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2. Kt ni mng khng dy doanh nghip: Chun 802.

16a c dng lm c s lin thng cc mng LAN khng dy, hotspot WiFi 802.11 hin c. Doanh nghip c th t do m rng qui m vn phng m mi trng mng cc b vn c lin lc nu c mng trung gian khng dy chun 802.16a. 3. Bng rng theo nhu cu. H thng khng dy cho php trin khai hiu qu ngay c khi s dng ngn hn. Nh cung cp dch v c th nng cp hoc gim bt nng lc phc v ca h thng theo nhu cu thc t, gip nng cao hiu qu kinh doanh, tng tnh cnh tranh ca doanh nghip. 4. M rng nhanh chng, tit kim. H thng 802.16a cho php ph sng n nhng vng a hnh him tr. Khng ch trin khai dch v d liu tc cao, h thng cn cho php trin khai dch v thoi. 5. Lin thng dich v. Vi cng ngh IEEE 802.16e m rng t 802.16a, trong tng lai ngi dng s c h tr dch v roaming. D kin n 2006, cng ngh WiMAX s c tch hp vo my tnh xch tay, PDA nh Wi-Fi hin nay v tng bc hnh thnh nn nhng vng dch v khng dy bng rng mang tn "MetroZones".

Hnh 1-2 M hnh trin khai WiMAX

Hng BellSouth s trin khai dch v wireless bng thng rng ti mt vi a im Athens (Hy Lp) v Georgia (M) vo thng 8, sau s m rng ti mt s thnh ph thuc bang Florida (M) ngay trong nm 2005. Tuy nhin nhng thit b nh b x l, thit b nh tuyn v chip cho IEEE 802.16 vn cha c kim nghim v cng nhn. Qu trnh kim tra bt u vo thng 7, v sn phm c hy vng s sm ti tay cc nh cung cp dch v Internet khng dy v hng vin thng vo cui 2005. Dch v Internet truy cp nhanh (FastAccess Internet Service) ca BellSouth c kh nng tng tc truy cp ln ti 1,5 Mb/giy trong phm vi 3 n 5 dm (5 - 8 km). K hoch mi ny nhm h tr nhng vng xa xi ho lnh, ni m dch v DSL v cp bng thng rng khng th tip cn c. l bc tip theo sau khi AT&T xc tin dch v WiMax ng dng cng ngh ca Navini Networks ti Middletown, New Jersey thng 5-2005. Trong khi , hng Sprint cng s sm a ra k hot pht trin thit b WiMax cui nm nay. Hip hi Vin thng M ang xc tin chun ha ch s bng tn 3,65 - 3,70 GHz cho WiMax. Nhng cng ngh ny ngy cng ln mnh, cn xy dng mt h thng kinh t nhm pht trin thit b, ng dng, cng nh h tr vic theo ui th trng WiMax v sau.

1.5.2 WIRELESS USB


Chun USB khng dy (WUSB) c pht trin da trn chun USB c dy nhm a u im ca chun ny vo th gii khng dy tng lai. Chun WUSB c thit k kt ni cc thit b in t dn dng, thit b ngoi vi my tnh v thit b di ng. c t WUSB c thit k thay th cc m hnh ang dng kt ni nhm thit b n thit b ch, thit b-thit b trong khong cch di 10m. Bng thng USB khng dy lc cng b tng ng vi bng thng ca chun USB Hi-Speed hin ti l 480Mbps. Trong tng lai, bng thng WUSB c th t n 1Gbps khi ha nhp vo sng UWB.

