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MC LC

1. GII THIU CHUNG.................................................................................................2 2. IU CH TNG T CHO TN HIU S ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM MODULATION-DEMOLATION.....................................................................................5 2.1. Thit b s dng..................................................................................................5 2.2. L thuyt.............................................................................................................5 2.2.1 Cc phng php iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s..................................5 2.2.1.1. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch bin ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)................................................................................................................5 2.2.1.2. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch bin FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)................................................................................................................6 2.2.1.3. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch pha PSK (Phase Shift Keying) 7 2.2.1.4. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch hn hp pha v bin QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).................................................................12 2.2.1.5. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch pha vi phn DPSK (Differential Phase Shift Keying)..........................................................................................14 2.2.1.6. M truyn v ti lp tn hiu nhp........................................................16 2.2.2 S th nghim........................................................................................17 2.2.2.1. B iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM.........................................17 2.2.2.2. B Gii iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK...........................................24 2.3. Cp ngun v ni dy.......................................................................................28 2.4. Cc bi thc hnh............................................................................................29 2.4.1 Kho st cc phn chc nng....................................................................29 2.4.1.1. My pht nhp ti liu (Data Sequence Generator).............................29 2.4.1.2. Cc s to m ti liu....................................................................29 2.4.1.3. B hnh thnh sng mang (carrier generator).....................................32 2.4.1.4. B ti lp tn hiu nhp v gii m ti liu (DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY)....................................................................................................32 2.4.2 iu ch & gii iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s....................................35 2.4.2.1. iu ch & gii iu ch ASK.............................................................35 2.4.2.2. iu ch & gii iu ch FSK..............................................................40 2.4.2.3. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK.........................................................44 2.4.2.4. iu ch & gii iu ch QPSK (hnh 2-34)........................................48 2.4.2.5. iu ch v gii iu ch D-QPSK (Hnh 2-35)..................................49 2.4.2.6. iu ch QAM (hnh 2-36)..................................................................53

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

H THC HNH V IN T THNG TIN


1. GII THIU CHUNG H thng thit b thc hnh in t vin thng chuyn bao gm cc khi th nghim, thit k theo khi chun (Module), v thit b chnh TCPS-900. Cc khi th nghim chc nng cho php tin hnh cc bi thc hnh v in t thng tin chuyn v c s k thut truyn thng tin (xem mc lc lit k trn). Cc khi th nghim s dng cht 2 ly kt ni ngun v tn hiu. Trn bng mt khi c biu th trc quan s nguyn l v cc cht th (Test Point) kim tra tn hiu. Thit b chnh TCPS-900 (Hnh 1) dng cho 1 bn th nghim, bao gm: Khung g c kch thc 1.200 x 750 mm cha 2 tng vi rnh trt gn cc module 297 mm x aM (M = 100mm, a = 1; 2; 3; 4) Ngun chun TCPS-900, cung cp th chun: Ngun 1 chiu (DC) +12V/2A, -12V/0.75A, -5V/0.75A. S dng nui cc Module th nghim.

+5V/2A,

- Ngun AC 220V vi cng tc t ng, dng cp in cho cc thit b khc nh dao ng k, my pht,... Phn loi tng qut cc phng php iu ch - gii iu ch phc v cho vic truyn thng tin c gii thiu trong Bng 1. Truyn cc tn hiu tng t (li ni, nhc,...) theo phng php iu bin, iu tn v iu pha c thc hin trong phn thc tp in t thng tin c s. Cc phng php c bn iu ch tn hiu tng t hoc s cn li trong Bng 1 c thc hin trong phn thc hnh in t thng tin chuyn .

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

Bng 1

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

Hnh 1. Thit b chnh TCPS-900

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

2. IU CH TNG T CHO TN HIU S ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM MODULATION-DEMOLATION. 2.1. Thit b s dng 1. Khung chnh cho thc tp in t vin thng c bn TCPS-900. 2. Cc khi th nghim TC-946M, TC-946D cho bi thc tp v iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s (Hnh 2-17 & 2-23). 3. Dao ng k 2 tia. 4. Ph tng: dy c cht cm hai u. 2.2. L thuyt 2.2.1 Cc phng php iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s 2.2.1.1. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch bin ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) Phng php iu ch ASK (Hnh 2-1) cho php to tn hiu ASK dng sin vi hai bin . Bin tn hiu ASK tu thuc gi tr bit ti liu: - Khi Data bit = 1 s iu khin kho K ng (Hnh 2-1a), sng ASK nhn c li ra chnh l sng mang truyn qua, c bin bng bin sng mang (Hnh 2-1b). - Khi Data bit = 0 s iu khin kho K ngt, sng mang khng truyn qua kho. Tn hiu ASK c bin = 0.

Hnh 2-1. Phng php iu ch ASK Gii iu ch ASK iu ch thc hin theo cc s trn Hnh 2-2. s kiu 2-2a, b thu nhn c ti lp sng mang (Carrier Regenerator) v nhn sng ny vi tn hiu thu. B lc thng thp v s ngng cho php ti lp ti liu s c truyn. S 2-2b n gin hn, thng c s dng trong thc t. Tn hiu c tch sng trc tip, sau lc thng thp v hnh thnh. Phng php ASK c s rt n gin, c s dng ch yu trong k thut in bo. H thng c cc c trng sau: - Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) cao hn tc truyn bit (Fb). - Hiu sut truyn nh hn 1 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW)<1).
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

- Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng tc truyn Fb.

Hnh 2-2. Phng php gii iu ch ASK 2.2.1.2. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch bin FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) Phng php iu ch FSK (Hnh 2-3) cho php to tn hiu FSK dng sin vi hai tn s. Gi tr tn s ca tn hiu ASK tu thuc gi tr bit ti liu. V d s dng kiu s 2-3a: - Khi Data bit = 1, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s F1 vi li ra FSK. - Khi Data bit = 0, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s F2 vi li ra FSK. - Gin tn hiu FSK cho trn hnh 2-3D.

Hnh 2-3. Phng php iu ch FSK


PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

s iu ch FSK kiu 2-3b, s dng my pht iu khin bng th VCO (Voltage Control Oscillator). ng dng trng thi 0 hoc 1 ca ti liu, VCO s pht hai tn s F1 v F2 tng ng. Trn hnh 2-3c l s iu ch s dng cc b chia vi cc h s chia khc nhau: N v: M. Data bit s dng iu khin chn h s chia. V d, khi Data bit = 1, b chia c h s chia N, to chui xung ra c tn s F1 = f Clock /N. cn khi Data bit = 0, b chia c h s chia M, to chui xung ra c tn s F2 = f Clock /M. Gii iu ch FSK c th thc hin trn c s Hnh 2-4. Tn hiu FSK cha hai thnh phn tn s c gii iu ch bng s vng gi pha ( PLL).

Hnh 2-4. Phng php gii iu ch FSK Phng php FSK c s phc tp hn ASK, c s dng ch yu trong modem truyn s liu (kiu CCITT V21, CCITT V23, BELL 103, BELL 113, BELL 202) v trong k thut radio s. - Sai s t hn phng php ASK. - Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) cao hn tc truyn bit (Fb). - Hiu sut truyn nh hn 1 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW)<1). - Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng tc truyn Fb. 2.2.1.3. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch pha PSK (Phase Shift Keying) a. iu ch - Gii iu ch pha kiu 2-PSK (BPSK) Phng php iu ch 2-PSK hay BPSK (Binary PSK) hay iu ch ngc pha PRK (Phase Reversal Keying) c gii thiu trn Hnh 2-5. S to tn hiu BPSK dng sin vi hai gi tr pha tu thuc gi tr bit ti liu: - Khi Data bit = 1, iu khin s cho sng BPSK cng pha vi sng mang. - Khi Data bit = 0, iu khin s cho sng BPSK ngc pha (1800) vi sng mang. S iu ch thng c thc hin trn b nhn sng mang vi Data bit. Gin tn hiu v gin poha BPSK cho trn Hnh 2-5.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

Hnh 2-5. Phng php iu ch PSK Gii iu ch BPSK c th thc hin trn s Hnh 2-6. S gm b ti lp sng mang v b nhn.

