Está en la página 1de 10

# 60 CHNG 4 TCH SNG 4.1. Khi nim Tch sng l qu trnh tm li tn hiu iu ch.

Tn hiu sau khi tch sng phi ging tn hiu iu ch ban u. Thc t tn hiu iu ch vS sau khi qua iu ch v qua knh truyn sng a n b tch sng b mo dng thnh vS. Do mo phi tuyn trong b tch sng nn sau khi tch sng ta li nhn c tn hiu vS khc vi vS. do vS khc vS ban u. V vy chng mo phi tuyn l mt trong nhng yu cu c bn ca qu trnh tch sng. 4.2. Tch sng bin 4.2.1. Cc tham s c bn 4.2.1.1. H s tch sng Tn hiu vo ca b tch sng l tn hiu iu bin : vvTS = VvTS(t) . cos tt = VZt cos tt Trong : VvTS(t) : bin thin theo qui lut ca tin tc. Tn hiu ra b tch sng : VrTS(t) = KTS.VvTS(t) Vi:
K TS = VrTS (t ) = h s t l v c gi l h s tch sng VvTS (t )

VrTS(t), VvTS(t) gm c thnh phn mt chiu v thnh phn xoay chiu bin thin chm theo thi gian: VrTS(t) = Vo + vS VvTS(t) = Vo + vs Ch cn quan tm n thnh phn bin thin chm (mang tin tc) h s tch sng:
" vs KTS = ' vs

vS v vS l in p vo v ra ca b tch sng KTS cng ln th hiu qu tch sng cng cao. Nu KTS = Cte th vS t l vS v b tch sng khng gy mo phi tuyn, gi l b tch sng tuyn tnh. 4.2.1.2. Tr khng vo ca b tch sng ZvTS =
VvTS I vTS

## 61 4.2.1.3. Mo phi tuyn H s mo phi tuyn : K =

2 2 I2 ZS + I 3 ZS + K .100% I ZS

IZS, I2ZS, I3ZS ... bin thnh phn c bn v cc hi ca tn hiu iu ch. Ta khng quan tm n cc dng in cao tn (ti tn v hai bc cao ca n), v trong mch in b tch sng c th d dng lc b cc thnh phn ny. 4.2.2. Mch in b tch sng bin 4.2.2.1. Mch tch sng bin bng mch chnh lu

## Hnh 4.1. Mch tch sng bin bng mch chnh lu

Ta phn tch v tnh ton i vi s tch sng ni tip. Khi tn hiu vo ln th c tuyn Volt - Ampe ca diode : iD =
S v D 0 vD 0 vD < 0

vC Vdb

## Khi tt = th iD = 0, thay vo biu thc (3) ta c :

Gc dn in ca diode : cos =

(4)

iD

iD 62

Eo

vD t vD

t Hnh 4.2. c tuyn ca diode v th ca tn hiu vo ra khi lm vic ch C Khai trin iD theo chui Fourrier : iD = Io + I1costt + I2cos2tt + ...... + Incosntt
1 I o = i D d t t 0 2 Trong I1 = iD cos t tdt t 0 2 I n = iD cos nt tdt t 0

(5)

(6)

## Tnh bng cch thay th dn ta c : Io = I1 =

S .Vdb (sin cos )
S .Vdb

(7) (8)

( sin cos )

R.S

(9)

## Thay (9) vo (4), ta c : cos =

R.S

(sin - cos)

(10)

63

tg - =
T (11) ta suy ra :

S .R

(11)

Gc in dn ch ph thuc vo tham s mch in (S, R) m khng ph thuc vo tn hiu vo. Do tch sng tn hiu ln l tch sng khng gy mo phi tuyn. Ch : ph ca dng in iD gm c cc thnh phn : mt chiu. t, s , ts, nts. Thng thng t>> s do cc thnh phn t, ts v nts c loi b d dng nh mch lc thng thp. Ch cn thnh phn hu ch : iS = mSVt cosst trnh mo, trc khi tch sng cn phi khuch i tn hiu ln m bo ch tch sng tuyn tnh.
VC VC