Hnh 1-3 M hnh trin khai WUSB trong gia nh

1.5.3 UWB (ULTRA WIDEBAND)


UWB l ph tn mi v duy nht c cng nhn chnh thc gn y cho php dng bng tn rng n 7GHz, tri t tn s 3,1GHz n 10,6GHz. Mi knh sng c th c bng thng ln hn 500MHz ty thuc vo tn s trung tm. FCC a ra cc qui nh nghim ngt v nng lng pht sng sao cho mc nng lng m thit b UWB s dng khng nm trong vng nng lng dnh cho thit b bng tn hp. Nh sn xut rt ch trng ng dng cng ngh CMOS do s gii hn v nng lng ca h thng UWB. Cng ngh UWB cho php ti s dng tn s lm vic. Trong kt ni ngoi vi, UWB k tha c hiu nng v tnh d dng ca chun giao tip USB. tho b dy ni, chun Bluetooth khng dy cng ra i trc y nhng cn hn ch v hiu nng v tnh lin tc. Gii php WUSB da trn UWB va ra i c th mang li hiu nng tng ng cp USB v kt

ni khng dy. Kt ni USB khng dy s l c s quan trng UWB tip cn n mng th trng kt ni ngoi vi my tnh hin nay. Mt trong nhng mc tiu mi cng b ca nhm xy dng Wireless USB l a ra c t t tc 480Mbps (tng ng USB 2.0) trong bn knh 10m. Vng ph ca hotspot Internet hin nay l nn tng hnh thnh th trng truy xut Internet di ng t thit b cm tay. Hai cng ngh hin ti l WLAN 802.11a/g v WPAN Bluetooth cn c nhng hn ch ring do cha cn i c hai yu t l nng lc cao v nng lng thp. Sau khi ra i, UWB s l cng ngh t c cng lc c hai yu t trn nn c tc dng thc y mnh m hn na th trng truy cp Internet khng dy.

Chng 2 Mng cc b khng dy


2.1 Tng quan v WLAN
2.1.1 Gii thiu
Wirless LAN l m hnh mng c s dng cho mt khu vc c phm vi nh nh mt ta nh, khun vin ca mt cng ty, trng hc. N l loi mng linh hot c kh nng c ng cao thay th cho mng cp ng. WLAN ra i v bt u pht trin vo gia thp k 80 ca th k XX bi t chc FCC (Federal Communications Commission). Wireless LAN s dng sng v tuyn hay hng ngoi truyn v nhn d liu thng qua khng gian, xuyn qua tng trn v cc cu trc khc m khng cn cp. Wireless LAN cung cp tt c cc chc nng v cc u im ca mt mng LAN truyn thng nh Ethernet hay Token Ring nhng li khng b gii hn bi cp.Ngoi ra WLAN cn c kh nng vi cc mng c sn, Wireless LAN kt hp rt tt vi LAN to thnh mt mng nng ng v n nh hn. Wireless LAN l mng rt ph hp cho vic pht trin iu khin thit b t xa, cung cp mng dch v ni cng cng, khch sn, vn phng. Trong nhng nm gn y, nhng ng dng vit cho mng khng dy ngy cng c pht trin mnh nh cc phm mm qun l bn hng, qun l khch sn ...cng cho ta thy c nhng li ch ca Wireless LAN. Wireless LAN s dng bng tn ISM (bng tn phc v cng nghip, khoa hc, y t : 2,4 GHz 5 GHz ) v th n khng chu s qun l ca chnh ph cng nh khng cn cp giy php s dng. S dng Wireless LAN s gip cc nc ang pht trin nhanh chng tip cn vi cc cng ngh hin i, nhanh chng xy dng h tng vin thng mt cch thun li v t tn km. Trn th trng hin nay c rt nhiu sn phm phc v cho WLAN theo cc chun khc nhau nh: IrDA (Hng ngoi), OpenAir, BlueTooth, HiperLAN 2, IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi), trong mi chun c mt c im khc nhau. IrDA, OpenAir, BlueTooth l cc mng lin kt trong phm vi tng i nh: IrDA (1m), OpenAir(10m), Bluetooth (10m) v hnh mng (topology) l dng peer-to-peer

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tc l kt ni trc tip khng thng qua bt k mt thit b trung gian no. Ngc li, HiperLAN v IEEE 802.11 l hai mng phc v cho kt ni phm vi rng hn khong 100m, v cho php kt ni 2 dng: kt ni trc tip, kt ni dng mng c s (s dng Access Point) . Vi kh nng tch hp vi cc mng thng dng nh (LAN, WAN), HiperLAN v Wi-Fi c xem l hai mng c th thay th hoc dng m rng mng LAN.

