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Philippines DepEd Grade 8 English Learning Module

Philippines DepEd Grade 8 English Learning Module

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Quarter 1
Afro-Asian Literature

Philippines DepEd Grade 8 English Learning Guide.pdf

Quarter 1
Afro-Asian Literature

Philippines DepEd Grade 8 English Learning Guide.pdf

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Learning Module for English - Grade 8
H
ave you ever thought of traveling to Africa and Asia? What would you like to
know about our African and Asian neighbors?
Like an adventurous explorer, you need to be armed with a map to guide you
in your quest for knowledge, a compass to direct you to have a better understanding
of the different cultures, and a magnifying lens to highlight your significant
discoveries. Your journey in searching for knowledge about Afro-Asian traditions and
values will strengthen your identity that will lead you to a better understanding of your
being a Filipino and an Asian.
In this module, you will discover that oral literature and informative texts reflect
the tradition and values of Afro-Asian countries which you will have to be familiar with
in order to know your distinctive characteristics and identity as a Filipino and as an
Asian.
Remember to search for the answer to the essential or focus question: How can
In this module, your learning will be maximized as you take the following lessons:
 Lesson 1 – Beginning the Knowledge Quest
 Lesson 2 – Building Up the Knowledge Bank
 Lesson 3 – Sharing the Knowledge Learned
Specifically for Module 1, you will learn the following:
 Gather facts and opinions about the traditions and values of people from
selected Afro-Asian countries.
 Discover literature as a means of understanding the traditions and values of
people from selected Afro-Asian countries.
 Create an informative and creative exhibit showcasing the traditions and values
of people from selected Afro-Asian countries.
The learner demonstrates concrete understanding of the prosodic features of
speech, study and research skills, making sense of unfamiliar words, using non-linear
texts to show relationships between ideas through oral literatures of selected Afro-
Asian countries and informative texts to familiarize oneself with the traditions and
values that will guide him/her in knowing his/her identity as an Asian.
The learner presents an informative and creative exhibit to show the different
traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries.
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
SEARCHING FOR KNOWLEDGE
2

Here is a simple map of the above lessons you will cover:

Traditions & Values of Selected
Afro-Asian Countries

 Using
Informative/
Non-linear
Texts (RC)
 Prosodic
Features
 Study &
Research
Skills (SS)
 Making
Sense of
Unfamiliar
Words (VD)
 Idioms &
Collocations
(VD)

Oral Literature
(Epic, Folktales,
Poetry, Myths,
Legends)
of Selected Afro-
Asian Countries
 Philippines
 Africa
 China
 Japan
 India
 Persia


 Informative Writing (WC)
 Writing an Informative Paragraph
 Writing 2-3 Paragraph Informative
Article
 Writing for a Brochure
 Writing for an Exhibit


 Grammar
 Adjectives
 Coordinating
and
Subordinating
Conjunctions
 Parenthetical
Expressions
 Compound
and Complex
Sentences
 Sentence
Modification/
Parallelism
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3

Let’s find out how much you know about this module. Choose the letter that you think
best answers the question. Remember to answer all items. Write the answers in your
notebook. After taking this short test, your answers will be checked to find out your score.
Take note of the items that you won’t be able to correctly answer and look for the right
answer as you go through this module.
1. Stress in the right syllable helps to show contrast and emphasis in meaning. If the word
permit has stress on the last syllable as in permit' . What does it mean?
a. a notice
b. to give consent
c. to request
d. a written grant/authority

2. Your teacher asked you to recite an excerpt of the speech of the Prime Minister of
J apan in your literature class as part of your “Team Asia” activity. Your teacher is
expecting you to:
a. copy the full text of the speech
b. interpret the speech
c. make an outline of the speech
d. make the speech short including only the key points

3. When reading researches, you may have noticed website reference at the end of a
topic or article as in this example:
Prosodic features are features that appear when you put sounds together in
connected speech. It is as important for you to learn the prosodic features as
successful communication depends as much on intonation, stress and rhythm
as on the correct pronunciation of sounds.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/knowledge-database/prosodic-features

What is the purpose of putting this website reference?
a. to promote the website and its links
b. to recognize source thus avoid plagiarism
c. to make researches look more formal
d. to provide additional information

4. What is the major language of Iran?
a. Farsi
b. Nihongo
c. Hindi
d. Bahasa

5. Why are references included in a research project?
a. To give courtesy to the authors of the works that you have read.
b. To keep a record of everything that you have read in writing the report.
c. To impress lecturers.
d. To fully identify the source of information and ideas discussed in the report so
that others may check for themselves.

Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
SEARCHING FOR KNOWLEDGE
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6. If you are asked to use conditional sentences to talk about uncertain events and
situations, which of the sentences below would best convey your message?
a. If I see Mia, I will ask if she wants to join our research group.
b. I will join the research team tomorrow if my Mom will let me go.
c. If she won’t come, then she will have to join the group on line.
d. If I knew her Mom’s number, I would talk to her.

7. When you're served a plate of sushi or sashimi, a J apanese food how will you go about
eating it. Here’s how:
_______, pour soy sauce on the small individual plate.______, hold one piece
of sushi (including the ball of rice on the bottom) and dip the fish side into the
sauce. Avoid dipping the rice into the sauce. Place the whole piece of sushi in
your mouth. _______, Refresh your mouth with a slice of ginger._______, eat
sashimi sushi (individual slices of raw fish) by dipping the fish slices into soy
sauce. If desired, order a side dish of rice and take a few bites after each slice
of fish.
What words will you use to fill in the blanks to show proper sequence of
events in the paragraph?
a. Now, Afterwards, Then, Lastly
b. First, Second, Third, Lastly
c. Now, Then, Afterwards, Lastly
d. First, Next, Then, Finally

8. In the sentence “ I don’t think he should get the job” Where will you put the stress if
you mean “Somebody else should get that job.”
a. I
b. He
c. J ob
d. Don’t

9. Why is research, best regarded as skill?
a. Because it involves special ability and training
b. Because it is developed in school
c. Because it is updated from time to time
d. Because it is a God given talent.

10. How do you characterize Persian Women in general?
a. good for little more than decorating the harem
b. good for little more than having priorities
c. royal women were thought to be corrupt control freaks
d. had a great deal of personal freedom

11. Most of the themes in African Literature focus on freedom, independence, equality and
economic freedom to name a few. What do these lines from the African story of
creation reveal about their values?
A West African creation tale explains how two spirit people were accidentally
sent down to earth by the sky god. Lonely, the people decided to create
children from clay, but feel they must hide them when the sky god comes
down. Because they are hidden in fire, the children soon turn to various
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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shades based on how long they had been exposed to the heat. Over time,
these clay children grow up and move to various regions of the earth,
ultimately populating it (Fader).
a. Africans value people’s differences.
b. Africans follow their religion.
c. Africans entertain themselves through tales.
d. Africans are hardworking people.

12. Here are some English translations of the J apanese Haiku:
1. a clear waterfall —
into the ripples
fall green pine-needles
2. low tide morning...
the willow skirts are tailed
in stinking mud
3. your hermitage
the moon and chrysanthemums
plus an acre of rice fields
Haikus are traditional J apanese poems. What do these three Haikus say about
the J apanese?
a. They are inspired by nature.
b. They are moon worshippers.
c. They like to view low tide.
d. They write about water, moon and mud.

13. As part of the Asian continent, Filipinos share the same values and traditions with
Chinese and J apanese. What values are common among the three groups of people?
Choose from the items that follow.
a. family oriented, religious and hardworking
b. family oriented, superstitious, hardworking
c. goal oriented, hardworking, and nature enthusiasts
d. hardworking, religious, goal oriented

14. Oral literature includes folktales; myths and legends. Myths are often sacred within the
culture of a group of people and are incorporated in their religion. Legends include
familiar landmarks and/or known historical events. Folktales deal with everyday lives
that can be used to pass on moral values or for entertainment purposes.
One common characteristic of myths and legends is that:
a. They are meant to be read by kids
b. They are written by the ancestors
c. They are believed to be true
d. They deal with animals and extraordinary people.

15. “Be as Rama, be as Sita” this is one of the most famous sayings the Indians taught to
their young ones. What specific value is imparted by this quote?
a. Be a perfect son and an ideal husband like Rama; and be a faithful wife like Sita
b. Be a strong man like Rama and be submissive as Sita
c. Be a hero like Rama and a heroine like Sita
d. Be exiled like Rama and be dependent like Sita
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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16. Your Iranian friend messaged you in Facebook. He said he will be having a vacation
here in the Philippines for a week. You offered him to stay in your house. Your mother
was having a hard time already thinking of the menu you will have during your friend’s
visit. Since you have learned their customs in your history subject, what is the best
food you can offer to him?
a. Rice, unleavened bread, fried chicken, black tea, fresh fruits
b. Rice, fried pork, coffee, fresh fruits
c. Bread, fresh fruits, black tea
d. Rice, fried pork, unleavened bread, coffee

17. You are the feature editor of Philippine Daily Inquirer. You are tasked to make a write
up about the Muslims. You want the public especially the Christians to be familiar with
their customs because it will guide them to understand Muslims better.
You will focus on their:
a. history.
b. culture
c. problems of the people.
d. leaders.

18. You’re a columnist in your school paper and in your column you give advice on
appropriate acts to be done based on one’s traditions and values. What tip should you
give your reader who wrote…

Dear Ask Me,

Hi, My Chinese friend whose birthday falls on the same day as mine has
given me a gift. I learned in my English 8 class that reciprocating is one of
the Chinese values, so I have bought a gift for her too. How should I give my
gift? I understand Chinese has a rich culture and tradition. I want my friend
to be happy. Thanks!

Thelma

Hi Thelma, like the Filipinos, Chinese would appreciate gifts that are given
wholeheartedly. However, you’d show how much you care for them more by
considering their culture. One way of doing that is by __________________.

a. Wrapping your gift with white paper.
b. Wrapping your gift in colorful wrappers.
c. Wrapping your gift in transparent plastic.
d. Wrapping your gift in red and gold.

I hope your friendship will remain strong. Take care!
Ask Me
19. You are a graduating linguist student. In your thesis you decided to conduct an in depth
study of the culture and history of a particular group in Asia. To be able to do it you
have to read Arabic articles. For you to achieve your goal the first thing you need to do
is
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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You are now in Grade 8, I am quite sure that
you enjoyed the lessons and the activities which you
took when you were in Grade 7. I am very sure, too,
that you fully understand now your identity as a
Filipino. However, there is one thing you must
remember, we are only one among the members of that big global village called
Afro-Asia.
Through this lesson, your quest for knowledge on our Afro-Asian families
will gradually unfold and eventually be satisfied. Let us begin our journey.
To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Identify prosodic features: stress, intonation and pauses serving as carriers of
meaning that may aid or interfere in the delivery of the message in stories and
informative texts. (Listening Comprehension)
 Use appropriate registers to suit the intended audience, and variation in intonation and
stress for emphasis and contrast. (Speaking-Oral Language and Fluency)
 Use appropriate registers to suit the intended audience, and variation in intonation and
stress for emphasis and contrast. (Speaking-Oral Language and Fluency)
 Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structure
and discourse. (Vocabulary Development)
 Adjust reading speed based on one’s purpose for reading and the type of materials
read. (Reading Comprehension)
 Organize information extracted from a program viewed. (Viewing Comprehension)
 Discover literature as a means of understanding the human being and the forces he/
she has to contend with. (Literature)
 Accomplish forms and prepare notices. (Writing and Composition)
 Use non-linear texts and outlines to show relationships between ideas. (Writing and
Composition)
 Use varied adjective complementation. (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Gather data using library and electronic resources consisting of general references:
atlas, periodical index, periodicals and internet sources/ other websites to locate
information. (Study Strategies)
 Ask sensible questions based on ones’ initiative. (Attitude)
 Express different opinion without being difficult. (Attitude)
 Write informative articles (e.g. posters, slogans, advertisements, brochures) that relate
to culture and values.

On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Building your Knowledge Bank.

Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
SEARCHING FOR KNOWLEDGE
8

For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write

Eliciting Prior Knowledge
through Anticipation-Reaction
Guide (ARG)
Beliefs/Attitudes/ Values
Inventory
KNOW

Creating a Story Map of events
Interactive Oral and Written
Exercises
Designing a Picture Story Map
(Picture Reading)
Concept Pyramid Strategy
Vocabulary Map/Word Bridge
Activity
Video clip analysis
PROCESS

Summary-Lesson Closure
Activity
Reviewing Prior Knowledge
through Anticipation-Reaction
Guide (ARG)
Creating Matrix of Afro-Asian
Traditions and Values
Writing on a Think Pad
Mind Mapping Activity
Making an Outline Grid
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Synthesis Journal Writing
Reflective Journal

Exhibit on Afro-Asian culture
and values
TRANSFER
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so far about Afro-Asian
people.
Let’s start the module by viewing some video clips/
pictures that show who Afro-Asians are. Click the YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgP0xePGl8A
Activity 1: THE THOUGHTS THAT

In this activity, your quest for knowledge on
the values and traditions of the Asians and
Africans will be geared up. Here, you will be
asked to provide your thoughts about them. Your thoughts
will be based on what you know and what you see in the
video clip that will be viewed.

Question – What do you know about the people of Asia and Africa?

Directions:
1. Find a partner.
2. Discuss with him/her your views on the video clip you have just watched. Your
teacher will give the guidelines.
3. Complete the My Initial Thoughts Are sheet below.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What traditions and values of Afro-Asians are revealed in the video clip
presented?
2. How much do you know about Africa’s values and traditions?
3. How are your traditions and values similar and/or different from them?
4. How important is understanding to your identity as an Asian?
What you will learn in the next set of sections will also enable you to do the
lessons and activities which involve gathering data that will enable you to
produce an informative paragraph. This will help you better understand traditions
and values of selected Afro-Asian countries. Let’s find out how others would
answer the process questions and compare their ideas with your own. We will
start by doing the next activity.

Many times the messages you want to convey are not
clearly received or understood because of the manner you say
them, especially so when conversations are carried out in
monologues. In this activity, your quest for knowledge on
prosodic features of speech also known as suprasegmentals -
stress, intonation and pauses among others, will help you get
through this difficulty.
Can you read the following without fear or hesitation? By
the way, you will meet these words in the selections that follow.

village
remember
international
unbearable
surprising

In which syllable did your voice rise in the word village? What about in remember,
international, unbearable and surprising? The syllable where you raised your voice is what
Stress refers to the prominence given to a syllable or word which makes the
word or syllable stand out above the adjacent syllable or word.
It can be word stress or sentence stress.
You may meet words with three or more syllables like respon” sibil’ity.
Primary stress is on the BIL, while secondary stress is on the PON. Take note
that in the case of polysyllabic words; the primary stress must always stand out than the
secondary stress.
Can you think of some polysyllabic words? Be sure that you distinguish the primary
from the secondary stress.
There are times when word conveys another meaning when used in a sentence. In
that case, you must put the stress on the right syllable to show contrast and emphasis in
meaning.
The words that follow are examples where contrast and emphasis on stress must be
carefully identified:
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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Examples: per’mit ( noun) — permit’ ( verb)
trans’fer ( noun) — transfer’ ( verb)
dis’count( noun) — discount’(verb)
Activity 2: WATCH OUT! VERB OR NOUN?
Directions: Find out at least 5 pairs of words that can be used
interchangeably as noun or verb. Firm up your answer by using them in
1. ________________________
2. ________________________
3. ________________________
4. ________________________
5. ________________________
Are prosodic features of speech getting clearer to you? Here are some
more interesting discoveries for you.
Let us use the selection “The Hands of the Blacks”. Notice that we still
Try to read aloud the following highlighted words. Be sure to raise your voice in the
right syllable.

Have you seen an African child before?
Humm! I think I saw one when I went to Tagaytay City last week.
You see, there is an international university near the city.

Congratulations! I am sure that this lesson on stress has made you more self-
confident in communicating with others. Ready for yet another prosodic feature?
Read the entire sentence one at a time. Have you noticed the melodious pattern of
your voice? There is a continuous elevation or depression of pitch as you read the group of
words. That’s what we call intonation. Your voice may rise, fall or circumflex (the
combination of rising and falling intonation) as in the given example below.
Intonation, also known as inflection is the movement of the voice up or down,
along the line of sound. When the voice rises, it indicates a question which is
answerable by yes or no. That’s rising intonation. We use the rising intonation
with yes-no questions.
Example: Have you read any African short story?

When the voice falls down, it indicates an answer.
Example: I have’nt.

An incomplete thought ends in a rising inflection.
Example: I will save so that someday, I can visit South Africa, Nigeria and
Morocco…

Circumflex intonation comes in a wavelike glide frequent in connected speech. Voice
moves upward and downward, at other times, downward or upward.
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
SEARCHING FOR KNOWLEDGE
12

Try reading out loud the following sentences.

Are you proud of the Filipino culture?
How do you find the native delicacies of Samar?
He ate five pieces of moron, drank a cup of buko juice and ate a bowl of corn soup.
Did he finish them all?
It’s more fun in the Philippines.

Challenge yourself! Can you learn intonation on your own? Yes, you can. Consider
these:
1. Get a listing of informative articles from a newspaper or magazine about any Afro-
Asian country (Africa, Thailand, J apan and/or Korea).
2. You may choose a folktale from the country of your choice.
3. Find a cassette tape recorder with a built in microphone.
4. Load a cassette into the tape recorder. A tape recorder is the most common
multimedia material even in the rural areas.
5. Push PLAY and RECORD buttons simultaneously and begin speaking into the
microphone. You will record the article or the folktale of your choice.
6. Push STOP, and then REWIND the tape.
7. Push PLAY and turn up the VOLUME.

Spoken language naturally comes before written language. A monotone voice
will be counterproductive in capturing audience attention. Therefore, to avoid
embarrassing moments when you talk or recite variation in intonation, stress and
pausing must be employed to give emphasis or contrast to the text being
delivered. Likewise, try to avoid vocal fillers. Vocal fillers are distracting and
annoying expressions like “ums”, “ahs” and “and”. They give the impression to your
classmates that you are not ready or not knowledgeable enough of the topic at hand.
Activity 3: It’s not WHAT you said; it’s HOW you said it!
Directions:
1. First, record a presentation. A sample informative text is shown below.
2. Count the number of vocal fillers and other distractive expressions.
3. Listen to your delivery. Focus on intonation, stress and pause.
4. Concentrate on specific word choice to avoid vocal fillers.
What is an Educated Filipino?
Francisco Benitez
( An Excerpt)
What is an educated Filipino and what qualities
should distinguish him today?
The conception of education and of what an
educated man is varies in response to fundamental
changes in the details and aims of society. In our
country and during this transition stage in our national
life, what are the qualities which an educated man
should possess?
Great changes have taken place in the nature of
our social life during the last forty years. The contact
with the Americans and their civilization has modified
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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many of our old customs, traditions and practices, some for the worse and many for the
better. The means of communication have improved and therefore better understanding
exists among the different sections of our country. Religious freedom has developed
religious tolerance in our people. The growth of public schools and establishment of
democratic institutions have developed our national consciousness both in strength and in
solidarity. With this growth in national consciousness and national spirit among our people,
we witness the corresponding rise of a new conception in education- the training of an
individual for the duties and privileges of citizenship, not only for his own happiness and
efficiency but also for national service and welfare. In the old days, education was a matter
of private concern; now it is a public function, and the State not only has the duty but it has
the right as well to educate every member of the community- the old as well as the young,
women as well as men- not only for the good of the individual but also for the self –
preservation and self protection of the State itself. Our modern public school system has
been established as a safeguard against the shortcomings and dangers of the democratic
government and democratic institutions.
In the light of the social changes, we come again to the question: What qualities
should distinguish the educated Filipino today? I venture to suggest that the educated
Filipino should, first, be distinguished by the power to DO. The Oriental excels in reflective
thinking; he is a philosopher. The Occidental is a doer; he manages things, men and
affairs. The Filipino of today needs more of his power to translate reflection into action. I
believe that we are coming more and more to the conviction that no Filipino has the right to
be considered educated unless he is prepared and ready to take an active
Activity 4: LET’S DO IT AGAIN!
Your teacher will provide some interesting activities taken from this
excerpt. Would you like to see some examples similar to what your teacher
has prepared for you? Enjoy them.

1. village

I thought this was funny.


2. absolutely

The progress of our country as well as
the progress of the world.

3. reflection

They always went about with their hands
folded together

4. corresponding

My mother kissed my hands.


5. baloney

What is an educated Filipino?
Group A Group B
Read the words in Group A silently, then read the words aloud. Can you pinpoint the
syllables in each word where you gave an emphasis to? If you can, then you have just
used stress.
Read the words in Group B silently, then read them aloud. Can you distinguish which
group of words rises or falls at the end of the sentence; or a combination of both? If you
can, you have just used intonation.
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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Did you feel that your activities were successful? Why or why not? List your reasons.
1. _________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________
4. _________________________________________________________________
5. _________________________________________________________________
Self-Assessments
A. Once you have gone over each of the activities presented, choose one of the activities
you enjoyed and adapt it when you are with your group, especially during the
independent/cooperative learning session. A scoring rubric shall be provided by your
teacher.
Learning to read is critical to your overall well-being. If you do not learn to
read in this literacy-driven society your chance to become productive in the
future shall diminish.
In the previous activities, you were asked to read words ,phrases and isolated
sentences. However, these are only to reinforce your skill in oral fluency. This time, we
do purposive reading to better understand the nature of our global brothers, the Africans.
The Hands of the Blacks
An excerpt from “ We Killed Mangy-Dog”
I
can’t remember now how we got onto
the subject, but one day Teacher said
that the palms of the black’s hands
were much lighter than the rest of their
bodies because only few centuries ago
they walked around on all fours, like wild
animals, so their palms were’nt exposed to
the sun, which made the rest of their
bodies darker and darker. I thought of this
when Father Cristiano told us after
cathechism that we were absolutely hopeless, and that even the blacks were better than
us,and he went back to this things about their hands being lighter, and said it was like
that because they always went about their hands folded together, praying in secret. I
thought this was so funny, this thing of the black hands being so lighter, that you should
see me now-I don’t let go of anyone, whoever they are, until they tell me why they think
that the palms of the black’s hands are lighter.Dona Dores, for instance told me that God
made their hands lighter like that so they they would’nt dirty the food that they made for
their masters, or anything else that they were ordered to do that had to be kept quite
clean. Senhor Antunes, the Coca Cola man, who only comes to the village now and
again when all the cokes in the cantina have been sold, said to me that everything I had
been told was a lot of baloney. Of course I don’t know if it was really,but he assured me it
was. After I said yes, all right, it was baloney, then he told me what he knew about this
things of the black’s hands. It was like this:-Long ago, many years ago, God, our Lord
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L1
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J esus Christ, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, many other saints, all the angels were in heaven
then, and some of the people who had died and gone to Heaven- they all had a meeting
and decided to make blacks. Do you know how? They got hold of some clay and pressed it
into some second- hand moulds. And to bake them of the creatures, they took them to
heavenly kilns. Because they were in a hurry and there was no room next to the fire, they
hung them in the chimneys. Smoke, smoke, smoke- and there you have them, black as
coals. And now do you want to know why their hands stayed white? Because their hands
are tied. When he had told me this Senhor Antunes and the other men who were around us
were very pleased and then all burst out laughing. That very same day, Senhor Frias called
me after Senhor Antunes had gone away, and told me everything I had heard from them
there had been just pack of lies. Really and truly, what he knew about the black’s hands
was right, that God finished making men and told them to bathe in a lake in heaven. After
bathing the people were nice and white. The blacks, well, they were made very early in the
morning, and at this hour the water in the lake was very cold, so they only wet the palms of
their hands and the soles of their feet before dressing and coming into the world.
But I read in a book that happened to mention it, that the black hands are lighter like
this because they spent their lives bent over, gathering the white cottons of Virginia and I
don’t know where else. Of course, Dona Estifania did’nt agree when I told her this.
According to her, it’s only because their hands became bleached with all that washing.
Well, I don’t know what to think about all these, but the truth is that no matter how
calloused and cracked they maybe, a black’s hand are always lighter than all the rest of
him. And that’s that! My mother is the only one who must be right about this question of a
black’s hands being lighter than the rest of his body. On the the day that we were talking
about it, I was telling her what I know about the question, and she just could’nt stop
laughing. What I thought was strange was that she did’nt tell me at once what she thought
about all this, and she only answered me when she was sure that I would’nt get tired of
bothering her about it. And even then she was crying and clutching herself around the
stomach who had laugh so much that it was quite unbearable. What she said was more or
less this: “ God made Blacks because they had to be. They had to be, my son. He thought
they really had to be…Afterwards, He regretted having made them because other men
laughed at them and took them off to their homes and put them to serve as slaves or not
much better. But because He could’nt make them all be white, for those who were used to
seeing blacks would complain, He made it so that the palms would exactly like the palms of
other men. And do you know why that was? Of course, you don’t know, and it’s not
surprising, because many, many people don’t know. Well, listen: It was to show that what
men do is only the work of men…That what men do is done by hands that are the same-
hands of people who, if they had any sense, would know that before anything else they are
men. He must be thinking of this when He made the hands of the blacks be the same as
Did you enjoy reading the tale? It’s informative and literary at the same time,
is it not?
Activity 5: INFORMATIONAL PARAGRAPH FRAME
1. Create a paragraph frame that correspond to the organization of details
in the text just read.
2. You will be called to retell what you have read.
3. Present the paragraph frame to guide you in retelling the tale.
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Process Frame
(based from the creation of the Africans and why their hands are white)

The first of the process is __________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________.

The next step of the process is ______________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________.

The third step in the process is ______________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________.

It is a very amusing process. _______________________________________________
Some learners are fortunate to be born into homes where parents and
immediate community provide rich language experiences. Are you one of
them? If you aren’t, then you must make the most out of the opportunities
given to you by your family. Engage yourself actively in the following tasks.
You will discover words unknown to you but may be familiar with, of course,
the African people.

Activity 6: PARTNER CHATTER
Directions: In pairs, spend two minutes describing an object common to
African people. The object ( photograph) will be shown later once the
This is how the activity is done.
1. You will show cue cards to help your partner in identifying the object.
2. As you describe the object aided by the cue cards, your partner will describe the
hidden/secret object. Other members of the opposite group are writing down the
descriptive words you used.
3. When finished, your partner will announce his guess.
4. The process will be repeated. It is now your turn to guess the right object.

How many unknown words were discovered by your group? Your teacher will assess
The text that will follow is an African poem. The title is “ I am an African
Child” by Eku McGred. It is written without punctuations solely for
this activity.
Your teacher will read it to you without interruption; no pausing nor variation
in tone. She may also call one learner to re-read it for everybody.
Activity 7: RUN-ON POEM
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I am an African child
Born of a skin the color of the chocolate
Bright brilliant and articulate
Strong and bold Im gifted
Talented enough to be the best
I am an African child

Often the target of pity
My future is not confined to charity
Give me the gift of a lifetime
Give me a dream a door of opportunity
I will thrive
I am an African child

Do not hide my fault
Show me my wrong
I am like any other
Teach me to dream
And I will become
I am an African child

I am the son daughter of the soil
Rich in texture and content
Full of potential for a better tomorrow
Teach me discipline teach me character teach me hard work
Teach me to think like the star within me
I am an African child

I can be extra-ordinary
Call me William Kamkwamba the Inventor
Give me a library with books
Give me a scrap yard and discarded electronics
Give me a broken bicycle
Plus the freedom to be me
And I will build you a windmill
I am an African child

We are the new generation
Not afraid to be us
Uniquely gifted black and talented
Shining like the stars we are
We are the children of Africa
Did you understand the poem? Do you now recognize how important prosodic
features are?
Activity 8: ANTICIPATION GUIDE
Directions: In the column labeled ME, place a check next to any statement
with which you tend to agree. Be prepared to defend and support your
opinions with specific examples. After reading “The Hands of the Blacks”
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and “I am an African Child”, place a check before each statement which you think the
authors will agree to.
ME Authors

__ __ The teacher in the story the Hands of the Blacks is a racist.
__ __ The author, Luis Bernardo Honwana is a realist.
__ __ The Africans in generations were slaves of the Whites.
__ __ The characters in the story are religious.
__ __ The students then and now manifest the same study habits.
__ __ Africans became slaves because they had no choice.
__ __ The Africans are discriminated against.
__ __ The Africans just like any race aspire for a decent living .
__ __ There are no cultural differences between the Africans and the Asians.
Congratulations! You have successfully finished the tasks intended to
make you more communicatively competent. You are almost at the end of the
module.
In the previous activities, you were asked to view a video
clip of I am an African Child. You also worked on several
activities on the poem of the same title. The story on the
Hands of the Blacks deepened your knowledge of the
economic and social conditions of the African people.
In the selection What is an Educated Filipino?, you
were enlightened by the perspective of the author that
education was not the true measure of a meaningful life. That
a Filipino could live respectably and productively regardless
of the length of education he would received. The magic word
is DO! This entails action! That reflections, thoughts and
learning of any Filipino must be translated into action to cope
Activity 9: WHO ARE THE “ BIG PLAYERS”
Directions:
1. Identify key individuals connected to an idea or concept by listing them
down in column 1.
2. You will gather information on these key individuals with focus on their
contributions to enduring traditions and values. The key question is:
Are these tradition and values still practiced today?
3. Write these down in Column 2.
4. You can also explore digital resources if you have access to them.
5. Create a connection among the key individuals and the list in Column 2.
6. A sample is done for you at the next page to make this activity easy
and enjoyable.
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“ WHO ARE THE BIG PLAYERS?”
Topic: Afro-Asian Enduring Traditions and Values

Key Persons

Traditions/Values

Connections to the
present


Martin Luther King, Sr.

 Voting rights of the Blacks
 Equal pay for black
teachers

 A community center in
Atlanta to help the low-
income people like the
teachers find a path
out of poverty




Did you enjoy it? If you found out a similar video clip, share it during your
cooperative learning activity.
Let’s go back to the story of the Hands of the Blacks by Luis Bernardo
Honwana. Earlier in the module, your knowledge on the Africans was quite
limited, right? Can you still say the same thing after going through the previous
activities?
One thing good about reading is we get to know people, places and
events. But reading is beyond enjoyable if you do not understand or
comprehend the reading selection! One of the reasons why a reader cannot
comprehend a text is his/her inability to understand some vocabulary words
found in the text. We will now try to unlock some of these difficult words.

Let’s talk about clines!
A cline is a graded sequence of words whose meanings go across a
continuum of meaning. It came from the Greek word “clino” meaning to slope.

Examples: shouted, yelled, screamed, shrieked
friendly, sociable, outgoing, gregarious

Notice the two extreme words in each sample. The word shouted is “milder”
compared with shrieked, right?
Activity 10: GOING CLINING, ANYONE?
Directions:
1. Select any lines from the selection “The Hands of the Blacks”. The lines
must contain word or words which you have encountered for the first
time.
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2. List down the words; find a dictionary or a thesaurus and look for different meanings/
synonyms of these words.
3. Choose two extremes among the synonyms. These will become the boundaries of the
cline. When done, place the remaining words in between these boundaries.
4. Write these words on a set of cards. Use recycled materials such as old calendars,
shoe boxes and the likes.
5. Exchange cards with your classmates; list down their own words until you have a rich
copy of clines.
6. If internet is accessible, upload your compilation - that’s what we call e-portfolio of
ACTIVITY 11: GRAMMAR TOPICS
ADJECTIVES AND TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
An adjective is defined as a word used to modify a noun or pronoun. It
limits or qualifies nouns or pronouns by telling what kind, which one, how
many or how much. Adjectives allow writers to describe color, tastes,
shapes, sizes, and a multitude of other qualities; they can add important
details to a sentence.
1. warm
2. strong
3. slow
4. sleepy
5. scary
6. rich
7. poor
8. painful
9. old
10. noisy
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PROCESS QUESTION:
11. hungry
12. heavy
13. handsome
14. full
15. sick
16. fat
17. fast
18. far
19. famous
20. difficult
1. Can you associate these modifiers with the selections you just read?
Example: warm climate
Is the climate in Africa warm? Is it the same in Asia?
Your simple task now is to choose at least 10 adjectives from the selections
just read and use them in sentences. You will write these sentences on a
piece of paper requested by your teacher. However, before you proceed, you
have to deepen your understanding of the types of sentences according to
structure.

Compound and Compound-Complex Sentences

There are four basic types of sentences according to structure: 1) simple;
2) compound; 3) complex; and 4) compound-complex
A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.
These sentences are often combined with conjunctions, such as and, or, nor, but,
yet, so, for, however, therefore, nevertheless, otherwise, consequently, etc.

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22

Example:
J oe and J oan are black couple. (simple sentence with compound subject and
simple predicate)
J oe works in a manure factory downtown, and his wife J oan works in a perfume
factory nearby. (compound sentence)

Example:
Sarah saves five hundred pesos out of each pay check she receives; otherwise,
she will have no money to buy birthday presents .

Note: In formal writing, compound sentences require either a comma before and, or,
nor, but, yet, so, for, or a semi-colon before however, therefore, nevertheless,
otherwise, consequently, etc.
If there is no conjunction used between two simple sentences, a semi-colon or a
period should be used instead.

Example:
J oe works downtown in a manure factory; his wife J oan works in a perfume factory
nearby.

A compound-complex sentence consists of two sentences, and one or more adjective
or adverb clauses.

Example:
J ohn climbed to the top of the tree, but J oan, who was a bit clumsy, fell off half way
up.

Example:
Early on, you have a glimpse of an informative text entitled “What Is An
Educated Filipino?” Here is another informative text in an essay form which
will further deepen your appreciation for Filipino culture.

Read the informative essay below about one of the Filipino traditions. Find
out later how this affects our identity as part of the Asian countries.

Why Sinigang?
By Doreen G. Fernandez

Rather than the overworked adobo ( so identified as the Philippine stew in foreign
cookbooks), sinigang seems to me the dish most representative of Filipino taste. We like
the lightly boiled, the slightly soured, the dish that includes fish (or shrimp or meat)
vegetables and broth. It is adaptable to all tastes ( if you don’t like shrimp, then bangus,
or pork), to all classes and budgets, (even ayungin, in humble little piles, find their way
into the pot), and to seasons and availability (walang talong, mahal ang gabi, kangkong
ACTIVITY 12: INFORMATIVE ESSAY
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23

na lang).
But why? Why does sinigang find its way to bare dulang, to formica-topped restaurant
booth, to gleaming ilustrado table? Why does one like anything at all? How is a people’s
taste shaped?
But still, why soured? Aside from the fact that sour broths are cooling in hot weather,
could it be perhaps because the dish is meant to be eaten against the mild background of
rice? Easy to plant and harvest, and allowing more than one crop a year, rice is ubiquitous
on the landscape. One can picture our ancestors settling down beside their rivers and
finally tuning to the cultivation of fields, with rice as one of the first steady crops.

RICE
Rice to us is more than basic cereal, for as constant background, steady
accompaniment; it is also the shaper of other foods, and of tastes. We not only sour, but
also salt (daing, tuyo, bagoong) because the blandness of rice suggests the desirability of
sharp contrast. Rice ca be ground into flour and thus the proliferation of puto; the mildly
sweet Putong Polo, the banana leaf-encased Manapla variety; puto filled with meat or
flavored with ube; puto in cakes or wedges, white or brown eaten with dinuguan or salabat.

THE GREENERY
The landscape also offers the vines, shrubs, fields, forests and trees from which
comes the galaxy of gulay with which we are blest all year round. “Back home,” an
American friend commented.” All we use from day to day are peas, carrots, potatoes,
cabbage, and very few others.”
The dietarily uninhibited Filipino, on the other hand, recognizes the succulence of
roots (gabi, ube, kamote); the delicacy and flavor of leaves (pechay, dahong bawang,
kintsay, pako, malunggay) and tendrils (talbos ng ampalaya, kalabasa, sayote); the bounty
By the way, do you know who Doreen G. Fernandez is? The internet if
accessible in your school or community will make it easy for you. If not, visit
your school library.
After reading the informative essay, answer the PMI activity below.
PMI is a three-columned thinking strategy that encourages you to first
consider and list the Plus points of an idea. Next the Minus or negative
points are listed. Finally those points are neither positive nor negative, but
simply interesting. Then note the conclusion you have realized about the Filipinos
traditions and beliefs and how do you think does this affect his identity as an Asian.
Activity 13: LET US DO PMI
IDEA…WHAT PHILIPPINE TRADITIONS HAVE I LEARNED?
PLUS MINUS INTERESTING






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24

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How can you describe the Philippine traditions you read in the essay?
2. Why is it important to know our own traditions and values as Filipinos to
further establish our identity as Asians?
One way of finding information aside from books is using the internet. Start
getting deeper into knowing more about Afro-Asian traditions and beliefs
using print or online periodicals.
Use the RAPS Strategy below to organize and analyze the information you
got from the researches you did about Asian traditions.
The RAPS Strategy assists students in identifying and recording main points and
meaning of a text.
R – Read - read the paragraph
A – About - what’s it about
P – Points - choose 2 important points to support the main idea
Activity 14: USING PERIODICALS
About:
Point 1: Point 2:
Summary:

After going through several activities, you are now ready to complete the
Generalization Chart you answered at the beginning of this module.

MY INITIAL
THOUGHTS

MY FINDINGS
AND
CORRECTIONS

SUPPORTIVING
EVIDENCE

QUALIFYING
CONDITIONS

MY
GENERALIZATION

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An informative article gives the reader
unbiased facts about a topic. An informative
article provides the readers with details on a given topic. The informative
article is not an argumentative article that tries to persuade the reader to one side or the
other. It covers all the pertinent details: who, what, when, where and why. Newspaper
reporting uses informative articles; how-to articles represent another category.
In this final phase of the lesson, you will now apply the
insights you have learned, the skills you have developed and
the information you have gathered from the previous
activities. Your tasks now will involve more of your skills in
organizing and expressing ideas in written form.
Activity 15: AN INFORMATIVE ARTICLE
To help you in writing your informative article, read the example and tips that follow.

Tips for Writing an Informative Article by Lakshmi Menon

How to write an informative article? Writing an article is not that difficult as
you think. The following tips can help you in writing an informative article:

1. Write about what you really know. Before writing, do a search and find out some more
details to polish your knowledge on the selected topic. You can find details about
anything on the internet, using a search engine.
2. Please remember the vital point that many of your readers may already know more
details than you about the topic you are writing. Therefore, write about the topic you
have sufficient knowledge about.
3. People will be more interested to know how you sorted out a particular problem when
you had faced one. A well written article about solving your own problem will be more
useful to the readers. Many of them would have faced a similar problem and your
information will be of immense help to them.
4. Remember to leave enough white space in between your paragraphs. You may
wonder why it should be. Reading the matter on the monitor is different from reading
on the printed page. It causes eye strain and for some people neck pain also. The
other main reason is that many of our readers will be senior citizens, who will be
looking for various information. Hence, it is better to see that your article is senior
citizen-friendly, which means easy for them to read.
5. Try to write small paragraphs, which is easy to read. Most of the people will be just
scanning the matter within a short time. Therefore, the smaller the paragraph the
easier to read. J ust place yourself in that position. How many times have you read
long articles on the net? I do agree that we take time to read long articles when they
are highly important to our need. Otherwise, on a routine basis, more people read only
smaller articles.
6. After writing your article, read it at least 3-5 times, and if necessary read once aloud. It
helps you to find the mistakes in your articles. Then you can revise your article
appropriately.
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Lakshmi Menon writes articles on various topics, including South India tourism. Please
visit http://www.enchanting-south-india-vacations.com to know more about South India.
Try writing a one paragraph essay below about any topic of your choice. Be guided by
the following guidelines:
a. Identify the purpose for writing.
b. Consider your audience.
c. Have an interesting beginning sentence to hook your audience’s interest.
d. Cite only relevant and accurate details.
e. Have a clear conclusion.
TASK

Activity 16: TRANSFER TASK
You and your classmates are now in the last leg of your journey. This
is the “acid test” on how well you have discovered Afro-Asia; her culture,
traditions, and beliefs. In this activity, you will enjoin parents and
community so that they, too, will know and understand Afro-Asia.
Your municipality/city is hosting the 1
st
Asia-Africa Cultural Summit. As the head of
the promotional activities for the event, the City Tourism Council intends to put up an
exhibit dubbed as “Taste Asia, Taste Africa” as a welcome treat to the summit
delegates. As a member of the well acclaimed group of event organizers, you are being
tasked to prepare an exhibit of informative write-ups with multimedia support showcasing
the different traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries. Your output will be
evaluated on the quality of information presented, creativity, relevance to the theme and
Use the rubrics below to guide you.
Rubric for an Exhibit of Informative Write-Up
Criteria Outstanding
4
Satisfactory
3
Developing
2
Beginning
1
Rating
CONTENT Presented
information in-
depth and
comprehensiv
e and strongly
adhered to the
theme.
Presented
essential
knowledge
about Afro-
Asian countries
and adheres to
the theme.
Presented
essential
knowledge
about Afro-
Asian countries
but there are 1
to 2 factual
errors and
inadequately
adheres to the
theme
Presented
minimal or
there were
several
factual errors
and does not
adhere to the
theme.

Creativity/
Visual Effect
Made an
excellent use
of effects,
style, and
artistry to
enhance the
content.
Made use of
effects, style
and artistry to
enhance the
content.
Made use of
effects and style
to enhance the
exhibit but
these
occasionally
distract the
viewers
Made use
effects and
style to
enhance but
these often
distract the
viewers

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Criteria Outstanding
4
Satisfactory
3
Developing
2
Beginning
1
Rating
Writing Wrote with
extensive
interpretation
and
discussion.
Included all
required
elements/
criteria in writing
with clear
discussion.
Included all
required criteria/
elements in
writing but may
be missing
some required
information from
within elements.
Missed one
or more
required
criteria/
element, OR,
may be
missing
extensive
required
information
within
element.

The preparations you have done in coordination with the event organizer of the
exhibit are all set. The venue where to put up the exhibit, the items to be
displayed, the “who does what” are clear but aren’t you forgetting something?

The simple advertisements; registration forms to be accomplished by your invited
guests, the notices like signage to give directions, leaflets and flyers, brochures should
be secured from local tourism office. All these are a part of the preparation for writing
informative write-ups.

Task: Revisit your well-thought- of plan. Find out if a committee is in charge of the
needed papers/documents. Prepare a checklist; again, go back to “who does what”.

You are done with all the required activities and tasks. You diligently followed the
requirements. It is about time that we know how you feel about this first lesson. Please
perform this last task.

Directions: Honestly rate yourself using any of the following emoticons.

1. If in case, you choose the Happy face, you will move to the next module.
2. If in case, you choose the Sad face, don’t hesitate to write the lesson/s and activities
which will need reinforcement.
3. If in case, you choose the Confused face and you seem not to be fully convinced,
write in a sentence or two the reasons why. We will be happy to explain further the
nature of this module, the lesson or the activity which created your confusion.
CONGRATULATIONS!
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Advertisements - a public announcement using the mass media.
Cline - is a graded sequence of words whose meanings go across a continuous of
meaning. It came from a Greek word “cline” meaning to slope.
Compound Sentence - a type of sentence containing two or more simple
sentences. It is often combined with conjunctions such as and, or, nor, but, yet,
so, far, however, therefore, nevertheless, otherwise, consequently, etc.
Informative Essay - is an essay which informs the reader about a subject, topic,
issue, or event.
Intonation / Inflection - is the movement of the voice up and down along the line of
sound.
Monologues - a literary composition in the form of a soliloquy. A continuous series
of jokes or comic stories delivered.
Periodicals - are publications which are issued at regular intervals, such as journals,
magazines, and newspapers.
Prosodic Features of Speech - are those aspects of speech which go beyond
phonemes and deal with the qualities of sound.
Polysyllabic Word - a word of more than three syllables
Stress - refers to the prominence given to a syllable or word which makes the word or
syllable stand out above the adjacent syllable or word.
Syllable - is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tradition - is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with
symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Values - is an important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a
culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable.
Books
Croghan, Richard V. (1975) The Development of Philippine Literature in English (since
1900). What Is An Educated Filipino by Francisco Benitez an excerpt. Phoenix
Publishing House. Quezon City.

Articles
Fernandez, Doreen G. (1976). Why Sinigang?. In Gilda Cordero-Fernando. The
Culinary Culture of the Philippines. Manila: Bancom Audiovision Corporation. pp.
24–29.

Websites
www.poemhunter.com. Poems. Eku McGred Naka-cache. I am an African Child.
http://ezinearticles.com/?Tips-For-Writing-an-Informative. Menon, Lakshmi
viagensdairis.blogspot.com/.../hands-of-blacks, Honwana Luis Bernardo
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After your journey towards your quest for
knowledge, you are now aware that there are more
to discover about traditions and values of our Asian
neighbors.
In this lesson, you will build up your knowledge
bank on the rich, varied and ancient traditions of the Chinese and J apanese. As
you gather information about their traditions and values, think about your
answer to the question: How can I better understand my identity as a
Filipino and as an Asian?
Your answer to this question will help you understand better your identity as
an Asian and hopefully it will create in you the sense of pride and camaraderie
with your fellow Asians. You are now ready to embark on the second phase of

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Identify changes in meaning signaled by stress, intonation and pauses (Oral
Language and Fluency)
 Express feelings and attitudes by listening to contrastive stress and variations of tone
and tempo (Listening Comprehension)
 Guess meanings of words or expressions by noting keywords in expressions, context
clues, collocations, clusters, etc. (Vocabulary Development)
 Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis for determining the
rhetorical organization of texts (Reading Comprehension)
 Demonstrate a heightened sensitivity to the needs of others for a better
understanding of man (Literary Appreciation)
 Narrate events logically (Reading Comprehension)
 Write informative articles (e.g. posters, slogans, advertisements, brochures) that
relate to culture and values (Writing and Composition)
 Formulate correct conditional statements (Grammar Structure and Awareness)
 Gather data using the general references: encyclopedia, dictionary (Study Skills)
 Express a different opinion without being difficult (Attitude)
 Prepare a travel brochure on the traditions and values of China, J apan and
On the next page is the lesson map which can guide you in Building your Knowledge
Bank.
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For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
Pre-Assessment through
Anticipation-Reaction Guide
(ARG): Map of Conceptual
Change
Hooking the students’ interest
through the Comic Strips
Activating prior knowledge via
Picture Reading: Family
Portraits
Deciding on the distinctive Afro-
Asian traditions and values
which you can relate/identify
KNOW
Vocabulary Map Activity
Conditionally Yours Activity Sheet
Listen and speak activity
Connecting with Connectors
Activity Sheet
Video clip viewing on the Seven
Rules for Happiness
Revisiting the Anticipation-
Reaction Guide (ARG): Map of
Conceptual Change
Differentiated Activities
PROCESS
Summary-Lesson Closure
Activity
Reviewing Prior Knowledge
through Anticipation-Reaction
Guide (ARG)
Making Inferences with Evidence
Activity chart
Concept-Retrieval activity chart
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Synthesis Journal Writing
informative article

Brochure-making on the
Philippines, Chinese and
Japanese traditions and
TRANSFER
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Families all over the world celebrate important events which help preserve the
history and traditions of their countries. Most of these traditions and practices are
handed down from one generation to the next. Let’s see how well you can identify
a country and the tradition each family celebrates.

Directions: On the left are photos of Asian/African families and on the right side are some
traditions/festivals celebrated in Asia and Africa. Match the family photos with the festival by
writing the letter on the space provided for.
In this lesson, you will further discover some practices,
beliefs, or modes of behavior of the peoples of selected Afro-
Asian countries as exemplified in their representative literary
pieces and in informative texts extracted from general
references and online materials.
Let’s begin this lesson by studying the photos below.
The photos show the different traditions and values of
selected countries in Asia and Africa. As you start working
on this task, think about this question: How can you better
Activity 1: LET’S CELEBRATE!
A_______
B_______
C_______
1
2
3
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D_______ 4
This time, answer the questions that follow about the family portraits and the festivals.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What country does each family represent? How do you know?
2. What countries are represented by the festival photos?
3. Do you think Asian-African families or countries have similar characteristics?
Why do you think so?
4. Which of these characteristics are commonly observed in Filipino families?
5. As a Filipino, how can you better understand your identity as an Asian?
Having answered those important questions, let’s continue with our lesson by
answering the Anticipation Reaction Guide (ARG) sheet below. Read the instructions
carefully.
Anticipation-Reaction Guide
Directions: Read the set of statements found at the center column in the
table below. Respond to each statement:
Write Agree if you agree with the given statements.
Write Disagree if you disagree with the statements.
Fill out only the column: “Response before the lesson” in your notebook. Don’t write
anything yet on the column that says “Response after the lesson”. You will work on that
Activity 2: ARG TIME!
Response Before the
Lesson
Statements Response After
the Lesson
J apan, Philippines, China
have many examples of oral
literature.

China has different folktales
that feature their religious
beliefs.

Only Asian countries have
wedding traditions.

Love for family is often the
theme of J apan’s oral
literature.

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For Asians, shame and honor
go far beyond the individual;
and reflect directly upon
ones’ family, nation, or other
group, and so is taken very
seriously.


The Philippines, China and
J apan have traditions that are
influenced by religion.


Kimono, geisha, sumo,
samurai are parts of Chinese
traditions.


The Philippines, China and
J apan have rice and tofu as
staple food.


J apanese write haikus to
honor nature.


Hard work is one of the
outstanding qualities of the
Chinese and the J apanese.


Philippines, China and J apan
have three common qualities:
love for the family, religiosity
and value for work.

You have just tried giving your initial answers or ideas about the traditions
and values of selected Asian countries. As you go through this lesson, you
need to go back to your answer to the ARG in order to check whether your
initial answers and ideas are valid.
Let’s find out whether your assumptions about traditions and values of
countries mentioned earlier are valid by doing the next set of activities.
What you will learn in the next set of activities will also enable you to do
the lesson project which involves preparing a two-page informative
brochure about the traditions and values of our country and our Asian
neighbors particularly China and J apan. Your creativity will be put to a test as
You are now in the second phase of your journey. Your
goal in this section is to learn and understand key concepts
related to common key values among Asians and Africans.
As you go through this part, keep on thinking about this
question: How can I better understand my identity as an
Asian?
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This time, be ready to read a folktale from China. In reading the Soul of the
Great Bell, you will surely meet some unfamiliar words which may cause
you to stop and analyze the meaning of each to understand the details of
the story.

Directions: Go over the following terms or expressions taken from the Soul of the Great
Bell. Read them to yourself and figure out the meaning of each italicized word using
context clues. Put a check mark in the circle of your chosen answer.

Activity 3: VOCABULARY OVERLOAD
A mallet is _______ a hammer an axe a saw
To smite is to _______ hit touch caress
All the little dragons on the high-tilted eaves of the green roofs (3) shiver to the tips
of their gilded tails under that deep wave of sound.
Shiver means to _______
fall on one’s knees
tremble at the loud sound
All the green-and-gold tiles of the temple are vibrating; the wooden goldfish above
them are (4) writhing against the sky.
writhing means ________ twisting pointing leading
Therefore, the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-molders and the
renowned bell smiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and (5) cunning in (6)
cunning means _______ innocent expert skillful
foundry means _______ act, process, art of making plastic
act, process, art of casting metals
Therefore, the molds had to be once more prepared, and the fires (7) rekindled, and
rekindled means _____ lighted again set on fire again stopped the fire
toilsomely means _____ with difficulty lightly unmindfully
(9) Gold and brass will never meet in wedlock, silver and iron never will embrace,
until the flesh of a maiden be melted in the crucible; until the blood of a virgin be
What does this mean?
Gold, brass, silver and iron will never be fused together by a virgin maiden
The blood of a virgin maiden mixed with gold, brass, silver and iron
And even as she cried, she (10) leaped into the white flood of metal.
Leaped means to _____ squat jump run
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(11) And still, between each mighty stroke there is a long low moaning heard; and
ever the moaning ends with a sound of sobbing and of complaining, as though a weeping
woman should murmur, “Hiai!”
Between, low, end, stroke, ever
Moaning, sobbing, complaining, weeping, murmuring
Stroke, long, low, murmur, sound
After knowing the meanings of words from the selection “The Soul of the
Great Bell”, here now, is the folktale from China retold in English by Lafcadio
Hearn (1850-1904). Hearn was an American journalist whose parents were
Irish and Greek. He spent the latter part of his life in J apan later marrying a
J apanese girl. His interest in the Oriental culture inspired him to write the
English version of well-loved Chinese and J apanese folktales. When he

As you read, try to understand the values and traditions of the Chinese as
reflected in this folktale.
The Soul of the Great Bell
by Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904)
The water-clock marks the hour in the Tachungsz’,
in the Tower of the Great Bell: now the mallet is lifted to
smite the lips of the metal monster—the vast lips
inscribed with Buddhist texts from the sacred Fa-hwa-
King, from the chapters of the holy Ling-yen-King! Hear
the great bell responding!—how mighty her voice,
though tongue less! KO-NGAI!
All the little dragons on the high-tilted eaves of the green roofs shiver to the tips of
their gilded tails under that deep wave of sound; all the porcelain gargoyles tremble on
their carven perches; all the hundred little bells of the pagodas quiver with desire to
speak. KO-NGAI—all the green-and-gold tiles of the temple are vibrating; the wooden
goldfish above them are writhing against the sky; the uplifted finger of Fo shakes high over
the heads of the worshippers through the blue fog of incense! KO-NGAI!—what a thunder
tone was that!
All the lacquered goblins on the palace cornices wriggle their fire-coloured tongues!
And after each huge shock, how wondrous the multiple echo and the great golden moan,
and, at last, the sudden sibilant sobbing in the ears when the immense tone faints away in
broken whispers of silver, as though a woman should whisper, “Hiai!” Even so the great
bell hath sounded every day for well-nigh five hundred years—Ko-Ngai: first with
stupendous clang, then with immeasurable moan of gold, then with silver murmuring of
“Hiai!” And there is not a child in all the many-coloured ways of the old Chinese city who
does not know the story of the great bell, who cannot tell you why the great bell says Ko-
Ngai and Hiai! Now this is the story of the great bell in the Tachungsz’, as the same is
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N
early five hundred years ago the
Celestially August, the Son of Heaven,
Yong-Lo, of the “Illustrious” or Ming
dynasty, commanded the worthy official Kouan
-Yu that he should have a bell made of such
size that the sound thereof might be heard for
one hundred li. And he further ordained that
the voice of the bell should be strengthened
with brass, and deepened with gold, and
sweetened with silver; and that the face and
the great lips of it should be graven with
blessed sayings from the sacred books, and
that it should be suspended in the centre of the
imperial capital to sound through all the many-coloured ways of the City of Pe-King.
Therefore the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-moulders and the
renowned bell smiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and cunning in foundry
work; and they measured the materials for the alloy, and treated them skillfully, and
prepared the moulds, the fires, the instruments, and the monstrous melting-pot for fusing
the metal. And they laboured exceedingly, like giants neglecting only rest and sleep and
the comforts of life; toiling both night and day in obedience to Kouan-Yu, and striving in all
things to do the behest of the Son of Heaven.
But when the metal had been cast, and the earthen mould separated from the glowing
casting, it was discovered that, despite their great labour and ceaseless care, the result
was void of worth; for the metals had rebelled one against the other—the gold had scorned
alliance with the brass, the silver would not mingle with the molten iron. Therefore the
moulds had to be once more prepared, and the fires rekindled, and the metal remelted, and
all the work tediously and toilsomely repeated. The Son of Heaven heard and was angry,
but spoke nothing.
A second time the bell was cast, and the result was even worse. Still the metals
obstinately refused to blend one with the other; and there was no uniformity in the bell, and
the sides of it were cracked and fissured, and the lips of it were slagged and split asunder;
so that all the labour had to be repeated even a third time, to the great dismay of Kouan-
Yu. And when the Son of Heaven heard these things, he was angrier than before; and sent
his messenger to Kouan-Yu with a letter, written upon lemon-coloured silk and sealed with
the seal of the dragon, containing these words:
“From the Mighty Young-Lo, the Sublime
Tait-Sung, the Celestial and August, whose reign
is called ‘Ming,’ to Kouan-Yu the Fuh-yin: Twice
thou hast betrayed the trust we have deigned
graciously to place in thee; if thou fail a third time
in fulfilling our command, thy head shall be
severed from thy neck.Tremble, and obey!”
Now, Kouan-Yu had a daughter of dazzling
loveliness whose name—Ko-Ngai—was ever in
the mouths of poets, and whose heart was even
more beautiful than her face. Ko-Ngai loved her
father with such love that she had refused a
hundred worthy suitors rather than make his
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home desolate by her absence; and when she
had seen the awful yellow missive, sealed with
the Dragon-Seal, she fainted away with fear
for her father’s sake.
And when her senses and her strength
returned to her, she could not rest or sleep for
thinking of her parent’s danger, until she had
secretly sold some of her jewels, and with the
money so obtained had hastened to an
astrologer, and paid him a great price to
advise her by what means her father might be
saved from the peril impending over him. So
the astrologer made observations of the
heavens, and marked the aspect of the Silver Stream (which we call the Milky Way), and
examined the signs of the Zodiac—the Hwang-tao, or Yellow Road—and consulted the
table of the Five Hin, or Principles of the Universe, and the mystical books of the
alchemists. And after a long silence, he made answer to her, saying: “Gold and brass will
never meet in wedlock, silver and iron never will embrace, until the flesh of a maiden be
melted in the crucible; until the blood of a virgin be mixed with the metals in their fusion.”
So Ko-Ngai returned home sorrowful at heart; but she kept secret all that she had heard,
and told no one what she had done.
At last came the awful day when the third and last effort to cast the great bell was to
be made; and Ko-Ngai, together with her waiting-woman, accompanied her father to the
foundry, and they took their places upon a platform overlooking the toiling of the moulders
and the lava of liquefied metal. All the workmen wrought at their tasks in silence; there was
no sound heard but the muttering of the fires. And the muttering deepened into a roar like
the roar of typhoons approaching, and the blood-red lake of metal slowly brightened like
the vermilion of a sunrise, and the vermilion was transmuted into a radiant glow of gold,
and the gold whitened blindingly, like the silver face of a full moon. Then the workers
ceased to feed the raving flame, and all fixed their eyes upon the eyes of Kouan-Yu; and
Kouan-Yu prepared to give the signal to cast.
But ere ever he lifted his finger, a cry caused him to turn his head and all heard the
voice of Ko-Ngai sounding sharply sweet as a bird’s song above the great thunder of the
fires—“For thy sake, O my father!” And even as she cried, she leaped into the white flood
of metal; and the lava of the furnace roared to receive her, and spattered monstrous flakes
of flame to the roof, and burst over the verge
of the earthen crater, and cast up a whirling
fountain of many-coloured fires, and subsided
quakingly, with lightnings and with thunders
and with mutterings.
Then the father of Ko-Ngai, wild with his grief,
would have leaped in after her, but that strong
men held him back and kept firm grasp upon
him until he had fainted away, and they could
bear him like one dead to his home. And the
serving-woman of Ko-Ngai, dizzy and
speechless for pain, stood before the furnace,
still holding in her hands a shoe, a tiny, dainty
shoe, with embroidery of pearls and flowers—
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the shoe of her beautiful mistress that was. For she had sought to grasp Ko-Ngai by the
foot as she leaped, but had only been able to clutch the shoe, and the pretty shoe came off
in her hand; and she continued to stare at it like one gone mad.
But in spite of all these things, the command of the Celestial and August had to be
obeyed, and the work of the molders to be finished, hopeless as the result might be. Yet
the glow of the metal seemed purer and whiter than before; and there was no sign of the
beautiful body that had been entombed therein. So the ponderous casting was made; and
lo! when the metal had become cool, it was found that the bell was beautiful to look upon
and perfect in form, and wonderful in colour above all other bells. Nor was there any trace
found of the body of Ko-Ngai; for it had been totally absorbed by the precious alloy, and
blended with the well-blended brass and gold, with the intermingling of the silver and the
iron. And when they sounded the bell, its tones were found to be deeper and mellower and
mightier than the tones of any other bell, reaching even beyond the distance of one
hundred li, like a pealing of summer thunder; and yet also like some vast voice uttering a
name, a woman’s name, the name of Ko-Ngai. And still, between each mighty stroke there
is a long low moaning heard; and ever the moaning ends with a sound of sobbing and of
complaining, as though a weeping woman should murmur, “Hiai!”
Activity 4: SPIN A STORY WHEEL

Directions: Did you have fun reading the “Soul of the Great Bell”? In a
group of five, answer the questions in the story wheel to get to know more
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Activity 5: RING THAT BELL!
Directions: You have just read the Soul of the Great Bell. Have you
noticed the descriptions of the bell? Fill out the bell’s description on the
corresponding columns and answer the questions that follow.

Description of the Bell
Before KoNgai leaped
to the furnace





(Indicate paragraph number
where you found your
answers)
After KoNgai leaped
to the furnace





(Indicate paragraph number
where you found your
answers)
Answer the questions that follow. Write your answers in a one fourth sheet
of paper and be ready to join the discussion later.
1. Why was it entitled the Soul of the Great Bell?
2. What other Chinese traditions involve bells? Compare and contrast these
traditions with Filipino traditions.
3. Do Filipinos and Chinese have similar values? What makes you think so?
4. Has the story helped you understand your identity as a Filipino and as an
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 6: VALUES GALORE
Directions: Go over the story of The Soul of the Great Bell. In the chart
below, identify the values and traditions of the Chinese people that you can
deduce from the reading selection. Cite the supporting detail or details in
the story to prove your claim. Then, answer the process questions that
follow.
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THE SOUL OF THE GREAT BELL
CHINESE VALUES/TRADITIONS SUPPORTING DETAIL/S IN THE STORY









Activity 7: SIGNALS TO CONNECT
Directions: Below is the list of highlighted words and some lines taken
from the Soul of the Great Bell. Find out how these words connect the
paragraphs in the story. How do you think is this achieved? Find out as
you answer the questions that follow.
Therefore Finally
But Now
And
Next
At
last
But
Then
But in
spite
of
Yet
And
still
when
However
Therefore the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-moulders and the
renowned bellsmiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and cunning in foundry
work…
But when the metal had been cast, and the earthen mould separated from the glowing
casting,…
A second time the bell was cast, and the result was even worse.
Now, Kouan-Yu had a daughter of dazzling loveliness whose name—Ko-Ngai—…
At last came the awful day when the third and last effort to cast the great bell was to be
made;
But ere ever he lifted his finger, a cry caused him to turn his head and all heard the
voice of Ko-Ngai
Then the father of Ko-Ngai, wild with his grief, would have leaped in after her, but that
strong men held him back
But in spite of all these things, the command of the Celestial and August had to be
obeyed, and the work of the moulders to be finished
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1. What is the function of the underlined expressions? How are they called?
2. How are the paragraphs organized? What do they show?
3. How are the paragraphs organized? What do they show?
4. What are other ways to organize a paragraph?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
This time you will work on the different activities to tap your skills and
potentials. Like your Asian neighbors, the Chinese and the J apanese, you,
too, are talented and skillful. Directions: Read carefully the instructions and
be ready to present your group work to the class.

Task 1 – for the Visual artists: Draw a scene/an object/ a character from the story that
has the most impact on the group. Give a short explanation on the connection of the
drawing/illustration you’ve created to your life.

Task 2 – for the Singers: Choose a song that best interprets the message of the story
and sing it to the class. Your performance should be accompanied by a dance number.
Before you perform, give the class a short background of your chosen song and how it is
connected with the traditions and values you have learned about the Chinese.

Task 3 – for the Actors/Actresses: Role play the scene that you like best in the story. Use
the words you have learned from the story. Highlight Chinese traditions by using
traditional Chinese clothes. Use some background music from the collection of ancient
Chinese songs. Here are some suggested scenes but you may come up with other
scenes in the story:

 workers who labored hard to make the bell,
 when Kouan Yu received the lemon colored envelope from the Mighty Emperor
 when KoNgai leaped to the lava of melted iron

Task 4 – for the Writers: Write your own ending of the story. Use the transitional devices
you have learned from the selection. Include the tradition and values of the Chinese
shown in the story.

Task 5 – for the IT’s: Create a 5 slide power point presentation highlighting the traditions
and values of both the Filipinos and the Chinese. You may research on other Chinese
traditions and values related to Filipino values which are not mentioned in the story.
Activity 8: DIFFERENT ACTS FOR DIFFERENT FOLKS
A copy of the scoring rubric is shown at the next page. Use this for your group
presentation. You will do peer grading. Each group shall score the other groups based on
the indicators given.
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Different Acts for Different Folks (Differentiated Learning)

Group Name: _______________________________ Project: ______________
Indicators 1 2 3 4 Score
Preparation Did not
prepare
enough
for
Some
preparation
was done
A good
amount of
preparation
was done
Student
prepared
beyond level
of
assessment

Visuals There were
no helpful
visual aids
There were
a few visual
aids
There were
clear and
interesting
visual aids
Students
created
excellent
visual aids

Speaking and
Audience
Contact

Did not look
at the
audience
and did not
speak
clearly

Looked at
audience
some of the
time; spoke
clearly once
in a while
Looked at
the audience
and spoke
clearly
Held
attention of
the audience
and spoke
very
expressively

Overall
understanding
of the topic
Group didn’t
show
sufficient
understandi
ng of the
traditions &
values from
the story
Group
understood
most of the
traditions,
values from
the story
Group
understood
the entire
traditions
and values
presented in
the story
Group
understood
the traditions
and values
from the
story and
presented
extra

Instilling
Values in
Students

Helped other
students
understand
at least one
important
values and
traditions of
other
countries
Helped other
students
understand
at least two
important
values and
traditions of
other
countries
Helped other
students
understand
at least
three
important
values and
traditions of
other
countries
Helped other
students
understand
at least four
important
values and
traditions of
other
countries

TOTAL
TEACHER’s COMMENTS:


based on the Differentiated Learning Rubric by Maxine – www.atozteacherstuff.com
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You had a glimpse of the Chinese way of living through the literary piece
and activities you worked on in the previous section. You will now have a
taste of the J apanese culture in this part of the lesson.
See if there are similarities between the Chinese and J apanese customs
and traditions as shown in the reading selections and activities in this
section. Then, identify any resemblance to your own culture and values as a

Read a J apanese folktale. Study how the organization of the paragraphs
helps develop the story. You will also have to deduce from the selection some
of the J apanese traditions and values.
L
ong, long ago there lived at the
foot of the mountain a poor farmer
and his aged, widowed mother.
They owned a bit of land which supplied
them with food, and their humble were
peaceful and happy.
Shinano was governed by a
despotic leader who though a warrior,
had a great and cowardly shrinking from
anything suggestive of failing health and
strength. This caused him to send out a
cruel proclamation. The entire province
was given strict orders to immediately put
to death all aged people. Those were
barbarous days, and the custom of abandoning old people to die was not common. The
poor farmer loved his aged mother with tender reverence, and the order filled his heart
with sorrow. But no one ever thought a second time about obeying the mandate of the
governor, so with many deep hopeless sighs, the youth prepared for what at that time was
considered the kindest mode of death.
J ust at sundown, when his day’s work was ended, he took a quantity of unwhitened
rice which is principal food for poor, cooked and dried it, and tying it in a square cloth,
swung and bundle around his neck along with a gourd filled with cool, sweet water. Then
he lifted his helpless old mother to his back and stated on his painful journey up the
mountain. The road was long and steep; the narrowed road was crossed and recrossed
by many paths made by the hunters and woodcutters. In some place, they mingled in a
confused puzzled, but he gave no heed. One path or another, it mattered not. On he went,
climbing blindly upward – ever upward towards the high bare summit of what is known as
Obatsuyama, the mountain of the “abandoning of aged”.
The eyes of the old mother were not so dim but that they noted the reckless
hastening from one path to another, and her loving heart grew anxious. Her son did not
know the mountain’s many paths and his return might be one of danger, so she stretched
The Story of the Aged Mother
A Japanese Folktale
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forth her hand and snapping the twigs
from brushes as they passed, she quietly
dropped a handful every few steps of the
way so that they climbed, the narrow
path behind them was dotted at frequent
intervals with tiny piles of twigs. At last
the summit was reached. Weary and
heart sick, the youth gently released his
burden and silently prepared a place of
comfort as his last duty to the loved one.
Gathering fallen pine needle, he made a
soft cushion and tenderly lifting his old
mother therein, he wrapped her padded
coat more closely about the stooping
shoulders and with tearful eyes and an aching heart said farewell.
The trembling mother’s voice was full of unselfish love as she gave her last injunction.
“Let not thine eyes be blinded, my son.” She said. “The mountain road is full of dangers.
Look carefully and follow the path which holds the piles of twigs. They will guide you to the
familiar way farther down”.
The son’s surprised eyes looked back over the path, then at the poor old, shrivelled
hands all scratched and soiled by their work of love. His heart smote him and bowing to the
grounds, he cried aloud: “Oh, honorable mother, thy kindness thrusts my heart! I will not
leave thee. Together we will follow the path of twigs, and together we will die!”
Once more he shouldered his burden (how light it seemed no) and hastened down the
path, through the shadows and the moonlight, to the little hut in the valley. Beneath the
kitchen floor was a walled closet for food, which was covered and hidden from view. There
the son hid his mother, supplying her with everything needful and continually watching and
fearing. Time passed, and he was beginning to feel safe when again the governor sent
forth heralds bearing an unreasonable
order, seemingly as a boast of his power.
His demand was that his subject should
present him with a rope of ashes. The
entire province trembled with dread. The
order must be obeyed yet who in all
Shinano could make a rope of ashes?
One night, in great distress, the son
whispered the news to his hidden mother.
“Wait!” she said. “I will think. I will think”
On the second day she told him what to
do. “Make rope twisted straw,” she said.
“Then stretch it upon a row of flat stones
and burn it there on the windless night.”
He called the people together and did as
she said and when the blaze had died, behold upon the stones with every twist and fiber
showing perfectly. Lay a rope of whitehead ashes.
The governor was pleased at the wit of the youth and praised greatly, but he
demanded to know where he had obtained his wisdom. “Alas! Alas!” cried the farmer, “the
truth must be told!” and with deep bows he related his story. The governor listened and
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Activity 9: WORD WATCH
Directions: In the middle of each Word Chart are words found in the
selection. In your group, give the definition of the word in focus. Then, give
examples of words with similar meanings (SYNONYMS) and words that
have opposite meaning (ANTONYMS). Finally, use the word in a sentence.
What is it?
Definition
Despotic


ANTONYMS


SYNONYMS
What is it?
Definition
Mandate


ANTONYMS


SYNONYMS
What is it?
Definition
Summit


ANTONYMS


SYNONYMS
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Activity 10: GOING JAPANESE
Directions: In the chart below, identify the values and traditions of the
J apanese people that you can infer from the reading selection The Story
of the Aged Mother. Cite the supporting detail or details in the story to
prove your claim. Then, answer the process questions that follow.

THE STORY OF THE AGED MOTHER

JAPANESE VALUES/
TRADITIONS
SUPPORTING DETAIL/S IN THE STORY












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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Answer the following questions with a partner:
1. Do you find the values and/or traditions of the J apanese people illustrated
in the story similar to your values and/or traditions as a Filipino? Explain
briefly.
2. Do you think these values and/or traditions are also true to your other
Asian neighbors especially the Chinese? Why?
3. Are the values and/or traditions of the J apanese similar to Filipino values
and traditions? In what way?
4. Why is it important to know the values and traditions of our Asian
Hi there! Remember how you’ve given your own ending to the story The
Soul of the Great Bell? You have provided a “sort” of condition a “what if”
situation, right? And now, you have just read the Story of the Aged Mother.
Imagine yourself creating your own story line. To be able to successfully do
that, you need to learn how to formulate correct conditional statements that
will be helpful to you when you begin your practical writing task in this section.

