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60 CHNG 4 TCH SNG 4.1. Khi nim Tch sng l qu trnh tm li tn hiu iu ch.

Tn hiu sau khi tch sng phi ging tn hiu iu ch ban u. Thc t tn hiu iu ch vS sau khi qua iu ch v qua knh truyn sng a n b tch sng b mo dng thnh vS. Do mo phi tuyn trong b tch sng nn sau khi tch sng ta li nhn c tn hiu vS khc vi vS. do vS khc vS ban u. V vy chng mo phi tuyn l mt trong nhng yu cu c bn ca qu trnh tch sng. 4.2. Tch sng bin 4.2.1. Cc tham s c bn 4.2.1.1. H s tch sng Tn hiu vo ca b tch sng l tn hiu iu bin : vvTS = VvTS(t) . cos tt = VZt cos tt Trong : VvTS(t) : bin thin theo qui lut ca tin tc. Tn hiu ra b tch sng : VrTS(t) = KTS.VvTS(t) Vi:
K TS = VrTS (t ) = h s t l v c gi l h s tch sng VvTS (t )

VrTS(t), VvTS(t) gm c thnh phn mt chiu v thnh phn xoay chiu bin thin chm theo thi gian: VrTS(t) = Vo + vS VvTS(t) = Vo + vs Ch cn quan tm n thnh phn bin thin chm (mang tin tc) h s tch sng:
" vs KTS = ' vs

vS v vS l in p vo v ra ca b tch sng KTS cng ln th hiu qu tch sng cng cao. Nu KTS = Cte th vS t l vS v b tch sng khng gy mo phi tuyn, gi l b tch sng tuyn tnh. 4.2.1.2. Tr khng vo ca b tch sng ZvTS =
VvTS I vTS

Thng thng dng v p lch pha ZvTS l mt s phc.

61 4.2.1.3. Mo phi tuyn H s mo phi tuyn : K =


2 2 I2 ZS + I 3 ZS + K .100% I ZS

IZS, I2ZS, I3ZS ... bin thnh phn c bn v cc hi ca tn hiu iu ch. Ta khng quan tm n cc dng in cao tn (ti tn v hai bc cao ca n), v trong mch in b tch sng c th d dng lc b cc thnh phn ny. 4.2.2. Mch in b tch sng bin 4.2.2.1. Mch tch sng bin bng mch chnh lu

a) Tch sng ni tip

b) Tch sng song song

Hnh 4.1. Mch tch sng bin bng mch chnh lu

Ta phn tch v tnh ton i vi s tch sng ni tip. Khi tn hiu vo ln th c tuyn Volt - Ampe ca diode : iD =
S v D 0 vD 0 vD < 0

(1) (2) (3) (4)


vC Vdb

iD = SvD = S (vb - vC) Vi : vb = VT (1 + m cos St)costt = Vbcostt

iD = S (Vbcostt vC) 0 = S (Vbcos vC)

Khi tt = th iD = 0, thay vo biu thc (3) ta c :

Gc dn in ca diode : cos =

(4)

iD

iD 62

Eo

vD t vD

t Hnh 4.2. c tuyn ca diode v th ca tn hiu vo ra khi lm vic ch C Khai trin iD theo chui Fourrier : iD = Io + I1costt + I2cos2tt + ...... + Incosntt
1 I o = i D d t t 0 2 Trong I1 = iD cos t tdt t 0 2 I n = iD cos nt tdt t 0

(5)

(6)

Tnh bng cch thay th dn ta c : Io = I1 =


S .Vdb (sin cos )
S .Vdb

(7) (8)

( sin cos )

T dng mt chiu Io ta tnh c in p ra trn ti: vc = R.Io =


R.S

Vdb (sin - cos)

(9)

Thay (9) vo (4), ta c : cos =


R.S

(sin - cos)

(10)

63

tg - =
T (11) ta suy ra :

S .R

(11)

Gc in dn ch ph thuc vo tham s mch in (S, R) m khng ph thuc vo tn hiu vo. Do tch sng tn hiu ln l tch sng khng gy mo phi tuyn. Ch : ph ca dng in iD gm c cc thnh phn : mt chiu. t, s , ts, nts. Thng thng t>> s do cc thnh phn t, ts v nts c loi b d dng nh mch lc thng thp. Ch cn thnh phn hu ch : iS = mSVt cosst trnh mo, trc khi tch sng cn phi khuch i tn hiu ln m bo ch tch sng tuyn tnh.
VC VC

t Hnh 4.3. th theo thi gian ca tn hiu trc v sau tch sng

= RC l hng s thi gian phng np ca t in.

