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BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR

por Michael T. Hamerly

IN TRODU CCION The last bibliographic guide to Ecuadorian historiography was published in 1978 (entry 150). Since then a veritable explosion of library materials on the history of Ecuador has occurred. Literally thousands of new books, articles, and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Sciences, relating to the past of Ecuador in one way or another, have appeared and continue to appear. Yet coverage of these materials in specialized as well as in standard abstracts, bibliographies, and indexes has been less than satisfactory. In this regard it cannot be overemphasized that Ecuador is one of those countries for and in which bibliographic control had yet to be achieved as of the late 1990s, and, I suspect, still remains to be achieved. Concurrent with the explosion of publications has been the internationalization of Ecuadorian studies. Although there had always been some interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world, there did not used to be more than a few Ecuadorianists. The relative neglect of Ecuadorian studies outside of Ecuador, however, began to be rectified in the 1970s. By the 1990s, there were dozens of professionally trained scholars, in the Humanities and Social Sciences, in the United States and Canada, in France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, elsewhere in Europe, and in other Latin American countries, actively engaged in research and publishing on a wide variety of topics having to do with Ecuador. The explosion of interest in Ecuador elsewhere in the world has contributed to the increase in the quality as well as to the quantity of work being done on the country. The internationalization of Ecuadorian studies is not without its downside, however. On the one hand, some of the work being done appears in little known or obscure venues. On the other, some of the publications in question never appear in other languages or are not translated and republished in Spanishthe one language we should all have in commonuntil years, sometimes decades, later. Therefore it has become increasingly more difficult to stay abreast of the literature, and it has long since become necessary for Ecuadorianists to cope with materials in several languagesat least English, French, and German in addition to Spanishin order to remain current in their respective fields. Heretofore there were only two comprehensive attempts to register historical production on Ecuador from pre-Hispanic times through the present: Carlos Manuel Larreas Bibliografa ii

cientfica del Ecuador (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 19481953, 5 v. [entry 110]; 2 ed.: Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispnica, 1952, 5 v. in 1 [entry 111]); and Robert E. Norriss Gua bibliogrfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978 [entry 150]). Both were pioneering works. Larreas Bibliografa cientfica was the first comprehensive register of ecuatoriana, not just of Ecuadorian historiography. Furthermore, it was also the most comprehensive bibliography of ecuatoriana until 1989, when it began to be supplanted but not altogether superseded by the Diccionario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano (entry 26). The 1 ed. of Larreas Bibliografa cientfica listed 8,732 books and articles in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Sciences published through 1946. The 2 ed. added 568 items, raising the total to 9,300, and advanced coverage through 1949. Discipline specific, Norriss Gua bibliogrfica updated and surpassed Larreas Bibliografa cientfica insofar as historical materials per se are concerned. Norris described 3,577 books, pamphlets, articles, theses, and miscellaneous manuscripts, including some older works that did not appear in Larreas Bibliografa cientfica. Norris also annotated some entries and added author and subject indexes, making his Gua bibliogrfica more useful and easier to use than Larreas Bibliografa cientfica. Although they will never be out-of-date, Larreas Bibliografa cientfica and Norriss Gua bibliogrfica inevitably became dated. They also suffer from errors of omission and commission. As already noted, Larreas Bibliografa cientfica stops with 1946 or 1949 imprints, depending upon the edition consulted. (Even though Larrea began to publish a 3 ed. [entry 112], the new edition was limited to anthropological, archaeological, and linguistic materials.) The major problems with Larreas Bibliografa cientfica are: he did not record publishers or printers; and in the case of books, he did not always specify the number of pagesoversights he rectified to some extent in the 3 ed. Furthermore, Larrea did not index his work. Nonetheless, his bare bones entries appear to be correct for the most part. Norriss Gua bibliogrfica advanced coverage of historical and related publications through the mid 1970she did not specify a cutoff yearbut Norris violated one of the basic canons of research. Apparently he relied extensively on secondhand records, the specifics of which he iii

does not seem to have checked against the actual publications. I do not know how else Norris could have made so many mistakes. He misattributed authorship in some cases; he garbled some titles; and in far too many instances, he failed to give complete publication data or pagination, especially in the case of articles. Furthermore, Norris included some manuscripts, without specifying where they may be seen, and some imprints that have nothing whatsoever to do with Ecuador but with Equatorial Africa. It is important to note, however, that Larrea and Norris did not have at their disposal the bibliographic tools that subsequently came into existence, especially computerized databases. Moreover, there is nothing wrong with the scissors-and-paste approach to the compilation of a working bibliography. The different disciplines disagree as to how to cite, however, and what to include in a citation. Furthermore, even the most punctilious scholars and librarians make mistakes. Therefore, it behooves bibliographers to verify citations and catalog records against the particulars of the actual publications, if at all possible. Not to do so is to run the risk of perpetuating not just cryptic but erroneous citations. I too have relied on the work of others, especially on Larrea and Norris, but I have endeavored to check every brief or suspect record against either the actual book, article, or dissertation, or against as many other, discrete records of the work in question as needed to flesh out or correct descriptions and to assign descriptors. In brief, I have tried to lay to rest as many phantoms of opus as possible without creating any new ones. Inevitably, therefore, several hundred references, including some that correspond to important works, have had to be excluded. Two examples of what is meant by bibliographic ghosts are: German Colmenaress Fundamentos econmicos y sociales de una diferenciacin nacional: el caso de la hacienda serrana en el Ecuador, 18001810, Historia y espacio: revista de estudios regionales del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad del Valle, 2:6/7 (1980); and John Isaacson, Holguer Jara, and Frank Salomons, T ulipe: centro ceremonial del noroccidente de Pichincha (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986). I have been unable to verify the article by Colmenares. Colmenares himself nowhere refers to it in his 1992 La hacienda en la sierra norte del Ecuador (entry 6115), and it is not referenced in Marco Antonio Pealoza Bretels 1995 La iv

investigacin historiogrfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX (entry 270). As for the Isaacson, Jara, and Salomon work, it does exist, but apparently only in manuscript. Notwithstanding the reference to T ulipe in various monographs, Salomon himself assured me that the book in question was not published. Undoubtedly that it is why it did not show up in any online public access catalog or in the Banco Central del Ecuadors catalog of its own publications. (Salomons contribution to T ulipe, however, was finally published as a separate in 1997 by Abya-Yalanot by the Banco Centralas: Los Yumbos, N iguas y T satchila o Colorados durante la colonia espaola: etnohistoria del noroccidente de Pichincha, Ecuador [131 p.].) Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador lists more than 8,814 books (including compendia of sources), articles in periodicals or in anthologies, and doctoral dissertations that have been published or are available through University Microfilms International. The reason for fudging as to the actual number of items included is because some entries correspond to several versions of the same work or to entries with analytics. Some entries, for example, describe the latest edition or reprint of a particular work with as many of the bibliographic particulars of earlier editions or of the original version that I was able to ascertain and considered important enough to detail in a note. Furthermore, I could not resist the temptation to add some titles in the introductory remarks to the various sections that comprise this bibliography. I also plead guilty to having included references to yet other works in some notes, sometimes by the same author(s), sometimes by another author or other authors, that I was unable to list separately, at least not without having to engage in extensive re-enumeration. Generally speaking, the cutoff date of publication for inclusion in this bibliography is December, 1995. Nonetheless, some 1996 and 1997 imprints appear here, the database not having been closed until July 1997. I have been more liberal than Norris in coverage, but less encompassing than Larrea. Whereas Norris gave short shrift to the pre-conquest period, I consider that which may be called the pre-Hispanic period as important as any other and treat it accordingly. The past after all does not begin with the written word. On the other hand, only those Science publications and doctoral dissertations that have to do with the history of scientific expeditions to Ecuador or with the history of scientific developments and events in Ecuador have been included. In other words, unlike Larrea, I have excluded most works relating v

to the natural history of Ecuador. Basic or corein the Library Science sense of the wordpublications on climate, flora and fauna, and geology, however, have been included. Many works that are not readily available in Ecuador or elsewhere in Latin America appear here. By the same token many works that are not generally available, if at all, in North America or European libraries are also described. But the lack of access to any given work has nothing whatsoever to do with its importance. Every book or article that appeared to me to be significant has been listed regardless of its availability or, for that matter, the language in which it appears, or its age, provided I was able to verify its bibliographic particulars and to ascertain the gist of its contents. However, only doctoral dissertations that are readily available are included. At the same time, I have included some works that are not important and never were in an effort to provide as complete a historical bibliography of Ecuador as possible. In a bibliography of this magnitude it is inevitable that some anomalies should have crept in. I hope that I caught them all and send them on their way, but I cannot be certain. Be that as it may, entries 2384, 3380, 3395, 5284, 6295, 6358, 7086, 7136, 7660, and 8304 were eliminated because they turned out to be redundancies or citations whose particulars I could not flesh out. Volume one of Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador opens with Bibliografas (entries 1200), followed by sections on Estudios historiogrficos y relacionados (entries 201297), Ayudas de investigacin (entries 298441), and Revistas (entries 442525). These four sections are complementary, not altogether discrete, and as comprehensive as I could make them in order to facilitate the task of other Ecuadorianists. Bibliografas includes every bibliography of ecuatoriana in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences for which I was able to find or to establish a satisfactory description. Estudios historiogrficos includes materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Social Sciences as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to be more than a handful. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences during the closing decades of the twentieth century. Ayudas de investigacin consists primarily of guides to and studies of archives, libraries, vi

museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador. The Revistas section lists every historical and related periodical for which I have been able to find or establish an acceptable bibliographic description (that is to say, a description that includes enumeration, place of publication, and dates of issuance and publication). N.B. With one or two exceptions, serials that are primarily bibliographic or statistical in coverage, however, are entered under Bibliografas or Estadstica. Works having to do with Ecuador in general or with the history of Ecuador at large are described next, under Historia: obras generales y miscelneas (entries 526658), followed by works on the Perodo prehispnico (entries 6591305). Perodo prehispnico lists studies having to do with the archaeology, physical anthropology, and ethnohistory of Ecuador prior to the Spanish conquest. This section also includes some works on the prehistory of the country or its component regions. Inevitably the ethnohistorical studies listed in this section also examine the Spanish conquest and the early colonial period to some extent and therefore will be of interest to students of the Perodo hispnico too. Appropriate subject headings such as Ecuador Historia Conquista espaola and Ecuador Historia Siglo XVI will guide those readers who do not wish to plow through the Perodo prehispnico section to the pertinent books, articles, and dissertations. The remainder of volume one is given over to the Perodo hispnico, and the Perodo Nacional. The Perodo hispnico is divided into La conquista espaola y las guerras civiles (entries 13061341) and La colonia (entries 13421545). The section on the Spanish conquest is meager because the conquest of what would become Ecuador has been overshadowed by the conquest of the Tahuantinsuyu at large and because I chose not to include the majority of the general accounts and coeval chronicles inasmuch as several excellent guides thereof and thereto already exist. The Perodo Nacional is divided into La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (18091830) (entries 15461897), La Repblica (1830) (entries 18981994), Siglo XIX (18301895) (entries 19952213), and Siglo XX. The Siglo XX is subdivided into 1895 (entries 22142298) 18951960 (entries 22992626) and 1960 (entries 26272973). vii