t Hnh 4.3. th theo thi gian ca tn hiu trc v sau tch sng

## = RC l hng s thi gian phng np ca t in.

in p ra ti gn vi dng ng bao ca in p cao tn u vo, ta phi chn = RC ln. Tuy nhin, nu chn C qu ln th in p ra khng bin thin kp vi bin in p vo gy ra mo tn hiu. Trong hai s trn, s tch sng ni tip t s c in tr vo ln hn s tch sng song song. Ngoi ra, trn ti ca s tch sng song song cn c in p cao tn, do phi dng b lc lc n. V nhng l do trn nn s tch sng song song ch c dng trong trng hp cn ngn thnh phn mt chiu t tng trc a n. 4.2.2.2 Tch sng bin dng phn t tuyn tnh tham s vb vt Tng qut ta chn
1 << RC << 1

vr

Hnh 4.4. Mch tch sng tn hiu dng phn t tuyn tnh

64

vr =

(1)

## Dng mch lc thng thp c th tch ra thnh phn t hu ch :

VS" =

Nhn xt : -

Trong ph in p ra khng c thnh phn ti tn Mun tch c tn hiu th sng vt phi c tn s bng tn s ti tin ca t/h iu bin Bin in p u ra ph thuc vo gc pha vi l gc lch pha gia tn hiu cn tch sng v ti tin ph. Khi = 0 V S'' cc i, khi =

2 VS'' = 0

B tch sng va c tnh chn lc v bin , va c chn lc v pha gi l b tch sng bin pha tch sng c hiu qu cn phi ng b tn hiu vo v ti tin ph v tn s v gc lch pha. B tch sng ny cn c tn gi l b tch sng ng b.

4.2.3 Hin tng phch v hin tng chn p trong tch sng bin l hin tng tng ng vi trng hp trn u vo b tch sng bin c hai dao ng cao tn: tn hiu v nhiu. 4.2.3.1 Hin tng phch

Tn hiu : 2 Nhiu :

v1 = V1 cos1t v2 = V2 cos2t

## Xem V1 ng yn th V2 quay quanh 0 vi vn tc

= 2 1 . V V1 , V2 c tn s khng c nh nn

(t)

1 0

bin vect tng khng c nh. p dng h thc lng trong tam gic thng :
V ( t ) = V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos = V1 1 + V22 V + 2 2 cos 2 V1 V1

(t) = arctg

## VrTS = KTS.VvTS = KTS.V1 1 +

(*)

65 Vy in p bin thin theo tn hiu . Gi l hin tng phch. 4.2.3.2 Hin tng chn p Trng hp hai dao ng cao tn tc ng ng thi ln b tch sng c bin chnh lch nhau nhiu gi l hin tng chn p. Tn hiu ln chn tn hiu b, biu hin tnh chn lc theo bin ca b tch sng. Chng hn vi biu thc (*) trn ta thy khi bin tn hiu V1 >> so vi bin
V22 V nhiu V2 th lng 2 v 2 2 cos nh, ngha l tc dng chn lc ca b tch V1 V1

sng bin rt c li trong trng hp ny. 4.3 Tch sng tn hiu iu tn 4.3.1 Khi nim Tch sng tn hiu iu tn l qu trnh bin i lch tn s tc thi ca tn hiu thnh bin thin in p u ra. vS B

f
A
Hnh 4.6. c tuyn truyn t ca b tch sng

c tuyn truyn t ca b tch sng biu din quan h gi in p ra v lng bin thin ca tn s u vo. hn ch mo phi tuyn, phi chn im lm vic trong phm vi tng i thng ca c tuyn truyn t. (on AB). H s truyn t ca b tch sng l dc ln nht trong khu vc lm vic ca c tuyn truyn t. Sf =
dv s f = 0 df

Tch sng tn s v tch sng pha thng c thc hin theo mt trong nhng nguyn tc sau y : 1. Bin tn hiu iu tn hoc iu pha thnh tn hiu iu bin ri tch sng bin . 2. Bin iu tn thnh iu rng xung ri tch sng nh mch tch phn.