Hnh 2-6. Phng php gii iu ch PSK. B ti lp sng mang bao gm: S ly bnh phng ( )2 chuyn cc tn hiu khc pha v cng 1 pha. Vng gia pha PLL pht li nhp vi tn s gp i tn s mang B dch pha hiu chnh pha. B chia hai a tn s tn hiu ti lp v bng tn s sng mang.

B nhn tn hiu thc hin nhn sng iu ch BPSK vi sng mang ti lp. Gi s tn s sng mang l fC, C = 2fC, ta c hai trng hp: Khi tn hiu BPSK l +sin(Ct) ng vi Data bit = 1, sng mang ti lp l sin(Ct), s nhn s cho tn hiu sin(Ct) sin(Ct) = sin2(Ct) = (1-cos(2 Ct) = - cos(2Ct).

Trong biu thc trn thnh phn th hai l xoay chiu, c tn s gp i tn s sng mang. Khi s dng b lc thng thp vi tn s ct bng tn s sng mang, c th kh b thnh phn xoay chiu v th dng ca thnh phn 1 chiu th nht c gi li s biu din trng thi 1 ca Data bit. Khi tn hiu BPSK l -sin(Ct) ng vi Data bit =1, s nhn s cho tn hiu :

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

-sin(Ct) sin(Ct) = -sin2(Ct) = -(1-cos(2 Ct) = - + cos(2Ct).


Trong biu thc trn thnh phn th hai l xoay chiu, c tn s gp i tn s sng mang. Khi s dng b lc thng thp vi tn s ct bng tn s sng mang, c th kh b thnh phn xoay chiu v th m ca thnh phn 1 chiu th nht c gi li s biu din trng thi 0 ca Data bit. S iu ch PSK c phc tp trung bnh, c s dng ch yu trong k thut radio s. H thng c cc c trng sau: Sai s t hn phng php FSK. Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) bng tc truyn bit (Fb). Hiu sut truyn = 1 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW) = 1).

Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng tc truyn Fb.

b. iu ch - Gii iu ch pha kiu 4-PSK (QPSK) Phng php iu ch 4-PSK hay QPSK (Quadrature PSK) c gii thiu trn Hnh 2-7. S to tn hiu QPSK dng sin vi bn gi tr pha, xc nh bi t hp (cp) 2 bit lin nhau ca ti liu nh phn. T hp 2 bit lin nhau ny c gi l Dibit c di 2 khong bit. Ti liu nh phn trc khi a vo s iu ch c to m Dibit nh trigger m i n gin. M Dibit c biu th bng tn hiu I v Q: - Tn hiu ti liu I (cng pha In Phase) gm cc mc th ng vi gi tr bit u ca cp bit kho st. - Tn hiu ti liu Q (bc 2 Quadrature) gm cc mc th ng vi gi tr bit th hai ca cp bit kho st.

Hnh 2-7. Phng php iu ch QPSK

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

Cc tn hiu I v Q c nhn vi cc sng mang lch pha nhau 90 0 (gi l 0 = sin(Ct) v 90 = cos(Ct) ). Kt qu l khi ly tng tn hiu c hai nhnh ca s Hnh 2-7, s nhn c cc tn hiu 0 +90; -0 +90; 0 -90; -0 -90. B iu ch QPSK nh vy c xy dng trn hai b BPSK, to ra hai tn hiu BPSKI v BPSKQ cho b ly tng hnh thnh tn hiu 4 pha. Gin pha v dng sng QPSK cho trn Hnh 2-7. Trn th cho thy vi 4 gi tr ca Dibit (I-Q), tn hiu QPSK c 4 pha khc nhau. Gii iu ch QPSK c th thc hin trn s Hnh 2-8. S gm b ti lp sng mang v cc b nhn ti lp Dibit. M Dibit sau c gii m chuyn v trng thi ti liu thng thng.

Hnh 2-8. Phng php gii iu ch QPSK B ti lp sng mang (hnh 2-9) bao gm:

Hnh 2-9. S ti lp sng mang cho gii iu ch QPSK Hai s ly bnh phng ( ) 2 chuyn cc tn hiu khc pha v cng 1 pha. Vng gi pha PLL pht li nhp vi tn s gp bn tn s mang. B dch pha hiu chnh pha. B chia hai chung a tn s tn hiu ti lp cn gp i tn s sng mang. Hai b chia hai vi nhp iu khin m lch pha 90 0 (ly t Q n b chia 2 chung) to cc sng mang ti lp lch pha nhau 90 0.
Q

ca

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

10

Hai b nhn tn hiu thc hin nhn sng iu ch QPSK vi cc sng mang ti lp lch pha. Tn hiu gii iu ch c lc thng thp ti lp tn hiu Dibit. Qua s trigger, chuyn m Dibit v m ti liu nh phn thng thng. S iu ch QPSK c phc tp cao, c s dng ch yu trong modem truyn s liu (kiu CCITT V22, CCITT V26, BELL 201) v trong k thut radio s. H thng c cc c trng sau: Sai s t hn phng php FSK. Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) bng na tc truyn bit (=Fb/2). Hiu sut truyn = 2 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW) = 2).

Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng na tc truyn (=Fb/2).

c. iu ch - Gii iu ch pha kiu 8-PSK Phng php iu ch 8-PSK to tn hiu dng sin vi tm gi tr pha lch nhau 450, xc nh bi t hp 3 bit lin nhau ca ti liu nh phn. T hp 3 bit lin nhau ny c gi l Tribit. Ti liu nh phn trc khi a vo s iu ch c to m Tribit nh cc trigger m i n gin. M Tribit c biu th bng tn hiu I, Q v C. Trn s Hnh 2-10 l gin chm sao ti liu c m dng tribit tng ng vi cc pha tn hiu lch so vi nhau 45 0. S iu ch 8-PSK c phc tp cao, c s dng ch yu trong modem truyn s liu (kiu CCITT V27, BELL 208) v trong k thut radio s. H thng c cc c trng sau: Sai s t hn phng php QPSK. Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) bng 1/3 tc truyn bit (=Fb/3). Hiu sut truyn = 3 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW) = 3). Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng 1/3 tc truyn (=Fb/3).

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

11

Hnh 2-10. Gin chm sao cho iu ch 8-PSK v 16-PSK d. iu ch - Gii iu ch pha kiu 16-PSK Phng php iu ch 16-PSK to tn hiu dng sin vi tm gi tr pha lch nhau 22.50, xc nh bi t hp 4 bit lin nhau ca ti liu nh phn. T hp 4 bit lin nhau ny c gi l Quadbit. Ti liu nh phn trc khi a vo s iu ch c to m Quadbit nh cc trigger m i n gin. Trn s Hnh 2-10 l gin chm sao ti liu c m dng Quadbit tng ng vi cc pha tn hiu lch so vi nhau 22.50. S iu ch 16-PSK c phc tp cao, c s dng ch yu k thut radio s. H thng c cc c trng sau: Sai s t hn phng php 8-PSK. Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch (FW) bng 1/4 tc truyn bit (=Fb/4). Hiu sut truyn = 4 (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW) = 4).

Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng 1/4 tc truyn (=Fb/4).