Activity 11: ON ONE CONDITION
Directions: Analyze the following “what if statements” inspired by the Story
of the Aged Mother. Then, answer the questions that follow.
1. If I could talk to the son, I would express my admiration for him.
2. If I could talk to the mother, I would congratulate her on having a son like him.
3. If the son had left his mother in the mountain, then she would have died.
4. If you were the son, would you also save your mother?
5. I will express my admiration to people who do good despite of the difficulty if I will
1. What word is common among the given sentences? What does it express?
2. What does each sentence mean?
3. What are the common uses of conditional sentences?
Exercise A – Directions: COMPLETE THE LINE with the most appropriate conditional
statement or “if” statement.
1. KoNgai would not die a tragic death __________________________________.
2. _______________________ would you also jump into the boiling metal?
3. The farmer’s mother would die ____________________________________.
4. _________________________, the custom of abandoning aged people would have
continued.
5. __________________________________, their parents would be very happy.
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Exercise B – CONDITIONALLY YOURS
Directions: Write 2-3 sentences using conditional statements about the traditions and
values of the Chinese and J apanese you have learned from the previous activities.
Compare these values with some common Filipino values and cite the title of the story
Example:
If the Chinese and Japanese value their families, the Filipinos love their families, too, as
shown in the story the Mats.
1. ___________________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________________________
You have learned about some J apanese traditions and values through the
story of the Aged Mother. You will further get to know J apanese customs and
traditions by watching a video clip on the Seven Rules for Happiness
Japanese Style. As you watch the video clip, take note of some important

Directions: After watching the video clip, list down the seven (7) rules for
happiness J apanese style. Have a self-assessment on these rules by
placing a check mark in the appropriate column to indicate how important
each rule is to you as a Filipino/Asian. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=HpF9UlzkQ1c)
Activity 12: SEVEN RULES
RULES For HAPPINESS
(JAPANESE STYLE)
IMPORTANCE TO YOU AS A FILIPINO
VERY
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT LEAST
IMPORTANT
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


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Directions: In answering the questions about the video clip you have just seen,
do the “Think Pair Share” strategy.
Think about your answer to each question. As soon as you’ve written your
answer on the space provided, Pair up with your seatmate and discuss your
answers. Agree on one common answer to each question and Share your
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How many of the rules for happiness mentioned in the video clip have you checked
as ‘very important’? Why do you consider them ‘very important’?
2. How many of the rules for happiness have you checked as ‘least important’? Why do
you consider them ‘least important’?
3. What have you realized about your own values as a Filipino based on your answers
to the activity?
4. As you listened to and watched the video clip on the Seven Rules for Happiness
Japanese Style, what did you notice about how the J apanese woman expressed her
feelings?
5. As non-native English speakers, How similar to or different are we from the J apanese
in term of using the English language?
You have learned in lesson 1 that meaning changes due to stress,
intonation and juncture or a pause. Study the excerpt of the Keynote
Speech by J unichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of J apan on the Occasion of
Activity 13: SPEAK THE LANGUAGE
Keynote Speech Excerpt:
I am honoured to be with you tonight and to have been invited to be the first Li
KaShing professor here at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy.
It is a great privilege to be associated with such an influential school at a world-class
university.
I am proud as well to be linked, even indirectly, with two of the outstanding figures in
Asia’s growing success and rising influence on our world.
I am sorry that my dear friend Lee Kuan Yew has not been able to join us here tonight.
I will try to meet the high standards he always sets for himself and for this country.
Standards that I know are reflected at this wonderful university and in its students.
Indeed, the success of this remarkable city state provides a fitting context for what I
want to talk about today.
Singapore is a shining example of Asia’s growing economic and political success and
an impressive testimony to the vision, courage and commitment which is found here in
such abundance.
Your region is on a roll. You, unlike Europe and the US, learnt the lessons from the
financial crisis of the late 90s and put in place prudent measures to prevent a repeat. The
result is your economies have weathered the recent global storms much better – and
already returned to strong growth.
Over the past decades, this economic growth has helped lift hundreds of millions out
of poverty. It has also established the region’s leadership on critical global issues,
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including trade and climate change. This is impressive in itself, but even more so if
compared to the fate of Africa.
At the time of decolonization, the level of economic development in most of Asia was
comparable with that of Africa. Four decades ago, for example, the per capita income of
South Korea was virtually the same as that of Sudan.
Yet today, South Korea is one of the richest countries in the world while Sudan is
among the poorest. Unfortunately, this comparison holds true for most countries in the two
regions.
The divergent paths of Africa and Asia are a much studied subject. I want today to
focus on how Africa can learn from the approach and success of Asia and, crucially, how
For the full text of the speech, follow this link:
http://kofiannanfoundation.org/newsroom/speeches/2010/03/asia-and-africa-past-lessons
-future-ambitions
1. What is the speech about? Give its gist in one sentence.
2. Did the speech increase your knowledge about the values and traditions of
Asia and Africa? Explain.
3. How does stress, intonation and juncture or pause affect the delivery of
speech?
4. What tips can you give the learners of English on how to deliver a good
speech?
5. How does the speech affect your being an Asian? Do you understand better
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Now, that you have explored ideas about Chinese and J apanese traditions,
how can you better understand your identity as an Asian? This final
PROCESS activity may give you a better view of the collective values and
Activity 14: EXTRAditions!
Read this article about J apanese and Chinese traditions. How does the
knowledge of these traditions and values help you in understanding better your
identity as an Asian?
Japanese and Chinese Traditions

Many J apanese traditions stem from their deep roots in religions. Two main religions
dominate the J apanese culture: Buddhism and Shintoism.
Buddhist practices and beliefs in J apan stemmed from practices in China and were
very similar to those in China.
The Japanese Tea Ceremony is a cultural tradition that
originated in China. The tea was considered medicine that
promoted physical and spiritual health and was consumed for
enjoyment purposes primarily. The spiritual aspect involves
harmony between the persons participating in the ceremony,
respect for those involved in the ceremony, and purity. These
three aspects bring tranquility to those who participate in the
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Japanese Theater : Noh & Kabuki Drama
Noh drama is rigidly traditional J apanese drama
which in it's present form dates back to the early 14th
century. Noh plays are short dramas combining
music, dance, and lyrics, with a highly stylized
ritualistic presentation. Kabuki drama combined
The Japanese New Year Celebration (January 1-15)

In J apan, the celebration of the New Year is the
most significant and important holiday. During this time they begin the New Year with a
clean slate, spend time with family and friends and prepare for the events of the New
Year. After the cleaning, houses are decorated with straw ropes and pine bough that is
Kimono and Yukata are traditional J apanese clothing.
Kimono are made of silk and are usually very expensive.
Nowadays they are worn at formal or traditional occasions such
as funerals, weddings or tea ceremonies. Only rarely kimono can
still be seen in everyday life.
Sumo is a J apanese style of
wrestling and J apan's national
sport. It originated in ancient
times as a performance to
entertain the Shinto gods. Many
rituals with religious background
Most houses in J apan have tatami mats. Tatami were
originally a luxury item for the nobility. During the Heian period,
when the shinden-zukuri architectural style of aristocratic
residences was consummated, the flooring of shinden-zukuri
palatial rooms were mainly wooden, and tatami were only used
as seating for the highest aristocrats It is said that prior to the
mid-16th century, the ruling nobility and samurai slept on tatami
or woven mats called goza, while commoners used straw mats
J apanese Haiku started as Hokku, an opening stanza of an orthodox collaborative
linked poem, or renga, and of its later derivative, renku (or haikai no renga). By the time
of Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694), the hokku had begun to appear as an independent
poem, and was also incorporated in haibun(a combination of prose and hokku),
and haiga (a combination of painting with hokku). In the late 19th century, Masaoka
Like the J apanese, Chinese considered tea as one of
their seven basic necessities. Firewood, oil, salt, soy
sauce and vinegar were some of the basic needs. Ways
of tea preparation, tasting it and the occasions on which it
In the beginning, tea was cultivated and used solely as
herbal medicine mostly within temples. Monks began to
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use tea to teach a respect for nature, humility and an overall sense of peace and calm.
Today, there are six major aspects to consider when performing a Chinese Tea
Ceremony: attitude of the person performing the ceremony, tea selection, water selection,
tea ware selection, ambiance andtechnique.
Children serve tea to their elders as a token of respect. People of lower order are
supposed to serve tea to people of higher ranks. This custom is still practiced on formal
Chopsticks are believed to symbolize kindness and
gentleness. Confucianism taught the Chinese to
abandon knives and forks from the dining table. So they
have their food cut to bite-size before it comes on the
Chinese weddings have certain traditional customs.
As a form of expressing gratitude, the bride and groom
kneel in front of their parents and offer them tea. In
olden times, drinking the tea offered showed acceptance
of marriage while refusal represented opposition to the
New Year is one of the
most prominent festivals
of the Chinese calendar. It
is about getting together.
Red is believed to abolish
bad luck. So people clothe
in red for the New Year celebration.
A long dragon made of silk; bamboo and paper are carried
along streets. Young men hold the dragon and dance
while carrying the dragon along. The Dragon dance is an
ancient Chinese tradition. When you give your gift make sure to wrap it in red and gold
Directions: After reading the article, do the 3-2-1 Chart below.

3
Things You Found Out:







2
Interesting Things You
Discovered







1
Question You Still Have to
Ask





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At this point, has your knowledge of the traditions and values of selected
Afro-Asian counties increased? Are you now ready to modify your initial
answers to the focus question: As a Filipino, how can you better
understand your identity as an Asian?
Fill out the ARG Worksheet that follows. Feel free to modify your initial
answers.

Anticipation-Reaction Guide
Directions: Read the set of statements found at the center column in the table below.
Respond to each statement:
Write Agree if you agree with the given statements.
Write Disagree if you disagree with the statements.
Response Before the
Lesson
Statements Response After
the Lesson
J apan, Philippines, China have
many examples of oral
literature.

China has different folktales
that feature their religious
beliefs.

Only Asian countries have
wedding traditions.

Love for family is often the
theme of J apan’s oral literature.


For Asians, shame and honor
go far beyond the individual;
and reflect directly upon ones’
family, nation, or other group,
and so is taken very seriously.


The Philippines, China and
J apan have traditions that are
influenced by religion.


Kimono, geisha, sumo, samurai
are parts of Chinese traditions.


The Philippines, China and
J apan have rice and tofu as
staple food.


J apanese write haikus to honor
nature.


Hard work is one of the
outstanding qualities of the
Chinese and the J apanese.


Philippines, China and J apan
have three common qualities:
love for the family, religiosity
and value for work.

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In the previous section, the discussion was about the concepts related to
the common values and traditions among selected Asian countries particularly
China and J apan.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
things learned. How many of your initial ideas are similar to those discussed in
the section? Which ideas are different and need refinement?
Now, that you know the important ideas about this topic, let us go deeper

Directions: Conduct an online or library
research to come up with a comprehensive
view of the unifying and distinctive characteristics, values and traditions of
the people of China, J apan and Philippines in preparation for your final performance task.
Use the template on the next page to guide you in your online or library research.
Your goal in this section is to enrich your familiarity with
the common traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian
countries, particularly China, J apan and the Philippines. In
this phase, you will engage yourself in a deeper search for
knowledge to satisfy your curiosity and deepen your
understanding of your being an Asian.
Activity 15: INFO SEARCH
ASPECT OF LIFE/
CULTURE

CHINA JAPAN PHILIPPINES
Famous festivals


Wedding Traditions


Unique cuisines/
dishes


Family Values


Music/Theater Arts


Literature


Martial arts


Social values


Popular culture


Unique Beliefs


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Activity 16: HOW WELL DO YOU REALLY KNOW?
By this time you will have had a good grasp of the traditions and values
of the Chinese, J apanese, and Filipinos as you worked on the learning
A. TRUE-FALSE STATEMENTS
Directions: Read the given statements. Identify whether the statements are TRUE or
FALSE. If your answer is FALSE, be able to provide justification on the space provided.
1. J apanese often send money to bereaved friends as an expression of sympathy.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: ______________________________________________________
2. Number 4 is considered lucky in J apan.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: ______________________________________________________
3. In J apan it is impolite to pour your own drink when eating with others--you pour your
companion's drink and your companion pours yours.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: ______________________________________________________
4. It is a no-no in J apan to pick up your rice or miso soup bowl and hold it under your chin
to keep stuff from falling.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
5. Asians like Filipinos, Chinese and J apanese value family, hard work and their religion
or faith. The benefit of all the members of the family is more important than the
individual. Education of children and their excellence in school is important to them.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
6. Most Chinese care more about the quality than the packaging of the gift. They will
insist on declining the gift. Furthermore, they will wait until the guests have left to open
the gift.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
7. The Chinese normally embrace each other. Kissing, whether on the cheeks or on
hands, is usually acceptable for the Chinese.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
8. People in China tend to over-order food, for they will find it embarrassing if all the food
is consumed.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
9. In China, it is a common practice for visitors to tip the tour guide and driver in
recognition of their good service. Hotel bellboy expects your tips as well. It is not
customary to leave tips at hotel or local restaurant as the bill usually includes 10-15%
service charge.
TRUE FALSE
J ustification: _____________________________________________________
10. Chinese parents are usually concerned about the discipline of their children. The
parent never gets divorce if the relationship does not work. The father maintains a strict
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Activity 17: IT HELPS TO KNOW...
Directions: Read the following passages about Asian-African traditions
and values and draw conclusions or make logical predictions about each.
Copy the Inference-Evidence Chart in your notebook and write your
1. Parents are really very keen to see that their children are married to suitable families.
Married sons continue to live in the same household with their parents. It is
considered ideal for men to marry and bring their wives to go and live with their
husbands after marriage. A unique feature of the Chinese family is the one child
policy that has been enforced by the law of the country. The first son enjoys the
greatest benefits in terms of education and opportunities. The first daughter takes
Inference-Evidence Chart
Inference Evidence




Inference-Evidence Chart
Inference Evidence




2. Unlike other Asian countries where women tend to be in more subservient positions,
women in the Philippines have had high societal positions since pre-colonial
times. Since there is gender equality, businesses are more accepting of women
performing business.
http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/philippines/pro-family_customs.htm
3. In many places in Africa young girls are trained to be good wives from an early age.
They may even learn secret codes and secret languages that allow them to talk with
other married women without their husbands understanding what is being said.
Depending on which part of Africa you are in, wedding ceremonies can be extremely
elaborate, some lasting many days. Often huge ceremonies are held during which
many couples are united at the same time.
Inference-Evidence Chart
Inference Evidence




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Inference-Evidence Chart
Inference Evidence




4. Taking off one’s shoes is another prevalent practice in J apan. While entering houses,
schools and many other buildings, people are expected to take off their shoes. It is
basically done to keep the house clean. Make sure you are wearing decent socks, as
you will be expected to take off your slippers when seated on tatami mats.
http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/japanese-family-traditions-2550.html
5. In African culture, a child learns at an early age on how to become a good member of
his tribe. Each member of the tribe belongs to an age group that has special services
within the tribe. Each person is expected to contribute to the tribe by doing his share
of the work and obeying its customs.
Inference-Evidence Chart
Inference Evidence




Activity 18: TRADITIONS AND VALUES REVISITED
Directions: Reflect on your previous ideas and fill out this Retrieval Chart
using the knowledge you acquired about the traditions and values of the
Five Common Traditions and Values of Asians (Chinese & Japanese) and Africans

Aspect of Culture Specific Tradition/Value Best Features


. .


. .


. .


. .


. .
You have just tried to synthesize and integrate in a creative way different
ideas related to the common traditions and values among the peoples of Asia
and Africa through the Retrieval Chart. At this point, what new realizations do
you have about the traditions and values among Asians (Filipinos, Chinese &
J apanese) & Africans? What new connections have you made for yourself?
Write your thoughts in the cloud callout on the next page.

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At last, you are now ready to finalize your answer to the focus question:
How can you better understand your identity as an Asian? Enter your
final answer in the ARG Worksheet on page 50. Fill out the column:
“Response After the lesson” in your notebook. This will be your final ARG
task. Compare your previous answer with your final answer and see how you
have progressed.
In the previous section, the discussion focused on probing your
understanding of the ideas related to the common traditions and values
among the people of selected Afro-Asian countries. You were asked to
determine misconceptions and errors and explain your justifications to help
arrive at your generalizations on the topic.

In this final phase of the lesson, your goal is to apply your
learning to real life situations. You will be given a practical
task which will demonstrate your understanding. You will
likewise finalize your answer to the focus question that has
been asked since the beginning of this lesson.
To begin with, you need to understand that the goal of
this lesson is for you to learn on your own how to present
information using various tools of data gathering. More often,
in real life situations you will be required to gather, collate,
organize, and present information in many different
occasions. Thus, for your practical task, you are going to
write brief articles for a brochure that contains relevant information about the culture and
values of the Chinese or J apanese people, your Asian neighbors.
You are going to come up with a similar output as follows:
You might be asking how you will go about this practical task. There are
many ways of doing this. But before you worry about the design, learn first
the basic steps in preparing a brochure.
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In Lesson I, you wrote informative articles about a selected African
country and the Philippines. In this lesson, you will write brief articles about
the Asian countries we featured in this Lesson – China and J apan.
Directions: Using the information you gathered in the different activities
included in this lesson:
 write in a half sheet of paper a 5-sentence article each about the traditions and
values of China, J apan and Philippines
 provide a catchy title for each article
Activity 19: CONTENT MATTERS
Activity 20: LEARNING THE BASICS
It’s good that you have written your brief article on the traditions and
values of the Chinese and J apanese. You will need those articles for your
Brochure-making project.
1. Plan
Fold a piece of paper in thirds and concisely write information on it with
graphic design. It can be completed on the computer or without the aid of the
computer. You may write the information and paste pictures about your topic.
2. Prepare materials needed
Have the following available: paper, colored pencils, markers, photos,
artwork, a computer, color printer and access to the Internet, if available.
3. Preparatory Procedure
Step 1: Decide on a purpose and a specific topic. Your brochures have to
inform the reader about the traditions and values of the selected Asian and
African countries. You may need to do some research to add more
information and complete the brochure. You should list your resources at the
bottom of one panel.
Step 2: Make a draft of the six panels. There are three panels on each side
of the paper. It can be folded in many ways, but the six panels need to be
planned out on a piece of notebook paper.
Front Panel: This should have the title, name of the Group and the individual
members, and basic information about the topic. A picture, a clip art or a
small piece of artwork about the topic is a good addition.
Other Five Panels: Display information with subtitles, pictures, clip art, and
designs.
You should decide on what main information you want to display and tell
about your topics. For example, if you are making a travel brochure about a
country, one panel can be about the beaches in the country. If there are
many beaches, you will need to choose the most important ones. A picture is
always a good addition.
4. Constructing the Brochure
Step 1: Once the brochure is planned, you can begin working on your final
Study the simple guidelines on brochure making below adopted from the
article Brochure Projects Made Easy with Rubric by Kellie Hayden.
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
product. If you will make the brochure on the computer, you can use Microsoft Word
software or Microsoft publisher. The paper can be set up on "landscape" and each side
of the paper can be split into three panels by making three columns on each page. You
can insert clip art, photos and scanned artwork.
If you are not using a computer, you need to neatly write your information on each panel
and glue photos or clip art to the brochure.
5. Assessing the Brochure with a Rubric
To test your understanding of what you have read, answer the questions
that follow.
1. Do you find brochure-making easy to do? Why?
2. What skills are required of you in making a brochure?
3. In what way will the guidelines above help you in your practical task?
4. What problem do you think might you encounter in making your bro-
You have learned how to make a brochure based on the given
guidelines. You will try your knowledge of the steps by doing the given
activity below. You may follow the previous guidelines or work with the
suggested steps in this activity. Don’t hesitate to ask for details or clarify
instructions.
Directions: Read carefully the task below. In your group with five members, do the
Activity 21: BROWSING YOUR BROCHURE
You are a feature writer of your school paper. You have been asked by the
barangay council to promote tourism as an industry. One of your first tasks is to design
a travel brochure. This brochure will be distributed to the visitors of your barangay.
Copies of your brochure will likewise be distributed to restaurants and stores that sell
local products.
This is what you do:
 Prepare a letter-size sheet of paper by folding it twice to form a tri-fold brochure.
 That will give you three outside areas, or "panels," to work with and one large area,
or "spread," inside.
 Present your brochure to the class as soon as you are ready. Wait for your teacher
to give you the cue.
Prepare your information:
 Gather information about the tourist attractions, local festivals and unique qualities
of your barangay or locality. Interview long-time residents and local officials.
 Arrange your information according to "topics" based on the assignment. For
example, you might gather all information collected about living accommodations
that a visitor might expect to find in your locality, the kinds of terrain a traveler might
expect to pass through; modes of transportation; the gifts tourists can expect to buy
in your place; and things to see and do in your locality.
Tips for designing a brochure:
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 Create a colorful and eye-catching cover for your brochure.
 Remember to provide accurate and detailed information on how visitors could get to
the place.
Assessment
The following criteria will be used in evaluating your travel brochure:
Quality of the Information on How to Get There (10 points possible)
 High-Quality Work: All possible modes of transportation are mentioned and
explained. The terrains are mentioned as well as traffic conditions in the area. Map
is beautifully colored.
 Satisfactory Work: Comments about modes of transportation, terrains, traffic
condition are included but not well explained. Map is neatly colored.
 Unsatisfactory Work: No map. Very vague descriptions of the modes of
transportation, terrains and traffic situation.
Quality of the Information on Tourist Attractions (10 points possible)
 High-Quality Work: All tourist attractions including festivals are explained thoroughly.
All possible reasons on why visitors have to visit the attractions have been provided.
 Satisfactory Work: Some tourist attractions including festivals have been explained.
Some possible reasons have been given on why visitors have to visit the attractions
have been provided.
 Unsatisfactory Work: Few tourist attractions have been identified. Festivals are not
mentioned. No reasons were mentioned as to why visitors have to visit the place.
Organization of Brochure (10 points possible)
 High-Quality Work: Information is organized. The brochure is easy to read and
"flows" very well. The sections of the brochure are in an order.
 Satisfactory Work: Most of the brochure is organized. The brochure has decent
"flow" throughout. The sections of the brochure are in a logical order.
 Unsatisfactory Work: Very difficult to follow. Information doesn't "flow" in a way that
Here is the CHECKLIST FOR the REVIEW OF a TRAVEL BROCHURE. Exchange
brochure with the other group and evaluate the group’s sample travel brochure by
CATEGORIES High Quality Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
Information on How
to Get There


Information on
Tourist Attractions


Organization of
Brochure


Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L2
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By this time you are now ready to perform your practical task in this
lesson. You are on your own to figure out which of the skills you learned in
the previous activities you will use to meet the standards set in this given
task.
Directions: Read the task below. In your group, discuss and plan on how you will make
your travel brochure. The rubric for grading is provided here to remind you on how your
work will be graded.
Activity 22: FEATURING...OUR BROCHURES
Travel and Tours Organization plans to publish a two-page brochure
that contains relevant information about the culture and values of China,
J apan and Philippines which they will use for their marketing campaign.
The Organization chose your advertising company to prepare the
brochure.
As the writer you are tasked to:
 Write 5-sentence article about the traditions and values of the three
countries with accurate information
 Design the brochure with attractive layout and a good mix of graphics
and arts
 Observe the principles of clear organization, correct grammar, spelling
RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF BROCHURE ON TRADITIONS AND VALUES

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Content -
Accuracy
All facts in the
brochure are
accurate.
99-90% of the
facts in the
brochure are
accurate.
89-80% of the
facts in the
brochure are
accurate.
Fewer than 80%
of the facts in the
brochure are
accurate.
Writing -
Organization
Each section in
the brochure has
a clear
beginning,
middle, and end.
Almost all
sections of the
brochure have a
clear beginning,
middle and end.
Most sections of
the brochure
have a clear
beginning,
middle and end.
Less than half of
the sections of
the brochure
have a clear
beginning,
Writing -
Grammar
There are no
grammatical
mistakes in the
brochure.
There are 1-2
grammatical
mistakes in the
brochure.
There are 3-4
grammatical
mistakes in the
brochure.
There are
several
grammatical
mistakes in the
brochure.
TASK

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CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
To highlight the learning for this activity, answer briefly the following
questions:
1. How did you find working on your final practical task in this lesson? Why?
2. Did you find the skills you learned previously helpful in doing this task?
Why?
3. What important insight did you gain from doing this practical task?
4. If you were given a similar task in real life, which top 2 skills you learned in
Finally, you have designed a travel brochure that contains relevant
information about the traditions and values of the Chinese, J apanese, Africans
and Filipinos. You have completed your project for this lesson. Don’t forget the
learning you gained. You will need them as you embark further on your search
for knowledge.

3-2-1 Chart– is a graphic organizer that calls for the use of process skills like data
gathering and analysis. Accomplishing the 3-2-1 chart requires identifying three
things found out/discovered about the topic; two interesting things learned and
one question that still needs to be answered which is not covered by the topic/
article read.
Attractiveness &
Organization
The brochure
has exceptionally
attractive
formatting and
well-organized
information.
The brochure
has attractive
formatting and
well-organized
information.
The brochure
has well-
organized
information.
The brochure\'s
formatting and
organization of
material are
confusing to the
reader.
Graphics/
Pictures
Graphics go well
with the text and
there is a good
mix of text and
graphics.
Graphics go well
with the text, but
there are so
many that they
distract from the
text.
Graphics go well
with the text, but
there are too few
and the brochure
seems "text-
heavy".
Graphics do not
go with the
accompanying
text or appear to
be randomly
chosen.
Writing -
Mechanics
Capitalization
and punctuation
are correct
throughout the
brochure.
Capitalization
and punctuation
are correct
throughout the
brochure after
feedback from an
adult.
There are 1-2
capitalization
and/or
punctuation
errors in the
brochure even
after feedback
from an adult.
There are
several
capitalization or
punctuation
errors in the
brochure even
after feedback
from an adult.
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L2
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ARG or Anticipation-Reaction Guide – aims to illustrate student or class’s prior
knowledge about a topic or section of a lesson which is similar to the K-W-L-H
technique; it is also used to assess student or class’s knowledge before, during and
after the lesson.
Brochure project – a two-page flyer or leaflet that usually has many pictures and
information about a product, a place, etc as in the example for this lesson, a travel
brochure.
Customs – is an action or way of behaving that is usual and traditional among the people
in a particular group or place
Deduce–is to use logic or reason to form (conclusion or opinion about something); is to
decide (something) after thinking about known facts.
Excerpt – a small part usually the most important or interesting of a longer written work or
oral work like a speech.
Folktales - are oral narratives that do not have a singular, identifiable author. Expanded
and shaped by the tongues of tellers over time, and passed down from one generation
to the next, folktales often reflect the values and customs of the culture from which
they come. Because folktale plots are generally concerned with life's universal themes,
they also transcend their culture of origin to reveal the commonality of human
experience. This ancient form of narrative communication for both education and
entertainment, not only offers a window into other cultures, but also can be a revealing
mirror of the comedy and pathos of our lives.
Identity–refers to the qualities, belief, value system that makes a particular person or
group different from others.
Inference-Evidence chart – is a graphic organizer that needs skills in making inferences
(drawing conclusions about what is implied but not directly stated) and gathering
evidence or factual information to support the inference.
Making Inferences - or infer is often described as "reading between the lines." Making an
inference involves using background knowledge combined with information from the
text and illustrations to draw conclusions about what is implied but not directly stated
(Pinnell &Scharer, 2003). In other words, sometimes an author does not come right
out and tell something but uses words or illustrations to show readers so they can
draw their own conclusions and make logical predictions.
Peer Grading – makes use of a rubric that is accomplished by members of the different
groups in a class to give a score or grade the output or performances of other groups.
Retrieval Chart- is a graphic organizer used for organizing and categorizing data using
headings or key concepts. Retrieval Charts are useful for:
 Presenting information in an easily accessible way;
 Comparing and contrasting attributes;
 Organizing data for use in research projects and the like; and
 Note taking in a systematic way.
TPS or Think, Pair, Share strategy –is a group activity that calls for a step by step
approach in discussing answers in the group. First, the members in the group are
asked Think about answers to a question on their own. As soon as they’ve written/
thought of their answers, each member will Pair with another member of the group.
They discuss their answers and agree on one common answer to each question
before they could Share their answer to the group and finally to the class.
Tradition – means a way of thinking, behaving or doing something that has been used by
people in a particular group, family, society, ; pertains to stories, beliefs, customs that
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65

Book
Lapid, Milagros G./Serrano, J osephine B. The Soul of the Great Bell. English
Communication Arts and Skills Through Afro-Asian Literature. Phoenix Publishing
House, Inc. 2010.
Lapid, Milagros G./Serrano, J osephine B. The Story of the Aged Mother. English
Communication Arts and Skills Through Afro-Asian Literature. Phoenix Publishing
House, Inc. 2010.

Websites
African culture.http://www.victoriafalls-guide.net/african-customs.html
African wedding traditions.www.worldweddingtraditions.com/locations/
african_traditions.html
Ancient Chinese Marriage Custom.www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/social-customs/
marriage/
Ancient Chinese Traditional Customs. www.buzzle.com/articles/ancient-chinese-
traditional-customs.html
Brochure Projects Made Easy with Rubric by Kellie Hayden.www.
brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/75435-rubric-for-brochure-project/
Chinese Tea Ceremony. Excerpt.www.sevencups.com/tea-rituals-ceremonies/
Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary.www.merriam-
webster.com
Differentiated Learning Rubric by Maxine. www.atozteacherstuff.com
Haiku, History and Origin. www.wikipedia.com
Information about geisha, kimono, sumo, tatami mats.www.japan-guide.com
J apan practices http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/japanese-family-traditions-
2550.html
J apanese tea ceremony.www.city.kanazawa.ishikawa.jp/bunka/trad/way/tea/teaE.htm
and researchpapers.hypermart.net/art/J apanese%20Tea%20Ceremony.html
J unichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of J apan Keynote Speech excerpt on the Occasion
of the Asia-Africa Business Summit on April 22, 2005 at Mulia Hotel, J akarta.
www. kantei.go.jp/foreign/koizumi speech/2005/04/22keynote_e.html
Seven Rules for Happiness J apanese Style.www.youtube.com/watch?
v=HpF9UlzkQ1c
Women in the Philippines.www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/philippines/
profamily_customs.html

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Hello, young explorers! You have reached your
final journey in searching for knowledge. You have
received enough information to build up your
knowledge bank. It’s time for you to share that
knowledge with others.
At the end of this lesson, you are expected to put
up your own informative and creative exhibit showcasing the traditions and
values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries discussed in Lessons 1- 3.

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills and the lesson map.

In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Listen to points the speaker emphasizes as signaled by contrastive sentence stress
(Listening Comprehension)
 Use stress, intonation, and juncture to signal changes in meaning (Speaking-Oral
Language and Fluency)
 Guess the meaning of expressions by noting keywords in expressions, context clues,
collocations, clusters, etc. (Vocabulary Development)
 Skim to determine the author’s key ideas and purpose by answering questions raised
after surveying the text (Reading Comprehension)
 Read closely to select appropriate details from a selection for specific purposes.
(Reading Comprehension)
 Narrate events logically (Viewing Comprehension)
 Validate mental images of the information conveyed by a program viewed (Viewing
Comprehension)
 Respond to questions raised in a program reviewed. (Viewing Comprehension)
 Discover through literature the links between one’s life and the lives of people
throughout the world. (Literature)
 Transcode ideas from texts to concept maps. (Writing and Composition)
 Make write-up ideas presented in concept maps. (Writing and Composition)
 Use of coordinators and subordinators. (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Use of correct complex and compound-complex sentences. (Grammar Awareness
and Structure)
 Get and assess current information from newspaper and other print and non-print
media. (Study Strategies)
 Set new goals for learning on the basis of self-assessment made. (Attitude)
On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Sharing the Knowledge you
Learned.
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Administration of Pre-Test
Picture Reading through picture
perfect
Activating prior knowledge
through IRF
KNOW
Identifying whether the word is
stressed or not stressed using
the Retrieval Chart
Identifying Correct Coordinating/
Subordinating Conjunction
Give the meaning of words using
vocabulary mapping
Getting Information from
Newspapers
Sentence Structure Test
Getting information through
Scanning (I)
Getting the main idea through
skimming
Getting the major ideas through
Skimming
Organizing ideas through outlining
Reading Meaning into Poetry
Transcode ideas using mind map
Activating prior knowledge
through IRF
Video critiquing through
Differentiated Task
Writing ones personal insights
based from the given questions
Oral Practice using appropriate
PROCESS
Vocabulary Test
Character Map
Review the past lessons using
the Check and Balance
Read, discuss and respond to the
text through Readers Circle
Stating the significance of
studying Afro-Asian traditions
and cultures through Think
Pair
Activating prior knowledge
through IRF
Dramatize a Real Life Situation
Discuss a literary text through
Active Knowledge Sharing
Read the lines/dialogue revealing
the Character’s Emotion
Draw the group’s imagination,
concepts, ideas from the text
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Reviewing prior knowledge
through IRF
Writing an event proposal

Put up an informative and
creative exhibit showcasing
the traditions and values of
selected Afro-Asian
TRANSFER
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For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so
far about Afro-Asian people, in particular, their traditional
Activity 1: THE THOUGHTS THAT
Are you familiar with our traditional
dances? Can you name one? Take a look at
the following pictures and answer the
questions that follow:
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Good start! But your search for knowledge is not yet over; in fact, you have
just begun another journey to discover new things and the privilege to share
these with others.
You have just shared your first discovery that dance is a part of human
culture and traditions. Let’s find out how others would answer the question and
compare their ideas to our own. As we compare, you will also learn other
concepts which will help you complete the required project.
Your project is to put up an informative and creative exhibit showcasing the
traditions and values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What do the pictures show? What do they have in common?
2. Can you identify what country is being represented in picture 1? How about
the other pictures?
3. What helps you in identifying the specific country shown in each picture?
4. Do these pictures help you understand your identity as an Asian? How?
Directions: Explain your answer to this question by accomplishing the IRF worksheet
below. Accomplish the (I) for your Initial Answer. As you continue doing this module, you
Initial Answer





Revised Answer




Final Answer







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Listen as your teacher reads the passage on Indian
culture. Notice how she puts emphasis to some important
words in the sentences to communicate the message more
effectively
Source: English for Secondary Schools (Revised Edition) Second Year
India, Library of Nations (Time-Life Books, Amsterdam)
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key
concepts related to Indian and Persian people. We will start
with India, let’s try to find out why the Indians are said to be a
remarkable people. We will do this by studying another aspect
of their identity, their culture and their literature.
As you go through this part, be guided by this question:
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Did your teacher give emphasis to all words in the sentence?
2. Can you recall the words that were stressed? What do we call those words?
3. What words were not stressed? Why do you think they were not stressed?
4. What do we call this emphasis or prominence which is given only to a
syllable of certain words in a sentence?
You have learned in your previous lessons that Sentence stress refers to
the emphasis or prominence given to a syllable of certain words in a sentence.
Content Words like nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and
interrogatives when used as subjects are sometimes stressed because they
have meaning in themselves.
On the other hand, Function Words like articles, auxiliaries, linking verbs,
conjunctions, pronouns, and prepositions are not normally stressed. These words do
not have meaning except when they are used in relation to their grammatical use in the
sentence.
Having understood the difference between content and function words try to
do the oral practice and accomplish the retrieval chart afterwards.
Activity 2: PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT
Directions: With your partner, take turns in reading this paragraph properly.
Be sure to put emphasis to a
Then a ploughman said, "Speak to us of Work."
You work that you may keep pace with the earth and the soul of the earth. For to be idle
is to become a stranger unto the seasons, and to step out of life's procession, that marches
in majesty and proud submission towards the infinite.
Work is love made visible. And if you cannot work with love but only with distaste, it is
better that you should leave your work and sit at the gate of the temple and take alms of
The Prophet by Khalil Gibran
(excerpts)
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those who work with joy.
For if you bake bread with indifference, you bake a bitter bread that feeds but half man's
hunger.
And if you grudge the crushing of the grapes, your grudge distils a poison in the
wine. And if you sing though as angels, and love not the singing, you muffle man's ears to
the voices of the day and the voices of the night.
Process this activity using the retrieval chart.
Retrieval Chart

Directions: Pick out 10 words from the excerpts and classify them as content or function
words. Then, tell whether they are stressed or unstressed; write your answers in Column
3. Then, give your reasons why you have the words as such. Write your reasons in the box
provided.

Words

Content Word/Function
Word

Stressed/ Not stressed
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Reasons for your answers:
Grammar Recall: Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions
Take a look at these lines taken from the excerpt and answer the questions below:
Work is love made visible. And if you cannot work with love but only with distaste, it is
better that you should leave your work and sit at the gate of the temple and take alms of
those who work with joy.
1. What is said about work in the paragraph?
2. According to Gibran, what are the better things to do if one cannot work with love but
only with distaste?
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72

3. How many ideas are given to answer question no. 3? What word is used to connect
these ideas?
4. How do we call this word that connects ideas?
5. Can you give other connectors that join words, phrases, and clauses? Give one. When
do you use that connector?
Now take a look at these lines:
“If you bake bread with indifference, you bake bitter bread that feeds but half man's
hunger.
If you grudge the crushing of the grapes, your grudge distils a poison in the wine”
1. How many ideas are joined in the first lines? What are those?
2. What about in the second line?
3. Does the first part of every sentence convey a complete thought? Why? Why not?
4. What word is used to introduce the first part of the sentence? What is its function in
the sentence?
A. Coordinating conjunctions tie together words and word-groups which have
the same grammatical
List of coordinating conjuntions:
F – for
A – and
N – nor
B – but
O – or
Y – yet
Examples:
I study mathematics and history. (Noun)
We sang and danced heartily. (Verbs)
The book was old and soiled. (Adjectives)
They worked rapidly but carefully. (Adverbs)
He went into the water and down to the bottom. (Phrases)
They waited a long time, yet nobody came. (Principal Clauses)
1. The And type
And is used to add something to what has already been said. It should be used only
when the second idea is along the same line of thought as the first idea.
Examples:
a. The man was ugly and mean.
(The words ugly and mean are both negative qualities.)
b. She is attractive and bad tempered.
(The sentence is faulty because attractive is a positive quality while bad
tempered is a negative quality.)

2. The But type
But adds something contrary to or different from what has been said. When we use
and, the second part of the sentence expresses an idea similar to the first. When we
use but, the second part of the sentence expresses an idea that is the contrast to the
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73

first.
Example:
He is stupid but hardworking.
(Stupid expresses a negative quality while hardworking expresses positive quality.
The second idea is constructive.)

3. The Or type
Or implies a choice. It connects ideas of equal value, giving one a chance to choose
either idea.
Examples:
a. You can come today or tomorrow.
b. I can go or stay as I please.

4. The So type
The conjunction so is used when the second part is a consequence or effect of the
first part. The so type differs from the and type, which implies the same line of thought
and from the but type, which implies a contrast. So implies that the second part follows
as a result of the first part.
B. Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinators are function words that join dependent clauses to main clauses; they
are of two types: those that pattern like because and form that pattern like who, whom,
whose, which and that.
These words not only introduce the subordinate clause but link it to the main clause.
Their chief function is to make clear exactly what the relation between the two clauses
is. The chief relations they show are time, place, cause, result, exception, condition, and
alternative.

Subordinators express various logical relationships such as:
1. Purpose: so that, in order that, in case, lest
They read that they may learn.
They read, so that they may learn.
2. Cause and effect: because, since, whereas, inasmuch as
He failed because he did not study.
He could not stand the wind and rain since he fell ill.
3. Manner: as, as if, as though, in such a way that
Tess is acting as if she knows everything.
4. Condition: if, even if, unless, in case, in the event that
If you go with me, I’ll treat you to a snack.
I’ll not speak to you unless you go with me.
5. Place: where, wherever
I don’t know where I lost it.
6. An adjectival subordinate clauses are usually introduced by the pronouns who,
whom, whose, which and that. These pronouns are called relative pronouns because
they relate the adjective clause to the word the clause modifies (the antecedent of the
relative pronoun). In addition to referring to the word the clause modifies, the relative
pronoun has a job to do within the adjective clause.
a. The boy who won the prize is my cousin.
(The relative pronoun who relates the adjective clause to boy. It also functions
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 1 - L3
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74

as the subject of the adjective clause.)
b. J aveline is one of the people whom I invited.
(Whom relates the adjective clause to people; it also ffunctions as the direct
object of the clause. I invited whom.)
c. The boys apologized to the man whose window they had broken.
Activity 3: CONNECT ME IF I’ M RIGHT
Using the Correct Coordinating Conjunctions
Directions: What coordinating conjunctions should connect these clauses?
Write your answer on the space provided for you.
___ 1. It was raining. We went out.
___ 2. It was a warm day. We took off our sweaters.
___ 3. He was an extravagant person. He did not spend all his money.
___ 4. He was an extravagant person. He spent his money foolishly.
___ 5. Tell the truth. I will punish you.
___ 6. Tell the truth. I’ll not punish you.
___ 7. Anton lost his book. He didn’t look for it.
___ 8. You will hand in your theme on time. I’ll impose a penalty.
___ 9. J osie studied hard for the test. She got a good grade.
___ 10. You are not paying attention. The teacher will scold you.
Supplying the Appropriate Subordinating Conjunctions
Directions: What subordinating conjunctions should connect these clauses? Choose from
the subordinating conjunction inside the box. Write your answer on the space provided for
you.
if that

when unless

although because

___ 1. She could not go out. She felt ill.
___ 2. We went out. The rain stopped.
___ 3. She did not know. She lost her watch.
___ 4. The child is crying. He has been punished.
___ 5. She was not sure. She could go.
___ 6. She didn’t wear her new shoes. Her mother told her to.
___ 7. It was growing dark. She reached home.
___ 8. I’ll attend your party. You invite me.
___ 9. I’ll buy that picture. It is very pretty.
___ 10. She has a lot of books. She doesn’t read them.
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Great job! You have combined sets of ideas to form new sentences. But
always remember, we do not just put together any two or three sentences into
one. There must be a relationship in meaning between those sentences. You
would still encounter more exercises regarding conjunctions in the next
quarter.
Previously, you listened to an informative text about the culture of India,
now it’s time for you to know additional information about the said country.
You will read a selection about the characteristics of Indian Literature.

Activity 4: VOCABULARY MAPPING
Directions: Give the meaning of the italicized words using the vocabulary
mapping procedure.
1. rituals and prayers
2. discourses between teachers and pupils
3. moral undertones
Process for Vocabulary Mapping:
 Accomplish the vocabulary mapping worksheet by following the procedure below:
 There are 4 squares in each worksheet. Place the italicized word at the middle of
each square.
 Label each of the four corners of the square with the following headings: definition,
synonym, sentence and picture.
 Complete what is being asked for in each of the four headings
 Share your map with the class.


Patient
Definition Synonym
Sentence
Picture
Tolerant
Uncomplaining
Thoughtful
Tom was very patient with me
when I didn’t understand the
instructions on how to play
soccer. He helped me join in
To be patient is to care
enough about someone so
that he/she may have the
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76

VOCABULARY MAPPING WORKSHEET

Name: ____________________________ Grade and Section:__________

Definition Synonym
Sentence
Picture




Definition Synonym
Sentence
Picture




Definition Synonym
Sentence
Picture




Definition Synonym
Sentence
Picture



The Literature of India is one of the indelible marks of India’s culture. It has
its own unique development. In centuries, India produced some of the most
Read and study the selection that follows. Find out what are the factors that
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S
anskrit literature originated with an oral tradition that produced the Vedic holy texts,
sometime after 1500 B.C. The Aryans, who came from Central Asia bringing their
own Gods with them, memorized these sacred literatures, the Vedas, which means
“knowledge.” The oldest of these holy works is the Rig Veda-“the Veda of praise”-a
collection of 1017 hymns addressed to the various Gods of the Aryans. After the Rig Veda,
came the Brahmanas, which codified the rituals and prayers of the Brahmins, the priests of
the Aryans. The Brahmanas were followed by the Upanishads, which were discourses
between teachers and pupils. Then came the Puranas, which were essentially the history
of the Aryan race and its relationship with the gods.
The two most famous Puranic epics are the Mahabhrata and the Ramayana, which
have since been used as the sources of countless literary works. The Mahabharata
interwove ideas about cosmology, statecraft, philosophy and the science of war into its
stories of the deeds of Gods and men. It was considered to be the longest poem in any
language. The Ramayana simply recounted a sequence of heroic adventures, many of
them with moral undertones.
When Sanskrit grammar was evolved beginning about 400 B.C., the literary works aimed to
put in order all learning in the form of laws for the arts and sciences, called shastras, as
well as poetry and stylized drama. Prior to this, the Indian constitution recognized several
official languages. This resulted in the production of regional literature. Major writers such
as Bhartrihari, and Mayura emerged when classical poetry reached its peak in the 7
th

century A.D. Kalidasa, one of the notable poets, is better known for his play Sakuntala.
Modern Indian literature started with establishment of civil service training schools and
printing presses early in the 19
th
century. Western literary and philosophical writings
produced a cultural revival, while vernacular language and culture was taught to British
colonial officials.
Twentieth-century writing has managed to keep alive the sentimental romanticism of
the 19
th
century, while nationalist leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi influenced the
development of social realism in the earlier works.
Writing in English was viewed with mixed feelings in post-Independence India but was
well established nevertheless. Pioneers in this field included Michael Dutt (1824-73) and
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN LITERATURE
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Describe briefly the development of Indian Literature.
2. Explain the role played by religion in Indian literature.
3. Differentiate Ramayana from Mahabharata as to the theme.
4. How do several languages affect the development of Indian literature?
You got additional information about India. Do you find it easy to answer
the comprehension questions? If you didn’t, let me give you more input on
how to do it. This is by skimming of the article.
In the course of time, you will be asked to do research work in one of your
subjects. Skimming is one skill which can help you get a quick overview of
the material you are reading. To skim is to get the gist or the general
understanding of a reading material.

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Skimming for Major Ideas
To skim effectively, let your eyes move quickly over the reading material. The
titles, subtitles and illustrations will give you clues about the content of the
1. Read carefully the topic sentence in the first paragraph, and then skip rapidly to the
next paragraph. In this way, you can get all your facts without having to spend too
much time on the reading matter.
2. If the reading material does not have explicit topic sentences, glance down the pages.
Pick out sentences at random or select nouns and verbs which give you the trend of
the material. Exercise keen judgment as you search for the catchwords.
3. Read sentences or parts of sentences at random throughout the article. This will help
you grasp the idea of the author as quickly as possible.
Activity 5: READ QUICKLY
Practice one of the methods of skimming. Browse again the article about
the characteristics of Indian Literature and identify the topic sentence for
each paragraph.
Paragraph 1:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 2:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 3:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 4:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 5:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 6:
As a grade 8 student, you will often come across a material that is difficult
to remember. Thus there is a need for you to outline your reading material.
Reducing complex material to its outline form will make you understand the
material fast and easy.
How do you prepare a reading outline?

Keep these points in mind:
1. Read the material and determine its purpose and structure.
2. Pick out the writer’s thesis statement or controlling principle; if it is not
explicitly stated, express it in your own words.
3. Look for the major divisions and label each with a Roman numeral.
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4. Divide each major division into subdivisions.
5. Check whether the divisions and subdivisions relate to the thesis statement or the
purpose of the writer.
6. Compare your outline with the original material to check against any misinterpretation
or distortion of the content and structure of the original.
Remember that there are two kinds of outline: the topic outline, in which the entries
are given in words or phrases, and the sentence outline, in which the entries are complete
Now, try to convert the selection you have just read to an outline. You can
use three-step word, phrasal or sentence outlines to organize your ideas.
Activity 6: OUTLINING
Directions: Fill out this outline of the development of Indian literature and
give the characteristics of each period.
Stages of Development

I. Oral Literature
A. ____________________
B. ____________________
1. ______________
2. ______________
C. ____________________
D. ____________________
1. Ramayana
2. Mahabharata
II. Beginnings of Sanskrit Grammar
A. ____________________
B. ____________________
III. Modern Indian Literature

Characteristics

I. Sacred/ holy texts
The world is getting smaller but not in size. We know what is happening in
other Afro-Asian countries by reading newspapers. This will also help us
understand their traditions and values.
Newspapers give us information about what is happening in a country or
in the world every day. It is said that people need news, as much as they need
eyes in order to see what’s going on.
It is important for you, as students to develop skills in getting information
from newspapers.
Most newspapers have several sections: News page, sports page,
classified advertisements, comics/cartoons, editorial, columns, and obituary.

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Activity 7: GETTING INFORMATION FROM NEWSPAPERS
1. Form a group of five members and examine the parts of a newspaper.
Note its different sections.
2. Collect items belonging to every section. Display them around the
room.
3. Note how many sections talk about the following:
a. local news
b. national news
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Where do international news items come from?
2. What do international news items talk about?
3. Are these news items mostly good or bad?
So, have you gathered data about other Afro-Asian countries from the
newspapers?
Let me give you another input about India. This time, you will watch a
video clip of the Kids Animation Epics containing the full episode of the

Activity 8: WATCH AND WORK
Directions: Watch the video clip and observe keenly. Be ready to do the
following group tasks below. You will be graded based from your
preparation, visual aids, speaking and audience contact, overall
understanding of the topic and teaching value for other students.
http://www.bollydb.in/playvideo-k3lPGfvF2Bk.html
Group 1: Arrange the given events to get the summary of the Ramayana
Group 2: Accomplish the Actitude Analysis
Group 3: Identify the conflict in The Ramayana
Group 4: Identify the theme of Ramayana
RUBRIC FOR DIFFERENTIATED TASK

Group no. ___________ Task: ____________________________________
1 2 3 4 TOTAL

Preparation


Did not prepare
enough for
presentation.


Some
preparation
was done.

A good
amount of
preparation
was done.

Group
prepared
beyond
level of
assignment.

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1 2 3 4 TOTAL

Visual Aids




There were no
helpful visual
aids.

There were a
few visual
aids.

There were
clear and
interesting
visual aids.

Student
created
excellent
visual aids.


Speaking
and
Audience
Contact



Did not look at
audience and
was not loud
enough.

Looked at
audience
some of the
time and used
a soft voice.

Looked at
the
audience
and speak
clearly.

Held the
attention of
the
audience
and spoke
very
expressively
.


Overall
Understand
ing of the
Topic


Students did
not show
sufficient
understanding
of the topic.

Students
understood
most of the
topic.

Students
understood
the entire
topic.

Students
understood
the topic
and found
extra
information.


Teaching
value for
other
students





Did not help
other students
learn about the
topic.

Helped other
students learn
something.

Helped
other
students
understand
the topic
well.

Helped
other
students
understand
the topic
and enjoy
the
presentation
.


Differentiated Learning Rubric by Maxine – www.atozteacherstuff.com
http://atozteacherstuff.com/pdf.htm?rubric_differentiated.pdf
Group 1: SEQUENCING OF EVENTS
Arrange the following events in the order of the diagram. Write numbers 1 to 10.
Then, retell the story in your own words. Put your answer on the space provided for you.
____ King Dasharatha, Rama's father, decides it is time to give his throne to his
eldest son Rama.Everyone seems pleased. However Rama's step-mother, the king's
second wife, is not pleased. She wants her son, Bharata, to rule. Because of an oath
Dasharatha had made to her years before, she gets the king to agree to banish Rama
for fourteen years and to crown Bharata, even though the king, on bended knees, begs
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____ Rama, always obedient, is as content to go into banishment in the forest as to
be crowned king. Sita convinces Rama that she belongs to his side and his brother
Lakshman also begs to accompany them. Rama, Sita and Lakshman set out for the
____ Dasharatha, King of Ayodhya, has three wives and four sons. Rama is the
eldest. Bharata is the second and the other two are twins, Lakshman and Shatrughna.
____ In a neighboring city the ruler's daughter is named Sita. When it is time for Sita
to choose her bridegroom, at a ceremony called a swayamvara. Sita indicates she has
chosen Rama as her husband by putting a garland around his neck. The disappointed
suitors watch.
____ Ravana devises a plan to abduct Sita. He sends a magical golden deer which
Sita desires. Rama and Lakshman go off to hunt the deer, first drawing a protective
circle around Sita and warning her she will be safe as long as she does not step
outside the circle. As they go off, Ravana (who can change his shape) appears as a
holy man begging alms. The moment Sita steps outside the circle to give him food,
___ Bharata, whose mother's evil plot has won him the throne, is very upset when he
finds out what has happened. Not for a moment does he consider breaking the rules of
dharma and becoming king in Rama's place. He goes to Rama's forest retreat and begs
___ Rama is broken-hearted when he returns to the empty hut and cannot find Sita. A
band of monkeys offers to help him find Sita. Ravana has carried Sita to his palace in
Lanka, but he cannot force her to be his wife so he puts her in a grove and alternately
sweet-talks her and threatens her in an attempt to get her to agree to marry him. Sita
will not even look at him but thinks only of her beloved Rama. Hanuman, the general
of the monkey band can fly since his father is the wind, and Hanuman flies to Lanka
and, finding Sita in the grove, comforts her and tells her Rama will soon come and
___ Years pass and Rama, Sita and Lakshman are very happy in the forest. One day a
rakshasa princess tries to seduce Rama, and Lakshmana wounds her and drives her
away. She returns to her brother Ravana, the ten-headed ruler of Lanka, and tells her
____ Rama frees Sita. After Sita proves here purity, they return to Ayodhya and Rama
becomes king. His rule, Ram-rajya, is an ideal time when everyone does his or her
dharma and "fathers never have to light the funeral pyres for their sons."
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___ Ravana's men capture Hanuman, and Ravana orders them to wrap Hanuman's tail
in cloth and to set it on fire. With his tail burning, Hanuman hops from house-top to
house-top, setting Lanka afire. He then flies back to Rama to tell him where Sita is.
Rama, Lakshman and the monkey army build a causeway from the tip of India to Lanka
and cross over to Lanka. A might battle ensues. Rama kills several of Ravana's
Group 2: Analyze the Actitude (Action/Attitude)
Fill out the Actitude Analysis below and discuss your analysis in front of the class.
Other groups are free to agree/ disagree on the answers of the group reporting in front of
the class.

Process for Actitude (Action/Attitude) Analysis
 First enumerate the attitudes/values of the characters revealed in the video
 Then write the corresponding actions/ practices that will serve as your evidences.
 Analyze everything and come up with the summary of your analysis.
Attitudes/Values Action/Practices
Actitude Analysis of...
Summary
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Group 3: Validate the Conflict
 Identify the conflict in the story “Ramayana”
 Do this through a graphic organizer, how the conflict shaped the course of the
story and how it was resolved.
CONFLICT
Resolution
How it shaped
the flow of the
play
How the
character deal
with it
Group 4: Examine the Theme
 Identify the theme of “Ramayana”
 Process the activity by answering the following questions.

1. What is the theme of the play?
2. What ideas lead you to identifying the theme?
3. How is the theme of Ramayana similar or different from the other themes of dramas/
movies you have watched on television?
4. What does this reveal of about Afro-Asian plays?
5. How does the theme affect you as a person?
6. Are you able to relate an experience, a thought or a personal feeling with the story?
Group 5: Make your Own Script
 In your own words, create a script of Ramayana.
 Check the script you will make with that on video. Go to the following link for the
video: http://www.bollydb.in/playvideo-k3lPGfvF2Bk.html
 Read dramatically your written script.
Recall the lines in the video clip, “The Ramayana.” Think about how Sita
felt when she said to Rama these lines:
"As shadow to substance, so wife to husband, is not the wife's dharma to
be at her husband's side? Let me walk ahead of you so that I may smooth the
path for your feet,"
If you were acting out a dialog, how would you convey Sita’s feeling as she
begged to accompany Rama to his retreat?
When people talk, can you guess how they feel and what their attitudes
are?

Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of a sound; stress or accent refers
to the greater or lesser force given to certain syllables or words; intonation
refers to the way the voice goes either up or down at the end of the sentence.
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A person who is in great fear may utter stressed sounds in a high pitch as when calls
out:
Fire! Look!
Help! Run!
A person who is embarrassed may stutter in a low pitch as when one says:
I’m s-s-s-sorry.
One who is doubtful may use a rising intonation for a statement as in:

Yoni holds office in this building?

One who scorns or wants to emphasize a place, person, or thing stresses a
demonstrative adjective before that noun, as in;

Yoni holds office in this building.

One who has self-confidence and poise may use a normal pitch, stress and
intonation pattern as in;

The battle began.

How can you identify a person’s attitudes and feelings?
You can identify attitudes and feelings by listening to the way a person speaks.
Activity 9: ORAL PRACTICE
Get a partner and take turns in reading and listening to the following
dialogs from The Ramayana. Identify the feeling expressed by your partner
1. "I gladly obey father's command," - Rama
2. "The eldest must rule, please come back and claim your rightful place as king." -
Bharata
3. “You must stand vigilant, guarding a sacrifice from demons for six days and seven
nights” – Visvamitra
4. “My husband, remember when I saved your life in the battlefield so many years ago?
And do you remember that you granted me two boons at that time. The time has
come for you to fulfill your promise!” – Kaikeyi
Did you make clear and interesting explanations about your answers in the
last activity? You will encounter more exercises about this topic in the
succeeding lessons.
Aside from using the proper stress and intonation, you can also improve
your skill in expressing your ideas clearly and interestingly by using a variety of
sentence structures.
You learned in your previous lessons that, sentences could be classified
into: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. If you are not sure
of the characteristics of each of these, here are key points to refresh your

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Kinds of Sentences According to Structure
A. Simple sentence – is a sentence with one independent clause and no
subordinate clause. It may contain two or more verbs or two or more
subjects connected by subordinators, but this does not alter the fact that only
Examples:
King Dasharata had four sons.
Lakshman and Shatrughna were twins.
King Dasharatha decides it is time to give his throne to Rama and retire to the forest.
Sita and Lakshman begged and convinced Rama to let them set out for the forest.
B. Compound Sentence – is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses
but no subordinate clauses. The clauses of a compound sentence may be separated by
semi-colons or commas followed by coordinating conjunctions; or semi-colons followed
by sentence connectors. You may separate the two main clauses of a compound
The most common coordinators are:
and or nor so but for yet

The most common sentence connectors are:
therefore moreover indeed while also hence
Examples:
Bharata begs Rama to return to the palace but the latter refuses.
Rama goes off to hunt the deer, while Lakshman draw a protective circle around Sita.
C. Complex Sentence - is a sentence containing one independent clause and at least
one subordinate clause.
Examples:
When Sita steps outside the circle, Ravana grabs her and carries her off to his kingdom
in Lanka.
Ravana’s men capture Hanuman before he could finish conversing with Sita.

D. Compound-Complex Sentence – contains two or more independent clauses and at
least one subordinate clause.
Examples:
The people who were in the kingdom are pleased with Rama , but Kaikeyi plotted an
evil plan against him.
Activity 10: SENTENCE STRUCTURE TEST
Read and analyze each sentence and write on the space before the number
whether the sentence is simple, compound, complex, or compound-
complex. Be prepared to explain your answer.
_____________ 1. After the supplies are delivered, Lucia and Shine will decorate the
Audio-Visual Room.
_____________ 2. We know that the English department has worked very hard, and we
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appreciate their efforts.
_____________ 3. If we start early, we can finish before noon.
_____________ 4. Arrange the props creatively and artistically.
_____________ 5. Somebody must stand at the door and collect the tickets.
_____________ 6. This presentation should be a success, because we have already sold
several hundred tickets.
_____________ 7. We have elected a king and a queen for the dance, and they will lead
the Grand March.
_____________ 8. The clean-up committee will report tomorrow at noon.
_____________ 9. Tess moves the table at the center.
Activity 11: WRITE A REFLECTION
Write a summary of the insights you have gained about the two characters in
“The Ramayana” . Use a mixture of simple, compound and complex
sentences to make your summary interesting.
1. Characterize Rama as a husband and Sita as a wife.
2. How did Sita show her love and devotion to her husband? How about Rama to his
wife?
3. What conclusion can you make about the Indian women and men of their time?
4. Do you see any similarities between Indian men and Filipino men? Or Indian women
Have you gathered enough information about India? Do you now
understand why Indians are said to be a remarkable people?
Now, we will talk about another country, Persia. Let’s try to know about
the Persians through their literature. One of the best Persian prose selections

Persian literature refers to the body of writings in Modern Persian, the form of
the Persian language that emerged in the 19
th
century, especially in north-
eastern Iran. The first writings in Modern Persian were in verse. As prose
translation from Arabic were made, improvements based on Arab literary conventions
and the use of literary devices, were introduced.
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam, which scattered philosophical quatrains of rare
music and charm, was written in answer to the many questions about life. What makes it
outstanding is the fact that these verses were written, not by a man of letters, but by a
famous mathematician and astronomer who lived in Persia in the eleventh century for the
readers of the western world.
Let’s try to find out the general mood or tone of the poem? Find the lines that
Background on Persian Literature
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Activity 12: BUILDING YOUR VOCABULARY
Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B.

A B
____1. turret a. a large inn
____2. anon b. soon
____3. vintage c. rundown
____4. caravanserai d. an earlier model
____5. battered e. projecting tower
The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam
Translated by Edward Fitzgerald
Wake!
For the Sun, who scattered into flight
The Stars before him from the Field of Night,
Drives Night along with them from Heav'n and strikes
The Sultán's Turret with a Shaft of Light.
And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before
Come, fill the Cup, and in the Fire of Spring
The Winter Garment of Repentance fling:
The Bird of Time has but a little way
To fly -- and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.
The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon
Turns Ashes -- or it prospers; and anon,
Like Snow upon the Desert's dusty Face
Lighting a little Hour or two -- is gone.
Think, in this batter'd Caravanserai
Whose Doorways are alternate Night and Day,
How Sultan after Sultan with his Pomp
Abode his Hour or two and went his way.
Ah, my Beloved, fill the Cup that clears
TO-DAY of past Regrets and future Fears:
To-morrow! Why, To-morrow I may be
Myself with Yesterday's Sev'n thousand Years.
For some we loved, the loveliest and the best
That from his Vintage rolling Time has prest,
Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before,
And one by one crept silently to rest
Ah, make the most of what we yet may spend,
Before we too into the Dust descend;
Dust into Dust, and under Dust, to lie,
Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and--sans End!
Oh threats of Hell and Hopes of Paradise!
One thing at least is certain--This Life flies:
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Let’s find out if you understand the poem through Reading Meaning into
Poetry.
Activity 13: READING MEANING INTO POETRY
Directions: Encircle the letter of the most appropriate meaning of each of
the following passages.
1. The Bird of Time has but a little way
To fly -- and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.
a. Life is short
b. Birds cannot fly for a long time.
c. Birds die fast.

2. The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon
Turns Ashes -- or it prospers;
a. Men’s desires either fail or suceed.
b. Men burn their hopes.
c. When men hope, their hurts burn.

3. How Sultan after Sultan with his Pomp
Abode his Hour or two and went his way.
a. No matter how rich a person is, time comes when he becomes poor.
b. Even rich men just live the life meant for them, then they die.
c. A rich man does not stay permanently in a palace.

4. Oh threats of Hell and Hopes of Paradise!
One thing at least is certain--This Life flies:
a. Life is destined for hell or paradise.
b. Everyone should think about hell and paradise.
c. Life on earth soon ends.

5. One thing is certain and the rest is lies;
The Flower that once is blown for ever dies.
a. All flowers die after it has bloomed.
Activity 14: WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND?
Identify what is the author’s concept of life and death. Answer this using a
concept map. See the sample on the next page.
The steps in doing a concept map
 Write the major idea at the center
 Encourage students to use their own words.
 Check to make sure the connections are valid and clear.
 Share your concept map to your classmates.
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Activity 15: WRITING AN EXPERIENCE
Directions: Choose a passage from the poem, “ The Rubaiyat of Omar
Khayam,” and write your reflections on it.
Example:
The Bird of Time has but a little way, To fly -- and Lo! the Bird is on the
Wing.
Pointers for writing a reflection
1. Interpret the meaning of the lines by paraphrasing or re-stating them.
2. Relate an experience in your life or observation around you that will help explain or
illustrate the meaning of the lines.
3. Conclude with your own view of the passage. Do you agree or believe in it? Is it an
As you go through your formal education, you will be expected to study or
do research work. Because of this, you will have to do a lot of reading and
learn how to read fast. One way to do fast reading is through scanning. To
scan is to move the eyes quickly down a page to find facts or details quickly.
Let’s try this one.

Activity 16: SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION
Directions: Scan the following passage and find the answers to the
following questions. Write your answers on the space provided.
1. What are inseparable in Asia?
__________________________________________________

2. What are regarded as valued “classical” traditions in Asia?
__________________________________________________
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3. What makes it difficult to draw a sharp borderline between and among dance,
ceremonies and rituals?
__________________________________________________

4. Why is Asia, called a treasury of traditions representing development of theatrical
performances?

Asian Traditional Theatre and Dance

1. The interrelatedness of drama, dance and music
In Asia, drama, dance and music are inseparable. Most of the traditional forms
of Asian performing art combine drama, dance and music into a kind of whole in
which it is difficult to draw a clear borderline between these art forms. Most of the
Asian traditions employ either dance or dance-like, stylized movements, while
movements are frequently interwoven with text. In addition to this, most of the
traditions are characterized by their own specific musical styles or genres. The acting
technique, which employs dance-like body language, is usually very intricate and it
demands many years of arduous training, as western ballet technique, for example,
does. Therefore in Asia it is simply not possible to classify stage arts as nonverbal
“dance” or “spoken theatre”.
2. The Interaction between “ Living Theatre” and Puppet Theatre
In Asia, puppet theatre and one of its variations, shadow theatre, are often
regarded as valued “classical” traditions. In Asia there are dozens of important forms
of puppet theatre. One could generalize that shadow theatre usually represents the
early strata of puppetry with a long history and religious or magical connotations. In
shadow theatre the silhouette-like figures are often cut from leather or other
transparent or semi-transparent materials and they are seen through a cloth screen
while manipulated by one or more puppeteers.
The interaction of puppet theatre and “living theatre” is one of the characteristics
of Asian theatrical traditions.
3. Relationship with Religion
In many of the Asian cultures, theatre and dance are still organically related
religions and other belief systems today. This deep intermingling of theatre, dance
and religion makes it difficult to draw a sharp borderline between dance, ceremonies
and rituals, as will be apparent later.
4. The Preservation of Ancient Forms
In Asia there is an abundance of theatrical traditions with histories of hundreds,
sometimes even thousands, of years in which the performance traditions with specific
acting techniques are also still preserved. This may be due to the deep
interrelationship with religion and rituals. Religious art tends to be conservative in
nature and changes of style are mainly avoided. Thus Asia is a treasury of traditions
representing different stages of the development of theatrical performances from
stone-age rituals to later, complex court performances and to modern, often western-
influenced styles.
Most of these traditions preserve not only a literary heritage, but also an acting
technique, costuming, masks, a make-up system etc. that have retained much of their
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At this point, has your knowledge of the traditions and values of selected
Afro-Asian counties increased? Are you now ready to modify your initial
answer to the focus question: As a Filipino, how can you better
understand your identity as an Asian?

Answer the Focus Question by giving your Revised Answer in the IRF grid based on
the things learned.
Initial Answer





Revised Answer





Final Answer






Hello there! Congratulations on making it this far. Now
that you know the important ideas/concepts about our topic,
let’s go deeper by moving on to the next level.
Your goal in this section is to enrich your understanding
on the topic. You have learned from the previous activities
that the traditions and values of people have come down to
us through oral language, literature, and in theatre and
dance. The Afro-Asian countries share some common
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Activity 17: CHECK AND BALANCE
Directions: What have you learned so far? Choose one Informative or
Literary text you took up in the previous lesson. Write four reasons for
choosing it. Plot them on the chart below and answer the questions that
Title of Informative/Literary Text

1. Indian Culture 4. The Ramayana
2. The Prophet by Khalil Gibran 5. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam
Title of
Informative/
Literary Text
Reason

Reason

Reason

Reason

1. How do these informative/literary texts help you understand the different
traditions and values of Afro-Asian countries?
2. In what manner do these informative / literary texts help you understand your
identity as an Asian?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Continue sharing your knowledge and views with others through this
activity. What would you do if you were in these situations?
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Do the following group tasks. Decide an action if you were in these
situations:


Group 1: Deciding whether to take your parents order in choosing a course or not.
Group 2: Letting go of a friend due to some conflicts
Group 3: Staying away from peers due to family pressure
Group 4: Deciding whether to stay and live in the city or province.
Group 5: Deciding whether to live independently or to stay with parents after
Activity 18: REAL LIFE SITUATIONS
You are about to read another literary work, this time a play entitled
“ Shakuntala” . This play was written by a well known poet Kalidasa. What
do you know about him?
Before you start reading “ Shakuntala” , try to unlock some vocabulary
words found in the selection.

Activity 19: VOCABULARY TEST
Directions: Choose the word from the word pool which means the same
as the word or words in parentheses.
heralds curse

hesitate ashram

apparently dynasty

garland blurs
(1) An ___________________ (abode, refuge) is the home of the family – the basic
unit of society. It is from the family that individuals come to birth and it is within the family
that they find the first school of the social virtues that are important to build a society. (2)
_______________ (obviously) parents are the first teachers.
Every child is a gift to its brothers, sisters, parents and entire family. They say a good
child is a (3) _____________ (wreath of flowers) that brings honor to the parents while a
black sheep is a (4) _____________ (damnation), but nevertheless, the child is loved
and cared for.
In most cases the family (5) ____________ (announces) progress and strives to
contribute to national development. Family members don’t (6) ___________ (waver) to
pursue fields of endeavor that would bring them honor and glory. Take for example the
political (7) ___________ (ancestry lines of hereditary rulers) we have in the country.
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Read the selection silently. Then, choose the character you prefer and read
Shakuntala by Kalidasa (Act IV)
(excerpts)

Sharngarava (listening to the song of koïl-birds).
Father,
The trees are answering your prayer
In cooing cuckoo-song,
Bidding Shakuntala farewell,
Their sister for so long.
Invisible beings.
May lily-dotted lakes delight your eye;
May shade-trees bid the heat of noonday cease;
May soft winds blow the lotus-pollen nigh;
May all your path be pleasantness and peace.
(All listen in astonishment.)
Gautami.
My child, the fairies of the pious grove bid you farewell. For they love the household.
Pay reverence to the holy ones.
Shakuntala (does so. Aside to PRIYAMVADA).
Priyamvada, I long to see my husband, and yet my feet will hardly move. It is hard,
hard to leave the hermitage.
Priyamvada.
You are not the only one to feel sad at this farewell. See how the whole grove feels
at parting from you.
The grass drops from the feeding doe;
The peahen stops her dance;
Pale, trembling leaves are falling slow,
The tears of clinging plants.
Shakuntala(recalling something).
Father, I must say good-bye to the spring-creeper, my sister among the vines.
Kanva.
I know your love for her. See! Here she is at your right hand.
Shakuntala (approaches the vine and embraces it).
Vine sister, embrace me too with your arms, these branches. I shall be far away
from you after to-day. Father, you must care for her as you did for me.
Kanva.
My child, you found the lover who
Had long been sought by me;
No longer need I watch for you;
I’ll give the vine a lover true,
This handsome mango-tree.
And now start on your journey.
Shakuntala (going to the two friends).
Dear girls, I leave her in your care too.
The two friends.
But who will care for poor us? (They shed tears.)
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Kanva.
Anusuya! Priyamvada! Do not weep. It is you who should cheer Shakuntala. (All walk
about.)
Shakuntala.
Father, there is the pregnant doe, wandering about near the cottage. When she
becomes a happy mother, you must send some one to bring me the good news.
Do not forget.
Kanva.
I shall not forget, my child.
Shakuntala (stumbling).
Oh, oh! Who is it that keeps pulling at my dress, as if to hinder me? (She turns round
to see.)
Kanva.
It is the fawn whose lip, when torn
By kusha-grass, you soothed with oil;
The fawn who gladly nibbled corn
Held in your hand; with loving toil
You have adopted him, and he
Would never leave you willingly.
Shakuntala.
My dear, why should you follow me when I am going away from home? Your mother
died when you were born and I brought you up. Now I am leaving you, and Father
Kanva will take care of you. Go back, dear! Go back! (She walks away, weeping.)
Kanva.
Do not weep, my child. Be brave. Look at the path before you.
Be brave, and check the rising tears
That dim your lovely eyes;
Your feet are stumbling on the path
That so uneven lies.
Sharngarava.
Holy Father, the Scripture declares that one should accompany a departing loved one
only to the first water. Pray give us your commands on the bank of this pond, and
then return.
Kanva.
Then let us rest in the shade of this fig-tree. (All do so.) What commands would it be
fitting for me to lay on King Dushyanta? (He reflects.)
Anusuya.
My dear, there is not a living thing in the whole hermitage that is not grieving to-day at
saying good-bye to you. Look!
The sheldrake does not heed his mate
Who calls behind the lotus-leaf;
He drops the lily from his bill
And turns on you a glance of grief.
Kanva.
Son Sharngarava, when you present Shakuntala to the king, give him this message
from me.
Remembering my religious worth,
Your own high race, the love poured forth
By her, forgetful of her friends,
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Pay her what honour custom lends
To all your wives. And what fate gives
Beyond, will please her relatives.
Sharngarava.
I will not forget your message, Father.
Kanva (turning to SHAKUNTALA).
My child, I must now give you my counsel. Though I live in the forest, I have some
knowledge of the world.
Sharngarava.
True wisdom, Father, gives insight into everything.
Kanva.
My child, when you have entered your husband’s home,
Obey your elders; and be very kind
To rivals; never be perversely blind
And angry with your husband, even though he
Should prove less faithful than a man might be;
Be as courteous to servants as you may,
Not puffed with pride in this your happy day:
Thus does a maiden grow into a wife;
But self-willed women are the curse of life.
But what does Gautami say?
Gautami.
This is advice sufficient for a bride. (To SHAKUNTALA.) You will not forget, my child.
Kanva.
Come, my daughter, embrace me and your friends.
Shakuntala.
Oh, Father! Must my friends turn back too?
Kanva.
My daughter, they too must someday be given in marriage. Therefore they may not
go to court. Gautami will go with you.
Shakuntala (throwing her arms about her father).
I am torn from my father’s breast like a vine stripped from a sandal-tree on the
Malabar hills. How can I live in another soil? (She weeps.)
Kanva.
My daughter, why distress yourself so?
A noble husband’s honourable wife,
You are to spend a busy, useful life
In the world’s eye; and soon, as eastern skies
Bring forth the sun, from you there shall arise
A child, a blessing and a comfort strong—
You will not miss me, dearest daughter, long.
Shakuntala (falling at his feet).
Farewell, Father.
Kanva.
My daughter, may all that come to you which I desire for you.
Shakuntala (going to her two friends).
Come, girls! Embrace me, both of you together.
The two friends (do so).
Dear, if the good king should perhaps be slow to recognise you, show him the ring
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with his own name engraved on it.
Shakuntala.
Your doubts make my heart beat faster.
The two friends.
Do not be afraid, dear. Love is timid.
Sharngarava (looking about).
Father, the sun is in midheaven. She must hasten.
Shakuntala (embracing KANVA once more).
Father, when shall I see the pious grove again?
Kanva.
My daughter, When you have shared for many years
The king’s thoughts with the earth,
When to a son who knows no fears
You shall have given birth,
When, trusted to the son you love,
Your royal labours cease,
Come with your husband to the grove
And end your days in peace.
Gautami.
My child, the hour of your departure is slipping by. Bid your father turn back. No, she
would never do that. Pray turn back, sir.
Kanva.
Child, you interrupt my duties in the pious grove.
Shakuntala.
Yes, Father. You will be busy in the grove. You will not miss me. But oh! I miss you.
Kanva.
How can you think me so indifferent? (He sighs.)
My lonely sorrow will not go,
For seeds you scattered here
Before the cottage door, will grow;
And I shall see them, dear.
Go. And peace go with you. (Exit SHAKUNTALA, with GAUTAMI, SHARNGARAVA, and
SHARADVATA.)
The two friends(gazing long after her. Mournfully).
Oh, oh! Shakuntala is lost among the trees.
Kanva.
Anusuya! Priyamvada! Your companion is gone. Choke down your grief and follow
me. (They start to go back.)
The two friends.
Let’s try to figure out if you understand the selection. Do the following
activities as you go deeper in your search for knowledge.
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Activity 20a: CHARACTER MAP
Directions: Do the following tasks below. Use the character map to answer
this activity.
1. Describe Shakuntala as a daughter, as a sister and as a friend.
2. Describe Kanva as a father.
3. Cite proof/evidence to your answer.
Proofs/
Evidences
Name of the
Character
Descriptions
Activity 20b: ACTIVE KNOWLEDGE-SHARING
Directions: Participate in the class discussion by answering the following
questions. Write your answers on the space provided.
1. How is Kanva similar to most fathers nowadays?
____________________________________________________________________

2. What advice did he give his daughter in her relation with her husband, her husband’s
family, the people around her?
____________________________________________________________________

3. As described in the excerpt what is the concept regarding the role of a woman as
bride?
____________________________________________________________________

4. What Indian traditions and values were mentioned in the story? Relate it to Filipino
traditions and values.
____________________________________________________________________

5. Go over the text again and list down common practices that we still observe nowadays.
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Activity 21: CHARACTER’S EMOTIONS
Directions: Pick one line of a character from the story and deliver it

ANASUYA: Even people ignorant of wordly affairs would say
that the King had not behaved like a gentleman towards
Shakuntala. (Complaining)

SHAKUNTALA: So I became bride again. I will never have
friends like you. (She drops tears)


PRIYAMVADA: Anasuya, hurry. We are arranging for the
departure of Shakuntala. (With Joy)


KANVA: How grief weakens me when I see all those grains
you scattered in offering of the cottage door sprouting! Go
now! God be with you on your journey. (Sighing with grief)
Examples:
Activity 22: READERS CIRCLE
Directions: Group into five and write your interpretation of the following
excerpts in depth using the Readers Circle Strategy. Read, discuss and
respond to the dialog assigned to your group. Choose a representative to
Process for the Readers Circle Strategy
 Be sure to work with your members.
 Assign roles to your members (clarifier, summariser, timekeeper etc).
 Analyse the assigned text/lines to your group.
 Prepare for your roles in the circle.
 Assign your facilitator to a circle.
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Group 1. Priyamvada:

You are not the only one to feel sad at this farewell.
See how the whole grove feels at parting from you.
The grass drops from the feeding doe;
The peahen stops her dance;
Pale, trembling leaves are falling slow,
The tears of clinging plants.