66 3. Lm cho tn s ca mt b dao ng bm theo tn s tn hiu iu tn nh h thng vng gi pha PLL, in p sai s chnh l in p cn tch sng. 4.3.2 Mch in b tch sng tn s 4.3.2.1 Mch tch sng pha cn bng dng diode (DISCRIMINATOR) Gm hai mch tch sng bin dng diode ghp vi nhau.
D1

R vdf
D2

C vS

V1

(t) vD1 V2

-V1 vD2

vch Hnh 4.7. Mch sng pha cn bng dng diode v th vector tn hiu

Biu thc ca tn hiu iu pha v mt dao ng chun c biu din : vdf = V1.cos [01t + (t) + 01] = V1 cos1 (t) vch = V2.cos (02t + 02) = V2 cos2 (t) in p t trn hai b tch sng bin : (diode D1, D2) vD1 = V1.cos[01t + (t)+01] + V2 cos (02t+02) vD2 = - V1.cos[01t + (t)+01] + V2 cos (02t+02) p dng tnh cht ca h thc lng trong tam gic thng ta tnh c in p ra trn hai ti R, C : VR1(t) = vS1 = KTS . vD1 = KTS . V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos (t ) VR2(t) = vS2 = KTS . vD2 = KTS . V12 + V22 2V1V2 cos (t ) KTS : h s truyn t ca b tch sng bin . KTS =
VS mVt

## (t) : hiu pha ca hai in p vo : (t) = (01- 02)t + (t) + 01 - 02

in p ra trn b tch sng : vs = vS1 - vs2

67 = KTS [ V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos ( t ) - V12 + V22 2V1V2 cos ( t ) ] vS: ph thuc vo hiu pha ca tn hiu iu pha v tn hiu chun. Trng hp 01 = 02 ; 01 = 02 v S ph thuc vo (t) + vs : t cc i = 0, 2, 4 . + vS: t cc tiu = , 3, 5 + vS = 0 = (2n + 1)

(vi n = 0, 1, 2 .....)

D1

C1 vdt C2
D2

R R

C
VS

## Hnh 4.8. B tch sng tn s dng b lch cng hng

Mch cng hng 1 : cng hng tn s 1 Mch cng hng 2 : cng hng tn s 2 Gi o= t l tn s trung tm.

1 = 0 + 0 2 = 0 - 0
Bin V1, V2 thay i ph thuc vo s sai lch tn s so vi tn s cng hng ring ca mch 1 v 2 (1,2) ngha l bin thin theo in p vo : V1 = Km.Vdt .Z1 K : h s quy i cho ng th nguyn hai v, K = V2 = Km.Vdt .Z2 m : h s ghp bin p : m =
M L 1

## Z1, Z2 : tr khng ca hai mch cng hng 1 v 2.

68 Z1 =
R td1 2Q( 1 1+ 1 R td 2 2Q( 2 ) 1+ 2
2 2

R td1 1 + ( 0 )2

Z2 =

R td 2 1 + ( 0 + )2

Rtd1, Rtd2 : tr khng ca hai mch cng hng 1 v 2 ti tn s cng hng 1 v 2 Q1, Q2 : h s phm cht. Chn hai mch cng hng nh nhau :

Rtd1 = Rtd2; Q1 = Q2 = Q
0 = 2Q o 1,2 o

= 2Q o o

## : lch tn s tng i gia tn s tn hiu vo v

tn s trung bnh. Khi tn hiu vo thay i th thay i Z1, Z2 thay i V1, V2 thay i. Ngha l qu trnh bin i iu tn thnh tn hiu iu bin. Sau khi qua hai b tch sng (D, R) ta nhn c cc in p ra : vS1 = KTS.V1 = KTS.m.Vdt . vS2 = KTS.V2 = KTS.m.Vdt . in p ra tng : vS = vS1 - vS2 = KTS.m.Rtd.Vdt. (o, ) Trong : ( o , ) =
1 1 + ( o ) 2 1 1 + ( o + ) 2
Rtd 1 1 + ( o )2
Rtd 2

1 + ( o + )2

max khi = 0
khi = +o = 1 1
2 1 + 4o

69 khi = -o =
1
2 1 + 4 o

-1<0

dc ca c tuyn truyn t c xc nh : Sf = Sf =
dvS d ( , o ) f = 0 = KTS.m.Vdt.Rtd. =0 df d
K TS .m.R td .Vtd fo 2 o (1 + )
2 o 3 2

(*)

o =
1 2

## . Vy mun h s truyn t cc i phi chn lng lch tn o theo iu

kin sau y :

o =

o o
2Q

2 2 Q

Nhc im ca mch tch sng cng hng : kh iu chnh cho hai mch cng hng hon ton i xng, nn t c dng).