2.2.1.4. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch hn hp pha v bin QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) Trong phng php iu ch QAM, thng tin s c iu ch cha trong c pha v bin tn hiu truyn. Cc gi tr tn hiu iu ch c dng sin vi pha v bin c xc nh bi t hp cc bit lin nhau ca ti liu nh phn. H thng 8-QAM iu ch tn hiu trn c s t hp Tribit ca ti liu. Mt nhm trong chng thay i bin v 2 nhm cn li thay i v pha pha. Tn hiu iu ch s nhn 4 pha v 2 bin khc nhau (xem Bng 2-1). Trn s hnh 2-11 l gin chm sao ti liu c m dng Tribit cho iu ch 8-QAM. H thng 16-QAM iu ch tn hiu trn c s t hp Quadbit ca ti liu. Tn hiu iu ch s nhn 16 trng thi khc nhau v pha v bin (xem Bng 2-2). Bng 2-1 STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 LI VO NH PHN 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 LI RA 8-QAM 0.716V 1.848V 0.765V 1.848V 0.765V 1.848V -1350 -1350 -450 -450 +1350 +1350

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

12

7 8

1 1

1 1

0 1

0.765V 1.848V

+450 +450

Hnh 2-11. Gin chm sao cho iu ch 8-QAM v 16-QAM Bng 2.2 STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LI VO NH PHN 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 LI RA 16-QAM 0.311V 0.850V 0.311V 0.850V 0.850V 1.161V 0.850V 1.161V 0.311V 0.850V 0.850V 0.850V 0.850V 1.161V 0.850V 1.161V -1350 -1750 -450 -150 -1050 -1350 -750 -450 1350 1750 450 150 1050 1350 750 450

Trn s Hnh 2-11 l gin chm sao ti liu c m dng Quadbit cho iu ch 16-QAM.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

13

S iu ch QAM c phc tp cao, c s dng ch yu trong modem truyn s liu (kiu CCITT V22bis, CCITT V29, CCITT V32, CCITT V33, BELL 209) v trong k thut radio s. H thng c cc c trng sau: Sai s t hn phng php PSK. Ph cc tiu ca tn hiu iu ch ( FW) bng 1/n tc truyn bit ( =Fb/n), vi n l s bit kho st iu ch, v d, n-3 cho 8-QAM, n=4 cho 16-QAM. Hiu sut truyn = n (xc nh bng (Fb/ FW) = n).

Tc Baud c nh ngha nh tc iu ch bng 1/n tc truyn (=Fb/n).

2.2.1.5. Phng php iu ch - Gii iu ch pha vi phn DPSK (Differential Phase Shift Keying) Trong h thng iu ch PSK, vic gii iu ch c thc hin khi so pha tc thi ca PSK vi tn hiu mang ti lp b thu. H thng PSK vi thng tin cha trong gi tr pha tuyt i cn c gi l PSK tuyt i. Kh khn ca h thng ny l cn gi pha ca sng mang ti lp khng i. H thng DPSK c xy dng cho php gii quyt kh khn nu trn. Thng tin trong h DSPK khng cha trong cc gi tr tuyt i ca pha sng mang iu ch m cha trong s lch pha ca hai khong iu ch lin tip. a. BPSK vi phn Phng php iu ch BPSK vi phn c m t trn Hnh 2-12 v 2-13. Trong ti liu u tin c chuyn thnh m vi phn, sau s dng b BPSK iu ch pha. S EX-OR (hoc - loi tr) c lm chm i 1 khong bit. Li ra EXOR s o bit ra th (n+1) nu bit th (n) l 1 v gi li ra khng i nu bit (n) = 0. Kt qu l li ra b to m vi phn c s thay i pha 1800 ng vi mi bit ti liu = 1.

Hnh 2-12. Gin m vi phn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

14

B gii iu ch BPSK vi phn c hai phn: gii iu ch BPSK thng thng nhn li m vi phn. Sau b gii m vi phn cha s EX-OR v b lm chm 1 khong bit s ti lp li ti liu.

Hnh 2-13. Phng php iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK vi phn b. QPSK vi phn. Phng php iu ch QPSK vi phn c m t trn Hnh 2-14. Trong ti liu u tin c chuyn thnh m vi phn dng Dibit cho tn hiu D-I v D-Q, sau s dng b vi phn Dibit iu ch pha vi phn l cc sng sin lnh pha nhau 00, 900, 1800 v 2700. S EX-OR (hoc - loi tr) c s dng lm b so snh ti liu NRZ li vo vi ti liu li ra b so snh ( EX-OR) c lm chm i mt khong bit. Li ra EX-OR s o bit ra th (n+1) nu bt th (n) l 1 v gi li ra khng i nu bit (n)= 0.

Hnh 2-14. Phng php iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK vi phn Kt qu l li ra b to m vi phn c s thay i pha 1800 ng vi mi bit ti liu = 1. Bng 2-3 m t s tng ng gia ti liu Dibit v s dch pha tn hiu ra.

Bng 2-3 DIBIT 0 0 1 0 1 1 DCH PHA 00 900 1800

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

15

2700

2.2.1.6. M truyn v ti lp tn hiu nhp a. M NRZ. M NRZ (Non Return-to-Zero) l dng m nh phn th hin bng bt 0 v bit 1, l xung ch nht, c mc -a hoc +a c gi trong di khong bit. M NRZ thng c chia thnh 2 loi NRZ-L (Non Return to Zero-level) v NRZ-I (Non Return to Zero-inverted). Trong th nghim, s dng trng hp c bit ca m NRZ-L (Hnh 5-5a): -

NRZ - Data c phn cc ngc vi ti liu xc lp bng cc cng tc Dip-Switch. chnh l dng m NRZ-L.
Mc tn hiu +a v -a tng ng vi mc 1 v 0 tn hiu TTL.

Cch to m trn s lm n gin th nghim kho st cc phng php truyn s liu. pha thu nhn, cc mc 0 v 1 c c li tng ng vi tn hiu ng b. Tn hiu ng b c th gi theo ng truyn ring. Tuy nhin, thng tn hiu ng b c tch t chui tn hiu ti liu nh s c vng gi pha ( PLL).

Hnh 2-15. Gin m NRZ v m Manchester b. Ti lp tn hiu nhp S ti lp xung nhp c m t trn Hnh 2-16. S EX-OR c s dng so snh gia tn hiu ti liu vi tn hiu ti liu c lm tr (thng l khong di khong bit). Li ra EX-OR c tn hiu vi thnh phn ph tn s gp i tn hiu ti liu. S vng gi pha PLL s nhn pht li tn hiu ny vi tn s nhp ti lp bng ng tn hiu nhp sng mang. Tn hiu nhp ti lp c s dng to nhp cho cc s gii iu ch.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

16

Hnh 2-16. S ti lp tn hiu nhp

c. M Manchester
Khi chui tn hiu ti liu c bit 0 hoc 1 ko di lin tc, tn s tn hiu vo

PLL c th vt ra ngoi khong ng b, v vy chui xung nhp li ra c ti lp


c th s khng cn chnh xc. trnh sai lch ny c th biu din ti liu di dng m Manchester, trong bit 1 ko di c biu din bng chu k xung nhp trc tip, cn bit 0 ko di - biu din bng chu k xung ngc. Trn Hnh 2-15 m t gin hnh thnh xung Manchester t xung NRZ. 2.2.2 S th nghim 2.2.2.1. B iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM S khi th nghim TC-946M iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM c trnh by trn Hnh 2-17. S nguyn l cho trong phn ph lc ( Hnh PL2-1 PL2-4).