Group 2. Kanva:

Do not weep, my child. Be brave.
Look at the path before you.
Be brave, and check the rising tears
That dim your lovely eyes;
Your feet are stumbling on the path
That so uneven lies.

Group 3. Kanva:

My child, when you have entered your husband’s home,
Obey your elders; and be very kind
To rivals; never be perversely blind
And angry with your husband, even though he
Should prove less faithful than a man might be;
Be as courteous to servants as you may,
Not puffed with pride in this your happy day:
Thus does a maiden grow into a wife;
But self-willed women are the curse of life.
But what does Gautami say?

Group 4. Shakuntala:

I am torn from my father’s breast like a vine stripped
From a sandal-tree on the Malabar hills.
How can I live in another soil? (She weeps.)

Group 5. Kanva:

So love interprets. (He walks about, sunk in thought.)
Ah! I have sent Shakuntala away, and now I am myself again.
For a girl is held in trust, another’s treasure;
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Yes No Sometimes Evidence
Everyone participates and shares in
the discussion process.
Communication is interactive.

The group is supportive of their
individual members. Group climate
promotes friendliness.

Group members often ask
questions for clarification or
elaboration.

The group discussion stays on topic
or on directly related issues.

The group is energetic and
enthusiastic.

Self and Peer Assessment Sheet
Activity 23: SKETCH TO STRETCH
Directions: Sketch the topic assigned to your group in order to “stretch” or
broaden and deepen your imagination, ideas or concepts.
Group1: Draw a comics strips narrating the story
Shakuntala.

Group2: Draw an illustration of the characters
mentioned in the selection.

Group 3: Reveal the theme of the story through a
collage.

Group 4: Have a visual presentation of the setting of the
story.

Group 5: Illustrate the traditions and values revealed in
the selection.
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1. What new realizations do you have about the traditions of Afro-Asian?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2. What similarities do you find between your values as a Filipino and the values of other
Afro-Asian countries discussed in lessons 1 to 3? How did you feel about it?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3. Do you see the significance of studying the traditions and values of other Afro-Asian
countries? Explain your answer.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Activity 24: THINK PAIR
Directions: Answer the following questions with a help of a partner. Write
your answers on the space provided.
At last, you are now ready to give your final answer to the focus
question “ How can you better understand your identity as an Asian?”
Write your Final answer in the IRF grid below.

Initial Answer


Revised Answer


Final Answer



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In this final phase of the lesson, your goal is to apply your
learning to real life situations. You will be given a practical task
which will demonstrate your understanding of the lesson.
Right from the start of Lesson 1 you have been gathering
facts and opinions about the traditions and values of people
from selected Afro-Asian countries. You have discovered also
that the literature of these countries is a great tool in
understanding their beliefs and customs.
Furthermore, the previous lessons taught you how to write
an informative paragraph that leads you to have your own
informative article. Also, you were given a chance to write your
own brochure.
This time, your target is to make a write-up promoting the informative and creative
exhibit you will put up. This exhibit should showcase the traditions and values of selected
Afro-Asian countries.
How to Write an Event Proposal
Instructions
1. Write an introduction. Indicate the purpose of the event proposal. Mention
prior contact with the recipient or how you learned about the project. Say
something encouraging about your company or the project and give an
overview of the proposal's contents.
2. Discuss the background. State the problem or opportunity that has brought
about this event proposal.
3. Briefly state what it is you are proposing to do.
4. Discuss the benefits or advantages of doing the project.
5. Discuss how you will go about the event and what concepts or theory is
involved.
6. Discuss or describe what the finished product will look like and how will it
work.
7. Make a statement of feasibility or possible outcome of the proposal. Describe
the full benefits of the event.
8. Provide a schedule, timeline or list of project "milestones" for the project. If
you cannot cite specific dates for completion of key project phases, estimate
Source: How to Write an Event Proposal | eHow.com
http://www.ehow.com/how_6115264_write-event-proposal.html#ixzz2ByM9uEwM
Activity 25: TAKE MY PROPOSAL
Directions: You have learned how to write an event proposal from the
guidelines above. You will try your knowledge of the steps by doing the
given exercise. Consider the scenario below:
You are the event organizer in your company. You have been asked to run a
concert for a fund raising project of a certain foundation. Your target is to invite
sponsors who will support your project. As part of your preparation for the event, is
to write an event proposal. This letter will be distributed to all the prospect
sponsors.
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1. Title Information:
 The title of the document should be centered in bold letters at the top of the page
and should say something such as "LETTER OF INTENT."
 On a line underneath, type what type of intent the letter is for, i.e., "Park
Enhancement Grant Program."
 On the left-hand side of the page, begin with the date. It's best to write the date
out. For example, write "August 21, 2012", instead of using, "09/21/12", which
tends to look less professional.

2. Address Information:
 The address and title information should be typed professionally and correctly. If
you are addressing the letter to J ohn Dela Cruz, you would address it to, "Mr. J ohn
Dela Cruz". If the letter is sent in care of a second person, you would add that
underneath in the following format:
Mr. J ohn Dela Cruz
c/o Cherry De Vera
 The name of the addressee's organization or company goes on the line below with
the address following. For example:
Mr. J ohn Dela Cruz
c/o Cherry De Vera
Department of Parks and Recreation
Pearl Drive, Ortigas, Pasig City
 Then type in the regarding line, i.e., "RE: PEG Letter of Intent." And type in the
"dear" line. For example, "Dear Mr. Dela Cruz".

3. Letter Body
 Keep paragraphs short and concise. Begin the letter with something such as, "I
submit this letter of intent to notify the Department of Parks and Recreation of
[enter name of organization here]'s intent to submit a proposal for..." Add the
remaining information and end the first paragraph here.
 In the second paragraph, talk about your organization's intent and give a brief
description of the improvement or whatever the intent is. If you are speaking of a
specific park or organization, use proper names.
 In the final paragraph, let the reader know who your representative will be. For
example, "[Name] will be our main point of contact for the purposes of the
application process and can be reached at:"
 use a bulleted list for the contact information. For example:
 Mailing Address
 Phone Number
 E-mail Address
 In the final paragraph, thank the reader for the opportunity to participate in
whatever program to which you are applying. Complete and sign the letter as
follows:
This is how you will write your event proposal:
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Assessment
The following criteria will be used in evaluating your event proposal:

1. Proper Business Letter Format (5 points)
 Heading, inside address, salutation, body, closing, etc. are present.

2. Focused Body Paragraphs (5 points)
 Distinct claims in each body paragraph explaining your project’s origins and goals
are evident.

3. Specific Details (5 points)
 Specific details in each body paragraph are provided. It doesn’t just summarize
and generalize.

4. Polished (5 points)
 The errors are checked thoroughly. There is a signature.

5. Passion (5 points)
 Demonstrated a choice of project that reflects your passions and future goals.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Were you successful in writing your event proposal? Why do you say so?
2. What difficulty did you encounter in writing your letter of proposal? What did
you do about it?
3. Do you think your output meets the criteria for assessing an event proposal?
The planning process takes time and should not be rushed, that is why
it is a good idea to begin this as early as possible. The plan of action and
schedule will then be drawn up based on the ideas created by your class
and will be used on the day of the event.

How are you going to do this? There are many creative ways on how to
put up an exhibit. Take a look at this.
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Putting up an exhibition, whether it is a large event or a small activity, can be
stressful thing to organize and run on. Here are some of the important aspects
to consider in putting up an informative and creative exhibit:

1. Find the right equipment to put up a good display and promoting the exhibit. Many
people will have been to exhibitions for various and will have noticed that in these
events the key to a successful exhibition is promotion and communication.

2. Plan carefully where you will place each unit, making sure that the people are able to
see and understand what is being displayed (products, leaflets, brochures, booklets,
prototypes, samples, pictures etc.)

3. Choose a theme. It’s not enough to simply have lots of artwork you’d like to exhibit; in
order to tie each piece together, you need to come up with a focus.

4. Advertise the exhibition. Consider doing press releases. Put up posters around local
art schools, universities, trendy areas, cafes, clubs, or even the supermarket bulletin
boards. Get in touch with local newspapers and tell them about the upcoming
exhibition.

5. Entertain with food and drink. If you can afford it, offer beverages such as champagne,
wine or juice, along with finger food or buffet. Or reserve this just for the opening night
or morning to share among those who come to an invitation-only opening.

How to Put Up the Best Exhibition Display
Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/marketing-articles/how-to-put-up-the-best-
exhibition-display-526499.html
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Do you find it easy to put up an exhibit?
2. What important things have to be considered in putting up an informative and
creative exhibit?
3. What skills and attitudes do you need to come up with an exhibit?
You are now ready to perform your practical task in this lesson. You are
on your own to figure out which of the skills you learned in the previous
activities would you use to meet the standards in this given task.
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Activity 26: GRASP YOUR PERFORMANCE
Your city is hosting the 1
st
Asia-Africa Cultural Summit.
As the spearhead of the promotional activities for the event, the City
Tourism Council intends to put up an exhibit dubbed as “ Taste Asia,
Taste Africa” as a welcome treat to the summit delegates.
As the well acclaimed group of event organizers in the city, you
have been tapped to prepare the exhibit showcasing the different
traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries.
Your output will be evaluated based on the quality of information presented,
creativity, relevance to the theme and visual impact.
TASK

Goal:
To showcase the different cultures of selected Afro-Asian countries in an exhibit

Differentiated Roles:
You are:
 event organizers who will prepare a detailed plan of the event
 advertisers/entrepreneurs who will design flyers/brochures for the event including
the agro-industrial products of Afro-Asian countries
 * artists who (1) will dress up like mannequins dressed in traditional Afro-Asian
costumes and will move and talk at the drop of a coin (fund-raising) and (2)
prepare slide/video presentation on the traditional music and dance of Afro-Asian
countries
 chefs who will feature the best Afro-Asian cuisines through make-believe/real
cooking demonstration
 event hosts who will write script for the presentation of the exhibits in coordination
with the events’ organizers

Audience:
*The target audience is foreign and local tourists.

Situation:
The City Tourism Council will launch the “Taste Asia, Taste Africa: A Cultural
Awareness Program” as part of its information campaign for the “One ASEAN” advocacy.
Your group is tasked to present an exhibit of Afro-Asian cuisine, traditional music and
fashion, and agro-industrial products.

Product:
You need to put up an informative and creative exhibit showcasing the different
traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries.
Directions: Read the task below. In your group, discuss and plan on how
you will prepare your exhibit. The rubric for grading is provided here to
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Rubric of the “ Taste Asia, Taste Africa Exhibit
CRITERIA Outstanding
4
Satisfactory
3
Developing
2
Beginning
1
RATING
Organization/
Collaboration

All members
contribute in
the completion
of the
assigned task.
Most of the
members
contribute in the
completion of
the assigned
task.
Some
members
contribute in
the
completion of
the assigned
task.
Few
members
contribute
in the
completion
of the
assigned
task.

Content/
Information
presented

Presentation of
information is
in-depth and
comprehensiv
e and strongly
adheres to the
theme.
Presentation of
information
includes
essential
knowledge
about Afro-
Asian countries
and adheres to
the theme
Presentation
of information
Includes
essential
knowledge
about Afro-
Asian
countries but
there are 1 to
2 factual
errors and
inadequately
adheres to the
theme.
Content is
minimal or
there are
several
factual
errors and
does not
adhere to
the theme.

Creativity


Exhibit makes
excellent use
of effects,
style, and
artistry to
enhance the
content.
Exhibit makes
use of effects,
style and
artistry to
enhance the
content.
Exhibit makes
use of effects
and style to
enhance the
exhibit but
occasionally
distract the
content.
Exhibit
uses
effects and
style to
enhance
the exhibit
but these
often
distract the
content

Audience
impact


Presentation is
well rehearsed
with smooth
delivery that
holds audience
attention.
Presentation is
rehearsed with
fairly smooth
delivery that
holds audience
attention most
of the time.
Delivery is not
smooth but is
able to
maintain
interest of the
audience
most the time.
Delivery is
not smooth
and
audience
attention is
often lost.

TOTAL
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How’s your experience in doing your final task?
2. Did you find the skills you have learned previously helpful in doing this task?
Why?
3. What important insights did you gain from doing this practical task?
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Assessment – evaluation of something based from its worth of importance.
Cluster – small group or bunch of something.
Collocations – are two or more words that often go together.
Context clues – information (such as a definition, synonym, antonym, or example) that
appears near a word or phrase and offers direct or indirect suggestions about its
meaning.
Exhibit – an object or collection displayed to the public.
Graphic organizer – visual artistic representation of information gathered.
Juncture – the set of features in speech that enable a hearer to detect a word or phrase
boundary.
Literature – the body of written works of a language, period or culture.
Proposal – a proposed plan.
Reflection – a thoughtful idea or remark.
Resolution – a formal statement of opinion.
Script – a copy of the text of a play, film, etc.
Transcode – to put all the things learned from a text to a concept map.
Validate – to prove to be valid, to authenticate.
Video clip – a clip containing images and sounds.
Books

Bermudez, Virginia, et.al. English Expressways II. Quezon City: SD Publications, Inc. 2007.
Delos Reyes, Rosemarie R. et.al. English_Com. II. Quezon City: Bookman Inc. 2004.
Fernando, J ovita et.al. College Freshman English. Caloocan City: Philippine Graphic Arts,
Inc. 1973.
Lapid, Milagros G. and J osephine B. Serrano. English Comunication Arts and Skills
Through Afro-Asian Literature (6
th
Edition). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. 2010.
Ponce de leon- Ladena, Helen, et.al . Dimensions in Learning English II. Quezon City: Rex
Publishing Company Inc. 2002.
Rodriguez, Lorna C. Worktext in English I. Lipa City: United Eferza Academic Publications,
Co. 2010.
Teaching Guide English II. 2010 SEC: Bureau of Secondary Education, Department of
Education. 2011.
Websites

Afro-Asian Traditional Dances. Retrieved November 15, 2012
https://www.google.com.ph/search?
hl=fil&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=643&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=traditional+dances+of+AFRO-
ASIAN&oq=traditional+dances+of+AFRO-
ASIAN&gs_l=img.12...0.0.1.4927.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0...0.0...1c.ItzBPBMDhOQ&bav=on.
2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&emsg=NCSR&noj=1&ei=dTX9UOO8BY6QiQfBhIGQDA
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The Prophet by Kahlil Gibran. On Work. Retrieved November 21, 2012
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jrcole/gibran/prophet/prophet.htm

Differentiated Learning Rubric. Retrieved December 5, 2012 from Maxine website:
http://atozteacherstuff.com/pdf.htm?rubric_differentiated.pdf

Ramayana: Summary. Retrieved December 7, 2012
http://www.mythome.org/RamaSummary.html

English - Mythology Stories - Animated Story For Kids. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3lPGfvF2Bk

Asian Traditional Theatre and Dance. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
http://www.xip.fi/atd/introduction/introduction.html

Philippine Dances. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
http://www.google.com.ph/search?
q=traditional+dances+of+filipino&hl=fil&biw=1366&bih=643&prmd=imvns&source=lnms
&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=CKKKUNeZDdHirAeumIHYBw&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ

Shakuntala by Kalidasa (Act IV). Retrieved December 6, 2012.
http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%
3Ftitle=1261&chapter=77399&layout=html&Itemid=27

Writing an Event Proposal. Retrieved December 6,2012.
http://www.ehow.com/how_6115264_write-event-proposal.html#ixzz2ByM9uEwM

Letter of Intent. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
http://www.ehow.com/way_5348161_example-letter-intent-proposal.html#ixzz2BylfJ tQv

Sample Exhibit. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
http://www.google.com/search?
q=informative+and+creative+exhibit&hl=en&tbo=d&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=b
EegUMjLKaeCiQfRqoDwDg&sqi=2&ved=0CAQQ_AUoAA&biw=1366&bih=643#hl=en&
tbo=d&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Afro-Asian+exhibit&oq=Afro-
Asian+exhibit&gs_l=img.12...472570.473837.0.477434.25.7.0.0.0.1.3207.6311.9-
2.2.0...0.0...1c.1.dqEfnO1v-
34&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=b9f3c05734f0b8b7&bpcl=38093640&biw=1
366&bih=643

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Hello, young explorers! You have just finished your wonderful journey of
Searching for Knowledge. You were able to armed yourself with map as you
did your Quest for Knowledge, a compass as you visited selected Afro-Asian
countries to Build up your Knowledge Bank and you did not forget to use your
magnifying lens as you highlighted your significant discoveries and Shared
what you Learned.
Well done young explorers! All the pieces of literature you studied and all
the activities you successfully accomplished developed and improved not only
your skills but you’re your attitudes, habits and appreciations.
Congratulations! Are you ready to take another trip? Let’s find out if you’re
ready for the next learning adventure. Answer the following post-assessment

Let’s find out how much you have learned on this module. Choose the letter that you
think best answers the question. Remember to answer all items. Write the answers in your
notebook. After taking this short test, your answers will be checked to find out your score.
Read this folk literature from China and answer the questions that follow. Circle the
Tiki-Tiki Tembo
A Chinese Folktale
Once upon a time in faraway China there lived two brothers, one named Sam, and one
named TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom
Nikki No Meeno Dom Barako.
Now one day the two brothers were playing near the well in their garden when Sam fell
into the well, and TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai
PomPom Nikki No Meeno Dom Barako ran to his mother, shouting, "Quick, Sam has fallen
into the well. What shall we do?"
"What?" cried the mother, "Sam has fallen into the well? Run and tell father!"
Together they ran to the father and cried, "Quick, Sam has fallen into the well. What
shall we do?"
"Sam has fallen into the well?" cried the father. "Run and tell the gardner!"
Then they all ran to the gardner and shouted, "Quick, Sam has fallen into the well.
What shall we do?"
"Sam has fallen into the well?" cried the gardner, and then he quickly fetched a ladder
and pulled the poor boy from the well, who was wet and cold and frightened, and ever so
happy to still be alive.
Some time afterward the two brothers were again playing near the well, and this time
TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki No
Meeno Dom Barako fell into the well, and Sam ran to his mother, shouting, "Quick,
TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki No
Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into the well. What shall we do?"
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"What?" cried the mother, "TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem
Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki No Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into the well? Run and tell
father!"
Together they ran to the father and cried, "Quick, TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari
Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki No Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into the
well. What shall we do?"
"TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki
No Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into the well?" cried the father. "Run and tell the
gardner!"
Then they all ran to the gardner and shouted, "Quick, TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari
Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki No Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into
the well. What shall we do?"
"TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do Hai Kai PomPom Nikki
No Meeno Dom Barako has fallen into the well?" cried the gardner, and then he quickly
fetched a ladder and pulled TikkiTikkiTembo No SarimboHari Kari Bushkie Perry Pem Do
1. In the folktale, one of the brothers died. What could have caused the death of the
boy: Tiki-tiki?
a. The gardener didn’t come at once.
b. Sam failed to tell their parents of Tiki-tiki’s situation immediately.
c. The boy was not the family’s favourite.
d. The boy had a long name.

2. What particular characteristic of the Chinese could be inferred from this story?
a. Ancient Chinese could be humorous as reflected in their folktales.
b. Ancient Chinese depended on house help as in this folktale.
c. Ancient Chinese loved to tell stories of adventure
d. Ancient Chinese wrote short stories with complicated plot

3-4. Use this sentence to answer the questions 3 and 4.
“ I don’t think he should get the job”

3. Using the above sentence, where should you put the emphasis if what you mean is
“ He should get another job“
a. job
b. that
c. should
d. he

4. What important point is revealed in question number 3?
a. True meaning of the sentence can be expressed through the stressed word or
words.
b. True meaning of the sentence can be expressed through its length.
c. True meaning of the sentence can be expressed in different word or words.
d. There are different meanings behind the word or words.

5. You are in Iran you were able to witness the desire of an Iranian to give thanks
through a celebration because of a certain fulfillment/ achievement. He will slaughter
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a sheep for that special occasion, what common practice of Persian is reflected ?
a. He will offer the sheep to the church
b. He will give divide the meat to all of his neighbors
c. He will cook the meat and ask his neighbors to go to his house and eat with
him.
d. He will cook the meat and celebrate alone

6. In your literature class, your performance task is to make an adaptation of
Mahabharata. For you to be able to show the adaptation clearly and effectively, what is
the possible output you could have for this project?
a. Make your own version of the story
b. Have a photocopy of the story
c. Prepare a drama presentation of Mahabharata
d. Write a slogan about the story

7. In most Chinese and J apanese folktales, there would oftentimes be the presence of a
loving mother or father and a dutiful son or daughter. What does it say about the
Chinese or J apanese values?
a. Family is always right
b. Chinese and J apanese children are dependent on their parents
c. Family is important.
d. Chinese and J apanese parents are protective of their children

8. The J apanese Tea ceremony is a cultural tradition that originated in China. Before the
ceremony begins, the host cleans the serving bowls, boils water, prepares a sweet
treat for the guests, and then mixes the tea in front of the guests. What characteristics
of the J apanese may be reflected on this ceremony?
a. They consider their guests as very important people.
b. They are service oriented people.
c. They drink their tea only in the company of friends.
d. They want to impress their guests.

9. Anyone who can read either the Chinese or J apanese language can usually see the
similarities between the characters and interpret the text. The J apanese written
language is derived from the Chinese language. This style of J apanese writing is
referred to as Kanji. We can now assume that:
a. Chinese and J apanese understand the spoken and written language.
b. Chinese and J apanese understand the written language but not the spoken
language.
c. Chinese and J apanese understand the spoken but not the written language.
d. Chinese and J apanese do not understand the spoken and written language.

10. You are a researcher from the Department of Tourism. You are tasked to gather
information about Asians’ ways of living, style of dressing up, eating, expressing their
faith, courtship and beliefs. You want the public especially the non-Asians to be
familiar with those things so that they could understand them better. What will be the
focus of your research?
a. history
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b. customs
c. economics
d. politics

11. You are tasked by the organizers of the Ms. Philippines’ search to formulate one
question for the Q & A portion. Each candidate will be asked a question. Based on
what you have learned in your Language class, what could be the best question that
you could ask the candidates?
a. If you won in this pageant, what would you initially do?
b. If you were to change something about this pageant, would that be and why?
c. If you were to sacrifice one thing for the pageant, what would it be and why?
d. If you were to judge this pageant, which criterion would have the highest
bearing? Why?

The tea ceremony is a practice in J apan. There are steps that the host follows. First,
before the ceremony begins, the host cleans the serving bowls. Next, he boils water. Then
he prepares a sweet treat for the guests. Lastly, he mixes the tea in front of the guests.

12. How are the ideas in the paragraph organized?
a. cause effect
b. descriptive
c. chronological sequence
d. simple listing

13-16. Choose the appropriate conjunction to complete the sentence.
a. and
b. but
c. therefore
d. however

13. They worked rapidly ___ carefully.
14. We sang ____ danced heartily.
15. She was here yesterday; _____, I didn’t talk to her.
16. She is absent;____, I can’t talk to her.

17-20. Identify the sentence according to its structure. Choose the letter of your answer.
a. simple
b. compound
c. complex
d. compound-complex

116
Learning Module for English - Grade 8
H
ave you ever wondered how is to see different nationalities all in one place?
How will you differentiate a Filipino from the rest? How will you know if
someone is a Korean, J apanese, or a Chinese when all of them look the
same?
In this module, you will find out about Afro-Asian people. How are they similar or
different from one another? You will also discover that although they are of different
races, in many ways, you are like them as they are like you.
In the process, you will ask yourself, how is it possible that people do not know
one another and yet they are related? Is it possible that you have the same ancestors
or blood lines, no matter how remote they are? Is it possible to be united even when
In this module, your learning will be maximized as you take the following lessons:
 Lesson 1 – Tracing Our Roots
 Lesson 2 – Revisiting the Richness of Our Past
 Lesson 3 – Appreciating Our Origin

Specifically for Module 2, you will learn the following:
 Identify strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence
structures to arrive at meanings
 Identify the derivation of words
 Define words from contexts and through word analysis (affixes)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary difficulties
 Show understanding of the text through paraphrasing
 Show understanding and appreciation for the different Asian literary texts
 Point out the elements of plays and playlets
 Determine the author’s tone and purpose for writing the literary text
The learner demonstrates understanding of how Afro-Asian Literature and other
text types equip him/her with communication skills that lead to embracing diverse
cultural heritage.
The learner performs an interactive human exhibit of Afro-Asian literary
characters.
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 Point out how the choice of title, space allotment, imagery, choice of words,
figurative language, and the like contribute to the theme
 Transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice- versa
 Employ concept mapping
 Use non-linear texts outlines and notes as aids in the preparation of a research
paper
 Use coordinators
 Utilize appropriate idioms
 Acknowledge citations by indicating bibliography sources used
 Observe correct format in bibliography sources used
 Use writing conventions to acknowledge resources
 Employ appropriate listening skills when listening to descriptive and long narrative
texts
 Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television
 Listen for clues to determine pictorial representation of what is talked about in a
listening text
 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue that relates to the
community
 Ask for and give information, express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes
explicitly and implicitly in an informative talk
 Make inquiries
 Give information obtained from mass media
 Highlight important points in an informative talk using multimedia resources
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary difficulties
 Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing
selection using a set of criteria
 Explain visual-verbal relationships illustrated in tables, graphs, information maps
commonly used in content area texts
 Discern positive and negative messages conveyed by a program viewed
 React appropriately and provide suggestions based on an established fact
 Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis
 Follow task-based directions shown after viewing
 Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by the facial expressions of interlocutors
 Show understanding and appreciation for the different genres with emphasis on
types contributed by Asian countries
 Point out the elements of plays and playlets
 Determine the author’s tone and purpose for writing the essay
 Point out how the choice of title, space, allotment, imagery, choice of words, and
figurative language, among others contribute to the theme
 Communicate thoughts and feelings in summary results and notes, among others,
using appropriate styles (formal and informal)
 Use appropriate modes of paragraph development to express one’s ideas, needs,
feelings and attitudes
 Use a variety of cohesive devices to make the flow of thoughts from one sentence to
another smooth and effortless
 Employ concept mapping (circle, bubble, linear, etc.) as aids in taking down notes
and organizing ideas
 Use outlines to sum up ideas taken from texts
 Use varied adjective complementation and formulate correct complex, compound-
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118

complex sentences and appropriate parenthetical expressions
 Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgment of resources
 Ask for and give information, and express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes
explicitly and implicitly in an informative talk
 Communicate thoughts and feelings in summary results and notes, among others,
using appropriate styles
 Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television
 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue that relates to the
community
 Look into the derivation of words
 Define words from context and through word analysis
 Organize information illustrated in tables, graphs and maps
 Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis
 Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by facial expressions
 Point out how the choice of title, space, allotment, imagery, choice of words, and
Here is a simple map of the above lessons you will cover:
The Two Brothers
(Egypt)
Makato and
His Cowrie Shell
(Thailand)
The Taximan’s
Story
(Singapore)
The
Devouring
Rock
(Malaysia)
The Peasant, the
Buffalo and the Tiger: A
Tale of Strength and
The Origin of
Ancient Vietnam
(Vietnam)

Embracing
Our
Heritage
Outwitting a
Crocodile
Sawatdee...
My
Beautiful
Bangkok


Tracing Our
Roots
The Legend of
Banyuwangi;
The Century Carver


Appreciating
Our Origin

Revisiting
Our Rich
Past
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119

Let’s find out how much you know about the coverage of this module. Choose the
letter that you think best answers the question. Remember to answer all items. Write the
answers in your notebook. After taking this short test, your answers will be checked to find
out your score. Take note of the items that you won’t be able to correctly answer and look
1. In a plot of the story, the logical arrangement of events is presented. It has five
essential parts EXCEPT _____________.
a. denouement
b. exposition
c. atmosphere
d. climax

2. Setting is one of the elements of a short story. It refers to the time and location in which
a story takes place. It may be the following EXCEPT ____________.
a. mood
b. climax
c. atmosphere
d. social condition

3. Which of the following is considered one element of a short story?
a. character
b. denouement
c. exposition
d. climax

4. What element of the story shows the logical arrangement of events, with a beginning,
middle, and end?
a. exposition
b. character
c. plot
d. conflict

5. The author may reveal a character’s traits and attitudes by
a. what he/she says, thinks and does
b. what he/she does or does not do
c. his/her views and opinions
d. all of the above

6. The following are examples of coordinating conjunctions EXCEPT ___________.
a. and
b. but
c. for
d. while

7. Which is synonymous to mood or atmosphere in the story ?
a. climax
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b. denouement
c. setting
d. character
8. In preparing an outline from a listening text, the initial step is...
a. listen to note details
b. listen to extract information
c. listen to get the central idea
d. listen to get the summary

9. Conflict is the opposition of forces. It maybe a conflict between man and ,
a. man
b. circumstances
c. society
d. internal

10. The point of view is defined as the angle from which a story is told EXCEPT
___________.
a. first person
b. innocent eye
c. omniscient
d. static

11. Which of the following is a compound-complex sentence?
a. Sang Buaya was the culprit that made Sang Kancil afraid.
b. The delivery truck dropped its load of sand on the backyard where the bricks lie,
and then the delivery truck drove off.
c. Gawad Kalinga which gives invaluable aid, was flown in to help people who were
made homeless by the typhoon.
d. We went to the forest yesterday, but we did not find anything.

12. We went to the ______________ hotel in the city.
a. most cheap
b. more cheap
c. cheaper
d. cheapest

13. Which of the following is the
correct concept map for the
ideas inside the box?





a.

Indigenous Costume Intangible Cultural Heritage Cultural Heritage
Tangible Cultural Heritage Festival
Indigenous
Cultural

Festival
Intangible
Cultural Heritage
Tangible Cultural
Heritage
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b.












c.












d.










14. Conflict is the most important part of plot for a story, movie, or play. Which statement is
TRUE about conflict?
Indigenous
Cultural
Heritage

Festival
Intangible
Cultural Heritage
Tangible Cultural
Heritage
Indigenous
Cultural
Heritage

Festival
Tangible Cultural
Heritage
Intangible
Cultural Heritage
Indigenous
Costume
Cultural
Heritage

Festival
Intangible
Tangible Cultural
Heritage
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a. Conflict is enhanced through the interplay of other elements like setting, theme,
and characters.
b. Multiple conflicts are rarely seen in short stories, movies, and plays.
c. External conflict is the best type for any story, movie, or play.
d. Resolution is the highlight of a conflict.

15. Sandra is going to Malaysia for a student-exchange program. She wants to know the
culture of Malaysian before she goes there. How can Sandra know some Malaysian
traditions, beliefs, and heritage in a literary perspective?
a. Watch some Malaysian news programs.
b. Read Malaysian short stories, poems, and plays.
c. Research on the political structure of Malaysia.
d. Read some travel brochure from Malaysia.
16. J ohn has been reading many Malaysian stories and had watched some Malaysian
movies lately. One day, a Malaysian student visited their place and he had the chance
to mingle with him. Though it’s J ohn’s first time to meet the Malaysian, he knew what to
do to make him feel at home. How did J ohn manage to do that?
a. Filipinos are known to be hospitable, just like J ohn.
b. J ohn wants to ask a favor from the Malaysian.
c. J ohn is just friendly, so he knows how to deal with people.
d. J ohn learned the traditions, beliefs and culture of Malaysians from his readings.

Read this part of the Preamble of South African Constitution:
"We, the people of South Africa,
Recognise the injustices of our past;
Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land;
Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and
Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity.”

17. Which of the following is contrary in this part of the Preamble of South African
Constitution?
a. People should remember the sacrifices of their heroes.
b. Culture helps develop people.
c. Multiculturalism is divisive.
d. Some cultures are just more evolved than others.

18. You are a member of ASEAN Culture Society, a non-government organization that
aims to promote the rich culture of the Southeast Asian region. Your organization wants
you to help find a movie that will promote the culture of Malaysia for a film showing
activity. Which of the following would you do for your organization?
a. Develop a survey asking students their preferred theme for a movie.
b. Find a Malaysian folktale and its movie adaptation and write a movie review
about it.
c. Give a list of the box-office hit movies in Malaysia.
d. Find a Malaysian film director and ask his/her advice about a movie adaptation of
a folktale.

19. As local film critics, you and your peers have been hired by the board to find the most
appropriate movie to be used for a cultural exhibit. A movie review is needed, but the
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123

Have you ever wondered why you have
similar physical attributes and characteristics
as that of your Asian neighbors? Have you
asked yourself why you look like a Thai,
J apanese, Chinese as well as Malaysian,
Indonesian, or Egyptian? Have you thought of discovering your roots as an
Asian and further know what customs, traditions, beliefs and values are being
treasured? Do you look forward to seeing, talking, and interacting with them?
Do you think it is possible that people of different races, culture and heritage
can also be united and work towards peace, harmony and progress? What
would you do if you were given a chance to meet and talk to them in a
gathering of Afro-Asian nationalities?
In this module, you will know more about who your ancestors are, their
beliefs and traditions, their ideals and aspirations. Likewise, you will understand
the cultural diversity of other Afro- Asian countries through their literary texts

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills below and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Listen to note important information and details of a listening text. (Listening
Comprehension)
 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue. (Speaking-Oral
Language and Fluency)
 Formulate responses to questions. (Speaking-Oral Language and Fluency)
 Identify the meaning of words through visual context. (Vocabulary Development)
 Use appropriate idioms (Vocabulary Development)
 Infer character traits from a reading text. (Reading Comprehension)
 Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing
selection. (Viewing Comprehension)
 Point out the elements of a short story. (Literature)
 Show understanding and appreciation for the different Asian literary texts.
(Literature)
 Point out how the title contributes to the theme. (Literature)
 Use graphic organizer to sum up ideas. (Writing and Composition)
 Employ concept mapping as aids in taking down notes and organizing ideas. (Writing
and Composition)
 Use correct coordinators (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Observe the correct format in bibliographical entries. (Study Strategies)
On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Tracing Our Roots.
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124

Say You...Say Me
Pick and Match
Face to Face
KNOW
Draw or Sketch
What Element
Lay Your Cards
Characterization
Lay the Road Map
Solving
Dare to Climb
Building
Formatting
Build Me Up
Summing Up
Sense It
Combine/Fuse
Idiomatic Expressions
Constructing
Working with Idioms
Paint a Picture
Bite the Theme
Compare and Share
Connecting/Pairing
Introspecting
Drawing Out What
PROCESS
I’m “ Punch lining” , Can You?
Multiple Intelligence Activities
Writing Activity
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Preparing a Speech
TRANSFER
For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
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125

Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so far about Thailand.
Let’s start working on this lesson by watching a film clip
about Thailand or see the pictures below. As we go through
the process, keep on thinking about these questions: How
does diversity contribute to unity? How do traditions
and beliefs bring about diversity and or harmony?
The Kingdom of Thailand is one of the fast-growing and
developing countries in Southeast Asia. She is known as the
“Land of the Free.”
Source: https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=thailand+attractions
Activity 1: SAY YOU...SAY ME...
What did you notice in the pictures? What did you learn from the film?
Can you see some connections? Do you think we have similarities in terms
of culture, beliefs and traditions? Explain.
Work with a partner and answer the following guide questions:
1. What are their customs and traditions?
2. What landmarks are they noted for?
3. Do they have a culture similar to us?
4. What does this imply?
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Activity 2: FACE TO FACE
Find a partner and orally talk about the similarities of Thais and Filipinos
in terms of customs, traditions, beliefs and way of life as depicted in the
pictures.
In the process of your sharing, you may also bring out the differences of
both countries in terms of forms of government, religion and socio –
economic status if you are familiar with.
Activity 3: PICK AND MATCH
Directions: Using Activity 2 ,”What I Want To Know” guide, find out
whether the words or symbols you have written match with the following
selection below. Before you proceed, connect the pictures under Column A
with the vocabulary under Column B and the meaning under Column C,
1.
2.
3.
Column A Column B Column C
recline painting on walls
spire tilt back; lie back
murals tall, pointed structure
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4.
5.
mosaic picture of small colored
pieces
loquacious talkative
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key
concepts related to Filipino traditions and beliefs practiced by
Thais.
Let’s find out also how others would answer the process
questions “How does diversity contribute to unity? How
do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or
harmony?” and compare their ideas with your own. We will
Read the following selection below. Find out what Filipino
traditions and beliefs are practiced by Thais as depicted in
this selection. Discover, too, the attractions in Thailand that
SAWATDEE....HELLO, BEAUTIFUL BANGKOK
by Ethel Soliven-Timbol
B
angkok known as Krun Thep, which is Thai for “City of Angels,” beckons with its
golden roofed temples and spicily curried cuisine. Seven million visitors come to
Thailand each year spending an average of six to seven days because there is
so much to see and to relish in this “Exotic Orient” as one enamored traveller dubbed the
country.
Our agenda for the first day of our tour started with a tour of Wat Po. One of the 370
temples in Bangkok alone, it is home to the famous Reclining Buddha, which is said to be
46 meters long. Also world–famous are the golden Buddha at the Wat Trinig (“wat” being
Thai for “temple”) and the dazzling Emerald Buddha. There are 2100 temples in all of
Thailand, where 90 percent of the people are Buddhists.
Our loquacious guide regales us with the colorful history of Bangkok and how it
became the imperial city 300 years ago, when the god-king Rama I moved the royal
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residence to this side of the Chao Phraya River. Today, a boat excursion takes visitors on
a tour of the old city, winding down the “klong” canals for a glimpse of the water dwellers
and the ancient edifices, remnants of an era when Rama I divided his city into three
sections: for the Thais, the Chinese and the Indians. The best buys of Thai silks, spices
and crafts are still at the riverside markets where one can also produce gold, jade and
other precious jewelry.
Not to be missed are the Temple of the Dawn along the Chao Phraya, a showcase of
Chinese porcelain mosaics, and the Temple of the Giant Swing for some of the finest
murals. Only for strong knees is the Temple of the Golden Mount, atop a climb of 300
steps, housing one of the largest bronze buddhas in the world.
The Reclining Buddha was shipped from China by King Rama I, who also built the Wat
Po Temple on a 20-hectare compound adjacent to the Royal Palace, circa 1782, in the
2222-old Chinese section. The King had also brought with him excellent samples of
porcelain, which the court artisans used to decorate pagodas using their elaborate spires.
At the main temple, devotees buy one–inch gold leaf squares which they stick to smaller
buddhas as offering to their god.
Everyday, morning ceremonies are held at an adjacent temple surrounded by four
magnificent monuments: the first in red built by Rama I; the second in yellow, by Rama II;
the third in green by Rama III; and the fourth in blue, by Rama IV. J ust as fascinating is the
sala tree under which, according to legend, Buddha was born (although in India). Its pink
and red flowers are sweet-smelling, a contrast to the brown gourd which are the “fruit “of
the sala tree.
To cap a hectic first day, we had dinner at the Baa Thai Restaurant while watching
heavily costumed folk dancers from the lowland and highland villages, including favorite
destinations, like Chiang Mai, the second largest city up north, from whence one can visit
the winter palace of the Royal Family and the training school for working elephants.
Amazingly, Bangkok is clean, especially the day after Wednesday, which is “Clean Up
Day” according to our guide. So the sidewalk eateries are relatively sanitary, although
foreign visitors are advised to stick to bottled mineral water or soft drinks. In spite of the
colossal traffic jams, no thanks to the ubiquitous “toktok” pedicabs the air smells cleaner
and less polluted than in Manila.

Group yourselves into five (5) and you will be assigned names such as
WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHY, and HOW. Each group will construct
questions that begin with the name of the group. Your questions will be
taken from the selection read, and these will be thrown to the group of your
choice. Your performance as a group will depend on how well you have responded to the
questions asked.

Example: Group WHAT: What is the mood of the writer while telling the story? Group
WHERE?

Answer: The mood of the writer while telling the story is happy and excited.
Activity 4: WHO’S THE NEXT?
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Activity 5: DRAW OR SKETCH
Draw on this canvas interesting customs, traditions and culture or even
landmarks distinctive of the country. Be able to explain or discuss your

You may start your sentence by saying, “One of the most interesting customs and
traditions in Thailand which attracted me is...______________.” Read orally your work in
We are embarking on the next activity by learning more about the country
whose contributions to fellow Afro-Asian neighbors made an impact on their
economic growth as well as on bridging unity and progress. The selection
enables you to deeply appreciate its customs and beliefs similar to ours. Find
out if your focus questions, “ How does diversity contribute to unity?” and
“ How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or harmony?”
can be answered.

One way of getting information and knowledge is through listening. Let‘s find out what
listening is all about.
Listening is receiving language through the ears. It involves identifying the
sounds of speech and processing them into words and sentences. When we
listen, we use our ears to receive individual sounds (letters, stress, rhythm and
pauses), and we use our brain to convert these into messages that we find
meaning in.
Listening in any language requires focus and attention. It is a skill that some people
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need to work on harder than others. People who have difficulty concentrating are typically
poor listeners. Listening in a second language requires even greater focus.
Listen to your teacher as s/he reads the article entitled Thailand at the Turn of the
Century. Find out what facts or information are presented by the speaker and determine if
the speaker is for or against an issue.
Before listening, take note of the following guidelines when listening:
 Listen to get the general ideas of the text.
 Take down notes to help you recall important ideas.

Be guided by the following questions:
1. What is Thailand’s goal at the end of the century?
Listen carefully as your teacher reads the listening text. After a pause in
every third paragraph, be able to answer the questions in the question cards
in Activity 6. Be guided by the pauses in order to answer the questions. So,
tune in, listen and give your responses.

Activity 6: LAY YOUR CARDS
Answer the questions below based on the listening text.
What are the
similarities of
Thailand and
Philippines?
What are Thailand’s
reasons for shifting
to manufacture?
Q Card 1 Q Card 2
What are the
diversified industries
in Thailand?
What are the
causes of economic
growth of Thailand?
Q Card 3 Q Card 4
From this activity, you were able to know the unfolding of Thailand’s growth in
economy through its diversified cultural and socio-economic innovation, which
contributed in bridging and shaping the success of Asian countries.
Activity 7: BUILD ME UP!
Fill up the diagram on the next page, and explain your answers.
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Thail and’s
Goals
Activity 8: SUM UP THE WHOLE
Using the graphic organizer in Activity 7, compose a paragraph of 7-10
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From this activity, you have learned the similarities of Philippines and
Thailand in terms of socio-economic goals. What other insights can you
extract? Can unity be possible in diversity of culture, beliefs and traditions?
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Activity 9: BITE THE THEME
Write your reflections and insights in relation to the theme of the listening
text. Provide your own title.
__________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
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Reading literature is like looking at a painting or a mural .It is seeing beyond
one’s eyes. In paintings, we find meanings as interpreted by the artist. The
artist has a way of interpreting his subject. This is the role of literature. It is to
make the reader interpret and imagine what he is reading and to identify
himself with it .By a skilful use of language, the writer places realism and
uniqueness in his stories, poems or essays, as if making the reader feel as if he has
experienced it in his life.
ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY
1. Setting — refers to place, time, weather condition, social condition, and even mood
or atmosphere. To recognize the setting of the story, you may ask these questions:
 Where is the action taking place?
 Where is the story taking place? Is it during the day, night, what year, what
period?
 What is the weather condition? Is it sunny, rainy, and stormy?
 What is the daily life of the character? What are his customs and status in life?
 What is the feeling created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright, cheerful, dark
or frightening?

Example: My sister and I had a fun–filled vacation last summer. We stayed at our
grandparents’ house, which was near the beach. We swam in the sea every morning,
climbed the trees in the afternoon and fed the animals before dark. When the moon was
bright, we played patintero.

Using the guide questions above, provide the answers:
Where is the action taking place? _________________________
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Where is the story taking place? __________________________
What is the weather condition? ___________________________

2. Plot – It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical
series of events having a beginning, middle and end. The short story usually has one
plot, and it could be read in one sitting .There are five essential parts of a plot:
a. Exposition/Introduction
In the introduction, the setting and the characters are revealed.
b. Rising Action
This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the
story is revealed .This is where events between introduction and climax take place.
c. Climax
It is the turning point of the story and the highest point of interest. It is where the
reader asks what will happen next. Will the conflict be resolved or not?
d. Falling Action
The problems and complications begin to be resolved.
e. Denouement
This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.

Here are three different parts of a story. On the blank after each paragraph, write
whether the given part is the beginning, middle and end of the story.

Suddenly, the boat tilted to the left. “Steady!” cried our teacher, “stay where you are!” We
kept calm .We prayed hard and followed all of our teacher’s instructions.
Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Finally, the fox grumbled. “I don’t want those grapes anyway. I know they must be sour.”
Then, he went away.
Answer: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Once there was a child who liked summer best. He lived on a farm and every summer, he
enjoyed harvesting corn, vegetables and fruits.
Answer: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Conflict - It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes
the plot move.
There are two types of conflict:
a. External – refers to outside forces that may cause conflict, like another human
being, circumstances, environment, etc.
b. Internal - refers a struggle within oneself. The character maybe debating inside
himself about what to do.

4. Character – there are two meanings for the word character: the person in a work of
fiction and the characteristics of a person. He may be the protagonist, the good-natured
character, or the antagonist, the opponent of the main character.
The author may reveal a character in several ways: his physical appearance, what
he/she says, thinks feels and dreams; what he/she does or does not do; and what
others say about him/her.

5. Point of View – the angle from which the story is told

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Activity 10: MATCHING
From the pool of words below, choose the appropriate answer to the
following descriptions.
Climax Introduction Denouement
___________1. The setting and characters are revealed.
___________2. The highest point of interest in the story
___________3. The main character faces a conflict or problem.
___________4. The ending where the final outcome of the story is shown
___________5. The problems and complications are resolved.
Language Recall: Coordinate Conjunctions
Observe the following sentences:

1. Makato never idled and never complained.
2. He did every kind of work, yet he remained cheerful.
3. Makato had no sister or a brother to take care of him.
4. He tried his luck in a far-off land, so he became successful.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What words are connected by and in sentence 1?
_________________________________________________________

2. What are the two clauses that are joined by yet in sentence 2?
_________________________________________________________

3. What are the phrases that are connected by or in sentence 3?
_________________________________________________________

4. What are the clauses that are joined by so in sentence 4?
_________________________________________________________

5. What are the clauses that are joined by but in sentence 5?
Sentence 1 uses and to show addition of thought or ideas.
Sentence 2 uses yet to show contrast of idea.
Sentence 3 uses or to join nouns of equal rank.
Sentence 4 uses so to show result.
Sentence 5 uses but to show contrast of idea.
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Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses of equal
rank.
And is used to connect words, phrases and clauses of which are equal.
Or/ Nor implies a consequence or choice.
But / Yet is used to express contrast of idea. It joins an affirmative and
negative sentence pattern.
So is used to show a result.
Activity 11: WORK WITH COORDINATES
Directions: Read the sentence carefully and encircle the conjunction.
Underline the words, phrases and clauses it joins.
1. Philippines and Thailand are both Asian countries.
2. Thailand shifted from agriculture to manufacturing, so she gained a thirty percent
economic growth.
3. Philippines, like Thailand, enjoys a tropical climate, so both are tourist destinations in
Asia.
4. The tourism sector is Thailand’s highest income generator and largest foreign
exchange contributor.
5. Thailand focused on food processing, but she developed heavily in export promotion.
Activity 12: COMBINE/FUSE
1. Most cars are now equipped with radial tires. The chances for common blowouts are
reduced.
_______________________________________________________________________
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_______________________________________________________________________

2. The magazine contained only six articles .They were all about politics or sports.
_______________________________________________________________________
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_______________________________________________________________________

3. The meat was spoiled by the time I returned home .I had forgotten to put it in the
refrigerator when I left.
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_______________________________________________________________________
Directions: Combine the following sentences below using the coordinate
conjunctions. Write your sentences in the blanks provided.
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_______________________________________________________________________
4. Philippines and Thailand are members of the ASEAN. They work for unity, peace and
progress in the region.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

5. Both countries have diversity of culture. Their traditions and beliefs bring harmony and
unity.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Activity 13: SUPPLY THE PARTS
Directions: Complete the sentences by supplying additional words,
phrases and clauses. Write your sentences on the blanks.
1. Thais love spicy food and Chinese_______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

2. Filipinos and Thais have water dwellers so________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

3. Riverside markets are attractions for small businessmen and___________________
___________________________________________________________________

4. Sidewalk eateries mushroomed along the streets yet_________________________
___________________________________________________________________

5. Traffic jams and pedicabs are both a sight to see and to experience and__________
___________________________________________________________________
Activity 14: GUESS WHAT?
Directions: Read each sentence carefully and choose from the word pool
the character traits are inferred in the following lines. Write your answer at
1. Makato had no brother or sister to take care of him. His father and mother died._____
2. He never idled, fed the pigs, and cleaned the forests._________
3. He never complained and was satisfied. ____________
4. He did every kind of work, like carrying heavy things.__________
5. He tried his luck in a far-off land.__________________

honest orphaned good-natured ambitious
hardworking proactive adventurous grateful
industrious naturalist
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6. Makato thought about what he liked to do in the future.__________
7. He picked up the shell and handed it to the king._______
8. He planted the ground with more seedlings._________
9. He knelt down and gave the king lettuces.____________
Activity 15: CONSTRUCTING
Directions: Construct sentences using the words found in the word pool.
Work with your seatmate and do peer-checking. Find out if the words were
used properly in the sentence.
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The selection which you are about to read is a Thai folktale. Its theme is
centered on the Buddhist principle of suppressing one’s earthly desire to
achieve enlightenment.
Draw out the Filipino values and traits of the character which enable him
to become successful and better person. Find out the author’s purpose of
writing this selection.

Makato and the Cowrie Shell
(A Thai Folktale)
by Supanee Khanchanathiti
O
nce upon a time, there was a boy whose name was Makato. He was an orphan,
for his father and mother died when he was very young. He had no brothers,
sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had to make a living for
himself. He did every kind of work—carrying heavy things, clearing away the forest, or
feeding pigs. He never idled. Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied.
He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever he went, his employers
praised him for being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful.
One fine evening after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down
to rest and thought of all he would like to do in the future. He wanted to try his luck in far–
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off strange lands, for he longed for
exciting adventures.
“What are you thinking about so
deeply, my boy?” asked his
employer.
“I would like to go on a journey
for adventure,” said Makato, pointing
to the northeast. “I heard that the
land is fertile and the people are
kind. I wish I could see the land for
myself.” His eyes sparked with
excitement.
“The land you wish to go to is
called Sukhothai,” said his employer.
“They say Pra Ruang of Sukhothai is
a very kind–hearted king. You might
be lucky if you could go there.”
Sometime later, Makato
decided to try his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wide world .He walked along
cheerfully, enjoying new insights and talking to the people he met on the way. After a
month’s journey, he reached a village on the boundary of the Kingdom of Sukhothai.
“Please, can I have some water to drink?” Makato asked an old woman with a big
water pot on her head. “I’m so thirsty.”
“Where did you come from? Why are you here alone? You look as if you’ve come a
long way,” said the old woman, pouring cold water from her pot into a small cup and
handling it to Makato.
“Thank you so much,” said the boy. “Who are your father and mother? Haven’t you
any family?” the old woman asked again.
“I come from the City of Mon over there,” replied Makato. “Good heavens! Have you
really come from Môn? How is it that you are travelling alone, such a young boy as you
are?”
“I wanted to see Pra Ruang of Sukhothai,” replied Makato.”They say he is a very kind-
hearted king.” “You are a very determined boy!” said the woman.”Come along with
me .Who knows? You might see Pra Ruang someday.”
Makato was glad to go with her. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would
have a place to sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough
to see the king.
The old woman was one of the Pra Ruang Mahouts, which meant that she helped the
mahout find the food for the elephant and clean out the elephants’ sheds. He worked hard
and well, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him.
One day, the sky was clear and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must
be a lucky day. As he worked in the elephants’ sheds, a tall young man in a splendid
costume, followed by attendants, came in. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at
once with his hands clasped together before him.
His heart beat fast. “Where did the boy come from?” the king asked the mahout, who
was attending him. “How old is he?” the king asked further. “12 years old, your Majesty,”
replied the mahout. “A good-looking and hardworking boy,” said the king. “Take good care
of him.”
As the king walked away, Makato saw a little cowrie shell lying on the ground .He ran
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to pick up and held it to the king, but the king said with a smile, “You may keep it.”
“How wonderful!” Makato thought, “the king has given me a cowrie shell.”
At the time, the people of Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money. Although one
cowrie had little value, Makato wanted to make as much use of it as possible, for it was the
king’s gift. For a long time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money
for him.
One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants
were sold. He looked along the stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed.
Lettuces! He could grow small plants like that. He asked the joyful woman at the stall, “Can
I buy some lettuce seed?”
“Oh yes, my boy. How much do you want?” said the old woman. “I have one cowrie
shell!” said Makato. “One cowrie shell!” said the woman, laughing.” That won’t buy
anything. I can’t even measure that much.”
“Look!” said Makato eagerly. “I will dip my finger into the pile of seeds. Then, I will take
the seeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell.” “Well, why not?” said the
amused woman at his suggestions. “All right boy. Help yourself.”
Makato paid the woman his one cowrie shell .Then, he dipped his finger into the pile of
seeds. When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped
them of his finger into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds.
Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and sowed them at once. He watered
the seed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared
more ground and planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with
them. He was very proud of himself because he had done so well.
“I wish I could give the king some lettuces,” he thought.
One day, the king passed by the elephants’ sheds again. Makato waited for an
opportunity, then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest lettuces to the king.
“Where did you get this?” the king asked, surprised. “I grew them from the cowrie
shell you gave me, Your Majesty,” answered Makato, beaming with a smile.
“How could you do that?” asked the puzzled king. Makato told the king the whole
story. The king was impressed with his intelligence and industry, so much so that later on,
he gave Makato a job in the palace.
As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace and
served the king well. He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was
promoted to higher positions until he was given a title of Kun Wang, which meant that he
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Describe Makato. What character traits does he possess?
2. What could be the reason why Makato left his place?
3. Through inferring what the character says, does and thinks, one can
recognize the traits of a literary character. Cite lines, actions and thoughts
which show Makato’s traits..
4. What were those changes in Makato’s life after meeting the king?
Enumerate.
5. Which of Makato’s traits are similar to yours?
6. How would you nurture and enhance your positive traits? In what ways?
7. What lessons in life does the author want to convey to you? Are these true to
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Activity 16: PAINT A PICTURE
What are Makato’s character traits? Describe his appearance, attitude,
action and speech. Fill up the character web with your answers and explain
Character
_______________
Articulation
Action
Attitude
Appearance
what the character does
what the character says
what the character looks like
how the character feels
Activity 17: COMPARE AND SHARE
Using the Venn diagram on the next page, compare yourself with Makato.
Be guided by the following questions:
1. What traits do you both share? Write your answers between two
circles.
2. Write your character traits, which are different from Makato’s, inside the
right circle.
3. Write Makato’s character traits, which are different from yours, inside
the left circle.
4. Which of those traits would you like to improve? Explain.
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Activity 18: LAY THE ROAD MAP
Using the timeline, plot the events which led to Makato’s success. Be
guided by the following key questions:
1. What kind of life did he have at the beginning of the story? Describe.
2. What motivated him to leave his place?
3. How did the king recognize him? Cite the incident that showed it.
4. What did he do with the cowrie shell?
5. What was his reward from the king?
Past
Future
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Activity 19: DARE TO CLIMB?
Plot the events in the story by writing them inside the space provided. Be
1. What is the beginning of the story?
2. What is the rising action?
3. What is the climax of the story?
4. What is the falling action?
5. What is the denouement?
Climax
Introduction
Falling Action Rising Action
Denouement
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Activity 20: INTROSPECTING
What lessons in life have you learned from Makato’s experiences? Write a
5-7 sentence paragraph. Provide your own title.
__________________________________________
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_________________________________________________________________________________________
Activity 21: CONNECTING...PAIRING
Directions: Compose sentences describing the character traits of Makato
using coordinate conjunctions. Work with a partner and brainstorm ideas to
__________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
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You are going to read your work orally in front of the class. You may
choose from the following topics:
 Makato, the Teenager
 My Brief Encounter With Makato
 Makato’s Dream and My Dream
 How Makato Influenced My Life
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We are embarking on the next activity by learning about another Asian
neighbour, Egypt. The selection enables you to deeply appreciate its
customs and beliefs which are similar to ours.
Find out if your focus questions, “ How does diversity contribute to
unity?” and “ How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or
harmony?” can be answered.

Let us discover and explore one of the most interesting Arab countries. Find
out its unique traditions and beliefs.
Egypt is famous for its Pyramid at Giza and the Giant Statue known as The
Sphinx. She is considered a modern nation in an ancient land and considered
the most populous country.
Discover this country by observing the pictures on top or watching a documentary
film. Activate your senses to draw out information.
Activity 22: PAIRED APPROACH
Work with a partner and discuss relevant issues. Be guided by the following
questions:
1. What country is described in the film/pictures?
2. What knowledge and information did you get after watching/ observing?
3. Describe what you see, feel, hear and/or touch.
4. What attracted you most about this country? Do you think you have
common interests, culture, or similar customs and traditions? What
make Egyptians different from Filipinos or Thais?
Activity 23: SENSE IT!
Using the sense web on the next page, fill in the circles with your answers
and compare your work with your seatmate. Do you have similar answers?
What impressed you most about this country?
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Sound Sight


EGYPT

Touch
Taste
Smell
SENSE WEB
Activity 24: SUMMING UP!
Write a 5-7 sentence paragraph describing Egypt using the information you
placed in the sense web. Find a partner and discuss relevant information
about the country.
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Activity 25: WHAT ELEMENT?
To prepare you to fully understand the text you are about to read, review
the elements of a short story by answering the activity below.
Rearrange the letters of the words below.
TRACREHAR - ______________
TLOP - ______________
GITETNS - ______________
TCFIOCNL - ______________
ETLIT - ______________
Now, you are slowly going deeper into understanding human nature and
the experiences of other people of different races. Have you realized
something? Are human thoughts, feelings and emotions universal? Do they
manifest in every race and culture?
Let us see how you will work on the next activity but first, let us recall our
lessons on idioms or idiomatic expressions to be able to fully appreciate the
beauty of these in the next reading text you are about to read.

English idiom or idiomatic expressions are Greek in origin. The word idiom
means “a private citizen, something belonging to a private citizen, personal,”
and, by extension, something individual and peculiar. Idiomatic Expressions,
then, conform to no laws or principles describing their formation. They may
also violate grammar or logic or both and still be acceptable because the
phrase is familiar, deep-rooted, widely used, and easily understandable- for the native
born. “How do you do?” is, for example, an accepted idiom, although an exact answer
would be absurd.
There are many idiomatic expressions in our language. One is that several words are
combined which lose their literal meaning and express something very remotely
suggested such as ; birds of a feather, blacklist, lay up, toe the line, make out, bed of
roses, dark horse, heavy hand, open house, read between the lines, no ax to grind, hard
row to hoe.
A second statement about idioms is that parts of the human body have suggested
many of them: burn one’s fingers, all thumbs, fly in the face of, stand on one’s own feet,
keep body and soul together, keep one’s eyes open, step on someone’s toes, rub elbows
with, get one’s back up, keep one’s chin up.
A third generalization is that hundreds of idiomatic phrases contain adverbs or
prepositions with other parts of speech. Here are some examples: walk off, walk over,
agree to a proposal contend for a principle
on a plan with a person
with a person against an obstacle

Usage should conform to the idiomatic word combinations that are generally
acceptable. Examples of Idiomatic expressions are : accord with ,according to , acquaint
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Activity 26: WORKING WITH IDIOMS
Directions: Choose the appropriate idiomatic expressions to be used in
the following sentences. Write a piece of cake, odds and ends, pros and
cons or ups and down in the blanks provided.
1. The teacher asked us to talk about the ___________ of industrial development.
2. Do not worry about the problems you have in your business .You know there are
always ___________ in business.
3. The police found nothing special in the house of the criminal as he had taken all the
important documents with him leaving just _____________.
4. If you think that doing this math problem is __________, just try it.
Directions: Choose the appropriate word to complete the meaning of the idiom. Write
ocean, music, rags, cold and pie in the blanks provided.
1. All these promises the politicians make are just ____ in the sky.
2. The small amount of money donated is just a drop in the _____ compared to the
large sum of money needed.
3. He has been successful in life. He went from ____ to riches.
4. They had a dispute yesterday. That‘s why she gave him a ___ shoulder.
5. I had to face the ____ all by myself, although I was not the only responsible for the
problem.
Activity 27: IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
Directions: Guess what idiomatic expressions are used below and give the
correct meaning. After giving the correct meaning, use them in the
sentences.
1. Bata makes hay while the sun shines.___________
2. The wife of Anpu was beaten black and blue._______
3. Knowing the wife’s dishonesty, blood pours into his face._______
4. After killing the wife, Anpu was blue in the face.__________
5. Bata had made an easy way out to the mountains.________
6. In good faith, Bata supported his brother Anpu.________
7. Anpu felt a pain in the neck when he heard his wife’s explana-
tion.________
8. She bent her knees for forgiveness._______
9. Anpu’s wife accepted the dose of her own medicine.________
10. Bata kept company with god- Ra to seek consolation._______
The selection which you are about to read is considered the oldest literary
piece believed to have been written 3000 years before Christ.
Find out the similarities of Egyptians and Filipinos in terms of culture,
beliefs, respect and love for family and reverence to God as depicted in this
selection.

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The Two Brothers
Egyptian Folktale
O
nce there were two brothers. Anpu
was the elder, and Bata was the
younger. When their parents died,
Anpu was already married and had a house
of his own, so he took his little brother with
him and treated him like his son. When the
little brother grew to be a young man, he
became an excellent worker. He did the
plowing. He harvested the corn, and there
was no one his equal in the whole land.
Behold, the spirit of the god was within him.
Every morning, the younger brother followed his oxen and worked all day in the
fields, and every evening, he returned to the house with vegetables, milk, and wood. He
laid all these before his elder brother, and he took with him his bread, and he drove the
cattle into the field.
Because Anpu loved his younger brother very much, his wife became very jealous
and she wanted to destroy Bata. One day, when Anpu and Bata were in the fields, they
needed some corn, so Anpu sent Bata home to get some. The younger brother found the
wife combing her hair and said to her, “Get up and give me some corn that I may run to
the field for my elder brother is in a hurry. Do not delay.”
At eventide, Anpu returned home earlier than his brother because Bata had much
work to do in the fields. Anpu was met by his wife, who was crying bitterly. She showed
him her arms and legs which he had painted black and blue and accused Bata of having
beaten her up. She pretended to be in great pain. She did not give him water to wash his
hands with. She did not light the fire for him. She pretended that she was very sick.
Anpu became very angry. He sharpened his knife and waited for Bata in the stable.
When the sun went down, Bata came home as usual, loaded with herbs, milk and wood.
As he entered the door, he saw the feet of his brother and the sharp knife hanging by his
side. The brother sprang from him and Bata fled praying to the god Ra. “My good Lord!
Save me from death, thou who divines the evil from the good.” Ra heard his cry. He
made a river flow between one brother and the other and filled it with crocodiles.
Bata asked his elder brother, “Why do you seek to kill me? Am I not your brother and
have you not always treated me as if you were my father? Has not your wife been as
mother to me? Now since you want to kill me, I shall go to the Valley of the Acacia.”
Anpu answered, “Why did you beat up my wife and almost kill her.”
Bata answered, “I did not do such thing. Have I told you that I have always looked
upon her as my mother?”
So, Anpu went home. He found his wife near the river washing off the black and blue
dye with which she had painted herself. Filled with great anger, Anpu killed his wife and
cast her to the dogs. Then, he sat down, poured ashes on his head and mourned for his
younger brother.
Bata reached the Valley of Acacia. Since there was no one with him, he slew wild
beasts for food, built himself a house and met the Nine Gods who knew of his innocence
and goodness. Ra said to the god Khunumu, “Behold, frame a woman for Bata that he
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Activity 28: CHARACTERIZATION
Direction: Describe the three characters through a Venn diagram. Then
1. Why did the wife get jealous of Bata?
2. What did the wife do to get the attention of Anpu? Do you agree with what
she had done? Why so?
3. If you were Bata, what would you do? Do you agree with him in leaving the
house? Why so?
4. If you were Anpu, would you believe your wife’s explanation?
5. Do you agree with the beliefs and traditions they practice? Which of those
bring unity and harmony? Which do not?
6. Enumerate those traditions of Egyptians which are similar to you as Filipinos.
7. Write them down on this canvas. Then, compare and contrast them to our
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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Activity 29: SOLVING
What problems are faced by the two brothers? Are these problems
happening in today‘s world? Using the problem–solution chart, identify the
problems and provide solutions to these based on the selection you just
read.
Problems Solutions
Problem-Solution Chart
Activity 30: BUILDING
Using the plot organizer, enumerate the events in the story by filling in the
rectangles. Explain your work to the class.
The Two Brothers
Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Denouement
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Activity 8: DRAWING OUT...WHAT?
What traditions and beliefs of Egyptians can contribute to and shape you
as a Filipino? What cultural diversity brought unity, peace and progress?
Compose a 5-7 sentence paragraph.
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Bibliography contains a list of books or articles, or both, relating to a
particular subject. In a research paper, a bibliography is an alphabetical list,
sometimes grouped into categories, containing the names of all works quoted
from or generally used in its preparation. Every formally prepared research
paper should contain a bibliography placed at the end and begun on a
separate page.
1. Books
One Author
Tompkins, Gail E. 2000. Teaching Writing (3
rd
ed.) New J ersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Two Authors
Dorn, Linda J . & Soffos, Carla. 2005. Teaching for Deep Comprehension. Maine:
Stenhouse Publishers.
Several Authors
Lauengco, Aurea, et.al. 1999. English CV for High Schools (3
rd
ed.). Makati:
Bookmark Inc.
Encyclopedia
2. Magazine Article
Hackworth, Col. David H. “Terms of Forgiveness.” Newsweek. 24 Apr. 1995: 38-40.

3. Journal
Cline, C.L. “Quasi Adventures in Literary Scholarship. " Texas Quarterly. 20 (1977)
36-42.
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4. Newspaper
Hunt, Albert R. "Clinton Needs Fewer Reinventions and More Consistency.

5. World Wide Web
Abilock, Debbie. "Choose The best search engine for your information.”22 March
http://www.nueva.pvt.k12.ca.us/~debbie/library/research/adviceengine.html> 12 Apr.
1999
What have you observed in the examples above? In writing the format of
bibliographical entries, what are the things you are supposed to
remember?
Let’s try answering the questions below.
Activity 32: FORMATTING
1. What is the format if the author is only one? Explain.
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2. For two authors, how would you write the bibliography? Explain.
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______________________________________________________

3. What words are used to mean several authors? Explain and give an
example.
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______________________________________________________

4. In writing the topics for encyclopedia, magazine and newspaper
articles, what should you observe?
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5. In writing the titles of the book, what should you remember? Explain.
______________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________

6. What should come first when writing the place and name of the
publisher?
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Points to Remember:
1. All names of authors should start with the family name, followed by the
first name.
2. For two authors, the second author‘s name should be written with the first
name first and not with the family name.
3. For several authors, use the words et .al. , to mean many or several
authors.
4. All titles of the books, magazines, and encyclopedia and newspaper
articles should be underlined.
5. Titles of topics of magazines, newspaper articles and encyclopedia must
be enclosed in quotation marks.
6. Observe correct punctuation marks, such as period, after the author’s
name, title of the book, encyclopedia, magazines and newspaper articles.
7. Place a comma after the author’s family name to separate it from the first
Appendix
An appendix refers to an “addendum “or any addition to a document, such as a book
or legal contract. It is a collection of supplementary materials, usually appearing at the
end of a report, proposal, or a book. It may come in the form of tables and charts, sample
questionnaires, budgets and cost estimates, correspondence about the preparation of
the report, case histories, and transcripts of telephone conversations, among others.
You are asked to perform the indicated
activities:


Group 1 – the Dramatists – Present a scene that highlights the theme of the story, “The
Two Brothers” or “Mako and the Cowrie Shell.”

Group 2 – the Naturalists/Environmentalists – Present a problem–solution chart
showing your ability to address environmental problems.

Group 3 – the Dancers – Present a Thai or Egyptian dance showcasing its culture.

Group 4 – the Singers – Sing a song or perform a rap related to the selection. Provide
your own lyrics depicting unity and diversity.

Group 5 – the Mathematicians – Through a mathematical formula, show the age of
Makato when he became a king .
We shall now move to the next challenge! But this time,
we are taking you off from the text and allow you to explore
your outside world.
Your goal in this section is to enrich your understanding in
discovering who you are as a Filipino and be the one who
treasure your roots.
Activity 33: MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
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Oral Activity
1. Work as a group and interpret this passage: “ Unity in diversity is the
highest possible attainment of a civilization, a testimony to the most
noble possibilities of the human race. This attainment is made
possible through passionate concern for choice in an atmosphere of social
trust.” – Michael Novak
2. Using the key ideas presented in the passage, provide dialogs appropriate for the
following pictures found below. Then, deliver the dialogues.
3. Your performance will be scored through a rubric.
Be guided by the following:
 Deliver your lines well.
 Enunciate the words with articulation.
 Observe proper stress, tone and voice level.
Activity 34: I’M “ PUNCH LINING” . CAN YOU?
 Men worshipping in a church or a
mosque
 International beauties joining the
contest
 Two different nationalities in a boxing
bout
 Meeting of ASEAN Leaders in a
Summit
 Leaders of three nations talking about
national issues and problems
What can you say about the
presentations made? What have you
learned? Is there a connection between
the words diversity and unity? traditions
and beliefs? Give your generalizations
and conclusions.
Source: www.google.com.ph
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Activity 35: WRITING ACTIVITY
Using comparison and contrast, fill in the grid with the Positive-Interesting-
Negative aspects of Filipinos, Thais and Egyptians in terms of :
 Love for Family
 Reverence to God
 Desire to Succeed in Life

Report to the class afterwards.

Filipino


Thai


Egyptian

Positive Interesting Negative
Activity 36: MORE READINGS
With your group, look for some readings related to the topics below. Come
up with 10 bibliographies, using online resources for additional
information.
1. Multi-Cultural Dialects of Filipinos
2. Religious Beliefs of Filipinos
3. Filipino Treasured Values
4. Filipino Traditions and Beliefs
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You are asked to be the representative of the Youth Commission in
a World Youth Conference to speak on their behalf on the topic, “The
Role of the Youth in Establishing Unity in a Diversified Multi-Cultural
Society.” Your task is to prepare your speech by scouting reliable
resources from the internet and other library resources to address the
concerns. Make sure that the suggestions you will cite can be done by
young people like you. Make a list of bibliographical sources and
TASK

By this time you are now ready to perform
your practical task in this lesson. You are on
your own to figure out which of the skills you
learned in the previous activities you will use to meet the standards set in this given task.