2.1.2 u khuyt im ca WLAN


u im o Tnh c ng: c im khc bit r rng nht v cng l u im ca Wireless LAN so vi LAN l tnh c ng. Cc my trm (PDA, Laptop,PC,.) trong mng c th di chuyn linh hot trong phm vi ph sng. Hn th na, nu c nhiu mng, cc my trm s t ng chuyn kt ni khi i t mng ny sang mng khc.iu ny rt thun tin khi i du lch, cng tc, hay khi di chuyn ti sn bay vn c th gi v nhn email hay bt c thng tin no khc trong khi ngi ch ti sn bay, thun li cho cc nh doanh nghip l nhng ngi hay di chuyn m lun cn c kt ni vi mng. o Ci t n gin v gi r: Chi ph trin khai mng Wireless LAN s r hn mng LAN v Wirless LAN khng dng cp. Vic ci t cng d dng hn, khng b nh hng bi cc chng ngi vt. Nhiu quc gia khuyn ngh khi m rng hay nng cp mng nn trnh dng cp li trong cc to nh. Vi mng Wireless LAN ngi s dng c th di chuyn trong mng vi khong cch cho php, nu ngi s dng i ra khi phm vi mng, h thng ca ngi s dng s nhn bit mng khc p ng yu cu.

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Khuyt im o Nhiu: Do truyn thng qua mi trng sng v vy s c ri ro nhiu t cc sn phm khc s dng chung mt tn s. o Bo mt: Vic v tnh truyn d liu ra khi mng ca cng ty m khng thng qua lp vt l iu khin khin ngi khc c th nhn tn hiu v truy cp mng tri php. Tuy nhin Wireless LAN c th dng m truy cp mng ngn cn truy cp, vic s dng m tu thuc vo mc bo mt m ngi dng yu cu. Ngoi ra ngi ta c th s dng vic m ha d liu cho vn bo mt.

2.2 Cc chun thng dng ca WLAN


Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca mng khng dy, cc chun ( v ng thi l cc thit b ) mng khng dy ln lt ra i v ngy cng c nng cp, ci tin. Nhng chun ra i sm nht nh IEEE 802.11 tr nn ph bin. Sau l HiberLAN, HomeRF, OpenAir v gn y l BlueTooth. Mi chun u mang mt s c tnh, u im ring ca n.

2.2.1 Cc chun IEEE 802.11


2.2.1.1 Ngun gc ra i ca IEEE 802.11
Vin k thut in in t M (IEEE _ Institute of Electrical and Electronic Enginrneers-IEEE) l t chc nghin cu, pht trin v cho ra i nhiu chun khc nhau lin qua n mng LAN nh: 802.3 cho Ethernet, 802.5 Token Ring, 802.3z 100BASE - T .IEEE c chia thnh cc nhm pht trin khc nhau : 802.1, 802..2, ..Mi nhm m nhn nghin cu v mt lnh vc ring. Cui nhng nm 1980, khi m mng khng dy bt u c pht trin, nhm 802.4 ca IEEE nhn thy phng thc truy cp token ca chun LAN khng c hiu qu khi

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p dng cho mng khng dy. Nhm ny ngh xy dng mt chun khc p dng cho mng khng dy. Kt qu l IEEE quyt nh thnh lp nhm 802.11 c nhim v nh ngha tiu chun lp vt l (PHY Physical ) v lp MAC (Medium Access Control) cho WirelessLAN.

Hnh 2-1 IEEE 802.11 v ISO

Chun u tin m IEEE cho ra i l IEEE 802.11 vo nm 1997.Tc t c l 2Mbps s dng phng php tr ph trong bng tn ISM ( Bng tn dnh cho cng nghip, khoa hc v y hc). Tip sau l cc chun IEEE 802.11a, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11g. V mi y nht l s ra i ca chun IEEE802.11i.