in p ra ti gn vi dng ng bao ca in p cao tn u vo, ta phi chn = RC ln. Tuy nhin, nu chn C qu ln th in p ra khng bin thin kp vi bin in p vo gy ra mo tn hiu. Trong hai s trn, s tch sng ni tip t s c in tr vo ln hn s tch sng song song. Ngoi ra, trn ti ca s tch sng song song cn c in p cao tn, do phi dng b lc lc n. V nhng l do trn nn s tch sng song song ch c dng trong trng hp cn ngn thnh phn mt chiu t tng trc a n. 4.2.2.2 Tch sng bin dng phn t tuyn tnh tham s vb vt Tng qut ta chn
1 << RC << 1

vr

Hnh 4.4. Mch tch sng tn hiu dng phn t tuyn tnh

vdB = Vt (1 + m cosst)costt v vt = Vtcos(tt +) vr = KvdB.vt

64

vr =

KVt 2 1 + m cos s t (1 + m cosst) cos + K Vt 2 cos (2tt+) 2 2 KVt 2 (1 + m cosst)cos 2

(1)

Dng mch lc thng thp c th tch ra thnh phn t hu ch :


VS" =

Nhn xt : -

Trong ph in p ra khng c thnh phn ti tn Mun tch c tn hiu th sng vt phi c tn s bng tn s ti tin ca t/h iu bin Bin in p u ra ph thuc vo gc pha vi l gc lch pha gia tn hiu cn tch sng v ti tin ph. Khi = 0 V S'' cc i, khi =

2 VS'' = 0

B tch sng va c tnh chn lc v bin , va c chn lc v pha gi l b tch sng bin pha tch sng c hiu qu cn phi ng b tn hiu vo v ti tin ph v tn s v gc lch pha. B tch sng ny cn c tn gi l b tch sng ng b.

4.2.3 Hin tng phch v hin tng chn p trong tch sng bin l hin tng tng ng vi trng hp trn u vo b tch sng bin c hai dao ng cao tn: tn hiu v nhiu. 4.2.3.1 Hin tng phch

Tn hiu : 2 Nhiu :

v1 = V1 cos1t v2 = V2 cos2t

V = V1 + V2 = V(t) cos [1t+(t)]

Xem V1 ng yn th V2 quay quanh 0 vi vn tc


= 2 1 . V V1 , V2 c tn s khng c nh nn

(t)

1 0

bin vect tng khng c nh. p dng h thc lng trong tam gic thng :
V ( t ) = V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos = V1 1 + V22 V + 2 2 cos 2 V1 V1

(t) = arctg

V2 . sin V1 + V2 cos V22 V + 2 2 cos 2 V1 V1

VrTS = KTS.VvTS = KTS.V1 1 +

(*)

65 Vy in p bin thin theo tn hiu . Gi l hin tng phch. 4.2.3.2 Hin tng chn p Trng hp hai dao ng cao tn tc ng ng thi ln b tch sng c bin chnh lch nhau nhiu gi l hin tng chn p. Tn hiu ln chn tn hiu b, biu hin tnh chn lc theo bin ca b tch sng. Chng hn vi biu thc (*) trn ta thy khi bin tn hiu V1 >> so vi bin
V22 V nhiu V2 th lng 2 v 2 2 cos nh, ngha l tc dng chn lc ca b tch V1 V1

sng bin rt c li trong trng hp ny. 4.3 Tch sng tn hiu iu tn 4.3.1 Khi nim Tch sng tn hiu iu tn l qu trnh bin i lch tn s tc thi ca tn hiu thnh bin thin in p u ra. vS B

f
A
Hnh 4.6. c tuyn truyn t ca b tch sng

c tuyn truyn t ca b tch sng biu din quan h gi in p ra v lng bin thin ca tn s u vo. hn ch mo phi tuyn, phi chn im lm vic trong phm vi tng i thng ca c tuyn truyn t. (on AB). H s truyn t ca b tch sng l dc ln nht trong khu vc lm vic ca c tuyn truyn t. Sf =
dv s f = 0 df

Tch sng tn s v tch sng pha thng c thc hin theo mt trong nhng nguyn tc sau y : 1. Bin tn hiu iu tn hoc iu pha thnh tn hiu iu bin ri tch sng bin . 2. Bin iu tn thnh iu rng xung ri tch sng nh mch tch phn.