Works on a particular region, province, city, or town during the colonial period, the nineteenth century, or the twentieth century are listed under Historia regional or Historia urbana in volume two. Works having to do with a particular region, province, city, or town during the independence period, however, are entered under La independencia y bajo la Gran Colombia (18091830) in volume one. This is not altogether logical, but it makes as much sense as the alternative arrangement because the majority of works on the struggle for liberation from Spain and the subsequent separation from Colombia appear to be primarily studies of the independence period and secondarily of a specific region, province, city, or town. Again recourse to the index of subject headings will guide the reader to the relevant works. Another aside is in order at this point. There is no one correct way to arrange a bibliography. By the same token there is no one correct way to determine aboutness1 The most that one can hope to achieve is an arrangement that for the most part will guide scholars and students to the materials they should consult, and an assignation of more or less appropriate subject headings that will lead researchers to the majority, if not to all, of the specific works they seek. In this regard, it should be noted that I initially assigned some works to divisions and subdivisions on the basis of the subject headings proffered by catalogers rather than upon the basis of personal perusal (not always possible), only to discover subsequently that some of the works in question would fit better or in fact belonged elsewhere. But there comes a moment in the life of every bibliography when one must bring it to a halt and launch it in the hopes that its usefulness will outweigh its shortcomings. Volume two opens with biographical and related materials. The great man approach continues to be cultivated by many, perhaps the majority of, Ecuadorian scholars as evidenced by the substantial number of works on protohombres listed under Biografas (29743703). Biographies of women, mostly notable women but also some of women of lesser fame and fortune, however, began to appear in the closing decades of the twentieth century. Volume two continues with Historia de la cultura, Historia de la Iglesia, Historia de la medicina, Historia demogrfica, Historia diplomtica y legal, Historia regional y estudios relacionados, and Regionalismo. Historia de la cultura is divided into Obras generales y miscelneas (entries 37043759), Arte y arquitectura (entries 37604045), Ciencias viii

(entries 40464102), Educacin (entries 41034307), Ideas (entries 43084429), Lenguas y lingstica (entries 44304542), Literatura (entries 45434745), Literatura folklrica y folklore (entries 47464865), and Msica, teatro, radio, y televisin (48664955). Each of these sections includes materials on late-twentieth-century and therefore, at the time of their publication, recent developments, events, and persons. Historia de la Iglesia consists of two subsections on Historia eclesistica (entries 49565227), and Iglesia y Estado (entries 52285296). Historia eclesistica and Iglesia y Estado consist mostly of historical materials. The next two sections, Historia de la medicina (entries 52975383) and Historia demogrfica (entries 53845436), include only historical studies and published sources. Materials on recent or late twentieth-century health problems and health care appear under Higiene pblica y medicina in volume three, and those having to do with post1949 demographic developments under Poblacin, also in volume three. Historia diplomtica y legal is divided into Legislacin (entries 54375532), Lmites (entries 55335731), and Relaciones exteriores (entries 57325833). I have listed only those studies that are primarily historical in coverage or nature and major compendia of laws and regulations in the Legislacin subsection. Nonetheless, I have included every guide to legislation of which I am aware and for which I was able to establish a satisfactory description in order to facilitate the task of other researchers. Historia regional y estudios relacionados consists of six subsections corresponding to the six macroregions of Ecuador: Galpagos (entries 58345871), Costa norte (entries 58725912), Costa centro-sur (entries 59136067), Sierra centro-norte (entries 60686303), Sierra sur (entries 63046427), and Oriente (entries 64286582). The Costa norte may be thought of as the modern Province of Esmeraldas. The Costa centro-sur consists of the modern Provinces of Manab, Los Ros, Guayas, and the lowlands of El Oro. The Sierra centro-norte corresponds more or less to the modern Provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, and Bolvar, and the Sierra sur to the modern Provinces of Caar, Azuay, and Loja, and the highlands of El Oro. The Sierra centro-norte also included the Gobernacin de Popayn during the colonial period, or what is now southern Colombia, then an integral part of the Audiencia/Presidency of ix

Quito. Similarly the Sierra sur took in Jan de Bracamoros (part of Peru since the independence period) during the colonial period. I have listed only a few key works on sixteenth-, seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and early-nineteenth-century Popayn, Pasto, and Jan and their districts, however, because their histories are usually written as though they always belonged, or should have belonged to modern Colombia and Peru, respectively. The Oriente takes in the modern Provinces of Sucumbios, Napo, Pastaza, Morona-Santiago, and Zamora Chinchipe, and as one goes back in time, those parts of Amazonia ceded to Colombia and taken over by Peru. Volume two closes with the section on Regionalismo. Although regionalism is touched upon to a greater or lesser extent in various works on the colonial and national periods, as of July 1997, there were surprisingly few studies that focus primarily on this topic (entries 65836593). Volume three consists of four sections, Historia urbana y estudios relacionados. Economa y Geografa, Etnografa, and Sociedad, the latter three of which are largely given over to studies of events and developments of the second half of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, Descripciones y viajes, the opening subsection of Economa y Geografa, includes accounts of explorers and travelers from the seventeenth century onward and geographical studies of the nineteenth as well as of the twentieth century. Some materials from the first half of the twentieth century will also be found in the Condiciones econmicas subsection and the Etnografa and Sociedad sections, not that all that many studies of continuing value in the Social Sciences were done prior to the 1960s. The first ethnography of a community based on field work, for example, did not appear until 1945 (item 8103). Historia urbana y estudios relacionados is divided into Obras generales y miscelneas (entries 65946636), Ambato (entries 66376653), Cuenca (entries 66546719), Guayaquil (entries 67206892), Ibarra (entries 68936904), Latacunga (entries 69056908), Loja (entries 69096914), Otavalo (entries 69156925), Quito (entries 69267110), Riobamba (entries 71117124), and Otras ciudades y pueblos (entries 71257181). Even though Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuencain that orderclearly dominate the subdiscipline of urban history, a substantial number of significant studies of other cities and towns are known to exist, not all of which are listed here because I was unable to find copies or establish adequate descriptions thereof. x

Economa y Geografa is divided into Descripciones y viajes (entries 71827473) and Condiciones econmicas (entries 74747931). In general, works on late-twentieth-century economic policies and economic history appear under Historia: Perodo Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960. Deciding what should be included under Historia: Perodo Nacional: Siglo XX: 1960 rather than under Condiciones econmicas was not a simple matter, however, and readers interested in economic developments from the 1960s through the 1990s should consult both subsections. There is a substantial body of ethnographic and related literature on Ecuador, much more in fact than is registered here. The Etnografa section is divided into Obras generales y miscelneas (entries 7932 7966), Litoral, Sierra (entries 79908068), and Oriente (entries 81278144). Although general ethnographical studies of the coast do not seem to exist, at least not as of July 1997, there were several works on the three western lowland groups that have maintained their identity: the Awa / Coaiquer (entries 79677971); Chachipopularly known as Cayapas(entries 7972 7980); and Tsatchilas, or Colorados (entries 79817989). In addition to the general and miscellaneous studies of Indians of the highlands, there is a substantial body of literature on the distinctive groups, specifically on the Caaris (entries 80698087), Otavaleos (entries 80888111), Salasacas (entries 81128115), and Saraguros (entries 81168126). Interestingly enough there appeared to be appreciably more ethnographic studies of Indians of the Upper Amazon Basin, especially of the Achuar and the Shuar (formerly grouped together as Jvaros) than of Indians of the highlands (entries 81278144 for the Oriente at large and 81458302 for specific groups). The agreed upon ,and as of the first half of the 1990s still existing, ethnic groups are the Achuar (entries 81458159), Canelos Quichua (entries 81608177), Cofanes (entries 81788184), Huaoraniformerly known to the outside world as Aucas (entries 81858201), Quijos Quichua (entries 82028205), Shuar (entries 82068291) and Sionas / Secoyas (entries 82928302). Ethnohistorical studies are listed under the appropriate History and Regional History sections or subsections. The Regional History subsections include materials on ethnic groups xi

that no longer exist (e.g., the Omaguas). Unfortunately, upon preparing the subject index, I discovered that I had not been altogether consistent in assignation of ethnohistorical materials. Some therefore appear under the Ethographic section and subsections. My apologies in advance to the reader, but it did not seem worthwhile to delay the appearance of this bibliography simply in order to reshuffle some entries. The Sociedad section is divided into Condiciones sociales (entries 83038398), Estadstica (entries 83998513), Higiene pblica y salud (entries 85148626), Mujer (entries 86278681), and Poblacin (entries 86828814). Volume four consists of the indexes (author, subject, and series) to this work. The indexes have been placed in a separate volume to facilitate consultation and utilization of this bibliography. Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador intentionally takes in much more than historical studies and coeval sources. Yet that is how it should be. In the first place, almost all materials are grist to the historians mill in the fulness of time. In the second place, the lines between History and the Humanities, on the one hand, and between History and the Social Sciences, on the other, are blurred in the Latin American countries. Intellectuals have been crossing the line almost from the beginning of historiography in Ecuador. Pablo Herrera (18201896) and Pedro Moncayo (18071888), for example, were literary critics as well as historians, and more recently novelists and short story writers such as Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (19081993) and Nelson Estupin Blas (1915) have also written history or what passes for history. Furthermore, the cultivators of the new history in Ecuador have been heavily influenced by the paradigms and ideological baggage of the Social Sciences. This is not surprising. Many of the scholars responsible for much of the late twentieth-century historical production here within described and discussed took their professional training in Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, or Sociologynot in Historyor were trained, at least in part, by Social Scientists. Furthermore, it could be argued that in Ecuador the past as perceived is as much a handmaiden of ideology and politics, as History as it has emerged as a discipline is driven by ideology and politics. But this is not the place to engage in discourse on the strengths or the shortcomings of xii

historiography in Ecuador. What matters here is that almost all, if not all, publications and doctoral dissertations in the Humanities and Social Studies on Ecuador are of interest and, sooner or later, of importance to historians. In closing, it cannot be over emphasized that the historiography of Ecuador, traditional as well as modern, is much more abundant than many Ecuadorianistsincluding myself until I undertook this workrealize.