Directions: Read the task below. Then plan on how you will write your speech. The
rubric for grading is provided here to remind you on how your work will be graded.
In this final phase of the lesson, your goal is to apply your
learning to real life situations. You will be given a practical task
which will demonstrate your understanding. You will likewise
finalize your answer to the focus question that has been asked
since the beginning of this lesson.
Activity 37: PREPARING A SPEECH
Grading
Criteria
Excellent Acceptable Minimal Unacceptable
Preparation Gathers
information
from varied
sources; makes
note cards to
use as cues
during
presentation;
creates
attractive visual
aids to illustrate
presentation
Gathers
information
from three or
four sources;
prepares notes
and visual aids
to use during
presentation
Gathers
information
from one or two
sources; writes
presentation
accurately
Gathers
information
from only one
source; may not
be able to
complete task
because of lack
of preparation
Content Used an
abundance of
materials
clearly related
to topic; Made
points clearly;
used varied
materials
Used adequate
information
about the topic;
made good
points; used
some variation
in use of
materials
Used some
information not
connected to
the topic
Used
information that
has little
connection to
topic
Rubric for Assessing an Oral Presentation
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Organization Organized
information and
ordered ideas
logically;
Presented easy
-to-follow
argument;
Stated a clear
conclusion
Presented most
information in a
logical order;
Presented
generally clear
and easy-to-
follow
arguments
Presented
loosely
connected
ideas;
Presented a
choppy and
difficult-to-
follow
organization
Did not use a
logical order in
presentation
Speaking
Skills
Well-poised,
enthusiastic,
and confident
during the
presentation;
enunciated
clearly.
Engaged during
presentation.
Had little or no
expression; Did
not enunciate
clearly
Appeared
disinterested
during
presentation
Grading
Criteria
Excellent Acceptable Minimal Unacceptable
http://www.scribd.com/doc/20891655/Rubric-for-Oral-Presentation
adventurous – daring; inclined to incur risk
ancient – very old; dating from the distant past
antagonist – opponent
appendix – a section or a supplementary information at the back of a book
beckons – to summon by a gesture
bibliography – list of writings on a given subject or by a given author
burgeoning – to start to increase rapidly
century – a period of 100 years
character – one of the element of a short story; a person of marked individuality
civilization – advance stage of social culture
climax – most interesting part of the story
colossal – immense; gigantic
conflict – to clash; a fight; emotional disturbance
coordinate – to integrate elements into an efficient relationship
cowrie shell – a marine mollusk with a glossy, brightly speckled shell
cultural – pertaining to culture
denouement – the solution; the outcome; the resolution or a plot or story
diversified – assorted; various; differences
diversity – variety; distinction; difference
edifice – substantial building
emerald – a rich green gemstone
enamoured – to inspire with love
exotic – foreign; strange; excitingly different or unusual
exposition – a public show or exhibition; a detailed explanation
eventide – evening
fiction – an invented story; any literary work with imaginary characters and events
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hefty – large and strong
heritage – something inherited at birth
innovation – new methods or ideas
journey – travelling from one place to another
loquacious – talkative
mahouts – an elephant driver
maize – corn; a light yellow color
monument – a statue or building that commemorates a person or an event
mosaic – a surface decoration made by inlaying small pieces of glass or stone
mural – a picture or a design painted directly onto a wall
naturalist – one who studies natural history; an advocate of naturalism
populous – densely inhabited
proclivity – inclination; tendency
protagonist – the main character in a story or drama
pyramid – a solid figure having a polygon as a base, and whose sides are triangles
sharing a common vertex
realism – practical outlook; the ability to represent things without concealment
rebounded – bounced back
recession – a downturn in economic activity
recline – to lie down on the back or side
reminiscent – recalling the past
remnants – small remaining fragments
shift – to change position
sphinx – a monster with a lions body and human head
spire – the tapering point of a steeple
splendid – brilliant; magnificent
tapioca – a glutinous starch extracted from the root of the cassava and used in puddings
Books
Carpio, Rustica C. 2007. Criss Crossing Through Afro-Asian Literature, Copyright by
Anvil Publishing, Inc.
Lapid, Milagros G.and J osephine Serrano.2000. English Communication Arts and
Skills Through Afro-Asian Literature,Phoenix Publishing Co., Inc.
Torres, Myrna S. 1997. English for Secondary Schools. Copyright, FNB Educational,
Inc.
Torres, Myrna S. 2000. Moving Ahead in English II. FNB Educational, Inc.
English Teachers’ Guide, Second Year High School, Learning Package 2. 2007.
Fund for Assistance to Private Education.
Online Sources
http://www.eduplace.com./graaphic organizer
https://www.google.com.ph.
https://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/engramja/elements,html
http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/tips/bibform.htm/
http://grammar.abnet.com/od./ab/g/appendix term.htm
Unescodoc.unesco.org./ciges
www.scribct.com/doc.725397772/synopsis of Afro-Asian Literature
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After you had traced your Afro-Asian roots in
Lesson 1, you are now aware that there is more
to discover about the traditions and beliefs of our
Asian neighbors. Have you ever thought of
traveling around Asia or Africa? Have you
thought of the rich cultural heritage of these places? How about its diversity? If
not, Lesson 2 will provide you a deeper look into their rich cultural heritage and
its diversity as you will revisit their rich past.
Our world is becoming much smaller. In this kind of world we are living now,
understanding and appreciating other’s diverse cultural heritage become more
vital. In the ASEAN Region, member states are preparing for 2015 – the year
when their boundaries open to one another in terms of trade, finance, and
culture. This means that a person living in the ASEAN Region needs to prepare
for embracing its diverse heritage and rich past.
In this lesson, you will revisit the rich past of the Afro-Asian people. In doing
so, you may consider looking into the diverse traditions and beliefs of Afro-
Asians. As you go in this lesson, remember to answer the following questions:
How does the study of Afro-Asian literature help you increase your
communicative competence?
How will it guide you to understand the diversity of cultural heritage in
Asia and Africa?
How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and/or harmony?
How does diversity contribute to unity?
You need to think about these questions now and then as you proceed in
this lesson. Sure enough, when you have answered the questions above and
have done the activities in this lesson, it will prepare you to live in a more

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills below and the lesson map.
 Employ appropriate listening skills when listening to descriptive and long narrative
texts. (Listening Comprehension)
 Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing selection
using a set of criteria developed in consultation. (Reading Comprehension)
 Discern positive and negative messages conveyed by a program viewed. (Viewing
Comprehension)
 React appropriately and provide suggestions based on an established fact. (Viewing
Comprehension)
 Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis. (Viewing
Comprehension)
 Follow task-based directions shown after viewing. (Viewing Comprehension)
 Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by the facial expressions of interlocutors.
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(Viewing Comprehension)
 Ask for and give information, express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes explicitly
and implicitly in an informative talk. (Speaking)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary. (Vocabulary
Development)
 Show understanding and appreciation for the different genres with emphasis on types
contributed by Asian countries. (Literature)
 Communicate thoughts and feelings in write-ups of summary results, notes, etc. using
appropriate styles (formal and informal). (Writing and Composition)
 Use varied adjective complementation and formulates correct complex, compound-
complex sentences and appropriate parenthetical expression. (Grammar Skills)
 Uses writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of resources. (Study
Below is the lesson map to guide you in Revisiting Our Rich Past:
Cul-lit Misconceptions Check
What’s with the Bubbles?
Finding Connections (Picture and
Situational Analysis)
Like Like Like!
KNOW
What’s with the Pics?
S-Cube (Short Story in Scrutiny)
A Day as an English Translator
Taxi Ride Anyone?
Heritage, Culture, and Diversity
Your Culture is my Culture
I See Heritage (ICH)
Around the World through ICH
I-C-H Terminologies
Sang Kancil Needs Help!
Sang Kancil and Pilandok
A Letter for Pilandok
A Deeper Look on Heritage Literature
Ouch literature (Outline your Cultural
Heritage Literature)
Literature and Heritage in Color
Beautiful Adjectives
Concept Mapping and Mind Mapping
Drama Essentials
Deeper into Ancient Theatre
Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup Story
Strip
Making a Filmed Movie Review
PROCESS
Introspecting your Misconceptions
Closeness is the Key
Converging Circles for Culture
Perspectives on Cultural Diversity
Dreaming for Cultural Unity in
Singapore
Remembering Claude Lévi-Strauss
Becoming a Movie Critic
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Finding the Right One (The Movie)
 Write a movie review with the
aid of advanced organizers to
be presented in an audio-video
TRANSFER
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For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
Directions: Below are statements related to the
big ideas/concepts in this lesson. Read them and
write T if the statements are TRUE and F if they are FALSE. Write your
answer in the space provided.
Let us find out how much you already know about this
lesson. Below are activities that can assess your prior
knowledge and misconceptions on the big ideas in this
module. Answer them accordingly, then seek the guidance
of your teacher to interpret the results, then use it as a guide
Activity 1: CUL-LIT MISCONCEPTIONS
CHECK

Statements

Answer
1. People from the same nation or geographic region, or those who speak
the same language, share a common culture.

2. Culture is based on nationality.
3. Families from the same culture share the same values.
4. Some cultures are just more evolved than others.
5. Multiculturalism is divisive.
6. In predominantly monocultural or bicultural societies, there is no need to
study other cultures.

7. Globalization is causing an inevitable homogenization of culture.
8. Most people identify with only one culture.
9. Studying literature can help you understand different cultures or time
periods.

10. The study of literature allows people to develop new ideas, ethical
standpoints and to present themselves as educated members of the
society.

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Activity 2: WHAT’S WITH THE BUBBLES?
Directions: Answer the questions below. Write your answers in the parts of
the bubbles as indicated.
1. What’s the difference among the literature of Malaysia, Singapore, and
the Philippines? Write it on the space that does not overlap in each of
the bubbles.
2. What’s the same with the literature of those three countries? Write it in
the parts of the bubble that overlap. Compare your answers with your
How do you find Activities 1 and 2? Did they help you rethink/reconsider
your understandings on the big ideas/key concepts? What are your learning
goals and targets? If you have thought of them, then it is time for you to
move on in the next phase of this lesson. As you do the activities below,
consider these questions: How do traditions and beliefs bring about
diversity and/or harmony? How does diversity contribute to unity?

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Activity 3: FINDING CONNECTIONS (PICTURE AND SITUATIONAL
Directions: Read the text in the box below. Then answer the questions that
follow.






Christian is currently
working as a
program producer
for a history cable
channel stationed at
Malaysia.

As the newest
member of the
production, he was
tasked by his
executives to come
up with a
documentary
featuring the Afro-
Asian people.

He is browsing some
pictures he got during
his last trip within the
countries in
Southeast Asia.
Then, at a “eureka”
moment, he thought
of a theme for the
documentary.

Looking on the
pictures he has,
what do you think is
the theme Christian
has thought of for
the documentary?
Explain your
answer.

Write your answer in
a sheet of paper.












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Activity 4: LIKE LIKE LIKE!
Directions: Look at each picture on the previous activity. Tell if the picture
is related to traditions or beliefs. Encircle the word “Like” under the
column of your choice. Then comment on the picture by justifying your
answer.
Picture No. Traditions Beliefs
1 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:
2 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:
3 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:

4 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:
5 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:

6 Like Like
Comment:



7 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:
8 Like Like
Comment:


Comment:

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Activity 5: LIVING IN PERFECT HARMONY
Directions: Look at the words inside the boxes below. Analyze the
relationship of the words to one another and write a short paragraph using
the words.
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
Congratulations! You have just tried finding out how diverse the traditions
and beliefs of Afro-Asian people are and how this diversity can contribute to
harmony and unity.
In completing this lesson, you have to write a movie review with the
aid of advanced organizers to be presented in an audio-video format.
Your teacher will grade it based on the following:
 content
 presentation
 creativity
 organization
 use of advance organizers
As you continue with this module, reflect on your answers on the previous
activities frequently and don’t hesitate to revise them. But for now, write your
initial thoughts on the focus questions posted at the beginning of this lesson in
the Map of Conceptual Change. You will complete this map as you continue in

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My Initial
Thoughts
My Findings
and
My
Supporting
Qualifying
Conditions
MY
GENERALIZATIONS
















MAP OF CONCEPTUAL CHANGE
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Your goal in this section is to learn and understand big
ideas/key concepts on appreciating the diverse cultural
heritage of Afro-Asians reflected in the different forms of
literature; and develop your communication skills at the same
time. You shall focus on the literature of these two Asian
countries – Malaysia and Singapore, but you will also look
back on our country’s rich past as you compare it to those
two countries.
Reflect on these questions as you do the activities:
 How does the study of Afro-Asian literature help you
increase your communicative competence?
 How will it guide you to understand the diversity of
cultural heritage in Asia and Africa?
 How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and/or harmony?
 How does diversity contribute to unity?
Activity 6: WHAT’S WITH THE PICS?
Directions: Look at the pictures below. Write a short photo essay about
the pictures by sensing the relationships among them. When you are done,
proceed to reading the text on the next page.



__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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Sometimes, the simplest person can be the most truthful person you will
ever meet. Will you ride in a taxi with a driver willing to share his personal
stories? See how this Singaporean shares his story as a taximan. Read the
The Taximan’s Story
by Catherine Lim
V
ery good, Madam. Sure, will take you there in plenty good time for your meeting,
madam. This way better, less traffic, less car jams. Half hour should make it,
madam, so not to worry.
2
What is it you say, madam? Yes, yes, ha, ha, been taxi man for twenty years now,
madam. Long time ago. Singapore not like this so crowded so busy. Last time more
peaceful, not so much taximen, or so much cars and buses.
3
Yes madam, can make a living. So so. What to do. Must work hard if wants to
success in Singapore. People like us, no education, no capital for business, we must
sweat to earn money for wife and children.
4
Yes, madam, quite big family---eight children, six sons, two daughters. Big family!
Ha! Ha! No good, madam. In those days. Where got Family Planning in Singapore?
People born many, many children, every year, one childs. Is no good at all. Today is
much better. Two children, three children, enough, stop. Our government say stop.
5
Luck for me, all my children big now. Four of my sons working---one a
businessman, two clerks, one a teacher in Primary school, one in National Service, one
still schooling, in Secondary Two. My eldest daughter, she is twenty plus, stay at home,
help the mother. No, not married yet---Very shy and her health not so good, but a good,
and obedient girl. My other girl Oh, Madam! Very hard for father when daughter is no
good and go against her parents. Very sad like punishment from God. Today, young
people not like us when we are young. We obey. Our parents say don’t do this, we never
do. Otherwise, the cane. My father cane me. I was big enough to be married, and still,
got caning. My father he was very strict, and that is good thing for parents to be strict. If
not, young boys and girls become very useless. Do not want to study, but run away, and
go to night clubs and take drugs and make love. You agree with me madam?
6
Today, young people they are very trouble to their parents. Madam, you see this
young people over there, outside the coffee house? See what I mean, madam? They
are only school boys and school girls, but they act like big shots, spending money,
smoking, wearing latest fashion, and making love. Ah, Madam, I know, I know! As
taximan, I know them and their habits. Madam, you are a teacher, you say? You know or
not that young school girls, fifteen, sixteen years old, they go to public lavatory or hotel
and change into these clothes, and they put make-up on their face. Their parents never
know. They tell their Mum got school meeting, got sports and games, this, that, but they
really come out and play the fool.
7
Ah, madam, I see you surprise, but I know, I know all their tricks. I take them about
in my taxi. They usual is wait in bowling alley or coffee house or hotel, and they walk up,
and friend, friend, the European and American tourists, and this is how they make fun
and also extra money. Madam, you believe or not when I tell you how much money they
got? I say! Last night, madam, fourth floor flat---and she open her purse to pay me, and I
say! All American notes---ten dollar notes all, and she pull one out and say keep change
as she has no time already. Madam, I tell you this, every month, I get more money from
these young girls and their American and European boyfriends in my taxi, more than I
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get from other people who bargain and say don’t want go by meter and wait even for ten
cents change. Phui!! Some of them really make me mad. But these young girls and their
boyfriends don’t bargain, they just pay, pay, and they make love in taxi so much they don’t
know if you go round and round and charge them by meter! I tell you, Madam, some of
them don’t care how much they spend on taxis. It is like this: after the 1 a.m. taxi fare
double, and I prefer working this time, because naturally, much more money. I go and wait
outside Elroy Hotel or Tung Court or Orchid mansions, and sure enough, madam, will have
plenty business. Last Saturday, madam, no joking, on one day alone I make nearly one
hundred and fifty dollars! Some of it for services. Some of tourists don’t know where, so I
tell them and take them there, and that’s extra money. Ah, madam, if I tell you, no end to
the story.
8
But I will tell you this, Madam. If you have a young daughter and she says Mummy I
got meeting today in school and will not come home, you must not say, Yes, yes but you
must go and ask her where and why and who, and you find out. Today young people not to
trust, like young people in many years ago. Oh, Madam, I tell you because I myself have a
daughter---oh, madam, a daughter I love very much, and she is so good and study hard.
And I see her report cards and her teacher write “Good work” and “Excellent” so on, so on.
Oh, madam, she my favorite child, and I ask her what she want to be after left school, and
she says go to University. None of my other children could go to University, but this one,
she is very smart and intelligent---no boasting, madam her teachers write “Good” and
“Excellent”, and so on, so on, in her report cards. She study at home, and help the mother,
but sometime a little lazy, and she say teacher want her to go back to school to do extra
work, extra coaching, in her weak subject, which is maths, madam. So I let her stay back in
school and day after day she come home in evening, then she do her studies and go to
sleep. Then one day, oh madam, it makes me so angry even now---one day, I in my taxi
driving, driving along and hey! I see a girl looking like my Lay Choo, with other girls and
some European outside a coffee---house but I think, it cannot be Lay Choo, how can, Lay
Choo is in school, and this girl is all dressed up and make-up, and very bold in her
behavior, and this is not like my daughter at all. Then they all go inside the coffee-house,
and my heart is very, very--- hoe you describe it, madam, my heart is very “susah hati” and
I say to myself, I will watch that Lay Choo and see her monkey tricks.
9
The very next day she is there again I stop my taxi, madam, and I am so angry. I
rush up to this wicked daughter and I catch her by the shoulders and neck, and slap her
and she scream, but I don’t care. Then I drag her to my taxi and drive all the way home,
and at home I trash her stupid fool and I beat her and slap her till like hell. My wife and
some neighbors they pull me away, and I think if they not pull me away, I sure to kill that
girl. I lock her up in her room for three days, and I ashamed to tell her teacher, so I just tell
the teacher that Lay Choo is sick, so please to excuse her. Oh, madam, how you feel in my
place? Make herself so cheap, when her father drive taxi all day to save money for her
University.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is the irony of this story?
2. What are the themes raised in the story?
3. How realistic is the story?
4. What do you think of the taxi man? Do you sympathize with him? Explain.
5. Do you agree with his lamenting?
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6. What about the other characters in the story? Do you feel sympathy over them?
7. What do you think on the way the story is written? How does it relate to the taxi man?
8. How does this story appeal to the “strict discipline” image of Singapore?

How do you find the story? Did you understand it in your first reading? How
do you find the language of the taximan? What form of literature is it?
The text you have just read is a short story. It is a brief imaginative narrative,
unfolding a single predominating incident and a single or a few characters. It
contains a plot, the details of which are so compressed and the whole
treatment so organized as to provide a single impression. A short story can be
compared to a photograph; it captures a single moment in life, as compared to
a novel which covers more. That is why a short story is shorter than a novel, but short
stories are not always “short” as you may think. For as long as they depict single plots,
they are short stories, no matter how many pages they may take.
1. Conflict is essential to the plot. Without conflict there is no plot. It is the struggle
between two or more opposing forces which is the nucleus of the plot. It is the
opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.
There are two main types of conflict – external and internal conflict. External
conflict is a struggle with a force outside one’s self. Internal conflict is the character’s
struggle within oneself. A person must make some decisions, overcome pain, quiet
their temper, resist anger, etc.
a. Human vs. human (physical) – the leading character struggles with his
This scene from Spider Man 3 clearly
depicts the concept of human vs.
human - Spider Man punches Sand
Man in a battle scene.
b. Human vs. society (social) – the leading character struggles against ideas,
practices, or customs of other people.
Quasimodo of “The Hunchback of
Notre Dame” is a clear example of a
character that experienced this kind
of conflict.
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c. Human vs. nature – the leading character struggles the forces of nature.
This scene from the sci-fi movie
“2012” clearly shows how horrible it is
to face nature as an opponent.
d. Human vs. God or Supreme Being - the leading character struggles
This scene is from the “War of the
Worlds” movie in 2005. This clearly
shows how struggle against the forces
e. Human vs. self (psychological) – the leading character struggles with
himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical
limitations, choices among others.
In the movie Ironman, Tony Stark
has to choose between saving the
world and keeping his powers for
himself.
A story may have a single conflict or many conflicts, as well as major or minor
conflicts.
2. Character could have two meanings – the person in a work of fiction or the
characteristics of a person. Short stories use fewer characters. One character is
clearly central to the story with all major events having some importance to this
character; he/she is the protagonist, while the person (or force) that opposes the main
character is called the antagonist.
In order for a story to seem real to the reader, its characters must seem real.
Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters
themselves. The author may reveal a character in several ways:
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a. Direct characterization (expository) – this method allows the writer to present the
character’s physical traits and personality. The character traits are explicitly brought
out by the writer using descriptive words.
b. Indirect characterization (dramatic) – this method allows the readers to deduce the
traits of the characters through their thoughts, words, actions, and decisions. They
Characters also have types:
a. Static or flat characters – they are characters who do not have flesh and blood
qualities. They normally do not undergo changes throughout the story.
Example: A driver who appears in the story remains a driver until the end.
b. Dynamic (full or rounded) characters – they are characters who live lives of sorrow
and joy, sinking or swimming in the visible tides of life – very much like us. They are
capable of undergoing changes.
Example: A beggar whom the major character helped before becomes a rich man
Characters can be said effective if they are consistent, motivated and lifelike
(resemble real people).
3. Point of View (P.O.V.) is defined as the angle or perspective from which the story is
a. First Person – the story is told by the protagonist or another character that
interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using first person
pronouns “I”, “me”, “we”, for instance). The reader sees the story through this
person’s eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or
feels.
b. Innocent Eyes – the story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment
being different from that of an adult).
c. Stream of Consciousness – the story is told so that the reader feels as if they
are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions.
d. Second Person – this is used rarely. The main character in the story is referred
to using the second person pronoun “you”. The second person is most often used
in training manuals and role-playing games.
e. Third Person – the story is told using a narrator who is located outside the action
of the story and uses third person pronouns such as “he”, “she”, “his”, “her”,
“they”, for example. The third person point of view can be broken up into three
1) Omniscient – literally means “all knowing”. Using the third person omniscient
point of view, the narrator can move from character to character, event to
event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of any
character and can introduce information where and when he or she chooses.
2) Limited Omniscient – the story is told by a third person narrator but from the
viewpoint of a character in the story, usually the main character or
protagonist. The reader has access to the thoughts and feelings of only one
character.
3) Objective – the author tells the story in the third person. It appears as though
a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only
what is seen and heard. There is no comment on the characters or their
thoughts. No interpretations are offered. The reader is placed in the position
of spectator without the author there to explain. The reader has to interpret
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How do conflict and point of view contribute to the development of a
character in a short story?
2. Why is it important to establish conflict and point of view effectively in
revealing and developing the character/s in a short story?
3. How does a clear establishment of conflict provide direction for a story?
4. What is the importance of understanding the elements of short stories in
reading narratives?
Activity 7: S-CUBE (SHORT STORY IN SCRUTINY)
A. Story House
Direction: Complete the story house below by writing the details about
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B. Story Matrix
Directions: Think like a story editor. Write the elements of short story down the side.
Write the criteria for a good story across at the top. Make a + (for yes) or a – (for no)
in each box. Use “The Taximan’s Story” for this activity.




Elements
of a Short
Story
CRITERIA









1.




2.




3.




4.




5.




6.




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C. Characterization Chart
Direction: Fill out this chart to describe the characters of the short story “The
Taximan’s Story”.
Character/s
1. Direct
Characterization
(from the narrator)

This occurs when the
narrator makes direct
statements about the
character.














2. Indirect
Characterization
(from the character’s
own words and
actions)

This occurs when the
words and actions of a
character reveal aspects
of his/her personality.
















3. Indirect
Characterization
(from the words and
actions of other
characters)

We also learn about
characters from the words
and actions of other
characters.
















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D. Analyzing a Short Story’s Theme
Direction: Answer the following questions in the boxes to help you figure out the
Questions to help clarify theme Responses with examples from the
story
2. What changes occur in the main
character during the course of the
story? Does the main character realize
something he or she did not know
before?






3. What are the important statements
about life or people made, either by the
narrator or characters, in the story?






4. Is the theme ever directly stated? If so,
where is it stated?




5. In one sentence, state the story’s
theme. Do you agree with the theme?
Is the writer presenting a truth about life
or forcing us to accept a false view?



1. What does the title signify in the story?
Does it point out to a truth the story
reveals about life?




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E. Elements of a Short Story Worksheet
Direction: Accomplish this worksheet to have an overall grasp of the short story you
have just examined.
Setting Place:

Time:

Weather:

Social Conditions:

Mood/Atmosphere:

Plot











Conflict Human vs.

Point of View

Character Dynamic:

Static:

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Characterization Character’s Name:

Physical Traits:



Personality Traits:

1)


2)


3)


Theme List any themes in the story:







What can you say about “The Taximan’s Story”? Why are the pieces of
information about its elements useful in understanding it? How about the
structure of the sentences? Are they clearly written? How do you say so?
In this part of the module, you will learn how to construct compound and
compound-complex sentences. After having this short lecture, do the
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For you to understand clearly how to construct compound and compound-
complex sentences, you have to go back with your ideas about the other
types of sentences. Here is a short lecture about the four types.
Simple sentence: A sentence with one independent clause and no
dependent clauses.

A simple sentence contains ONE idea. It contains a subject (who or what is being
talked about) and a predicate (which tells something about the subject). A simple
sentence can have two subjects (called a compound subject) or two predicates (called a
compound predicate).
 I must go off to Hotel Elroy.
 I have been a taxi man for twenty years.
 Lay Choo and her friends wait outside the coffee shop.
 I go and wait outside Elroy Hotel or Tung Court or Orchid mansions.

Compound Sentence: A sentence with multiple independent clauses but no
dependent clauses.
A compound sentence is two simple sentences joined together. These sentences can
be joined by a comma-conjunction combination, a semi-colon, or (in special
circumstances) a colon.
 My father was very strict, and it is a good thing for parents to be strict.
 I was big enough to be married, and still, I got caned.
 The taxi man and the teacher love their conversation; however, the taxi man has to
leave.
 Singapore is a good place for travel: Cultural diversity is evident.

Complex Sentence: A sentence with one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause.
A complex sentence is a simple sentence plus one of the following tools: appositive
phrase, participial phrase, adverb clause (or phrase), adjective clause (or phrase), or
absolute phrase.
A simple sentence contains ONE idea. A complex sentence has TWO OR MORE
ideas intermixed. A complex sentence can always be rewritten into two sentences. In the
sentences below, the elements underlined turn the sentence from being simple sentence
to complex sentence:
 After following Lay Choo for a couple of days, he discovered that her daughter is
just like the girls he fetches in his taxi.
 While the taxi man believes her daughter is at school, Lay Choo is doing
something that his father never thought of.

Complex-Compound Sentence: A sentence with multiple independent clauses
and at least one dependent clause.
A compound-complex sentence is a compound sentence with at least one complex
element (e.g., appositive phrase, participial phrase, adverb clause (or phrase), adjective
clause (or phrase), or absolute phrase) attached. Compound-Complex sentences can get
extremely lengthy.
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Activity 8: A DAY AS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATOR
English is one of the official languages of Singapore. As you have read
“The Taximan’s Story”, act as an English translator for him. Help him
improve his sentence construction skills and correct his sentences by
referring to the previous lecture.
1. Luck for me, all my children big now.
2. This way better, less traffic, less car jams.
3. Must work hard if wants to success in Singapore.
4. Long time ago. Singapore not like this so crowded so busy.
1
Set A
Set C
Set B
1. No, not married yet---Very shy and her health not so good, but a
good, and obedient girl.
2. Oh, madam, she my favorite child, and I ask her what she want to
be after left school, and she says go to University.
3. Do not want to study, but run away, and go to night clubs and take drugs
and make love.
4. My eldest daughter, she is twenty plus, stay at home, help the mother.
2
1. You know or not that young schoolgirls, fifteen, sixteen years old,
they go to public lavatory or hotel and change into these clothes,
and they put make-up on their face.
2. They usual is wait in bowling alley or coffee house or hotel, and they
walk up, and friend, friend, the European and American tourists, and this is
how they make fun and also extra money.
3. She study at home, and help the mother, but sometime a little lazy, and
she say teacher want her to go back to school to do extra work, extra
coaching, in her weak subject, which is maths, madam.
4. So I let her stay back in school and day after day she come home in
evening, then she do her studies and go to sleep.
5. I rush up to this wicked daughter and I catch her by the shoulders and
3
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Activity 9: TAXI-RIDE ANYONE?
Directions: Focus on the two characters of “The Taximan’s Story”. Write the
thoughts of the taxi man and of the teacher in each paragraph. Use
compound and compound-complex sentences in your short paragraph.




paragraph
no.
________


Were you able to accomplish the activities above? How did your analysis
on “The Taxi Man’s Story” help you increase your competence in constructing
sentences, specifically compound and compound-complex sentences?
In another angle, the taxi man is a living witness to Singapore’s existence
as a multicultural community. How does this situation contribute to diversity of
cultural heritage, especially to literature?
As you continue on this module, you are going to seek the existence of
diversity on cultural heritage in Malaysia and Singapore, focusing more on
their intangible heritage, and at the same time, reflecting if diversity of cultural

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Activity 10: HERITAGE, CULTURE, AND DIVERSITY
Directions: Gather information about intangible cultural heritage by
watching the following videos on YouTube. Use the link given for each
video to access them on the internet. Use the guide questions for each
video to make your research easier.




A. Intangible Cultural Heritage
www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUnd0Nqvq80

B. Introduction to Intangible Cultural
Heritage (ICH) in Scotland
www.youtube.com/watch?
v=oy47guq0S5M&feature=related
Guide Questions:

1. What is intangible cultural heritage or
ICH?
2. What can be regarded as intangible
cultural heritage according to UNESCO?
3. Where can we find manifestations or
expressions of intangible cultural
heritage?
4. What factors pose danger to ICH?
5. How can we protect ICH?
A
B
C
C. Why safeguard intangible cultural
heritage?
Guide Questions:

1. What organization is tasked to safeguard
intangible cultural heritage?
2. Why do we need to safeguard intangible
cultural heritage?
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D
D. Why safeguard ICH? Answers from
Australia
Guide Questions:

1. What role does ICH have in combating the
negative impacts of globalization?
2. How can intangible heritage help people
manage their resources?
Use the space below for your answers and then complete the concept web.
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

Intangible
Cultural
Main Idea
Detail
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Activity 11: YOUR CULTURE IS MY CULTURE
How do the pictures that follow present diversity of cultural heritage? Take
note of the words, phrases, sentences, and the figures included in the
frame. Establish the relationship of these elements to come up with the
concept of diversity of cultural heritage. Complete the concept maps on the
next page.



_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
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Concept Map of Diverse Cultural Heritage
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Activity 12: I SEE HERITAGE (ICH)
Read the following article from UNESCO about intangible cultural heritage.
Then answer the questions that follow.
What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?

The term ‘cultural heritage’ has changed content considerably in recent decades,
partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO. Cultural heritage does not end
at monuments and collections of objects. It also includes traditions or living expressions
inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions,
performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices
concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce
traditional crafts.
While fragile, intangible cultural heritage is an important factor in maintaining cultural
diversity in the face of growing globalization. An understanding of the intangible cultural
heritage of different communities helps with intercultural dialogue, and encourages
mutual respect for other ways of life.
The importance of intangible cultural heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself
but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted through it from one
generation to the next. The social and economic value of this transmission of knowledge
is relevant for minority groups and for mainstream social groups within a State, and is as
important for developing States as for developed ones.
Intangible cultural heritage is:
 Traditional, contemporary and living at the same time: intangible cultural heritage
does not only represent inherited traditions from the past but also contemporary rural
and urban practices in which diverse cultural groups take part;
 Inclusive: we may share expressions of intangible cultural heritage that are similar to
those practiced by others. Whether they are from the neighboring village, from a city
on the opposite side of the world, or have been adapted by peoples who have
migrated and settled in a different region, they all are intangible cultural heritage: they
have been passed from one generation to another, have evolved in response to their
environments and they contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity,
providing a link from our past, through the present, and into our future. Intangible
cultural heritage does not give rise to questions of whether or not certain practices are
specific to a culture. It contributes to social cohesion, encouraging a sense of identity
and responsibility which helps individuals to feel part of one or different communities
and to feel part of society at large;
 Representative: intangible cultural heritage is not merely valued as a cultural good,
on a comparative basis, for its exclusivity or its exceptional value. It thrives on its
basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions, skills and
customs are passed on to the rest of the community, from generation to generation,
or to other communities;
 Community-based: intangible cultural heritage can only be heritage when it is
recognized as such by the communities, groups or individuals that create, maintain
and transmit it – without their recognition, nobody else can decide for them that a
given expression or practice is their heritage.
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1. What is intangible cultural heritage according to UNESCO?
2. How can understanding intangible cultural heritage help in understanding
other people’s way of life?
3. What makes intangible cultural heritage different from the tangible ones such
as heritage sites?
4. What might happen if people did not realize the importance of intangible cul-
tural heritage and did not create steps to safeguard it? Why do you say so?
PROCESS QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITY:
Activity 13: AROUND THE WORLD THROUGH ICH
Read the text below and study the different presentations on the number of
intangible heritage list around the world by UNESCO. Then answer the
questions that follow.
The Intangible Heritage List

1) The List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding is composed
of intangible heritage elements* that concerned communities and States Parties
consider require urgent measures to keep them alive. Inscriptions on this List help to
mobilize international cooperation and assistance for stakeholders to undertake
appropriate safeguarding measures. In 2009, the Committee inscribed 12 and in 2010
- 4 elements. In 2011, it inscribed additionally 11 elements.
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2) The Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity is made up of
those intangible heritage practices and expressions help demonstrate the diversity of
this heritage and raise awareness about its importance. It aims at ensuring better
visibility of the intangible cultural heritage and raising awareness of its importance while
encouraging dialogue that respects cultural diversity. The Committee incorporated 90
elements in 2008 (items formerly proclaimed Masterpieces) and inscribed 76
elements in 2009 and 47 elements in 2010. In 2011, 19 new elements have been
added to the list.

3) The Register of Best Safeguarding Practices includes programs, projects and activities
on the national, sub regional and/or international levels that the Committee considers to
best reflect the principles and objectives of the Convention. It aims at ensuring
exchange and cooperation at the international level for programs with proven success
in safeguarding intangible cultural heritage. Three programs were selected for the
Register in 2009 by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the
Intangible Cultural Heritage. In 2011, five more programs were added to the list.

4) Following the sixth session of the Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible
Cultural Heritage, held in Bali, Indonesia, in November 2011, there are 27 elements on
the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, 232 elements
on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, and 8
programs included in the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices.

* — are components of a country's cultural heritage that are equally as important as
physical cultural elements, like World Heritage Sites. The elements are abstract and
must be learned, encompassing traditional knowledge which includes festivals, music,
performances, celebrations, handicrafts, and oral traditions.
A. Bar Graph of UNESCO Intangible Heritage List
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Questions:
1. Which parts of the text are being presented here?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. What is the trend in:
a. urgent safeguarding list?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
b. representative list?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
c. register of best safeguarding practices?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

3. What conclusion/s can you draw from this graph?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
B. Numerical Table of UNESCO Intangible Heritage List
2008 2009 2010 2011 TOTAL
Urgent
Safeguarding
List
0 12 4 11 27
Representative
List
90 76 47 19 232
Register of Best
Safeguarding
Practices
0 3 0 5 8
TOTAL 90 91 51 35 267
Questions:
1. Which part of the text is being presented in:
a. row A? __________________________________________________________
b. row B? __________________________________________________________
c. row C? __________________________________________________________
d. the last column? __________________________________________________

2. What can you say about the:
a. horizontal entries in the table (per category)?
_________________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
b. vertical entries in the table (per year)?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

3. What conclusion/s can you draw from this table?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
C. Pie Chart for
Questions:
1. Which parts of the text are being presented here?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. What can you say about the percentage of elements listed for each year? as a
whole? Is there a trend? Why?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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____________________________________________________________________
3. What conclusion/s can you draw from this pie chart?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
D. Information Map of UNESCO Intangible Heritage List
Questions:
1. Which part of the text is being presented in this information map?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. How do you see the map in giving information about the elements of intangible
heritage list? How do you interpret the “shade of color” of the countries by the use of
the legend in the bottom left corner of the map?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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3. What conclusion/s can you draw from this information map?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Activity 14: I-C-H TERMINOLOGIES
Directions: Use the Term or Phrase Frame to write the terms or phrases
you have learned about intangible cultural heritage. Use one frame for
each term you have learned.
TERM OR PHRASE:

What I Already
Know
What I Am Learning My Picture/Image










EXAMPLES NON-EXAMPLES








EXTENDING MY LEARNING

(TERM OR PHRASE): _______________ as _______________ : _______________


(TERM OR PHRASE): _______________ as _______________ : _______________


(TERM OR PHRASE): _______________ as _______________ : _______________

Term or Phrase Frame
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How do you find the activities on intangible cultural heritage? Those
activities should have prepared you to find diversity among cultural heritage
among Afro-Asian people, specifically in Singapore and Malaysia, and see how
this diversity can lead to unity, peace, and harmony.
As you continue, you will encounter other literary pieces showing diversity
of cultural heritage and examples of intangible cultural heritage from Singapore
and Malaysia. You will see how intangible cultural heritage is reflected and

Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.
Outwitting a Crocodile
(Kisah Sang Kancil dengan Buaya)
A Traditional Malaysian Folktale
S
ang Kancil is a clever, tricky mouse deer who is always finding himself in
predicaments with animals that want to eat him or harm him, but he cleverly
manages to escape each time. In this story, Sang Kancil outwits a big, bad
crocodile.
Sang Kancil was a clever mouse deer. Whenever he was in a bad situation, he
always played a clever trick to escape. In this story, Sang Kancil outwitted Sang Buaya, a
big, bad crocodile, who wanted to eat him.
There were many trees where Sang Kancil's lived along the river, so he never had
trouble finding food. There were always lots of leaves.
He spent his time running and jumping and looking into
the river.
Sang Buaya, the big bad crocodile, lived in the river
with other crocodiles. They were always waiting to
catch Sang Kancil for dinner. One day when Sang
Buaya was walking along the river, he saw some
delicious fruit on the trees on the other side of the river.
Sang Kancil wanted to taste the tasty-looking fruit
because he was a little tired of eating leaves. He tried to
think of a way to cross the river, but he had to be
careful. He didn't want to be caught and eaten by Sang
Buaya. He needed to trick Sang Buaya.
Sang Kancil suddenly had an idea. He called out to
the crocodile, "Sang Buaya! Sang Buaya!" Sang Buaya
slowly came out of the water and asked Sang Kancil
why he was shouting his name. He asked Sang Kancil,
"Aren't you afraid I will eat you?" Then he opened his
big mouth very wide to scare Sang Kancil.
Sang Kancil said, "Of course, I am afraid of you, but
the king wants me to do something. He is having a big
feast with lots of food, and he is inviting everyone,
including you and all the other crocodiles. But first, I have to count all of you. He needs to
know how many of you will come. Please line up across the river, so I can walk across
Image from http://dimdima.com/
khazana
He stepped on each crocodile,
counting each one, and finally
reached the other side of the
river.
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your heads and count all of you."
Sang Buaya was excited and left to tell the other crocodiles about the feast with all the
good food. Soon, they came and made a line across the river. Sang Kancil said, "Promise
not to eat me or I can't report to the king how many of you are coming.” They promised not
to eat him.
Sang Kancil stepped on Sang Buaya's head and counted one. Then he stepped on the
next one and said, "Two." He stepped on each crocodile, counting each one, and finally
reached the other side of the river. Then he said to Sang Buaya,"Thank you for helping me
to cross the river to my new home."
Sang Buaya was shocked and angry. He shouted at Sang Kancil, "You tricked us!
There is no feast, is there?" All of the crocodiles looked at Sang Buaya angrily. They were
angry because he let Sang Kancil trick all of them.
Sang Kancil loved his new home on the other side of the river because he had a lot of
tasty food to eat. Poor Sang Buaya was not so lucky. After that, none of the other
crocodiles ever talked to him again.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How tricky is Sang Kancil? J ustify your answer.
2. Do you admire Sang Kancil’s wit? How can cleverness help solve problems?
Explain your answer.
3. What would you do after the incident if you are Sang Buaya? Why?
4. Is this story quite familiar to you? How would you compare it to our “Si
Sentences vary, not just in length and complexity, but also the “add-ons” it can
have. Sometimes, these add-ons can make its meaning clearer or more
informative, and sometimes, it’s better if they are omitted. One of these add-
ons is called parenthetical phrase.
A parenthetical phrase, sometimes called simply a parenthetical, is one that is not
essential to the framing sentence. In the preceding sentence, the phrase “sometimes
called simply a parenthetical” is itself a parenthetical because the segments of the
sentence that precede and follow it can be attached to form a complete sentence without
it. In short, a parenthetical phrase is one that is not essential to the framing sentence.
However, a parenthetical can also begin or end a sentence, and though only these
three syntactical variations exist, a parenthetical can be categorized as serving one of
eight functions. Here are five of the eight types, with a sentence that demonstrates each
one:

1. Appositive: In this case, the parenthetical is an appositive, a noun or noun phrase
placed in opposition to another such construction that defines or modifies the first.
Example: Sang Buaya, the big bad crocodile, lived in the river with other
crocodiles.

2. Absolute phrase: An absolute phrase, which contains at least a noun or a pronoun
and a participle, but not a true verb, modifies the entire sentence.
Example: Sang Buaya believed Sang Kancil’s words, leaving no room for any
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doubt.” (The phrase may also begin the sentence.)
3. Free modifier: A free modifier is an unspecialized interruption of additional information.
Example: Sang Kancil stepped into each crocodile and, counting them one by one,
crossed the river.

4. Interjection: An interjection imparts information about the writer’s (or speaker’s) state
of mind, as in this sentence in which Sang Kancil fully agrees to Sang Buaya’s
statement in the story.
Example: “Of course, I am afraid of you, but the king wants me to do something.”

5. Introductory phrase: This element preceding the main statement provides context for
Activity 15: SANG KANCIL NEEDS HELP!
Sang Kancil needs to find different parentheticals in statements about
Sang Buaya. Underline the parenthetical you can find in each sentence.
Then tell what type it is.
1. Sang Buaya talked to his friends and, thinking about Sang Kancil’s intelligence,
agreed to be more cautious.
2. I won’t let Sang Kancil, that tricky mouse deer, to cross this river again!
3. While on the river, Sang Buaya thought of eating Sang Kancil.
4. Planning their next move, Sang Buaya’s friends met at the riverside.
Sang Kancil needs to master parentheticals more. Help him by answering the next set
of items. Follow the same instructions in the previous set.
1. If you, an experienced chef, had trouble, how hard will it be for me?
2. J anice stayed up late, writing her oratorical piece.
3. While I was on vacation, I had an epiphany.
4. I stood up and, brushing off my pants, continued on my journey.
5. At long last, the contest is over!
Activity 16: SANG KANCIL AND PILANDOK
Complete this Venn diagram to compare Sang Kancil to Pilandok. Write in
the overlapping part of the bubble their similarities. Then write their
differences in
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Activity 17: LETTER FOR PILANDOK
Pretend you are Sang Kancil and you would like to share your story with
Pilandok. Write a letter for him narrating what just happened to you with
Sang Buaya. Use parentheticals in your letter.
Activity 18: A DEEPER LOOK ON HERITAGE LITERATURE
Read the following text and do the exercises that follow.
Heritage literary passages are versatile tools for language study. They illustrate
heritage literature (HL) in use (a wide range of styles, genres, registers, and varieties);
they provide meaningful and memorable contexts for vocabulary expansion and grammar
practice; they can serve as the basis for listening, reading, speaking, and writing
activities; and they develop students’ ability to think critically by inferring meaning,
making interpretations, and expressing their own ideas and emotions (Lazar 1993: 19).

 Vocabulary comprehension and expansion. Heritage learners can expand their
vocabulary by reading a variety of literary selections. In each text, the instructor will
highlight the lexical items related to the chapter's topic or theme. He/She may also
point out idiomatic expressions (to foster understanding of cultural commonalities and
differences), literary words, regionalisms, cultural connotations, words/phrases coined
by the author and adopted by the language, etc. Students will then be able to analyze
the key structural features of the language of the selection.

 Grammar identification and practice. Heritage literary texts can illustrate
grammatical structures taught in class. Students identify the target structures in the
passage and then practice them as they appear in that context or give examples
related to their own lives (personalization). A wide range of grammatical structures,
sentence types, and cohesive devices, especially those characteristic of the written
language, can be taught or reviewed.
Heritage Literature as a Teaching Tool
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 Spelling. Depending on the HL, "troublesome" words can be targeted in literary texts to
help learners improve their orthography or eliminate the interference of English spelling.

 Reading comprehension. Students can answer questions based on content. They can
fill in missing words, find synonyms for key words, paraphrase sentences, summarize
paragraphs or the text as a whole. Literary characters can be matched to actions or
facts related to them. Student drawings or collages based on the text will help students
visualize and remember the characters in the story.

 Oral and written literary assignments. A multitude of literary tasks empower students
to think and act critically and develop an appreciation of literature while developing
language proficiency (McKay 2001: 321-326). Such tasks include: describing the
features of a literary genre and identifying them in the reading; analyzing the
characters’ and/or the author’s point(s) of view; relating the text to the work it has been
excerpted from, and the work to the personal/historical circumstances in which it was
written; analyzing the literary techniques/ language/style used by the author; placing the
text/author within the heritage literary tradition; writing a literary analysis of the piece;
describing the relevance of the selection for contemporary readers in general and for
heritage learners in particular; and writing an argumentative essay about the literary
passage.

 Cultural understanding and appreciation. Heritage literature helps students
understand themselves, their families, and their communities better as members of a
particular culture. By reading folk tales and legends, for example, they learn about "the
origin of traditional cultural values and beliefs" (Diamond & Moore 1995: 221).

The understanding and appreciation of culture that results from the study of literature
helps students develop a positive self-image and attitude toward their heritage language
and culture.
If heritage literary works are compared to writings from the dominant culture or other,
heritage or non-heritage, cultures, students gain a deeper understanding, acceptance, and
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is the topic of the text?
2. What are the subtopics? Enumerate them.
3. Can you find details for the subtopics? Write them together with the subtopic
it supports.
4. How did heritage literature, like Outwitting a Crocodile, help you learn
English? Cite an example.
5. Is there a way you can organize the facts in your answers for question
number 1 to 3?
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Activity 19: OUCH LITERATURE (OUTLINE YOUR CULTURAL
HERITAGE LITERATURE)
Write an outline for the texts listed below. Have an agreement with your
teacher what kind of outline will be used for this activity.
Texts for outlining:
1. Heritage Literature as a Teaching Tool (Activity 19)
2. Outwitting a Crocodile (Reading Text)
3. What is Intangible Cultural Heritage (Activity 13)

Use the graphic organizer below in gathering entries for your outline. You may modify
M
a
i
n

T
o
p
i
c

/

T
o
p
i
c

S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e

o
r

T
h
e
s
i
s

S
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

Major Point 1 Sub point 1


Sub point 2


Sub point 3


Major Point 2 Sub point 1


Sub point 2


Sub point 3


Major Point 3 Sub point 1


Sub point 2


Sub point 3


Major Point 4 Sub point 1


Sub point 2


Sub point 3


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Activity 20: LITERATURE AND HERITAGE IN COLOR
The pictures below are from the previous activities and readings in this
lesson. Describe them by writing: (a) who/what is in the picture; (b) the action
you can see; and (c) the feelings he/she/it may have. Use the space given
for each picture.




The Taxi Man
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Sang Kancil
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Malaysia’s People and Culture
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Singapore’s People and Culture
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
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How were you able to describe the pictures? Did you use adjectives in
your answers? Probably you did. Did you try to compare the pictures to one
another? Do you know how to use adjectives to compare persons, things,
Adjectives enable us to describe, add color, clarify and make distinctions to our
words. Adjectives primarily modify nouns, pronouns and noun-derivatives.
Adjectives have forms or degrees. Most adjectives have different forms to
show degrees of comparison.

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison namely – the positive, the
comparative, and the superlative. Each one has a distinct use and ways to be formed.

1. Positive Degree
It describes a noun or pronoun without comparing it to anyone or anything else.

Examples: Sang Kancil was a clever mouse deer.
(The adjective clever modifies the noun mouse deer.)

Today, young people are not like us when we are young.
(The adjective young modifies the noun people.)

2. Comparative Degree
It compares two nouns or pronouns. This degree is formed by adding –er for one-
syllable and some two-syllable regular adjectives, or by adding more or less for three
-syllable (or more) adjectives.

Examples: Intangible heritage is harder to safeguard than the tangible ones.
(The two nouns being compared are intangible heritage and
tangible ones.)

Sang Buaya is more gullible than Sang Kancil.
(The two nouns being compared are Sang Buaya and Sang
Kancil.)

Foreigners are less tightfisted than local Singaporeans, said the
taximan.
(The two nouns being compared are foreigners and
Singaporeans.)

3. Superlative Degree
It compares three or more nouns. This degree is formed by adding –est for one-
syllable and some two-syllable regular adjectives, or by adding most or least for
three-syllable (or more) adjectives.

Examples: My oldest daughter stays at home and helps her mother.
(The comparison involves all his daughters.)

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Intangible heritage is the most viable cultural expressions of
humanity in terms of safeguarding.
(The comparison involves all types of heritage.)
Aside from regular adjectives, there are irregular ones that need to be memorized.
These adjectives have different words for the comparative and superlative degrees.

DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES
Positive Comparative Superlative
young younger youngest
hard harder hardest
old older oldest
clever more/less clever most/least clever
gullible more/less gullible most/least gullible
tightfisted more/less tightfisted most/least tightfisted
viable more/less viable most/least viable
good better best
bad worse worst
As you use more adjectives in your sentences, you might get confused on the order
these adjectives should be written or spoken. You need to familiarize yourself in the order
of adjectives in a series. Memorizing this will help you use adjectives correctly when
they are in a series.

ORDER OF ADJECTIVES IN A SERIES
Number Opi ni on Si ze Age Shape Col or Proper
adj ecti ve
Purpose/
Qual ifi er

two cute little Siberian puppies
strange old black jacket
blue cotton shorts
one amazing donut-
shaped
violet sofa
beautiful new Italian sports car
small antique gold wedding ring
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Activity 21: BEAUTIFUL ADJECTIVES
A. Classify the following adjectives as either two-syllable, three (or more)
syllable, or irregular adjectives. Use the space provided for.



Two-Syllable Adjectives Three (or more) Syllable
Adjectives
Irregular Adjectives














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B. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives. Use the
space provided for.


Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree















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C. Use the following adjectives to create sentences. Be sure to put adjectives in their
proper order if you are going to use them in a series.




Sound Adjectives
Feelings Adjectives
Condition Adjectives
Appearance Adjectives
D. Look at the picture below. Write a short descriptive essay about it. Use the adjectives
from the other parts of this activity. Make sure you also use cohesive devices
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Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing
knowledge. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of
some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting
line linking two concepts. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or
linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. We
define concept as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of
events or objects, designated by a label.
The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as
+or %, and sometimes more than one word is used. Propositions are statements about
some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed.
Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to
form a meaningful statement. Sometimes these are called semantic units, or units of
meaning.
Activity 22: CONCEPT MAPPING AND MIND MAPPING
Read the text below and do the exercises that follow.

Mind maps, on the other hand, is an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a
natural function of the human mind. It is a powerful graphic technique which provides a
universal key to unlocking the potential of the brain. The mind map can be applied to
every aspect of life where improved learning and clearer thinking will enhance human
performance. The mind map has four essential characteristics:
 The subject of attention is crystallized in a central image.
 The main themes of the subject radiate from the central image on branches.
 Branches hold a key image/word printed on the associated line - details radiate out.
 The branches form a connected nodal structure.
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Here is an example of a mind map together with the steps in making one:

A. The words in the ovals are some of the main concepts in this lesson. Create a
concept map using these words. Follow the example given in this activity.
Sentence Types
Intangible
Heritage
Heritage Literature
Elements of
Short Story
The Taxi
Man’s Story
Literature
Diversity
Malaysian
Folktale
Adjectives
Parenthetical
Communication
B. Choose one of these three main concepts and create a mind map. Follow the
example given in this activity.
Intangible Heritage Literature Communication Skills
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Activity 23: DRAMA ESSENTIALS
Watch this YouTube video clip on elements of drama. Take down notes
about the elements using concept mapping. Then together with your
teacher, perform a “Think Aloud” activity to study the examples for the
elements of drama embedded in the video. Use the questions below for the
“Think Aloud” activity:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcRv-BVsOT8
1. Introduction:
How many characters did you see? What are they doing? Can you grasp the idea of
their story through their words?
2. Characters:
What is the role of the man seated in front of the woman? How about the woman?
How did you know their roles?
3. Dialogue:
How were the two characters able to interact?
4. Plot Structure:
What can you say about the two women? Who are they? What is the conflict in the
story based on their dialogues?
5. Protagonist and Rising Action:
What did you notice on the scene? How is it related to the previous part? Are there
more actions and characters involved? Who is the protagonist? Who is the
antagonist? What happened to the protagonist?
6. Monologue, Soliloquy, Aside:
What is the difference of these three types of dialogue in drama?
7. Setting:
What type of setting is employed in “True West”? How did you say so?
8. Theme:
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Activity 24: DEEPER INTO ANCIENT THEATER
A. Look at these pictures. What can you say about them?
The Mak Yong Theatre – Malaysia
Wayang Puppet Theatre – Indonesia
Darangen Epic – Philippines



1. What makes these intangible heritage expressions unique to one another?
Prove your answer using the pictures.
2. What makes them diverse? Why? Cite evidence from the pictures.
3. What unifies them? Cite proof from the pictures.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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B. Watch and listen to the following videos on YouTube about these three intangible
heritage expressions. Take down notes about them using different graphic
organizers. Then compare these to the contemporary drama in terms of its elements.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VzzhNkbjgg www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLlvYFvRU9M
www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfydro4X2t0
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What elements of drama are common or present in these three intangible
heritage expressions?
2. How did these intangible heritage expressions contribute to the development
of their communities? J ustify your answer.
3. How do intangible heritage expressions such as these help in knowing and
appreciating other culture’s traditions and beliefs?
4. Do we need to safeguard these intangible heritage expressions? Why?
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Here is another famous Malay folktale for you to read. This story was
adopted as motion picture and TV drama in Malaysia, up to the extent of
inspiring other versions of the story. Read the synopsis of the story and answer
the questions that follow.
Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup
(The Devouring Rock)
T
his story is about Mak Minah, a widow, and her two children, her daughter Mawar,
and her young son, Bulat. Mak Minah would work hard at several jobs in a day.
She would work in both a field and as a fisherwoman to support her fairly young
children as best as she could.
One morning, while fishing, she catches a tembakul fish (local river fish). She of
course is really happy, and fantasizes all day about eating the fish with her children for
dinner. At noon, Mak Minah goes home and starts to clean the fish, and is even happier
when she realizes that there is fish roe inside. Fish roe back then was very, very
expensive and was a delicacy, one that poor people like herself would very rarely be able
to enjoy. She happily fries it before she goes to work in the fields and cuts it into three
equal parts, one for her older daughter, one for her young son, and the other for herself.
As she heads out the door, Mak Minah tells her children that they may each have their
portion, but she asked them to leave her one of the pieces to eat when she comes home.
Mak Minah spent the entire evening at the field thinking of eating the roe. When she
came home, she finds all three portions eaten. Mawar explained to her that she and her
brother had both eaten their portions, but after finishing his, Bulat demanded the other
portion and threw a horrible tantrum when she said no, and that he had taken the piece
anyway. Mak Minah was so devastated that she didn’t say anything and just went to bed.
That night Mak Minah was kept awake by the calling of the batu belah batu
bertangkup, the eater of suicides. She heard the rock calling her, saying “You never
managed to eat your roe because as much as you desired it, it never desired to be eaten
by you. This is the way of the world: what we desire to touch has no desire to be touched
by us. But I am your death and I have longed for you since you were born. And now all I
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ask you is that you have the same longing for me.” She then snaps and runs to the rock.
Mawar, hearing the commotion of her mother storming out of the house, wakes up
Bulat and they try to chase her down. They called out after their mother, but it was no use,
the voice of the rock drowned out everything else. Mak Minah stopped only once on her
way to the rock, and just long enough for her children to catch sight of her, right in front of
it, where she made a funnel and filled it with her breast milk for her young son. As she did
so, the rock split, and beckoned her to enter. Mak Minah left the funnel on the
floor and fled deep into the rock.
1. What did the mother feel after knowing that her fish roe was eaten?
2. Why do you think it came across to the mother to commit suicide?
3. What does Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup represent? How did you say so?
4. Does this story have similar themes with some of our own? Cite some
famous folktales.
5. Describe Mak Mina, Mawar and Bulat through characterization. How do they
influence or affect the character of one another?
6. What is the moral/lesson of the story? How does it affect you? Explain your
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 25: BATU BELAH BATU BERTANGKUP STORY STRIP
A. Arrange the following pictures to create a story strip for Batu Belah
Batu Bertangkup. Number the pictures from 1 to 15 in the space
provided for.


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B. Choose a picture from the previous activity and write appropriate dialogues for it
based on the story. Then choose a partner to read the dialogues. Deliver the lines like



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Activity 26: MAKING A FILMED MOVIE REVIEW
Read this short lecture about making a movie review. Then watch the
video presentation on how to make a “filmed” version of your review.
There are numerous formats you can follow in writing a movie review, but they all
have the same content. In this particular format, it consists of five parts.

Five Parts of a Movie Review

1. Opening: Catch the Reader's Attention
Think about how advertisements sell movies: "trailers" show you a few seconds of
the movie to get you interested.
When you begin your movie review, make your own "trailer." If you liked the
movie, then your trailer should make people want to see it; but if you did not like it,
the trailer should be something that shows why you did not like it. Do not explain why
you liked it or did not like it; make the reader like or not like the movie by what you
describe. Begin your review by retelling an incident or moment from the movie which
you think captures the spirit of the movie as you understood it.
Alternative: Begin your review with another kind of story or interesting fact--about
one of the star actors, or about the making of the movie, or about the director.

2. Second Paragraph: Take Care of Business
Near the beginning of the review, you have to tell the reader all the obligatory stuff
--the title of the movie, the director, the studio, the main actors, the year it was made
(if you watched it on video), the rating. This paragraph tells the reader the things they
have to know about the movie. Also, in one sentence or two, you should explain very
simply what the movie is all about--not necessarily what happens, but that might
work, too, if you can say it in one two sentences.

3. Third Paragraph: Character and Plot Summary
What happens in the movie? You should not tell everything that happens--and
especially not the ending. But you want to summarize the basic plot of the movie, in
more detail than you do in the paragraph above.
One way to do this might be to write a sentence about each main character.

4. Fourth Paragraph: A Key Moment or Idea
In this paragraph, go into detail about something important that interested you
about the movie. If it was a musical, you should say something about the songs. If the
soundtrack was good, talk about that. Write more about one character who was really
intriguing, or retell another big moment from the movie and explain why it is
important. If you think the "idea" behind a movie was really interesting, explain that
idea and talk about it a little bit. In this paragraph, you must go into depth about the
movie.

5. Fifth Paragraph: Evaluate the Movie
How to Write a Movie Review
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Do you recommend it or not? Who will like it (kids or adults)? The most important
thing here is that you must also explain why you are making your recommendation.
You must justify your opinion--and that opinion should grow out of what you write in
the rest of the review. Give at least two reasons why you liked or did not like the movie.

Watch these video on YouTube about making a “filmed” movie review. Use these URL:
A: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dU-J 91tIgGA
B: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDIygoCcK48
Video A Video B Video C
To help you write an effective filmed movie review, you must increase your
vocabulary by learning how to get the meaning of a word using structural analysis and
using collocations.
Collocations are combinations of two or more words that often go together.
With the use of collocations, your language will be more natural and more
easily understood. You’ll have alternative and richer ways of expressing
yourself, and it is easier for our brains to remember and use language in
chunks or blocks rather than as single words.
There are several different types of collocation. Collocations can be adjective +
adverb, noun +noun, verb +noun and so on. Below you can see seven main types of
collocation in sample sentences.

1. ADVERB + ADJECTIVE
Fish roe, in that time is rarely cheap.
They want a richly decorated house.
Are you fully responsible for your actions?

2. ADJECTIVE + NOUN
His coach ordered him to get regular exercise.
The bus had its maiden journey in the province.
She was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.

3. NOUN + NOUN
Let's give them a round of applause.
The garage sale went until evening.
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I'd like to buy three bags of potato chips please.
4. NOUN + VERB
The birds started to chirp when it heard the cat purring.
Rain was falling as our plane took off.
The protests died down in the course of the summit.

5. VERB + NOUN
The officer was jailed for committing murder.
I always try to read my books in the morning, after making my bed.
They have been asked to give a presentation about their invention.

6. VERB + EXPRESSION WITH PREPOSITION
Peter had to return home because he had run out of money.
At first their eyes filled with horror, and then they burst into tears.
His behavior was enough to drive anybody to work.

7. VERB + ADVERB
Paulo placed his keys gently on the table and sat down.
Christian whispered softly in J ohn's ear.
We vaguely remembered that it was going late when we left.

On the other hand, structural analysis is the process of breaking words down into
their basic parts to determine word meaning. Structural analysis is a powerful vocabulary
tool since knowledge of a few word parts can give you clues to the meanings of a large
number of words. Although the meaning suggested by the word parts may not be exact,
this process can often help you understand the word well enough that you can continue
reading without significant interruption.
When using structural analysis, the reader breaks down words into their basic parts:
 prefixes – word parts located at the beginning of a word to change meaning,
 roots – the basic meaningful part of a word, and/or
 suffixes - word parts attached to the end of a word; suffixes often alter the part of
speech of the word

For example, the word bicyclist can be broken down as follows:
 bi — prefix meaning two
 cycle — root meaning wheel
 ist — a noun suffix meaning a person who
Activity 27: DOING YOUR MOVIEW REVIEW, AFRO-ASIAN STYLE!
Choose an Asian drama on TV or an Asian movie and write down its
elements using advance/graphic organizers. Then write a short review on
its elements. Submit the completed organizer and the review to your
teacher and discuss it in class. Try the sample graphic organizer on the
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Congratulations! You had gone through the different readings like The
Taximan’s Story from Singapore, and the Malaysian folktales Outwitting a
Crocodile and Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup. You also had read different
informative texts about intangible cultural heritage, and have viewed video
clips related to it. You had used different communicative skills in completing
the different activities, and had learned the types of sentences, parentheticals,
and adjectives.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
discussion. How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which
ideas are different and need revision? Please go back to the Map of
Conceptual Change in KNOW, and answer the next three columns. Use the
concepts and information you had acquired in this lesson.

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Your goal in this section is to look closer at some aspects
of the topic. You need to reflect and reconsider your
understanding about the relationship of literature and the
diversity of cultural heritage of Afro-Asians (as seen in
traditions and beliefs), and how this understanding affect your
communicative competence. Also, you need to find out how
this diversity of cultural heritage can lead to unity, peace and
harmony.
Activity 28: INTROSPECTING YOUR MISCONCEPTIONS
In this activity, all the misconceptions presented at the start of the lesson
will be clarified. After reading the explanations for each one, reflect on your
previous answers and then answer the questions that will follow at the end.
A. On Culture
1. Culture is based on nationality.
Probably, but you cannot measure culture solely by one’s nationality. You may
argue that culture is a set of values and behaviors that are learned and shared by
a group of people who have common experiences and influences, but this
“national culture” is only one of the many cultures that affect us. Our view of
culture is affected by the subcultures we have at home, work, school and
organizations we are in. This is also affected by particular life experiences, socio-
economic experiences, geographic location, gender identity, age, religious faith,
ethnic background and sexual orientation (Parrilla, 2012).
2. Some cultures are just more evolved than others.
Cultures exist because a group has found a way to make their lives better. No
culture is inherently worse or better than any other. Rather, some cultures may
have values and behaviors that do not support success when their environment
changes. In addition, most cultures are benevolent and have positive intentions
behind any values they instill. (The vast majority of people do not want to
intentionally create conflict or fail!). It’s our inability to see things wholeheartedly
from their perspective that may cause us to judge another culture as cruel, stupid,
antiquated, or naïve (Parrilla, 2012).
3. Globalization is causing an inevitable homogenization of cultures.
The environment we all live in may be changing (slowly or quickly) impacted
by such things as the internet, or YouTube, or Hollywood, or Bollywood, or 15
hour flights that connect Asia to Europe, or pandemics like the flu, or outsourcing,
or migration – but the bottom line is that we all still interact with these
commonalities based on our cultures. In the long run, we may begin to share
certain values and behaviors, but the French will always have French history and
French pride, and the Bolivians will always have Bolivian history and Bolivian
pride. Until such time as we all speak the same language, go to the same
schools, share the same history, and have uniform laws, policies, and holidays,
we will continue to be unique (Parrilla, 2012).
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B. On Multiculturalism
1. People from the same nation or geographic region, or those who speak the
same language, share a common culture.
These people may share the same nation, geographic region, language, but
they cannot be considered as one ethnic group sharing a similar culture.
Tremendous historical, racial, and cultural differences must be acknowledged
(Banks & Banks, 1997). In Malaysia, there are Malays, Chinese, East Indians, and
the tribal groups of Sarawak. To view regions or nations as if they were
monocultural is erroneous, and it may inhibit students’ construction of the fact that
many parts contribute to the whole (Aldridge et al., 2000).
2. Families from the same culture share the same values.
This notion is especially false for nondominant cultures living in the United
States. Lynch and Hanson (1998) reported at least four ways individuals and
families from other countries “live out” their culture in the United States. These
include “1) mainstreamers, 2) bicultural individuals, 3) culturally different individuals,
and 4) culturally marginal individuals” (p. 19). In reality, a continuum of cultural
identity exists and the entire range often can be found within the same family. For
example, grandparents may maintain their original culture, while their grandchildren
may be bicultural or mainstreamers (Aldridge et al., 2012).
3. Multiculturalism is divisive.
According to this myth, immigrants coming to the United States eventually have
been assimilated and considered themselves to be Americans. The myth goes on to
state that when ethnicity is turned into a defining characteristic, it promotes division
rather than unity. This shallow reasoning denies the multiple diversities that always
have existed and continue to exist throughout the United States (Swiniarski,
Breitborde, & Murphy, 1999).
4. In predominantly monocultural or bicultural societies, there is no need to
study other cultures.
This myth is pervasive in such societies. With an increasingly diverse society,
bicultural and monocultural areas especially need to learn about cultures to which
they will be in close proximity in the immediate future (Greenfield & Cocking, 1994).
5. Most people identify with only one culture.
Increasingly, children and families are multiethnic in nature. Here are just two
examples. Maria is an Evangelical Christian from Ecuador who married
Mohammed, a Muslim from Pakistan. They have two elementary-age children who
are being raised in Queens, New York. The children have never visited Ecuador or
Pakistan. Patrick is of Chinese heritage, but was born in Jamaica. His family later
moved to Toronto and now lives in Miami. These children are not stereotypical.
They have a unique cultural heritage. Multicultural education should examine
intrapersonal cultural diversity as well as the interpersonal. If this is not
acknowledged and valued, children like Patrick could experience intrapsychic
cultural conflict (Aldridge et al., 2012).

C. On Literature
1. Studying literature can help you understand different cultures or time periods.
Studying literature can be an enriching, eye opening experience. By following
the histories presented throughout English literature, it’s possible to understand how
contemporary western culture has developed into what it is today (Priyadarshini,
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2010).
2. The study of literature allows people to develop new ideas, ethical
standpoints and can help an individual to present themselves as educated
members of the society.
Literature allows us to understand the philosophical movements and ideas that
permeated a particular culture at a particular time. As an example in English
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How do these misconceptions apply to Asian countries like Malaysia,
Singapore, and the Philippines? Cite examples for your answer.
2. What are some examples you can cite that shows diversity because of
multiculturalism in Malaysia and Singapore? Does multiculturalism also
apply in our country? Why? Why not?
3. Based on misconceptions on culture, how do you look now on the presence
of different cultures around the Philippines (our cultural or ethnic groups), in
Malaysia and Singapore?
4. How does the study of Afro-Asian literature give you a wider perspective in
tolerating and appreciating cultural differences?
5. How did your readings on Malaysian and Singaporean literature help you
Activity 29: CLOSENESS IS THE KEY
Study the map below. Focus on the proximity of Malaysia, Singapore and
Philippines to one another. Then grasp your schema on the history of
Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines.
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Answer these questions:
1. Singapore and Malaysia had been under the same colonial rule (British Empire).
Does this period have any effect on the culture of two countries? How?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. What effect could geographical proximity contribute to the development and
assimilation of culture among these three countries?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Activity 30: CONVERGING CIRCLES FOR CULTURE
Explain the relationship of the terms inside the circles in this concept
diagram.
Diversity
Cultural Heritage
Intangi ble Cultural
Heritage
T
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

B
e
l
i
e
f
s

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Unity
Peace
Harmony
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What does this concept diagram mean?
2. What does it illustrate?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Activity 31: PERSPECTIVES ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Listen to this audio clip from YouTube and determine if the speaker is in
support or against cultural diversity. Write statements from the clip that will
provide evidence for your claim. Use a graphic organizer for this activity.
Then record your own opinion about cultural diversity and upload it in
YouTube.
Use this URL for the audio clip:
Activity 32: DREAMING FOR CULTURAL UNITY IN SINGAPORE
Watch this interview of Kirpal Singh, a Singaporean poet, on his career as
a poet. Then read his poems below. Notice the words he used and how
they relate to the diversity of culture in Singapore, and how he hopes to
Use this URL – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FchtpOAyjs
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1. What themes do the poems have?
2. How does each title complement the theme of each poem?
3. How do these themes relate to achieving unity in a multicultural community
like Singapore?
4. How do these ideas in Singh’s poems apply to us Filipinos?
5. Are we living in a world of diverse culture? How do you say so?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
colours/ blinds

my daughters say kids are colour blind
that it is we the adults who change our kids
and make them see red, blue, yellow, white…
i no longer argue, knowing how right they are
these young whose beautiful innocence we colour
giving them myths and legends to frighten
their discovery of truth, of blood, of oneness.
Making Harmony

he sits and drinks his coffee, black, no sugar
the other guy sits and drinks his tea, white, one sugar:
no dialogue between them save the sips
coffee/ tea, tea/ coffee, coffee/ tea, tea/ coffee…
i watch from a distance, safe with my coke
realise that drinks alone don’t solve problems
maybe these words, these realisations might…
who knows what our next drinks might be
when harmony across gaps prevails through rhyme
and in time makes possible living peacefully.
Mixed Colours

Rainbow colours, you proclaimed
Sizing each and laughing
As the kids played their games
Oblivious to our reflections
We have come a long, long way—
You were talking about our plurality
Our mix of races, religions, languages
Sensitive areas of public harmony
Our rainbow is shy, hides
But it will come after cleansing rain
Even as we plan and strategise
A multicultural vision for ourselves.
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Activity 33: REMEMBERING CLAUDE LÉVI-STRAUSS
Read and reflect upon this statement made by this famous French
anthropologist/ethnologist and the founder of structural anthropology,
Claude Levi-Strauss.


“To know and understand our own culture, we must learn to see it from the
point of view of other cultures, comparing our customs and beliefs with
those of other times and places.

With globalization now upon us, and external diversity on the retreat, it is
becoming a matter of urgency to protect and preserve the internal diversity
that each society owes to its constituent groups and subgroups, all of which
develop differences that they consider highly important.

It should accordingly be possible at least to maintain and encourage cultural
diversity to a degree by preserving the cultural characteristics of the
different social groups: and in the same way as gene banks of plant species
are created to prevent the impoverishment of biological diversity and the
impairment of our earthly environment, we must, if we are to safeguard the
vitality of our societies, preserve at the very least the living memory of
irreplaceable customs, practices and know-how that should not be allowed
to disappear.

For it is diversity itself that must be saved rather than the historical content
that each epoch invests in it and which none can perpetuate beyond its own
confines.”

“ Global civilization could never be anything other than the coalition at global
levels of cultures, each of them retaining its originality.”

Claude Lévi-Strauss, French ethnologist
(1908-2009)
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What implication does Levi-Strauss’s statement could have in the
communities with diverse cultural heritage like the countries in Southeast
Asia?
2. How can you help achieve unity, peace and harmony amidst diverse culture
and cultural heritage among nations based on Levi-Strauss’s statement?
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Activity 34: BECOMING A MOVIE CRITIC
Assume the role of a film critic. Form small groups with your classmates to
represent a movie review body. Brainstorm and write a set of criteria in
rating a movie as part of a film review process. Then watch the movie
adaptation of Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup (1959) in YouTube. After
watching the movie, write a two-page review about it using the criteria you
created with your group.