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

17

Hnh 2-17. Khi iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s TC-946D. a. My pht nhp ti liu (Data Sequence Generator) My pht xung ng h (Clock Generator): My pht xung ng h to tn hiu nhp chun cho cc b hnh thnh ti liu th nghim. My pht to trn U1 (NE555), pht xung vung tn s 2400Hz. Bin tr P1 (Frequency Adjust) cho php hiu chnh chnh xc tn s nhp (Hnh PL2-1). B chia 2 trn trigger 1200Hz.

d U2A (74LS74) to xung nhp chun

Trigger R-S trn cng U4A,D (74LS00) v nt nhn START to tn


hiu xo v khi ng ng b cho vic hnh thnh ti liu.

S to tn hiu m thi gian CKI, CKQ, CKC (Timing Circuit): S to cc xung mu thi gian c xy dng trn b ghi dch U3(74LS96) v chuyn mch MODE (S2A) chn kiu lm vic (hnh PL2-1). ch Dibit v Tribit, li ra song song b ghi dch ( QB hoc QC) c a tr v li vo ni tip (Serial). Nh vy, b ghi dch U3 c th pht chui xung lp li.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

18

Khi nhn nt START, b ghi dch c xo v xc lp trng thi ban u t cc li vo song song (A = 1, B, C = 0) theo nhp CK . Khi chuyn mch S2A v tr Dibit, li ra song song QC c a v li vo ni tip (SER). Tn hiu li vo CK s dch trng thi ghi trong U3 v chy theo vng, hnh thnh tn hiu CKI v CKQ (gin Dibit trn Hnh 2-18). Cc tn hiu ny lch nhau mt chu k xung nhp, c s dng cho th nghim iu ch QPSK v DQPSK. Khi chuyn mch S2A v tr Tribit, li ra song song QB c a v li vo ni tip (SER). Tn hiu li vo CK s dch trng thi ghi trong U3 v chy theo vng, hnh thnh tn hiu CKI, CKQ v CKC (gin Tribit trn Hnh 2-18). Cc tn hiu ny lch nhau mt chu k xung nhp, c s dng cho th nghim iu ch QAM.

Hnh 2-18. Gin thi gian tn hiu mu CKI, CKQ v CKC S to chui xung ti liu (Data Sequence): S to chui xung ti liu c xy dng trn cc b ghi dch U5U7 (74LS165) v chuyn mch SW1SW24 c s liu (Hnh PL2-1). B ghi dch to chui xung 24 bit gm 3 tng c ni theo vng: li ra ni tip tng trc ni vi li vo ni tip tng sau. V vy khi dch s liu, chui ti liu 24 c lp li. Li vo song song ca 3 b ghi dch ni vi 24 cng tc. Vi vic t cc cng tc ny (ON = 1, OFF=0), nh tn hiu START v CK c th np s liu ban u la chn t cng tc vo b ghi dch thnh chui ti liu DATA tng ng. Trn Hnh 2-18 l v d mt chui xung ti liu NRZ tng ng vi cu hnh cng tc la chn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

19

b. Cc s to m ti liu. B to m Manchester (Biphase Coder): B to m Manchester t ti liu DATA c xy dng trn vi mch U8D,C (Hnh PL2-2), thc hin so snh m ti liu DATA vi CK bng s EX-OR. Tn hiu ra s l xung nhp CK trc tip nu Data bit = 1 v l CK nu Data bit = 0 (Hnh 2-19).

Hnh 2-19. Hnh thnh m Manchester. B to m vi phn 1-bit: M vi phn bit c to khi chuyn mch S2B v S2D/MODE (Hnh PL2-2) v tr Bit (1). M ti liu DATA qua chuyn mch ny vo s EXOR/U8A so snh vi tn hiu li ra b so snh ( EX-OR) c lm chm i mt khon bit (xem s khi Hnh 2-13). B lm tr mt khong bit l trigger D/ U2B lm vic theo nhp CK. Tn hiu tr truyn khng o qua U9C a tr v li vo b so snh U8A. Kt qu l b to m vi phn s o ngc bit ra th (n+1) nu bit vo th n = 1 v gi li ra khng i nu bit (n) = 0. Gin tn hiu m vi phn 1- bit cho trn Hnh 2-20.

Hnh 2-20. Hnh thnh m vi phn 1-bit B to m Dibit: to m Dibit, cn t chuyn mch S2/MODE v tr Dibit (2). S to m Dibit c li ra I v Q, xy dng trn cc vi mch U10A,B v U11A (Hnh PL2-2).

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

20

Tn hiu I c to nh 2 trigger D mc ni tip (U10A,B). Trigger U10A c iu khin bi nhp CKI cn trigger U10B - bng nhp CKQ. Li ra I s c cc mc tng ng vi bit th nht ca Dibit vi di bng 2 khong bit (Hnh 2-21).

Hnh 2-21. Hnh thnh m Dibit B to m Dibit vi phn: Trong h iu ch QPSK vi phn, pha ca cc sng sin mang c cc gi tr 00, 900, 1800 v 2700, c xc nh nh hm ca ti liu Dibit (xem Hnh 2-14). B to m Dibit vi phn ly cc tn hiu I v Q b to m Dibit ( trnh by phn trn) to m Dibit vi phn vi cc li ra DIFF.I v DIFF.Q. to m Dibit vi phn, cn t chuyn mch S2/MODE v tr Dibit (2). Tn hiu I v Q c a vo hai b m vi phn 1-bit hnh thnh tn hiu ra: Tn hiu DIFF.I hnh thnh trn b so snh U8A, trigger D lm tr U2B (Hnh PL2-2) Tn hiu DIFF.Q hnh thnh trn b so snh U8B, trigger D lm tr U2A. Trong Bng 2-4 cho cc trng thi m ra I&Q, DIFF.I v DIFF.Q ng vi m Dibit th (n) v (n+1). Bng 2-4 Bit th (n) DIFF.I 0 DIFF.Q 0 I 0 0 Bit th (n) Q 0 1 Bit th (n+1) DIFF.I 0 1 DIFF.Q 0 0
21

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

B to m Tribit: to m Tribit, cn t chuyn mch S2/MODE v tr Tribit (3). S to m Tribit c li ra I, Q v C, xy dng trn cc vi mch U10A,B v U11A,B v U12B (Hnh PL2-2). Tn hiu I c to nh 2 trigger D mc ni tip (U10A,B). Trigger U10A c iu khin bi nhp CKI cn trigger U10B- bng nhp CKC. Li ra I s c cc mc tng ng vi bit th nht ca Tribit vi di bng 3 khong bit (Hnh 2-22). Tn hiu Q c to nh 2 trigger D mc ni tip (U11A,B). Trigger U11A c iu khin bi nhp CKQ cn trigger U11B- bng nhp CKC. Li ra Q s c cc mc tng ng vi bit th hai ca Tribit vi di bng 3 khong bit. (Hnh 2-22). Tn hiu C c to nh 2 trigger D - U12B c iu khin bi nhp CKC. Li ra C s c cc mc tng ng vi bit th ba ca Tribit vi di bng 3 khong bit. (Hnh 2-22).