REPOSITORIES AND RESOURCES Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador is based on nearly four decades of research, more than seven years of which were spent in Ecuador itself. Over the years I have consulted many, but hardly all, libraries, several private collections, and several dozen archives and museums in the two primary cities of Quito and Guayaquil and in the most important of the secondary cities, Cuenca. I first set foot in Ecuador in 1962. My initial interest in that country might never have born fruit, however, if I had not met and been captivated by the guayaquilea who became and remains my spouse. (Fui, vi, y fui vencido.) Because I made a promise to Carmen Victoria Flores de Hamerly to take her home as often as possible and because I continue to be intrigued by Ecuador, we have returned time and time againmost recently in July 1997 insofar as this bibliography is concernedinitially in search of material for my doctoral dissertation (entry 5975) and subsequently to undertake research on other topics. I also undertook research for this and other work on Ecuador in libraries and other depositories in the United States (at libraries of the University of Washington, the University of Florida, Duke University, the University of Northern Colorado, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Guam, Brown University, the University of Massachusetts, and at the Library of Congress, the Academy of American Franciscan History, the National Archives, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, and the John Carter Brown Library) and at one time or another in various archives, libraries, and museums in Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Israel, Spain, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. This bibliography would be far less substantial, however, were it not for the CD-ROM and hard copy versions of the Handbook of Latin xiii

A merican Studies (Madrid: Ediciones Mapfre, 1995; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 19361951; Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 19511978; Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980), the N ational Union Catalogindispensable for completing and verifying citations of older materialsand for the increasing number of online public access catalogs (opacs) available through Telnet. I relied primarily on MELVYL and UTCAT and secondarily on SABIO and TOME. MELVYL is the more-or-less integrated online catalog or system of the libraries of the Universities of California and the California State Library. UTCAT is the online catalog or system of the University of Texas at Austin. SABIO and TOME are the online catalogs or systems of the University of Arizona and the University of New Mexico, respectively. MELVYL and UTCAT were searched systematically (i.e., by authors, titles, subjects, and series). SABIO and TOME were spot checked to flesh out incomplete records and to verify dubious citations not found in MELVYL or UTCAT, sometimes successfully, sometimes in vain. (N.B. I ended up limiting systematic research to Western opacs because accessing Eastern opacs proved to be problematic, given the difference in time between Guam and the eastern half of the United States and the amount of traffic on those systems. More often than not I could not get into Eastern opacs, and when I did manage to connect, I would be bumped sooner or later during the search session.) As of May 9, 1996, the MELVYL system contained 5,628 not necessarily discrete records of ecuatoriana. On that same day, there were 7,023 not necessarily discrete records relating to Ecuador in the UTCAT system. The libraries of the University of Arizona and of the University of New Mexico also have substantial holdings of ecuatoriana. Again as of May 9, 1996, a subject search of SABIO yielded 2,022 subjects, with 4,047 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor Ecuador, and a subject search of TOME, 2,316 subjects, with 5,063 entries beginning with or containing the descriptor Ecuador. (There is nothing significant about May 9, 1996; it just happens to have been the day it occurred to me to go online to obtain these statistics.) Because many works have several subject headings and inasmuch as some records are redundant because of discrepancies in description, the actual numbers of discrete records of ecuatoriana in MELVYL, UTCAT, SABIO, and TOME are somewhat less than the xiv

above figures seem to indicate. Ideally OCLC, or the Online Computer Library Center, should also have been culled for additional records and to complete and verify records that I had to set aside. But access to this bibliographic utility was not available to me in Guam, where I was an Associate Professor/Professor of Library Science between 1988 and 1998. In this regard, it should also be noted that the World Wide Web has augmented and continues to augment the number and availability of databases, another development, however, that occurred too late for purposes of this work. Nonetheless, I am reasonably certain that I have seen one or more records of almost all books published in Ecuador, elsewhere in Latin America, the United States, and Europe on the history of Ecuador and related topics, as of December 1995. I have also seen many of the actual works themselves. But at the same time it should be noted that some important works have eluded me. In this regard, it should be noted that there are a number of official publications, particularly messages of heads of state and compendia of documents pertaining to their terms in office, that should have been included. But we remain very much in the dark when it comes to official publications of Ecuador, records of which continue to be woefully inadequate. The most recent guide, at least as of July 1997, to this countrys monographic government documents, although still useful, appeared as long ago as 1947 (entry 148). Furthermore, records of other government publications, at least of the Latin American countries, in the N ational Union Catalog and in the opacs of the United States tend to be sketchy and more often than not, unreliable. Turning to articles, in addition to the Handbook of Latin A merican Studies, I also worked my way systematically through the hard copy versions of: 1) Pooles Index to Periodical Literature, rev. ed. (6 v. in 7; Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1963) for the years 18021906; and 2) the title variant International Index to Periodicals / International Index: a Guide to Periodical Literature in the Social Sciences and Humanities / Social Sciences & Humanities Index (27 v.; New York: Wilson, 19071974), and its offspring Humanities Index (New York: Wilson, 1975) and Social Science Index (New York: Wilson, 1975), for the years 19071995. I also consulted: 3) the CDROM version of MLA International Bibliography; and the hard copy versions of: 4) A bstracts in xv

A nthropology (Farmingdale, New York: Baywood, 1970); 5) HA PI, Hispanic A merican Periodicals Index, vol. 1, 1970/1974 (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1975); 6) Historical A bstracts (Santa Barbara: ABC Clio, 1955); 7) Public A ffairs International Service Bulletin, but only for the years 19681990 (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 19681990); and its successor (8), PA IS International in Print (New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1991); 9) Benito Snchez Alonso, Fuentes de la historia espaola e hispanoamericana, 3 ed., corr. y puesta al da (3 v.; Madrid: Publicaciones de la Revista de Filologa Espaola, 1952); and Snchez Alonsos successor (10), Historiografa y bibliografa americanista, which has had a confusing history.2 Therefore it is probable that I have seen records of almost every North American and European article in a book or periodical in the Humanities and the Social Sciences published on Ecuador through December 1995, and in the majority of cases the actual texts thereof. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of every Latin American article in a book or periodical published on Ecuador through December 1995, inasmuch as not all Latin American anthologies and periodicals are abstracted or indexed. Of course over the years I have worked my way through runs of many Ecuadorian periodicals and anthologies in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, but I was unable to lay hands on some serials known to contain historical studies or all issues of those serials I was able to consult. In this regard, permit me to quote Bernard Lavall: Por supuesto, la ambicin de todo trabajo de este tipo es la de ser lo ms completo posible. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, no dej de acompaarnos el convencimiento ntimo de que la meta propuesta, la exhaustividad, no era sino ilusoria y que al final no faltarn algunos trabajos que, desgraciadamente, hayan escapado de nuestra vigilancia.3 And to add that I have already begun to prepare a supplement to Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador not only to maintain it as current as possible, but also to add pre1996 publications of significance that I was unable to include in this work. Insofar as doctoral dissertations are concerned, in addition to the professional literature itself and the above mentioned indexes and abstracts, I relied on the still useful, but regrettably discontinued, bibliographies put out some years ago by University Microfilms International: 1) xvi

Latin A merica and the Caribbean: A Dissertation Bibliography, edited by Carl W. Deal (1977); 2) Latin A merica and the Caribbean II: A Dissertation Bibliography, Marian C. Walters, editor (1980); and 3) Latin A merica: A Catalog of Current Doctoral Dissertation Research (1983). Unfortunately, the bibliographic descriptions, especially the collation statements, in UMI products are not AACR2 compatible in every respect. But I had to accept the data as given in some instances because I was unable to reconcile the differences in every case. Again it must be remembered that I did not have access to OCLC.4 Doctoral dissertations available only from their authors have not been included, given the difficulty in obtaining copies thereof. Unpublished licentiate or masters degree theses were also excluded, not out of any sense of snobbery, but because bibliographic control of theses as opposed to dissertations is still in the process of being established, and because I had already embarked on an ambitious enough task.

A MATTER OF STYLE In preparing this work, I have been guided by the principles of bibliographic description laid down in: A nglo-A merican Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Chicago: American Library Association; Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited, 1988); Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for W riters of Research Papers, 4th ed., (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1995);and T he Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), and therefore also in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for W riters of T erm Papers, T heses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Not wholly satisfied with any of the existing norms for bibliographic description, however, I decided to devise my own: a hybrid, as it were, of the formats worked out by advocates of International Standard Bibliographic Description, the editors of the Handbook of Latin A merican Studies, and some historians. Although sui generis, the documentation system I employ is a variant of the Humanities style (not of the author-date system). N.B. Although Bibliografa histrica del Ecuador is AACR 2r compatible, I did not adopt the A nglo-A merican Cataloging Rules format in whole nor accept AACR 2r records blindly for three xvii

reasons. In the first place, I saw no point in including statements of responsibility in the case of works produced by one, two, or three authors. In the second place, AACR 2r is not always user friendly. And in the third place, I felt and still feel it absurd to be bound by the errors of omission and comission, especially those relating to main entry and name authority, in AACR 2 and 2r records. CITATION N U MBER: Each entry has been assigned a unique citation number, beginning with 1 . The citations numbers are given in boldface. Numbers combined with letters have also been used for the purpose of keeping together series that constitute specific sets (e.g., the seven volume set on the restoration of the Iglesia y Convento Mayor de Santo Domingo [entries 3989 and 3989a3989g] or the Libros de cabildos de la ciudad de Quito [entries 7066 and 7066a7066l]). ORTHOGRAPHY: Diacritics have been respected. So too have the peculiarities of spelling. The bibliographic particulars of works in European languages employing Roman alphabets (including East European variants) have been transcribed as they appear. Statements of responsibility, place of publication, and series statements, therefore, are given in the language of the work, and as they usually appear in modern catalog records. Entries in Russian and therefore in Cyrillic, however, have been transliterated. Apparently there are no works, at least no original works, in Greek, Turkish, Hebrew, or Arabic on the history of Ecuador. Glottal stops in American Indian languages have been transcribed as apostrophes (i.e., by the symbol ). N AME OF AU THOR: Names are given in library catalog or inverted order (i.e., family name[s], given name[s]). To have listed names in normal order (i.e., given name[s] followed by family name[s]), as observed by the American Historical Association in the 3rd ed. of its Guide to Historical Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; 2 v.), would be cavalier inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know which is which, especially in the case of compound names. Forms of names known to be preferred by individual authors and editors have been respected for the most part. Fuller or more distinctive forms of names, however, have been employed when needed to distinguish between one author and another. Cross references from unused forms are given in the Indice de autores. Ecuadorian and therefore Spanish usage has been preferred. Hence a work by Carlos de la xviii