Activity 35: OH MY EQ!
After the different activities presented to you, it is time again to answer
these focus questions:
1. How does the study of Afro-Asian literature help you increase your communicative
competence?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. How will it guide you to understand the diversity of cultural heritage in Asia and
Africa?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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3. How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and/or harmony?
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4. How does diversity contribute to unity?
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In this section, you were able to reflect on your ideas about the
relationship of literature and the diversity of cultural heritage of Afro-Asians
(as seen in traditions and beliefs), and how this understanding affect your
communicative competence. You also had gone through activities designed to
help you synthesize ideas of this diversity of cultural heritage and how it can
lead to unity, peace and harmony.
What new realizations do you have now about the topic? What new
connections have you made for yourself? Revisit your answers on the Map of
Conceptual Change in the KNOW part and write your new understandings/
realizations. Answer also the second Map of Conceptual Change below
IN THE BOX

I think …
OUT OF THE BOX
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Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to real life
situations. You will be given a practical task which will
demonstrate your understandings in this
Directions: Read the task below. In your
group, discuss and plan on how you will
prepare for the movie review. The rubric for
grading is provided here to remind you on how your work will
Activity 36: FINDING THE RIGHT ONE
Your Local Tourism Board is assigned to prepare a sample cultural
exhibit for Malaysia and Singapore, as part of its bid to host the week-
long celebration of ASEAN Day in the Philippines. They are going to
include movies that represent a part of their heritage and literature, with
an accompanying review or analysis about it.
As local film critics, you and your peers were hired by the board to
find the most appropriate movie to be used for the cultural exhibit. Your task is to
find a movie adaptation of a Malaysian/Singaporean literary piece (reflecting
their diverse cultural heritage), watch it, and write a review about it, with the aid
of advance organizers. Then you have to present it to the Local Tourism Board
with a 10-minute audio-video clip as a teaser, stating the main points why the
movie should be used for the cultural exhibit.
TASK

Rubrics for the Movie Review Presentation

Criteria

Outstanding
(4 points)
Very
Satisfactory
(3 points)


Satisfactory
(2 points)

Fair
(1 point)
Content The review
focuses on the
following:
character/s,
plot, script,
themes, special
effects, music.
The review has
a strong opinion
that is
supported by 2-
3 details (good
or bad).
The review
focuses on 4-5
of the following:
character/s,
plot, script,
themes, special
effects, music.
The review has
a strong
opinion, but is
not strongly
supported.
The review
focuses on 2-3
of the following:
character/s,
plot, script,
themes, special
effects, music.
The review
doesn’t have
any supporting
details, but it
does have an
opinion.
The review
focuses on one
of the following:
character/s,
plot, script,
themes, special
effects, music.
The review
doesn’t have a
strong opinion
or supporting
details. The
opinion may not
be clear.
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Criteria

Outstanding
(4 points)
Very
Satisfactory
(3 points)

Satisfactory
(2 points)

Fair
(1 point)

Presentation Presenter used
clear voice and
correct, precise
pronunciation of
terms, and
showed high
level of
confidence and
mastery of the
subject matter.
Presenter's
voice is clear.
He/she
pronounces
most words
correctly, and
showed average
level of
confidence and
mastery of the
subject matter.
Presenter
incorrectly
pronounces
terms. Audience
members have
difficulty hearing
presentation,
and showed
minimum level
of confidence
and mastery of
the subject
matter.
Presenter
mumbles,
incorrectly
pronounces
terms, speaks
too quietly for
students in the
back of class to
hear, and
showed no
confidence and
mastery of the
subject matter.
Creativity The group used
innovative
methods of
presentation.
The
presentation is
very interactive
and very
attractive to the
audience.
The group used
innovative
methods of
presentation
partly, but relied
mainly on the
typical methods.
The
presentation is
interactive and
attractive to the
audience.
The group used
the typical
methods of
presentation,
innovation is not
present. The
presentation is
quite interactive
and quite
attractive to the
audience.
The group used
an unclear
method of
presentation,
innovation is not
present. The
presentation is
not interactive
and not
attractive to the
audience.
Organization The group
presents
information in
logical,
interesting
sequence which
audience can
follow.
The group
presents
information in
logical sequence
which audience
can follow.
Audience has
difficulty
following
presentation
because the
group jumps
around.
Audience cannot
understand the
presentation
because there is
no sequence of
information.
Use of
Advance
Organizers
The group used
advance
organizers very
proficiently in
gathering and
presenting
information.
The group used
advance
organizers
proficiently in
gathering and
presenting
information.
The group used
advance
organizers in
gathering and
presenting
information.
The group didn’t
use advance
organizers in
gathering and
presenting
information.
How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see the
real world use of the topic? It is now time to write your generalizations in the
Map of Conceptual Change in the KNOW part. Use all the understandings you
had thought of as you write your generalizations.
If you’re done with the Map of Conceptual Change, then you have
completed this lesson. Before you go to the next lesson, read the summary/

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Absolute phrase: a kind of parenthetical, contains at least a noun or a pronoun and a
participle, but not a true verb, modifies the entire sentence.
Adjectives: are words used to describe a noun or a pronoun.
Antagonist: a character who provides some sort of opposition or contest for the
protagonist. Usually he/she is known as the villain with evil character in the story.
Appositive: a kind of parenthetical, this is a noun or noun phrase placed in opposition
to another such construction that defines or modifies the first.
Aside: a kind of dialogue in a drama/play. This is a statement made to the audience,
but the other characters are not supposed to be able to hear it.
Beliefs: are the ideas, viewpoints and attitudes of the particular group of society. It
consist of fables, proverbs, myths, folklore, traditions, superstition, education, etc.
that influence the ideas, values, emotions, perceptions and attitude of the
members of the society.
Character: the person in a work of fiction or the characteristics of a person. You can
get to know a character through their actions and speech (in case of drama/play).
Collocations: combinations of two or more words that often go together. Collocations
can be adjective +adverb, noun +noun, verb +noun, adjective +noun, noun +
verb, verb +expression with preposition, and verb +adverb. Examples: richly
decorated, maiden journey, garage sale, read my books.
Comparative degree: compares two nouns or pronouns. This degree is formed by
adding –er for one-syllable and some two-syllable regular adjectives, or by adding
more or less for three-syllable (or more) adjectives.
Complex sentence: a sentence with one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause.
Compound sentence: a sentence with multiple independent clauses but no
dependent clauses.
Compound-complex sentence: a sentence with multiple independent clauses and at
least one dependent clause.
Concept map: are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They
include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and
relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two
concepts.
Conflict: the struggle between two or more opposing forces which is the nucleus of
plot.
Cultural diversity: The existence of a multiplicity of sub-cultures and different value
systems in a plural or multicultural society or other setting.
Cultural heritage: is the legacy of physical artifacts (cultural property) and intangible
attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations,
maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.
Heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes,
books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions,
language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant
landscapes, and biodiversity).
Culture: refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values,
attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations,
concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a
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group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving.
Culture is the systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people.
Darangen: an ancient epic song that encompasses a wealth of knowledge about the
Maranao people who live in the Lake Lanao region of Mindanao. Comprising 17
cycles and a total of 72,000 lines, the Darangen celebrates episodes from Maranao
history and the tribulations of mythical heroes. In addition to offering compelling
narrative content, the epic explores the underlying themes of life and death,
courtship, politics, love and aesthetics through symbol, metaphor, irony and satire.
The Darangen also encodes customary law, standards of social and ethical
behavior, notions of aesthetic beauty, and social values specific to the Maranao.
Degrees of Adjectives: the positive degree, comparative degree, and the superlative
degree.
Dialogue: the words spoken by the actors in a drama/play.
Diversity: the condition of having or being composed of differing elements: variety;
especially the inclusion of different types of people (as people of different races or
cultures) in a group or organization.
Drama: is a story told through characters played by actors. It is meant to be spoken, it
is meant to be acted out.
Free modifier: a kind of parenthetical, an unspecialized interruption of additional
information.
Graphic organizer: an educational tool to help in problem solving, planning, studying,
researching, brainstorming and writing. Visual learners benefit most from graphic
organizers as visual thinking can have many expressions. Graphic organizers
make it easier to understand how ideas connect.
Heritage literature: literary passages from the past generation like myths, folklore,
epic, etc., provide meaningful and memorable contexts for vocabulary expansion
and grammar practice; they can serve as the basis for listening, reading, speaking,
and writing activities; and they develop students’ ability to think critically by inferring
meaning, making interpretations, and expressing their own ideas and emotions
(Lazar 1993: 19).
Intangible cultural heritage: the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge,
skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated
therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as
part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from
generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in
response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and
provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for
cultural diversity and human creativity.
Intangible heritage list: created by UNESCO, this list entails the list of intangible
cultural heritage under nomination, recognition, and urgent safeguarding all over
the world.
Interjection: a kind of parenthetical, it imparts information about the writer’s (or
speaker’s) state of mind.
Introductory phrase: a kind of parenthetical, an element preceding the main
statement that provides context for the sentence.
Literature: writing that is excellent in form and packed with meaning. It usually deals
with events, emotions, and ideas that are common to all people.
Mak Yong Theatre: an ancient dance-theatre form incorporating the elements of ritual,
stylized dance and acting, vocal and instrumental music, story, song, formal as well
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as improvised spoken text. It is performed principally in the state of Kelantan,
Malaysia. Many theories have been advanced to explain the genre's origins. Its
roots obviously sink deep into animism as well as shamanism.
Mind map: an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a natural function of the
human mind. It is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to
unlocking the potential of the brain.
Monologue: a kind of dialogue in a drama/play. This is a long speech given by one
character.
Movie review: also known as film criticism, is the analysis and evaluation of films,
individually and collectively. In general, this can be divided into journalistic criticism
that appears regularly in newspapers, and other popular, mass-media outlets and
academic criticism by film scholars that is informed by film theory and published in
journals.
Movie/film critic: an individual that engages into movie reviews.
Order of Adjectives: the correct sequence of writing adjectives when used in a series.
Parenthetical phrase: sometimes called simply a parenthetical, is one that is not
essential to the framing sentence.
Plot structure: the usual order of events in a particular story. It is the playwright's
selection of events to create a logical sequence and results into distilling meaning
from the chaos of life. Here is a common plot structure - exposition, rising action,
climax, falling action, resolution. In the exposition, the characters are introduced
and the conflict is brought into play.
Point of view: the angle or perspective from which the story is told.
Positive degree: describes a noun or pronoun without comparing it to anyone or
anything else.
Protagonist: the main character in a story, often a good or heroic type and tries to
solve the conflict that gives way to the rising action.
Script: is the instructions you perform a play from. It includes the lines each of the
actors must say and some indication of stage action (stage directions). Some
scripts come with helpful hints to directors and stage managers as to prop lists,
lighting plots, and set designs, but these are not really part of the script.
Setting: the time and place in which the story or drama/play. In theatre, the setting
may be realistic or abstract.
Short Story: a brief imaginative narrative, unfolding a single predominating incident
and a single or a few characters. It contains a plot, the details of which are so
compressed and the whole treatment so organized as to provide a single
impression.
Simple sentence: a sentence with one independent clause and no dependent
clauses.
Soliloquy: a kind of dialogue in drama/play. This is a speech given by a character
when he/she is alone in the stage.
Structural analysis: the process of breaking words down into their basic parts to
determine word meaning.
Superlative degree: It compares three or more nouns. This degree is formed by
adding –est for one-syllable and some two-syllable regular adjectives, or by adding
most or least for three-syllable (or more) adjectives.
Theme: the central idea of a featured drama, play, or story.
Tradition: the passing down of elements of a culture from generation to generation,
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Books
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Zemach, Dorothy E. (2009). Sentence Writing: The Basics of Writing – Student
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237

Have you thought of knowing your origin?
Did it ever occur to you that your story about
origin might be similar to other Asian countries?
Each country in Asia and Africa has a rich
source of stories to share about origins, through
legends, folktales, myths and poetry. Every time we sought answers to the
question, “Where do you come from?” we become eager to check our origin,
our race, our ancestry. Sometimes, our name is our clue. If it sounds foreign,
we trace our family background if our parents are product of mixed marriages
or we look back to our geographical location and examine whether our
locality was once a route for trading and industry. In addition to a very rich
heritage, there are many foreigners who occupied some Asian and African
nations and have become influential in the internal and external affairs of the
land.
In this lesson, we will have the opportunity to appreciate our origin. Who
were the most influential in the development of our Afro-Asian Literature? As
we unfold the intricacies of Afro-Asian Literature, let us accept the challenge
how we can best appreciate our origin.
But some questions still remain: How do traditions and beliefs bring
about diversity and/or harmony? How does diversity contribute to

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills below and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Ask for and give information, and express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes
explicitly and implicitly in an informative talk
 Communicative thoughts and feelings in write-ups of summary results, notes, etc.
using appropriate styles
 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue that relates to the
community
 Identify the derivation of words
 Define words from context and through word analysis
 Organize information illustrated in tables, graphs and maps
 Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis
 Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by the facial expressions of the participant
 Point out how the choice of title, space, allotment, imagery, choice of words, figurative
language, etc., contribute to the theme
On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Appreciating Our Origin:
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Divided by Two
Photo-Formation
KNOW
What if…
My Conditions, if only
Character on Woodcarving in
Indonesia
Disclosure
Spot the Author in the Selection
Which image is the best to explain
diversity?
Image Challenge
PROCESS
Tiger Needs Advise
Panel Discussion
Opinion Poll Survey
Diversity Quotations
Reflective Writing
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Interactive Human Exhibit of
Afro-Asian Literary Characters
TRANSFER
For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
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In this lesson, you will find out that each country has
many stories to tell about their origin. The stories were told
and retold from generations to generations in the form of
legends, myths, and folktales.
But before we read and learn something about their
stories, let us have some fun with these scrambled words in
the box. As you go over each word, ask yourself, How does
diversity contribute to unity? How do traditions and
Activity 1: DIVIDED BY TWO
Directions: Go over the scrambled words and create two major groups. In
the table provided, identify which groups of words go together.






So by now you know that we are going to learn about two countries in Asia.
Let us continue and do the next activity.
Activity 2: PHOTO-FORMATION
Directions: Study the Asian photos below and group them into two. Write
the name of the country at the bottom of each photo. Then fill up the table
that follows. What similarities and differences do you see in the photos?
Which photo bespeaks of your culture?
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Similarities Differences In what way are they
similar to our culture?







J ohn Knappert, one of those writers who published works about “The Myths and
Legends of Indonesia,” traced the flight of the Indonesians in Asia. He found out
that the population of Indonesia was homogeneous. In addition, there were two
hundred different languages in Indonesia but the existence of the hundred-odd
languages is all related, with the exception of West Irian.
The Indonesians were able to sail by using their invention which is known as proa.
Proa is a canoe that can survive the deep seas near Indonesia. They went to different
directions: north to the Philippines and Formosa, where Indonesian language are still
spoken; west to the East African coast; to Madagascar, where Malayo-Polynesian dialects
are still spoken; east to Polynesia, where the languages of Hawaii, Eastern Island, Samoa,
Fiji and Tahiti are clearly related to Malay and J avanese and finally south to New Zealand
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and the lush green islands of Indonesia.
Since Indonesia is archipelagic, fishing is the main occupation of the people. Rice is
the staple food. Indonesians hunted using sumpitan or blow-pipe. They mastered this,
including the art of forging iron.
If there were stories about spirits, it is primarily because the surrounding landscapes
were full of spirits. The Hari which is the sun was identified as Wisnu, Bromo, the
volcano was identified with Brahma, the Creator. Many islands were created by volcanic
eruptions. The spirits of the waters were also diverse: the ocean-god brought rain, and the
rich goddess lived in the sawh (wet rice-fields) in the shape of a freshwater snake.
During those times, migrations were still very few then.
Now, that you have learned some information about Indonesians, it is time to learn
more about Indonesia through an Indonesian folktale.

Activity 3: AN INDONESIAN FOLKTALE
Directions: Divide the class into four groups. The first group will be Raden,
the second group will be Surati, the third group, Rupaksa, and the fourth
group will read all the lines in the story, except the characters’ dialogs.
A long time ago, Banyuwangi is known as
Blambangan. Its kingdom has a wise king who has a
handsome and smart son named Raden Banterang.
Raden prefers hunting that he often went to forest
around Blambangan to hunt for animals.
One day, when Raden was in a forest he spotted a
deer. He chased it and the deer ran deeper into the
forest. His horse was so good and strong that he left his
guards behind. Unfortunately, he lost the deer. As he took a rest under a big banyan tree
suddenly a beautiful girl appeared in front of him. She was all alone in the forest.
He suspected that the girl may not be human after all.
So he asked her, “Excuse me, lovely lady, do you live around here?”
“No, I don’t. I’m from Klungkung, Bali. My name is Surati. I’m a princess, the daughter
of the king of Klungkung. The rebels killed my father but I managed to escape. My guards
took me here but I got lost. Now I‘m alone. I don’t know where to go. I have no relatives
here. Please help me,” Surati begged.
“You come to the right person. I’m Prince Banterang from the kingdom of Blambangan.
I am going to protect you. Please come with me,” said the prince.
Then, Raden took Surati home. He fell in love with her and then several months later
he married her. One day when Surati was in the street he met a man. The man called her.
“Surati, Surati.”
She was surprised to see her brother Rupaksa. His brother revealed that it was Raden
Banterang who killed their father. He came to Blambangan to take revenge. At this time,
he asked Surati to join him. Surati refused to join.
“Raden Banterang is now my husband. He’s very kind to me. He never hurts me.
The Legend of Banyuwangi
Adapted from an Indonesian Folktale
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Directions: Let us go over each box, one by
one, on the next page. If you were in Raden’s
shoes what could have been your action? If
you were in Surati’s place what could have
been your plan? What would change your decision?
Activity 4: WHAT IF…?
He’s protecting me. As a good wife, I will never betray him. It is my duty to serve him,”
Surati pleaded.
“But he killed our father,” Rupaksa
“It is hard for me to believe it. When I met Raden, he was here and not in Klungkung.”
Rupaksa was disappointed with her sister. He was very angry and upset.
“All right then, I have to go now. But please keep my head dress, put it under your
pillow,” Rupaksa demanded.
Rupaksa gave his head dress to his sister Surati. To respect her older brother, Surati
put it under her pillow. Several days later, Raden was hunting in a forest when he met a
man that looked like a priest. The man greeted him politely. Then he said something.
“You life is in danger. Someone has an evil intention on you,” the man said.
“Who is he?” asked Raden.
“Your wife Surati,” the man quickly replied
“Surati? How do you know?” Raden verified.
“I am a priest. I have a clear spiritual vision. I just want to save you. Search her room.
If you find a head dress under her pillow then my words are correct. It is from a man who
will help her kill you.”
“Thank you your holiness,” Raden uttered.
When he reached the palace, he immediately searched Surati’s bedroom. He found
the head dress under Surati’s pillow. The priest was right.
Raden confronted Surati, “You not faithful to me. I know that you want me dead. This
is the evidence. This is from a man who will help you kill me. Tell me who he is.”
Surati was defenseless, she cried.
“It is my brother’s head dress. I met him several days ago when you went hunting. He
gave me his head dress and told me to put it under my pillow. So I put it there to show my
respect for him. It is Rupaksa who wants to kill you, not me.”
But Raden no longer trust her. He decided to penalize Surati by giving her a death
sentence near the riverbank.
“Before I die, let me say a few words,” Surati pleaded.
“Please do,” Raden granted Surati’s request.
Surati spoke calmly, “When I die, just throw my body into the river. If water becomes
dirty and smelly, it means that I am guilty. But if the water becomes clear and fragrant, it
means that I am innocent.”
Then as Raden stabbed her wife with a kris, Surati threw herself into the river.
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand more
about Asians. As you go through this part, keep thinking about
these questions:
How does diversity contribute to unity? How do
traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and harmony?
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_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________


What if Raden had
not paid attention to
Surati? What could
have happened?
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________

What if Surati had
not obeyed his
brother’s request to
hide the head dress
under her pillow?
What could have
happened?
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________

What if Raden had
not believed in what
Surati had said about
her brother’s plan?
What could have
happened?
What sentences did we use in the above sentences? You are right, we
used conditional sentences.
Let us try to describe each type of conditional sentences and see how they
differ from each other.

An open conditional statement refers to a future event which is conditional on
another future event. Its main clause is in the future tense, and its conditional
clause is in the simple present tense.
A hypothetical conditional statement refers to a possible future situation which
depends on another possible future event. Its main clause uses present
conditional tense.
Unfulfilled hypothetical statement refers to a situation which an event might have
taken place, but did not, because a condition was not fulfilled. Its main clause is in the past
Let us recall some situations in the legend and see what conditional
statements we can produce.
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Activity 5: MY CONDITIONS, IF ONLY
Directions: Fill up the boxes, by giving your own example of conditional
statements.
Did you find the writing of conditional
statements easy or difficult? Why? Why
not?







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Now we can discuss one literary element which is the character. In any literary
work, a character is a person who appears in, acts, narrates or speaks and
characterization is the method used to portray that person or being.
In some stories for example, the character’s identifying traits are revealed one at
a time. A person’s attitude may be described as something positive or negative,
productive or unproductive, good or bad, responsive or unresponsive, kind or unkind,
helpful or helpless, happy or sad, and many others.
But in some literary works, this attitude may also comprise a group of people, a nation or
a literary work (prevailing attitude). Others may refer to this as “climate” like political
climate, intellectual climate, to name a few.
Emotions follow; this is the person’s intense feelings. Thus, they may show states of
excitement, emotional attachment, stability or instability, and even degrees of emotional
appeal.
It is also important to find out how the character responds physically and emotionally to
life – his or her response mechanism. If the character is under pressure and under
stress, how must this person reveal himself or herself. In real life, people may react with
dispassion, agitation, impassiveness, exhilaration or explosion.
The last one is on intrinsic values; these are the traits that arise from value judgments
made in the heart of the person, like what is truly important to him or her. We may perceive
the character traits that are part of the character’s intrinsic values which is a product of the
attitudes, emotions and response mechanism the character has exhibited within the
reading selection.
In one way or another, this may lead to a generalization about that person based on his
attitudes, emotions and response mechanisms. If everything is clear now, we can arrive at
a conclusion that the character may be loyal, loving, humble, trustworthy, honorable,
shallow, careless or careful.
In a given story, characters can be identified in the role they play:

a. Hero is the leading male character who exhibits superior qualities
b. Heroine is the leading female character who exhibits superior qualities
c. Superhero(ine) is larger than life hero, usually supernatural
d. Villain(ess) is a character in the story who is often characterized as evil and may be
exactly the opposite of the HERO(ine)
e. Anti-hero(ine) a hero(ine) who is more ordinary than the traditional hero(ine); he or
she may not possess heroic qualities
f. Protagonist is the hero(ine)
g. Antagonist is the villain(ess)

But it is interesting to note that there are other characters in the story, like the following
characters:
Flat character is only two-dimensional (lacking in depth), described without the kind of
details you would need to see him or her as an individual.
Round character is three-dimensional (true to life), complex and changes or grows in
the course of the story.
Stock character is a conventional stereotype character, like the Prince Charming
character in fairy tales.
Type character exhibits the characteristics of a particular class or group of people. This
type may be very individualized and unpredictable in personality and action, and still be a
representative of the class or group to which he or she belongs.
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Stereotype character is predictable, one who is repeated without variation and who
lacks originality.
Let us continue to examine how writers may use to present a character and to reveal his
or her character traits of either the speaker or the writer.
This is now under character development in a story, which can be accomplished in
different methods or techniques:

1. Disclosure of character through stereotyping
2. Disclosure of character through exposition
3. Disclosure of character through the character’s actions
4. Disclosure of character through the character’s words
Activity 6: CHARACTER IN WOODCARVING IN INDONESIA
Directions: Describe the character in the given images.
1.
2.
3.
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As we deepen our understanding of Indonesia, let us read one great work
of a multi awarded writer from Bali, Indonesia, Ms. Oka Rusmini. Ms.
Rusmini is considered a prolific writer of poetry and novels. Some of her
works were already translated in several languages.
But before we read, how many of you are familiar with Bali, Indonesia?
What do you associate with Bali as a place? Well, Bali is known as a city for
woodcarving industry. Is there any city in our country which is similar and
The Century Carver
by Oka Rusmini
K
opag dropped his sharp chiseling knife, almost slicing open his own leg—and all
because he'd detected a strange smell coming from the direction of the door, an
aroma of dry leaves and damp wood. Odd, where was it coming from, this smell
that made him feel so agitated? It wafted closer.
"Who's there?"
"It's me, Srenggi."
"Srenggi? Srenggi who?!" Kopag was trembling with trepidation now. The smell was
coming closer and he was finding it hard to breathe. His hands were bereft; he needed
his chiseling tools. His mind conjured up images of sharp knives. Kopag trembled as the
smell exposed him to the reality of being a man.
"Tell me who you are!"
"I am the one who will serve all your needs—from this moment on, till the end of
time." The voice sounded nervous.
"What did you say your name was?" Kopag began to calm down a little.
"Srenggi," the voice quivered. It was the voice of a woman. What was happening to
him? Kopag cursed himself. He had the strange sensation of suddenly being submerged
in the ocean. The voice seemed to be full of honesty, compassion and sincerity. Kopag
was sure his judgment was right: this was the one, the woman he'd been seeking for
centuries. And now God had sent her for him. A woman, was that really the voice of a
woman?
When Kopag went to pick up his cane, Srenggi quickly stepped in to help. Their
hands touched, increasing Kopag's anxiety. The woman's skin felt like bark. Surely her
beauty rivaled that of a tree trunk, she was more beautiful than the most sacred pile of
timber.
For the first time Kopag felt able to enjoy life. He was able to provide an objective
evaluation of the living creature known as man. Usually he was treated as an object,
merely subject to the decisions of the people closest to him, submitting to whatever was
said by those around him. This time he felt that he had encountered a truth that was
different from that developed by people who used their own truth as a personal yardstick.
"Is truth always manifested on earth in a homogeneous form?" Kopag had asked his
servant Gubreg with a trembling voice. "Even when I'm judging beauty, do I have to use
their criteria?"
"Their criteria? I'm not convinced that they're capable of genuinely seeing the beauty
of life!" Kopag's voice was tense; his thoughts in a muddle!
Kopag was aware, intensely aware. Although, of course, it was no cause for
celebration to have been born blind. His eyes would never see a woman. But are people
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born complete with all their senses capable of capturing all the secrets of this life—secrets
that are held onto and kept hidden by nature? Would it be wrong if Kopag were suddenly to
encounter extraordinary beauty in Srenggi? A beauty that he could see with his thoughts
and feelings? Would that be wrong?
The beauty of this young woman was extraordinary. The indentations of her body and
her face resembled those in a piece of timber. She was timber of exquisite beauty. It was
odd that other people were unable to see her loveliness, to appreciate the beauty that
nature had entrusted to her. Even old Gubreg made no comment when Kopag praised the
prettiness of this eighteen-year-old girl. What was wrong with the criteria he had used to
judge her beauty?
As a boy, life had imposed the label "Ida Bagus Madé" onto Kopag, so that people
would recognize him and be able to distinguish him from others. He was the second son in
the richest family in the compound. The title "Ida Bagus" indicated that he was of
the brahmana caste, the highest caste in the Balinese social structure. His father was a
highly respected man who held an important government position. He also owned dozens
of painting and sculpture galleries. Unfortunately he had a wandering eye. He was an
animal, an appalling one. People used to say that any woman was fair game for him. It
didn't bother him whether she was beautiful or not, healthy or not; for Kopag's father, any
creature with a hole could be entered.
One day, after an absence of many months, he came home in a sickening state. He
was thin and pale. Before long his debts began to mount. His wealth evaporated. And in
those circumstances he forced his wife to have sex with him. She resisted. She knew he
would impregnate her with the seed of an animal. But what is the power of a woman?
Especially since, from an early age, she had been educated to become a noblewoman who
would respect her husband. She became pregnant—and died giving birth to a baby boy.
Being born blind was redemption of a kind, considering the circumstances of his birth.
How miraculous it would be if life could be acted out, turned into a performance. Like a
piece of timber with its captivating curves, Srenggi's body was where life was created for
this man who, ever since his first encounter with the aroma of the earth and life, could feel
only darkness as his language, his life. The life that Kopag so frequently cursed turned out
to be quite democratic in fact. It gave him qualities that others could not possibly possess.
He could transform a piece of dry wood into a work of art that attracted the elite of the art
world. Kopag had reinvented the idea of artistic endeavor. He didn't just carve wood; he
carved his thoughts, his brain, and his dreams as well. For the first time, nature had
surrendered to his power, just as Kopag had surrendered to the blindness that was his
constant companion.
Kopag drew a deep breath. He touched the dry wood that always accompanied him
wherever he went. To be honest, Kopag loved the wood that had introduced him to his
world. The world he wanted. Solitude fenced in by beauty—without the sound of his sister-
in-law harping.
"What can that blind brother of yours do? Tell me? He's a bloody nuisance!" The young
woman's voice always set his nerves on edge. She was always making a fuss about
something. He'd trodden on the plants in the side garden, or his cane had got tangled up
with the bougainvillea that that gasbag of a woman had just planted, or the plates and
glasses were in the wrong place in the kitchen.
His sister-in-law's voice constantly rang in his ears. How could a woman that everyone
said was so beautiful and elegant speak with such a foul mouth? Her screech was enough
to blunt his chiseling knives. Her name was Ni Luh Putu Sari but because she hadn't been
born into the brahmana caste she had had to change her name to J ero Melati. A member
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of the commoner sudra caste, she had married Kopag's brother and had thus become a
member of their noble family.
Outsiders only knew her extraordinary physical beauty and her much-lauded skin; in
short, her body was one that all the men talked about. Kopag often wondered whether
human beings could ever share a genuinely objective set of views. How could this
incredibly crude and carping woman be the one all the men adored?
In Kopag's view, she was the perfect example of a playactor. She had been focused on
joining a brahmana family. In her absolute commitment to assuming the role of the wife of
a brahmana, she had to demonstrate to everyone in the village her right to join the family.
Kopag had sensed this the first time his sister-in-law greeted him. Her hands felt like those
of a rotting corpse. Every time she opened her mouth, Kopag could smell the rancid stench
of blood, a smell that leaped from those lips that were apparently so sweet, so red, so
perfect. Even Gubreg, the faithful servant who had looked after Kopag since he was a
child, commented on how lucky his brother was to have married the most beautiful girl in
the village.
Gubreg also talked about the beautiful skin of Ni Luh Putu Sari, now known as J ero
Melati, on account of her having married into a high caste family. Her bearing, he said,
resembled that of the daughters of the Balinese king.
"She really is extraordinarily beautiful."
"Describe her to me, Gubreg. Tell me everything in detail. I want to know what she's
like, and I want to feel it too. For the moment, I'll trust your eyes."
The old man fell silent. He looked deep into Kopag's eyes. A pain fluttered in his chest.
Ida Bagus Madé Kopag had a very fine body. He was tall and exceptionally skilled with his
hands. Since he'd been a small boy, his grandfather alone had taught him how to work with
wood, to better acquaint him with life. On occasion, a teacher would be brought in to teach
him to read.
"The boy is blind, Gubreg. He's paying for the sins of his father. When I watch his
development I am constantly reminded of the things that my son did. His karma has fallen
to his own son. My grandson will know darkness for all eternity. I still believe that we can
learn from such a life. You see it, don't you? Life has given him an extraordinary gift. My
grandson is in possession of all the eyes of everyone on this earth. See how he produces
perfectly carved statues. Look after him well, Gubreg. Think of him as your own son!" That
had been Ida Bagus Rai's last instruction before he passed away.
"Gubreg, you haven't answered my question. Tell me what she's like. Is she like this
piece of banyan wood—cold, but still appealing? Can you see, Gubreg, how it moves me?
Gubreg, what is this feeling that overcomes me so often, is that what it feels like to be a
man? Is that a sign of masculinity?" Kopag spoke slowly.
God in Heaven! Master of the universe! Kopag had grown up; he was approaching his
twenty-fifth birthday. He loved reading his Braille books. And from time to time, the
Frenchman Frans Kafkasau would pay him a visit.
The middle-aged Kafkasau got on Gubreg's nerves, with all the things he always
brought with him. Sometimes he would read foreign books to Kopag, books he'd translated,
about Michelangelo Buanorotti who Frans said was a famous Renaissance sculptor.
It was hard. Too hard. Every since he'd gotten to know Frans, Kopag would ask Gubreg
all manner of questions.
"Aren't you going to answer my question, Gubreg?"
"Don't ask me weird things, master. I can't explain things like Frans can. Why don't you
ask him?" Gubreg's voice was heavy with envy.
The old man was quick-tempered these days. It didn't take much to fire him up. A single
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sound uttered by the Frenchman was enough to make his stomach churn. It made him so
mad! Kopag no longer had any time to talk about things. The Frenchman had given him a
new sort of education, a different perspective on the world. Kopag didn't need Gubreg any
more.
The old man felt that something was missing inside him. Kopag had always been as
much a part of him as his own breath. Ever since Kopag was a child, it was Gubreg who
had taught him about the texture of wood. He transferred everything he knew about carving
to the body of the powerless little boy. It was Gubreg who taught Kopag that all things have
souls, including his rows of chiseling knives. And Gubreg taught him how to bring out the
best in the knives and savor the aroma of their sharpness. He still remembered Kopag's cry
when he first touched those naked knives; he had been seven years old at the time.
"Gubreg, I tremble every time I touch these knives. Their sharpness, it's so beautiful.
So mysterious. It's extraordinary, Gubreg."
The sun's rays flashed off the edges of the chiseling knives. Gubreg noticed how the
powerful rays scattered and died away the moment they touched the sharp edge of each
knife. The knife's brilliance seemed to challenge that of the sun. In Kopag's hands the knife
became cold, arrogant, and hungry.
Despite pondering it until almost midnight, Gubreg couldn't answer the question about
what it means to be a man. What were these feelings struggling inside Kopag's body?
Gubreg was afraid—afraid of answering the question about the true meaning of
masculinity.
Kopag was already in his studio bright and early in the morning.
"I need to talk to you." Kopag's voice was laden with curiosity.
"About what, master?"
"About the beauty of a woman."
"I…I can't talk to you about the beauty of a woman. Everyone makes their own
judgment about it. A woman…"
Gubreg's voice broke off. He drew several breaths. He understood. He knew what was
happening. He too was a man and had felt the stirrings of desire upon first encountering his
own humanness. It was such an onerous thing, so unsettling, when his body began to
need, to crave the body of another to feast upon. That feeling suddenly reemerged in his
own brain and his brittle bones began to connect him to his past once more.
At the time Gubreg was a disheveled fourteen-year-old. He was often given the task of
escorting Dayu Centaga when she went to bathe in the Badung river. Her body was like a
snake, encircling and squeezing his body. His legs would cramp every time her wet body
emerged from the water, encased in a sarong. Her white feet made his brain explode. And
on top of all that, she would always get Gubreg to scrub her back with a river stone.
Until this day Gubreg could still sense her aroma on his body, a scent that could not be
erased by the borrowed time that he lived on. Over time Gubreg was wracked by
extraordinary pain. He was anxious, wounded from a sort of misplaced hunger. As a
commoner male he knew that he could never possess the body of a brahmana woman. A
woman he had put on a pedestal, a woman he greatly respected. There wasn't a soul with
whom he could talk about his anxiety; he was nobody, a man who lived off the compassion
of Dayu Centaga's family. Every time he thought about the barriers between himself and
Dayu Centaga, Gubreg felt as if someone was boring holes into his body. Often he would
wake up in the middle of the night, breathing fast. Gubreg realized that his hunger could no
longer be contained. He became pale. The brahmana family sought out a balian for him.
The old ritual healer cast her spells. Gubreg's body was encircled by smoke which
restricted his breathing. The balian explained that Gubreg had thrown rubbish on the river's
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edge. The river god happened to be resting at the time. The balian went on to say that the
river god had also wanted to get his hands on Dayu Centaga. Thanks to Gubreg's efforts,
she had been unharmed. And Gubreg incurred the wrath of the river god. In order to
restore Gubreg's health, the brahmana family took an offering to the river god.
Gubreg could not talk about his male yearnings. He did not resist when
the balian bathed him at the edge of the river. She said it was so that evil spirits would
leave the family be. Out of respect for the brahmana family, Gubreg was prepared to
undergo the ceremony.
Nobody knew that the healer's communications with the spirit world were false. Gubreg
was not sick, and he hadn't been possessed by an evil spirit. He could feel the changes in
his body, the current within him no longer resembled the flowing of a river, it was more like
floodwater. And Gubreg knew that the water in his body needed an estuary. He felt a deep
and powerful love for Dayu Centaga. It was a love that rendered him rigid, cold, and no
longer able to enjoy normal human diversions. To this day, approaching his seventy-fifth
birthday, Gubreg was still faithful to the Griya family. Without a wife, without the passion of
a man.
So Gubreg could understand why Kopag was asking about beauty. Nature had
entrusted something awe-inspiring to him.
Gubreg looked closely at Kopag's body as he finished his carving.
"Gubreg, you haven't answered my question yet," said Kopag slowly. He took several
breaths. "Gubreg, do you remember what Frans said?"
"What in particular?"
"He said that my wild manner of creating the human form from wood reminded him of
Picasso's Guernica. Basically I'm curious, Gubreg. Why does the wood always draw me
into a discussion, a dialogue, encourage me to debate, to think? It's a consuming curiosity
that overwhelms my brain, my hands, and my body, and even works its way into my
dreams. Dreams of the tree with its growing branches, and its body, until in the end its
timbers find themselves in my hands. I have my own dreams, too, about those fragments of
wood. Frans and one of his friends once told me that my carvings of women were perfect.
Very surrealistic, they said. The beauty of the women that I portray in wood reminded Frans
of the passion of Martha Graham, who used her whole body to bring into being the
character she was playing. I feel the beauty of the women through my fingertips, Gubreg.
Wood and knives have given me different eyes."
Gubreg said nothing. He was trying to come to terms with the very private and very
profound thing that Kopag was trying to convey. Kopag had been taught to endeavor to
understand life. In fact Gubreg was willing to let the boy steal, page by page, the secrets of
the journey and pain he himself had endured as a man whose whole life had been
dedicated to serving others.
Thanks to Kopag, the extended family managed to recover from their debts. Kopag's
carved statues were in great demand and drew a great deal of interest from both local and
overseas collectors. And now all was calm within the family. J ero Melati had stopped her
nagging; she was at liberty to spend Kopag's money however she pleased. Kopag's brother
had even been able to open a big sculpture gallery, which was the most highly regarded in
Bali, on account of the rigorous selection process it subjected potential exhibits to. Last
month, the gallery had received funding support from Germany and France.
Gubreg never knew what Kopag wanted. The young man never attached any meaning
to having money, or not having it. The only thing that Gubreg had picked up on was that
Kopag needed a woman.
"We need to find a wife for the boy," Gubreg's voice was very guarded. J ero Melati
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smiled when she heard Gubreg's words.
"How about he marries the girl I've picked out for him."
"You've already chosen someone?"
"I have. I've been thinking about it for a long time."
"Who?"
"My sister," she replied seriously. Gubreg stared sharply at the woman. For the first
time he sensed that this beautiful body was enveloped by an evil force. Kopag was right;
she was not a good woman. She was driven by a desire for status.
"Surely you can convince him that my sister is the right woman for him." The tone of her
voice verged on a command. Gubreg did not respond. He knew that J ero Melati's sister
was a wild and wicked woman. Rumor had it that she sold her own body. Unthinkable! But
she was very beautiful. Unfortunately, she couldn't tolerate being poor. Whereas, poverty, if
one makes a commitment to it, has its own beauty.
"Gubreg, I want to talk to you!" This time Kopag's voice was serious. Gubreg did his
best to figure out where the conversation was headed. Five minutes passed with not a
word. Pacing the room, Kopag seemed distracted.
"My Lord, what is it you want? Don't be afraid. You seem very distressed."
"I am, Gubreg. I want to get married." Kopag's voice was very serious indeed.
"I hope you'll forgive me, my Lord, but I've already discussed this with J ero and your
brother."
"And what did they say."
"They agree. In fact they've chosen a future wife for you."
Gubreg raised his head, keen to see Kopag's face light up. But strangely, the face
remained as impassive as stone.
"I've already chosen my wife. And this time nothing will change it!"
"Who is it?"
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is so strange about the character of Srenggi?
2. What are the peculiar characteristic traits of Kopag?
3. What is beauty to Kopag?
4. Kopag is a wood carver, but what is meant of these lines: “He didn’t just
carve wood; he carved his thoughts, his brain, and his dreams as well”?
5. “Wood and knives have given me different eyes,” this is a line by Kopag.
What character is disclosed in this line?
6. If Kopag’s carved creations were popular in the local and overseas market,
does it mean that Bali is meeting the standard of the international market?
Explain your answer.
7. How does Gubreg perceived Srenggi?
Activity 7: DISCLOSURE
Directions: After answering the questions, continue with the activity on
disclosure. What were disclosed by the characters in terms of words,
thoughts, and actions? Fill out the table on the next page and see what
answers have you arrived at.
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Characters Words Thoughts Actions
Kopag






Gubreg







Srenggi






Now let us go over Oerjarmati’s study about Indonesian literature:
Boen. S Oermarjati, in his study “Isteri, Cinta, and Arjuna: Indonesian Literature
at the Crossroads,” discussed five important socio-cultural elements that help
enhance rapid growth in literary writing after 1966 in Indonesia, namely: (1)
freedom of expression, (2) sponsorship, (3) education, (4) mass media, and (5)
readership.
The socio-political situation in Indonesia during the late fifties and sixties; allowed
greater opportunities for creative freedom and expression which also paved the way for
government, private institutions and foundation to enhance creative writing by granting
funds and yearly literary awards.
In the field of education, it is confronted with many problems but the government tried
to solve the problem by building schools and providing books at presidential instructions,
by encouraging non-formal education, by allowing equal opportunities for women, by
establishing youth centers where youth can learn arts, poetry and drama.
Nearly 40 newspapers in J akarta allocate a space for creative writing. This is also one
way of providing opportunities for youth and other authors to publish their works via
newspapers. A great number of populations at 75% are in the age group of 5-30, thus, will
comprise the potential readership of literature in Indonesia.
During those times, there were two literary movements, the first phenomenon is
dubbed as “serious” literature and the second one is referred to as “popular” literature.
However, some critics in Indonesia regard popular literature as inferior to serious literature.
But Oermarjati has other views; he believed that transiency marks a stage in growth and
that there are potentials in popular literature.
Oermarjati further discussed the social dynamics of popular literature. He enumerated
the essentials as: (1) tradition and modernity, (2) social responsibility, and (3) artistic
achievement.

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Directions: Go over the selection once again and pick some lines that will
reveal the author’s thoughts (1) among the thoughts of the characters, (2)
among the actions of the characters, (3) among the characters’ relationship
with one another and (4) among the lines of the character. Can you spot
the author in the selection “The Century Carver?” What makes you say “YES?” What
Activity 8: SPOT THE AUTHOR IN THE SELECTION
This time let us move to another country and see what stories will be
uncovered. Let us read the legend of Ancient Vietnam.
Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ:
The Legend of Ancient Vietnam
T
housands of years ago, during the
reign of King Kinh Dương Vương,
the Xích Quỷ kingdom was an
unknown stretch of a vast land on the far
East, leaning its back on a range of high
mountains while looking out facing the
oceans from a long shoreline. He married princess Long Nữ, the daughter of Động Đình
Vương - sovereign of the Động Đình Lake. They were then blessed with one child, a boy
whom they called Sung Lam, popularly known in the kingdom as Lạc Long Quân, the
"Dragon Lord of Lạc”. Because of Long Nữ’s origin, their son was believed to be a
descendant from the line of the Dragons. And indeed, Lạc Long Quân had extraordinary
strength and supreme intelligence. But his succession from his mother’s underwater
world developed in him a strong fascination for the ocean, and the young man is often
seen along the shorelines enjoying the waves and exploring the many sea creatures in
sight.
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Soon, he succeeded his father’s throne and governed the Lac-Viet tribe. Meanwhile,
another kingdom rules the highlands in the north. Their king, Đế Lai, has a beautiful
daughter named Âu Cơ. Wanting to unite his northern tribe with Lạc Long Quân’s kingdom;
he agreed to give his daughter’s hand for marriage with the young man. And a lavish feast
was prepared as princess Âu Cơ was wed with Lạc Long Quân. The two kingdoms then
celebrated their unity.
Time went by, Âu Cơ gave birth to a pouch filled with one hundred eggs, which soon
hatched into one hundred beautiful children. The children grew up strong and smart like
their father, and as kind-hearted and skilful like their mother. They were taught well how to
cultivate their lands and live nobly. But soon after, the couple started to grow unhappy. Lạc
Long Quân always finds his heart longing for the coasts while Âu Cơ constantly yearns for
the highlands.
The couple decided to divide their children, of whom fifty will live with Lạc Long Quân
along the coasts. Âu Cơ will lead the other fifty to dwell with her in the highlands. However,
they made a promise that despite the distance and separation, they must look after each
other and always be there to lend a hand should one be in need.
So, Lạc Long Quân took fifty children to the coast and divided the areas for them to
govern. He taught them the skills of fishing and the art of tattoos to scare off sea creatures
as they dive and hunt for food. He also trained them to plant and harvest rice, as well as
how to cook them in bamboo tubes. Âu Cơ, who took fifty children to the highlands, also
divided her areas for them to govern. They were taught to live in the jungles and
mountains, breed animals and cultivate the soil to grow fruit trees for food. They learned to
build houses raised on bamboo stilts to keep themselves safe from wild animals.
The children of Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ are believed to be the ancestors of Vietnam.
Today, Vietnamese people call themselves “the children of the Dragon and the Fairy”
referring to Lạc Long Quân’s lineage from the world of the Dragons and Âu Cơ’s Fairy Clan
from the highlands. Therefore, whichever part of the country one hails from, he belongs to
one origin. Just as Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ promised to each other, all Vietnamese
should love, honor and protect one another. This legend, then, has become the pride and
Activity 9: WHICH IMAGE IS THE BEST TO EXPLAIN DIVERSITY?
Directions: Based on the flow of the story of “The Legend of Ancient
Vietnam,” kindly go over the following images. Which is the best image that
A _____
B _____
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C _____ D _____
Source: http://www.motherland-heritage.com/Legend-stories/the-legend-of-lac-long-quan-
and-au-co.html

Did you find the legend interesting? How is diversity discussed in this
Activity 10: IMAGE CHALLENGE
Directions: Look at each picture inside the boxes. Are these images
believable? Why? Why not? In what ways can you make these images
believable? Write your answer in the box.
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In the following accounts of Maurice Durand and
and Nuyen Tran Huan, they documented that “the
early history of Vietnam is obscure.” If they were
to base the information from the legends and
tales, the first rulers were of supernatural origin.
“They descended on the legendary Chinese emperor Than
Nong, and on the other from the dragon, ruler or Water King
of Lake Dong Dinh in Southern China; and in general the pre-
history of Vietnam is bound up with that of the early people of China south of the Blue
River.”
“The first Kingdom of Vietnam was known either as Van Lang or as Da Lang, it
comprised southern China, present-day North Vietnam and also part of Laos. The name
of the country, Viet Nam, indicates a link with the Viet peoples, branches of which took
root in southern China while the main body settled down in what is now North Vietnam.”

Your goal in this section is to look closer at some aspects
of the topic. Also, you need to find out how this diversity of
Let us find out another story from Vietnam about the “The Peasant, the
Buffalo and the Tiger.”
The Peasant, the Buffalo and the Tiger:
A Tale of Strength and Wisdom
A
long time ago, when animals still had
the power of speech, the buffalo used
to have sharp front teeth while the
mighty tiger was a pure golden beast. A young
peasant was resting under a mango tree one
fine afternoon. He and his water buffalo had
plowed the rice field the whole morning and
stopped for a while to have something to eat.
While the buffalo grazed and the peasant is
enjoying his meal, a tiger came up to the
buffalo, demanding answers for something that
had puzzled him for a long time now.
"I have watched you everyday from the
edge of the forest," the tiger said, "I noticed the quite curious spectacle of your toil. How is
it possible that that Man, a small and upright being who neither has great strength, sharp
vision or a keen sense of smell manages to lead you and make you work for him? You
are ten times heavier and stronger. Your horns are sharp enough to cut him and your
hooves are mighty enough to trample him. The only weapon he carries is a flimsy
bamboo stick, yet he rules you and you never run away."
Calmly, the water buffalo answered, "I have not been able to solve that puzzle myself,
mighty tiger. No matter how I ponder the situation, I only know of one thing. I can never
free myself from his mastery. Whatever power he possesses, only he has knowledge of
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it.
Eager to have such powers, the tiger resolved to ask the peasant. If he could rule all
animals like how the man ruled the buffalo, he would no longer need to hunt for food.
Instead, he could just order the animals to come and then choose a suitable meal.
"Please tell me, Mr. Farmer, what power do you have over the buffalo that makes him
obey you so willingly?" the tiger asked the peasant.
"I will tell you, mighty tiger," he answered, "I posses something that allows me to rule
over all animals, making them do as I say. It is called wisdom."
"I would do anything to see this amazing thing you call wisdom. Would you be kind
enough to show it to me?" asked the tiger.
"Unfortunately, I left it at home. Wisdom is too precious for me to carry around the
fields. Instead, I keep it in a gilded box carved with dragons and a golden phoenix to make
sure it's well protected. But if you want it so badly, I can go back and fetch it for you."
replied the young peasant.
Delighted by the peasant's words, the tiger agreed. "I will gladly stay and watch over
your water buffalo while you are gone."
But the young man said, "I have heard your stomach rumble and I am greatly
concerned over the possibility that you might eat my buffalo while I am gone. I have great
need of it in my daily work. If you agree, I will tie you to a tree so my mind will be free. Then
I would willingly go get the wisdom you want to see."
Eager to see wisdom so badly, the tiger was willing to agree to anything. He strolled up
to the palm tree, held up his legs and said, "Go ahead and tie me up." So the farmer
passed ropes around his body, secured him tightly to the palm tree and left. But sly as the
tiger was, he planned on jumping on the man when he returns to untie him. He then, would
eat his water buffalo, take his magic box of wisdom, and spend the rest of his days
commanding the cows and dears and the delicious wild boars to come and be eaten as his
meal. He would never have to hunt for food again.
Soon after, the farmer returned carrying bundles of straws behind his back. Eagerly,
the tiger asked, "Did you bring the wisdom for me to see?"
"Oh yes, foolish tiger, and I am about to show you." replied the peasant. "I never keep
my wisdom in a box, it is here in my head all along. Now I will teach you to stay away from
my precious water buffalo." He then piled the straws around the tiger, and with a burning
torch, he set them on fire.
The tiger roared in pain and raged as the ropes burned around his golden body. As the
air filled with smell of the tiger's singed fur and as the fire burned through the ropes, the
beast finally managed to free himself. He quickly leaped away from the flames and dashed
into the jungle. The sight of this spectacle amused the buffalo so greatly that he laughed so
hard and fell, hitting his mouth against a rock. This caused the buffalo to knock all his front
teeth out.
Though his burns have healed after some time, the tiger could no longer rid himself of
the long black stripes that now circle his golden body. But most importantly, the tiger
realized that his strength could never defeat man who has wisdom he knew he could never
have. Up to this day, the tiger has his stripes and the water buffalo never grew back his
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What was so amazing about the farmer that the tiger would like to possess?
2. What puzzled the water buffalo about the farmer?
3. How did the farmer prepare to get rid of the tiger?
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4. How did the tiger accept defeat?
5. Did the water buffalo’s perception of the farmer change after what happened
to tiger?
6. How can we keep a harmonious relationship in our environment?
7. Can unity be achieved however diverse the characters are in the legend?
Activity 11: TIGER NEEDS ADVISE
Directions: Let us help the tiger achieve its goal. The tiger would like to
find out man’s secret in leading the buffalo and other animals in the farm.
How can we help the tiger in realizing that it can never reach the level of
man? How can we help the tiger desire for goals which are feasible and
achievable?
Tiger,
there’s only
one master.
Tiger, you
can be your
own
I would like to have that
wisdom that the man has,
but how am I going to
acquire that?
Tiger, be
satisfied
with what
Tiger, remind
yourself that
you may not
have the
wisdom of a
man but you
have skills
and abilities.
Why don’t you
try to enhance
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Now, it is your turn, fill out the form “The Way I See It.” What can you share with the
Tiger so it won’t get frustrated? Tell the Tiger how important diversity is.
The Way I See It










As we go through writing and start to add details about our simple sentences,
then we begin to expand our sentences. We add extra words in our sentence.
In the next activity, we will make use of adjectives, adverbs and prepositional
phrases to expand our sentences. But before we do that activity, let us be
clear first with what are adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases.

ADJECTIVES are describing words; it qualifies noun or noun phrases. Words that
will tell about size, shape, age, color, origin, and material.
 We can add adjectives to our sentence.
For example:


The young tiger was eager to have extra wisdom.

ADVERBS are words that qualify the meaning the verbs, adjective or other adverbs.
It answers questions like how, in what way, when, where, and to what extent.
 We can add adverbs to our sentence.
For example: How did the tiger wait for the farmer?


The tiger eagerly waits for the farmer to bring the box of wisdom.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES are group of words containing a preposition, a noun, a
pronoun object of the preposition and any modifiers of the object.
 We can add prepositional phrases to our sentence.
For example: prepositional phrase


The water buffalo loaded its cart with food, water and vegetables.
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Activity 12: EXPANDING SENTENCES
Directions: Expand the following simple sentences by adding adjectives,
adverbs or prepositional phrases.
Simple Sentence Expanded Sentences
1. Tiger attacked people.
2. Buffalo watched the fight.
3. Farmer sets fire.
4. Buffalo fell in the ground.
5. Tiger waited in the afternoon.
6. Preparation is important.
7. Man has wisdom.
8. Farmer planned for harvest.
9. Puzzle remained unresolved.
10. Buffalo wondered.

What have you noticed? We expand sentences to make their meaning
clearer. Writers may add one or more modifiers to help explain, describe,
elucidate and elaborate so that sentences will be more meaningful and clear
to the readers.
Directions: Invite everyone to participate in the panel discussion. The
topic for discussion: “Can there be unity in diversity?” Ask set of leaders to
prepare the classroom for a panel discussion. But before the actual panel
discussion, get some information about how panel discussions are
conducted. This activity will also be helpful as students conduct interactive
Activity 13: PANEL DISCUSSION
A panel discussion is designed to provide an opportunity for a group to
hear several people or groups of expert knowledgeable about specific issue or
topic, present information and discuss personal views.
The panel may consist of six to eight persons. The proceedings of the
panel should be the same as those described for informal discussion:
volunteering of facts, asking questions, stating opinions-all expressed with geniality,
with respect for the contributions of other members, without speech making, and
without making invidious personal references.
 The primary function of the panel is to present and deliver information that will
also cover personal views on one specific issue or topic. It should occupy
approximately two-thirds of the allotted time.
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 The secondary function of the panel is to answer questions from the audience. This
discussion method is suitable for use when a relatively large audience is anticipated.

Some guidelines in the conduct of a panel discussion:

1. Identify, or help participants identify, an issue or topic that involves an important
conflict in values and/or interests. The issue or topic may be set forth as a topical
question, a hypothetical incident, a student experience, an actual case, etc.
2. Select panelists who are well informed about and have specific points of view
regarding the issue or topic. A panel discussion that includes three to five panelists
is usually most workable. Select a leader or moderator.
3. Tell the panelists that they are given time to prepare. In some situations ten or fifteen
minutes may be sufficient time for preparation while in other situations, panel
members may need to prepare several weeks in advance of the scheduled
discussion.
4. Decide on the format of the panel discussion will follow. Various formats are
appropriate. The following procedures have been used effectively:
a. The leader or moderator introduces the topic and the panelists present their
views and opinions regarding the issue or topic for a set amount of time.
b. The panelists discuss the issue or topic with each other by asking questions or
reacting to the views and opinions of other panel members. A specific amount of
time should be established.
c. The leader or moderator closes the discussion and provides a summary of panel
presentations and discussion.
d. The leader or moderator calls for a forum period during which the members of
the class may participate by addressing questions to various panel members or
by voicing their views and opinions. The forum period should be conducted by
the panel leader or moderator.

Let us check what structure may help us in the conduct of our panel discussion,
alternative structures are also encouraged.
Structure A for Panel Discussion
Structure B for Panel Discussion
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Structure C for Panel Discussion Structure D for Panel Discussion
(This may be done in pairs, one
pair at a time.)
Activity 14: OPINION POLL
SURVEY
We move on to an opinion poll
survey. Let us take a moment to
understand very well what
Opinion poll surveys are the types of surveys involving the determination of
the public's opinion on certain issues. They are usually administered to
discover the public's opinion about different political matters such as
presidential elections, senatorial elections, or presidential ratings.
Opinion polls are an excellent means of generating publicity, highlighting
specific campaign messages, or reinforcing the company brand footprint. A key attraction
of opinion polls is their versatility of scope and scale, from probing attitudes and
perceptions to revealing consumer or business trends.
One advantage of an opinion poll survey is its influence to the public to make
decisions about certain issues. On the other hand, the disadvantage of an opinion poll
survey is the public’s tendency to go bias. There is a tendency to support the leading
option indicated by the researchers in their poll surveys.

Source: http://www.surveys.com.au/opinion-poll-surveys/
Activity 15: DIVERSITY QUOTATIONS
Directions: Now, let us go over the following diversity quotations. Choose
only one quotation and check the heading on preference. Then compare
your answers with the rest. Then at the bottom of these quotations, answer
the question that follows.
DIVERSITY QUOTATIONS AUTHORS Preference
We must learn to live
together as brothers or
perish together as fools.
Martin Luther King, Jr.

He who neglects to assist
his relatives may become a
slave to an outsider.
Nigerian Proverb, from
Yoruba Culture

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DIVERSITY QUOTATIONS AUTHORS Preference
If we can’t do without each
other, we must learn how to
live with one another.
Kehinde A. Adesina



The challenge of diversity is
not merely the issue of
integrating those who are
culturally or socio-
economically different into
already homogeneous
environments. The
challenge of true integration
is to create environments
where difference is
celebrated and viewed as a
challenge rather than a
burden to bear.
Mary Montle Bacon

A culturally pluralistic
environment is one where
basic knowledge about
culture, respect for
differences in others, and
an understanding of the
interplay of cultures are all
used as the basis for
positive social interacting
with diverse persons and
groups
Samuel D. Henry



Our future unity lies not in
overcoming our differences
but in seeing how they are
analogous in learning to see
that my struggle to become
a moral human being is
rather like your struggle to
become a moral human
being.
Michael Novak
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DIVERSITY QUOTATIONS AUTHORS Preference
Full mastery of language
grows from interactions in
the language that
accomplishes real life ends;
without experience in using
language to communicate
information, accomplish
tasks, express feelings, and
play, learners will not grow
in language competence.
Daniel Holt

The culturally different child
brings a variety of strength
to the educational
environment.
Source unknown

It takes a whole village to
raise a child.
African proverb

To achieve cultural
pluralism, there must be
unity with diversity. Each
person must be aware of
and secure in his own
identity, and be willing to
extend to others the same
respect and rights that he
expects to enjoy himself.
The National Coalition for
Cultural Pluralism


Education must aim, first of
all, at the building of minds
that are sensitive to the
social realities of the world
in which they live, that are
free, that have acquired the
capacity for thinking for
themselves, because they
have had opportunity to
think for themselves.
J.H. Newton
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Why did you choose that quotation on diversity?












Activity 16: REFLECTIVE WRITING
Directions: Let us write our reflections by going back to the questions that
we posed at the beginning of this lesson.
1. How do traditions and beliefs bring
about diversity and/or harmony?
2. How does diversity contribute to
unity?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
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What were your realizations about the topic? Have you found an answer to
Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to real life
situations. You will be given a practical task which will
demonstrate your understandings in this lesson.
Directions: Read the task below. In your
group, discuss and plan on how you will put up
the exhibit. The rubric for grading is provided
here to remind you on how your work will be graded.
Activity 17: EXHIBIT OF AFRO-ASIAN
Appreciating a different culture is indeed difficult. In existing
Rotary Club exchange student program, exchange students
themselves find difficulty getting along with one another. To
address this situation, you are tasked to be organizers of a
social event which will showcase the diverse cultural heritage
through interactive human exhibit of Afro-Asian literary
characters. The audiences are administrators of international schools, rotary
club board of directors, representatives of funding institutions, and other non-
government organizations. Your output will be judged according to
authenticity, creativity, collaboration, aesthetic appeal, audience
TASK

PERFORMANCE TASK RUBRIC
CRITERIA Outstanding
4
Satisfactory
3
Developing
2
Beginning
1


AUTHENTICITY
Reveals very
relevant
information
and highly
authentic
representation
of the literary
characters;
have greater
applicability
Reveals
relevant
information
and
moderately
authentic
representation
of the literary
characters,
have
satisfactory
applicability
Reveals some
relevant
information
and partially
authentic
representation
of the literary
characters;
have some
applicability
Reveals
irrelevant
information
and
inauthentic
representation
of the literary
characters;
have little
applicability

25%

CREATIVITY
Shows an
excellent
presentation;
very unique;
can combine
elements in a
highly creative
manner
Shows a
satisfactory
presentation;
unique; can
combine
elements in a
moderately
creative
manner
Shows a good
presentation;
partially
unique; can
combine
elements in a
creative
manner
Shows a poor
presentation;
not unique;
cannot
combine
elements in a
creative
manner

20%
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CRITERIA Outstanding
4
Satisfactory
3
Developing
2
Beginning
1


COLLABORATION
Tasks are
fully
accomplished
by the group
members;
very confident

Tasks are
substantially
accomplished
by the group
members;
confident
Tasks are
partially
accomplished
by the group
members;
somewhat
confident
Tasks are
hardly
accomplished
by the group
members; not
confident

20%
AUDIENCE
FEEDBACK
(INTERACTIVE)
Interactive
exchange
between
performers
and audience
is very
impressive;
can connect
effectively
with the
audience
Interactive
exchange
between
performers
and audience
is impressive;
can connect
with the
audience
Interactive
exchange
between
performers
and audience
is somewhat
impressive;
can connect
superficially
with the
audience
Interactive
exchange
between
performers
and audience
is not at all
impressive;
can hardly
connect with
the audience
20%
AESTHETIC
APPEAL
Overall
appeal is
excellent; very
expressive
Overall appeal
is satisfactory;
expressive
Overall
appeal is
pleasing;
somewhat
expressive
Overall appeal
is not
pleasing; not
expressive
15%
OVERALL
RATING
100%

Character: is a person who appears in, acts, narrates or speaks.
Characterization: is the method used to portray that person or being.
Diversity: means variety, assortment or a mixture.
Panel discussion: is designed to provide an opportunity for a group to hear
several people knowledgeable about a specific issue or topic present
information and discuss personal views. A panel discussion may help the
audience further clarify and evaluate their positions regarding specific
issues or topics being discussed and increase their understanding of the
Books

Adesina, Kehinde A. (1998) Sensitivity in Educating the Culturally Different. California:
SCC Publishing.
Aveling, Harry. (1974) A Thematic History of Indonesian Poetry: 1920 to 1974. Illinois:
Center for Southeast Asian Studies.
Becker, A.L., ed. (1998) Writing on the Tongue. Michigan: Center for South and
Southeast Asian Studies.
Chee, Tham Seong, ed. (1982) Essays on Literature and Society in Southeast Asia.
Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 2 - L3
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269

Durand, Maurice M. and Huan, Nguyen Tran. (1985) An Introduction to Vietnamese
Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kintanar, Thelma B. (1988) Self and Society in Southeast Asian Fiction. Singapore:
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Knappert, J an. (1977) Myths and Legends of Indonesia. Singapore: Heinemann
Educational Books (Asia) Ltd.
Kress, Nancy. (1993) Beginnings, Middles and Ends. Cincinati: Writer’s Digest Books.
Longknife, Ann. and Sullivan, K.D. (2002) The Art of Styling Sentences. New York:
Barron’s.
Mallari-Hall, Luisa and Tope, Lily Rose, eds. (1999) Texts and Contexts. Quezon City:
Department of English and Comparative Literature.
Masavisut, Nitaya and Boccuzzi, Ellen, eds. (2008) The S.E.A. Write Anthology of
ASEAN Short Stories and Poems: The 30
th
Anniversary. Bangkok: Amarin
Printing and Publishing.
Phillips, Nigel and Anwar, Khaidir, ed. (1981). Papers on Indonesian Languages and
Literatures. London: Indonesian Etymological Project.
Raffle, Burton. (1967) The Development of Modern Indonesian Poetry. New York:
State University of New York Press.
Smyth, David, ed. (2000) The Canon in Southeast Asian Literatures. Richmond:
Curzon Press.
Teeuw, A. (1967) Modern Indonesian Literature. Hague: University of Leiden.
Thong, Huynh Sanh, ed. (1996) An Anthology of Vietnamese Poems. New Have: Yale
University Press.
Thanh, Hoang Ngoc. (1968) The Social and Political Development of Vietnam as seen
through the Modern Novel. Hawaii: University of Hawaii.
Online Sources

http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/the-century-carver/
http://www.vietnam.com/article/lc-long-qun-and-u-c-the-legend-of-ancient-
vietnam.html
http://www.motherland-heritage.com/Legend-stories/the-legend-of-lac-long-quan-and-
au-co.html
http://www.historians.org/projects/giroundtable/discussion/discussion4_2.htm
http://www2.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/crit3/a7.html
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The past is indeed rich and it is appropriate to revisit it. As you do this,
you came across the diverse cultural heritage of the different countries in
Afro-Asia. Whether it was tangible or intangible, you cannot deny the
richness of these heritage expressions and the way it affected and molded
the traditions, beliefs, morals and literature of the countries where you found
them.
Studying the literature of a country opens opportunities for you to be
acquainted to their diverse cultural heritage, as well as their traditions and
beliefs. With this knowledge at your hands, you can think of ways to
communicate properly with the people practicing such culture. In short,
studying literature can lead you to know people with different cultures more,
aside from enhancing your communicative skills.
As Claude Levi-Strauss put it, “To know and understand our own culture,
we must learn to see it from the point of view of other cultures, comparing
our customs and beliefs with those of other times and places.” This will not
only let you understand your own culture, but the culture of other people as
well. This scenario will then be the seedling that will enable you and other
people to achieve unity, peace and harmony in this diversified world.
Thus, understanding and safeguarding this diversity of culture will lead to
unity, peace and harmony.
Appreciating one’s origin is best exemplified when the desire to trace
one’s background is eminent. Exposure to other countries’ culture and
literature may lead to an engaging discussion on diversity. All the activities in
Embracing Our Heritage may not be the end but in reality may be the
beginning to explore other Asian countries’ traditions, culture and beliefs
through their legends, folktales, myths, poetry, stories and novels. Some old
tales may be discovered and some new tales may be uncovered, diversity is
fascinating because there is always something “to tell about” man’s

It’s now time to evaluate your learning. Choose the letter of the answer that you think
best answers the question. If you do well, you may move on to the next module. If your
score is not at the expected level, you have to go back and go over the module again.
1. This country is homogenous.
a. India
b. Thailand
c. Vietnam
d. Indonesia

2. Popular literature has come to a wider attention from 1970s to 1980s.
a. Indonesian literature
b. Malaysian literature
c. Philippine literature
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d. Singaporean literature
3. A country divided by two, which is engaged into hostilities against each other.
a. Korea
b. Vietnam
c. China
d. Myanmar

4. An Indonesia Folktale “Banyuwangi,” is a combination of two words in Indonesian
language.
a. Banyu means bathroom and wangi means champion.
b. Banyu means waterfalls and wangi means love.
c. Banyu means water and wangi means fragrance.
d. Banyu means love at first sight and wangi means odorless.

5. Characterization is the method used to portray that person or being.
a. The definition is vague.
b. The definition is a contradiction.
c. The definition is correct.
d. The definition is fit for character and not characterization.

6. Stock characters are like characters in fantasies and fairy tales.
a. It is dependent on how the characters are written for literary style.
b. When the writer loses motivation to think of a character in his or her literary
writings.
c. The character is a conventional stereotype character, like Prince Charming.
d. The characters are stocky and predictable in the course of the story.

7. The opposite of popular literature is Indonesia.
a. witty
b. serious
c. traditional
d. Scheming

8. Its sufferings are reflected in its literature.
a. Egypt
b. Vietnam
c. Thailand
d. Saudi Arabia

9. Around 40 newspapers in this country are allocating space for creative writing.
a. China
b. Thailand
c. Singapore
d. Indonesia

10. Important events in Malay Literary development took place in this country.
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Read the text below and answer the question that follows:

1
The Internet can be an efficient source of information, or just another way to waste
time.
2
If, for the most part, you’re checking out flashy ads, games, and chat rooms, you’re
not using the Internet as the valuable research tool it can be.
3
But if you plan ahead and
stay on track,
4
you will find a wealth of up-to-date information for speeches, essays,
reports, and research papers.
Source: Writing Source 2000: A Guide to Writing, Thinking and Learning (1999)

11. If you’re going to make an outline for this text, where can you find the main topic?
a. 4
b. 2
c. 3
d. 1

Study the map taken from UNESCO Heritage List website and answer the question
that follows:
12. Based from the map, majority of the cultural heritage sites are mostly found at
____________.
a. North and South America
b. Eurasia
c. Europe and Africa
d. Europe, Asia and Africa

13. Which of the following can be used to
form new words out of the ones
graph biography mobile immune
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inside the box?


a. multi-
b. -ish
c. fore-
d. auto-

Read the text below and answer the question that follows:

In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian
culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous
peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that
Islam must play a part in it.

It also promoted the Malay language above others. This
government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel
their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted
memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture
policy.
Source: Culture of Malaysia (Wikipedia)

14. What conclusion can be drawn from this text?
a. The Malaysian government doesn’t know what can be called “Malaysian culture”.
b. The Malaysian government realized early the importance of defining what
Malaysian culture is in order to bring unity and harmony within the diverse
society they have.
c. The Malaysian government formulated a policy on culture but is accused of
being undemocratic.
d. The Malaysian government based the policy on the indigenous peoples of
Malaysia.

15. Christian is an exchange student from the Philippines and will be staying in Singapore
for three months. In his literature class, his professor assigned him to read Singaporean
short stories, poems, plays, novels, and watch classic Singaporean films. What could
be the professor’s aim in giving this task to Christian?
a. The professor wants Christian to appreciate Singaporean culture and its diversity
better.
b. The professor only thinks of very appropriate activities for the exchange student
program.
c. The professor needs Christian to do his literary criticisms for him.
d. The professor wants Christian to make a report about his experiences while in
Singapore.

16. Michael, a member of the ASEAN Literary Circle, was tasked to prepare a research
paper to be presented in the ASEAN Conference in Literary Studies. While on his trip to
a local library in Singapore, Michael thought of investigating the influence of culture to
literature. Which of the following is the most viable step Michael could take to make his
trip in the local library meaningful and fruitful?
a. Michael could take a tour inside the library to search for cultural artifacts of
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Singapore.
b. Michael could search for heritage literature of Singapore and read them for initial
analysis.
c. Michael could borrow books about Singaporean culture and heritage literature
and study them for background research.
d. Michael could ask the local librarian to assist him in doing his research.
17. The Philippines has a vast number of indigenous cultural groups. In Malaysia, aside
from their own indigenous cultural groups, they have to deal also with different races
that had settled in their state, like the Indians and Chinese. This scenario is in a greater
extent in Singapore, due to the fast influx of foreigners that choose to settle in the
island. Which of the following is TRUE based on this scenario?
a. People in these countries need to study other cultures.
b. People in these countries are pushed into cultural homogeneity.
c. People in these countries identify themselves with one culture.
d. People in these countries base their culture on their nationality.

18. As the Supreme Student Government president, you’re asked by the school principal to
help prepare a welcome booth for the Singaporean sponsors of the school. The
principal wants to have a film viewing as part of the booth. How would you ensure that
the film would be the most appropriate for the booth?
a. Ask some film critics about the film you will choose.
b. Watch the film to check if it does contain basic Singaporean values and culture.
c. Write a film review about it and submit it to the principal for scrutiny.
d. Make sure that the film does reflect Singaporean values and culture through
reading some reviews about the film.

19. Sam is going to prepare a film review for their cultural club. He doesn’t know what
should be observed in writing the review. Which of the following will you recommend to
Sam?
a. Watch the film first then write the review.
b. Search for a definite format of a film review.
c. Find some people who watched the film already to help him write his review.
d. Find and study a film review format, watch the movie, and then write the review.

20. The school fair is fast approaching. The English Club decided to have the History Club
275
Learning Module for English - Grade 8
W
as there ever a time in your life when you almost wanted to give up? What
pushed you to feel that way? How did you cope with the challenges that
came with the experience? Remember, it is normal to go through
difficulties. Whatever is the color of your skin, you have to keep in mind that
everybody goes through challenges in these modern times. You are certainly not
alone in this journey. For sure others, particularly, your brothers and sisters in Asia
and Africa have learned to overcome challenges brought about by modernity. Do you
think it is possible to have a glimpse of how they are coping with these challenges in
the literary pieces?
In this quarter, you will find out how Asian and African literary pieces reveal the
diversity of the peoples’ temperament and psyche in their response to the challenges
of modernity.
Remember to search for the answers to the following questions: What does
literature reveal about Asian and African character? How do Asians and
In this module, your learning will be maximized as you take the following lessons:
 Lesson 1 — Resilience in Embracing Challenges
 Lesson 2 — Faith in Times of Challenges
 Lesson 3 — Strength in Facing Challenges
 Lesson 4 — Audacity in Rising Above Challenges
Specifically for Module 1, you will learn the following:
 The Psyche and Temperament of the People of Korea
 Response to the Challenges of Modernity
 Resilience in Embracing Modernity
 The Psyche and Temperament of the People of Burma
 Response to the Challenges of Modernity
 Faith in Times of Challenges
 The Psyche and Temperament of the People of Arabia
The learner demonstrates understanding of selected literary pieces from Korea,
Burma, Arabia/Israel and Africa to express critical understanding of and appreciation
of the diversity of temperaments and psyche among the peoples of these countries.
The learner creates an interactive feedback blog on literary pieces.
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276

 The Psyche and Temperament of the People Israel
 Strength in Responding to the Challenges of Modernity
 The Psyche and Temperament of the People of South Africa
 Response to the Challenges of Modernity
Here is a simple map of the above lessons you will cover:


OVERCOMING
CHALLENGES


The Psyche and
Temperament of
the People of
Korea

Response to the
Challenges of
Modernity

Resilience in
Embracing
Modernity


The Psyche and
Temperament of
the People of
Burma

Response to the
Challenges of
Modernity

Faith in Times of
Challenges


The Psyche and
Temperament of
the People of
Arabia

The Psyche and
Temperament of
the People of
Israel

Strength in
Responding to the
Challenges of
Modernity


The Psyche and
Temperament of
the People of
South Africa

Response to the
Challenges of
Modernity

Audacity in
Rising Above
Challenges



Resilience in
Embracing
Challenges


Faith in Time of
Challenges


Strength in
Facing
Challenges


Audacity in
Rising Above
Challenges
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277

Let’s find out how much you know about the coverage of this module. Choose the
letter that you think best answers the question. Remember to answer all items. Write the
answers in your notebook. After taking this short test, your answers will be checked to find
out your score. Take note of the items that you won’t be able to correctly answer and look
for the right answer as you go through this module.
1. Before doing an interview, the interviewer should know a good deal of knowledge
about the topic of the interview. In order to formulate sensible questions, what skills
can help the interviewer gather or synthesize information?
a. comprehension
b. linguistic
c. location
d. psychomotor

2. What do you mean by psyche and temperament?
a. the heart, the life-force that drives a person to decide on things – bad or good
b. the inner self, the essence of the soul plus the strength of body and soul
c. the mind, the deepest thoughts, beliefs plus the nature or character of the
person
d. the soul, the inner thoughts, outlook and humor plus the attitude of the person

3. Long before any written form of literature, what was the principal form of literary
entertainment of the Koreans?
a. describing persons
b. narrating history orally
c. reciting poems
d. telling legends orally

4. Confucianism and Buddhism are two of the great religions in the history of the world.
What do you think is the contribution of Confucianism and Buddhism to Korean
literature?
a. aesthetic intensity
b. divine seriousness
c. spiritual weakness
d. thematic depth

5. After reading a Korean legend, you notice one striking similarity between Korean and
Filipino legends. What similarity is this?
a. Legends from both countries described the rich natural resources back then.
b. Legends from both countries narrated ethnic rituals practiced by the natives.
c. Legends from both countries were orally transmitted first before they were
written.
d. Legends from both were written by ordinary people.
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6. You are reading a Korean story with two to three difficult words in every page. What
should be the best immediate strategy to use in order to deal with the difficult words?
a. Define words through context.
b. Get the dictionary and look up the meanings of the difficult words.
c. Highlight the difficult words and get back to them later as soon as I finish reading
the book.
d. J ust ignore the words. I had better just finish reading the book.

7. Koreans are our friends. What kind of a sentence is this?
a. complex sentence
b. compound sentence
c. kernel sentence
d. compound-complex sentence

8. What are the common characteristics of a well-constructed paragraph?
a. It has good content and shows coherence and cohesion.
b. It has a topic sentence.
c. It has an interesting topic.
d. It observes correct grammar and correct use of punctuation marks.

9. You interviewed a Korean about the ways of coping with the challenges of modernity.
The Korean answered all of your questions with a degree of certainty. How do you
preserve all the Korean’s answers so that you can use these answers in the making of
a feature article?
a. J ust remember everything so that you will not disturb or distract the interviewee.
b. Let the interviewee stop from time to time so that you can write down everything
in a notebook.
c. Record the entire interview through a video or voice recorder (with the
interviewee’s permission).
d. Take down important details and make sure that you can write very fast.

10. Why is literature a good source of knowing Koreans?
a. Literature gives all the updates about all the important events in a country.
b. Literature mirrors the psyche, temperament, culture and traditions of the people.
c. Literature provides a descriptive picture of how the people dress and speak like.
d. Literature is a work of art that describes citizens with breeding and refinement.

11. The liberation of 1945 produced a flowering of poetry of all kinds. Some poets were
determined to bear witness to the events of their age, some sought to further assimilate
traditional Korean values, while others drew variously on Western traditions to enrich
their work. What does this information tell you?
a. As far as literary direction was concerned, Koreans did not respond similarly to
the situation at that time.
b. Koreans were not united as a people because they did not agree on one common
direction.
c. Priority should be given to Western traditions because a country always prospers
in making this move.
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d. We should be grateful to the Koreans because they set a very good example in
making good decisions.



12. In this last two lines of the poem titled On A Rainy Autumn Night by Ch’oeCh’iwŏn, how
do you define the highlighted phrase? Choose the best analysis.

At third watch, it rains outside.
By the lamp my heart flies myriad miles away.

a. “Does the heart fly? Of course, not! But the heart is a symbol of love, and
because love flies, love is certainly gone.”
b. “If the heart flies, then it must have wings on its own; therefore, this heart must
have been borrowed by somebody else.”
c. “Perhaps, the heart is too weak to handle the situation so it finds a way to fly and
just be in any place that it wants, like miles away.”
d. “The heart literary flies. The heart must be taken away from the person’s body
because it is weak. It is not fit to stay in that body.”

13. What is the best observation regarding this paragraph?

Modern Korean literature attained its maturity in the 1930s through the efforts of a
group of talented writers. They drew freely upon European examples to enrich their art.
Translation of Western literature continued, and works by I.A. Richards, T.S. Eliot, and
T.E. Hulme were introduced. This artistic and critical activity was a protest against the
reduction of literature to journalism and its use as propaganda by leftist writers.

a. It has a topic sentence that gives the best practices of the Koreans.
b. It has an impact because it has a well-chosen topic.
c. It has coherence in its sentences and cohesion in its ideas.
d. It has one imperative sentence and three declarative sentences.

14. Though written in Chinese, Kim Sisŭp’sKŭmoshinhwa (“New Stories”), which
incorporates legends involving dream meetings of spirits and dream journeys, is
considered the first example of a Korean fictional narrative. What does this literary
piece suggest of the Koreans?
a. Koreans are highly imaginative
b. Koreans believe in afterlife.
c. Koreans consider dreams important.
d. Koreans have faith in dreams.