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

22

Hnh 2-22. Hnh thnh m Tribit My pht sng mang (Carrier Generator): B to sng mang dng sin s dng cho iu ch l cc b lc thng thp xy dng trn U14 & U15 (Hnh PL2-3). S bin i cc sng vung 1200Hz v 2400Hz t my pht nhp thnh sng son. S dch pha ( Phase Adj.) nh cc mch RC (P1-C7, P3-C14, P5-C20) mc li vo cc tng khuch i tng ng cho php hiu chnh pha ca sng mang. Nhnh 1200Hz c hai b dch pha c hiu chnh lch nhau 900 cho tn hiu sin ra 1200Hz-0 v 1200Hz-90. B iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM: Cc phng php iu ch c kho st tin hnh trn s iu ch cn bng U17 v U18 (Hnh PL2-4) c b sung b cng U19B v b suy gim 6dBR49, R53, Q1. iu ch ASK: Ch s dng 1 trong hai b iu ch cn bng U17 v U18. Khi a m ti liu ti li vo DATA v sng mang ti li vo CARRIER, b iu ch cn bng s thc hin nhn hai tn hiu ny. Nu iu chnh bin tr cn bng sng mang CARRIER NULL sao cho h mt cn bng, li vo DATA s tc ng iu khin ng ngt kho cho tn hiu sng mang truyn qua. S trong ch ny hot ng theo kiu iu ch ASK.

iu ch FSK: Ch s dng c hai b iu ch cn bng U17 v U18. M ti liu c a ti li vo DATA cho c hai b iu ch. Sng mang 1200Hz cp cho li vo CARRIER ca U17, cn sng 2400Hz cho li vo CARRIER ca U18. Mi b iu ch cn bng s thc hin hai tn hiu DATA v CARRIER cc li vo tng ng. Khi iu chnh bin tr cn bng sng mang CARRIER NULL sao cho U17 cho tn hiu ra 1200Hz ng vi DATA bit = 0, cn U18 cho tn hiu ra 2400Hz ng vi DATA bit = 1. Cc tn hiu ny c ly tng trn U19B v cho tn hiu FSK li ra OUT. Ch s dng 1 trong hai b iu ch cn bng U17 v U18. Khi a m ti liu ti li vo DATA v sng mang ti li vo CARRIER, b iu ch cn bng s thc hin nhn hai tn hiu ny.

iu ch BPSK:

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

23

Nu iu chnh bin tr cn bng sng mang CARRIER NULL sao cho h cn bng, li vo DATA s tc ng iu khin pha cho tn hiu sng mang truyn qua. S trong ch ny hot ng theo kiu iu ch BPSK. Nu cp tn hiu dng vi phn 1-bit, ti liu iu ch s l BPSK vi phn (DBPSK). Trong kiu iu ch QPSK, cc sng mang lch nhau 1200Hz-0 v 1200Hz-90 t my pht sng mang c a ti li vo CARRIER ca hai b iu ch cn bng. Tn hiu Dibit I v Q t b to m Dibit c cp cho cc li vo DATA ca s iu ch. B iu ch cn bng s cp sng ra trc tip nu DATA bit = 1 v cp sng ra o pha nu DATA bit = 0. B ly tng s hnh thnh tn hiu 1200Hz vi 4 pha lch nhau 900 (Hnh 2-7). Khi s dng tn hiu I & Q lm m ti liu DATA, s l QPSK tuyt i. Cn khi s dng m DIFF.I v DIFF.Q s l QPSK vi phn (DQPSK).

iu ch QPSK: -

iu ch QAM: iu ch QAM c th xem nh QPSK c bin nhn hai gi tr khc nhau. Khi khong iu ch ph thuc trng thi Tribit I, Q v C. Hai gi tr I v Q xc nh pha tn hiu ra ging nh QPSK. Tn hiu C s dng iu chnh b suy gim 6dB (Q1) thay i bin sng ra. 2.2.2.2. B Gii iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK. S khi th nghim TC-946D gii iu ch ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK c trnh by trn Hnh 2-23. S nguyn l cho trong phn ph lc ( Hnh OL25 Pl2-8).

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

24

Hnh 2-23. Khi gii iu ch TC-946D. 1. B gii iu ch ASK B gii iu ch ASK l tp hp cc s (Hnh 2-2) sau: B thu tn hiu ASK trong mng DEMODULATORS / TC-946D (Hnh PL2-5). B lc thng thp (tn s ct 1200Hz) trn U7-U8 (Hnh PL2-6) v b hnh thnh xung trn U9 v EX-OR U10 trong mng DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. Dng tn hiu ra nh trn Hnh 2-2. 2. B gii iu ch FSK B gii iu ch FSK l tp hp cc s tng ng vi Hnh 2-4 nh sau: B thu tn hiu FSK (U2-PLL) trong mng DEMODULATORS / TC946D (Hnh PL2-5). B lc thng thp (tn s ct 1200Hz) trn U7-U8 (Hnh PL2-6) v b hnh thnh xung trn U9 v EX-OR U10 trong mng DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D.

3. B gii iu ch BPSK B gii iu ch BPSK l tp hp cc s tng ng vi Hnh 2-6 nh sau:

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

25

B thu tn hiu PSK/QPSK (U3 v U4) trong mng DEMODULATORS / TC946D (Hnh PL2-5). B ti lp sng mang (CARRIER RECOVERY) bao gm: Cc s ly bnh phng s dng b nhn U5 v U6 cho li ra SQR4 (Hnh PL2-5). Vng gi pha PLL (U15) pht li tn hiu vung gc. Chuyn mch S2 v tr QPSK cho php chn tn s trung tm ca PLL ng vi li ra nhn bn ca 2 s bnh phng. B dch pha (U4, P4-C28). Cc s chia 2 trn U2B, U2A v U5A. Cc tn hiu sng mang ti lp li ra lch nhau 900 ly 0 v 90. Cc tn hiu ny c a iu khin kho U4 s DEMODULATORS.

B lc thng thp (tn s ct 1200Hz) trn U7-U8 (Hnh PL2-6) v b hnh thnh xung trn U9 v EX-OR U10 trong mng DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. Ti liu hnh thnh li ra U4 (I v Q) tng ng vi Dibit. 4. B gii iu ch QPSK B gii iu ch QPSK l tp hp cc s tng ng vi Hnh 2-9 nh sau: B thu tn hiu PSK/QPSK (U3 v U4) trong mng DEMODULATORS / TC946D (Hnh PL2-5). B ti lp sng mang (CARRIER RECOVERY) bao gm: Cc s ly bnh phng s dng b nhn U5 v U6 cho li ra SQR4 (Hnh PL2-5). Vng gi pha PLL (U15) pht li tn hiu vung gc. Chuyn mch S2 v tr QPSK cho php chn tn s trung tm ca PLL ng vi li ra nhn bn ca 2 s bnh phng. B dch pha (U4, P4-C28). Cc s chia 2 trn U2B, U2A v U5A. Cc tn hiu sng mang ti lp li ra lch nhau 900 ly 0 v 90. Cc tn hiu ny c a iu khin kho U4 s DEMODULATORS.

B lc thng thp (tn s ct 1200Hz) trn U7-U8 (Hnh PL2-6) v b hnh thnh xung trn U9 v EX-OR U10 trong mng DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. Ti liu hnh thnh li ra U4 (I v Q) tng ng vi Dibit. 5. B gii m ti liu khi phc li ti liu NRZ, tn hiu li ra t cc s gii iu ch nh trnh by phn trn cn c gii m. B gii m (DECODER & CLOCH RECOVERY) cha cc mng s : B ti lp xung nhp ti liu (PLL & TIMING)
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
26

B gii m Manchester (MANCHESTER DECODER) B gii m 1-bit vi phn (DIFFERENTIAL BIT DECODER) B gii m Dibit vi phn (DIFFERENTIAL DIBIT DECODER) B gii m Dibit (BIT COMBINER) B ti lp xung nhp ti liu (PLL & TIMING): S ti lp xung nhp c xy dng theo s khi Hnh 2-15, bao gm b tr thi gian R88-C30 v cng EX-OR to xung c ph tn s gp i tn hiu ti liu. Vng gi pha PLL(U16 Hnh PL2-7) s pht xung CK1 v CK 1 c tn s bng xung nhp truyn. B chia 2 trn U17A to xung CK2 c chu k gp i CK1. Chuyn mch S1 cho php xc lp tn s chun ca vng gi pha tng ng vi ch gii m Manchester hoc BPSK hoc QPSK. Gii m Manchester c thc hin bng cch ly mu tn hiu gii iu ch na u ca khong bit. B gii m gm Trigger U19 (Hnh PL 27) ghi ti liu m theo nhp CK2. Tn hiu t cc trigger U19 qua s EX-OR U20D v n hi trn U23B to cc xung hp mi khi c s thay i t 0 -> 1 hoc ngc li ca ti liu m. Cc xung ny ng b vi nhp CK1 U21A to t ra c mt dng ng vi na u ca khong bit. Tn hiu ly mu ny s iu khin U21B ghi nhn tn hiu m li vo ti lp m NRZ t m Manchester. Gin thi gian ca s gii m Manchester cho trn Hnh 2-24.