Torre Reyes, for example, is entered under De la Torre Reyes, Carlos, not Torre Reyes, Carlos de la. For name authority I have relied heavily on the cumulative author (corporate body as well as personal) index to Bibliografa retrospectiva ecuatoriana e ndice acumulativo 19781985 (entry 20), and on the good offices of my friend and fellow bibliographer Dr. Miguel Daz Cueva, who has been sharing his in-depth knowledge of ecuatoriana with me for more than thirty years. DATES OF AU THOR: Dates of authors are given in the Indice de autores whenever I have been able to ascertain them. The sources do not always agree as to the years of birth or death for every author. In cases of discrepancy, the usually agreed-upon year(s) or the year(s) Daz Cueva assures me to be correct have been preferred. ATTRIBU TION OF AU THORSHIP: Anonymous works are entered under title. Works published under a pseudonym are entered under the authors real name, when known. Linkage is given in the Indice de autores. It has not been possible, however, to ascertain the identity of every author who published under a pseudonym. I do not know, for example, who the Jorge Juan was who wrote on the first fall of Velasco Ibarra and the early days of the Pez dictatorship (entry 2471). Similarly, it has not been possible to establish fuller forms of names of all authors who have the same first and last names in order to distinguish between them. Even middle initials are not always distinctive. To wit, there are two Eduardo N. Martnez: Eduardo Nalo Martnez and Eduardo Neptal Martnez. WORKS BY THE SAME AU THOR: In a succession of works by the same author or authors, the name of the author or names of the authors are given for each entry. Employment of spaces or hyphens in lieu of names does not work well in a lengthy bibliography. To require the reader to scan backward or upward in order to determine authorship of an entry is to impose an unnecessary burden simply for the sake of adherence to style. MAIN EN TRY: Scholars and librarians, including academic librarians, disagree as to principles of primacy. Therefore a digression regarding main entry is in order. Works authored by one person are entered under that persons name in inverted order. Works authored by two or three persons are entered under the first person named under that persons name in inverted order and under the second person or the second and third persons named in normal order, separated by semicolons. I decided to employ semicolons rather than commas to separate xix

authors because even native Spanish speakers sometimes confuse given and family names. No less an authority than the Instituto Bibliogrfico Hispnico, for example, has mistaken Jorge Juan Santacilia and Antonio de Ulloa de la Torre-Giral as brothers, simply because that Jorge Juan did not use his matronymic. Works authored by four or more persons are usually entered under the works title. Books authored by four or more persons, therefore, are entered under title except for conference proceedings, of which more in a moment. Articles authored by four or more persons are always entered under title. Works issued by corporate bodies are also entered under title unless: 1) the work deals with the corporate body itself or the corporate bodies involved; 2) the work is a law or regulation; 3) the work is an official pronouncement of a corporate body; or 4) it is a work of a collective nature reporting activities of conferences, expeditions, or events that can be defined as corporate bodies. The rule of four or more applies to corporate bodies too. Also when I lacked sufficient information to establish the responsible corporate body or was in doubt as to whether the main entry should be under corporate body or title, entry under title was preferred. (For a more complete discussion of the principles of main entry, see chap. 21 of the A ngloA merican Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev.) Conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings are entered under the established name of the conference, congress, or symposium. Partial or session-specific proceedings, however, are entered under the title of the corresponding publication, as are conference and congress (including symposium) proceedings for which sufficient data are lacking to establish the conference, congress, or symposiums name. STATEMEN T OF RESPON SIBILITY: Inevitably, therefore, some statements of responsibility have had to be included. Four or more authors are reduced to the first individual or entity named, followed by the standard et al. within square brackets. Editor and translator statements are usually transcribed literally, but superfluous information such as titles and institutional affiliation have been omitted unless inclusion is needed for reasons of grammar. Also some serial titles, especially generic titles such as Memoria or Revista, require linkage with their corresponding institutions. So too do such generic series titles as Working papers. Therefore, statements of responsibility have been added to serial and series titles on a need basis xx

(see, for example, entries 496501), but instead of the space, solidus, space (i.e., / ) of catalogers, a comma followed by a space between title and statement of responsibility has been employed. TITLE OF WORK CITED : Titles of articles, books, and dissertations are almost always given in full. Only a few exceptionally long titles have been truncated. Titles of books and serials are italicized. Titles of articles appear between quotation marks. Titles of unpublished dissertations are neither italicized nor set off by quotation marks. EDITION : The edition of the work cited follows the title or the statement of responsibility in the case of a title main entry article or book, separated from the former or the latter by a comma. SERIAL TITLE: Serial titles are given in full and italicized. PU BLICATION DATA : The volume or issue number, or both, are given for the serial in which an article appears, followed by the year of publication within parentheses. Whenever ascertainable, the corresponding month or season of publication is given too. The place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the year(s) of publication are given for books regardless of when they were published. In a few instances of pre1900 imprints, the publisher has not been specified because it was not possible to ascertain this datum, not because some style manuals permit the exclusion of imprint data for pre-twentieth-century publications. Who published or printed a work prior to 1900 is just as important as who published or printed a work after 1899, at least to bibliographers. Angle brackets (i.e., the symbols < and >) are employed to designate temporary data in the case of what were or appear to have been ongoing but not yet complete publications at the time this bibliography was compiled. Every effort, however, has been made to close older records in the case of completed sets, records that no doubt will continue to appear as ongoing in far too many library catalogs. PAGE N U MBERS: Inclusive page numbers for an article in a serial or a chapter in a book are given after the date of publication in the case of an article in a serial and following the publication data in the case of an article or chapter in a book. The number of pages in books (i.e., separately printed monographs) and the number of volumes in multi-volume works are also xxi

given. SERIES TITLES: Series titles have been kept to a minimum and are enclosed within parentheses at the end of the bibliographic description. Associated institutions have been added when needed to distinguish between generic titles. AN ALYTICS: Authors and titles of specific contributions to anthologies and to conference or congress proceedings are given together with page numbers, when known, in contents or partial contents notes. Sometimes, however, author-specific entries are listed separately. Of course this is to be stylistically or format inconsistent, but again the niceties of style have been sacrificed in order to provide users with appropriate entries. Some contributions just seem to belong together whereas others appear to warrant separate attention. That may not be logical, but then there is little or no consistency in the world of bibliography, merely agreed upon but not necessarily adhered to conventions. ALPHABETICAL ORDER: Word-by-word file order has been observed. Single word family names precede multiple word family names. Word spacing and punctuation have been taken into account. Initial articles are respected whenever they constitute an integral part of a personal name or of a place name (i.e., El Oro, La Paz, Los Ros, etc.). Insofar as initial letter is concerned, traditional Spanish alphabetical order has been observed. Names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with Ch, Ll, or follow names, titles, subject headings, and series beginning with C, L, or N. Works entered under a jurisdiction as a corporate body (e.g., Cuenca) are listed before works entered under a title or titles beginning with the same word as the name of a place (e.g., Cuenca). IN DEXES: Entries are indexed by author, subject, and series. SU BJECT HEADIN GS: Modified Library of Congress subject headings have been employed. The primary differences between orthodox Library of Congress subject headings and my version thereof are: 1) a chronology somewhat different from what the Library of Congress employs has been adopted, one more in keeping with how contemporary Ecuadorian scholars view the watersheds in their past. Also I am more inclined to resort to chronological breakdown by century rather than by such macro periods as To 1809. 2) I have employed the subject headings Economic history and Social history, broken down by century(ies), rather than xxii

Economic conditions and Social conditions whenever appropriate. 3) Towns and villages are identified by province inasmuch as not everyone can be expected to know, for example, that Pucar is a small campesino community in southwestern Azuay. 4) Indgenas del Ecuador instead of Indios de la Amrica del Sur Ecuador, has been used. Furthermore, ethnic designates currently in use in Ecuador such as Shuar or Achuar instead of Jivaro Indians are employed. See references are given in the Indice de encabezamientos de materias for readers accustomed to other terminology.

DATABASING VIS-A-VIS WORD PROCESSING This work was word processed, initially using WordStar 4.0 and 6.0 for DOS. Subsequently it migrated to WordPerfect 5.0 and 5.1 for DOS, then to WordPerfect 6.0, 6.1, 7.0 for WINDOWS, and finally to WordPerfect 8.0 for WINDOWS. Had I to do it all over again, I would have used a database instead of a word processing program. Certainly using a database program would have made incorporation of additional materials as well as rearrangement of entries much easier. But for the longest time, I had to make do with computers that are dinosaurs by todays standards (not just 286s, but even 086s). Furthermore, no guidance or instruction in bibliographic utilities such as Nota Benes Orbis or ProCite was available at the University of Guam. Also I had to purchase the majority of the more up-to-date, powerful, and sophisticated hardware (including quality printers) and software used in producing this bibliography myself because the administration of the University of Guam was begrudging in providing support. The staff of the University of Guams Computer Center, however, was absolutely wonderful when it came to helping out with whatever they could.

NOTES
1

Bohdan S. Wynar, Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, 8th ed., [by] Arlene G. Taylor

(Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1992), p. 309.


2

Historiografa y bibliografa americanista began as a section of the A nuario de estudios

americanos, debuting in vol. 10 (1953) of the A nuario (Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano Americanos, 1944). Between 1971 and 1990, Historiografa y bibliografa americanista appeared xxiii

first as an annual and then as a semiannual in its own right, changing its title to Suplemento de A nuario de estudios americanos in 1987, and its enumeration at the same time to parallel that of the A nuario. In 1993, Historiografa y bibliografa americanista returned to being a section of the A nuario (50:1).
3

Bernard Lavall, Bibliografa francesa sobre el Ecuador (19681993): ciencias humans, sociales y

de la tierra (Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional: Maison des pays ibriques, 1995), p. 4.
4

Subsequent to the closure of the database, I was able to access WorldCat, the public access

module of OCLC. Although I was able to resolve some problems through the public access module of OCLC, WorldCat is not always bibliographically helpful inasmuch as it does not include statements of responsibility.