2.2.1.2 IEEE 802.11b


Kin trc , c trng, v cc dch v cung cp c bn ca 802.11b ging vi chun ban u 802.11. N ch khc so vi chun ban u tng vt l. 802.11b cung cp kh nng trao i d liu cao hn v kt ni hiu qu hn. S khc bit chnh l 801.11b t n hai tc truyn d liu mi l 5.5 Mbps v 11MBps so vi 2 Mbps ca chun u tin.

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IEEE 802.11b t c tc cao hn cc chun 802.11 trc nh s dng CCK (Complementary Code Keying). CCK l mt chui cc m m c th s dng m ho tn hiu, cn 6 bit c th miu t mt t m ho. T m ho theo CCK sau c iu chnh vi k thut QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) s dng DSSS (Direct sequence spread spectrum) 2Mbps. iu ny cho php thm 2 bit m ho k t. Mt trong nhng nhc im ca IEEE 802.11b l bng tn d b nghn v h thng d b nhiu bi cc h thng mng khc, l vi ba, cc loi in thoi hot ng tn s 2.4 GHz v cc mng BlueTooth. ng thi IEEE 802.11b cng c nhng hn ch nh: thiu kh nng kt ni gia cc thit b truyn ging ni, khng cung cp dch v QoS (Quality of Service) cho cc phng tin truyn thng. Mc d vn cn mt vi hn ch v nhc im nhng chun 802.11b (thng gi l Wifi) l chun thng dng nht hin nay bi s ph hp ca n trong cc mi trng s dng mng khng dy.

2.2.1.3 IEEE 802.11a


Chun IEEE 802.11a c tc truyn d liu nhanh hn chun 802.11b v s knh ti a hot ng ng thi c th t ti 8 knh . Tc truyn d liu t 54 Mbps v hot ng ti bng tn 5GHz. 802.11a s dng tri ph trc giao OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) ti lp vt l. Tc cao ny thc hin c bi vic kt hp nhiu knh c tc thp thnh mt knh c tc cao. 802.11a s dng OFDM nh ngha tng cng 8 knh khng trng lp c rng 20MHz thng qua 2 bng thp; mi mt knh c chia thnh 52 knh mang thng tin, vi rng xp x 300KHz. Mi mt knh c truyn song song. Vic chnh sa li pha trc FEC (Forward Error Correction) cng c s dng trong 802.11a (khng c trong 802.11) c th t c tc cao hn. Tt c cc bng tn dng cho Wireless LAN l khng cn ng k, v th n d dng dn n s xung t v nhiu. trnh s xung t ny, c 801.11a v 802.11b u c s iu chnh gim cc mc ca tc truyn d liu. Trong khi

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802.11b c cc tc truyn d liu l 5.5, 2 v 1 Mbps th 802.11a c by mc (48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, v 6 ). Hin nay, 23 quc gia ph duyt cho php s dng cc sn phm 802.11a, trong chu u chim ti 14 quc gia, bao gm: M, c, o, an Mch, Php, Thy in, New Zealand, Ireland, Nht Bn, B, H Lan, Phn Lan, Ba Lan, Thy S v Mexico.

2.2.1.4 IEEE 802.11g


Mc d chun 802.11a c tc nhanh (54 Mbps), hot ng ti bng tn cao (6 GHz ) nhng nhc im ln nht ca n l khng tng thch vi chun 802.11b. V th s khng th thay th h thng ang dng 802.11b m khng phi tn km qu nhiu. IEEE cho ra i chun 802.11g nhm ci tin 801.11b v tc truyn cng nh bng thng. 802.11g c hai c tnh chnh sau y: S dng k thut tri ph OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), c th cung cp cc dch v c tc ln ti 54Mbps. Trc y, FCC (Federal Communication CommissionUSA) c cm s dng OFDM ti 2,4GHz. Nhng hin nay FCC cho php s dng OFDM ti c hai bng tn 2,4GHz v 5GHz. Tng thch vi cc h thng 802.11b tn ti trc. Do , 802.11g cng c h tr CCK v thit b 802.11g cng c th giao tip vi thit b 802.11b c sn Mt thun li r rng ca 802.11g l tng thch vi 802.11b (c s dng rt rng ri ) v c c tc truyn cao nh 802.11a . Tuy nhin s knh ti a m 802.11g t c vn l 3 nh 802.11b. Bn cnh , do hot ng tn s 2,4 GHz nh 802.11b, h thng s dng 802.11g cng d b nhiu nh 802.11b.