15. J ust like any other citizens of the modern world, Koreans tried to resist the challenges
of modernity. In fact, in the last quarter of the 20th century a host of talented writers
perfected the art of being themselves. You are one of the writers in Korea. You want
to write a novel that depicts the Korean psyche and temperament. Where would you
get the best source of inspiration and materials from?
a. from the ideas of fellow writers who wanted to pursue Korean identity
b. from the stories of people who tried to colonize them
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c. from their own experiences and the common dilemma of the Koreans.
d. from their own literary experts who were not open to changes






16. You have a short poem titled On A Rainy Autumn Night by Ch’oeCh’iwŏn featured in
one of the pages in ASIA MAG, a travel magazine. As the section editor, you are
tasked to decide whether this poem should be featured in your travel magazine or not.
What should be your best reason to feature this poem?

I only chant painfully in the autumn wind,
For I have few friends in the wide world.
At third watch, it rains outside.
By the lamp my heart flies myriad miles away.

a. The poet has successfully blended his own emotions of sadness and the
panorama of the place which will incidentally be apt to the quarterly theme of the
magazine.
b. The poet has described his friends who are situated in all parts of the world; this
will ignite friendship and camaraderie among the readers of the magazine.
c. The poet has combined the description of place and the persona’s views of the
world which will encourage readers to write poetry on their own.
d. The poet has let the setting of the poem separate from the emotions of the
persona which; this will teach the readers to do the same in their attempts to write
poems.

17. Korean literature proves to be very difficult to you as a Grade 8 student. You have
encountered several words in English that give you a challenging time in understanding
Korean stories or poems expressed in English. In reading an article about the
introduction of Korean literature, you are to apply what you have learned about defining
words through context clues and word analysis. As a student, what very important tip
can you give in using context clues to a Korean classmate who also experiences the
same problem?
a. Classify the word right away whether the word is a name word or an action word,
then keep guessing the meaning of the word by giving a synonym or an antonym.
b. Identify the possible meanings of a word which is intended by the writer or
speaker through definition, restatement, example or multiple meanings
(depending on neighboring words).
c. Name the part of speech of the difficult word (like if the word is a noun, a verb, an
adjective or an adverb); then, proceed to defining it by trying to use the word in a
sentence.
d. Underline or encircle the word and try to figure out the possible meanings through
affixation: looking into the root of a word, the prefix and the suffix.

18. You and your partner are tasked to interview a Korean about how he or she is coping
with the challenges of modernity and globalization. In the process of the interview, you
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281

ask her about some of the Korean writers that have affected her as a young Asian of
the modern world. She gives names like ChŏngChisang for a very sad poem that
reveals the pain of separation and Pak Wansŏ for writing the novel Winter Outing that
reminds her about the human stress that is caused by societal difficulties faced by the
characters. Knowing that this is your material in making a character sketch, how do
you present this Korean to your reading public?
a. A Korean who has become sick and tired of her own experiences and eventually
becomes modest in her dealings with other Asians like her
b. A Korean who has been impacted directly and indirectly by her own difficult
experiences in the past and has emerged as a stronger person in the present
times
c. A Korean who is arrogant of her own beginnings and has become an egotistical
individual who is ready to show off what she has as a person
d. A Korean who is unassuming in her own success as a person and in the end
becomes a little disturbed as she faces the difficulties of being an Asian

19. Modernity demands a lot of decisions in the life of UiHyan Park. He has been trying to
preserve his own individuality as a Korean. Somehow he has been influenced by his
father and mother with the idea that modern society negates freedom and individuality.
If you were UiHyan Park, what of your being a Korean would stay as you face the
challenges of modernity?
a. I would rather embrace everything that modernity has to offer and forget about
the native traditions of my people.
b. I would rather fail to remember that I am a Korean and go with the flow of
modernity as a response to the call of globalization.
c. I would rather perfect the art of being myself as a Korean and disregard the
goodness that modernity has brought to Korea,
d. I would rather strike a balance between the integrity of my own psyche as a
Korean and the goodness that modernity has brought to my country.

20. Your Korean classmate has been a student here in the Philippines for two years. In
studying a formal essay, you are given by your teacher to react on the first paragraph
of Carlos Romulo’s I Am a Filipino. The first paragraph goes like this:

I am a Filipino, inheritor of a glorious past, hostage to the uncertain future. As
such I must prove equal to a twofold task – the task of meeting my responsibility to the
past and the task of performing my obligation to the future.

You cannot help but discuss pertinent characteristics about you, being a Filipino and
your classmate, being a Korean and the challenges of modernity that somehow
affected you both as Asians. What would be the best lesson of the paragraph that you
can present to your teacher and classmates that somehow will be true to you both as
Asians?
a. We have to acknowledge that as Asians we exist because of our past; and
because society is constantly evolving, we must keep up and see the positive
things brought about by these changes.
b. We have to respond to the challenges of so many tasks so that we will be more
prepared in facing the future.
c. We need to recognize where we really came from and that we should also
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In your life, have you ever felt so down in the
dumps that you almost wanted to give up? What
was the last thing that came to your mind: surrender
and quit or contend with all the hardship or pain that
came your way? How did you cope with all the
challenges? With all the answers in your head right now, remember that it is
normal to experience all these teething troubles. Everybody goes through the
same situation. Have you ever wondered how others, specifically the Koreans,
overcome these challenges? Is it possible to learn this from the literary
selections of Korea?
In this lesson, Korean Literature – Resilience in Embracing Challenges, you
will find out how appreciation and understanding of Korean literary pieces can
help you recognize and reveal their temperament and psyche in their response
to the challenges of modernity. Remember to search the answers to the
following questions:
What does literature reveal about Korean character? How do Koreans
cope with the challenges of modernity?
How do Koreans respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected in
their literary pieces?

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Determine the persons being addressed in an informative talk, the objectives of the
speaker and his attitudes towards issues. (Listening Comprehension)
 Use attentive listening strategies with informative texts. (Listening Comprehension)
 Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic development, topic shift,
turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversations. (Speaking-Oral Language and
Fluency)
 Interview to get opinions about certain issues. (Speaking-Oral Language and
Fluency)
 Respond orally to ideas and needs expressed in face-to-face interviews in accordance
with the intended meaning of the speaker. (Speaking-Oral Language and Fluency)
 Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures
and discourse. (Vocabulary Development)
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 Identify the derivation of words. (Vocabulary Development)
 Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, suffixes)
(Vocabulary Development)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary. (Vocabulary
Development)
 Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by separating
kernel sentences from modification structures and expansions. (Vocabulary
Development)
 Utilize varied reading strategies to process information in a text. (Reading
Comprehension)
 Note the function of statements made as the text unfolds and use it as a basis for
predicting what is to follow. (Reading Comprehension)
 Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the writer and the sectional
approach) to process information in a text. (Reading Comprehension)
 Express emotional reactions to what was asserted or expressed in a text. (Reading
Comprehension)
 Employ approaches best suited to a text. (Reading Comprehension)
 Note the functions of statements as they unfold and consider the data that might
confirm / disconfirm hypothesis. (Reading Comprehension)
 Analyze the elements that make up reality and fantasy from a program viewed.
(Viewing Comprehension)
 Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding experiences and
outlook and enhancing worthwhile universal human values. (Literature)
 Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian traditions and the values they represent.
(Literature)
 Use specific cohesive and literary devices to construct integrative literary and
expository reviews, critiques, research reports, and scripts for broadcast
communication texts, including screenplays. (Writing and Composition)
 Expand ideas in well-constructed paragraphs observing cohesion, coherence and
appropriate modes of paragraph development. (Writing and Composition)
 Use subordinating and correlative conjunctions. (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Derive information from various text types and sources using the card catalog, vertical
file, index, microfiche (microfilm), CD ROM, Internet, etc. (Study Strategies)
 Use locational skills to gather and synthesize information from general and first-hand
sources of information. (Study Strategies)
 Ask sensible questions based from ones’ initiative. (Attitude)

On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Resilience in Embracing
Challenges.
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Help Us if You Can!
Beliefs Inventory and Hand
Signals
In My Hand Organizer
KNOW 한국에 오신 것을 환영합니다.
(Welcome to Korea!) Summary
Reading
한국에오신것을환영합니다.
(Welcome to Korea!) with
Vocabulary Prompts
Comparing and Contrasting with
Graphic Organizer
Actitude Analysis Strategy with
Jigsaw
Build Me Up! with Team Building
Spinner
The Korean Style! A Glimpse of
Korean Culture with Sentence
Prompts and Numbered Heads
Together
Guess What? with Personal
Guesses
A Myriad of Reflections with
Literary Elements Advance
Organizer, FALL (formulate,
articulate, listen, lengthen),
What If…Game!, Literary
Circles, M Drawing
Build Me Up!: Frequency Word List
PROCESS
Focused Listing
Cross Me Out! with Opinion
Proof
Questioning the Author
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Listening to an Interview
Listening to an Interview with Tips
in Doing an Interview
Listening to an Interview with
Writing Sample Interview
Questions
Considering the Interview Rubric
Preparing to Conduct an Interview
Conducting the Interview
Evaluating Performance through
Team Quality Chart
Answering the Essential Question
through Numbered Heads
Together
TRANSFER
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For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so
far about Asian and African literature, in particular, Korean
literature.
To start, you are going to be involved in
solving a simple problem. Read the situation of
Leila and Geo with a partner. Talk about the
sample Korean masks and costumes.
Activity 1: HELP US IF YOU CAN!
Hey! I’m Leila.
This is my friend
Geo. We want to
attend a Korean
traditional
costume party
tonight. Can you
please help us to
choose the right
costume? We
really need your
Should Leila
and I wear
masks? I
heard
traditional
Korean
costumes
would
include a
mask. What
kind of a
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Here are sample Korean costumes. Obviously, these are for Geo!
Which of these masks
is appropriate for Geo
and Leila?
What do you think?
Do you think this is appropriate for Geo? Why?
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Recognizably, these costumes are for Leila. Which one is appropriate for her?
Which do you think Leila would choose?
This time, try your sketching prowess! You may start drafting Leila and Geo’s Korean
traditional costume for tonight - from head to toe.
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And now, with Geo! Believe in the power of your imagination!
Have a partner and write your responses. Try to be sensitive to the person being
addressed in an informal but informative talk. Use attentive listening strategies. Be sure
to share your insights / ideas with the class.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What made you decide for Leila and Geo’s costumes?
2. Have you had any idea about Korean traditional costumes?
3. Given the costume that Leila and Geo will wear tonight, what is the meaning
of each of their ‘fashion statements’ for the party?
4. What probable Korean traits are revealed in their costumes?
The following Beliefs Inventory is designed to expose unfounded or
unreasonable ideas about or even judgments on the Koreans. Answer this
activity as sincerely and honestly as you can. Score each statement and
take note of the sections where your scores are highest.
Do not much time on an item. You are going to mark your answer quickly, then go to
the next statement. Be sure to mark how you actually think about the statement, NOT
how you think you SHOULD think about it.
Activity 2: BELIEFS INVENTORY
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Agree Disagree Score Statement
_______ _______ *_____ 1. It is important for me to think that Koreans are
also Asians.
_______ _______ *_____ 2. I hate to think that Koreans are superior to
Filipinos.
_______ _______ *_____ 3. Koreans who have learned to overcome
challenges of modernity are admirable.
_______ _______ **____ 4. I usually consider Koreans as our brothers and
sisters.
_______ _______ **____ 5. If Koreans can overcome the challenges of
modernity, so can the Filipinos.
_______ _______ *_____ 6. I have biases against Koreans.
_______ _______ *_____ 7. I usually admire modern Koreans more than the
traditional Koreans.
_______ _______ *_____ 8. Every Korean has the capacity to embrace
modernity.
_______ _______ *_____ 9. A Korean is deeply rooted to her / his own ‘past’.
_______ _______ *_____ 10. I prefer Koreans as friends to other Asians.
_______ _______ **____ 11. I like the respect that we Filipinos have for the
Koreans.
_______ _______ *_____ 12. I avoid things that Koreans do.
After answering the Beliefs Inventory, go back to your partner and do Hand Signals.
Follow these instructions carefully.
If you believe in any particular statement, you will do the thumbs up
sign and say “I understand that Koreans _______________ and can
explain it.
If you do not agree, you will do the thumbs down sign and say, “I do
not understand why I believe / do not believe that Koreans are
_______________”.
If there is a statement that is vague or is not clear to you, do the
thumbs sideway sign and say, I am not completely sure about the
statement _______________”.
J ust make sure your reasons are clearer this time!
Form groups of five members. Be open in answering the following questions. Write
down important responses of your group members in the handprint provided on the next
page.
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What knowledge do you have about Koreans that made you to believe this
way?
2. What personal traits or characteristics do Koreans have that we Filipinos
also have or may not have?
3. Do you think reading Korean literature expressed in English would give you
a little idea of the psyche (human spirit) and temperament (prevailing or
dominant quality of mind that characterizes someone) of Koreans? Why or
Activity 3: IN MY HAND!
This activity allows you to reflect on your own personal ideas and opinions
about the Koreans’ way of life.
I feel…
Others
I think…
It’s all about the
Koreans.
Try to compare notes. Read each others' notes as fill in the gaps in your own note-
taking.
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As a review, you gave your initial ideas on the focus questions and Korean
literature. This time, let us find out how others will answer questions and
compare their ideas with ours. As you compare them, you will also learn other
concepts which will help you complete the required project. This project is
about an integrative literary and expository character review.

If you are not a Korean, reading this 한국에
오신것을환영합니다 is a task you will not dare
do! Reading in English can be also tough if
there are words that are difficult to understand. Try reading a beautiful tale in Korea titled
Tale of Ch’unhyang. Of course this has been translated to English; yet, some words may
be hard for you to understand. This may hinder your own appreciation for and
understanding of the text.
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key
concepts regarding Korean literature focusing on the
temperaments and psyche of the people of Korea in their
Activity 4: 한국에오신것을환영합니다.
Another partner can help you this time. Can you share two difficult words from the
summary with a partner? What are these words? Write them below.

First difficult word is __________________.
Second difficult word is _______________.

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Activity 5: COMPARING AND CONTRASTING
By the time you will be reading Tale of Ch’unhyang, perhaps you will
realize that there are words quite hard to understand. In this activity, you
are exposed to three articles that are found in the following websites below.
http://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/mod/book/view.php?id=93283&chapterid=3333
http://www.scribd.com/doc/51661583/Techniques-for-Dealing-with-Difficult-Words
Then do the Comparing and Contrasting Graphic Organizer that follows. These are the
 Pre-read before a lecture so you can anticipate some of the new
words.
 Use a glossary or specialist dictionary, e.g. a nursing dictionary.
 Use an advanced learner's dictionary. These dictionaries use the
most frequent words in English in their definitions so they are easier
to understand than most other dictionaries.
 Make your own dictionary of new words. Put them in a sentence or
give an example.
 Use your own words for definitions.
 Try to break the word up into parts.
 Guess from parts of the word, e.g. anti is against, ante is before.
 Leave the word out and read the rest of the sentence to see if you
can guess its meaning from the context.
 Think about your subject. How could the word relate to something
you are expected to know about?
 Ask a tutor/friend/native speaker to explain words.
Article 1:
Coping with
Difficult
Words
 The first step is to note the word mentally, or make a pencil mark in
the margin, and read on. Going on prevents further interruption of
the author's thought. It also gives you a chance to find out whether
the rest of passage makes the meaning clear enough for your
purposes. It is more important to go on enjoying the book than to
find out how the dictionary defines every new word.
 The second step is to return to troublesome words after completing
a passage, and try to work out what each one means. Saying the
word aloud may help you to recognize it as one you have heard and
then to recall how it was used. If this fails, you can often make an
intelligent guess based what you have learned from reading the
whole passage.
 The third step, using the dictionary, is important for two kinds of
words. The first group consists of words which must be understood
to understand the whole passage adequately and second group
consists of words you know you have met before but still do not fully
understand. If you come across a word three times, then clearly it is
a word you should master.

from: Floyd, J (2007). Study Skills for Higher Education: English for
Article 2:
Techniques
in Dealing
with Difficult
Words
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 Is it necessary to know the exact meaning of a particular word?
Often a rough meaning is enough (does the word have a positive
or negative meaning?). Remember that the purpose of reading an
academic text is to get information and it is possible to
understand the text without knowing the meaning of every word.
It is not necessary to be able to explain, or translate, the meaning
of a word.
 Look for definitions. The author may know a particular word may
be new so explains. The author may also be using the word in a
new, or unusual way so will need to explain how it is being used.
This will be done by using a definition, an explanation, an
example or by using a synonym (a word with the same meaning).
The phrases "called", "known as", "is the name applied to", "in
other words", "that is", "is said to be" are often used.
 You can use the context. You can make use of the other words,
phrases, sentences and information around the problematic word.
Using this information you can find information about the meaning
of the word as well as grammatical information. (a) Grammatical
information can be obtained from the place of the word in the
sentence. (b) Information about the meaning of the word can
come from the meanings of the other words in the context.
Article 3:
Dealing with
Difficult
Words
Prove that you have understood the three articles by doing the Comparing and


Article 1
Coping with Difficult
Words
Article 2
Techniques in
Dealing with Difficult
Words
Article 3
Dealing with Difficult
Words
Most Striking
Technique / Tip



Easiest
Technique / Tip to
Do



Most Difficult
Technique / Tip to
Do

Technique / Tip
that Needs Further
Discussion

My Realizations /
Comments /
Insights Gained


Adapted from http://www.sanchezclass.com/reading-graphic-organizers.htm
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How will this activity help you deal with difficult words?
2. Defining words through context can be very helpful. Choose five difficult
words from the tale. Can you try to define them?
3. Now, that you have been exposed to the different techniques in coping with
difficult words, do you think you are ready to read some Korean selections
that exemplify Korean ways of responding to the challenges of modernity?
Activity 6: ACTITUDE (ACTION - ATTITUDE ANALYSIS SURVEY)
Read the selection entitled Tale of Ch’unhyang (from http://instrok.org/
instrok/home.html), then start accomplishing the Actitude Analysis.
Tale of Ch’unhyang
F
ormerly there lived in the province of Cholla, in the town of Namwon, a
magistrate's son named Yi Mong-Yong. He had much literary talent, and grew up
to be a handsome young man.
One beautiful morning, Master Yi Mong-Yong called his servant, Pangja, and asked
him to show him a place where he might see wild flowers. Pangja led him to a summer
pavilion near a bridge called "Ojak-kyo," or the "Magpie Bridge." The view from the bridge
was as beautiful as the summer sky, and thus was named after the tale of the Herdboy
and the Weaving Maid.
Looking at the distant mountains, Yi Mong-Yong caught sight of a young maiden
swinging beneath one of the trees. He asked Pangja about the lovely maiden and her
attendant. He replied that she was Ch'unhyang (Spring Fragrance), a daughter of
Wolmae (Moon Plum), the retired kisaeng entertainer. Pangja related to his young master
that this young girl was not only beautiful but also virtuous. Yi Mong-Yong insisted that
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Pangja inform Ch'unhyang that he wished to meet her. "Don't you know the butterfly must
pursue the flower, and the geese must seek the sea?" retorted Ch'unhyang.
The wind blew back her hair and long ribbon over her rosy face, and she glowed with
virtue and happiness. "This good fortune is offered me today. Why wait until tomorrow?
Should I not speak to this pretty girl now?" Yi Mong-Yong said to himself.
J ust then Ch'unhyang, frightened at being watched, jumped down from her swing and
ran toward her house. Stopping under a peach tree at her garden gate she plucked a
blossom and kissed it, her lips and cheeks redder than the bloom, and was gone.
Pangja urged his master to hasten home so that his father might know nothing of his
adventure, and then punish Pangja for allowing Yi Mong-Yong to wander so far. The youth
returned home in a trance, and went immediately to sit at dinner with his parents. With the
meal finished, Yi Mong-Yong went to his room, lit a candle, and opened a book. Reading
proved impossible. The words blurred before his eyes and every word and every character
was "Spring" and "Fragrance"- Ch'unhyang, Ch'unhyang, Ch'unhyang. Calling Pangja, he
said, "Tonight I must see Ch'unhyang. Did she not say that the butterfly must pursue the
flower?"
They went to Ch'unhyang's house, stopping under the peach tree in the garden as they
approached. At that moment Ch'unhyang's mother was telling her daughter that she had
had a dream in which a blue dragon coiled itself around Ch'unhyang's body and, holding
her in its mouth, flew up to the sky. Looking up, instead of the dragon in the clouds, the
girl's mother saw a dragon on earth, for Yi Mong-Yong walked out of darkness and spoke
to her.
On learning the purpose of his visit she called Ch'unhyang to meet the young yangban,
and Yi Mong-Yong asked Ch'unhyang's mother for the hand of her daughter. The old
woman, thinking her dream had come true, gladly consented, and said, "You are a
yangban's son and Ch'unhyang is the daughter of a kisaeng, so there cannot be a formal
marriage. If you give us a secret marriage contract, writing your pledge not to desert her,
we shall be contented."
Yi Mong-Yong seized a brush and set down the following lines: "The blue sea may
become a mulberry field, and the mulberry fields may become the blue sea, but my heart
for Ch'unhyang shall never change. Heaven and earth and all the gods are witnesses."
In their sleep that night they dreamed of Mandarin ducks swimming together. For
several nights he visited his beloved, until she teased him, saying that he should go home
and study hard to become a great official like his father. Unfortunately, their time together
did not last.
Not long after the secret marriage, the servant brought Yi Mong-Yong a message
saying that his father, newly appointed to the King's cabinet, was being recalled to the
capitol. Yi Mong-Yong, who was to accompany his father, went that evening to Ch'unhyang
and told her the bad news. The young couple was forced to say a tearful goodbye at the
Magpie Bridge. "Since there is no way to change our fate, let us embrace and part," said
Ch'unhyang, throwing her arms around her lover.
She then gave him a ring. "This is my token of love for you. Keep it until we meet again.
Go in peace, but do not forget me. I shall remain faithful to you and wait here for you to
come and take me away to Seoul." With these words, they parted.The new Namwon
magistrate arrived soon afterward, and among his first words to his servant were, "Bring
me Ch'unhyang, the pretty girl I have heard of."
"This is difficult sir," replied the retainer, "for she is already married secretly to Yi Mong-
Yong, the son of the former magistrate." Angered, the new magistrate ordered Ch'unhyang
summoned at once. Too terrified to disobey an order by the magistrate, Ch'unhyang
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accompanied the servant. The magistrate looked at her attentively. "I heard much of you in
Seoul, and today I see you are very beautiful. Will you come to me?"
Choosing her words carefully, Ch'unhyang replied, "I am committed to Yi Mong-Yong.
That is why I cannot do as you ask. The King has sent you here to take care of the people.
You have a heavy responsibility to the throne. It would be better to fulfill your duties and
apply justice according to the laws of the country." Ch'unhyang's defiance enraged the
magistrate, and he ordered her taken to prison. "Why put me in prison?" Ch'unhyang
protested, "I have done no wrong. A married woman must be faithful to her husband, just
as a magistrate should be faithful to the king." This merely served to anger the magistrate
further, and before long Ch'unhyang found herself in a prison cell.
Meanwhile, Yi Mong-Yong had arrived in Seoul, where he studied hard and learned all
the famous Chinese classics. He passed the government examinations with the highest
distinction, thereby qualifying for a position in the king's service. In congratulating him after
the munkwa examinations, the king asked Yi Mong-Yong. "Do you wish to be a magistrate
or a governor?"
"I should like to be appointed amhaengosa," replied Yi Mong-Yong. Yi Mong-Yong, as
an amhaengosa, traveled around the country with his attendants, disguised as beggars.
They inquired everywhere after the needs of the people in order to assess the quality of
local districts' administrations. Soon he arrived near Namwon, and came to a small farming
village where the people were planting rice.
While working, the peasants sadly chanted: "We come out in the scorching heat,
plough our fields, sow our seeds, and make the rice grow. First we must pay tribute to the
king, give a part to the poor, a part to travelers who come knocking at our doors, and save
money for ancestral services. This would be all right if the magistrate did not squeeze us
for even more, leaving us with hardly anything to eat."
Much interested, Yi Mong-Yong approached and said, "I have heard that the magistrate
of Namwon has married Ch'unhyang and that they live together happily."
"How dare you speak like that?" retorted one of farmers. "Ch'unhyang is faithful, true
and pure, and you are a fool to speak thus of her and that tyrant, who is cruel to her. No,
her fate is even worse than that because the son of the former magistrate seduced and
deflowered that poor girl, and then abandoned her, never coming back to see her. He is a
bastard, the son of a dog, the son of a pig!"
The farmer's anger shocked Yi Mong-Yong. He found that many villagers felt the same
way. The local yangban aristocrats shared the people's wrath. Yi Mong-Yong happened on
a spot where some yangban were having a picnic, comparing poems and conversing on a
hillside. He listened as a scholar presented a poem railing against the unjust provincial
government. When he was done, another picnicker said, "These are sad days! I've heard
that a young woman called Ch'unhyang is to be executed in two or three days."
"Oh! This Magistrate is a wretch!" said another.
"He is thinking only of overpowering Ch'unhyang, but she is like the pine and bamboo,
which never change. She has remained faithful and true to her husband."
Another added, "She was married to the son of the old magistrate. What a pig her
husband is! He abandoned the poor girl." These comments made Yi Mong-Yong, weary
and ashamed, hasten to Namwon. hasten to Namwon.
Meanwhile, Ch'unhyang, in prison all this time, remained faithful to the memory of Yi
Mong-Yong. She had grown thin, feeble, and sick. One day she had a dream, in which she
saw her house. In her garden, the flowers that she had planted and loved had faded. The
mirror in her room was broken. Her shoes were hanging on the lintel of the door. She
called to a blind man who happened to be passing by her cell window, and asked him the
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significance of her dream.
"I shall tell you what it means. These dried flowers shall bear fruit, the noise of the
broken mirror will be heard throughout the world, and the shoes on the door indicate a
large crowd visiting to offer congratulations."
Ch'unhyang thanked the blind man and prayed that his prophecy would come true. In
reality, however, Ch'unhyang's doom was near. That very day the evil magistrate called his
attendants together and said to them, "In three days I shall celebrate a great feast, to which
I wish to invite all the magistrates of the nearby towns, and on that day Ch'unhyang shall
be executed.
"Meanwhile, Yi Mong-Yong arrived in the town and went to Ch'unhyang's house. At
first, her mother did not recognize him. "I do not know who you are," she said. "Your face
reminds me of Yi Mong-Yong, but your clothes are the clothes of a beggar."
"But I am Yi Mong-Yong," said he.
"Oh!" she gasped. "Every day we have waited for you, but alas, in two or three days
Ch'unhyang will be dead."
"Listen to me, Mother," replied Yi Mong-Yong. "Even though I am a miserable beggar, I
still long for Ch'unhyang, and I want to see her.
"With Yi Mong-Yong following, she knocked at the prison window, calling her daughter,
who was asleep. Awakened, Ch'unhyang asked immediately if anyone had seen Yi Mong-
Yong or heard news of him.
The mother replied that in place of Yi Mong-Yong, a beggar had come who claimed he
was Yi Mong-Yong, and was there now to see her.
Yi Mong-Yong appeared at the window, and Ch'unhyanglooked at him. It seemed to
make no difference to her that he was badly dressed, and seemed to have failed at life in
Seoul. Instead, she reached for him through the bars and struggled to be as close to him
as possible.
"I may be a beggar in dress," replied Yi Mong-Yong, "but I have no beggar's heart!"
"Dear heart," said Ch'unhyang, "how hard your journey must have been. Go back with
my mother and get some rest. Only please - since I am under a sentence of death and
must die tomorrow after the feast - come to my window again in the morning so I may have
the joy of seeing you once more before I die."
Yi Mong-Yong went home and slept in Ch'unhyang's room. But the next morning, when
his mother-in-law opened the door, she was surprised to find that he was gone. In fact, he
had gone early to collect his attendants, all disguised as beggars like himself. He gave
them strict orders. Then, as the magistrate received his guests and presided over the
banquet, Yi Mong-Yong managed to get into the palatial office compound and approach
the host.
"I am a poor man," he said, "and I am hungry. Please, give me something to eat." It
was customary in Korea, during big feasts in the countryside, for a number of beggars to
show up for handouts, but the furious magistrate commanded his servants to kick the
intruder out.
Then Yi Mong-Yong entered the palace a second time, by climbing on the shoulders of
his servants and going over the wall. The first guest he encountered was the magistrate of
Unbong, named Pak Yong-J ang. He said to him, "I am hungry, could you not let me have
something?" Yong-J ang, feeling some compassion called one of the kisaengs and asked
her to bring something to the beggar.
Yi Mong-Yong then addressed Yong-J ang: "I am obliged to you for giving me good
food, and I wish to repay you with a little poem." Then he extended a paper on which Yong-
J ang read the lines:
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This beautiful wine in golden goblets
Is the blood of a thousand people.
This magnificent meat on these jade tables
Is the flesh and marrow of a thousand lives.
Burning in this banquet hall,
The tears of the hungry people
Pour from their sunken eyes.
Even louder than the noisy song of these courtesans
Resound the complaints of the oppressed peasants.
Yong-J ang , greatly alarmed, cried, "It is against us," and he passed the paper to the
host, who asked, "Who wrote this poem?" "It is the young beggar," said Yong-J ang,
pointing to Yi Mong-Yong, but he was frightened, thinking that whoever wrote such a poem
must be more than a common beggar. Rising up, he suddenly pretended to have urgent
business elsewhere and fled. The other officials likewise sprang to their feet and
stampeded out of the room, only to be stopped by Yi Mong-Yong's men, who were waiting
outside with their swords. The officials soon understood that the beggar-poet was in fact an
amhaengosa. As they cowered together in a corner of the courtyard, Yi Mong-Yong
revealed his ma-p'ae and ordered the magistrate's runners to fetch Ch'unhyang from her
cell and to say to her, "The King's envoy has sent for you. He is going to hear your case
and pronounce judgment.
"In the jail, Ch'unhyang was greatly frightened.
"Oh!" she cried. "I am going to die! Please, may I see my mother?" Ch'unhyang's
mother ran to her daughter. "Mother, now is the hour of my death. Where is Yi Mong-
Yong?"
"The King's officer is waiting. Do not stop to chitchat!" snapped the runners, and before
Ch'unhyang's mother could speak, they carried her away to the magistrate's courtyard.
They removed the wooden cangue from around her neck and placed her in the presence of
the Royal Secret Inspector, who, sitting behind a screen, questioned her sternly: "If you do
not love the magistrate, will you love me and come to me, the King's envoy? If you refuse I
shall order my men to strike off your head immediately."
"Alas!" exclaimed Ch'unhyang. "How unhappy are the poor people of this country! First
the injustice of the magistrate, then you, the King's Inspector, who should help and protect
the unhappy people - you think immediately to condemn to death a poor girl whom you
desire. Oh, how sad we common people are, and how pitiful it is to be a woman!"
Yi Mong-Yong then ordered the courtesans to untie the cords that bound the hands of
Ch'unhyang. "Now raise your head, and look at me," he said to her.
"No," she answered, "I shall not look at you, I shall not listen to you. Cut my body into
pieces if you like, but I shall never go to you."
Yi Mong-Yong was deeply touched. He took off his ring and ordered a courtesan to
show it to Ch'unhyang. She saw that was the very ring she had given to her husband Yi
Mong-Yong and, lifting her eyes, recognized her lover.
"Oh," she cried in joy and surprise. "Yesterday my lover was only a beggar and today
he is the King's officer!"
Yi Mong-Yong ordered a sedan chair to be brought at once and saw that Ch'unhyang
was safely carried home. The people shouted joyfully and cheered for Ch'unhyang and Yi
Mong-Yong. Then he summoned the magistrate of Namwon and said, "The King gave you
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Did you like the story?
To fully appreciate and understand the story, try doing this Actitude

SUMMARY

ATITUDES/VALUES ACTION/PRACTICES

Now, cluster yourselves into different J igsaw groups. Be guided by the
sample given below.
Jigsaw Groups:
Group One Group Two Group Three Group Four
Member 1 Member 1 Member 1 Member 1
Member 2 Member 2 Member 2 Member 2
Member 3 Member 3 Member 3 Member 3
Member 4 Member 4 Member 4 Member 4
Then, reorganize yourselves into “expert” groups. Follow the
Expert Groups:
Group One Group Two Group Three Group Four
Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Member 4
Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Member 4
Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Member 4
Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Member 4
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In your “expert” groups, you are assigned to answer only one question
comprehensively. The question that you will answer matches with the number
of the question. For example, Group One will answer question number one
only. Group Two will answer question number two and so forth.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What attitudes of Yi Mong-Yong and Ch'unhyang do you really like? Are
these reflective of the psyche and temperament of the Koreans?
2. Were there ideas, perceptions, or biases that you had believed before that
have changed now?
3. How does your perception about Koreans change based from what you have
learned?
4. Do you personally like the psyche and temperament of the Koreans? Why or
After around five minutes, it is time to go back to your J igsaw Group.
Share what you have discussed with your Expert Group members.
Having discussed the tale, you should move on to the next activity that will
help you cope with the difficult words.

Activity 7: BUILD ME UP!
At this point, you have probably met difficult words from The Tale of
Ch’unyang. Prepare your Frequency Word List by listing all these difficult
words. It may look like this:
MAGISTRATE: /ˈmajəˌstrāt/
 noun
 A civil officer or lay judge who administers the law, esp. one
who conducts a court that deals with minor offenses.
 Synonyms
HASTEN /hāsən/
 verb
 Be quick to do something.
 Move or travel hurriedly.
 Synonyms
hurry - speed - accelerate - hurry up - quicken - rush
DEFIANCE /difīəns/
 noun
 Open resistance; bold disobedience.
 Synonyms
challenge - dare - provocation
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KISAENG entertainer
 adjective/noun
 officially sanctioned Korean female entertainers or sometimes
prostitutes. Kisaeng are artists who work to entertain others,
such as the yangbans and kings.
 Synonym
CANGUE /kæng/
 noun
 a heavy wooden yoke borne on the shoulders and enclosing the
neck and arms, formerly used in China for punishing petty
criminals.
YANGBAN
 noun
 part of the traditional ruling class or nobles of dynastic Korea
during the J oseon Dynasty
You need your Expert Team Group for the next activity called Team Building Spinner
(adapted from ©2008 Laura Candler - Teaching Resources at www.lauracandler.com).
Create a spinner just like this!
Directions:
To use the spinner,
you’ll need a paper clip
and a pencil. Put the paper
clip down with one end
over the center dot. Put the
pencil point down inside
the paper clip and hold the
pencil in place. Thump the
paper clip. It will spin
around the pencil point and
point to one section on the
Teambuilding Spinner. The
leader reads the question
aloud and the team
members take turns
answering it. Switch
leaders for each round and
continue as time allows.
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Activity 8: THE KOREAN STYLE! A GLIMPSE TO KOREAN CULTURE
Reading an article titled Beliefs, Social Structures, and Practices allows you
to have a glimpse of the Koreans’ rich culture and history that will eventually
help you appreciate and understand better the Korean psyche and
temperament that is reflected in their rich literary pieces. Read the short
Beliefs, Social Structures, and Practices
T
he Choson Dynasty, also known as the Yi Dynasty, has long been
celebrated for its artistic, scientific and intellectual achievements, including
the 1443 invention of the Korean alphabet (han'gul) by the greatest of all
Choson kings, King Sejong. The Choson Dynasty, which means the kingdom of
morning serenity, is one of modern history's longest dynastic rules, lasting over
500 years. This achievement is even more impressive in light of Korea’s strategic
and, some might say, precarious geopolitical location at the center of the East
Asian corridor.
How did Korea achieve such political stability? What social forces were at
work? The Choson Dynasty adopted Confucianism as its state religion and
developed concomitant social structures, ultimately establishing cultural values,
which supported continuous dynastic rule.
These cultural values of the Choson Dynasty, centerpieces to the Ch'unhyang
story, still resonant in contemporary Korean life. The idea of an interdependent,
collective self rather than an independent, autonomous self, of role dedication
rather than self-fulfillment, and the privileging of harmony and order rather over
justice or progress are all typically Confucian cultural values that have carried over
from the Choson era into the present.
Choson Dynasty officially began in 1392 when Yi Songgye, an army general,
was declared king, following his successful coup against the Koryo government.
With the support of Neo-Confucian scholar-officials, he and the twenty-six Yi kings
that followed him adopted and enforced the principles of Confucianism, a belief
system founded by the Chinese philosopher Confucius, as the for guide their
actions as well as virtually every citizen of their dynasty.
Confucius taught that men of wisdom and virtue, chosen for their knowledge
and moral quality, should lead the government. They were to rule, not by force or
law, but by example. This theory of government was an ideal held for centuries by
many countries of East Asia; the application of the theory, however, was less than
ideal. Korean rulers during the Chosen reign established social structures and
institutions to enforce Confucian ideology and practice.
King T’aejo (Yi Songgye) instituted the Chinese examination system to recruit
wise and moral men into government. Men that could demonstrate through
rigorous examination that they understood proper governance, classic literature,
and morality, as it was taught in the sacred books of Confucian philosophy, were
appointed to government positions. Once in place, they were expected to lead by

Right after the “tour”, you will finish the following prompts and share your
answers to your own partners.
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1. The Koreans’ cultural values focus on interdependent, collective self rather than an
independent, autonomous self, of role dedication rather than self-fulfillment. From this, I
personally like / dislike the Koreans’ cultural values because
____________________________.

2. The psyche (human spirit) and temperament (prevailing or dominant quality of mind
that characterizes someone) of the Koreans that I really like are
___________________________________________________.

3. I want to ___________ in Korea because __________________.

4. Koreans must be ___________________ as a people because __________________
_________________________________.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
With a partner, discuss your answers to the following questions:
1. What is with Koreans that makes them strong in responding to the
challenges of modernity?
2. Do you think they are stronger than the Filipinos? Why or why not?
3. What do Koreans have that we Filipinos should emulate?
Activity 9: GUESS WHAT?
You will be exposed to a few Korean literary pieces through different
websites and extracted lines from the reviews. These lines will show the
Korean characters’ painful experiences in life.
Go to the following sites and find how Koreans respond to the challenges of
modernity.
Website Extracted Lines from the Review
http://
www.ktlit.com/
korean-
literature/review
-early-spring-
mid-summer.

 Early Spring, Mid-Summer by Yi Munyol: contains a couple of
historical/metaphorical tales of the cost of war, including Kim Won-
il’s The Spirit of Darkness, and a couple of stories that mix their
historical stories with great and sometimes shocking sadness,
particularly, Pak Si-jong’sTwo Minutes to Seven.
 The Spirit of the Darkness by Kim Won-il: The story has a sad
ending, but is an excellent introduction to the collection.
 Wings That Will Carry Us Both by Chon San-guk: And, yet, this
luck, as a Korean philosophical tradition suggests, leads not only to
happiness, but also to anxiety and dread.
 The Cave by Han Sung-won: The story is of two children “saved”
by their father, who dooms himself in the process, and the unhappy
lives they subsequently lead.
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My Guesses on Koreans’ way of responding to the challenges of MODERNITY
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
http://
www.ktlit.com/
korean-
literature/review
-wayfarer-new-
fiction-by-
korean-women
 Wayfarer: New Fiction by Korean Women: It also discusses the
introduction of hangul, and how it opens doors for female authors
and how modernization and colonization began. Human
Decency by Gong J i Young is one of the smaller works in the book
as it is parochially Korean, pitting a facilely “international” character
against a “true Korean hero” who has stayed inside the grinder of
Korean politics. The narrator is self-tortured by her own history and
has a quite obvious loathing for all things foreign. All this adds up to
a work highlighting han and Korean exceptionalism of the simplest
kind.
My Guesses on Koreans’ way of responding to the challenges of MODERNITY
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________


Share your guesses with a group of five members and experience a
cooperative learning strategy called Numbered Heads Together (Slavin,
1995). This strategy holds each of you accountable for learning more about
Korean literature. You are placed in groups and each of you is given a
number (from one to the maximum number in each group). The teacher
poses a question and you "put your heads together" to figure out the
answer. The teacher calls out a specific number to respond as the
spokesperson for the group. By having all of you work together in a group,
this strategy ensures that each of you knows the answer to problems or
questions asked by the teacher. Because no one knows which number will
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Given all the problems that characters have faced in the different
circumstances of their lives, what kind of an attitude or psyche or
temperament have the Koreans shown?
2. Is this the kind of attitude or psyche or temperament that we have been
practicing as Filipinos?
3. What are the advantages of facing the challenges of modernity with a
wounded history like the Koreans?
4. Do you have any comments on the way Koreans face the challenges of
modernity?
5. What does literature reveal about Korean character?
6. How do Koreans respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected in their
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If all the groups are ready, the teacher will start calling out the names of the
members who really “put their heads together”.
행운을빈다(haenguneulbinda>hengoohn-oohlbeehn-dah) Good luck!
Activity 10: A MYRIAD OF REFLECTIONS
This activity allows you to enjoy reading short selections from Korea.
Hopefully, this will allow you to embrace the goodness of the Korean psyche
The Tale of the Woodcutter and the Tiger
K
orean folklore recalls the tale of a woodcutter who encounters a tiger in the woods.
Fearing that he would soon be the tiger’s dinner, he exclaimed: “You must be my
long lost brother! Our mother cried for you when you left home. She had dinner
ready for you every night, waiting for your return. Sadly, out mother has just passed away.
How happy she would have been had she known you are alive and well!” The woodcutter
took out his handkerchief and pretended to wipe at his eyes. The tiger turned away, as
tears fell down his cheeks, leaving the woodcutter unharmed.
Every year thereafter, on Chesa, the memorial day of the woodcutter’s mother’s death,
an offering appeared on her grave - sometimes a peasant, or even his mother’s favorite
mountain berries. The woodcutter did not know where these offerings came from.
One year, the woodcutter noticed that the customary offering had not been placed on his
mother’s grave, and he wondered what had happened. Out from the bush, three baby
tigers appeared, carrying offerings. They approached the woodcutter and cried: “You must
be our uncle! Mother tiger is gone now, and we know how important it is for her to honor
grandmother by bringing an offering to her Chesa table beside her grave. We are here to
bring offerings for our grandmother in loving memory of our mother.” The woodcutter
noticed that his face had turned suddenly warm and realized that it was his own tears
streaming down his cheeks.
Tales capture and reflect fundamental cultural values of Korean society and its
people, such as the transformation of potential conflict into opportunity through
the use of intelligence and the power of injong (human feeling). No one misses
the importance of children’s devotion to their parents, even after their death. In
addition to the Confucian emphasis on filial piety, the tale conveys how
interlinked one is to past, present and future generations of family and how bonded one is
to family by a sense of duty and shared destiny. The Buddhist notion, adopted by many
Koreans, of equality among all living things is also portrayed in the sibling relationship of
the woodcutter and tiger.
Now, that you have read the selection, find another reading partner and by pairs, write
what is asked for in the Literary Elements Advance Organizer. Choose one element and
use it as a basis for answering the questions below. Continue the interactive discussion
until you get clarified with the Korean way of using their cultural values in coping with the
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Identify the characters in the story. What roles do the characters play in the
tale? What are the characteristics of these characters that you admire/don’t
admire?
2. What particular event or circumstance in the story has contributed to the
Tiger’s way of looking at things in a different way? How has this new way of
looking at things being passed on to the next generation?
3. What kind of conflict led the woodcutter to “fool” the tiger? What would be
your own way of saving yourself from danger?
4. What would you do if that sense of duty and shared destiny passed on to
you is in conflict with your own principles and beliefs in life?
5. Could this tale be used as basis for you to have a glimpse of how the
Koreans at present are coping with the challenges of modernity? Explain
The next selection encourages you to FALL (formulate, articulate, listen,
lengthen by Dan White, et. al). Your Learning Team members privately
Formulate a response; Articulate their ideas to the group; Listen in turn to
other responses and Lengthen the thinking during the subsequent discussion
by systematically building upon and elaborating the ideas of others.

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WHEN WINE AT YOUR HOUSE IS RIPE
by YugGim

When wine at your house is ripe,
Please ask me to visit you.
When flowers at my cottage bloom,
I will invite you to come.
And then let’s talk of the things,
from: An Introduction to Korean Literature, by In-sob Zong
Sam Young Printing Co., Ltd. (1970), Seoul, Korea
The author is trying to convince us to forget past prejudices and hatred and come
together for a better life. Do the FALL now as you answer the following
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. According to the author, when should one invite a long-lost friend to his
house?
2. When can two people speak as true good friends?
3. How are feelings of optimism, goodness and piety shown in the poem?
4. How are the words like wine, ripe, flowers, bloom, over a hundred years
used to symbolize life’s realities?
Here is a Korean contemporary literary piece (from http://
jaypsong.wordpress.com/) for you to appreciate. Try to focus on the very few
characters introduced in the selection. Be sure to relate to the kind of
I
have been to his father’s funeral. He told me a
story: he, who had passed his sixtieth year, held
his father, beyond 90 and helped him urinate.
Even though life’s important controls had left the old
body, his mind was still like a lantern. Afraid that the
old man might feel hopeless, he helped him, half
joking and half playing the baby, saying “Father, shhh,
shhh, all right, all, right, you must feel good.”When he
held his father, it was as if he entered deep into the
whole body. When he held his father like that as
though giving back to the body, how much might the old man have tried to shrink himself
to make himself smaller and lighter? His urine thread cut off frequently, but such a long
thread that the son again and again tried to tie it down to the earth pitifully, but the father
with difficulty might sever it now. Shhh, Shhh! The universe must be quiet.
*In Korean, this word refers to not only a way to make someone hush, but also is used as an onomatopoeia to help
children urinate.
Shhh*
by Moon In-soo
Illustrated by Kwon Shin-ah
http://jaypsong.wordpress.com
http://jaypsong.wordpress.com
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After you have either listened to, or read Shhh by Moon In-soo, one of your
classmates should be chosen to sit on a chair (the hot seat) in front of the class. The hot
seat classmate, then, chooses to be one of the characters from the story. The rest of the
class asks the hot seat classmate questions. The hot seat classmate answers as the
character in the story would answer.
After listening to the answers of your hot seat classmate, try to write down in a short
Dear Diary Entry journal your thoughts as you are guided by the following questions:

1. How did you feel before, during, and after reading Shhh?
2. While reading, were you able to think about your own mother or father or even
yourself when all of you would become old? What scenario can you foresee?
3. Despite the challenges of modernity that all Afro – Asians have tried to cope with for
many years, do you consider this contemporary selection a good way of
understanding the psyche (spirit) and the temperament (prevailing or dominant
The traditional poetry of a country takes several forms. J apan has the haiku;
the limerick originated in England; Italy produced the sonnet. In Korea, the
sijo /’si – ho/ is a short lyric poem which sketches a picture, then tells the effect
of the scene on the beholder. Graeme Wilson, who lives in Hongkong, has
published translations of Far Eastern poetry. Some hundreds of his versions of
Tree of Unhappiness
Kim Sang – yong (1592 – 1637)
(Translated by Graeme Wilson)

On broad leaves of pau-low-nia
The one and only tree
Whereon the phoenix will set foot
The rain falls heartlessly.

The rain’s sad tapping overhead
Compounds my weight of grief.
Who now could have the heart to plant
Trousset encyclopedia
(1886 - 1891)
Pomegranates
Sin Hum (1566 – 1628)
(Translated by Graeme Wilson)

It rained last night, The pomegranates
Red and orange-res
Have all burst into flower.

Not to be comfort,
I sit in this cool pavilion
Set in a lotus lake
And under its glass-bead curtains wait
http://www.google.com.ph/
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Girl in the Rain
Anonymous (18
th
century)
(Translated by Graeme Wilson)

Her violet cloak clutched round her head,
As quickly as she can
She runs through rain-fall to the pear bloomed
Village and a man.

What blandishments, I wonder,
What whispers, what untrue
But wonderful promises
Have soaked that silly through.
http://weheartit.com/entry/22528897
On your own try to answer the following questions (from Bridges to Understanding)
silently in five minutes.
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the underlined words. Then, answer the questions in complete
sentences.
a. What blandishments does a mother use to make her five-year –old child
stop crying? What blandishments does a girl make to catch a boy’s
attention?
b. What is the belief regarding the life and death of the phoenix? Why is it
a symbol of immortality?
c. What is the local name of the pomegranate?
2. In “Girl in the Rain,” what is the girl doing? Why? In the last line, the word
silly is a noun whose archaic meaning is referred to. Refer to the glossary
for the meaning of silly, then explain the last two lines of the poem.
3. In “Tree of Unhappiness”, the pau-low-nia is a Korean tree. What belief
about the tree is mentioned in the poem? How does the poet show that his
grief is great? that it will last forever? What is implied in the last two lines of
the poem?
4. In Korea, the pomegranate is a symbol of happiness in love. What feeling is
hinted at by the pomegranate being rained on? The persona is sitting in the
pavilion. How is he/she feeling?
5. From what you have heard others say, or from your own personal
experience, what factors may cause unhappiness between two young
After spending time to show understanding of the selections all by yourself, it is time
to play a game! Deepen your appreciation for the selections you have just read. Play
with your chosen group members the What If…Game!
The What If… Game enables you to reflect on problems, situations and to visualize a
better time and place.
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the rainfalls heartlessly
compounds my weight of grief
for my closed heart to break
wonderful wonderful promises
Now, while doing the What If…Game!, you are going to be in a Literary Circle. These
Literary Circles are small groups of students who meet together to talk about books or
any literary selections that they have read.
 Each member of the group has a job with certain responsibilities.
 If the group is to work effectively, each person must do his/her job.
 Participation and self-control are important ingredients in successful Literary
Circles.
Consider all the questions in the wheel and come up with an output demanded by your
position. Be sure your outputs visualize a better place, a better time not only for the
Review the lines of the poems that relate to your life’s experiences. Write the lines on a
sheet of paper. You may enclose these lines in a box or border – like this one below.
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Here are your roles and responsibilities in your Literary Circle:
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Slides courtesy of www.lexington1.net/technology/.../ppts/LAppts/35/LiteratureCircles.
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After accomplishing your tasks and making your outputs, ask yourself if you have
generated ideas on the Korean psyche and temperament of charity, kindness, generosity,
love, joy, patience, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. Express all your
realizations in a drawing.
In preparing your outputs, always consider the proper and correct use of
cohesive and literary devices.

Cohesive Devices
 Coherence in writing means achieving a consistent relationship among
parts.
 Cohesive devices show the logical relationships between the various parts of an
essay as well as between sentences and paragraphs.
 Cohesive devices include:
Transitional words and expressions, paragraph hooks

What are they?
Cohesive devices are like bridges between parts of your paper. They are the cues
that help the reader to interpret ideas in the way that you, as a writer, want them to
understand.

What do they do?
Cohesive devices help you carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from
one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another with words or phrases. Cohesive
devices link your sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no
abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Why do you use them?
Cohesive words and phrases are used to link sentences and paragraphs, to show
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which direction your thought patterns are going to help the reader accurately follow your
train of thought. They signal the relationships among the various parts of your subject.
Types
There are several types of cohesive devices and each category leads your reader to
make certain connections or assumptions about the areas you are connecting. Some lead
your reader forward and imply the “building” of an idea or thought while others make your
reader compare ideas or draw conclusions from the preceding thoughts.

To signal relation in time:
before, meanwhile, later, soon, at last, earlier, thereafter, afterward, by that time, from
then on, first, next, now, presently
To signal similarity:
likewise, similarly, once again, once more
To signal Difference:
but, yet, however, although, whereas, though, even so, nonetheless, still, on the other

In this section, the discussion focused more on the temperaments and
psyche of the Korean people in response to the challenges of modernity.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
discussion. How many of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which
ideas are different and need revision?
Now, that you know the important ideas about this topic, let us go deeper
Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some
aspects of the topic on the temperaments and psyche of the
Korean people in their response to the challenges of
List 5 to 7 words or phrases that describe or
explain the major concepts of the psyche and
temperaments of the Koreans as reflected in
the Korean literary pieces you have just read in the previous
Activity 11: FOCUSED LISTING
1. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. _____________________________________________________________________
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Activity 12: CROSS ME OUT!
Below are probable descriptions of the Korean psyche (human spirit) and
temperament (prevailing or dominant quality of mind that characterizes
someone). After reading a few of their selections, you already have an idea
resilient
proud
bitter
st r ong
pati ent
materialistic
l oyal
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Answer the following questions in the Opinion Proof template on the next page.

1. Which of your ideas would appropriately describe the psyche and
temperament of the Koreans?
2. Given these descriptions and a chance to interview a Korean, what
questions would you ask?
3. Can you now make a distinction between Korean and Filipino characters?
4. What do Koreans have that help them cope with the challenges of
modernity?
5. Are there Asian traditions and values that are reflected in Korean literature?
How can these traditions and values help them in coping with the challenges
of modernity?
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This activity is a protocol of inquiries that you can make about the content
of what you are reading. This strategy is designed to encourage you to
think beyond the words on the page and to consider the author's intent for
the selection and his or her success at communicating it.
The idea of "questioning" the author is a way for you to evaluate how well a selection
of text stands on its own, not simply an invitation to "challenge" a writer. You will now be
looking at the author's intent, his craft, his clarity, his organization.
Go and get a partner. Read an excerpt about the viral video on Korea’s global
sensation called Psy (shortened name for Psycho). Help each other in doing the next
Activity 13: QUESTIONING THE AUTHOR
Viral Video Gets Propaganda Treatment
By SU HYUN LEE
Published: September 20, 2012

SEOUL, South Korea — Ordinarily, a star turn on “The Ellen DeGeneres Show” teaching
Britney Spears his dance might be one of the surest signs that a performer has made it.
But this week, Park J ae-sang, the South Korean phenomenon behind a dance video
called Gangnam Style, got an even clearer sign of success. North Korea — so cut off
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What is the author
trying to tell you?


Why is the author
telling you that?
.

Is it said clearly?

How might the
author have written
it more clearly?


What would you
have wanted to say
instead?


from the world that satellite shots show most of the country plunged in darkness at night —
parodied the video.

Why the original video, released in J uly, has gained such popularity is anyone’s guess. In
it, Mr. Park, 34, does a “horse riding” dance that looks vaguely like what children do when
they hop around pretending to be galloping. He raps and dances around Seoul, all in the
company of pretty women and to a song with an infectious beat.

In short, the performer, popularly known as PSY (short for Psycho), has done what K-Pop
bands have failed to do. While those groups have choreographed their way to success all
over Asia, they have made less headway in other parts of the world. Mr. Park, with his
willingness to allow himself to be made fun of with a buffoonish performance, is a global
success.

What Mr. Park is singing about is Gangnam, a fashionable neighborhood in Seoul where
the nouveau riche shop at Chanel, drive fancy cars and send their children to well-known
prep schools. He grew up there, and although his dance moves are anything but what
someone might expect of Gangnam’s sophisticates, the title seems to both celebrate —
and possibly mock — the lifestyle.

That plays especially well in South Korea, where the growing gap between rich and poor is
serious enough to have become an issue in the presidential campaign.

In any case, South Koreans have banded together to celebrate Mr. Park’s success, with
media outlets breathlessly reporting each new sighting. PSY on “Ellen.” PSY on “Saturday
Night Live.” And now a PSY parody in North Korea.

It does not seem to matter at all to many South Koreans that possibly their most famous
cultural ambassador is, well, less than refined. For them, he still represents a “soft power”
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/qta.html
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Activity 14: SO WHAT’S THE PROBLEM?
With all the reading selections given to you, did you notice some
problems that Koreans face as they cope with the challenges of
modernity?
Problem-Solution Chart
What is the problem?


What are the effects?


What are the causes?


What are some solutions?





http://www.readingquest.org/strat/problem.html

In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche of
the Korean people in response to the challenges of modernity. What new
realizations have you arrived at on the topic? What new connections have
you made for yourself?
Now, that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to
This activity will prepare you to do your own
interview. Choose an interview buddy. The two
of you should work together as a team.
Interview a Korean who is willing to share his or her own
perspective about Koreans as Asians in this modern world.
Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to real life
situations. You will be given a practical task which will
demonstrate your understandings in this lesson.
Activity 15: LISTENING TO AN INTERVIEW
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You will be exposed to the different steps, helpful techniques and courteous ways in the
interview process. Remember that an interview is remarkably helpful in getting the story of
any important issue of a person’s life. The interviewer can engage in a detailed pursuit for
information. Interviews, in general, are useful as a source of information and
enlightenment. The interviewer has the obligation to plan the details of the interview so
that she or he can save not just her or his time but the interviewee’s time as well. Most of
the time, open-ended questions are useful during interviews.
Here is a sample interview. Read it carefully as if you are viewing it live. You can view
a real interview at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yd-at838m3A . This is an interview of
a Korean lawyer. This also presents tips in conducting interviews. You may also refer to
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8wjyafrnXI . This is titled Heejun Good Day New York
Interview. You can analyze the elements that make up reality and fantasy from a program
http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?
An Interview with a Korean-American on Cultural Differences
hp://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=40709
[BAGLEY] This is Ben Bagley, and I'm going to interview Theresa Han
about Korea. Could you introduce yourself?
[
HAN] My name is Theresa Han, I'm from South Korea, I'm 18 years old,
and I'm a freshman in College.

[BAGLEY] How long have you lived in America?

[HAN] I think a little bit less than 3 years.

[BAGLEY] Where did you live in Korea?

[HAN] I lived in Pyoung Tek, It's right below Oosan, where the American Air
In this interview Ben Bagley asks Theresa Han about the difference between Korean
and American culture. Theresa is a teenager who recently moved to the United States so
she has an excellent perspective for understanding the differences and similarities between
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force is located.
[BAGLEY] What were the people like where you lived?

[HAN] They're really busy. Fathers go to their work; Mothers if they have a job
go to their work, and students go to school, so they don't have enough time to
communicate with each other, like time to spend together, because mostly
students come home like 10:00pm-11:00pm.

[BAGLEY] What did you do with your friends?

[HAN] We mostly go to each other's house, rent a movie or something, watch
it, and do homework usually, because we have a whole bunch of homework.
On the weekends we would go downtown; it's kind of like a shopping mall. It's
a street. There are small restaurants, small cloths shops and all that stuff. It
was...

... middle of paper ...

... came home 7:00pm. But some students stay longer, like even 10:00pm if
you are a senior and about to go to college because there is kind of, like
parents and teacher think their kids or students should go to college. Like
have to go to college. They’re gonna pressure them to study a lot, so when
you’re a senior you start to study a lot and you don’t sleep that much. Usually I
think some people sleep 3 or 4 hours per day and just study. No free time.

[BAGLEY] And they stay at school and study?

[HAN] ?Till like 10:00pm but after school ends they come home and study like
In the table below, outline five of the most important tips you can share before, during

Tips in Doing an INTERVIEW
Before During After
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Before you start to design your interview questions, you should have a clear idea of
your problem or objective. This will give you have a clear focus on the intent of each
question.
Below is a table that will help you plan for the interview. Write you sample questions
in the appropriate column.

Purpose of the Interview:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________


Tips


My Sample Question

Questions should be open–ended.
Respondents should be able to choose
their own terms when answering
questions.




Questions should be as neutral as
possible. Avoid words that might
influence answers, for example, evocative
or judgmental wording.




Questions should be worded clearly.
Know any terms particular to the program
or the respondents’ culture. Use
locational skills to gather and synthesize
information about your interviewee.






Be careful when asking “ why”
questions. A “why” question infers a
cause-effect relationship that may not truly
exist. Such question may also cause
respondents to feel defensive that they
have to justify their responses; the
question may inhibit their responses to
future questions.











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Below is the Interview Rubric that will help you come up with the best interview. This
will be given in advance so that you will have an idea on how you are going to conduct
Interview Rubric
Criteria Needs
Improvement
(1)
Within
Expectations
(2)
Meets
Expectations
(3)
Beyond
Expectations
(4)
Score
Appearance Overall
appearance is
untidy

Choice in
clothing is
inappropriate
for any job
interview (torn
unclean,
wrinkled)

Poor grooming


Appearance
is somewhat
untidy

Choice in
clothing is
inappropriate
(shirt not
tucked, tee-
shirt, too
much jewelry,
etc.)

Grooming
attempt is
evident

Overall neat
appearance

Choice in
clothing is
acceptable for
the type of
interview

Well groomed
(ex. Shirt
tucked in,
jewelry blends
with clothing,
minimal
wrinkles)
Overall
appearance
is very neat

Choice in
clothing is
appropriate
for the
interview

Very well
groomed
(hair, clothes
pressed, etc.)

Overall
appearance is
businesslike


Greeting Unacceptable
behavior and
language

Unfriendly and
not courteous


Acceptable
behavior
language

Attempts to be
courteous to
his / her
interviewee
Well
mannered in
dealing with
the
interviewee

Courteous to
the
interviewee


Very
professional
behavior and
language
(handshake,
“ hello” ,
“ thank you” ,
eye contact,
etc.)

Friendly and
courteous to
all involved in
interview

Content Very
inappropriate
questions

Did not ask
relevant
questions
Inaccurate
questions

Questions
were not
relevant or
related to the
objective of
the interview
Questions
are
acceptable
and accurate

Questions are
appropriate.
Thorough
questions

Questions
were very
well planned
and detailed



Interviewee: _______________________ Interviewer: ________________________
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Criteria Needs
Improvement
(1)
Within
Expectations
(2)
Meets
Expectations
(3)
Beyond
Expectations
(4)
Score
Communication Presentation
shows lack of
interest

Questioning is
unclear – very
difficult to
understand
message of
what is being
said (ex.
mumbling)

Facts about
job not
included

Volume is
inappropriate
for interview
(ex. Spoke too
loudly, too
softly)
Showed
some interest

Questioning is
unclear–
lapses in
sentence
structure and
grammar

Knowledge of
job is minimal

Volume is
uneven
(varied)
Showed
interest
throughout
the interview

Speaking
clearly

Perfect in
sentence
structure and
grammar

Knowledge
and facts are
included /
shared

Volume is
appropriate
Very
attentive

Speaking
very clearly

Exceptionally
accurate use
of sentence
structure and
grammar

Commitment
& enthusiasm
for job is very
well conveyed

Volume
conveys
business tone

Body Language Fidgeted – ex.
constant
movement of
hands and
feet

Lack of eye
contact

Slouching all
the time
Minimal
fidgeting (ex.
occasionally
shifting)

Eye contact is
made
intermittently

Occasionally
slouching
Uses hands
and body to
express
Eye contact
when
speaking

Correct
Posture

Highly
animated
expression
(not just
speak:
brings
words,
sentences to
life

Eye contact
made all
throughout
the interview

Sitting
straight in
chair all
throughout
the interview

Total
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What do you really understand now about conducting interviews?
2. If your interviewee is a Korean, do you think it can help you more in knowing
the Koreans’ psyche and temperament? In what way?
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Activity 16: PREPARING TO CONDUCT AN INTERVIEW WITH A
KOREAN
By this time, you will have gathered a lot of information on how to conduct
interviews. But there are reminders to follow. These reminders may serve
Are you ready?
Yes No
1. If you are using a tape or video recorder, occasionally
check if it is really working.

2. Ask one question at a time.
3. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. Do not show string
emotional reactions to their responses. An author suggests to
act as if “you’re heard it all before”.

4. Encourage responses with occasional nods, “uh huh”s, etc.
5. Be careful about showing facial expressions or reactions
when taking down notes. If you suddenly make a move while
taking down notes, it may appear as if you are surprised or very
pleased about an answer. Such reaction may influence
answers to future questions.

6. Provide transitions between major topics. You may say.
“We’ve been talking about (a topic), and now I’d like to move on
to (another topic).

7. Do not lose control of the interview. Some respondents/
interviewee may stray to another topic. It may take them too
long to answer a question that time begins to run out, or they
may even begin asking the interviewer some questions.


REMINDERS
If most of your answers are ‘yes’, you are now ready to conduct an interview.
1. How do you feel right now after doing the checklist?
2. Do you think you are ready to conduct an interview? Why or why not?
3. Will this interview help you know the psyche and temperament of the
Koreans?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 17: CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW TO A KOREAN
This simulated activity should be recorded. Keep your cool and give your
best! You may answer the following questions in your notebook.
1. After the interview, what new revelations do you have about the
Koreans’ psyche and temperament?
2. What questions or uncertainties or biases do you still have about the
Koreans?
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3. How does your learning about Koreans relate to your present and future treatment of
these people?

The chart below can help you write important details about your interview. Fill out the
http://7-12educators.about.com
Name of Subject: ________________________________________________________
Birth:
Death:
Early Influences:
Education:
Major
Accomplishments:

Significance:
Contemporaries:
Evaluate your performance as a team by going back to Interview Rubric.
Then, go to the Quality Team Assessment. Ask yourself “How well was I
doing in my team?”
Using the Quality Team Chart, conduct a self-assessment and discuss the
group’s ability to accomplish the items on the list. This is not evaluative but is meant to
establish a benchmark for celebration and / or improvement. Identify one area in which you
Activity 18: EVALUATING PERFORMANCE
Team Quality Chart
Names:
Cooperation /
Teamwork

Responsibility
Punctuality in
Doing Tasks

Adaptability /
Versatility

Quality of Work
Initiative
Dependability
Attendance
Communication
Contribution
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Share your answers with your team.
1. What can you say about your skills in conducting interviews?
2. What strengths and weaknesses do you have in conducting interviews?
3. What other questions would you ask in order to know the psyche and
temperament of the Koreans?
Activity 19: WRITING WELL-CONSTRUCTED PARAGRAPHS
From the interview, write well-constructed paragraphs about the person. Be
sure to observe the rules on cohesion, coherence and appropriate modes of
paragraph development. Use the information you have gathered from
Activity 17. Use the graphic organizer below as your guide.
When you write a character sketch, you are trying to introduce the reader to
someone. You want the reader to have a strong mental image of the person, to
know how the person talks, to know the person's characteristic ways of doing
things, to know something about the person's value system. Character sketches
only give snap shots of people; therefore, you should not try to write a history of the
person.
A good way to write a character sketch is to tell a little story about one encounter you
had with him or her. If you do that, you can describe a place briefly, hopefully a place that
belonged to the person, focusing on things that would represent the person you are
describing. Describe how the person was dressed. Then, simply tell what happened as
you spent time together. From time to time, describe the person's gestures or facial
http://www.engl.niu.edu/wac/char_sk.html
Character Sketch Format/Graphic Organizer

Topic Sentence: ______________________________________________________

Trait #1 _____________________________________________________________
Example(s) __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Trait #2 _____________________________________________________________
Example(s) __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Trait #3 _____________________________________________________________
Example(s) __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

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The R.A.F.T. paper can also help you write well-constructed paragraphs. R.A.F.T. is a
writing technique that provides an easy, meaningful way to demonstrate your
understanding of a reading material. It focuses on writing in context the material you have
read.
Your assignment: Put yourself in the position of a writer tasked to make a character
sketch of a well-known Korean. Comment on how literature reveals the Korean character –
what he / she has as a Korean to help her cope with and respond to the challenges of
modernity.
Required length: 2 pages, double-spaced. This means you are skipping a line as you
write.
Role
Who are you?

Audience
To whom is it
written? What do
they expect?
Format
What form will this
writing piece take?
What will it look
like?

Topic
What is your topic?
In this column, fill
in details about the
person you are
pretending to be, i.e.,
a writer who is tasked
to make a character
sketch of a well-
known Korean.
Decide on whether
you are male or
female. Are you a
friend of this Korean?
How does literature
reveal the Korean
character? How does
he/she cope with and
respond to the
challenges of
modernity?
Who are you
writing to? This
information will be
closely tied to the
format you have
decided on in class.
Most likely, the format
of this paper will take
the form of a
character sketch. If
so, who are you
writing to (your
audience)? Why are
you writing to this
person?
Why would
readers be interested
in the story of this
Korean?
**Remember
that your teacher is
also your audience!
He/She expects a
well-written paper.
Neatness counts! Do
your best to present a
paper with correct
spelling and
grammar. Write in
complete sentences.
Write in cohesive
paragraphs.
The format, as
mentioned, will be a
character sketch.
This means you are
going to write just
snap shots of the
person. Again, make
sure it is a well
written paper--see my
expectations in the
Audience column.
Your topic is
explained at the top
of this page, see
"Your Assignment In
a way, this is really a
chance for you to
reflect on the Korean
way of coping with
modernity in general l
--what did you think
about the Korean?
What did you think
about her or his
characteristics as
reflected in Korea’s
literary pieces?
What, if any,
lesson did you learn?
Make sure you
explain yourself with
details to support
your opinions. The
required length for
this character sketch
is two pages, double-
spaced (skip a line as
you write).
http://www.oocities.org/socorroplazola/pearlraft.html
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***When you submit your final paper, include this handout with the columns filled in with
your notes. This means you'll have to draw your own chart with the headings (Role,
Form a group with four members. Your teacher will then assign a number
from 1 to 4 to each member of your group. Then, answer the focus question
below collaboratively:
How do Koreans respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected
in their literary pieces?
Make sure that all of you can answer this question, because your teacher will
randomly call a number (from 1 to 4), and when your number is called, you will answer the
Activity 20: ANSWERING THE FOCUS QUESTION THROUGH
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is the most striking trait or psyche or temperament of the Koreans that
makes them unique as a people?
2. Is there any trait or psyche or temperament of the Koreans that is very
‘Filipino’?
In this section, your task was to interview a Korean and write a character
sketch based on the interview. How did you find the performance task?
How did the task help you see the real world use of the topic?
Congratulations! You have completed this lesson.

Antagonist: A person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or
something; an adversary.
Blandishment: A flattering or pleasing statement or action used to persuade
someone gently to do something.
Central Idea: The thesis statement states the thesis or argument of the author in
an essay or similar document.
Challenges: tests; trials
Folklore: The traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community,
passed through the generations by word of mouth.
Glimpse: quick look; peek; glance
Literary Circle: Also called Literature Circles wherein small groups of students
gather together to discuss a piece of literature in depth.
Literary Pieces: or literary works. These are the products of the body of written
works of a language, period, or culture / literature
Modernity: The quality of being current or of the present; "a shopping small
would instill a spirit of modernity into this village".
Myriad: A countless or extremely great number.
Phoenix: It is a long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn.
Pomegranate: An orange-sized fruit with a tough reddish outer skin and sweet red
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gelatinous flesh containing many seeds.
Protagonist: The leading character or a major character in a drama, movie,
novel, or other fictional text.
Prowess: Skill or expertise in an activity or field
Psyche: The human soul, mind or spirit.
Resilience: The ability to recover quickly from illness, change, or misfortune;
buoyancy
Superior: upper; senior; higher
Temperament: The prevailing or dominant quality of mind that characterizes
Books
Angoluan, Ma. Evalou Concepcion et. al. Bridges to Understanding (2004). Quezon
City: SIBS Publishing House, Inc.
Religious Education Module. A – Z Learning Strategies.
Sedilla, Carleen S., Ma. Evalou ConcepcionA., and Ali G. Agundin. “How to
Conduct an Interview”. Skill Builders for English Proficiency. Quezon City:
Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2004.
Zong, In-sob. An Introduction to Korean Literature (1970). Seoul, Korea: Sam Young
Websites
http://www.google.com.ph. Most pictures or icons used in this lesson were taken
from Google Image Result. These pictures are the following: Geo and Leila with
their masks and costumes; sketching pads, thumbs up icons, handprint, Korean
cartoons, Tale of Chunhyang picture, notebook, magistrate, STOP LOOK LISTEN,
No!, Kisaeng entertainer,cangue and yangban, borders, pomengranates, Korean
boy and girl, interview,
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2199671/plotsummary. This contains the summary of The
Tale of Ch’unhyang.
http://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/mod/book/view.php?id=93283&chapterid=3333, http://
www.scribd.com/doc/51661583/Techniques-for-Dealing-with-Difficult-Words and
http://www.uefap.com/reading/underst/difficult/difficult.htm. These websites
contain articles about coping difficult words. Techniques and tips are exposed for
students to read, analyze and follow.
http://www.sanchezclass.com/reading-graphic-organizers.htm. This contains the
Comparing and Contrasting Graphic Organizer.
http://instrok.org/instrok/home.html). This website contains The Tale of Ch'unhyang.
www.lauracandler.com. This is Laura Candler's Team Building Spinner.
http://www.ktlit.com/korean-literature/review-early-spring-mid-summer. and http://
www.ktlit.com/korean-literature/review-wayfarer-new-fiction-by-korean-women.
These websites were used in this lesson for students to express their guesses on
Koreans' ways of responding to the challenges of MODERNITY. These websites
offer reviews about Koreans' most contemporary books / novels.
http://www.instrok.org/instrok/t_story.html. This contains The Tale of the Woodcutter
and the Tiger.
http://www.instrok.org/instrok/t_story.html. This contains information about TALES.
http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com. This website contains the Literary Elements
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Advance Organizer.
http://jaypsong.wordpress.com/ . This website contains a Korean contemporary literary
piece titled Shhh by Moon In-soo.
Kwon Shin-ah jaypsong.wordpress.com/http://jaypsong.wordpress.com/ http:// This
contains an illustration of the story titled Shhh by Moon In-soo.
http://weheartit.com/entry/22528897. This contains a picture of a girl in the rain.
www.lexington1.net/technology/.../ppts/LAppts/35/LiteratureCircles. This contains a
PowerPoint presentation about Literary Cirlces.
users.ipfw.edu/wellerw/transitionaldevices.ppt. This contains a PowerPoint presentation
about cohesive devices.
www.readingquest.org/pdf/opinion.pdf. This contains the Opinion - Proof Graphic
Organizer.
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/qta.html. This contains an organizer that helps students
do the Questioning the Author.
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/problem.html. This contains the Problem- Solution Chart
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yd-at838m3A. This is an interview of a Korean lawyer.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8wjyafrnXI This is titled Heejun Good Day New York
Interview.
http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=40709. This website features An Interview
With a Korean-American on Cultural Differences.
http://7-12educators.about.com. This website contains the chart that can help students
write important details from their interview.
http://www.engl.niu.edu/wac/char_sk.html. This contains information about writing a
character sketch.
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Have you ever felt so down that you almost
wanted to give up? How did you cope with the
challenges that came into your life? Have you ever
wondered how others overcome challenges? You
are not alone. Everybody goes through difficulties.
And, it is possible to overcome these from the literary selections of Burma or
Myanmar.
In this lesson, you will find out how critical understanding and appreciation of
Afro-Asian literary selections can help recognize the temperaments (prevailing
or dominant quality of mind that characterizes somebody) and psyche (human
spirit or soul and mind) of your Asian and African neighbors in their response to
the challenges of modernity.
Hence, remember to search the answers for the following focus questions:
What does literature reveal about Asian and African character?