ABREVIACION ES Abbreviations are those employed in A nglo-A merican Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 rev. (Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing Limited; Chicago: American Library Association, 1988), and Reglas de catalogacin angloamericanas (Washington, D.C.: Organizacin de los Estados Americanos; Costa Rica: Biblioteca, Documentacin e Informacin, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1983). Spanish usage has been preferred over English usage.

xxiv

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

BIBLIOGRAFIAS

This section lists every bibliography of ecuatoriana in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Natural Sciences published before Jan. 1996 and for which I was able to obtain or to establish a satisfactory description as of July 1997. As of the late 1990s, the history of bibliography in Ecuador remained to be written. The only attempt to establish some of the benchmarks was Alfredo Chavess still indispensable 1958 Fuentes principales de la bibliografa ecuatoriana (item 54). According to Chaves the first bibliography realizado en el Ecuador was Juan de Velascos Ctalogo de algunos escritores antiguos y modernos del Per y Quito (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1885; 6 p.). However, Velascos Ctalogo was not a bibliography per se but the bibliographic apparatus of his Historia del reino de Quito (item 1532), reprinted from the original edition thereof (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1841-1844; 3 v.). It could be argued that the first Ecuadorian bibliography was the posthumously published Bibliotheca americana (1964-1965) of Antonio de Alcedo (1736-1812). There are difficulties with this contention too, however. Although quiteo born, Alcedo was a Spaniard in every sense that mattered, and his subject was the Americas at large, not his colony of birth. Nonetheless, his Bibliotheca americana (item 2) remains a major source of information on sixteenth-, seventeenth-, and eighteenth-century publications on the New World, including the future Ecuador. The earliest bibliography of ecuatoriana per se therefore appears to be Nicols Anrique Reyess 1891 Noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas anteriores a 1792 (item 8). Bibliographic control of ecuatoriana also had yet and perhaps still remains to be achieved. The Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, however, endeavored to register national publications in the second half of the 1970s (see items 9-11), and the Cuenca branch of the Banco Central del Ecuadors Centro de Investigacin y Cultura made a comparable effort in the late 1970s and the 1980s (see items 65, 12, and 20, in that order). Both attempts at bibliographic control were commendable, but far from complete. Unfortunately, the Centro de Investigacin y Culturas Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano died with the 1987 issue. That I have been unable to determine when the Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central del Ecuadors Bibliografa ecuatoriana or the annual cumulation thereof (items 9-11) ceased to be published is symptomatic of the lack of bibliographic control and of the

difficulty in doing research in and on Ecuador. When the first manuscript catalog of a library was compiled in Ecuador is unknown. I suspect that it will turn out to have been an inventory of the holdings of the Dominican predecesor of the Biblioteca de la Universidad Central or of the Jesuit forerunner of the Biblioteca Nacional. The first printed catalog of a library was that of the Biblioteca Pblica del Azuay, each vol. of which was individually entitled: I, Ciencias eclesisticas (Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1890); II, Jurisprudencia (1890); IV, Historia (1890)-vol. 3 never appeared; V, Literatura (1891); VI, Ciencias; VII, Medicina (1891); VIII, Artes y oficios (1891). The most recent published catalogs of libraries as of July 1997, were the ongoing Diccionario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano of the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinosa Plit (item 26) and the CD-ROM catalog of the library of the Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador. The earliest bibliography of works on the history--in the broad sense --of Ecuador, albeit only of the colonial period, was Nicols Espinosa Corderos 1934 Bibliografa ecuatoriana (item 68). The first comprehensive register of ecuatoriana, including historical materials, was Carlos Manuel Larreas 1948-1953 Bibliografa cientfica del Ecuador (item 110). The most complete as well as up-to-date bibliography of works on and published sources for the reconstruction of the history of Ecuador used to be Robert E. Norriss 1978 Gua bibliogrfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana (item 150). In addition to the bibliographies and bibliographical studies already mentioned and listed below, see: Rodrigo Fierro Bentezs Catlogo del libro ecuatoriano de medicina: obras seleccionadas, siglo XVIII hasta 1995 (Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de Medicina, 1995; 169 p.) and his Bibliografa cientfica medica ecuatoriana publicada en el exterior (Quito: Casa de la cultura ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, 1995; 422 p. [Coleccin: Bibliografa cientfica ecuatoriana; no.1]); and Jorge Nez Snchezs La historiografa ecuatoriana (item 265) that lists and discusses some important works not seen by me.

1. Albn, Mara Elena. Bibliografa de filosofa ecuatoriana, Revista de historia de las ideas, 2 poca, 4 (1983), 263-275. A roster of works that express philosophical views of Ecuadorians. See also item 46. 2. Alcedo y Bejarano, Antonio de. Bibliotheca americana: catlogo de los autores que han escrito de la Amrica en diferentes idiomas, y noticia de su vida y patria, aos en que vivieron, y obras que escribieron (1807), introduccin de Jorge A. Garcs G. Quito: Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia, 1964-1965. 2 v. (Publicaciones del Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia; vol. 32, t. 1-2) The first complete publication of this monumental work. Previewed by Gonzalo Zaldumbide in: El diccionario indito de Alcedo, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./abr. 1921), 71-93. 3. Alcina Franch, Jos. Bibliografa de trabajo. Madrid: Departamento de Antropologa y Etnologa de Amrica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1974. 74

leaves. A working bibliography of materials on the anthropology and archaeology of Ecuador. 4. Alvarado, Rafael. Indice de traducciones ecuatorianas, 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1957. 54 p. A reprint; originally published in: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 11:17 (1956), 349-388. Lists translations from Spanish into other European languages of national works, mostly literary. The first edition appeared as: Indice de traducciones ecuatorianas para el repertorio internacional de traducciones Index translation de la UNESCO, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales (Quito), 6:59 (1954), 505528. 5. Alzamora C., Luca. Ecuador, aspectos socio-econmicos: bibliografa, 2 ed. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1977. 212 p. A revised and augmented edition of the authors: Ecuador, aspectos socio-econmicos e integracin econmica: bibliografa. Quito: Seccin Publicaciones, JUNAPLA, 1976. ii, 182 p. Both are bibliographies of materials on social and economic conditions. 6. Andrade Chiriboga, Alfonso. Hemeroteca azuaya. Cuenca: Edit. El Mercurio, 1950. 2 v. A bibliography of nineteenth-century newspapers of Cuenca. 7. Andrade Marn, Luciano. La bibliografa geogrfica ecuatoriana y los gegrafos ecuatorianos, Anales de la Universidad Central, 23:328 (1949), 19-38. A bibliography of works on the geography of the country and of works by national geographers. 8. Anrique Reyes, Nicols. Noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas anteriores a 1792. Santiago de Chile: Impr. Nacional, 1891. 23 p. Apparently the first bibliography of ecuatoriana as well as the first bibliography of early Ecuadorian imprints. It registered four Ambato and eleven Quito titles. Also published in: Revista ecuatoriana, 4:3:39 (mar. 1892), 112-122. 9. Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano 1975. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1976. 374 p. 10. Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano 1976 y 1977. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1978. 427 p. 11. Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano 1978 y 1979. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Biblioteca General, 1981. 143 p. Items 9-11 constitute a serial, the complete chronology of which remains to be determined. Each vol. includes author, title, and subject indexes. The 1975 issue appears to be vol. 1, and cumulates the first six issues of Bibliografa ecuatoriana, a bimonthly that began with ao 1, no. 1 (ene./feb. 1975) and succumbed sometime thereafter. The 1976-1977 issue corresponds to no. 8/9 of the Bibliografa ecuatoriana,

and the 1978-1979 issue to no. 10, if not no. 10/11. The annual cumulation--of which the 1978-1979 issue (item 11) may have been the last published--is also defunct. Together with its bimonthly counterpart this annual constituted a notable attempt to establish control over national publications. Not related to items 12, 20, and 65. 12. Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano ... 1982-1987. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1984-1991. 7 v. Not to be confused with items 9-11. The Anuario for 1983 appeared in two vols. Indispensable for materials published in the 1980s. Each vol. includes an author index. Continues: Ecuador, bibliografa analtica (item 65). See also: Bibliografa retrospectiva ecuatoriana (item 20). 13. Arcos, Gualberto. Aporte para la bibliografa del Archipilago de las Galpagos, Anales de la Universidad Central, 56:296 (abr./jun. 1936), 629-644. A bibliography of works on the Galpagos Islands. See also item 5849. 14. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Ecuador, The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 826-832. A revised version of the bibliographic essay that accompanies item 2223. Covers the years since 1930. 15. Bkula, Juan Miguel. Per y Ecuador: tiempos y testimonios de una vecindad, 1 ed. Lima: CEPEI : FOMCIENCIAS, 1992. 3 v. Vol. 1 (410 p.) is entirely given over to bibliography. References to many other Peruvian and even more Ecuadorian publications are to be found in the notes to vols. 2 and 3, to which access may be had via the Indice onomstico at the end of vol. 3. Vols. 2-3 also constitute a balanced, comprehensive, more or less objective, and scholarly treatment of the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru, of the history of the Upper Amazon Basin, and relations in general between the two countries by a Peruvian intellectual. The author, a retired career diplomat, is respected in both countries. 16. Barrera B., Jaime. Bibliografa para el estudio de la prehistoria ecuatoriana, Anales de la Universidad Central, 58:299 (ene./mayo 1937), 99-149. A bibliographic essay on the prehispanic period. Arranged chronologically. Reprinted in: Indianistas, indianfilos, indigenistas (item 7946), p. 63-116. 17. Bayle, Constantino. Notas sobre bibliografa jesutica de Mainas, Missionalia hispnica, 6:17 (1949), 277-317. A bibliography of materials on the Jesuit missions of the colonial period in the Upper Amazon Basin. The works in question are also studies of and sources on the ethnography, geography, and history of the Oriente during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. 18. Bibliografa de autores ecuatorianos. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 474 p.

Lists works of Ecuadorian authors held by the Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. 19. Bibliografa de Pablo Muoz Vega, Cultura, 9:25 (mayo/ago. 1986), 121-143. A register of writings of and on the twentieth-century cardinal archbishop of Quito. 20. Bibliografa retrospectiva ecuatoriana e ndice acumulativo 1978-1985. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1991. 400 p. Supplements and provides a cumulative personal and corporate body author index to Ecuador, bibliografa analtica (item 65) and Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano (item 12). Unfortunately the commendable efforts of the Cuenca branch of the Banco Centrals Centro de Investigacin y Cultura to compile and publish continuing and retrospective bibliographies of works published in and on the country were curtailed by the political climate and economic crisis of the 1990s. 21. Bibliografa sobre administracin ecuatoriana y materias afines. Quito: Instituto de Estudios Administrativos, Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1967. 95 p. A bibliography of materials on public administration of/in Ecuador and related topics. 22. Bibliografa social, econmica y poltica del Ecuador. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, Seccin de Investigaciones Sociales, [1973]. 2 v. An important attempt to compile a national bibliography of social scientific materials, including historical. Unfortunately this work suffers from incomplete descriptions and misspellings of authorss names. 23. Bibliographie sur lEquateur = Bibliography on Ecuador. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1985. iii, 85 p. Apparently a general bibliography; indicative of materials available in France. 24. Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando. XXV aniversario de la fundacin de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando, 1913-1938. Guayaquil: Impr. i Tall. Municipales, 1938. 104 p. A list of works of national authors in this major collection. 25. Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. Catlogo de obras de la Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 100 p. A register of works in the Law Library of the Central University. 26. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinosa Plit. Diccionario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano, dirigido por Julin G. Bravo Santilln con la colaboracin de Wilson C. Vega Vega y Vctor H. Vaca Bravo. Quito: Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinos Plit, 1989-<1999>. <8> v. An exceptionally comprehensive bibliography of national authors as well as a catalog of the largest collection of ecuatoriana in the world. It includes newspaper articles, pamphlets, and other ephemera. Indexed by author, subject, and year of publication.