B gii m Manchester (MANCHESTER DECODER): -

Hnh 2-24. Gin thi gian ca s gii m Manchester. B gii m 1-bit vi phn (DIFFERENTIAL BIT DECODER): Gii m vi phn 1-bit c thc hin bng cch so snh tn hiu m trc tip vi tn hiu lm tr. Nu cc tn hiu ny khc nhau, ngha l tn ti Data bit = 1, cn nu chng ging nhau Data bit = 0. Trn s PL2-7, U22A ghi ti liu m, cn U22B ghi ti liu m c lm tr theo cng nhp CK 1 . Trng thi ra ca cc trigger ny c so snh
27

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

trn EX-OR U20C. Trigger U23A s dng ng b li ti liu vi nhp CK1. B gii m Dibit (BIT COMBINER): B gii m Dibit l b ghi dch U27 (Hnh PL2-8). Cc tn hiu I v Q c np vo b ghi qua cc li vo song song C v D theo nhp m ca chu k Dibit CK2. S liu c c theo chu k xung nhp ti lp CK1. Li ra OUTPUT ly li song song QD. B gii m Dibit vi phn nhn cc tn hiu I vi phn v Q vi phn t b iu ch pht li hai tn hiu I v Q dng Dibit. S xy dng trn cc vi mch U24, U25, U26, U18C,D (Hnh PL2-8). Trng thi tn hiu ra I v Q tu thuc trng thi ca hai cp m cui cng ca Dibit vi phn li vo trong khong 2 bit. Trong Bng 2-5 cho cc trng thi ng vi m Dibit vi phn th (n) v (n+1). Bng 2-5 Bt th (n) DIFF.I 0 DIFF.Q 0 Bit th (n+1) DIFF.I 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 DIFF.Q 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 I 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Bit th n Q 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

B gii m Dibit vi phn (DIFFERENTIAL DIBIT DECODER): -

2.3. Cp ngun v ni dy Khi TC-946M v TC-946D s dng cht nui chung 12V. Khi s dng cn gn khi TC-946M v TC-946D ln khung chnh TCPS-900. Ch a khi vo rnh trn trc ri mi t theo rnh di. B ngun chun DC POWER SUPLY ca thit b TCPS-900 cung cp cc th chun +5V/2A, -5V/0.5A, 12V/2A, -12V/1A c nh. Khi thc tp, cn ni dy t cht ra cn thit v cht t ca ngun TCPS900 ti trc tip s . Ch cm ng phn cc ca ngun v ng h o
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
28

2.4. Cc bi thc hnh Nhim v: Kho st nguyn tc iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu s bng cc phng php tng t. Cc bc thc hin: 2.4.1 Kho st cc phn chc nng 2.4.1.1. My pht nhp ti liu (Data Sequence Generator) 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 v tr ng vi Bng 2-7 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF) Bng 2-7 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu. 3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti li Data ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung NRZ cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Bit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung CKI, cng gin thi gian vi xung CK v NRZ trn. 5. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Dribit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung CKI, CKQ cng gin thi gian trn. 6. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Tribit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung CKI, CKQ, CKC cng gin thi gian trn. 7. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), quan st tn hiu NRZ tng ng li ra Data ca b ghi dch. 2.4.1.2. Cc s to m ti liu B to m Manchester: 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-8 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE
Bng 2-8

SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC-946M). 2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu.
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
29

3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung DATA (NRZ) cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA ca b to m (ENCODING). 5. V gin xung cho cc tn hiu CK v tn hiu MANCHESTER vo cng gin thi gian trn. 6. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn B to m 1-bit vi phn: 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-9 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE
Bng 2-9

SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC-946M). 2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu. 3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung DATA (NRZ) cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA ca b to m (ENCODING). 5. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Bit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung DIFF DATA cng gin thi gian xung CK v NRZ trn. 6. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. B to m Dibit: 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-10 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE

Bng 2-10 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
30

Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING

(TC-946M).
2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu. 3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung DATA (NRZ) cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA ca b to m (ENCODING). 5. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Dibit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung I, Q vo cng gin thi gian trn. 6. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. B to m Dibit vi phn: 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-11 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE
Bng 2-11

SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1

ENCODING (TC-946M).

Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m

2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu. 3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung DATA (NRZ) cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA ca b to m (ENCODING). 5. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Bit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung DIFF DATA cng gin thi gian trn. 6. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn B to m Tribit: 1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-12 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE
Bng 2-12

SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
31

1 0 2

3 4

5 6

7 8 9 0

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC-946M). 2. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK. Xc nh tn s v v li dng tn hiu. 3. Nhn nt Start, s dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA ca b ghi dch (Shift Register). V li dng xung DATA (NRZ) cng gin thi gian vi xung CK trn. 4. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA ca b to m (ENCODING). 5. t chuyn mch Mode v tr Bit. Nhn nt Start, quan st v v li dng xung DIFF DATA cng gin thi gian vi xung CK v NRZ trn. 6. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. 2.4.1.3. B hnh thnh sng mang (carrier generator) 1. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu cc cht th ca b hnh thnh sng mang (CSRRIER GENERATOR) Tn hiu vo 1200Hz, 2400Hz dng vung. Tn hiu ra cc b lc FILTER. Tn hiu ra cc b chnh pha. Tn hiu ra cc b chnh bin .

2. Vn cc bin tr chnh pha v bin cho tng knh, quan st hiu ng trn tn hiu ra. 3. V li gin thi gian cho b hnh thnh sng mang. 2.4.1.4. B ti lp tn hiu nhp v gii m ti liu (DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY) B gii m Manchester 1. To m Manchester nh mc II.1. t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA GENERATOR/TC946D) v tr ng vi Bng 2-13 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF).

SEQUENCE

Bng 2-13 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

32

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING

(TC-946M).
2. Ni li ra MANCHESTER b to m ENCODING/TC-946M vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. t cng tc S1 ch ti lp v tr MANC. 3. Nhn nt START khi ng chui nhp. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK1, CK1 , CK2, CK 2 v li ra gii m MANC.OUT. So snh dng tn hiu DATA trc khi m v MANC.OUT sau khi gii m. 4. Ni trc tip li ra DATA (m NRZ) ca my pht nhp vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. 5. Quan st dng tn hiu. Nhn xt v tnh n nh ca xung nhp ti lp CK1, CK2. Gii thch ti sao kh xc lp nhp ti lp. 6. C th thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8) v lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. B gii m 1-bit vi phn 1. To m 1-bit vi phn nh mc II.2: t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR/TC-946D) v tr ng vi Bng 2-14 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF). Bng 2-14 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC-946M). Chuyn mch MODE t v tr BIT. 2. Ni li ra DIFF.DATA b to m ENCODING/TC-946M vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. t cng tc S1 ch ti lp v tr BPSK. 3. Nhn nt START khi ng chui nhp. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK1, CK 1 , CK2, CK 2 v li ra gii m DBOUT. So snh dng tn hiu DATA trc khi m v DBOUT sau khi gii m. 4. Ni trc tip li ra DATA (m NRZ) ca my pht nhp vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. Quan st dng tn hiu. Nhn xt v tnh n nh ca xung nhp ti lp CK1, CK2. Gii thch ti sao kh xc lp nhp ti lp. 5. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