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills below and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Determine the persons being addressed in an informative talk, the objectives of the
speaker and his/her attitudes towards issues (Listening Comprehension)
 Note clues and links to show the speakers stand and assumption (Listening
Comprehension)
 Listen for clues and links to reveal the speakers’ train of thoughts (Listening
Comprehension)
 Determine the stand of the speaker on a given issue (Listening Comprehension)
 Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic development, topic shift,
turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversations (Speaking - Oral Language and
Fluency)
 Use communication strategies (paraphrase, translations, and circumlocution) to repair
breakdown in communication (Speaking - Oral Language and Fluency)
 Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures
and discourse (Vocabulary Development)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary (Vocabulary
Development)
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 Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the writer and the sectional
approach) to process information in a text (Vocabulary Development)
 Identify propaganda strategies used in advertisements (bandwagon, testimonial,
transfer, repetition, emotional words) and consider these in formulating hypothesis
(Vocabulary Development)
 Note expressions that signal opinions (seems, to me, as I see it) (Vocabulary
Development)
 Analyze the elements that make up reality and fantasy from a program viewed
(Viewing Comprehension)
 Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding experiences
and outlook and enhancing worthwhile universal human values (Literature)
 Assess the Asian and African identity as reflected in their literature and oneself in the
light of what makes one an Asian or African (through the different genres) (Literature)
 Use specific cohesive and literary devices to construct integrative literary and
expository reviews, critiques, research reports, and scripts for broadcast
communication texts, including screenplays (Writing and Composition)
 Expand ideas in well-constructed paragraphs observing cohesion, coherence and
appropriate modes of paragraph development (expository, descriptive, narrative,
persuasive, creative) (Writing and Composition)
 Use varied adjective complementation (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Use appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expressions (Grammar Awareness
and Structure)
 Derive information from various text types and sources using the card catalog, vertical
file, index, microfiche (microfilm), CD ROM, Internet, etc. (Study Strategies)
On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Faith in Time of Challenges:
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Guess Who?
Snapshots
Featuring: Aung San Suu Kyi
Inbox (Map of Conceptual
Change)
CSI Form/Character Study of an
Individual
ComCon (Comparison and
Contrast)
KNOW
Welcome to Burma aka Myanmar
Introducing, the Burmese People
One’s Vision (Complete Me)
Bull’s I (Idiom)
Odds on Ads (Advertisements)
Listen and be Heard
Think as a Butterfly
Meeting You (Table)
Literary Carousel
Character Analysis Model
I Draw
The Propaganda
Shout Out (Chart)
Speak Up, Let’s Talk about it
Frequency Word List
PROCESS
Your Mission
The F’s (Faith and Fight for
Freedom)
Frequency Word List
Character Revelation Figure
Soldier Simulation/ Role-play
3-2-1 (Map of Conceptual
Change)
PS at your Fingertips (précis/
summary)
Lend me your Ears (editorial
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Outbox
Lesson Closure
Handing in your Evaluation Paper
TRANSFER
For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
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Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so
far about Asian and African literature, in particular, Burmese
literature.
To start the lesson, look at these pictures.
Activity 1: GUESS WHO?/SNAPSHOTS
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Cameracoloringpage.jpg supercoloring.com
Now, answer the following questions:
1. Do you know any of the people in the pictures? Give the names of those
whom you recognize.
2. What did they contribute in their countries? Provide examples.
3. Specifically, why are they considered as heroes or icons?
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Activity 2: FEATURING: AUNG SAN SUU KYI
Since you are already somewhat familiar with the above mentioned
persons, wherein one is Aung San Suu Kyi, study more information about
her from this short essay. Your teacher can read it through storytelling
while you read silently and follow.
Aung San Suu Kyi
A
ung San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon (now named Yangon). Her father, Aung
San, founded the modern Burmese army and negotiated Burma's independence
from the British Empire in 1947; he was assassinated by his rivals in the same
year. She grew up with her mother, Khin Kyi , and two brothers, Aung San Lin and Aung
San Oo , in Rangoon. Aung San Lin died at age eight, when he drowned in an
ornamental lake on the grounds of the house. Her elder brother emigrated to San Diego,
California, becoming a United States citizen. After Aung San Lin's death, the family
moved to a house by Inya Lake where Suu Kyi met people of very different
backgrounds, political views and religions. She was educated in Methodist English High
School (now Basic Education High School No. 1 Dagon) for much of her childhood in
Burma, where she was noted as having a talent for learning languages. She is a
Theravada Buddhist. Suu Kyi's mother, Khin Kyi, gained prominence as a political figure
in the newly formed Burmese government. She was appointed Burmese ambassador to
India and Nepal in 1960, and Aung San Suu Kyi followed her there, she studied in the
Convent of J esus and Mary School, New Delhi and graduated from Lady Shri Ram
College in New Delhi with a degree in politics in 1964. Suu Kyi continued her education
at St Hugh's College, Oxford, obtaining a B.A. degree in Philosophy, Politics and
Economics in 1969. After graduating, she lived in New York City with a family friend and
worked at the UN for three years, primarily on budget matters, writing daily to her future
husband, Dr. Michael Aris. In 1972, Aung San Suu Kyi married Aris, a scholar of Tibetan
culture, living abroad in Bhutan. The following year she gave birth to their first son,
Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Subsequently, she
earned a PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in
1985. She was elected as an Honorary Fellow in 1990.
[26]
For two years she was a
Fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Shimla, India. She also
worked for the government of the Union of Burma.
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In 1988 Suu Kyi returned to Burma, at first to tend for her ailing mother but later to lead
the pro-democracy movement. Aris' visit in Christmas 1995 turned out to be the last time
that he and Suu Kyi met, as Suu Kyi remained in Burma and the Burmese dictatorship
denied him any further entry visas. Aris was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 which
was later found to be terminal. Despite appeals from prominent figures and organizations,
including the United States, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Pope J ohn Paul II , the
Burmese government would not grant Aris a visa , saying that they did not have the
facilities to care for him, and instead urged Aung San Suu Kyi to leave the country to visit
him. She was at that time temporarily free from house arrest but was unwilling to depart,
fearing that she would be refused re-entry if she left, as she did not trust the military junta 's
assurance that she could return.
Aris died on his 53rd birthday on 27 March 1999. Since 1989, when his wife was first
placed under house arrest, he had seen her only five times, the last of which was for
Christmas in 1995. She was also separated from her children, who live in the United
Kingdom, but starting in 2011, they have visited her in Burma.
On 2 May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, Suu Kyi lost the roof of her house and
lived in virtual darkness after losing electricity in her dilapidated lakeside residence. She
used candles at night as she was not provided any generator set. Plans to renovate and
Activity 3: CSI (CHARACTER STUDY OF AN INDIVIDUAL)
Then, find a partner and fill out the CSI form based on her background
information. Be ready to share your output, which can be folded in accordion
style, in class for interactive discussion.
Name of Character Personality Traits
Actions which Support
Traits


Illustration by: Amarjeet Malik
1. __________________
2. __________________
3. __________________
4. __________________
5. __________________
1. __________________
2. __________________
3. __________________
4. __________________
5. __________________
Relate the previous activities to the focus questions:
1. What does literature (Burmese) reveal about Asian and African character?
Activity 4: INBOX
Now, refer to the map of conceptual change on the next page, wherein you
will be giving your personal ideas and opinions about the focus questions.
For this part, you will write on the “I Think” section of IN THE BOX. Make
sure you connect it with the literature of Burma/Myanmar and Burmese
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IN THE BOX
I Think…
Activity 5: COMCON (COMPARISON AND CONTRAST)
Feel free to exchange information with your classmates and take turns by
comparing and contrasting your ideas using the graphic organizer below.
Graphic Organizers Comparison & Contrast
www.slideshare.net/.../graphic-organizers-comparison-contrast-6865
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As a review, you gave your initial ideas on the focus questions and
Burmese literature. This time, let us find out how others would answer the
questions and compare their ideas to your own. As you compare, you will also
learn other concepts which will help you complete the required project. This
project is about an evaluation paper of a program viewed.
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key
concepts regarding Burmese literature focusing on the
temperaments and psyche of the people of Burma in their
Take note of the words used in context that
you will encounter in reading the informative
text. Beforehand, do the unlocking of
difficulties through Wordles. Your teacher can
use the manual way or refer to this website for examples and
instructions:
Activity 6: WELCOME TO BURMA A.K.A
MYANMAR
www.smsd.org/custom/StaffDev/Wordle%20QRG.pdf - United States
wordle-znjcxc.jpgteacherchallenge.edublogs.org
For the manual way, go over the example
given done in acrostic:

Frequency Word List

a. extant specimen
b. dedicatory inscriptions
c. eloquent poems
d. Buddhist piety
e. educated courtiers
f. panegyric odes
g. letter of an abbot
h. foreign literature was transplanted

Eloquent
M
O
T
I
O
Include the said words in your frequency
word list.
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Read the text below about the literature of Myanmar and answer the activity
English Communication Arts and Skills through Afro-Asian Literature
THE LITERATURE OF MYANMAR

The literature of Myanmar, formerly Burma, has a long history. The Mayazedi
inscription (A.D. 1113) is the earliest extant specimen of Burmese literature. It narrates the
dedication of the Golden Buddha by a prince and the gift of slave-villages to the image,
ending with a prayer for the donor and his friends. Over a thousand such dedicatory
inscriptions were set up in the next 700 years, containing eloquent poems and prayers of
poetic merit.
In the fifteenth century up to the nineteenth century, palm-leaf (scratched with a stylus)
and folded-paper literature became common. Such works were filled with Buddhist piety
and courtly refinement of language. The authors were monks, educated courtiers, and
court poetesses. Prose works during this period were few, mostly Buddhist scriptures and
chronicles of kings. Poetry was varied: there were historical ballads, panegyric odes, the
pyo (Buddhist story in verse), and the ya-du (poems of love or nature). The writers also
used the “mixed style” or prose and poetry together. Examples of this are the Yagan, a
serio-comic epic, and the Myil-Ta-za, a letter of an abbot to the king.
Modern fiction began with the novel. An example is Tet-Pon-gyn, a classical novel.
With the founding of the University of Rangoon in 1920 came an increase in output of
Burmese literature. Foreign literature, especially English works, was transplanted. With
independence in 1948, Burmese has gradually replaced English as the medium of
Activity 7: THINK AS A BUTTERFLY
Pair up with another partner THINK AS A BUTTERFLY and fill up the
butterfly organizer on main idea with supporting details based from the
same text. Respond also to the enumerated questions and use this as a
1. What does prose usually contain? How about poetry?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

2. What can you say about Burmese literature?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

3. What is considered as the first example of Burmese literature?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

4. Why is the founding of the University of Rangoon very significant in their literature?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

5. How does their literature reveal the character of the Burmese people?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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Make your organizers creative by coloring, designing the edges and the like and post
ayearofmanyfirsts.blogspot.com
To continue, here is a written copy of a
speech for more information about the
Burmese people, including their
temperaments and psyche.
For the unlocking of difficulties, look for the functional
definitions of the words below, meaning, how they were
used in the text. Your teacher can do this through text
twist.
Activity 8: INTRODUCING, THE BURMESE PEOPLE…

Frequency Word List

a. inevitables f. utilitarian
b. fleeting g. exploit
c. transitory h. rampant
d. amass i. inexhaustible
e. insatiable j. wallow

Activity 10: MEETING YOU
One of your classmates or a representative will read the said speech for you
to follow. Form groups with five (5) members and assign each to identify
what are asked from the table. Be creative in presenting your output.
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Evils that
Plague
Humanity
Effects on the
Lives of
People
Inevitables in
Life
How Science
Conquers
each
Statements
that Indicate
Reality
(actual, exists)
and Fantasy
(dream,
imagination)
1.



2



3.



The people of Myanmar are peace-loving and hardworking. Most of them
live in villages and work as farmers. This speech of then Prime Minister U Nu
serves to remind the Myanmar people to pursue peace and unity among them.
ON THE THREE EVILS
Humanity has been led astray by three evils – greed, hatred and ignorance. Whether we
are Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Animists, or Atheists, we cannot escape the
three inevitables: old age, disease, and death. Nobody can deny that the five sense objects
– pretty sight, delightful sound, fragrant smell, savory taste, and nice touch – are only
fleeting phenomena. They are neither lasting nor permanent.
Nor can anybody deny that property is transitory: no one can carry away his property
after death. Men have been chasing these transitory pleasures with a dogged tenacity
mainly because they hold false views regarding property. They forget that this life is not
even one millionth part of the whirlpool of Samsara (the cycles of rebirth), and go on
amassing wealth even though it never brings them full satisfaction.
This insatiable greed for wealth results in the profit motive which is not directed toward
any utilitarian purpose. Once upon a time all commodities were common property, and
everybody had a right to use them for his own benefit. But with the advent of the profit
motive these commodities became objects of exploitation. They became instruments of
wealth and stimulus for greed. This led to the following phenomena:
1. Human society was split into two classes: Haves and Have-nots.
2. The Have-nots had to depend on the Haves for their living, and thus the evil system
of exploitation of one class by another emerged.
3. With class exploitation, the poor became poorer because they could not get
adequate returns for their work. They had to resort to evil ways like stealing, looting,
and prostitution.
4. The Lord Buddha has taught us that there are four causes of death: kamma, frame of
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English Communication Arts and Skills through Afro-Asian Literature
mind, weather, and food. Under the system of class exploitation, how can the Have-
nots enjoy good food and protect themselves from extremes of weather? Can there
be any sense of happiness or contentment for them? Can even a good kamma favor
one who is cheerless? Thus one who is born into the class of Have-nots is
handicapped in all the above four factors, and disease is the inevitable result.
5. How can the Have-nots care for education with their hard struggle for a bare living?
Lack of education breeds an ever-increasing band of ignoramuses and Mr. Zeros.
6. How can a country abounding in ignoramuses and Mr. Zeros ever progress?

It is evident that most of the evils in the world can be traced to the advent of the profit
motive. Do you remember the legend of the Padaythabin (the tree of fulfillment) we heard
as children?
According to the legend, there was once a time when men and women could get
whatever they wanted from the Padaythabin tree. There was no problem of food or clothes
or housing, and there was no crime. Disease was comparatively unknown. In course of
time, however, the people fell victim to greed and spoiled the tree of fulfillment which
eventually disappeared. Then a class of people who could not afford to eat well, dress well,
or live well appeared, and crime became rampant.
Now I ask you to think of the Padaythabin as the natural wealth of our country, both
above and under the ground. If only this natural wealth is used for the common good of
mankind it will be inexhaustible, besides satisfying the needs of everybody. But greed
comes in the way. The poorest of the poor wants to become rich; the rich want to become
richer, and the process goes on ad infinitum. Spurred on by greed, people are apt to
Activity 10: LITERARY CAROUSEL
Likewise, have your own literary circle where each member will take turns in
answering the questions or explaining any of the following statements.
1. What lesson does the legend of the Padaythabin tree teach the Burmese?
2. What does this excerpt reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the
Burmese?
3. Can you still lead a simple life today even amid the ongoing technological
advances? Elaborate.
4. Explain the line, “Live simply so that others may simply live.”
5. If you were a parent, what would you teach your children to make sure that
they do not grow up to be greedy people?

*Questions Adopted from English Communication Arts
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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Activity 11: ONE’S VISION (COMPLETE ME)
Let us at the same time, have poetry from Burma. Listen to your teacher read
the said poem or its recorded version. You will have the unlocking of
difficulties through word match play. Your teacher will distribute strips of
paper, wherein one set includes words to be defined and the other for
definitions. Representatives/Volunteers from your class match the words with their
fleeing foraging despair battered gloominess
concepts vision vast spacious lotus

Frequency Word List






Activity 12: CHARACTER ANALYSIS MODEL
Form triads, read the copy of the poem for the second time and answer the
Character Analysis Model based on the questions. Then, post your output
VISION
by Feraya
A country of great beauty
People so gentle and kind
There is also ugliness
And cruelty
Fleeing and hiding
And foraging for food
To survive
Our people are in pain
Suffering like no hell on earth
Darkness and despair
Surround them
And freedom is out of reach
Beaten and battered by life
Death and diseases
Swallowed up by gloominess
And bitterness
How can they carry on?
Each of us has a role to play
To help our countrymen
Not by hatred and blame
Not by giving false hope
Or ideas
Or concepts
But to see the big vision
A vision that’s not small or limited
A vision that’s vast and spacious
So that Burma’s people may rise up
Like a beautiful lotus
From a muddy pond.
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What does he/
she think?
What does
he/she see?
What does he/
she say?
What does he/
she hear?
How does he/
she feel?
How does he/
Reflect on the activity in relation to the Burmese people in their response to the
challenges of modernity.
Activity 13: BULLS!
Here is another text, an excerpt from a post/blog. Read orally and take note
of the underlined phrases. What are they called?
Bones Will Crow: An Insider's View (An Excerpt)
Posted by Arc, 17th October 2012

B o n e s w ill C ro w co m e s fro m M o e Z a w ’s p o e m M o o n le ss N ig h t. C o -e d ito rs ko ko th e tt
a n d J a m e s B yrn e th o u g h t th e B u rm e se id io m fittin g fo r th e ir a n th o lo g y o f ‘1 5
C o n te m p o ra ry B u rm e se P o e ts.’ B o n e s w ill C ro w m e a n s ch icke n co m e s h o m e to ro o st —
w h a te ve r yo u g ive , yo u g e t b a ck. T h e B u rm e se u se it to e xp re ss th e ir re se n tm e n t, th e
re se n tm e n t a g a in st in ju stice . T o b e h o n e st I d id n o t fin d it ve ry ta ste fu l w h e n I h e a rd it fo r
th e first tim e . Sin ce th e n I h a ve a cq u ire d a ta ste fo r B o n e s. M y e a rs h a ve b e e n ta m e d . M y
lip s g o t u se d to sa yin g it.
Bones Will Crow: An Insider's View - Arc Publications Blog
www.arcpublicaons.co.uk/blog.php?blog_id=166
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Yes, these are examples of idioms. What are idioms or idiomatic expressions?
Idioms or idiomatic expressions are words, phrases or expressions which
are commonly used in everyday conversation by native speakers of English
and usually figurative.
With this, give at least 10 examples of idioms that you know or use.
Activity 14: I DRAW
As a follow up, your teacher will distribute flash cards with idioms written on
it. Make sense of the one you have, draw or illustrate its meaning at the
back and present it as a pop up like the one below. Here are additional
 Give me a hand
 Hit the books
 Keep an eye on you
 You're pulling my leg
 Cat's got your tongue
 Zip your lip
 Cold turkey
 Wear your heart on your sleeve
 In the doghouse
 When pigs fly
 Put your foot in your mouth
 On pins and needles
 I'll be there with bells on
 Bite off more than you can
chew
 Toss your cookies
PopUpNoteCard.JPGfavecrafts.com
Activity 15: ODDS ON ADS
Your teacher will show different pictures of products or services and relate
to the images and text below. What are these examples? You are right.
The pictures, images and copy are considered as advertisements. What do
you think are applied in advertising so that consumers will buy products or
avail of its services? Why are consumers
adaccessbh0690med1.jpegillinoispixels.wordpress.com Burma_Shave_slogans.jpgthe60sofficialsite.com
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LUXURY PAINT AND PVC PIPING


Celebrities perform a range of different social, cultural and political functions. In Burma
their social and cultural roles are no different, though they have the added burden of
maintaining an identity within a politically repressive and highly media-controlled society. In
this environment, advertising provides celebrities with a short-term financial reward, and an
opportunity to further promote their brand image. Though some actors have used their
fame to voice criticism against junta policies, most see advertising in practical terms of
maintaining a career. Many live near the relatively small Yangon CBD, in some of the few
middle class (by Burmese standards) suburbs, where they may find it difficult to maintain
anonymity. It is not uncommon see singers and actors in the street, during social
encounters or even whilst they are shooting a new TV commercial. The localness of
famous people in Burma, in this sense, gives their patronage an extra sense of familiarity in
advertising work.
Glamour and Ordinariness – Actress
Htet Htet Moe Oo singing the praises
Activity 16: THE PROPAGANDA
Well, from the examples, focus your attention on propaganda and
propaganda strategies in advertising. Propaganda can be utilized too, in
texts, passages or even literary selections. On the other hand, adjectives
Answer the following questions:
1. What propaganda strategies were used in the advertisements?
2. How were they integrated in the ad copies?
3. Would you buy the said products? Why/Why not? Provide reasons.
4. What words or part of speech were/was utilized in the advertisements?
Propaganda
 publicly to promote something: information put out by an organization or
government to promote a policy, idea, or cause
 misleading publicity: deceptive or distorted information that is systematically
spread
Microso® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microso Corporaon. All rights reserved.

Basic Propaganda Strategies
1. Bandwagon - persuading consumers by telling them that others are doing the same
thing.
2. Testimonial - when a product is sold by using words from famous people or authority
figures.
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i.e. Burmese celebrities promoting brands
3. Transfer - when a product is sold by the name or picture of a famous person or thing
but no words from the said person or thing
4. Repetition - when the product’s name is repeated at least four times in the ad
5. Emotional Words - words that will make a consumer feel strongly about someone or
something are used.
http://modernhumorist.com/mh/0004/propaganda/mp3.cfm
Adjectives and Complements
i.e. tough-whiskered yanks, heavy tanks, jaws as smooth as guys

Adjectives
 add to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun
 can be articles like “a” “an” and “the”, or show possession such as your, his, my, their,
our, or its
 tell us more about the noun or pronoun, for instance that, what, those, or these, or be
interrogative, what, where, or why
 some modify by comparing, richer, whole or ideal impossible
 others are indefinite and include all, many, few, some, or several
 also, some give physical descriptions like big, old or brown
 others consist of beautiful, Burmese and advertising

Adjective Complement
Clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or modifies it, adjective
complement always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or a
prepositional phrase
a. Noun clause is simply two or more words that act like a noun, it can be the subject of
a sentence, an object of a verb or preposition, or they can complement a subject or
adjective
i.e. what you see, that he is happy, and where the Burmese went
b. Prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and modifies nouns and verbs
i.e. “It came with the ad”, “I need a ride to Myanmar”

What Is an Adjective Complement?grammar.yourdictionary.com › ... › Adjectives

Subject Complement
Adjectives and adjective phrases function as subject complements. A subject
complement is a word, phrase, or clause that follows a linking verb and describes the
subject.
i.e. Christmas cookies smell delicious.

Object Complement
Adjectives and adjective phrases function as object complements. An object
complement is a word, phrase, or clause that directly follows and describes the direct
object.
i.e. J udeo-Christians consider J erusalem holy.

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Let us have examples for drill or exercise. Identify the adjective complements in the
sentences.
Examples of Adjective Complements

Noun Clause and Prepositional Phrase:

1. She was hesitant to tell her parents.
2. The boss was anxious to promote sales.
3. Are you afraid of spiders?
4. We were shocked by the news.
5. I was delighted that she was chosen.
6. He is likely to be nominated.
7. The child was eager for Christmas to arrive.
8. I am curious what color it is.
9. It was wrong of her to go.
10. I am happy they got married.
11. We are all afraid that the storm will be severe.
What Is an Adjective Complement?grammar.yourdictionary.com › ... › Adjectives

Subject and Object Complement:

1. My puppy is very mischievous.
2. The patient appears dehydrated and feverish.
3. The apple pie you made tastes sour.
4. My grandmother was rather forward thinking.
5. The British are fond of fish and chips.
6. The little girl painted her bedroom bright pink.
7. The preschoolers are coloring the trees purple and blue.
8. The jury declared the defendant guilty.
9. We voted her entry most original.
10. Studying grammar makes me happy.
Next to that, search for five other advertisements from newspapers and magazines,
identify the propaganda devices and adjective or adjective complementations used.
Show outputs in class through a gallery walk of life-like ad displays.
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Activity 17: LISTEN AND BE HEARD
Listen to this blog entry that will be read by one of your classmates and
take down notes.
Activity 18: SHOUT OUT!
Brainstorm by pairs then refer to your notes to fill out the information being
asked. Present outputs by posting these around the classroom.
Speaker
Person being
Addressed
Objectives of
the Speaker
Speaker’s
Attitudes
towards
Issues
Propaganda
Strategy
Used





















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Activity 19: SPEAK UP, LET’S TALK ABOUT IT
In here, you will be grouped once again into eight (8) with 5 members each.
You, together with other members will conduct a talk show regarding the
blog entry heard. Your teacher can also furnish a copy for your reference.
Assign speakers who will share their ideas and opinions using signal
Opinion Signal Words
*may, ought, could, might, possibly, sometimes, often,
I think, it is believed, usually, seem (s), probably,
many people believe, everyone, no one, everybody,
always

Activity 20: FIRST IMPRESSIONS…
Based on the given texts, passages or literary selections that you have read
and heard, write your impression/s (a lasting effect, opinion or mental image
of somebody or something) on the literature of Myanmar and the Burmese
people, that is, the temperaments and psyche of the Burmese people in their
response to the challenges of modernity.
Refer to the template with the possible prompts provided. Remember to develop your
paragraphs observing the main idea and supporting details integrating any mode
My First Impression

I was ableto/Theliteratureof Myanmar/TheBurmesepeople…
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Reflect on the focus questions.
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In this section, the discussion focused more on the temperaments and
psyche of the Burmese people in their response to the challenges of
modernity.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
discussion. How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion?
Which ideas are different and need revision?
Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, go deeper by
Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some
aspects of the topic on the temperaments and psyche of the
Burmese people in their response to the challenges of
Here is another poem for you to reflect upon.
Read the poem orally as a class. For the
unlocking of difficulties, have the game word
auction. Your teacher will post phrases from the poem and
will ask the class if any of you knows the italicized words to be defined. If you have
Activity 21: THE F’S (FAITH AND FIGHT

Frequency Word List

a. golden spires
b. saffron prayers
c. only callousness and betrayal
d. stillness of their gaze
e. novice monk’s robe
f. serene downcast eyes
g. ceremonial finery
h. anger is fiercer

1. According to the speaker in the poem, what is happening in his/her country
Burma?
2. What can be done to attain peace and freedom?
3. What was the role of the monks in the fight for freedom?
4. Why is the poem entitled, “Prayer for Burma”?
5. How would you feel under similar conditions?
6. What does this quotation from the poem mean: “We shall never forget our
monks who were at the forefront of our march for freedom.”
7. How does this poem show the temperaments and psyche of the Burmese
people in their response to the challenges of modernity?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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Do you recall the land of golden spires?
Where morning bells are answered with murmurs of saffron prayers
And the silence of bare feet echoing their innocence
In a land overwhelmed by evilness and greed

A message of hope for hearts in deepest despair
In a language of love for a people enduring only callousness and betrayal

As their Meta Sutra chants rose high up above
Reflecting in the stillness of their gaze
You can see great courage and dignity in the eyes of Burmese monks

I remember the summer a lifetime ago
When your soft hair was shaved and the first time you wore your
Thin-gann the novice monk’s robe
And your beautiful boyish face was full of determination
With serene downcast eyes

After shedding Shinlaung’s ceremonial finery
You remained a Buddhist monk
To devote your life to your people and your religion

I also remember the dark winter nights
When you stayed up late studying Buddha’s scripture, poetry and politics
Looking to find answers for your people’s suffering

Since last September
The war against evil has only just begun
And I know that you will fight on

I am quite sure that
Your prayer will be answered
Your hopes will come true
And your fight will be won

Not because
Your anger is fiercer
And your power mightier
Or their hatred more bitter

But because
Your cause is just
Your prayers are sincere
Prayer for Burma
by May Ng
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Earlier, you read poems, now we have the story The Country’s
Good Son. Read the said text silently.
You will win in the end

There is nothing to stop your spirit and your hope
No one can silence your prayers for peace and freedom in Burma

We shall never forget our monks who were at the forefront of our march for freedom.

Burma Digest
Afterwards, you will be grouped into two: one will deliver the poem in a simple speech
choir or choral reading and the remaining group will have it in a rap presentation or
creative jazz chant with choreography.
Activity 22: YOUR MISSION
The Country’s Good Son
by Minn New Thein

Lin Aung’s mother had a shop in the Mingaladon market, where she sold slippers. Lin
Aung helped his mother in the shop during his school holidays. As the Mingaladon
market was an army market, soldiers could be seen shopping there daily. It was more
crowded on Sundays. Many soldiers could be seen moving about busily.
It was Sunday, and Lin Aung was sitting in front of the shop; “Younger Brother, do
you have real ‘Sin-kye’ No. 9?” A young man, wearing trousers, entered and asked him.
Quickly Lin Aung took a pair of ‘Sinkye’ No. 9 slippers and showed them. “How much are
these slippers, Young Brother?” Twenty -one Kyats, Elder Brother.” “Can I take only the
right side slipper and pay you ten Kyats and fifty pyas?”
The young man’s question made Lin Aung’s eyes become wide. If he sold only the
right side, how could he sell the left side? And why did he want only one slipper? “You
can’t do that. If I sell only the right side, the one left in the shop will become useless.
“Yes, but I want only the right side. But wait, I’ll go and look for a partner.” Lin Aung was
left behind, looking at the back of the young man, who walked away, limping.
Soon, the young man came back. He had another young man with him. The first
young man asked Ling Aung for the slippers, and gave the left side slipper to the young
man who had come with him. He lifted the leg of his trouser and put on the slipper. Then
he nodded with satisfaction.
Only then did Lin Aung understand. They were buying and sharing one pair of
slippers. The first young man had a false left leg, and second young man had a false
right leg. So everything was all right because there was one who wanted only the right
side, and another who wanted only the left side.
Lin Aung was sorry to see the condition of the two young men. They were quite
young, and they each had a leg missing. “Don’t you feel sad that you have only one
leg?” Lin Aung as inquisitive and asked them. “Why should we be sad?” the first young
man smiled. “We are soldiers who offered even our own lives for our country. We are
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proud to lose a leg in protecting our country.”
When Lin Aung heard the first young man’s answer, he respected them. They were
very different from the young drug addicts about whom he had often read in the
newspapers. They were wasting their lives and killing themselves.
These young men were the country’s good sons who were protecting the country from
its enemies. Their aims and intentions were as different from those of the addicts as east
from west, north from south. Although these young men had one leg missing, they still
wanted to serve their country. The two young soldiers told Lin Aung that they planned to
work in the disabled soldiers’ cooperative shop.
“I respect you and honor you. You good sons of the country are the jewels of our
country. When I grow up, I will try to be a good son of the country like you.”
The two young soldiers smiled to hear Lin Aung’s words. “We admire your intention.
Our country’s future will really be bright if there were more young people in our country with
the same aim and intention as yours. All right, we will go now.”

Do the following exercises by groups (six).
For groups 1 and 2, your leader and members will label the Character
Revelation Figure by answering the questions. Present your work and
defend your answers in front of the class.
Activity 23: CHARACTER REVELATION FIGURE

Which character do you
like best? Why?
Which character
experiences personal
change from beginning
How did the story reveal
the temperaments and
psyche of the Burmese
people in their response
to the challenges of
How do you think this
situation could apply to
Filipino soldiers? Give
reasons.
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Groups 3 and 4 will be in charge of the Frequency Word List with members
replacing the underlined words or phrases accordingly in the paragraphs
from each pair from the options. Share answers with the other groups for
Activity 24: FREQUENCY WORD LIST
1. Why should we be sad? We are soldiers who offered even our own lives for our
country. We are proud to lose a leg in protecting our country.
a. happy, gloomy
b. would gladly die, would fight gladly
c. to lose our limbs, to lose our lives
2. Lin Aung felt respect for both of them. They were very different from the young drug
addicts he often read about in the newspapers. These drug addicts were a burden to
the country. They were wasting their lives and killing themselves.
a. admiration, satisfaction
b. a contrast to, a far cry from
c. disgrace, problem
d. ruining their lives, hurting their lives
3. I respect and honor you. You good sons of the country are the jewels of our country.
When I grow up, I will try to be a good son of the country like you.
a. praise, salute
b. patriots, heroes
c. treasures, assets
Activity 25: SOLDIER SIMULATION
Groups 5 and 6 will simulate or role play in class the situation wherein the
members will pretend to be Lin Aung while the others play or act out the
roles of the two young soldiers. Try to come up with another point of view or
varied interpretation.
retrosoldiersilhouettethumb3376569.jpgdreamstime.com
*Questions/Activities Adopted/Modified from Literature in Focus II
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Activity 26: PS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS (PRECIS/SUMMARY)
Individually, write a précis/summary of the above story by discussing
comprehensively and identifying the proper paragraph development
(expository, descriptive, narrative, persuasive, and creative). Relate it to
your previous writing activity on impressions and refer to the following
example.
A précis or a summary is a short version of a passage containing only the
main points and main supporting points.

Sample Paragraph

Teaching is the noblest of professions. A teacher has a sacred duty to perform. It is
he on whom rests the responsibility of moulding the character of young children. Apart
from developing their intellect, he can inculcate in them qualities of good citizenship,
remaining neat and clean, talking decently and sitting properly. These virtues are not
easy to be imbibed. Only he who himself leads a life of simplicity, purity and rigid
discipline can successfully cultivate these habits in his pupils.

Besides a teacher always remain young. He may grow old in age, but not in spite.
Perpetual contact with budding youths keeps him happy and cheerful. There are
moments when domestic worries weigh heavily on his mind, but the delightful company
of innocent children makes him overcome his transient moods of despair.

Precis/Summary

Teaching is the noblest profession. A teacher himself leading a simple, pure and
disciplined life can mould the character of the young children and make them neat and
good mannered citizens. Besides he remains every young forgetting his own domestic
worries in the constant company of the young.



5 quality precis writing samples | Articles | Knowledge Hub
THE COUNTRY’S GOOD SON
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You can double check your work using this checklist:

Revision Checklist

Ask yourself the following questions:
 Is my précis/summary only one third of the original?
 Did I include all the main points?
 Have I left out the illustrations and less important ideas?
 Have I written clearly in my own words using synonyms for the author's words where
possible?
 Does my précis/summary accurately reflect the original in tone?
 Is my grammar and spelling correct?
Précis/Summary
member.tokoha-u.ac.jp/~dixonfdm/Core%20Activities/.../precis.htm
Activity 27: LEND ME YOUR EARS!
On this part, you will listen and view a video clip of a speech delivered.
Take down notes and refer to these in writing your editorial article. At the
same time, just like in your panel discussion, you can use terms or
expressions that signal opinions and consider the right paragraph
An editorial article expresses an opinion about a current issue or topic.

Fine Arts

“Fine arts are important in the curriculum because of what they do for learning,”
stated Patty Taylor, arts consultant for the California State Department of Education. In
other words, the arts, especially music, should be part of every school’s curriculum at
every grade level. Music makes students smarter, gives children something positive to
do, and builds self-confidence. Most students don’t have a chance to learn music
outside of school, and everyone deserves that opportunity.
Students would be much smarter if they had some music experience. They would
improve their classroom skills, like paying attention, following directions, and
participating without interrupting. People develop all these skills when they learn music.
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Musicians are also better in math, and they get higher S.A.T. scores. For instance, a
study by the College Entrance Examination Board reported, “Students with 20 units of
arts and music scored 128 points higher on the S.A.T. verbal and 118 points higher in
math.” A Rockefeller Foundation study states that music majors have the highest rate of
admittance to medical school. Making music also lets children use their imaginations,
unlike playing with video games and electronic stuffed animals. “It provides students a
chance to try out their own ideas,” according to the October 1997 California Educator.
Music makes children well-rounded students.
Music not only makes children better students but also gives them something
positive to do. In a music program, children can be part of a band or choir instead of
joining a gang. Parents can enjoy listening to their children’s music instead of seeing
them glued to a computer or TV screen. In band, students get to be part of a team.
They can interact with old friends and make new friends through music. While learning
and making music, children can also be exploring a potential career.
Music builds self-confidence. It gives children a sense of accomplishment and
success. Making music is something for them to be proud of, and it lets kids practice
performing in front of an audience. As reported in the California Educator, “It gives
[students] self-confidence and a feeling of importance to have a skill someone
appreciates. They are also learning how to accomplish something from beginning to
end and actually come out with a product that they can be proud of.” Music gives
children an outlet for self-expression, and that helps develop their self-confidence.
Once again, music is important because it can make children better students, give
them something positive to do, and build their character. Unfortunately, the children
who need music lessons the most usually don’t have access to them outside of school.
That is why music should be offered in every single grade in every school.
You can also refer to the TRAC format or graphic organizer in structuring your output.

Editorial Graphic Organizer
T-Topic Sentence
Notes

R-Reasons with Support
A-Answer, Opposition
C-Conclusion
Editorial Graphic Organizer Twww.ccps.org/chms/research/davis/edigo.pdf
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Activity 28: 3-2-1
With this chart, review by listing down or filling out what are asked and
always connect everything with the focus questions.

1. What does (Burmese) literature reveal about Asian and African
character?
2. How do (Burmese) Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of
modernity as reflected in their literary selections?

In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche
of the Burmese people in response to the challenges of modernity.
What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new
connections have you made for yourself?
Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to
do the tasks in the next section.
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Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to real life
situations. You will be given a practical task which will
demonstrate your understandings in this lesson.
Activity 29: HANDING IN YOUR
Directions: Read the task below. In your
group, discuss and plan on how you will put up
the exhibit. The rubric for grading is provided
here to remind you on how your work will be graded.
Your task is to write an evaluation paper regarding a program
viewed. You are invited by a state university for a possible
scholarship and one of the requirements is to submit an evaluation
paper regarding current events or social issues. There will be a
screening of video clips to guide you and choices of topics for you to
write on. Therefore, choose one as your basis and prepare to defend
TASK

An evaluation paper is a type of argument that includes evidence to justify a
writer's opinions about a subject.
You can find an example here for reference.
Evaluation Essay on Gender in Advertising
Gender differences and biases have been a part of the normal lives of humans ever
since anyone can remember. Anthropological evidence has revealed that even the
humans and the hominids of ancient times had separate roles for men and women in their
societies, and this relates to the concepts of epistemology. There were certain things that
women were forbidden to do and similarly men could not partake in some of the activities
that were traditionally reserved for women. This has given birth to the gender role
stereotypes that we find today. These differences have been passed on to our current
times; although many differences occur now that have caused a lot of debate amongst the
people as to their appropriateness and have made it possible for us to have a
stereotyping threat by which we sometimes assign certain qualities to certain people
without thinking. For example, many men are blamed for undermining women and
stereotyping them for traditional roles, and this could be said to be the same for men; men
are also stereotyped in many of their roles. This leads to social constructionism since the
reality is not always depicted by what we see by our eyes. These ideas have also carried
on in the world of advertising and the differences shown between the males and the
females are apparent in many advertisements we see today. This can have some serious
impacts on the society as people begin to stereotype the gender roles in reality.
There has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of gender in advertising by
both practitioners as well as academics and much of this has been done regarding the
portrayal of women in advertising (Ferguson, Kreshel, & Tinkham 40-51; Bellizzi & Milner
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71-79). This has led many to believe that most of the advertisements and their contents are
sexist in nature. It has been noted by viewing various ads that women are shown as being
more concerned about their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority figures
in the ads; they are usually shown as the product users. Also, there is a tendency in many
countries, including the United States, to portray women as being subordinate to men, as
alluring sex objects, or as decorative objects. This is not right as it portrays women as the
weaker sex, being only good as objects.
At the same time, many of the ads do not show gender biases in the pictures or the
graphics, but some bias does turn up in the language of the ad. “Within language, bias is
more evident in songs and dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is
involved. For example, bias sneaks in through the use of idiomatic expressions (man's best
friend) and when the language refers to characters that depict traditional sex roles. One's
normative interpretation of these results depends on one's ideological perspective and
tolerance for the pace of change. It is encouraging that the limited study of language in
advertising indicates that the use of gender-neutrality is commonplace. Advertisers can still
reduce the stereotyping in ad pictures, and increase the amount of female speech relative
to male speech, even though progress is evidenced. To the extent that advertisers prefer to
speak to people in their own language, the bias present in popular culture will likely
continue to be reflected in advertisements” (Artz et al 20).
Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting such views for the people of our
society. The children also see these pictures and they are also the ones who create
stereotypes in their minds about the different roles of men and women. All these facts
combine to give result to the different public opinion that becomes fact for many of the
members of the society. Their opinion and views are based more on the interpretation they
conclude from the images that are projected in the media than by their observations of the
males and females in real life. This continues in a vicious circle as the media tries to pick
up and project what the society thinks and the people in the society make their opinions
based upon the images shown by the media. People, therefore, should not base too much
importance about how the media is trying to portray the members of the society; rather they
should base their opinions on their own observation of how people interact together in the
real world.

Work Cited
Artz, N., Munger, J., and Purdy, W., “Gender Issues in Advertising Language”, Women and Language, 22, (2),
1999.

Bellizzi, J. A., & Milner, L. “Gender positioning of a traditionally male-dominant product”, Journal of Advertising
Research, 31(3), 1991.
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Evaluation Paper/Evaluative Essay Rubric

Directions: This rubric will be used to evaluate the final draft of your paper/essay.
Before you turn in the final draft, fill out this rubric yourself. What score would you give
yourself and why?
Student: ________________________________ Date: ________________________
Score Level Criteria Comments

Content

30-27 Excellent to Very Good:
knowledgeable, substantive development
of thesis, relevant to assigned topic

26-22 Good to Average: sure knowledge of
subject, adequate range, limited
development of thesis, mostly relevant to
topic, but lacks detail

21-17 Fair: limited knowledge of subject, little
substance, inadequate development of
topic

16-13 Needs Much Improvement: does not
show knowledge of subject, not many
details, not relevant to assigned topic or
not enough to evaluate

Organization
20-18 Excellent to Very Good: fluent
expression, ideas clearly stated/
supported, succinct, well-organized,
logical sequencing, cohesive

17-14 Good to Average: somewhat choppy,
loosely organized, but main ideas stand
out, limited support, logical but
incomplete sequencing

13-10 Fair: non-fluent, ideas are confusing or
disconnected, lacks logical sequencing
and development

9-7 Needs Much Improvement: does not
communicate, no organization or not
enough to evaluate

Vocabulary and
Language Use

20-18 Excellent to Very Good: sophisticated
range, effective word/idiom choice and
usage, word form mastery

17-14 Good to Average: adequate range,
occasional errors of word/idiom form,
choice, usage but meaning understood

13-10 Fair: limited range, frequent errors of
word/idiom form, choice, usage, meaning
somewhat confusing or not understood

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Total Score:
Score Level Criteria Comments
9-7 Needs Much Improvement: essentially
translation, little knowledge of English
vocabulary, idioms, word form or not
enough to evaluate


Grammar Usage

25-22 Excellent to Very Good: effective,
complex sentences, few errors of
agreement, tense, number, word order/
function, articles, pronouns, prepositions

21-18 Good to Average: effective, but simple
sentence construction, minor problems in
complex constructions, several errors of
agreement, tense, number, word order/
function, articles, pronouns, prepositions,
but meaning understood

17-11 Fair: major problems in simple/complex
sentences, many errors of agreement,
tense, number, word order, articles,
pronouns, prepositions and/or fragments,
run-ons, deletions, meaning confused or
not understood

10-5 Needs Much Improvement: almost no
mastery of sentence construction rules,
many errors, ideas not understood or not
enough to evaluate


Mechanics

5 Excellent to Very Good: few errors of
spelling, punctuation, capitalization,
paragraphing

4 Good to Average: some errors of
spelling, punctuation, capitalization,
paragraphing, but meaning understood

3 Fair: frequent errors of spelling,
punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing,
poor typing, meaning confused or not
understood

2 Needs Much Improvement: many
errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization, paragraphing, typing is
poor, or not enough to evaluate

Rubric Adapted From: Reid, J. (1993). Teaching ESL Writing.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
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Comments:
Activity 30: OUTBOX
Let us go back to our box and finalize your map of conceptual change by
finishing the “I Think” OUT OF THE BOX area. Review the focus
questions.
IN THE BOX
I Think…
PLEASE think
outside ME
I Think…
OUT OF THE BOX
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Activity 31: LESSON CLOSURE
In summary, do the lesson closure as a reflection.

ToJ«q’; Ic)yo«...………….………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………..Ovc kcq ídca vo;…………………..........
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………TIí; í; íwpoy«¬t µcc«u)c…………..………………….
……………………...………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
A«mlcr kcq ídca………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………TIí; wahcr; µcc«u)c…………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………….l« ,vw, IoJ«q’; Ic)yo«………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
In this section, your task was to write an evaluation paper of a program
viewed.
How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see
the real world based on the topic?
You have completed this lesson. Carry on!

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Adjective. The part of speech or word that modifies a noun or pronoun.

Adjective Complement. A clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective
or modifies it. It always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause
or a prepositional phrase

Advertisement. A public announcement using the mass media.

Editorial Article. It expresses an opinion about a current issue or topic.

Evaluation Paper/Evaluative Essay. A type of argument that includes evidence to
justify a writer's opinions about a subject.

Fantasy. It means a dream or imagination.

Frequency Word List. Set of words used in reading texts or selections for unlocking
of difficulties or vocabulary building and development.

Idiom. A word, phrase or expression which is commonly used in everyday
conversation by native speakers of English. It is figurative.

Impression. A lasting effect, opinion or mental image of somebody or something.

Opinion. It is a view or assessment about something.

Précis/Summary. This is a short version of a passage containing only the main
points and main supporting points.

Propaganda. A publicity to promote something. An information put out by an
organization or government to promote a policy, idea or cause.

Reality. It is actual or exists.

Books

A-Z Learning Strategies. Religious Education Module. Catholic Education
Archdiocese of Brisbane.
Alonzo, R., Meñez, A. & Villamarzo, P. (2001). Literature in Focus II. Quezon City:
SIBS Publishing House.
Serrano, J . B. & Lapid, M. G. (2004). English Communication Arts and Skills through
Afro-Asian Literature: A Situational, Developmental, Interdisciplinary Approach.
(4
th
ed.) Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House Inc.
Rubric Adapted From: Reid, J . (1993). Teaching ESL Writing. New J ersey:
Learning Module for English - Grade 8 3 - L2
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Prentice Hall Regents.

Websites

Painter. (2009, J uly 21). Paint the World Super Coloring. Retrieved November 23,
2012 from http://www.supercoloring.com/
A+E Television Networks, LLC. (1996-2012). Nelson Mandela photo gallery.
Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www. Biography .com/ people/
nelson-mandela-9397017
Buzzing Everything! (Tech), Right Here! (2012, October 1). Is Mahatma Gandhi still
relevant? Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www.rangaprabhu.com/
buzz/2012/10/is-mahatma-gandhi-still-relevant/
E- Collaborative for Civic Education. (2011). Philippines- Aquino. Retrieved
November 23, 2012 from http://www.tavaana .org/ viewcasestudy.jsp?
pageId=2071502000341264606266439&lang=en&restrictids=
nu_repeatitemid&restrictvalues=2071502000341283324272068
Avalokiteshvara. (2011). His Holiness Dalai Lama. Retrieved November 23, 2012
from http://resources.tsemtulku.com/free-downloads/his-holiness-dala-lama.html
D’Souza, T. (2012, September 5). Mother Teresa's legacy for a "New
Evangelisation" in the year of faith. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from
http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Mother-Teresa's-legacy-for-a-new-
evangelisation-in-the-Year-of-Faith-25732.html
Helen, P. (2011, J uly 26). Characteristics of a leader: Aung San Suu Kyi. Retrieved
November 5, 2012 from http:// paigemonty.blogspot.com/2011/07/ characteristics
-of-leader-aung-san-suu.html
Weiler, W. (2012). There is no box in job searching in Job Seekers, Networking,
Social Media. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://blog. hiredmyway. com/
there-is-no-box-in-job-searching/
Shanbhag. (2112, August 6). A short essay on life of Aung San Suu Kyi. Retrieved
November 23, 2012 from http://www.meritnation. com/discuss/question/2463138
Amthor, C. (2010, October 22). What’s the difference between Myanmar and
Burma? Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://blog.burma-
center .org/2010/10/22/difference-between-myanmar-burma/
Burt, R. (2011, April 2). Free Tools Challenge #10: Word clouds with wordle.
Retrieved November 11, 2012 from http://
teacherchallenge.edublogs.org/2011 / 04/02/free-tools-challenge-10-word-
clouds-with-wordle/
Lyndsey. (2012, May 7). Butterfly research. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://
ayearofmanyfirsts.blogspot.com/2012/05/butterflies-homophones-and-end-of-
year.html
Platon. (2012). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://
www.hrw.org/burma-defenders
Carnival Carousel Coloring Page. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://
spoonful.com/printables/carnival-carousel-coloring-page
OCAL. (2008, March 26). Stick figure male clip art. Retrieved November 5, 2012
from http://www.clker.com/clipart-16625.html
Burma Digest. (2012). A Magazine specializing in Human Right affairs of Burma.
Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://burmadigest.info/
Arc. (2012, October 17). Bones will crow: An insider’s view. Retrieved October 23,
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2012 from http:/www.arcpublications.co.uk/blog.php?blog_id=166
Pridemore, H. (2012). Pop up note card. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://
www.favecrafts.com/Handmade-Cards/Pop-Up-Note-Card-from-C-T-
Publishing#
The 60s Official Site. (n.d.). I remember back when…Retrieved November 5, 2012
from http://www.the60sofficialsite.com/I_Remember_When.html
King, A. (2011, J anuary 14). Advertising and celebrity endorsement in Burma
Andrew King / Consumer Research and Communications Consultant.
Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://flowtv.org/2011/01/advertising-and-
celebrity-endorsement-in-burma/
Digital Visual Resources and Tech Tips. (2010, September 27). Ad*Access project.
Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http:// illinoispixels. wordpress.com/
2010/09/27/adaccess-project/
Five Types of Propaganda Used in Advertising. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2012
from http:// hs.riverdale.k12.or.us/~ dthompso/exhib_ 03/tianaa/
propaganda.html
Your Dictionary Grammar. (1996-2012). What is an adjective complement?
Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://grammar.your dictionary .com/parts-of-
speech/adjectives/what-is-an-adjective-complement.html
Kosur, H. M. (2012, February 9). The functions of adjectives and adjective phrases
in English. Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://
www.brighthubeducation.com/ english-homework-help/33176-the-functions-of-
adjectives-and-adjective-phrases/
Suu Kyi, A.S. (2012). Aung San Suu Kyi. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://
gury.orgfree.com/suukyi1.htm Opinion Signal Words. (n.d.). Retrieved October
23, 2012 from http://www.e-tme.com/opinion%20signal%20words%20-%
20sample.htm
Kadampa Buddhism. (2012). Sojong. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://
kadampa.org/buddhism/sojong/Lyusha. (2000-2012). Stock Photography:
Cartoon soldier standing with gun. Image. Retrieved November 5, 2012
from http://www.dreamstime .com/ stock-photography-cartoon-soldier-
standing-gun.-image-image22630222
Fat*fa*tin. (2000-2012). Royalty Free Stock Images: Retro soldier silhouette.
Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-
stock-images-retro-soldier-silhouette-image3376569
Communicative Writing. (2012). Précis/Summary. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from
http://member.tokoha-u.ac.jp~dixonfdm/ Core%20 Activities/academic_ writing/
precis.htm
Virani, M. (2012). 5 quality precis writing samples. Retrieved December 3, 2012
from http://www.publishyourarticles.net/knowledge-hub/articles/5-quality-
precis-writing-samples.html
J ess. (2012). Write Source. Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://
www.thewritesource.com/studentmodels/
How to Write an Editorial: Your Students Opinions Matter!(2009-2012). Retrieved
November 23, 2012 from http://www.creative-writing-ideas-and-activities.com/
how-to-write-an-editorial.html
Editorial Graphic Organizer. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://
www.ccps.org/chms/research/davis/edigo.pdf
The Evaluation Paper. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://
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faculty.samford.edu/~drdedo/evalassign.html
Evaluation Essay on Gender in Advertising. (2003-2012). Retrieved December 3,
2012 from http://www.tailoredessays.com/samples/gender-in-advertising-essay.
htm
Sandyck, E. (2011, March 29). Living a life out of the box. Retrieved November 5,
2012 from http://empoweredonlineentrepreneurs.com/marketing-psychology/
living-a-life-out-of-the-box/
Aung San Suu Kyi. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2012 from
Mofified with dren rights essment.
http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1238989/
Muppet. (2009, September 27). The Contemplative Psyche: Freedom...for Burma
(Myanmar). Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://thecontemplative
psyche.blogspot.com/2009/09/freedom.html
Burma: Misc. (2010-2012). Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://
misc.thefullwiki.org/Burma
Myanmar (Burma). (1996-2012). Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://
travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/myanmar-guide/
Teachnology. (199-2012). Teacher guide to different types of writing. Retrieved
October 23, 2012 from http://www.teach-nology.com/themes/lang_arts/
typesofwriting/
Voaclips. (2012, April 2). Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's Victory Speech (English).
Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://www. youtube.com /watch?
v=9iEWvhLC1Fs
Mancraft123. (2007, October 9). Oras Na (Dedicated to the Burmese people).
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Have you, at a certain time, asked yourself how
you are able to overcome trials and solve your
personal problems? Have you ever wondered how
people overcome challenges in their lives
victoriously? Do you think it is possible to give
answers to these questions from the literary
selections of Saudi Arabia and Israel?
In this lesson, you will find out how critical understanding and appreciation for
Afro-Asian literary pieces can help you recognize the temperament and psyche
of your Arab and Israeli neighbors in response to the challenges of modernity.
Remember to search for the answers to the following questions:
What does literature reveal about Arab and Israeli characters?
How do Arabs and Israelis respond to challenges of modernity as

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention to
the expected skills below and the lesson map.
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
 Determine the persons being addressed in an informative talk, the objectives of the
speaker and his attitudes towards issues (Listening Comprehension)
 Listen to get different sides of social, moral and economic issues affecting a
community (Listening Comprehension)
 Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic development, topic
shift, turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversations (Speaking - Oral Language and
Frequency)
 Use communication strategies (e.g. paraphrase, translation and circumlocution) to
repair breakdown in communication (Speaking - Oral Language and Frequency)
 Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence
structures and discourse (Vocabulary Development)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary (Vocabulary
Development)
 Utilize varied reading strategies to process information in a text (Reading
Comprehension)
 Distinguish between facts and opinions (Reading Comprehension)
 Note expressions that signal opinions (e.g. seems, as I see it) (Reading
Comprehension)
 Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the writer and the sectional
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approach) to process information in a text (Reading Comprehension)
 Employ approaches best suited to a text (Reading Comprehension)
 Examine for bias (Reading Comprehension)
 Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures
and discourse (Vocabulary Development)
 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary (Vocabulary
Development)
 Compare and contrast one’s own television-viewing behavior with other viewer’s
viewing behavior (Viewing Comprehension)
 Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding experiences and
outlook and enhancing worthwhile universal human values. (Literature)
 Identify oneself with the people of Arabia and Israel though literature taking note of the
cultural differences so as to get the heart of problems arising from them. (Literature)
 Respond to feedback on one’s paper in the revision process (Writing and
Composition)
 Use grammatical structure and vocabulary needed to effectively emphasize particular
points. (Writing and Composition)
 Produce an e-journal of poetry and prose entries with emphasis on content and writing
style (Writing and Composition)
 Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in reports
and researches. (Writing and Composition)
 Use quotation marks or hanging indentations for direct quotes. (Writing and
Composition)
 Use in-text citation (Writing and Composition)
 Arrange bibliographic entries of text cited from books and periodicals. (Writing and
Composition)
 Formulate correct complex and compound-complex sentences. (Grammar Awareness
and Structure)
 Formulate correct conditional statements. (Grammar Awareness and Structure)
 Derive information from various text types and sources using the card catalog, vertical
file, index, microfiche (microfilm), CD ROM, Internet, etc. (Study Strategies)
On the next page is the lesson map to guide you in Strength in Facing Challenges.
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Anticipation-Reaction Guide:
Agree/Disagree Chart
KNOW
Post Viewing Activity
It’s Clear to Me
Distinguishing Fact from Opinion
Facts and Opinions in Informative
Writing
Facts and Opinions in Persuasive
Writing
Frequency Word List: Burger
Match!
Plot Diagram
Ali Baba Characters o T-Chart
The Way I Understand It
Hear the Voice of the Princess!
I Think; Therefore, I Am
I’ve Got that Feeling
Hang on a Second...May I Speak?
In My Opinion
Writing a Persuasive Essay: From
Head to the Pen!
Getting Fooled or Getting Wiser
Persuasion and Propaganda
Revising Persuasive Essay
Different Yet Worth Embracing
PROCESS
Sentence Completion
Skills at Work
Visiting the Middle East
Travelling with Ruth
Character Analysis
The Words Beyond My Thoughts
Writing a Critical Review:
Through My Lens
Frequency Words List: The
Frame of My Understanding
From Simple to Complex
Repairing Communication
Breakdown
Monitoring My Media Beaviors
Writing a Blog: Getting
Connected to Israel
Research Work: A Gallery of My
Fave Prose and Poetry
Writing a Bibliography: From
Where I Got My Favorites
REFLECT AND
UNDERSTAND
Review: Responding to My
Favorites
Keeping My Favorites: An e-
Journal
Anticipation-Reaction Guide:
Agree/Disagree Chart
Lesson Closure: Reflective
TRANSFER
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For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write
Let’s begin by doing these sets of activities which will help
you identify and explain the psyche and temperaments of the
Arabs and the Israelis as revealed in the literary pieces.
Read carefully each statement related to the
personalities and the literature of the Arabs and
Israelis. Evaluate the accuracy of each
statement by checking either Agree or Disagree column in the
Activity 1: ANTICIPATION-REACTION
GUIDE AGREE/DISAGREE
Agree / Disagree Chart
Before
the Lesson

Statements about Saudi and Israeli
Literature
After
the Lesson
Agree Disagree Agree Disagree
1. The period before the writing of the
Qur'an and the rise of Islam is known
to Muslims as the period of ignorance.

2. The expansion of the Arab people in the
7th and 8th centuries brought them into
contact with a variety of peoples who
would affect their culture and the most
significant of these was the ancient
civilization of Israel. change to Persia

3. The terms Israeli, Israelite, Hebrew and
J ew are synonymous and can be
interchangeably used in literature,
religion and politics.

4. J ewish writers began to write in Hebrew
in addition to their various national
languages because Hebrew at that time
was the language of the Holy Scripture.

5. A key ingredient of the Israeli public
persona is that J ews are tough,
emotionally hardened, and ruthless.


Do NOT
fill this up
yet.
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1. Which statements did you agree to? Can you state your reasons for your
affirmation? What experiences or observations do you have that make you
decide on those answers?
2. Which statements did you disagree to? State your reasons. What personal
encounter –actual experience or learning insight- helped you in forming your
judgment?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:

Let’s verify the accuracy of your claims as we continue with the lesson. This
chart will be given back to you at the end of this lesson so that you can confirm
or change your answers. The right column of the Anticipation-Reaction Guide
Chart will then be answered.
As you continue, keep in mind to answer the questions below:
What are the psyche and temperaments of the Arabs as a people and
of the Israelis as a people? How are these personality traits and
characteristics revealed in their literary pieces? How strong are these
Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key
concepts on the literature of Saudi Arabia, informative
speaking, turn-taking strategies and propaganda devices in
Exercise 1: Viewing Activity: Opening Speech” Islam Is
The Solution!”
Previewing Activity:
1. You are about to view a short speech delivered by a
Muslim.
2. Listen very attentively to the speaker; take note of his
gestures; observe the behavior of his audience.
3. Click this link and view the short video :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQNs7Fvu5_Y
This site contains a
short opening speech
of Abdur Raheem
McCarthy at the Peace
Conference. McCarthy
explains how Islam can
be the solution for
mankind. This video
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While Viewing
Take note of every important detail in the video. Make sure you are able to identify
the key points of the speech.
Activity 2: POST VIEWING ACTIVITY
Reflect on your understanding of the speech by completing the activity
sheet below.
I GOT IT RIGHT!
Name: ______________________________ Date _________________
Grade & Sec: _________________________ Teacher _______________
Full Circle -
Call to Action -
Thesis Statement
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1. Who speaks in the video? How credible is he to talk during the Peace
Conference?
2. According to the speaker, when does misery start? How can Islam be the
solution to the problems that beset the world?
3. What specific details are used by the speaker to substantiate each of his
assertions?
4. Why do you think the speaker encourages his audience to adopt Islam? How
do gestures or the intentional movements of the speaker’s body help him
convey his message?
5. What countries in the world adopt Islam as a religion?
6. What are some of the nonverbal reactions of the audience? What personality
traits does Abdur Raheem possess as reflected in his speech? What does
his speech tell us of the Arab psyche?
7. How do you evaluate the speaker’s point of view? Was he able to convince
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 3: IT’S CLEAR TO ME
Below are statements taken from the speech of Abdur Raheem McCarthy;
identify whether the sentence expresses a fact or an opinion. Write your
answer in the second column; include a short explanation.
PICKING IT FROM THE SPEECH FACT OR
OPINION
WHY DID I SAY SO
1. The Western economy is based on rebate
or interest.

2. The only way to true happiness and peace
is through Islam.

3. The problem of swine flu – the swine is one
of the dirtiest animals in the face of the
earth.

4. Fifty-six percent of everyone jailed in
America today is due to drug charges.

5. Islam is not spreading as it should be
because we are not implementing it in its
proper form.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is a fact? How do you arrive at facts?
2. How does a fact differ from an opinion? Can an opinion be proven?
3. Is a fact the opposite of an opinion?
4. If a statement of fact is untrue or false, does it turn into an opinion? In the
same logic, if an opinion is believed by everyone, does it turn into a fact?
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THE TWO TYPES OF STATEMENTS

Opinions cannot be proven, however, they can be supported by facts and other
knowledgeable opinions. Facts can be proven with evidence, statistics,
records, photographs, data, etc.

Hone your skill in identifying facts from opinions. You need to master this
skill as you write persuasive articles later.
Take time to answer the succeeding worksheet.
Activity 4: DISTINGUISHING FACT FROM OPINION
Directions: Read each statement. Look up words you don’t know. Write
FACT on the left if you can prove or disprove the statement with concrete
evidence. Write OPINION if the statement is a belief or a position.
Remember, some statements are technically opinions, but are based on
STATEMENTS FACT or OPINION
1. Wolves are highly social animals with a pack structure
based on dominance hierarchy.

2. Wolves are an endangered or threatened species in the
lower 48 states because of deliberate and systematic
extermination by humans.

3. Wolves and wolf hybrids are not wise choices as family
pets.

4. Many tourists have reacted positively to the experience
of seeing wolves in Yellowstone National Park.

5. Wolves should be reintroduced to all U.S. public lands
that provide a large enough range to support a
population.

6. Captive breeding programs and Species Survival Plans
are necessary to keep the red wolf (Canis rufus) and
the Mexican wolf (a subspecies of Canis lupis) from

7. Wolves are often portrayed as villains and savage
predators in stories, myths and legends.

8. Stories, myths and legends that portray wolves in
negative ways are harmful to children.

9. Wolves sometimes kill livestock.
10. Wolves will return to their former habitats in
northeastern states on their own if they are protected.

Name ___________________________________ Date _________________________
Source: http://www.kidsplanet.org/tt/wolf/languagearts/factopinion.PDF
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FACTS about Wolves
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
Activity 5A: FACTS AND OPINIONS IN INFORMATIVE WRITING
Can you write five fact statements about wolves? If you were writing an
informative paragraph, your fact statement would be the topic sentence.
Activity 5A: FACTS AND OPINIONS IN INFORMATIVE WRITING
Can you write three opinion statements about wolves? If you were writing a
persuasive paragraph, your opinion statement would be your thesis
statement. A thesis statement is an opinion boiled down to one arguable
OPINIONS about Wolves
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
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1. How important are facts in informative texts? Are opinions necessary in this
type of writing?
2. What does a persuasive text require of a writer? Why is a blend of facts and
opinions necessary in this text type?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:

You have just learned the difference between fact s and opinions and their
importance in writing informative and persuasive text types.
To help you learn more the psyche of the Saudi people, you have to read
Arab literature for you to know that its literature reflects the personality of her
people and the characteristics of her culture.
Below is an excerpt of the very famous “One Thousand and One Nights” or
better known as “The Arabian Nights”. Read its prologue / introduction first
Exercise 2: Reading Arab Literature

The Arabian Nights
(Prologue)

The main frame story concerns a Persian king and his new bride. He is
shocked to discover that his brother's wife is unfaithful; discovering his own
wife's infidelity has been even more flagrant, he has her executed: but in his
bitterness and grief decides that all women are the same. The king,
Shahryar, begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next
morning, before she has a chance to dishonor him. Eventually the vizier, whose duty it is
to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter, offers
herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage,
Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about
how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the
conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins (and only begins)
a new one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion, postpones her execution once
again. So it goes on for 1,001 nights.
ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES
A
li Baba and his elder brother Cassim are the sons of
a merchant. After the death of their father, the greedy
Cassim marries a wealthy woman and becomes well-to-
do, building on their father's business—but Ali Baba marries a
poor woman and settles into the trade of a woodcutter.
One day Ali Baba is at work collecting and cutting firewood in the
forest, and he happens to overhear a group of forty thieves
visiting their treasure store. The treasure is in a cave, the mouth
of which is sealed by magic. It opens on the words "iftah ya
simsim" (commonly written as "Open Sesame" in English), and
seals itself on the words "Close, Simsim" ("Close Sesame").
When the thieves are gone, Ali Baba enters the cave himself,
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and takes some of the treasure home.
Ali Baba and his wife borrow his sister-in-law's scales to weigh this new wealth of gold
coins. Unbeknownst to them, she puts a blob of wax in the scales to find out what Ali Baba
is using them for, as she is curious to know what kind of grain her impoverished brother-in-
law needs to measure. To her shock, she finds a gold coin sticking to the scales and tells
her husband, Ali Baba's rich and greedy brother, Cassim. Under pressure from his brother,
Ali Baba is forced to reveal the secret of the cave. Cassim goes to the cave and enters with
the magic words, but in his greed and excitement over the treasures, he forgets the magic
words to get back out again. The Thieves find him there, and kill him. When his brother
does not come back, Ali Baba goes to the cave to look for him, and finds the
body, quartered and with each piece displayed just inside the entrance of the cave as a
warning to anyone else who might try to enter.
Ali Baba brings the body home, where he entrusts Morgiana, a clever slave-girl in
Cassim's household, with the task of making others believe that Cassim has died a natural
death. First, Morgiana purchases medicines from an apothecary, telling him that Cassim is
gravely ill. Then, she finds an old Tailor known as Baba Mustafa whom she pays,
blindfolds, and leads to Cassim's house. There, overnight, the Tailor stitches the pieces of
Cassim's body back together, so that no one will be suspicious. Ali Baba and his family are
able to give Cassim a proper burial without anyone asking awkward questions.
The Thieves, finding the body gone, realize that yet another person must know their
secret, and set out to track him down. One of the Thieves goes down to the town and
comes across Baba Mustafa, who mentions that he has just sewn a dead man's body back
together. Realizing that the dead man must have been the Thieves' victim, the Thief asks
Baba Mustafa to lead the way to the house where the deed was performed. The Tailor is
blindfolded again, and in this state he is able to retrace his steps and find the house. The
Thief marks the door with a symbol. The plan is for the other thieves to come back that
night and kill everyone in the house. However, the Thief has been seen by Morgiana and
she, loyal to her master, foils his plan by marking all the houses in the neighborhood with a
similar marking. When the forty Thieves return that night, they cannot identify the correct
house and their leader in a furious rage, kills the unsuccessful Thief. The next day, another
Thief revisits Baba Mustafa and tries again, only this time, a chunk is chipped out of the
stone step at Ali Baba's front door. Again Morgiana foils the plan by making similar chips in
all the other doorsteps. The second Thief is killed for his failure as well. At last, the leader
of the Thieves goes and looks for himself. This time, he memorizes every detail he can of
the exterior of Ali Baba's house.
The Chief of the Thieves pretends to be an oil merchant in need of Ali Baba's hospitality,
bringing with him mules loaded with thirty-eight oil jars, one filled with oil, the other thirty-
seven hiding the other remaining thieves. Once Ali Baba is asleep, the Thieves plan to kill
him. Again, Morgiana discovers and foils the plan, killing the thirty-seven Thieves in their oil
jars by pouring boiling oil on them. When their leader comes to rouse his men, he discovers
that they are all dead, and escapes. The next morning Morgiana tells Ali Baba about the
thieves in the jars, they bury them and Ali Baba shows his gratitude by giving Morgiana her
freedom.
To exact revenge, after some time the Chief of Thieves establishes himself as a
merchant, befriends Ali Baba's son (who is now in charge of the late Cassim's business),
and is invited to dinner at Ali Baba's house. However the Thief is recognized by Morgiana,
who performs a dance with a dagger for the diners and plunges it into his heart when he is
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Baba
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Activity 6: FREQUENCY WORD LIST: BURGER MATCH!
Let’s find out if you understood the selection “Ali Baba and the Forty
Thieves” despite the presence of some difficult words. Each burger patty
contains a word from the literary selection. In the table below are the
synonyms as well as the antonyms of the words. Create your own veggie
burger by matching the word with its synonym and antonym. Write its synonym on the
upper bun while the antonym on the lower bun. Work on this for three minutes. Enjoy!
seal
awkward
foil
apothecary
impoverish
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.
SYNONYMS ANTONYMS
clumsy rich
to close graceful
bankrupt to open
pharmacy to support
to stop cemetery
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Were you able to finish the activity on time? If not, what stopped you from
pursuing?
2. What previous knowledge or encounter helped you in arriving at your
answers?
3. How many correct answers did you have?
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Activity 7: PLOT DIAGRAM
Use the plot diagram below to chart the plot of the drama selection “Ali
Baba and the Forty Thieves”. In the spaces provided, describe briefly the
exposition, conflict, to include in the rising action, the key events that build



_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Exposition
Conflict Resolution
Denouement
Climax
Rising Actions Falling Actions
Name ____________________________ Date ____________Score___________
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Activity 8: ALI BABA CHARACTERS ON T-CHART
Enumerate both the major and the minor characters in the selection. Write
the name of the character at the center. At its right, write his good qualities
while at his left write his bad qualities. Make sure to explain briefly why you
consider such attributes good or bad.
Characters
NAMES
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Bad Qualities Good Qualities
1. At the start of this lesson, what were your initial feelings and ideas about it?
Did you like story? Was it exciting or too predictable? How did you find its
ending?
2. The magic words “Open, Sesame” and “Close,Sesame” that seal the cave of
treasures have become popular expressions. How do modern people use
this expression in their daily conversations?
3. How were Ali Baba’ and Cassim’s lives different? Which of these two
characters do you prefer? Explain your answer and cite instances in the
story that support your choice of character.
4. How is each of these themes – greed, loyalty and bravery shown in the
story?
5. As reflected in this story and in the speech at the start of this lesson, what
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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Exercise 3: Reading an Essay : A Peep of the Arab Character
Read the essay about the Arab Psyche. As you read, please try to identify the
words that are difficult and arrive at their meanings. After reading the text,
show your understanding using the graphic organizer that follows.
The Arab Psyche
The Arabs Before Islam
The Arabs are an ancient Semitic people of the Middle East. They are proud in their
belief that they are descended from the Prophet Noah's son Shem, and honored that the
last of the lineage of God's prophets was from their midst, and humbled that God
enlightened mankind by revealing the Holy Word in their language.
The complex history of the Arab is conveniently divided into two parts of before and
after by the Revelation. In the pre-Islamic period, the social structure which evolved in the
harsh environment of the Arab Peninsula was based on the tribal unit. Some tribes from
the era survive even to this day, while others perished during the process of God's
unfolding plan.
The Arabic tribes which did not perish but which survived to the modern era can be
divided into those clans of pure lineage and those peoples who have gradually become
naturalized within the Arabic family.
The core tribe of the pure Arab is the Qahtan, whose land of origin is found within
Yemen. Arab historians identify the first king of Yemen as Yar'ub bin Qahtan, who was
succeeded by his son Yashjub, who in turn was followed by his son Abdu-Shams.
The second group of Arabs who have survived from the pre-Islamic era are those
which are referred to as naturalized, being from the peoples which mixed and
intermarried with the Qahtan. These Arabs descended from the Prophet Ismail who had
settled in the holy city of Mecca. They are also known as the Adnani and the Nizari after
their great-grandfather Adnan and their father Nizar bin Maad bin Adnan.
Tribal System
During the pre-Islamic era, the tribe was the primary social and political unit of the
Arabs. The primary function of the clan structure was to defend its members, whether
right or wrong. Correspondingly, the tribesmen devoted themselves to protect their
collective honor and they obeyed the dictates of their tribal elders. A pre-Islamic poet
eloquently expressed this unquestioning loyalty as follows: I am nothing but a member
of my tribe. If it goes astray, I will too, and if it follows the right path, so will I.
The Holy Quran preached strongly against this blind loyalty and the destructive
prejudices which resulted. The Word of God decreed a better criteria to differentiate
between people, being their devotion to Islam.
Practical Knowledge and Science
The Arabic culture of the pre-Islamic era did not invent the sort of complex
mythologies and creation myths which characterized ancient cultures such as Greece.
The classic framework of philosophy and rhetoric which the Greeks developed was
therefore far from the more mundane considerations of the early Arabs. The tribal lack of
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advanced urban centers meant that schools of specialized intellectual skills did not
develop. The pre-Islamic Arabs were either villagers, pastoralists or traders, who existed
with the less effete goal of simple physical survival.
The Need for Revenge
Pre-Islamic Arabs were adamant about the unquestionable law of revenge. In their
view, a disgrace must be avenged, no matter what the consequences. One of their poets
expressed this cultural fixation thus: I shall wash disgrace with the edge of my sword,
no matter what this may bring about. In this context, the pagan tribes believed that if the
murder of a kinsman went unavenged, a bird named 'al Hama' would come out of the
victim's skull and hover over his grave shrieking "Satisfy my thirst!" This would be the
victim's demand to avenge his death and to quench his terrible thirst with the blood of the
murderer.
A People of Eloquence
The early tribes did not commonly express their artistry with architecture and statuary.
Instead they gloried in the intricacies of their splendid Arabic language. The tribes loved
eloquent speech and the expression of their folk wisdom in clever proverbs. Story-telling
and recitations of poetry were standard features of the social gatherings of both hathar and
bedouin.
The Character of Respect
For a tribesman to hold his head high among his fellows during the long epoch of the
pre-Islamic period, he had to display certain elements of character which were highly
valued in his culture. These qualities included courage, generosity, integrity and pride.
An unfortunate aspect of the life of both hathar and bedouin was a condition of
constant insecurity. Attack from hostile forces could take place at any time. For members
of the tribe, courage was imperative if family and property and honor were to be defended.
Audacity therefore came to be a highly regarded attribute, whereas cowardliness and fear
of the enemy was a disgrace.
The Emergence of Islam
The Word of God was revealed to mankind in the year 610 AD. The message brought
by the Prophet Mohammed, peace be upon him, introduced drastic changes to the political,
social, intellectual and cultural life of the Arabs. The teachings of the Holy Quran were a
blunt instrument to suppress the cruder aspects of the Arabic culture, and a fine instrument
to uplift their better selves.
The revealed system was complete, as it established all of the laws necessary to
regulate both personal and political life. Islam instilled in the Arab the high ideals and holy
fire which enabled the miraculously rapid expansion of the Muslim world. Such is the power
of the word of God!The Revelation of the Word had a powerful impact on the Arab psyche.
Source: http://www.alshindagah.com/january99/thearabpsyche.htm
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Activity 9: THE WAY I UNDERSTAND IT
Show your understanding of the reading selection above by completing
this concept map.
Concept Map of the Arab Psyche


1. Courage
2. _________________
3. _________________
4. _________________
_________________
__________________
___________________
__________________
1. Pure lineage
2. _______________
__________________
1. What are the clans of the Arabic tribes? What are their similarities and
differences in terms of origin and characteristics?
2. Explain briefly the Arab trait of the need for revenge. When was this Arab
mentality changed? How?
3. What personal and political progress did the Arabs gain after they had
embraced Islam as a religion?
4. After knowing the history and the present condition of Saudi Arab, what
insights can help you better understand them as a people?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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You have just learned the Arab psyche though an essay. To make you
appreciate Arab literature better, read the poetic texts that follow. After
reading the poems, be able identify common poetic devices used by the
poets. Make sure, too, to answer the question: How does poetry reveal the
Exercise 4: The Sound and Turns of Arab Poetry
Read the samples of Arab poetry. Observe the harmony of sounds and turns of
phrasing, stanzaic forms, brevity and theme.
A
rabic poetry is based largely on harmonies of sound and striking turns of
phrasing. A poet's fame depended upon a few brilliant couplets rather than on
any sustained melody or long-continued flight of noble thought. One distinguished
philosophical poem of some length is the well-known "Lament of the Vizier Abu Ismael."
This we give in full at the conclusion of this section; but mainly we must illustrate the
finest flowering of Arabic verse by selecting specimens of characteristic brevity. Many of
the Arab caliphs inclined to the gaieties of life rather than to their religious duties, and
kept many poets around them. Indeed some of the caliphs themselves were poets: The
Caliph Walid composed music as well as verse; and was hailed by his immediate
companions as a great artist. His neglect of religion, however, was so reckless as to
rouse the resentment of his people, and he lost his throne and life.
On Fatalism

Not always wealth, not always force
A splendid destiny commands;
The lordly vulture gnaws the corpse
That rots upon yon barren sands.