Not an easy tool to use, however, inasmuch as entries are entered by year of publication under author rather than alphabetically by title under author. Furthermore, authorss names are given only once, at the beginning of the list of his/her publications, rendering this bibliography almost impossible to scan. Limited to materials held by the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinosa Plit. Tomo 1, A-An, consists of 6,347 entries; t. 2, An-Ba, of 8,387 entries; t. 3, Ba-Cam, of 8,339 entries; t. 4, Ca-Coh, of 8,215 entries; t. 5, Col-Cor, of 6,333 entries; t. 6, Cos-CH, of 5,962 entries; t. 7, D-EC of 5,772 entries; t. 8, Ech-Esp of 4,593 entries. 27. Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Incunables y libros raros y curiosos de los siglos XV, XVI, XVII y XVIII, de la seccin llamada Hispanoamericana. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 108 p. Describes pre-1800 separates, mostly European but also some early Ecuadorian imprints, held by the National Library. 28. Boletn bibliogrfico ecuatoriano. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene./mar., 1967)-v. 1, no. 2 (abr./jun. 1967). Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1967. 2 nos. 29. Bravo, Julin G. La bibliografa mariana de los siglos XVII y XVIII en la Audiencia de Quito, Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 7 (1983), 83-115. A major guide to Marian publications of the colonial period. At the same time a partial guide to early Ecuadorian imprints. Also published as a separate: Quito: [s.n.], 1984. 56 p. 30. Bristow, Clement Roger. An Annotated Bibliography of Ecuadorian Geology. London: H.M.S.O., 1981. ii, 38 p. 31. Bromley, R.J. Bibliografa del Ecuador: ciencias sociales, econmicas y geogrficas. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1970. 61 p. A bibliography of social scientific studies. Includes an author index. Also published: Talence, France: Centre dtudes de gografie tropicale, 1970. (Travaux et documents de gographie tropicale; no. 2) 32. Bueno C., Ricardo. Ensayo bibliogrfico de los escritos del Ilmo. y Rvdmo. Dr. Dn. Federico Gonzlez Surez, arzobispo de Quito. Quito: Tip. de la Prensa Catlica, 1925. xxviii, 143 p. An annotated guide to the writings of the archbishop historian. See also item 165. Also published in a 2 ed.: Homenaje a la memoria del Ilmo. y Rvmo. Sr. Dr. D. Federico Gonzlez Surez: ensayo bibliogrfico de sus obras y escritos. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio de Gobierno, 1943. 149 p. 33. Crdenas Reyes, Mara Cristina. Jos Peralta y el liberalismo: anlisis documental. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1988. 319 p. 34. Crdenas Reyes, Mara Cristina. La produccin periodstica de Jos Peralta, Revista IDIS, 18 (ene. 1988), 39-66.

Items 33 and 34 are bibliographies of publications of and on the Liberal ideologue (1855-1937). Item 33 also registers materials on liberalism and the Liberal period (1895-1925). 35. Carrera M., Lelia; and Lucila Crtez Miranda. Bibliografa colonial ecuatoriana, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 63:308 (ene./jun. 1940), 576-652. A bibliography of materials of and on the colonial period. 36. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. Bibliografa afro-ecuatoriana: (1 y 2 entregas), Humanitas (Quito), 4:2 (1963), 5-19. 37. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. Bibliografa del folklore ecuatoriano: (1 y 2 entregas), Anales de la Universidad Central, 93:348 (mayo 1964), 111-168. Registers 179 items. Annotated. 38. Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. Bibliografa del folklore ecuatoriano: 3 entrega, Revista del folklore ecuatoriano, 1 (oct. 1965), 211-216. Items 36-38 are the first systematic attempts to register folklore materials of/on Ecuador by the founder of modern folklore studies in the country. 39. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Catlogo general de publicaciones de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1944-1965. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1965. 219 p. An annotated list of works published by the Casa de la Cultura and its branches from 1944 through 1965. Includes notes on authors. 40. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin. Catlogo de obras publicadas por la Editorial de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, 1980. 47 p. Supplements item 39. 41. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Ediciones del Canto a Bolvar publicadas en la vida de Olmedo, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 13:31/32 (1962), 60-72. Apparently a complete register of coeval editions of Olmedos Canto a Bolvar. 42. Castillo, Abel Romeo. La imprenta de Guayaquil independiente: 1821-1822, 2 ed. corr. y aum. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1982. xiii, 202 p. The most complete study, as of July 1997, of early imprints in Guayaquil. This edition includes previously published essays by Gustavo Arboleda R., Pedro Carbo, Juan B. Ceriola, and Jos Gabriel Pino Roca on the early history of the printing press in the port city. The original or first edition was: La imprenta de Guayaquil independiente, 1821-1822: historia, bibliografa, catlogo, notas, facsmiles. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1956. xvi, 204 p. 43. Castillo, Abel Romeo. El primer periodista y el primer peridico ecuatoriano, Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico, poca 2, 1 (1939), 126-137. On El Patriota de Guayaquil, which the late Castillo had been in the process of

reprinting year by year (see item 1801) and its editor, Francisco Mara Roca. 44. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Los primeros diarios de Guayaquil (1860-1884), Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 2 poca, 8:10 (1971), 5-30. On the first daily newspapers in the port city. 45. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Los primeros peridicos guayaquileos: breve catlogo bibliogrfico, Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 2 poca, 7:9 (dic. 1969/feb. 1970), 29-54. Covers the years 1821-1830. 46. Catlogo de libros de filosofa en el Ecuador, Cultura, 2:4 (mayo/ago. 1979), 389415. A list of philosophy books published in the country, by national authors, or on Ecuadorian philosophy. 47. Ciudad de papel. 1 (ene. 1994)-. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, 1994-. A bibliographic bulletin, mostly given over to materials on urbanization. 48. Clagett, Helen Lord. A Guide to the Law and Legal Literature of Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1947. viii, 100 p. Considerably dated but still useful. 49. Cordero Iiguez, Juan. Bibliografa cronolgico [de y sobre Honorato Vsquez], Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 49 (1985), 29-61. 50. Cordero Iiguez, Juan. Bibliografa ecuatoriana de artesanas y artes populares. Cuenca: Centro Interamericano de Artesanas y Artes Populares, 1980. xxii, 373 p. Registers 999 items. Broader in coverage than the title implies. Well indexed. 51. Cordero Iiguez, Juan; and Bernarda Crespo Cordero. Bibliografa azuaya del siglo XIX. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 370 p. A well done year by year listing of 3,701 items published in Cuenca and by cuencanos elsewhere at one time or another in the 1800s. Annotated. Indexed by author and subject matter. Exceptionally comprehensive inasmuch as the compilers included broadsheets, periodical articles, and contributions to festschriften. 52. Corkill, David. Ecuador. Oxford, Eng.: Clio Press, 1989. xxi, 155 p. (World Bibliographical Series; vol. 101) Useful for general readers and beginning researchers, but too limited for post baccalaureate or advanced research. Describes 557 items in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. Each entry is annotated. Emphasizes English language and therefore by default general Latin American, South American, and Andean materials rather than Ecuadorian materials per se, reflecting the limited library holdings in Great Britain on Ecuador. Indexed by authors, titles, and subjects.

53. Cueva, Juan Martn; and Monica Snchez. Bibliografa ecuatoriana sobre pequea y mediana empresa. Quito: INSOTEC, Unidad de Investigaciones de Poltica Industrial, Centro de Documentacin e Informacin, [1988?]. 134 p. Indexed. 54. Chaves, Alfredo. Fuentes principales de la bibliografa ecuatoriana. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 24 p. The pioneering attempt to establish a bibliography of national, regional, and local bibliographies. Relatively full yet curiously incomplete. But less than bibliographic adequate control and the difficulty in laying hands on all appropriate publications have to be taken into account. 55. Chaves, Alfredo. Primer registro bibliogrfico de artes plsticas en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1942. [40] p. (i.e., p. 77-116). Lists 302 articles and books. Published together with: Jos Alfredo Llerena, La pintura ecuatoriana del siglo XX (item 3889). 56. Deas, Malcolm. Ecuador, The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 474-476. 57. Deas, Malcolm. Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador, The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 11, Bibliographic Essays, edited by Leslie Bethell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 274-283. This and the preceding item are revised and updated bibliographic essays, the original versions of which appeared in vols. 3 and 5 of The Cambridge History of Latin America (items 2041 and 2396). They cite and evaluate literature on the first 100 years of the national period (i.e., from 1830 through 1930). 58. Delaunay, Daniel. Demografa en el Ecuador, una bibliografa; Poblaciones de las parroquias: Ecuador, 1950-1982. Quito: Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigacin Geogrfica, 1985. 16, 69 p. (Documentos de investigacin, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigacin Geogrfica. Serie Demografa y geografa de la poblacin; no. 1-2) The first title is a bibliography of demographic studies on the country. The second, coauthored with Blanca Carrera and Juan Len, is a correction of the global results of the 1950, 1962, 1974, and 1982 censuses. 59. Delgado Santos, Francisco. El libro en el Ecuador: situacin, perspectivas. Bogot: Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en Amrica Latina y el Caribe, 1987. 65 p. For a more recent commentary on the status of book publishing and the book trade in the country see: Carl W. Deals Academic Publishing in Ecuador. Albuquerque: SALALM Secretariat, General Library, University of New Mexico, 1994. 34 p. (Latin American Information Series; 4)