33

B gii m Dibit 1. To m Dibit nh mc II.3: t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-15 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF). Bng 2-15 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC-946M). Chuyn mch MODE t v tr QPSK. 2. Ni li ra I v Q b to m ENCODING/TC-946M vi li vo I v Q ca b gii m BIT COMBINER / TC-946D. t cng tc S1 ch ti lp v tr MANC. 3. Nhn nt START khi ng chui nhp. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht CK1, CK 1 , CK2, CK 2 v li ra gii m MANC.OUT. So snh dng tn hiu DATA trc khi m v MANC.OUT sau khi gii m. 4. Ni trc tip li ra DATA (m NRZ) ca my pht nhp vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC-946D. Quan st dng tn hiu. Nhn xt v tnh n nh ca xung nhp ti lp CK1, CK2. Gii thch ti sao kh xc lp nhp ti lp. 5. C th thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8) v lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. B gii m Dibit vi phn 1. To m 1-bit vi phn nh mc II.4: t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (My pht nhp DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) v tr ng vi Bng 2-16 (1 = ON, 0 = OFF). Bng 2-16 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Ni li ra DATA ca my pht nhp vi li vo DATA ca b to m ENCODING (TC946M). Chuyn mch MODE t v tr QPSK. 2. Ni li ra DIFF.I v DIFF.Q ca b to m ENCODING/TC-946M vi li vo IDIFF v QDIFF ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY / TC946D. Ni I v Q ca b gii m Dibit vi phn DIFFERENTIAL DIBIT DECODER li vo I v Q ca b gii m BIT COMBINER/TC-946D. 3. Nhn nt START khi ng chui nhp. S dng dao ng k quan st tn hiu ti cht DATA/My pht chui ti liu ca TC-946M v MOUT/TCPULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

34

946D. So snh dng tn hiu DATA trc khi m v BCOUT sau khi gii m
Dibit vi phn. 2.4.2 iu ch & gii iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s Trong phn thc hnh vi cc khi TC-946M v TC-946D c th t chc nhiu mc th nghim v truyn s liu kiu iu ch tng t cho tn hiu s. Di y c gii thiu mt s bi c bn. 2.4.2.1. iu ch & gii iu ch ASK Truyn ti liu trc tip (hnh 2-25) 1. Xc lp ti liu DATA chi th nghim: t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) theo Bng 2-17. Bng 2-17 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Nhn nt START, kim tra v v li tn hiu nhp CK v DATA.

2. Ni li ra DATA (DATA

SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M.

3. Ni tn hiu sng mang 2400Hz (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi li vo CARRIER/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC946M. Li vo CI iu khin b suy gim li ra MODULATORS ni t. iu chnh bin sng mang 1 V. Chnh lch pha sng mang MIN. 4. iu chnh bin tr CARRIER NULL ca MODULATOR 1 cho mt cn bng v bin sng mang thch hp nhn tn hiu ASK. V dng tn hiu vo gin xung theo CK v DATA trn. 5. Ni li ra MOUT ca MODULATORS / TC-946M vi li vo ASK IN ca DEMODULATORS / TC-946D. Ni li ra ASK DATA OUT vi li vo FCIN1 b lc v hnh thnh trong phn DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY/TC946D. 6. Quan st dng xung ra ti cc im vo ra ca b gii iu ch, b lc v hnh thnh. iu chnh ngng ca COMPARATOR nhn tn hiu ra. 7. V li dng cc tn hiu trn vo gin xung. So snh DATA nhn ti FCOUT1 vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. 8. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

35

Hnh 2-25. iu ch & gii iu ch ASK: Truyn ti liu trc tip.

Truyn ti liu kiu m Manchester (hnh 2-26):


PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

36

1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung b to m v gii m Manchester vo s : - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra MANCHESTER vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh /TC-946D vi li vo IN ca b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY. - Ti liu cui ly MANC.OUT - Cng tc S1 t v tr MANS 2. Chnh ngng ca b lc v hnh thnh xung nhn tn hiu ra gii iu ch ging tn hiu vo (DATA). Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti MANC.OUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. Truyn ti liu kiu m 1-bit vi phn (hnh 2-27): 1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung b to m v gii m 1-bit vo s : - Cng tc S1 t v tr BPSK. - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra DIFF.DATA vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh vi li vo IN ca b gii m

DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY.


- Chuyn mch MODE t BIT - Ti liu cui ly DBOUT.OUT 2. Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti DBOUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

37

Hnh 2-26. iu ch & gii iu ch ASK: Truyn ti liu kiu Manchester.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

38

Hnh 2-27. iu ch & gii iu ch ASK: Truyn ti liu kiu vi phn 1bit
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

39

2.4.2.2. iu ch & gii iu ch FSK Truyn ti liu trc tip (hnh 2-28) 2. Xc lp ti liu DATA cho th nghim: - t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) theo Bng 2-18. Bng 2-18 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 - Nhn nt START, kim tra v v li tn hiu nhp CK v DATA. 2. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. Ni li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1 vi MODULATOR 2. 3. Ni tn hiu sng mang 1200Hz (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi li vo CARRIER/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC946M. Ni tn hiu sng mang 2400Hz (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi li vo CARRIER/ BALANCED MODULATOR 2 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. Li vo CI iu khin b suy gim li ra MODULATORS ni t. iu chnh bin sng mang 2 V. Chnh lch pha sng mang MIN. 4. iu chnh bin tr CARRIER NULL ca MODULATOR 1 - 2 v tinh chnh pha sng mang thch hp nhn tn hiu FSK (xem Hnh 2-4). V dng tn hiu vo gin xung theo CK v DATA trn. 5. Ni li ra MOUT ca MODULATORS / TC-946M vi li vo FSK IN ca DEMODULATORS / TC-946D. Ni li ra FSK DATA OUT vi li vo FCIN1 b lc v hnh thnh trong phn DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY/TC946D. 6. Quan st dng xung ra ti cc im vo ra ca b gii iu ch, b lc v hnh thnh. 7. V li dng cc tn hiu trn vo gin xung. So snh DATA nhn ti FCOUT1 vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. 8. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn. Truyn ti liu kiu m 1-bit vi phn (hnh 2-29) 1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung b to m v gii m 1-bit vi phn vo s : - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra DIFF.DATA vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1 - 2.
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
40

- Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh / TC-946D vi li vo IN b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY. - Chuyn mch MODE t MANC. - Ti liu cui ly MANC.OUT. 2. Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti MANC.OUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. Truyn ti liu kiu m 1-bit vi phn (hnh 2-30) 1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung b to m v gii m 1-bit vi phn vo s : - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra DIFF.DATA vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1 - 2. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh vi li vo IN b gii m

DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY.

- Chuyn mch MODE/TC-946M t BIT. Chuyn mch S1 v S2 /TC946D t BPSK. - Ti liu cui ly DBOUT. 2. Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti DBOUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

41

Hnh 2-28. iu ch & gii iu ch FSK: Truyn ti trc tip.


PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
42

Hnh 2-29. iu ch & gii iu ch FSK: Truyn ti kiu vi phn 1bit

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

43

2.4.2.3. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK Truyn ti liu trc tip (hnh 2-30) 1. Xc lp ti liu DATA cho th nghim: - t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) theo Bng 2-19. Bng 2-19 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 - Nhn nt START, kim tra v v li tn hiu nhp CK v DATA. 2. Ni li ra DATA (DATA

SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M.