2.2.1.5 IEEE 802.11i


N l chun b sung cho cc chun 802.11a, 802.11b v vn bo mt. N m t cch m ha d liu truyn gia cc h thng s dng 2 chun ny. 802.11i

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nh ngha mt phng thc m ho mi gm Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) v Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

2.2.1.6 Cc chun khc ca IEEE 802.11


IEEE 802.11h: Hng ti vic ci tin cng sut pht v la chn knh ca chun IEEE 802.11a, nhm p ng cc tiu chun ca th trng chu u. IEEE 802.11j: S hp nht trong vic a ra phin bn tiu chun chung ca hai t chc tiu chun IEEE v ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) trn nn IEEE 802.11a v HiperLAN/2. IEEE 802.11k: Cung cp kh nng o lng mng v sng v tuyn thch hp cho cc lp cao hn. IEEE 802.11n: M rng thng lng (>100Mbps ti MAC SAP) trn bng 2,4GHz v 5GHz.

2.2.2 HiperLAN
S pht trin ca thng tin v tuyn bng rng t ra nhng yu cu mi v mng LAN v tuyn. l nhu cu cn h tr v QoS, bo mt, quyn s dng, ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute _ Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u ) nghin cu xy dng b tiu chun cho cc loi LAN hiu sut cao (High Performance LAN), tiu chun ny xoay quanh m t cc giao tip mc thp v m ra kh nng pht trin mc cao hn.

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Hnh 2-2 OSI v Hiperlan

2.2.2.1 Lch s pht trin ca HiperLAN


Khong vo gia nm 1991, ETSI thnh lp nhm RES10. Nhm ny bt u cng vic nghin cu vo u nm 1992. Nhm RES10 xy dng tiu chun HIPERLAN c th l thng tin lin lc s khng dy tc cao bng tn 5,1-5,3 GHz v bng tn 17,2 - 17,3 GHz. C 4 loi HIPERLAN c a ra: HIPERLAN/1, HIPERLAN/2, HIPERCESS v HIPERLINK.vo nm 1996. Cc tiu chun ca ETSI HIPERLAN HIPERLAN 1 ng dng Bng tn Wireless LAN 2,4 GHz HIPERLAN 2 Truy nhp WATM 5 GHz HIPERLAN 3 Truy nhp WATM c nh t xa 5 GHz HIPERLAN 4 Kt ni point-topoint WATM 17 GHz

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Tc t c

23,5 Mbps

54 Mbps

54 Mbps

155 Mbps

2.2.2.2 HiperLAN2
Trong cc chun ca HiperLAN, HiperLAN2 l chun c s dng rng ri nht bi nhng c tnh k thut ca n. Nhng c tnh k thut ca HiperLAN2: Truyn d liu vi tc cao Kt ni c nh hng H tr QoS Cp pht tn s t ng H tr bo mt Mng v ng dng c lp Tit kim nng lng Tc truyn d liu ca HiperLAN2 c th t ti 54 Mbps. S d c th t c tc v HiperLAN2 s dng phng php gi l OFDM (Orthogonal Frequence Digital Multiplexing - b iu ch trc giao). OFDM c hiu qu trong c cc mi trng m sng radio b phn x t nhiu im. HiperLAN Access Point c kh nng h tr vic cp pht tn s t ng trong vng ph sng ca n. iu ny c thc hin da vo chc nng DFS (Dynamic Frequence Selection) Kin trc HiperLAN2 thch hp vi nhiu li mng khc nhau. Tt c cc ng dng chy c trn mt mng thng thng th c th chy c trn h thng mng HiperLAN2.