60. Destruge, Camilo. Historia de la prensa de Guayaquil. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1982. 2 v. A reprint with an introductory study by Abel Romeo Castillo; originally published: Quito: Tip. y Encuadernacin Salesianas, 1924-1925. 2 v. (Memorias de la Academia Nacional de Historia; 2-3). An exceptionally important contribution to the history of newspapers in Guayaquil. A treasure trove of bibliographic data. Also a major study of cultural and political developments in the port city in the 1800s and early 1900s. Vol. 2 includes an appendix on: Revistas literarias, cientficas, etc; Peridicos jocosos, de caricaturas etc.; Almanaques y guas de la ciudad. 61. Daz Cueva, Miguel. Bibliografa de Fray Vicente Solano. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1965. 318 p. 62. Daz Cueva, Miguel. Bibliografa de Honorato Vzquez. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1955. 192 p. Items 61 and 62 are model bibliographies. They list and describe in chronological order and exquisite detail virtually every, if not every, original publication of Solanos and of Vzquezs oeuvre. Item 61 also analyzes Solanos Obras (item 5181). 63. Daz Cueva, Miguel. Bibliografa ecuatoriana sobre derecho societario, Memoria de la Superintendencia de Compaas del Ecuador, 1964-1979 (Quito: Superintendencia de Compaas del Ecuador, 1979), p. 321-327. 64. Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in Ecuador: A Bibliography of Materials Dealing with Ecuador in the Land Tenure Center Library, compiled by the staff of the Land Tenure Library. Madison: Land Tenure Center, 1972. 28 p. 65. Ecuador, bibliografa analtica: indice peridico de publicaciones nacionales y extranjeras sobre el Ecuador. Ao 1, no. 1 (jul. 1979)-Ao 3, no. 3 (dic. 1982). Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1979-1982. 9 no. Organized by disciplines. Includes analytics of anthologies and periodicals. Indexed by author. The inaugural issue covered publications of 1978. Continued by: Anuario bibliogrfico ecuatoriano (item 12). 66. Espn Lastra, Alfonso R. Biblioteca General de la Universidad Central: seccin de libros coloniales que pertenecieron a la Universidad de San Gregorio Magno y luego a la biblioteca del doctor Eugenio Espejo, Cuadernos de arte y poesa (Quito), 9 (mar. 1960), 108-147. Lists 489 early works. Reprinted in: Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 84:344 (1960), 363-398. 67. Espn Lastra, Alfonso R. Libros coloniales de la Universidad Central: catlogo general. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1963. 105 p. Organized by subjects. 68. Espinosa Cordero, Nicols. Bibliografa ecuatoriana: noticias de las obras literarias

y cientficas que forman el caudal bibliogrfico de la Real Audiencia de Quito, hoy Repblica del Ecuador, con breves datos biogrficos de sus autores, 1534-1809. Cuenca: Impr. del Colegio Nacional Benigo Malo, 1934. viii, 171 p. A notable attempt to establish the output of authors of the colonial period. Arranged chronologically by century. Includes biographical data. See also the authors later Fuentes para la historia ecuatoriana (item 70). 69. Espinosa Cordero, Nicols. Estudios literarios y bibliogrficos. Impr. del Colegio Nacional Benigno Malo, 1934. 265 p. Partial contents: Don Luis Cordero: ensayo bibliogrfico, que se publica con motivo del primer centenario de su nacimiento (p. 1-32); Inventario bibliogrfico de la ciencia azuaya (p. 59-91); and the separately published Bibliografa ecuatoriana (item 68) (p. 93-206). 70. Espinosa Cordero, Nicols. Fuentes para la historia ecuatoriana: primera parte, 1531-1809. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1952. 64 p. The only part published. A basic guide to materials of and on the colonial period. 71. Espinosa Plit, Aurelio. Datos bibliogrficos de Monseor Manuel Mara Plit Laso. Quito: Edit. La Sociedad, 1943. 50 p. 72. Estrella, Eduardo. Principales fuentes de la bibliografa mdica ecuatoriana. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Mdicas, 1988. 67 p. 73. Exposicin del libro, organizada por el Ministerio de Educacin Pblica: biblioteca ecuatoriana que comprende los diez ltimos aos de publicaciones. Quito: Tall. Grf. de Educacin, 1940. 77 p. Cover title: Exposicin del libro ecuatoriano: diez aos de publicaciones nacionales, 1930-1940. A year by year and subject by subject account. Reflects the acquisitions of the Biblioteca Nacional between and inclusive of 1930 and 1940. 74. Exposicin del periodismo ecuatoriano. Quito: Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, 1941. 119 p. 75. Exposicin y feria anual del libro ecuatoriano: Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1933. 53 p. It is not known how many annual expositions and book fairs were held, but given the adverse state of the economy in the 1930s, it is unlikely that there were more than a few, if in fact more than one was held. 76. Fauroux, Emmanuel. Las fuentes impresas para el estudio histrico, poltico, econmico y social de la Provincia de Loja, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 371-435. Includes many little known materials, especially theses, local newspapers, and periodical articles. 77. Fichas bibliogrficas de la historia del Ecuador y del Azuay. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales IDIS, 1978. 2 v.

Important because of the inclusion of some local and regional, not elsewhere registered publications. Contents: vol. 1, Obras generales, precolonia, colonia, independencia y Gran Colombia (iii, 117 leaves); vol. 2, Repblica, estructura del Estado (Poder Ejecutivo), estructura del Estado (Poder Legislativo) (122 p.). 78. Fischer, Sabine. Bibliografa sobre la industria ecuatoriana, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 5:15/16 (1984), 263-273. 79. Freire Rubio, Edgar. El autor y el libro ecuatorianos en 1992, Crnica del ro, 4/5 (sept. 1993), 93-101. 80. Freire Rubio, Edgar. Desde el mostrador del librero, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Grijalbo Ecuatoriana, 1990-<1996>. <3> v. Vol. 1 subtitled: Lo que el pas edit desde junio de 1987 a julio de 1990, but includes in appendix Lo que el Ecuador edit de agosto a diciembre de 1990. Vol. 2: Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales: Ediciones Abya-Yala. Vol. 3 subtitled: Lo que el Ecuador edit desde enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1994; and published by: Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas, Subsecretara de Cultura, Ministerio de Educacin y Cultura. Continues item 81. 81. Freire Rubio, Edgar. El libro nacional: ese desconocido: lo que el pas edit desde enero de 1986 a junio de 1987. Guayaquil: Edit. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987. 91 p. Items 80 and 81 are month-by-month listing of national publications of books and periodicals issued between Jan. 1986 and Dec. 1995, and, therefore, a quasicontinuation of items 16, 20, and 65. Primarily useful as guides to what was/is being published. Unfortunately, however, they do not include the majority of government documents. Both items 80 and 81, however, do include insightful and informative articles--originally published in El Comercio, Hoy, and La Hora as were the lists of publications--on booksellers and the book trade in Ecuador. 82. Gangotena y Jijn, Cristbal de. Bibliografa del periodismo nacional: adiciones, Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, nueva ser., 3 (mar./abr. 1926), 173-176. Supplements item 83. 83. Gangotena y Jijn, Cristbal de. Ensayo de bibliografa del periodismo en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, nueva ser., 1 (dic. 1925), 4686. Items 82-83 are included here within for the sake of completeness. But they have long since been superseded, especially by Ojeda (item 151). 84. Gondard, Pierre. Repertorio bibliogrfico de los trabajos realizados con la participacin de ORSTOM: Ecuador 1962-1986 = Repertoire bibliographique des travaux raliss avec la participation de lORSTOM: Equateur 1962-1986. Quito, Ecuador and Montellier, France: ORSTOM, 1986. 69 p. Also sometimes cited as: Ecuador 1962-1986: repertorio bibliogrfico de los trabajos realizados con la participacin de ORSTOM = Equateur 1962-1986: repertoire

bibliographique des travaux realises avec la participation de lORSTOM. See also item 339. 85. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Bibliografa ecuatoriana: la imprenta en el Ecuador durante el tiempo de la colonia, 1750-1792, Anales de la Universidad de Quito, 7:48 (jul. 1892), 269-279. Registers 29 imprints. Superseded by Stols (item 187), but still important because it reproduces in facsimile the title pages of said imprints. Also published as a separate: Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1892. 36 p. And in: Revista ecuatoriana, 4:43 (jul. 1892), 265-279. See also vol. 7, chaps. 2 and 3 of the archbishop historians Historia general (item 1388). 86. Graham, Ann. Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Austin: University of Texas at Austin, General Libraries, 1978. 26 p. (Selected References Sources, University of Texas at Austin. General Libraries; no. 33) Considerably dated, but useful as an indicator of how little used to be available in the United States, even at a major research library, on Ecuador. 87. Grijalva Cobo, Adriana; and Samuel Guerra Bravo, Bibliografa sobre Vicente Rocafuerte, Cultura, 6:16 (mayo/ago. 1983), 417-430. 88. Gua bibliogrfica de geografa fsica del Ecuador, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Departamento de Ciencias Geogrficas. Quito: Ediciones de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1990. 73 p. Annotates articles, books, and reports published in the 1970s and 1980s. Broader in coverage than the title implies. Includes an author index and an index by provinces. 89. Guzmn C., Jos H. Tecnologa agropecuaria del Ecuador. Cuenca: Grficas Hernndez Ca. Ltda., 1988. 343 p. An idiosyncratic bibliography of materials on Ecuadorian agriculture, based largely on Guzmans own holdings. Describes many unpublished studies and sources. 90. Hamerly, Michael T. El antiguo Rejistro Municipal (1835?-1861) de Guayaquil, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 4:7 (jun. 1975), 64-70a. Includes an issue by issue list. 91. Hamerly, Michael T. La demografa histrica del Ecuador, Per y Bolivia: una bibliografa preliminar, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 3:6 (dic. 1974), 24-63. Includes some materials, especially published sources, not incorporated in this work. 92. Hampe Martnez, Teodoro. Sumaria bibliografa sobre los cronistas del Per, Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional (Lima), 40:93/94 (1985), 5-57. Reviews and lists the original and the most important (in Hampe Martnezs view) modern editions of the chronicles of the Spanish conquest of the Perus and of the civil wars between the conquistadores. 93. Handelsman, Michael H. El modernismo en las revistas literarias del Ecuador,

1895-1930: ensayo preliminar y bibliografa. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1981. 132 p. Primarily a bibliography (p. 37-127). Based on holdings of the Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando, housed in the Biblioteca Municipal of Guayaquil. 94. Hart, George C. A Collection of Ecuadorian Laws at Indiana University. Bloomington: Indiana University Libraries, Government Publications Department, [1975?]. 80 p. 95. Holm, Olaf. Bibliografa antropolgica ecuatoriana, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 42 (1975), 379-406; 44 (ene. 1982), 131-153. Continues: Holms Bibliografa ecuatoriana (item 98). 96. Holm, Olaf. Bibliografa antropolgica ecuatoriana, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1981), 174-186; 4:4 (1984), 161-172; 5:5 (1985), 219-237; 7:7 (1987), 183-189. Continues preceding item (95). 97. Holm, Olaf. Bibliografa de autores nacionales y extranjeros, relacionada con temas antropolgicos ecuatorianos, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 21:38 (1971), 233-261; 22:39 (1972), 234-260; 23:40 (1973), 203-232. Continues: Holms Bibliografa (item 99). Continued by Holms Bibliografa ecuatoriana (item 98). 98. Holm, Olaf. Bibliografa ecuatoriana: sobre temas histricos y antropolgicos ecuatorianas reunidos hasta el ao 1974, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 24:41 (1974), 185-209. Continues: Holms Bibliografa de autores nacionales y extranjeros (item 97). Continued by: Holms Bibliografa antropolgica ecuatoriana (item 95). 99. Holm, Olaf. Bibliografa: publicaciones sobre temas antropolgicos del Ecuador o relacionadas con las investigaciones ecuatorianas, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 18:34/35 (1968), 240-251. Intended to supplement and update Carlos Manuel Larreas Bibliografa cientfica del Ecuador: antropologa, etnografa, arqueologa, prehistoria, lingstica, 3 ed. (item 112). Continues Holms Bibliografa antropolgica y miscelnea, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 17:33 (1967/1968), 285-306, apparently the first in the series, discovered too late to list separately. Continued by: Holms Bibliografa de autores nacionales y extranjeros (item 97). 100. Ibarra, Hernn. Ecuador, bibliografa analtica agraria, 1900-1982. Quito: Ediciones CIESE, con el auspicio de ILDIS, 1982. 419 p. Annotated and indexed. 101. Indice de tesis universitarias sobre temas econmicas, 1900-1984, Julio Oleas Montalvo [et al.]. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 409 p. (Fuentes para la historia econmica del Ecuador. Serie Indices de documentacin; 2)