Nor want, nor weakness still conspires
To bind us to a sordid state;
The fly that with a touch expires
Sips honey from the royal plate.

— The Holy Imam Shafay
The Song of Maisuna

The russet suit of camel's hair,
With spirits light, and eye serene,
Is dearer to my bosom far
Than all the trappings of a queen.

The humble tent and murmuring breeze
That whistles thro' its fluttering wall,
My unaspiring fancy please
Better than towers and splendid halls.

Th' attendant colts that bounding fly
And frolic by the litter's side,
Are dearer in Maisuna's eye
Than gorgeous mules in all their pride.

The watch-dog's voice that bays whene'er
A stranger seeks his master's cot,
Sounds sweeter in Maisuna's ear
Than yonder trumpet's long-drawn note.

The rustic youth unspoilt by art,
Son of my kindred, poor but free,
Will ever to Maisuna's heart
Be dearer, pamper'd fool, than thee.
Poem 2
Poem 1
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1. What stanzaic form is used in both poems?
2. Describe the harmonies of sound and turns of phrasing.
3. What have you observed of the length of each poem?
4. Do the poems express deep philosophical beliefs or thoughts? If yes, what
are these? If no, what then does each poem express?
5. What sentiments do the two poets have in common?
6. Through a glimpse of Arabic poetry, what characteristics of Saudi people are
revealed?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Exercise 5: An Informative Talk: The Saudi Princess Fight for Women’s Rights
Visit this site http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1M-etvlW83E and watch an interview
of a Saudi Princess who fights for women’s rights in her country.

Previewing Activity:
You are about to view a twelve-minute interview of a Saudi Princess in a CNN
Program. Listen very attentively to the interviewee and the interviewer; observe turn-
taking strategies and expressions used in asking and answering questions.
Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1M-etvlW83E

This video shows Saudi Princess Ameerah Al-Taweel interview on CNN program. The
video runs for 12 minutes. Princess Ameerah expresses her voice for female
empowerment in Saudi Arabia.
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While Viewing
Write down every important detail in the interview. Make sure to identify the key points of
the interview. List down difficult words said by both Princess Ameerah and CNN
newscaster Amanpour.

Activity 10: HEAR THE VOICE OF THE PRINCESS!
Go over your notes on the Saudi Princess interview by Christian Amanpour

Name ______________________________________ Date ______________________

Determine the persons addressed by Saudi Princess Ameerah when she was
interviewed at CNN Program. Images of her audience are provided. Identify their
names/ positions and explain briefly the message that the princess is relaying to them.

1.
2.
Hear the Voice of the
Princess!
Name / Position: __________________
Princess’ Message : _______________
________________________________
Name/position ___________________
Princess’ Message _______________
_______________________________
Name /Position ________________
Princess’ Message _____________
_____________________________
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Name/ group name ______________
Princess’ message ______________
______________________________
Group name____________________
Princess’ Message_______________
______________________________




4.




INFORMATIVE TALK

An interview, like a panel discussion, is an example of an informative talk.
Informative speaking centers on talking about events, process, places, people,
things and concepts. When informing an audience – whether live audience or
through media like television-about any topic without being persuasive is sometimes
difficult. So analyzing the audience is very important.
Audience analysis is the process of examining information about your listeners. That
analysis helps you to adapt your message so that your listeners will respond as you wish.

In everyday conversations you adapt your message to your audience. For example, if
you went to a party the night before, you would explain the party differently to your
friends and family. To your best friend you might say, "We partied all night and there
were tons of people there." To your mother you might say, "Oh, I had fun with my
friends." And to your significant other you might say, "It was fun, I had a great bonding
time with my friends." In each of these situations, you are adapting your message to your
listening audience.
There are three ways to do analyze an audience; demographic analysis, attitudinal
analysis, and environmental analysis.
Demographic analysis involves age, gender, culture, ethnicity, race,
religion, and educational level. Attitudinal analysis addresses the audience's attitudes,
beliefs, and values. Environmental analysis is finding out things like the seating
arrangement, the number of people likely to attend, and the room lighting.

1. What topics did Princess Ameerah talk about? Was she prepared for the
interview? How was her expertise on the topic shown?
2. How do Arabs respond to challenges of modernity as reflected in their literary
selections?
3. Was Ameerah able to analyze her audience? What type of
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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As an informative speaker, your task is to educate or enlighten your
listener by sharing your knowledge. During an informative presentation, you
may illustrate a task, explain a complicated concept or describe a historical
event or famous person. You must be credible and objective because your
Activity 11: “ I THINK; THEREFORE, I AM”
Make a list of at least ten expressions that signal opinion and biases such
as “I think…” “Many believe that…” “Probably, we could…”
Activity 12: “ I’VE GOT THAT FEELING”
Below are some issues tackled by Saudi Princes Ameerah when she was
interviewed at CNN. Match/ connect the speaker’s / princess’ attitudes as
represented by emoticons with the corresponding issues. Make sure to
“ I’ve Got that Feeling”

ACTIVITY SHEET ON IDENTIFYING
THE SPEAKER’S ATTITUDES TOWARD ISSUES

Name __________________________________ Date _________ Score ____________






Issue: Poverty
Speaker’s attitude: __________________________
Why did she feel this way?____________________
Issue: Custody battles
Speaker’s attitude: __________________________
Why did she feel this way?____________________
Issue: Ban on women to drive
Speaker’s attitude: __________________________
Why did she feel this way?____________________
Issue: Unemployment
Speaker’s attitude: __________________________
Why did she feel this way?____________________
Issue: women empowerment
Speaker’s attitude: __________________________
Why did she feel this way?____________________
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. How long did it take you to accomplish activity sheet #12? Was the activity
easy, fair or difficult? Explain
2. What previous experiences helped you finish the task?
3. Of the five social, economic and political issues mentioned in the activity,
which do you think was the most challenging for the Arab princess to solve?
Why do you say so?
4. What characteristics do most Arab women, as represented by their Princess
Ameerah, possess?
5. How do you describe the Saudi character?
TURN TAKING STRATEGIES

A conversation is a turn-taking process and it is more difficult when there are
several people in a conversation. When a conversation is going on, speakers
must have the skill of turn taking in order to let the conversation go smoothly
and appropriately among them.
Experts suggest the following strategies in taking turns:
These involve ways of entering into a conversation or taking over the role of speaker,
and include:
 Using interjection to signal a request for a turn such as ‘Mmhmm’, ‘Yeah’, and
rising intonation
 Using facial or other gestures to indicate a wish to take a turn.
 Accept a turn offered by another speaker by responding to a question or by
providing the second part of an adjacency pair.
 Completing or adding to something said by the speaker.

In different cultures there are different standards for interrupting and turn-taking,
however there are also a few universal points that apply to most situations.

1. The speaker can choose the next speaker. You can stop someone dominating the
conversation, and you can include quieter people.
2. You can stop someone interrupting by avoiding eye contact with them, and continuing
eye contact with your partner in the conversation. Don’t drop the volume of your
speech (i.e. don’t begin to speak more quietly).
3. If someone interrupts you, and you haven’t finished making your point, tell them
clearly. You can use phrases like: Let me finish / May I finish? Excuse me, I haven’t
finished. Just a moment / Hang on a second.”

When someone won’t stop talking, and you are not interested in what they are saying,
you can avoid eye contact, turn away or look at something else. Do not use conversation
fillers.

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Activity 13: HANG ON A SECOND…MAY I SPEAK?
Watch the twelve-minute interview of Princess Ameerah on CNN again.
Write down the turn-taking strategies both Ameerah and Amanpour used.
Explain briefly the appropriateness of the strategy being used in that
particular moment. Evaluate whether the strategy was correct by checking

Activity Sheet on Turn-Taking Strategies
Hang on a Second…May I Speak?


Name ___________________________ Date _____________ Score ______________
Interviewer
(CNN Newscaster Amanpour)
Interviewee
(Saudi Princess Ameerah)
Turn-taking
Strategy
When
used?
Appropriateness Turn-taking
Strategy
When
used?
Appropriateness










PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What does turn-taking in communication mean?
2. What turn-taking strategies do you usually use? Do you find them effective?
Why? Why not?
3. What happens to a conversation when a speaker does not observe proper
turn-taking skills?
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Activity 14: IN MY OPINION…
Read each news headline and corresponding details very thoroughly.
Express wisely your opinions on the news/issue.
Delta pact with Saudis brings calls of
bias
J ERUSALEM - J ews and Israelis, or passengers
carrying any non-Islamic article of faith, will not
be able to fly code-share flights from the United
States to Saudi Arabia under Delta Air Lines' new
partnership with Saudi Arabian Airlines that is set
to begin next year.
Sudanese man beheaded in Saudi Arabia

A Sudanese man convicted of murder has been
beheaded in Saudi Arabia, the Gulf kingdom's interior
ministry has said.
— BBC News Middle East

“ Yes, your honor,”: Saudis let women
argue in court

Saudi government passes laws allowing women to
work in legal profession on the same footing as men.

In my opinion…
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
In my opinion…
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
In my opinion…
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
1.
2.
3.
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Congratulations! You have just expressed your personal views on the
customs and issues involving our brothers in Saudi Arabia. Certainly, your
opinions are supported with facts, as you were taught in the earlier part of this
lesson.
Activity 15: WRITING A PERSUASIVE ESSAY: FROM MY HEAD TO
Write a short persuasive essay about Saudi culture. Use the opinions you
wrote in the previous activity as your arguments. Make sure to substantiate
PERSUASIVE ESSAY WRITING SHEET (A)
FROM MY HEAD TO THE PEN!

Name ____________________________ Date _____________ Score______________

Thesis Statement
What is your general opinion about the culture of Saudi Arabia?
______________________________________________________________________

Argument #1
What is your opinion regarding Saudi laws? Make sure to support this opinion with
appropriate facts or data.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Argument #2
What is your opinion regarding gender equality ? Make sure to support this opinion with
appropriate facts or data.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Argument #3
What is your opinion regarding their problem on poverty? Make sure to support this
opinion with appropriate facts or data.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Conclusion
Full Circle (Restate you thesis statement in another way.
________________________________ Call to Action __________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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PROPAGANDA DEVICES
Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude
of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of
an argument. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide
variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes.
http://en.wikipedia.org

Propaganda is intended to make us accept or approve something without looking
closely at the evidence. Most of the propaganda devices utilize emotion and avoid critical
thinking. Here are some of the common propaganda devices:

1. Card Stacking: The strategy of showing the product’s best features, telling half-
truths, and omitting or lying about its potential problems.
Ex. Drug manufacturers do this frequently in ads in which they skim over the possible
harmful side effects of their products. Facts are Selected and presented which
most effectively strengthen and authenticate the point of view of the propagandist.

2. Name calling: The use of names that evoke fear or hatred in the viewer. The name-
calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. The most obvious type
of name calling involved “bad names.” Ex. Racist, dictator, communist, etc.

3. Plain Folks: The use of everyday people to sell a product or service. Speakers and
ads appear to make the person to be “one of the people.” Ex. America’s recent
presidents have all been millionaires, but they have gone to great lengths to present
themselves as ordinary citizens. Bill Clinton eats at McDonalds. Ronald Reagan
chops wood.

4. Glittering Generalities: The act of referring to words or ideas that evoke a positive
emotional response from an audience. Virtue words are often used. Ex. Food
products will quickly label their foods as low fat hinting that they are more healthy,
when, in fact, the product might be high in calories. Advertisers will sometimes give
an incomplete comparison like “better tasting.” Better tasting than what? Spam? Dirt?

5. Soft soap: Flattery or insincere compliments designed to get the audience on the
side of the speaker. Ex. "I love visiting you folks in Bohol where the people are
Activity 16: GETTING FOOLED OR GETTING WISER?
Study the following situations. Each contains a propaganda technique/
device, identify the device used. Write your answer after each situation.
1. "Sen. Ramos is a tax and spend liberal." "Pres. Santos is an elitist who's in the pocket
of big oil companies."
2. "Secure, safe and stable. That's the advantage of a Togofa. No other car on the road
is as reliable."
3. Bar charts of differing tax programs presented side by side.


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4. "Sen. Ramos is a tax and spend liberal." "Pres. Santos is an elitist who's in the pocket
of big oil companies."
5. "Secure, safe and stable. That's the advantage of a Togofa. No other car on the road is
as reliable."
6. Bar charts of differing tax programs presented side by side.
7. No true Filipino would vote to take away our rights by outlawing hunting.
8. "Don't let those bunny huggers take away our right to hunt."
9. If you want to spend the night at a friend's house and you tell your parents that your
friends parents will be home, that you'll be in bed by 10pm, and that your friend isn't
allowed out of the house after dark, but fail to mention that your friend is allowed to
watch "R" rated movies (if your parent's don't allow them).
Activity 17: PERSUASION AND PROPAGANDA
Choose your favorite product/s- shampoo, shoes, etc. Advertise it/them to
your friends so that they, too, will subscribe to it/them. Make sure to
promote it/them in two ways : 1. by using propaganda device/s , and 2. by

ADVERTISEMENT

USING PROPAGANDA

TELLING THE WHOLE TRUTH
Product: Product:












1. What is propaganda? Why do unscrupulous businessmen, writers and
speakers use propaganda gimmicks?
2. What responsibilities do newspapers have for their readers?
3. How do recognizing propaganda devices make you a better consumer and
student?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
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Activity 18: REVISING PERSUASIVE ESSAY
Read again your output in Activity 15. Make sure to develop credibility as a
writer by eliminating biases in your opinions. Do not hide some truths;
express the whole truth as you persuade people about your views on Saudi
Arabian culture. You may delete and add ideas to make your work an effective piece of
writing. This time, add a very catchy title to your composition.
PERSUASIVE ESSAY WRITING SHEET (B)
REVISITING MY THOUGHTS

Name ____________________________ Date _____________ Score_____________

___________________________
(Title of the Essay)

Thesis Statement
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Argument #1
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Argument #2
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Argument #3
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Conclusion
Full Circle ______________________________________________________________
Call to Action ___________________________________________________________
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Activity 19: DIFFERENT YET WORTH EMBRACING
Write a journal showing the cultural differences between the Filipinos and
the Arabs. Base your insights on the texts you read or viewed.
A J ournal of Cultural Differences
DI FFERENT YET WORTH EMBRACI NG
Name ___________________________ Date __________ Score __________





Culture / practice






1. Gender equality






2.






3.





4. Mode of dressing





5.




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Activity 20: FREQUENCY WORD LIST
List down at least ten Arab words and give their meanings.
WORD MEANING
1. _____________ =__________________________________
2. _____________ =__________________________________
3. _____________ =__________________________________
4. _____________ =__________________________________
5. _____________ =__________________________________
6. _____________ =__________________________________
7. _____________ =__________________________________
8. _____________ =__________________________________
9. _____________ =__________________________________
10. _____________ =__________________________________
Activity 21: ONE-MINUTE PAPER
Take time to accomplish this formative check.

Most IMPORTANT
thing discussed in this
lesson

EASIEST fact or concept
to remember


Most DIFFICULT
idea to understand











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In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche of
the Saudi people as reflected in their reading and viewing texts.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the
discussion. How many of your initial ideas are found in the discussion?
Which ideas are different and need revision?

Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some
aspects of the topic on the temperaments and psyche of the
Saudi and Israeli people in their response to the challenges
of modernity.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Conditional sentences play a very important role
in English grammar. They express a condition
and its result. There are three types of
conditional statement in English:
1. Open conditional statement - refers to a future event which is conditional on
another future event.
Ex. If you eat too much, you'll get fatter.
We won't finish in time unless everyone works fast.
This also describes one potential state of reality or circumstance which is
dependent on something.
Ex. If the temperature falls below zero, it freezes.
If it rains, everyone gets wet.
2. Open hypothetical conditional statement - refers to a possible future situation
which depends on another possible future situation.
Ex. If you ate too much, you'd (you would) get fatter.
If I went to London, I would / could visit the British Museum.
3. Unfulfilled hypothesis - refers to a situation which an event might have taken
place, but did not, because a condition was not fulfilled.
Ex. If you had eaten too much, you'd (you would) have got fatter.
If I had gone to London, I could have visited the British Museum (but I didn't).
Activity 22: SENTENCE COMPLETION
Use the correct form of the verb in the parentheses. Form a Conditional
sentence – type 3. Mind the position of the if-clause.
Example: I ____________ (to bake) a cake if I _________ (to know) that
they were coming.
Answer: I would have baked a cake if I had known that they were coming
or I’d have bought a cake if it I’d known that they were coming.
1. If it ____________ (to be) warmer, we _______________ (to go) swimming.
2. My parents ___________ (to buy) this house if the man ______________ (not/to sell) it
to someone else.
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3. If the ______________(not/to fail) his driving test, his parents _____________ (to
lend) him their car.
4. If my uncle ____________ (to tell) we the way to his office, I ____________ (not/to
arrive) so late.
5. She ____________ (to be) at the airport if she ___________ (to read) the message
carefully.
6. Lucy ___________ (not/to hurt) her foot if she ____________ (not/to drop) the old
box.
7. If you ___________ (to use) a sharp knife, you ____________ (not/to cut) yourself.
8. If Victoria ____________ (to celebrate) her birthday at home, I __________ (to bring)
her some flowers
9. We ___________ (to take) the train to Edinburgh if it _____________ (to run) on time.
10. If Max ____________ (not/to forget) my school bag, he wants _____________ to give
you your USB flash drives.
Activity 23: SKILLS AT WORK
Complete the following sentences with an appropriate result or
CAN YOU PREDICT MY ACTIONS?

Name ________________________ Date ________ Score ____________

1. I can go shopping to the Mall of Asia this weekend if __________________________.
2. If I have time _________________________________________________________.
3. I could have gone to the Middle East last year if _____________________________.
4. If I met J ews and Arabs in the streets today, I _______________________________.
5. World peace can be attained and maintained if ______________________________.
Activity 24: VISITING THE MIDDLE EAST
Write a paragraph describing what you can do, what you will see and what
you might need if you visit one country in the Middle East. Give your
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
MY VISIT TO THE MIDDLE EAST
_____________________________
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Exercise 6: Hebrew Literature: A Short Story
The book of Ruth contains an interesting story about a Moabite woman who was redeemed
into a Hebrew family. The book may have been written by Samuel and was probably
penned during the time of David.

A Dreadful Time in a Strange Country

Because of a famine in Israel, a Hebrew family moved to Moab. This was a country not
far from Israel on the east side of the Dead Sea. The family was from the city of Bethlehem
-judah in Israel. Elimelech and his wife Naomi had two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. Each of
them married a wife from Moab. In time Elimelech and his two sons died which left the
three widows in Moab.

A new beginning

After her husband’s death, Naomi planned to return to Bethlehem-judah to be with
family. She prepared to leave her two daughters-in-law. However, they begged to be able
to go with her. She said that she had no more children and even if she were to marry again
and bear sons that the two daughters would not be able to wait for them to grow up. She
planned to return to Israel alone and empty.

True loveselfless giving
One of the daughters-in-law, Orpah, returned to her people in Moab. The other daughter
-in-law, Ruth, said that she would stay with Naomi. It was during this conversation that Ruth
said these words which have become the basis for many Christian wedding vows: “Intreat
me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee: for whither thou goest, I will go;
and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God:
Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried: the Lord do so to me, and more also,
if ought but death part thee and me.”
Ruth and Naomi returned to Bethlehem-judah together. Naomi was financially and
emotionally despondent, but her family and friends accepted her with joy.
One land owner Boaz, notices Ruth and asked his workers to be kind to her and leave
plenty of grain for her and her mother-in-law.
As they had no money and no men to take care of them, Ruth went into the fields to
gather whatever grain she could. One land owner, Boaz, noticed Ruth and asked his
workers to be kind to her and leave plenty of grain for her and her mother-in-law. He did not
know at the time who Ruth was, but out of kindness he chose to care for the new stranger
in their land.
Ruth returned to Naomi and told her about the generous landowner. Naomi asked about
the man and was pleased to learn that it was Boaz. Boaz was a near family member of
Elimelech, her late husband. This meant that Boaz had the opportunity to take Naomi and
Ruth into his care as well as free them from their financial debt.

BIBLE: THE STORY OF RUTH
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A husband Ruth
Naomi instructed Ruth on how to ask for Boaz’s help in the matter. She approached
Boaz and asked him to become the kinsman-redeemer for them. Before Boaz could accept
the care of these two ladies he had to negotiate with another kinsman for the privilege. This
other man was closer to Elimelech and therefore had the responsibility to care for the
ladies. This man chose not to exercise his duty for their care which left Boaz with the
opportunity to buy them out of their debt and take Ruth as his wife.
Boaz and Ruth were married became the great-grandparents of King David.
Source: http://www.whatchristianswanttoknow.com/ruth-bible-story-summary/
Activity 25: TRAVELLING WITH RUTH
Analyze the elements of the selection “The Story of Ruth” by completing the
Name _______________________________________ Date_________________
Title of the Story ______________________________ Author ________________


Main Character : Minor Characters:
Central Conflict

MAJ OR EVENTS IN THE PLOT
Inciting action :

Rising Actions :

Climax or turning point :

Falling action:
Setting Mood:
Theme ;
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1. Describe the living faith that works out of love in the lives of Ruth and Boaz.
2. At the end of the story of Ruth, it appeared that Naomi owned some land
that Boaz was willing to sell to her. If she had this land all along, why didn’t
she sell it earlier and save herself a lot of trouble?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 26: CHARACTER ANALYSIS
Analyze the personality traits of Ruth and Naomi as reflected in their actions
and dialogs. Compare and contrast Naomi who left Bethlehem and was
bitter and Ruth who came to Bethlehem and reigned. Furthermore, compare
Naomi as a symbol of the law and Ruth as a symbol of grace under the new
covenant. Make sure to complete the Venn Diagram below. Write their common traits in
the converged parts of the circles.
Analyzing the characters of a story is one way of understanding the
reading text better. You have just done it well. Good job!
Another way of understanding a story, poem, book or journal article is to
write a critical review. The purpose for writing a critique is to evaluate
somebody's work in order to increase the reader's understanding of it. A
critical analysis is subjective writing because it expresses the writer's opinion
or evaluation of a text. And you will learn how to write one in the succeeding
part of this module.

WRITING A CRITICAL REVIEW

Purpose of a Critical Review
A critical review is a writing task that asks you to summarize and evaluate a text.
The critical review can be of a book, a chapter, or a journal article. Writing the critical
review usually requires you to read the selected text in detail and to also read other related
texts so that you can present a fair and reasonable evaluation of the selected text.
requires you to question the information and opinions in a text and present your evaluation
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What is meant by critical?
At university, to be critical does not mean to criticize in a negative manner. Rather it
requires you to question the information and opinions in a text and present your evaluation or
judgment of the text. To do this well, you should attempt to understand the topic from different
perspectives (i.e. read related texts) and in relation to the theories, approaches and frameworks
in your course.

What is meant by evaluation or judgment?
Here you decide the strengths and weaknesses of a text. This is usually based on specific
criteria. Evaluating requires an understanding of not just the content of the text, but also an
understanding of a text’s purpose, the intended audience and why it is structured the way it is.

What is meant by analysis?
Analysis requires separating the content and concepts of a text into their main components
and then understanding how these interrelate, connect and possibly influence each other.

Structure of a Critical Review
Critical reviews, both short (one page) and long (four pages), usually have a similar
structure. Check your assignment instructions for formatting and structural specifications.
Headings are usually optional for longer reviews and can be helpful for the reader.

Introduction
The length of an introduction is usually one paragraph for a journal article review and two or
three paragraphs for a longer book review. Include a few opening sentences that announce the
author(s) and the title, and briefly explain the topic of the text. Present the aim of the text and
summarize the main finding or key argument. Conclude the introduction with a brief statement
of your evaluation of the text. This can be a positive or negative evaluation or, as is usually the
case, a mixed response.

Summary
Present a summary of the key points along with a limited number of examples. You can also
briefly explain the author’s purpose/intentions throughout the text and you may briefly describe
how the text is organized. The summary should only make up about a third of the critical
review.

Critique
The critique should be a balanced discussion and evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses
and notable features of the text. Remember to base your discussion on specific criteria. Good
reviews also include other sources to support your evaluation (remember to reference).
You can choose how to sequence your critique. Here are some examples to get you
started:
 Present the most important to least important conclusions you make about the text.
 If your critique is more positive than negative, then present the negative points first and the
positive last.
 If your critique is more negative than positive, then present the positive points first and the
negative last.

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 If there are both strengths and weaknesses for each criterion you use, you need to decide
your overall judgment. For example, you may want to comment on a key idea in the text and
have both positive and negative comments. You can begin by stating what is good about the
idea; then concede and explain how it is limited in some way. While this example shows a
mixed evaluation, as a whole you are probably being more negative than positive.
 In long reviews, you can address each criterion you choose in a paragraph, including both
negative and positive points. For very short critical reviews (one page or less) where your
comments will be briefer, include a paragraph of positive comments and another of negative
comments.

You can also include recommendations on how the text can be improved in terms of ideas,
research approach; theories or frameworks used can also be included in the critique section.

Conclusion
This is usually a very short paragraph.
  Restate your overall opinion of the text.
  Briefly present recommendations.

If necessary some further explanation of your judgment can be included. This can make
your critique sound fair and reasonable.

You have just reviewed how to write a critical review of literary selections
journal articles, paintings, songs and the like. In Module 3 Lesson 1, you
learned how to write an editorial article and an evaluation paper. Such writing
skills will be very useful as you tackle the next portion of this lesson. You will
be exposed more to reading more sample of the literature of Israel. So enjoy
reading!
Exercise 7: A TOUCH OF MODERN ISRAEL: “ The CAT”
Read the short story about a political prisoner who uses magic to escape
execution. Be able to identify difficult words and arrive at their meanings. Also
write a critical review of the selection.
“ THE CAT”
by Zygmunt Frankel
H
e lay on the bunk in his cell, smoking a cigarette. The day had been hot, but now,
with the dusk falling, a pleasant breeze had sprung up and was coming in from
the courtyard, along the corridor, and into his cell. The old prison was very much
like the ones in cowboy movies. The door of his cell, as well as the one at the end of the
corridor were steel frames with iron bars less than twenty centimetres apart; too close for
even the thinnest man to squeeze through, but ample for a cat. One could see through the
bars, talk with the guards and the prisoners in the other cells, and be disturbed by someone
snoring at night, and the barred doors made the prison airy.
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It was much better than the foreign prisons he had read about, with solid doors,
peepholes, and electric bulbs burning the whole night long. Although the local revolution
modelled itself on the Russian one to some extent, it did not have the means to imitate
Lubyanka. The revolution was also milder in other respects. A political prisoner usually had
done something against the regime, be it only grumbling in public. The interrogations were
mostly carried out without torture. Although no public or journalists were admitted to the
more serious political trials, the prisoner had the right to defend himself, and, in case of a
death sentence - these, unfortunately, were rather common and mostly undeserved - the
condemned man had the right to appeal to the President, although in most cases it only
delayed the execution by a few days.
The prisoner finished his cigarette, put it out in an empty sardine tin which served him
as ashtray, sat on his bed, and looked at the door again. The spaces between the bars
were fine, even for the largest cat to pass through, and the door at the end of the corridor
was the same. In the small rectangular cobbled courtyard where they took their daily walks
and where they shot condemned prisoners at dawn, a couple of skinny young trees, hardly
more than saplings, grew by the wall on the right, a few of the thin branches reaching the
top of the wall; nothing to support a man, but good enough for a cat. It was not the wall
where they shot people; that one was opposite it, at right angle to the door. On days
following an execution, of which they had heard every word and shot through the barred
doors, walking in a circle during their daily exercise, they would look furtively for traces of
blood on the cobblestones or bullet marks on the wall, but there weren't any; the courtyard
would be thoroughly hosed down as soon as the body was taken away, and the holes in
the wall plastered over and whitewashed. The prisoner, himself a likely candidate for an
execution, thought calmly that an old mattress or two propped against the wall would spare
them the need for constant repairs, but in a backward country one could not expect a
revolution to bring instant efficiency.
His decision to change into a cat rather than some other small creature in case an
escape became necessary due to a death sentence or a long prison term was reached
after considerable reflection. A mouse or a rat would run too great a risk in a town with a lot
of cats, and even if it got out of the town safely, the distance to the border - some twenty
kilometres - might be too much for it, and the danger still there: wild cats, foxes, coyotes,
snakes, hawks by day and owls by night. As a cat, he would only need a couple of days to
reach and cross the border and change back into man, and it was just as well. The Indian
witch-doctor had warned him that if it took too long, the animal body would start taking over
the human mind; he would find it increasingly difficult and finally impossible to change
back, and spend the rest of his life as an animal with an animal's mind. When he died, his
body would also remain that of an animal, which would not be the case if he died shortly
after the metamorphosis.
It would be fastest and easiest to cross the border as a bird, preferably of prey so as to
be safe of predators; but, apart from the fact that farmers sometimes shot at birds of prey,
he wasn't sure about flying. On both previous occasions, the first under the witch-doctor's
guidance and, after his return from the expedition, on his own, he changed into mammals,
a monkey and a fox. This time, with so much at stake, he didn't want to introduce new and
unknown factors.
A dog would not be able to get over the wall, and might be shot on suspicion of
hydrophobia. A cat was best. Behind the wall with the two trees was a large garden which
he knew well. It surrounded the now confiscated villa of his friend the judge who had
placed most of his money in a Swiss bank before escaping to Miami when the revolution
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broke out. The judge had had problems with old regime as well by always trying to be
just and fair, but he knew it wouldn't help him with the new one. The judge had tried to talk
him into leaving together, keeping a seat for him on the little chartered plane until the last
moment, but he decided to stay, see what would happen, and even offer his services to the
revolution if it turned out well. It showed signs of doing so for a while and then degenerated
into a dictatorship backed by terror, and he had just about decided to follow his friend the
judge into exile when he was arrested. They did not have anything against him as an
anthropologist but he had also been a friend of the judge and that was enough nowadays.
But there were fascinating things to be still discovered in anthropology and primitive magic,
and he already knew enough not to let himself be shot in the prime of life.
Something the witch-doctor once told him stirred uneasily in his memory. It was right
after his first, successful, change into a monkey and back. He was bubbling with
enthusiasm about the possibilities, and the old witch-doctor, his face lined and wise,
listened to him quietly and then said: "Well, not quite. The possibilities are indeed great but
not unlimited; no magic can change one's destiny beyond a certain extent. A warrior who is
to be killed in battle will not escape his fate by changing into an animal; he will still be killed
by an arrow, and the hunter might even turn out to be the same man who was supposed to
kill him in battle." But the prisoner dismissed the unease without much difficulty. He was a
Westerner, and destiny to him was not all that rigid; one could shape it to a much greater
extent than the primitive fatalistic tribes imagined.
There were steps in the corridor and the sergeant, accompanied by a soldier with a
rifle, stopped by his door and unlocked it. "The captain wants to see you in his office," he
said. "Is it the sentence already?" the prisoner thought as he walked between the two
soldiers. It was quite possible. His interrogation ended almost two weeks before, and the
military courts worked fast. The captain got up from behind his desk when the prisoner was
brought in. There was another man there, a civilian in a sober grey suit, standing, with his
hands behind his back, a little to one side of the captain's desk. He looked like an official
visitor, probably of a high rank.
The captain took from the desk a document with a large seal and several signatures
and began to read it aloud. It was the death sentence. The prisoner has been found guilty
of cooperation with the old reactionary regime, of anti-revolutionary propaganda, and of
failing to prevent the escape of one of the oppressors of the people (his friend the judge).
He had three days in which to submit an appeal to the President of the Republic if he so
wished.
He signed a statement that the sentence has been announced to him and that he
understood it. He said that yes, he would like to avail himself of the opportunity to appeal to
the President, in the hope that the President's generosity and kindness would make him
reduce the sentence. By all means, the captain said kindly; he would have paper and pen
delivered to his cell that very evening.
Back in his cell, the prisoner began to prepare for the metamorphosis. It was mainly
mental. He had to bring himself - this would take two or three days - into the state of
absolute belief that at the end of that period he would change into a cat. Very few people
could do it, and it was only after he had been with the tribe for some weeks that the witch-
doctor began to suspect that this white man who came from a different world to learn their
customs might be one of them. The physical part of the preparation was easy - actually
easier in prison than outside. It consisted mainly of eating very little, practically fasting
towards the end, and of not doing anything to distract the mind from its task. The final part -
the silent incantations, the spells, the names of gods - were merely means to finally plunge
the mind so deeply into the conviction that the body followed suit.

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When the block of writing paper, the fountain pen, a candle, and an extra packet of
cigarettes were brought to him with his supper, he thanked the guard and asked whether
he could have just plain bread, preferably dry, and weak tea, or even just water, for the
next couple of days, explaining that his stomach was upset and that diet was the best thing
for it. The guard asked whether he would like to see the doctor. No, he said, it was nothing;
he's always had a nervous, sensitive stomach, and today, what with the death sentence, it
was quite entitled to act up a little. But the whole thing was a misunderstanding and he was
confident that the President, who was a just and wise ruler, would put it right as soon as he
has read his appeal.
He finished the appeal the same evening, leaving the couple of corrected drafts in the
writing block to show how hard he had worked on it, and gave the final copy, together with
the writing block, the pen, and the remainder of the candle to the sergeant, who promised
to give the petition to the captain first thing in the morning. He estimated that he now had at
least four days at his disposal - two for the letter to reach the president and two more for
the rejection to arrive - and four days were more than enough.
He went to bed early and before falling asleep lay there for a long time with his eyes
closed imagining himself as a cat: passing through the iron bars, climbing a tree, crossing
the garden, travelling through fields and woods, perhaps catching a bird or a mouse if
hungry, and drinking from streams. When he finally fell asleep he managed to get a lot of
this into his dreams as well. In the morning he was already feeling light-headed, in a sort of
trance, already beginning to feel and think like a cat. A couple of times he even stretched
and yawned like one. It was a familiar feeling. His second metamorphosis had been easier
than the first - the witch-doctor told him that one improved with practice - and he felt that
this one was going to be a success too.
On the third night he was ready. He had slept through most of the afternoon and awoke
at dusk feeling fresh and strong. The prison was slowly settling for the night. Someone was
snoring lightly in one of the cells. The guard on duty was seated behind the table at the end
of the corridor, reading a paper and smoking a cigarette. He sat sideways to the corridor,
glancing at it only from time to time. Even if he noticed a cat slinking along the corridor
towards the courtyard door he might wonder what it was looking for, but it was extremely
unlikely that he would fire at it, and if he did, even less likely that he would hit it.
The prisoner undressed except for his underwear and, once under the blanket,
removed his vest and underpants as well. The blanket was coarse and not very clean, and
it was a little chilly to lie there naked, but he did not want to have to disengage himself from
the underwear afterwards.
The prison was silent now, with the snores from a cell at the end of the corridor barely
audible. He pulled the blanket over his head and closed his eyes. In the double darkness,
of the cell and the blanket, silent incantations began to flow. To their rhythm, his mind
gradually reduced everything to the world of a small, four-legged animal. Time was passing
but he didn't know how much. He became dizzy for a while, with strange but well-
remembered sensations passing through his body. Then the flow of incantations and
trance gradually slowed down, stopped, settled. His skin did not feel the coarseness of the
blanket any more. He was also warmer. He moved his limbs cautiously. His claws bit into
the blanket and he retracted them.

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He crawled slowly towards the edge of the blanket, peered out, and listened. The
prison was dark and quiet. The cell now loomed large and tall, and the bed was high above
the floor. He could see much better in the dark than he did before. He listened a little
longer, then jumped down and hid under the bed. He noticed the color of his fur: it was
grey, with dark stripes, and a light, almost white belly. The bars of the cell would now let
him through without any difficulty. He peered into the corridor. The guard, in profile, was
nodding over his paper.
Silently, he passed through the bars of the door, glided along the corridor, passed
between bars again, turned right, out of sight, and crouched under the wall. There was a
full moon shining onto the deserted courtyard. His sight was very keen. He moved along
the wall and climbed the first of the two trees. A branch took him right to the top of the wall.
He looked at the garden on the other side of the wall for a while. It was as he remembered
it except that it was rather neglected. He wondered whether anyone lived in the villa now -
perhaps one of the new officials - or whether it was still unoccupied. He jumped into the
garden. Now the most difficult part was behind him. He moved among some trees, then
began to cross a large moonlit stretch of the lawn towards some bushes at the back of the
garden where there was a low easily passable slat fence, behind which the countryside
was practically beginning.
He did not see the large tall shape of the dog detach itself from the shadow of the villa;
noticed it only after it had covered half the distance between them, loping fast and silently,
trying to cut him off from the fence. He hissed and took off. The dog chasing him was a
large hound, obviously trained not to growl or bark while attending to business. Their paths
were converging. He saw that he might have difficulty reaching the fence before the dog
caught up with him, but any change of direction might waste precious moments. If the
worst came to the worst he could turn around and counterattack, using his teeth, claws,
screech, and spittle to confuse the dog and reach the fence. With a dozen yards still to go,
he heard the shuffle of the dog's feet right behind him and felt its breath on his neck. He
leaped and, turning around in mid-air, gave the most frightening screech he was capable
of, and struck. His claws ripped one side of the dog's face just as the dog hit him with one
shoulder, with all its weight and speed behind the impact. The cat rolled over, regaining his
footing almost at once, but for one brief moment the scruff of his neck became exposed
and he felt the teeth go in. The he was flying through the air being shaken left and right
while the teeth were going in deeper. Then, very clearly, he felt his neck snap.
The captain stood in his office, but facing the desk this time, without his pistol, and
between two soldiers. The official who had been present at the reading of the prisoner's
sentence sat behind the desk.
"I am sorry to see that the psychiatrist's report pronounces you perfectly sane, captain,"
he said. "We were very satisfied with your work to date, and saw a good career for you in
the service of the revolution. It is all the more sad having to tell you that your situation looks
hopeless. If there are two things that the president hates more than anything else it is
people taking the law into their own hands and sadism. The prisoner's naked body was
found in the garden of your villa. The wounds in the neck were inflicted with some pointed
though not particularly sharp tool like a pick or a pitchfork. Your dog can't be blamed for it
because the size of the wounds is such that an animal with teeth large enough to inflict
them would have to be larger than the victim, and we don't have any lions or tigers around
here. The only logical explanation is that you took the prisoner from his cell at night and
murdered him in your garden by repeatedly stabbing him in the neck and then breaking it."

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"But the guard on duty that night..."
"Is also under arrest. He either participated, or had fallen asleep, or you drugged him or
bribed him or talked him into keeping quiet; we shall find out which. In the meantime the
president is disgusted with the whole thing and unless you can come up with some really
convincing proof of your innocence, I wouldn't like to be in your shoes, captain."

Source: http://www.zygmuntfrankel.com/zf108.html
Activity 27: THE WORDS BEYOND MY THOUGHTS
Give the meanings of these words from the story “The Cat”. Make sure to
give the appropriate meaning of the word according to how it is used in the

Vocabulary Development

THE WORDSBEYOND MY THOUGHTS
Word Meaning Sentence
grumble
interrogation
incantation
anthropologist
fatalistic
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Activity 28: WRITING A CRITICAL REVIEW: “ THROUGH MY LENS”
Write a critical review of the short story below. Make sure to apply your
knowledge of the previous lesson and the review guide provided in the

A Critical Review Format
“ THROUGH MY LENS”

Introduction
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Summary
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Critique
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Conclusion
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Reference/s
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
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Activity 29: FREQUENCY WORD LIST:
Find the meaning of each word below. Write a short description beside the
term. Supplement your understanding of these terms with pictures. Cut out
pictures that best represent the people/ concept and paste them in their
FREQUENCY WORD LIST

THE FRAME OF MY UNDERSTANDING

Name __________________________________ Date ___________

1. Israelite _____________________________________

2. Israeli _______________________________________

3. Hebrew ____________________________________

4. J ew _______________________________________

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The State of Israel, established in 1948, is an independent nation located
between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the head of the Gulf
of Aqaba, an arm of the Red Sea. Its official language is Hebrew.
Israeli literature is literature written in the State of Israel by Israelis. Most works
classified as Israeli literature are written in the Hebrew language, although some Israeli
authors write n Yiddish, English, Arabic and Russian. The greatest masterpiece, the Bible,
has profound influence on human development. Scholars based their teachings on the
Bible. Below is a sample poem from the Book of Psalms:
Psalm 23
A psalm of David

1
The LORD is my shepherd, I lack nothing.
2
He makes me lie down in green pastures,
he leads me beside quiet waters,
3
he refreshes my soul.
He guides me along the right paths
for his name’s sake.
4
Even though I walk
through the darkest valley,
I will fear no evil,
for you are with me;
your rod and your staff,
they comfort me.
5
You prepare a table before me
in the presence of my enemies.
You anoint my head with oil;
my cup overflows.
6
Surely your goodness and love will follow me
all the days of my life,
and I will dwell in the house of the LORD
forever.
1. Who is the author of this psalm? What are the three main points of the
psalm?
2. How does David describe the physical and the spiritual necessities
provided by the Lord?
3. What is the author’s purpose of writing the psalm? What is manifested in
his character as he wrote this verse? What does this tell us of the Israeli
character?
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
COMPLEX AND COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES IN
COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN

Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encodes the
message and passes it through some channel to the receiver who decodes the
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message. Communication is fruitful if and only if the messages sent by the sender are
interpreted with same meaning by the receiver. Communication breakdowns often occur in
school and in our personal relationships, for various reasons. And the effects of failed
communication can be very damaging. Information overload can be one of the reasons for
this problem. And using complex and compound-complex sentences can help fix the
problem.

Complex sentences combine one dependent and one independent clause through the
use of subordinating conjunctions such as because, though, as, while, if, etc.; these are
also known as dependent adverb clauses. Here are two complex sentences as examples.
Notice how the two sentences are similar in meaning to the two compound sentences.

Though it's not available, I'd like to read the book.
Janet is going to a meeting after she has visited her grandparents.

Remember that the dependent clause can be placed at the beginning or the end of the
sentence. When placing the dependent clause at the beginning of the sentence, use a
comma.

Compound complex sentences are sentences that contain two independent clauses
and one or more dependent clauses.

I would like to read the book which was written by John Handy, but it's not available.
Activity 30: FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX
Use subordinating conjunctions (though, if, when, because, etc.) to
Complex Sentence Worksheet
Name ___________________________ Date _________ Score _______

1. Henry needs to learn English. I will teach him.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

2. I'm writing a letter, and I'm leaving. You will find it tomorrow.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________


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3. 3. I prefer to watch TV by streaming over the internet. It allows me to watch what I
want and when I want to watch.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4. 4. The car was extremely expensive. Bob didn't have much money. He bought the
car.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
5. 5. Sometimes it happens that we have a lot of rain. I put the chairs on the patio in
the garage when we have rain.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Source: http://esl.about.com/od/esl-worksheets/a/Complex-Sentence-Worksheet.htm
Activity 31: REPAIRING COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN
Use subordinating conjunctions (though, if, when, because, etc.) to
connect the sentences to make one complex sentence.
Compound Complex Sentence Worksheet
Name ___________________ Date ___________ Score _________

1. 1. Susan teaches the kids who live in the neighborhood. They meet in the evenings
after she comes home from work.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

2. 2. Anthony told us about the assembly of the products. Unfortunately, he didn't tell us
about where they were made.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
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3. 3. The doctor wanted to prescribe physical therapy, and he asked me to see a
specialist. He recommended Dr. Smith.
_____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

4. 4. The eagles attract many tourists. They live in the local mountain range.
Unfortunately, the politicians still refuse to protect them.
_____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

5. 5. I don't like the food. The staff prepare the food. I also do not like their unfriendly
attitude.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Source: http://esl.about.com/od/writingadvanced/a/Compound-Complex-Sentence-Worksheet.htm

Exercise 9: VIDEO VIEWING: THE FUTURE WARFARE IS HERE
Visit this website http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDOUxtPkm5Q and view this
Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDOUxtPkm5Q
This site shows a three-minute CNN news report about Israel’s latest drone technology
capable of defending and attacking enemies in air, land and water. The video
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PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. What is Israel’s latest drone technology? What makes this upgraded aircraft
amazing?
2. What is the reaction of Israel’s greatest nemesis, Iran, over this latest
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AUV)?
3. How do Israelis respond to challenges of modernity as reflected in their
literary selections?
Activity 32: MONITORING MY MEDIA BEHAVIORS
Identify your own behaviors while watching television and other social
media. Complete this graphic organizer and compare this with your
classmate. Take note of the similarities and differences in your behaviors.
Make sure to discuss with him/her wholesome practices and behaviors in watching
A GRAPHIC ORGANIZER ON TELEVISION VIEWING BEHAVIORS
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Exercise 10: Israeli Personality Traits
Source: http://israel21c.org/blog/those-walled-in/
W
hat makes an Israeli? A peculiar mix of joie de vivre,
arrogance, aggressiveness, fear, claustrophobia, plus a
whole lot more. Living in Israel is one continual encounter
with the Israeli character, stereotypically labeled as the “sabra,” the
cactus that is hard and prickly on the outside, but mushy and sweet on
the inside. But the Israeli character is far more complex than the
stereotype.
Arrogance, well yes, most Israelis are convinced they are the best and
they aren’t shy about letting you know it either. Not that they brag, rather they tend to put
others down, leaving themselves in the up position. I have a friend who is an airline pilot
for Southwest who desperately wants to make aliyah – yet he can’t get a job with El Al
because even though he has thousands of hours of experience flying airliners for major
American carriers, El Al hires IDF helicopter pilots with 1,000 hours before they hire him.
Why? Because of a combination of that arrogance, the Israeli Air Force way is clearly the
best for everything, and the “clubbishness” that goes with this superiority complex.
As to aggressive, well, this is a trait for which Israelis are famous. One of the
challenges of getting by in Israel is that if you are not aggressive you are perceived as a
“freier”, which is a Yiddish term for sucker.
The next trait on Elon’s list, fear of another Holocaust, is also real. But remember, just
because you are paranoid, does not mean that they are NOT out to get you.
Ahmadinejad may be a nut case, but he is a nut case who is the head of state of a
country.
Claustrophobia, yes, that comes with living in a very small country. Israel is more or less
the size of New J ersey. If you lived in New J ersey and on one side the borders with New
York and Connecticut were sealed, and the border with Pennsylvania was one you could
technically cross, but it didn’t feel particularly safe to do so because people there
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didn’t like you, you too would probably feel a little claustrophobic.
In Israel we enjoy an attitude of living in a frontier. Maybe some of the arrogance comes
from living in a place that the rest of the world treats as important. There is more terrorism
in Sri Lanka, more people are dying in Kenya, human rights abuses are far worse in any
country within 300 miles, not to mention places like China, and yet we’re on the front page
of the Western papers every day while those others places often get scant notice. Makes
us feel important. But more than that, it makes us feel like we are a part of something
important.
In short, the Israeli character is complex and interesting. One of the biggest challenges
facing a new immigrant to Israel is fitting in as a part of that culture.
1. What four major traits characterize the Israeli as a people? Explain each
briefly.
2. What is the sociological background of the arrogance of the Israelis?
3. What does “freier” mean? When is one considered such?
4. Incorporating the terms, Jew, Hebrewn, Israelite, describe the Israeli psyche
and temperament as reflected in their reading and viewing texts.
5. What is the purpose of the writer for exposing his essay to the worldwide
web?
6. What does “blog” mean? Why do people create blogs?
7. Is it all right to make blogs or to comment on people’s blogs?
8. What should be the appropriate behavior of a blogger so that he can freely
yet responsibly express his ideas and thoughts without being difficult and
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
Activity 33: WRITING A BLOG: GETTING CONNECTED TO ISRAEL
Write a sensible unbiased comment on the blog above. Make sure your
comment is not offensive to any race and is a sincere expression of your
desire, psyche and temperament as a Filipino student. Visit this site and
write your comments here : http://israel21c.org/blog/those-walled-in/
Comment here.
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1. Read the blog again (on Exercise 10). Did you have positive comments on
the blog? Why or why not? Did you feel good after writing your comment?
2. Did you visit the same site again? Were there people who also commented
on the same blog?
3. Was the blogger credible enough to claim those characteristics of the
Israelis? What makes the blog seem to influence the way we think about the
Israelis?
4. Who are mentioned in the blog? Why are those names mentioned?
5. Why is it important to quote persons in authorities when we write or speak?
Does the blogger show respect for intellectual property (ideas used) of other
PROCESS QUESTIONS:
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and
artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.
Footnotes are a conventional way to tell your readers where you got the information and
quotes that appear in your paper. Your goal is to make it easy for your readers to see what
sources you used -- and easy to find any that they might want to study further. To do that,
you need to provide complete citations in a consistent citation style. http://
history.hanover.edu/courses/handouts/footnotes.htm

Printed Resources
How to footnote a book:

1
Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 113.
or:

2
Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 113.

When the book is edited:

3
Edward Chiera, They Wrote on Clay, ed. George C. Cameron (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1938), 42.

How to footnote an essay in a journal:
4
Samuel M. Thompson, "The Authority of Law," Ethics 75 (October 1964): 16-24.

How to footnote an article in a newspaper:
5
"Amazing Amazon Region," New York Times, 12 J anuary 1969, sec. 4, E11.

How to footnote a work of art (in this case, a painting):

9
Larry Calcagno, Landscape, 1970.
CITATIONS and FOOTNOTES
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Non-Printed Media
How to footnote a radio or television program:
6
TVNZ, "The Amazing Mollusc," 17 April 1972.

How to footnote a film:
7
Lee Tamahori, Director, Once Were Warriors, 1995.

How to footnote a recording (in this case, a song called "Blood Red River," on an album
called The Legendary Peg Leg Howell:
8
Peg Leg Howell, "Blood Red River," The Legendary Peg Leg Howell, 1943,
Testament T-2204.
How to Cite, Bibliography: Using the Chicago Manual of Style
Printed Resources
How to cite a book:
Takaki, Ronald. Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1990.
or:
Takaki, Ronald. Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th-Century America. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1990.

When the book is edited:
Cameron, George C., Ed. They Wrote on Clay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1938.

How to cite an essay in a journal:
Thompson, Samuel M. "The Authority of Law." Ethics 75 (October 1964): 16-24.

How to cite an article in a newspaper:
"Amazing Amazon Region." New York Times, 12 J anuary 1969, sec. 4, E11.

Non-Printed Media
How to cite a radio or television program:
TVNZ. "The Amazing Mollusc." 17 April 1972.

How to cite a film:
Tamahori, Lee, Director. Once Were Warriors. 1995.

How to cite a recording (in this case, a song called "Blood Red River," on an album
called The Legendary Peg Leg Howell:
Howell, Peg Leg. "Blood Red River." The Legendary Peg Leg Howell. 1943, Testament
T-2204.

How to cite a work of art (in this case, a painting):
Calcagno, Larry. Landscape. 1970.

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Activity 34: RESEARCH WORK: A GALLERY OF MY FAVE PROSE
Visit your school library or surf the web to find various literary selections
which are representatives of Saudi and Israeli literature. Choose those
selections or articles that speak about how the Saudi and the Israeli respond
to the challenges of modernity. Copy the full text. Take note, also, of the
author, genre and source. Gather five selections from Saudi literature and five from Israeli
literature. Vary the genre/type. Keep a record of your research by following this template.
A GALLERY OF MY FAVE PROSE and POETRY

LITERARY ENTRY TEMPLATE

TITLE OF THE SELECTION ___________________________________________
AUTHOR __________________________________________________________
TYPE/ GENRE______________________________________________________
FULL TEXT



SOURCE:


You have just learned how to show respect for intellectual property. Your
knowledge in this lesson and in the previous lesson will help you perform
better the final task which is to create an e-journal of prose and poetry.
Keep the compilation for further instruction.
Activity 35: WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY: “ FROM WHERE I GOT MY
Create a bibliography of the various sources you used when you researched
your favorite Saudi and Israeli prose and poems. Use the Chicago Manual of
Style.
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The discussion, in this section, was about Israeli literature, turn-taking
strategies, respect for intellectual property, communication breakdowns and
television viewing behaviors.
What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new
connections have you made for yourself?
Now, that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to
do the tasks in the next section.
In this final phase of the lesson, you will now apply the
insights you have learned, the skills you have developed and
the information you have gathered from the previous
activities. Your goal in this section is to apply your learning to
real life situations. You will be given a practical task which will
demonstrate your understanding.
Let us begin by doing the activity below.
Activity 36: REVIEW: RESPONDING TO
Go over your collection of your favorite Saudi
and Israel prose and poetry. Make sure that they all follow the theme –
overcoming challenges of modernity. Write a critical review of each
selection. Follow the format on writing reviews on Activity 28. You may also
find related reviews of your chosen selection by visiting e-journals.
Activity 37: WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY: “ FROM WHERE I GOT MY
Create an e-journal of your favorite Saudi and Israel prose and poems at
any fee website provider. Post your outputs in Activity 34 (a collection of
your chosen literary selections from Saudi Arabia and Israel) with
accompanying outputs in Activity 36 (critical reviews of these chosen
selections). Invite your classmates to visit this site and post their
comments. This can be a good avenue for a healthy discussion on
literature, culture and academics.
Electronic journals, also known as ejournals, e-journals, and electronic serials,
are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via
electronic transmission. In practice, this means that they are usually published on
the Web. They are a specialized form of electronic document: they have the
purpose of providing material for academic research and study, and they are
formatted approximately like journal articles in traditional printed journals. http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_journal
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In observance of the National Book Week Celebration, your school
holds an electronic exhibit of famous literary pieces. The activity
dubbed as “Diverse Cultures: One in Overcoming Challenges” aims to
promote better understanding of people with diverse cultures and
characters and deeper appreciation of literature. As a library assistant,
you are tasked to create an e-journal featuring Saudi and Israeli prose
TASK


Your output will be evaluated according to the following scoring guide.

SCORING GUIDE FOR E-JOURNAL OF PROSE AND POETRY
ADVANCED
(11-15)
PROFICIENT
(6-10)
DEVELOPING
(1-5)

SCORE






INSIGHTFUL
Electronic
journal entries
show in-depth
and critical
analysis of the
literary
selections of
Saudi Arabia
and Israel.
They relate to
significant
personal
experiences
and social,
economic and
political issues
showing how
Saudi and
Israeli people
overcome
challenges of
modernity.
Electronic
journal entries
show careful
analysis of
Saudi and
Israel literary
selections.
Most selections
relate to
personal
experiences
and social,
economic and
political issues
that the
countries faced
in history while
some reflect
just any topic.
Electronic
journal entries
are present in
the site. All
literary
selections have
full text but
some lack
reviews.
Literary themes
vary from
superstitions to
love of nature.
Few entries are
not works of
Saudi and
Israel writers.

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SCORING GUIDE FOR E-JOURNAL OF PROSE AND POETRY
ADVANCED
(11-15)
PROFICIENT
(6-10)
DEVELOPING
(1-5)
SCORE






USER
FRIENDLY
Browse capability
– (browse and
search in the
same subject and
in different
publishers’
J ournals),
Interaction
capability –
(collaboration
between author/
site administrator
and reader and
network
communication
among authors,
editors, teachers
and users) and
search capability
are strong.
Browse
capability –
(browse and
search in the
same subject
and in different
publishers’
J ournals),
Interaction
capability –
(collaboration
between author/
site
administrator
and reader and
network
communication
among authors,
editors, teachers
and users) are
strong. Search
capability is
weak.
Brows capability
is not reliable.
browse a topic
and browse
through author’s
name cannot be
done. Interaction
capability –
collaboration
between author/
and reader and
network
communication
is effective.
Search
capability is
weak.








EFFICIENT
Entries are well-
organized;
presentation is
unique and
artistic. They
follow a standard
style and
prescribed format
(grammar,
mechanics).
Access level,
related and
supplementary
information and
information
services are
evident.
Entries are
organized;
presentation is
attractive. Few
grammatical
errors are found
in critical
reviews. Entries
have varying
style and format
of presentation.
Access level is
low; related and
supplementary
information is
found and
information
services are not
saved in
designated
areas.
Entries are
present but
incomplete.
Glaring
grammatical
errors can be
spotted. Output
fails to follow the
e-journal entry
format. Access
to full text is
denied. Related
articles and
references are
missing. Some
indicators of
information
services are
deactivated.

TOTAL
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Congratulations! You have just accomplished the performance task of this
module. You are able to develop and master all the skills required of you in
this lesson.
Now get the first activity sheet ,Anticipation-Reaction Guide Agree/
Disagree Chart, that you answered at the start of this lesson. You need to
answer the last column of the sheet.
Activity 38: ANTICIPATION-REACTION GUIDE AGREE/DISAGREE
Read your initial answers to this Agree/Disagree Chart. Now, that you have
already submitted yourself to discussions and activities on the
temperament and psyche of the Saudi and Israeli people, answer the same
items. Then, compare your initial and final answers. Make sure to explain
those items where you made changes.
Agree / Disagree Chart
Before
the Lesson

Statements about Saudi and Israeli
Literature
After
the Lesson

Agree Disagree Agree Disagree
The period before the writing of the Qur'an
and the rise of Islam is known to Muslims as
period of ignorance.

The expansion of the Arab people in the 7th
and 8th century brought them into contact
with a variety of different peoples who would
affect their culture and the most significant of
these is the ancient civilization of Israel.
change to Persia

The terms Israeli, Israelite, Hebrew and J ew
are synonymous and can be
interchangeably used in literature, religion

J ewish writers began to write in Hebrew in
addition to their various national languages
because Hebrew at that time was the

A key ingredient of the Israeli public
persona is that J ews are tough, emotionally
hardened, and ruthless.

In this section, your task was to create an e-journal of Saudi and Israeli
prose and poetry that depict the people’s strength in overcoming the
challenges of modernity.
How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see
the real world use of the topic?

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Activity 39: LESSON CLOSURE: REFLECTIVE LEARNING JOURNAL
Recording your learning insights can provide with you fresh ideas. So you
need to express your inner thoughts and emotions by completing the
journal below.












The Way I
Thi nk and
Learn
The most important insight I gained from
this learning module was
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
I can make this learning useful to me if I
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
I can best apply this learning to my life when I am
@ (Place) _______________________________________________
during (Time) ____________________________________________
with (Person/s) ___________________________________________
As a Filipino student of English, I need to study Afro-Asian literature
because / so that
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
My personal experiences like _________________________________
_____________________________ can help me become a better
speaker and writer of English.
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Audience analysis — is the process of examining information about your listeners

Blog — is an online diary on website; a frequently updated personal journal chronicling
links at a website, intended for public viewing.

ejournal — also known as ejournals, e-journals, and electronic serials, are scholarly
journals or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission.

Character Analysis — Is a technique of critically analyzing the personality and attributes
personified by a certain character in a literary selection.

Psyche — is a term which refers to soul, self and mind.

Temperament — is a word which refers to characteristic or habitual inclination or mode
of emotional response; disposition.

Jew — is a member of the people and cultural community whose traditional religion is
J udaism and who trace their origins through the ancient Hebrews.

Israeli — refers to a citizen or resident living in the modern "STATE" of Israel.

Israelite — is a descendant of the Hebrew patriarch J acob; specifically: a native or
inhabitant of the ancient northern kingdom of Israel.

Persuasive Essay — known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and reason to show
that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader
to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action.

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic
works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

Footnote — is an additional piece of information printed at the bottom of a page to
indicate where the idea / text is taken.

Propaganda — is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a
community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an
argument.

Card Stacking — The strategy of showing the product’s best features, telling half-truths,
and omitting or lying about its potential problems.

Name calling — The use of names that evoke fear or hatred in the viewer. The name-
calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol.

Plain Folks — The use of everyday people to sell a product or service.

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Books
Cabanilla, J osefina. et al. (2005). Language in Literature.Afro-Asian Literature.
Quezon City: Vibal Publishing House, Inc.
Inocencio, Ines L. (2012). Breaking Grounds through Afro-Asian Literature. Quezon
City: Ephesians Publishing, Inc.

Websites
https://mymission.lamission.edu/userdata/fup/docs/Sample%20Informative%
20Speeches.pdf
This site contains a written version of an informative talk used in the pre-assessment
art of this module.

http://www.candlelightstories.com/2009/03/27/arabian-nights-prologue/
This contains an excerpt of the “Prologue” of the selection “Arabian Nights”.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQNs7Fvu5_Y
This site contains a short opening speech of Abdur Raheem McCarthy at the Peace
Conference. McCarthy explains how Islam can be the solution for mankind. This
video runs for 8:50 minutes.

http://www.kidsplanet.org/tt/wolf/languagearts/factopinion.PDF
this site presents a worksheet on identifying facts from opinions.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_culture
This contains a prologue of “The Arabian Nights” used as introduction to a reading
text.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Baba
This site presents a summary of one of the stories of “The Arabian Nights” entitled “Ali
Baba and the Forty Thieves.”

http://www.alshindagah.com/january99/thearabpsyche.htm
This shows an essay that describes the Arab psyche.
http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/ArabPoetry.html
This site introduces Arabic Poetry.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1M-etvlW83E
This site contains a video that shows Saudi Princess Ameerah Al-Taweel interview on
CNN program. The video runs for 12 minutes. Princess Ameerah expresses her voice
for female empowerment in Saudi Arabia.

Glittering Generalities — The act of referring to words or ideas that evoke a positive
emotional response from an audience.
Soft soap — flattery or insincere compliments designed to get the audience on the
side of the speaker.

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http://department.monm.edu/cata/mcgaan/classes/cata339/audience-analysis101.htm
This site discusses the importance of Informative speaking.
http://www.englishpond.com/speaking/Communication%20and%20daily%20English/
turntaking/index.html
This site discusses turn-taking strategies.

http://www.hsj.org/modules/lesson_plans/detail.cfm?LessonPlanId=335
This contains an enumeration and discussion of most common propaganda devices.

http://linguapress.com/grammar/conditionals.htm
This contains a thorough discussion of conditional sentences.

http://www.englisch- hilfen.de/en/exercises/if_clauses/type_3_mix2.htm
This is a website which showcases an interactive activity on conditional sentences.

http://www.whatchristianswanttoknow.com/ruth-bible-story-summary/
This site narrates the biblical version of “The Story of Ruth.”

http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/critrev.html
This site discusses the meaning, purpose and structure of a critical review.

http://www.zygmuntfrankel.com/zf108.html
This site narrates a modern short sdtory entitled “The Cat” written by an Israeli.

http://esl.about.com/od/writingadvanced/a/Compound-Complex-Sentence-Worksheet.htm
This site explains the meaning and structure of complex and compound-complex
sentences.

http://esl.about.com/od/esl-worksheets/a/Complex-Sentence-Worksheet.htm
This site contains a worksheet for Complex Sentences.

http://esl.about.com/od/writingadvanced/a/Compound-Complex-Sentence-Worksheet.htm
This site contains a worksheet for Compound-Complex Sentences.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDOUxtPkm5Q
This site shows a three-minute CNN news report about Israel’s latest drone technology
capable of defending and attacking enemies in air, land and water. The video runs for 3:34
minutes.

http://israel21c.org/blog/those-walled-in/
This is a blog on the Israeli character.

http://history.hanover.edu/courses/handouts/footnotes.htm
This site discusses the meaning of intellectual property.

http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/footnote.html
This website illustrates proper citation and footnotes.


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Learning Module for English - Grade 8
H
ave you ever wondered how is to see different nationalities all in one place?
How will you differentiate a Filipino from the rest? How will you know if
someone is a Korean, J apanese, or a Chinese when all of them look the
same?
In this module, you will find out about Afro-Asian people. How are they similar or
different from one another? You will also discover that although they are of different
races, in many ways, you are like them as they are like you.
In the process, you will ask yourself, how is it possible that people do not know
one another and yet they are related? Is it possible that you have the same ancestors
or blood lines, no matter how remote they are? Is it possible to be united even when
In this module, your learning will be maximized as you take the following lessons:
 Lesson 1 – Literature as Communication: Literary Folio
 Lesson 2 – Business Communication: Letter of Application
 Lesson 3 – Academic Communication: Writing Annotation
 Lesson 4 – Global Communication: Informative Speech

Specifically for Module 4, you will learn the following:
 Point out the role of literature in enabling one to grow in personhood.
 Determine what makes a text literary.
 Achieve sentence fluency in written outputs.
 Analyze a recorded choral interpretation of a literary text focusing on the
theme “Changing Perspectives.”
The learner demonstrates understanding of how Afro-Asian Literature and other
text types equip him/her with communication skills that lead to embracing diverse
cultural heritage.
The learner performs an interactive human exhibit of Afro-Asian literary
characters.
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 Produce an e-literary folio which focuses on the theme, “Changing Perspectives.”
 Write a letter of application and the accompanying documents (e.g. resume).
 Use the transactional and interactional functions of language in letters of appeal,
inquiry, among others.
 Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, and suffixes).
 Abstract information from the different text types by noting explicit and implicit
signals used by the writer.
 Use fixed expressions for business writing.
 Read different text types including informational texts
 Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by
separating kernel sentences from modification structures and expansions.
 Analyze, choose, and synthesize information from varied sources.
 Achieve brevity in writing.
 Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in
reports and researches.
 Compile an annotated bibliography of sources for an informative speech.
 Use appropriate devices for emphasis.
 Write meaningful expanded sentences.
 Listen critically to speeches.
 Write an informative speech based on the theme “Changing Perspectives.”



Here is a simple map of the above lessons you will cover:

Literature as
Communicaon
Business
Communicaon
Academic
Communicaon
Glocal
Communicaon
CHANGING PERSPEC-
TIVES
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Let’s find out how much you already know about this module. Read the text,
Towards One Asia. Afterwards, click on the letter that you think best answers the question.
Please answer all items. After taking this short test, you will see your score. Take note of
the items that you are not able to answer correctly and look for the right answer as you go
through this module.

READING TEXT # 1

Towards One Asia
From: Prototype Lesson Plans in English II pp. 412-413
Department of Education

Towards One Asia

Historic changes in Asia brought dramatic and sometimes tragic events in the quest
for a peaceful and independent life. Even today, in the international relations of the states
in the multi-faceted Asian continent, we see the interaction, interlacing, and clashing of
diverse factors – historical, political, socio-economic, cultural and psychological. We are
aware of the complex problems which the Asian people have inherited from both the distant
and the recent past. Among these are the gaps in the levels of economic development of
the various countries on the continent, the dependent status of many of them in the system
of the world’s capitalist economy, territorial disputes, religious contradictions, ethnic
differences, among others. These complicated problems become more acute because of
acts of subversion of forces hostile to the peace and freedom of Asian nations. As a result,
instability still prevails in the Asian region.

There are several forces in Asia which firmly uphold the cause of peace. These are
the growing movement of peace-loving, anti-war, and anti-nuclear forces belonging to the
progressive parties and public organizations of practically every country in the region.
These forces are in the vanguard of intensifying the struggle for peace and stability in the
Asian continent.

However different their approaches to existing problems may be, the Asian nations
are linked by common historical destinies and vital interests. They are coping with these
tasks in some similar ways. This is precisely the reason that dictates the necessity of
cooperation and good neighborly relations. It is then necessary for Asian countries to
actively participate in the social, economic, and other fields on a bilateral and multilateral
basis. These could be in education and skills training in agricultural and industrial
development. Such good-neighbor cooperation is an effective way of improving the
international climate in Asia.

This situation in Asia and the adjoining countries urgently requires that the Asian
countries evolve politics aimed at averting the threat of nuclear way and achieving peaceful
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solution to all issues. This is a choice that Asian can and must make.

These joint efforts could bring about an all-Asian forum to consider the complex
issues concerning security and cooperation among the Asian nations.


1. If “One Asia” were written in verse, what would it be? It is a/an __________ text.
A. literary
B. non-literary
C. Informational
D. instructional

2. If the reading text is informational it would
A. give clear directions or steps in doing activities.
B. be rich in opinions and reactions
C. be accompanied with pictures.
D. provide the facts needed to describe and discuss the topic or subject.

3. Which of the following choices refers to a kernel sentence?
A. Simple
B. Active
C. Extended
D. Declarative

4. Which of the choices best completes the sentence, “We want to explore a new and
_______ destination in Asia?”
A. Excite
B. Excited
C. Exciting
D. Excitement

5. What kind of business letter is this excerpt, “Attached is a photocopy of the article,
Towards One Asia, which we will be publishing once we receive your permission to
print it” from? It is from a letter of __________.
A. Authorization
B. Excuse
C. Request
D. Complaint




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6. Asia’s transformation is due to its fast growing economy. The underlined expression
means_______.
A. change
B. transfer
C. location
D. position

7. What is the kernel sentence in this statement, “They are coping with these tasks in some
similar ways.”?
A. they are
B. they are coping
C. these tasks in some
D. tasks is some similar ways

8. Which of the choices will you refer to determine if the reading selection is an
informational text?
A. It is accompanied with pictures.
B. It is rich in opinions and reactions
C. It gives clear directions or steps in doing activities.
D. It has all the facts needed to describe and discuss the topic or subject.

9. In order to meet criteria on suitability, the writer must consider_____.
A. audience and purpose
B. length of the text
C. format and style
D. point of view

10. Which of the following choices refers to plagiarism?
A. The paraphrased material uses 80% of the words from the original source and
includes a parenthetical citation.
B. The words taken from a source are copied exactly, enclosed in quotation marks,
and followed by a credit.
C. The writer did not acknowledge the source since only the ideas and not the exact
words are used.
D. The same requirement was submitted by the student to her two professors for an
adjunct project.

11. Which of the following choices is highly reflected in the reading text?
A. S-symbol
B. I- imagery
C. F- figurative language
D. T- theme

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12. Why is it important to achieve brevity in writing?
A. Verbose writing is not synonymous with intelligence.
B. Big words are not needed to make your sound smart.
C. Ideas are better expressed when explained concisely.
D. Less is more.

13. Which of the choices should not be published in a literary folio or magazine?
A. poems
B. editorial
C. photographs
D. book review

14. Business letters are for_____.
A. banking transactions
B. financial business transactions
C. transactions in small enterprises or industries
D. communications in formal written language involving various purposes

15. As the editor in chief of your school organ you will write a letter to the principal to send
you to an international seminar on journalism. What kind of letter will you be writing?
A. Letter of Request
B. Letter of Approval
C. Letter of Complaint
D. Letter of Authorization

16. As a member of the organizing committee on choral interpretation, what will you look
for in a text which will be used by the competing participants?
A. vivid words
B. variety of roles
C. an enchanting story
D. repetitive verse or rhythm

17. The ONE ASEAN Committee has asked you to be a judge of the literary folio
competition. Which of the criteria below will you use to determine the folio’s depiction
of the theme?
A. responsive
B. engaging
C. concise
D. formal



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18. You have been asked by your teacher to make a report on the historic changes in Asia.
When you use a direct quotation from a source, you need to cite the following except
the _____.
A. author’s name
B. page number
C. year of publication
D. publishing company

19. You are a judge in an informative speech delivery contest, which of the criteria would
you use to assess the provided information?
A. accurate
B. concise
C. audience-centered
D. meaningful

20. In writing an essay about Asia, which of the following would you use to make your
kernel sentence more colorful?
A. adjective phrases
B. prepositional phrases
C. appositive phrases
D. noun phrase





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To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close attention
to the expected skills and the lesson map.

In this lesson, you are expected to do the following:
 Point out the role of literature in enabling one to grow in personhood.
 Determine what makes a text literary.
 Achieve sentence fluency in written outputs.
 Analyze a video of a choral interpretation of a literary text focusing on the theme
“Changing Perspectives.”
 Produce an e-literary folio which focuses on the theme, “Changing Perspectives.”

In this lesson, you are expected to cover the following:
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Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you know so far about Thailand.



As we go through life, we encounter people from
different walks of life. Interacting with them, we are exposed
to various views and different ways of understanding and
describing common experiences. This often leads us to
ponder on the question, “How do we express our views
while respecting other cultures?” Explore answers to this
question by engaging in a series of learning experiences in
this module. Begin by studying the picture below.




Work in pairs. Take turns in explaining what you see in the picture below.


















1. How many peers have you encountered whose perspective or view of the picture is
different from yours?
2. Have you tried convincing your peer of your view? How did you handle differences in
points of view?
3. How do you express your view while respecting others?
Know
[[ Acvity 1: SOMETHING OLD, SOMETHING NEW

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Take a look at the meaning of the word, perspective. The definition provides an
etymology or history of the word. The definition says that perspective also means
“mental outlook over time.” This means that views change through time. In this
lesson, you will explore your view or perspective of Africa, her people, culture and
heritage. Begin by filling out the first part (INITIAL ANSWER) of the IRF Worksheet.

MY CHANGING PERSPECTIVE (IRF)
Initial Answer


Revised Answer

Final Answer
[[ Acvity 2: MY CHANGING PERSPECTIVE
perspective (n) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=perspective
late 14c., "science of optics," from Old French perspective and directly from Me-
dieval Latin perspectivaars "science of optics," from fem. of perspectivus "of
sight, optical" from Latin perspectus "clearly perceived," pp. of perspicere "inspec