66 3. Lm cho tn s ca mt b dao ng bm theo tn s tn hiu iu tn nh h thng vng gi pha PLL, in p sai s chnh l in p cn tch sng. 4.3.2 Mch in b tch sng tn s 4.3.2.1 Mch tch sng pha cn bng dng diode (DISCRIMINATOR) Gm hai mch tch sng bin dng diode ghp vi nhau.
D1

R vdf
D2

C vS

V1

(t) vD1 V2

-V1 vD2

vch Hnh 4.7. Mch sng pha cn bng dng diode v th vector tn hiu

Biu thc ca tn hiu iu pha v mt dao ng chun c biu din : vdf = V1.cos [01t + (t) + 01] = V1 cos1 (t) vch = V2.cos (02t + 02) = V2 cos2 (t) in p t trn hai b tch sng bin : (diode D1, D2) vD1 = V1.cos[01t + (t)+01] + V2 cos (02t+02) vD2 = - V1.cos[01t + (t)+01] + V2 cos (02t+02) p dng tnh cht ca h thc lng trong tam gic thng ta tnh c in p ra trn hai ti R, C : VR1(t) = vS1 = KTS . vD1 = KTS . V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos (t ) VR2(t) = vS2 = KTS . vD2 = KTS . V12 + V22 2V1V2 cos (t ) KTS : h s truyn t ca b tch sng bin . KTS =
VS mVt

(t) : hiu pha ca hai in p vo : (t) = (01- 02)t + (t) + 01 - 02


in p ra trn b tch sng : vs = vS1 - vs2

67 = KTS [ V12 + V22 + 2V1V2 cos ( t ) - V12 + V22 2V1V2 cos ( t ) ] vS: ph thuc vo hiu pha ca tn hiu iu pha v tn hiu chun. Trng hp 01 = 02 ; 01 = 02 v S ph thuc vo (t) + vs : t cc i = 0, 2, 4 . + vS: t cc tiu = , 3, 5 + vS = 0 = (2n + 1)

(vi n = 0, 1, 2 .....)

4.3.2.2. B tch sng tn s dng mch lch cng hng


D1

C1 vdt C2
D2

R R

C
VS

Hnh 4.8. B tch sng tn s dng b lch cng hng

Mch cng hng 1 : cng hng tn s 1 Mch cng hng 2 : cng hng tn s 2 Gi o= t l tn s trung tm.

1 = 0 + 0 2 = 0 - 0
Bin V1, V2 thay i ph thuc vo s sai lch tn s so vi tn s cng hng ring ca mch 1 v 2 (1,2) ngha l bin thin theo in p vo : V1 = Km.Vdt .Z1 K : h s quy i cho ng th nguyn hai v, K = V2 = Km.Vdt .Z2 m : h s ghp bin p : m =
M L 1

Z1, Z2 : tr khng ca hai mch cng hng 1 v 2.

68 Z1 =
R td1 2Q( 1 1+ 1 R td 2 2Q( 2 ) 1+ 2
2 2

R td1 1 + ( 0 )2

Z2 =

R td 2 1 + ( 0 + )2

Rtd1, Rtd2 : tr khng ca hai mch cng hng 1 v 2 ti tn s cng hng 1 v 2 Q1, Q2 : h s phm cht. Chn hai mch cng hng nh nhau :

Rtd1 = Rtd2; Q1 = Q2 = Q
0 = 2Q o 1,2 o

: lch tn tng i gia tn s cng hng ring

ca mch in v tn s trung bnh ca tn hiu vo.


= 2Q o o

: lch tn s tng i gia tn s tn hiu vo v

tn s trung bnh. Khi tn hiu vo thay i th thay i Z1, Z2 thay i V1, V2 thay i. Ngha l qu trnh bin i iu tn thnh tn hiu iu bin. Sau khi qua hai b tch sng (D, R) ta nhn c cc in p ra : vS1 = KTS.V1 = KTS.m.Vdt . vS2 = KTS.V2 = KTS.m.Vdt . in p ra tng : vS = vS1 - vS2 = KTS.m.Rtd.Vdt. (o, ) Trong : ( o , ) =
1 1 + ( o ) 2 1 1 + ( o + ) 2
Rtd 1 1 + ( o )2
Rtd 2

1 + ( o + )2

max khi = 0
khi = +o = 1 1
2 1 + 4o

69 khi = -o =
1
2 1 + 4 o

-1<0

dc ca c tuyn truyn t c xc nh : Sf = Sf =
dvS d ( , o ) f = 0 = KTS.m.Vdt.Rtd. =0 df d
K TS .m.R td .Vtd fo 2 o (1 + )
2 o 3 2

(*)

Vy Sf ph thuc vo o . o hm (*) theo o v xt cc tr ta thy Sf = Sf max khi


o =
1 2

. Vy mun h s truyn t cc i phi chn lng lch tn o theo iu

kin sau y :

o =

o o
2Q

2 2 Q

Nhc im ca mch tch sng cng hng : kh iu chnh cho hai mch cng hng hon ton i xng, nn t c dng).