3. Ni tn hiu sng mang 2400Hz (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi li vo CARRIER/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 ca s MODULATORS / TC946M. Li vo CI iu khin b suy gim li ra MODULATORS ni t. iu chnh bin sng mang 2 V. Chnh lch pha sng mang MIN. 4. iu chnh bin tr CARRIER NULL ca MODULATOR 1 v tinh chnh pha sng mang thch hp nhn tn hiu BPSK nh Hnh 2-5. V dng tn hiu vo gin xung theo CK v DATA trn. 5. Ni li ra MOUT ca MODULATORS / TC-946M vi li vo PSK/QPSK IN ca DEMODULATORS / TC-946D. Ni li ra bnh phng SQR2 vi li vo PPL IN (CARRIER RECOVERY). Cng tc S2 t BPSK. Ni li ra PA2 ca b chia 2 vi cht iu khin kho 0 ca PSK/QPSK DEMODULATIONS/TC-946D. Ni li ra I vi li vo FCIN1 b lc v hnh thnh trong phn DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY/TC946D. iu chnh ngng b lc v hnh thnh nhn tn hiu ra. 6. Quan st dng xung ra ti cc im vo ra ca b gii iu ch BPSK, b lc v hnh thnh. 7. V li dng cc tn hiu trn vo gin xung. So snh DATA nhn ti FCOUT1 vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. 8. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li cc bc th nghim nu trn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

44

Hnh 2-30. iu ch - gii iu ch BPSK

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

45

Truyn ti liu kiu D-BPSK (Hnh 2-31) 1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung to m v gii m 1-bit vi phn vo s : - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra DIFF.DATA vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh vi li vo IN b gii m

DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY.


- Chuyn mch MODE/TC-946M t BIT. Chuyn mch S1 v S2 /TC946D t BPSK. - Ti liu cui ly DBOUT. 2. Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti DBOUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

46

Hnh 2-31. iu ch & gii iu ch BPSK vi phn

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

47

2.4.2.4. iu ch & gii iu ch QPSK (hnh 2-34) 1. Xc lp ti liu DATA cho th nghim - t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) theo Bng 2-20. Bng 2-20 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 - Nhn nt START, kim tra v v li tn hiu nhp CK v DATA. 2. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA/ ENCODING/ TC-946M nhn m Dibit - I v Q. Chuyn mch MODE t DIBIT. 3. Ni li ra I v Q tng ng vi li vo CARRIER/BALANCED MODULATOR 1 v 2 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. 4. iu chnh bin sng mang ~ 1 V. Chnh bin tr pha c cc sng mang 1200Hz lch pha nhau 900 nh Hnh 2-32.

Hnh 2-32. Dng sng mang lch pha 900 5. Ni tn hiu sng mang 1200Hz-0 v 1200Hz-90 (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi cc li vo CARRIER/BALANCED MODULATOR 1 v 2 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. Li vo CI iu khin b suy gim li ra MODULATORS ni t. 6. iu chnh bin tr CARRIER NULL ca MODULATOR 1-2 v bin sng mang thch hp nhn tn hiu QPSK. V dng tn hiu vo gin xung theo CK v DATA trn. (xem gin mu Hnh 2-33) 7. Ni li ra MOUT ca MODULATORS / TC-946M vi li vo PSK/QPSK IN ca DEMODULATORS / TC-946D. - Ni li ra ca hai b bnh phng SQR4 vi li vo PPL IN (CARRIER RECOVERY). - Ni li ra 0 ca b ti lp sng mang vi cht iu khin kho 0 ca PSK/QPSK DEMODULATIONS/TC-946D.
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
48

- Ni li ra 90 ca b ti lp sng mang vi cht iu khin kho 90 ca PSK/QPSK DEMODULATIONS/TC-946D. - Ni li ra I/DEMODULATION vi li vo FCIN1 b lc v hnh thnh trong phn DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY/TC946D. - Ni li ra Q/DEMODULATION vi li vo FCIN2 b lc v hnh thnh trong phn DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY/TC946D. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 vi li vo I b gii m Dibit ( Bit COMBINER) v vi li vo IN. - Ni li ra FCOUT2 vi li vo Q b gii m Dibit (Bit COMBINER). - Chuyn mch S1 v S2 t QPSK. - Ti liu ra ly BCOUT. iu chnh ngng b lc v hnh thnh nhn tn hiu ra.

Hnh 2-33. Tn hiu QPSK. 8. Quan st dng xung ra ti cc im vo-ra ca b gii iu ch QPSK, b lc v hnh thnh. 9. V li dng cc tn hiu trn vo gin xung. So snh tn hiu nhn ti FCOUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn. 10. Thay i cu hnh cng tc t s liu cho b ghi dch ( SW DIP-8), lp li th nghim. 2.4.2.5. iu ch v gii iu ch D-QPSK (Hnh 2-35) 1. Gi nguyn cu hnh ni trn v b sung b to m v gii m Dibit vi phn vo s : - Ni li ra DATA ca my pht ti liu vi li vo DATA b to m ENCODING. - Ni li ra DIFF.I vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 1.
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)
49

- Ni li ra DIFF.Q vi li vo DATA ca MODULATOR 2. - Ni li ra FCOUT1 ca b lc v hnh thnh vi li vo IDIFF b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY. - Ni li ra FCOUT2 ca b lc v hnh thnh vi li vo QDIFF b gii m DECODER & CLOCK RECOVERY. - Ni li ra I ca b gii m Dibit vi phn ( DIFF.DIBIT DECODER) vi li vo I b gii m Dibit (BIT COMBINER). - Ni li ra Q ca b gii m Dibit vi phn ( DIFF.DIBIT DECODER) vi li vo Q b gii m Dibit (BIT COMBINER). - Chuyn mch MODE t BIT. - Ti liu cui ly DBOUT 2. Quan st v v li dng tn hiu vo ra ca cc phn chc nng thit b. So snh DATA nhn ti DBOUT vi ti liu DATA (NRZ) truyn.

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

50

Hnh 2-34. iu ch - gii iu ch QPSK

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

51

Hnh 2-35. iu ch - gii iu ch D-QPSK

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

52

2.4.2.6. iu ch QAM (hnh 2-36) 1. Xc lp ti liu DATA cho th nghim. - t cc cng tc SW DIP-8 (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) theo Bng 2-21. Bng 2-21 SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 - Nhn nt START, kim tra v v li tn hiu nhp CK v DATA. 2. Ni li ra DATA (DATA SEQUENCE GENERATOR) vi li vo DATA/ ENCODING/ TC-946M nhn m Tribit I, Q v C. Chuyn mch MODE t TRIBIT. 3. Ni li ra I v Q tng ng vi li vo CARRIER/BALANCED MODULATOR 1 v 2 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. 4. Ni li ra C vi cc li vo CI ca b suy gim / MODULATORS / TC-946M. 5. Ni tn hiu sng mang 1200Hz-0 v 1200Hz-90 (CARRIER GENERATOR) vi cc li vo CARRIER/ BALANCED MODULATOR 1 v 2 ca s MODULATORS / TC-946M. 6. iu chnh CARRIER NULL ca cc b iu ch cn bng nhn tn hiu ra QAM ti MOUT. 7. V li dng cc tn hiu ra v gin .

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

53

Hnh 2-36. iu ch QAM

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

54

Hnh PL2-1: Timing & Pattern

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

55

Hnh PL2-2: Encoding


PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

Hnh PL2-1. TIMING & PATTERN


56

Hnh PL2-3: Carrier Generator


PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

57

Hnh PL2-4: Modulators

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

58

Hnh PL2-5: Demodulators & Squarers

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

59

Hnh PL2-6: Low-Pass Filter & Voltage Comparator Carrier Recovery

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

60

Hnh PL2-7

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

61

Hnh PL2-8
PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

62