2.2.3 Cc chun khc


2.2.3.1 HomeRF
HomeRF l chun hot ng ti phm vi bng tn 2.4 GHz, cung cp bng thng 1.6 MHz vi thng lng s dng l 659 Kb/s. Khong cch phc v ti a

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ca HomeRF l 45m.HomeRF cng s dng c ch tri ph FHSS ti tng vt l. HomeRF cng t chc cc thit b u cui thnh mng adhoc (cc my trao i trc tip vi nhau) hoc lin h qua mt im kt ni trung gian nh Bluetooth. im khc bit gia Bluetooth v HomeRF hng ti mt mc tiu duy nht l th trng phc v cc mng gia nh. T chc tiu chun giao thc truy cp v tuyn SWAP ca HomeRF thnh lp ra nhm nng cao hiu qu kh nng cc ng dng a phng tin ca HomeRF. SWAP kt hp cc c tnh u vit ca 802.11 l giao thc trnh xung t CSMA/CA vi c tnh QoS ca giao thc DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) cung cp mt k thut mng hon chnh cho cc h gia nh. Phin bn SWAP 1.0 (Shared Wireless Access Protocol) cung cp kh nng h tr 4 my trong mt mng ad hoc, v cung cp c ch bo mt l m ha 40 bit ti lp MAC. Phin bn SWAP 2.0 m rng bng thng ln ti 10Mbps, cung cp kh nng roaming trong truy cp cng cng. N cng h tr 8 my trong mt mng ad hoc. c tnh QoS cng c nng cp bi vic thm vo 8 lung u tin h tr cho cc ng dng a phng tin nh video. SWAP 2.0 cng c c ch bo mt nh SWAP 1.0 nhng c m ha 128 bit.

2.2.3.2 OpenAir
OpenAir l sn phm c quyn ca Proxim. Proxim l mt trong nhng cng ty sn xut thit b v tuyn ln nht th gii. Proxim ang c gng OpenAir cnh tranh vi 802.11 thng qua WLIF (Wireless LAN Interoperability Forum). Proxim nm gi ht cc thng tin chi tit v OpenAir, tt c cc sn phm OpenAir u da trn cc module ca chnh Proxim. OpenAir l mt giao thc trc 802.11, s dng k thut nhy tn (2FSK v 4 FSK), c tc 1,6Mbps. OpenAir MAC da trn CSMA/CA v RTS/CTS nh 802.11. Tuy nhin OpenAir khng thc hin vic m ha ti lp MAC, nhng li c

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ID mng da trn mt khu. OpenAir cng khng cung cp chc nng tit kim cng sut.

2.2.3.3 BlueTooth
2.2.3.3.1 Bluetooth l g? Bluetooth l tn ca mt chun s dng kt ni bng sng radio tn s ngn nhm mc ch thay th vic kt ni cc thit b in t bng cp. im c trng ca cng ngh ny l s thit thc, n gin, nng lng nh v chi ph thp. Cng ngh ny cng cho php kt ni khng dy vi mng LAN, mng in thoi di ng, v internet. 2.2.3.3.2 Lch s pht trin ca Bluetooth Nm 1994, ln u tin Ericsson xng vic nghin cu pht trin mt giao din v tuyn cng sut nh, r tin, s dng sng radio nhm kt ni khng dy gia my di ng cm tay v cc b phn thng tin, in t khc. Nm 1997, Ericsson tip xc v tho lun vi mt s nh sn xut thit b in t cm tay v vic nghin cu, pht trin v thc y cc sn phm khng dy c ly ngn. Nm 1998, nm cng ty ni ting th gii l Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia v Toshiba cng nhau thnh lp nhm c bit quan tm n Bluetooth (gi l SIG Special Interest Group) Thng 7/1999, cc chuyn gia ca SIG cho ra i cc ch tiu v tnh nng k thut u tin ca Bluetooth - k thut Bluetooth 1.0. Nm 2000, SIG b xung thm 4 thnh vin mi l 3Com, Lucent Technologies, Microsoft v Motorola. Sn phm Bluetooth u tin c tung ra th trng.T cc th h sn phm Bluetooth lin tc ra i. Cng ngh khng dy Bluetooth tr thnh mt trong nhng cng ngh pht trin nhanh nht ca thi i.

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