=0.19=19cm
As=17#8@19cm
AST=0.003bd=0.003(300)(70)=63cm
63/5.06=13#8
s=3/(13-1)=0.25=25cm
AST=13#8@25cm
Vu=Vu/bd=40.01(10)/(0.75*300*70)=2.54 kg/cm
Vc=0.53f'c=0.53300=9.17
Vu<Vc OK

15#8@10cm

17#8@19cm

15#8@10cm
C2

C1
15#8@10cm

1.5m

3m

C5

17#8@19cm

15#8@10cm
40x40
C3
1.5m

40x40
C4
3m

1.5m

1.5m