See also: Solano de la Sala Veintemilla, Germn. Indice de folletos sobre temas econmicos y sociales del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1991. 299 p. (Fuentes para la historia econmica del Ecuador. Serie Indices de documentacin; 3) 102. Inventario de estadsticas demogrficas y socioeconmicas de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1974. 57 p. A useful guide to published and unpublished statistical compendia as of mid-1974. 103. Itzstein, Gertraud; and Heiko Prumers. Einfhrende Bibliographie zur Archologie Ecuador = Bibliografa bsica sobre la arqueologa del Ecuador. Bonn: Seminar fr Volkerkunde der Universitat Bonn, 1981. 110 p. Lists approximately 1,200 studies of the prehispanic period published between 1900 and 1980. 104. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Bibliografa de Honorato Vzquez, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 19 (jun. 1931), 290-309. 105. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Bibliografa quitea, Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 7-29. 106. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Ensayo de bibliografa nacional. Cuenca: Impr. Municipal, 1925. 43 p. 107. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Exposicin del libro azuayo: indice bibliogrfico. Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1939-1940. xiv, 142 p. Also published in: Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 33/34 (1939/1940), 80-230. 108. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Indice bibliogrfico de la Biblioteca Jaramillo de Escritos Nacionales. Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1932. ii, 355 p. 109. Jaramillo, Miguel Angel. Indice bibliogrfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca Jaramillo de Escritos Nacionales. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1953. 180 p. Items 108 and 109 are catalogs of books by national authors and of national periodicals in the Jaramillo collection, now part of the Biblioteca de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay. N.B. Item 109 is an issue by issue account. 110. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa cientfica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948-1953. 5 v. in 1. Vols. 2-5 paged continuously. Registers 8,732 items. Covers through 1946. Contents: t. 1, Geografa, descripciones generales, viajes, datos estadsticos; t. 2, Geologa, petrografa, mineraloga, paleontologa, vulcanologa, botnica y zoologa; t. 3, Antropologa, etnografa, arqueologa, lingstica, folklore, prehistoria, historia antigua; t. 4, Historia general, historia de la cultura, historia eclesistica, cuestiones polticas, etc.; t. 5, Apndices e indices.

111. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa cientfica del Ecuador, 2 ed. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, 1952. 492 p. Registers 9,300 items. Advanced coverage through 1949. 112. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa cientfica del Ecuador: antropologa, etnografa, arqueologa, prehistoria, lingistica, 3 ed. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1968. 289 p. Covers anthropological and related publications through 1966. Registers 2,235 items. Indexed by subject. Only vol. of third ed. issued. 113. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa de Cristbal de Gangotena y Jijn, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 34:83 (ene./jun. 1954), 122-127. A comprehensive listing of Gangotena y Jijns publications, of which there appear to have been 72 altogether. Gangotena y Jijns genealogies are especially important inasmuch as they were based on considerable original research and his own private collection, rich in manuscript originals and coeval copies. 114. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa de Gabriel Garca Moreno: en el centenario de su asesinato, 1875-1975, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:125 (ene./jun. 1975), 130-150. Also published as a separate: Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1975. 43 p. And reprinted as Bibliografa de y sobre Gabriel Garca Moreno, Bibliografa ecuatoriana, 7 (1976), 80-95. 115. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Bibliografa histrica ecuatoriana: publicaciones hechas en 1953, Museo Histrico, 6:20 (jun. 1954), 56-73. Lists 68 items. Annotated. Also published in: Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales, 6:60 (mayo/abr. 1954), 609-632. 116. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Dos incunables ecuatorianos y algunos rarsimos impresos coloniales en Lima, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 27:69 (ene./jun. 1947), 91-95. Added a previously unknown 1759 Ambato imprint to the registry. 117. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Ms incunables americanos y otros seis impresos coloniales en Lima, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 27:70 (jul./dic. 1947), 297-305. Added a 1757 Ambato and eleven early Quito imprints to the registry. 118. Larrea Holgn, Juan. Bibliografa jurdica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1970. 178 p. Registers 2,153 items. Indexed. 119. Larrea Holgn, Juan. Bibliografa jurdica del Ecuador, 2 ed. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1974. 321 p. Registers 4,040 items. Poorly proofed. Indexed.

120. Larrea Holgn, Juan. Bibliografa jurdica del Ecuador, 3 ed. Guayaquil: EDINO, 1993. 634 p. Registers 6,319 items. Thematically organized. Subject indexed. 121. Lavall, Bernard. Bibliografa francesa sobre el Ecuador (1968-1993): ciencias humanas, sociales y de la tierra. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; [Paris]: Maison des pays ibriques, 1995. 156 p. Registers 1,479 works published in France on Ecuador in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Natural Sciences between and inclusive of 1968 and 1993. Indexed. 122. Ledergerber C., Paulina. Tesis en antropologa ecuatoriana aprobadas por universidades del Canad y Estados Unidos, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 3:3 (1983), 213-217; 6:6 (1986), 189-191. A useful but incomplete listing. 123. Len, Luis A. Bibliografa nacional y extranjera sobre el indio ecuatoriano, Cuestiones indgenas del Ecuador, (item 7938), p. 263-302. A 1946 bibliography. Registers 571 items. 124. Len, Luis A. Bibliografa sobre enfermedad de Chagas en el Ecuador, Carlos Chagas (1879-1934) y la tripanosomiasis americana (Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Seccin Ciencias Biolgicas, 1980), p. 63-71. 125. Libros y bibliotecas: revista trimestral de biblioeconoma. Ao 1, no. 1 (mar. 1939)-? Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall., Municipales, 1939-? Organo de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando. his periodical ceased to be published some years ago, but I was unable to ascertain the particulars of its demise. 126. Luzuriaga, Gerardo A. Bibliografa del teatro ecuatoriano, Cultura, 5:13 (mayo/ago. 1982), 227-232. 127. Luzuriaga, Gerardo A. Bibliografa del teatro ecuatoriano, 1900-1982. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1984. 131 p. 128. Luzuriaga C., Carlos; and Clarence Zuvekas, Jr. An Annotated Bibliography of Income, Income Distribution, and Levels of Living in Rural Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Rural Development Division, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Agency for International Development, 1979. x, 97 p. A preliminary version of item 129. 129. Luzuriaga C., Carlos; and Clarence Zuvekas, Jr. Income Distribution and Poverty in Rural Ecuador, 1950-1979: A Survey of the Literature. Tempe: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1983. xiii, 238 p. Not only surveys but also reviews and interprets the literature on income distribution and levels of living in rural Ecuador since 1950 (p. xiii). Therefore a major portrait of socioeconomic conditions as well as an analysis of the corresponding literature,

including some government documents not here within listed. See especially chap. 6, Case Studies (p. 99-164). Unfortunately this data rich study is not indexed. 130. Madera, Luis F. Peridicos ibarreos. Ibarra: Tip. El Comercio, 1927. 34 p. 131. Madero Moreira, Mauro; and Francisco Parra Gil. Indice de la bibliografa mdica ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Edit. del Ncleo del Guayas de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1971. xxvi, 493 p. A comprehensive bibliography of medical materials. Indispensable for research on history of medicine and related topics. Lists 6,663 articles published between 1883 and 1968, by subject and author, and approximately 1,500 books published between 1785 and 1968, by author. 132. Maiguashca, Juan. Bibliografa selectiva de historia econmica del Ecuador: dividida en pocas y rea temticas, desde 1521 hasta 1910, Historia econmica en Amrica Latina, 1 ed. (Mxico: SepSetentas, 1972), vol. 2, p. 197-213. See also item 254. 133. Mrquez Tapia, Ricardo. Autobibliografa del Sr. Dr. Ricardo Mrquez Tapia. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1967. 137 p. A bare bones listing of the writings, including unpublished, of the prolific Mrquez Tapia, a physician turned historian, and of Ezequiel Mrquez, his father. 134. Mrquez Tapia, Ricardo. Bibliografa ecuatoriana: bosquejo preliminar, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 1 (ene. 1921), 280-287. 135. Maxwell, Michael B. Bibliografa del Instituto Lingstico de Verano en el Ecuador 1950-1980: con suplemento 1981-1985, 2 ed. Quito: Instituto Lingstico de Verano, 1985. 67 p. Inasmuch as the Summer Institute of Linguistics was expelled from the country in the early 1980s, probably a complete listing of its work in Ecuador. 1 ed.: Quito: Instituto Lingstico de Verano, 1980. 136. Medina, Jos Toribio. La imprenta en en [sic] Quito (1760-1818): notas bibliogrficas. Santiago de Chile: Impr. Elzeviriana, 1904. 86 p. Registers 43 items. Superseded by Stols (item 187). Most recent reprint as of July, 1997: Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1964. 137. Medina, Jos Toribio. Noticias bibliogrficas, referentes a las primeras producciones de la imprenta en algunas ciudades de la Amrica Espaola: (Ambato, Angostura, Curazao, Guayaquil, etc.). Santiago de Chile: Impr. Elzeviriana, 1904. xii, 116 p. Registers six Ambato titles and two putative Guayaquil items, the first of which definitely was not printed in the port city as Medina suspected. 138. Mesa, Rosa Quintero. Ecuador. Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms, 1973. xxxii, 142 p. (Latin American Serial Documents; vol. 8)

An indispensable, comprehensive guide to official and government published serials of Ecuador and a quasi-union list of North American library holdings thereof. It cannot be over emphasized that very few of the titles uncovered by Mesa appear in the Union List of Serials and the various supplements thereto. 139. Miller, Eugene Willard; and Ruby M. Miller. The Third World: Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador: a Bibliography. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, 1990. 33 p. Too general to be of much use to anyone except beginning researchers and casual readers. 140. Mio, Wilson. La comercializacin agropecuaria en el Ecuador: gua bibliogrfica comentada. Quito: FLASCO: ILDIS, 1986. 96 p. Annotates 110 works on commercial agriculture published between 1975 and 1986. 141. Miras, Claude de; Gustavo Rodrguez; and Roberto Roggiero. Bibliografa comentada sobre el sector informal urbano, 1 ed. Quito: CEDIME: ORSTOM: ILDIS, 1992. 179 p. (Guayaquil futuro) Consists of 498 entries. Includes Ecuadorian publications on the informal sector of urban economies. Indexed by author and subject. 142. Miyata, Kenneth. A Check List of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Ecuador, with a Bibliography of Ecuadorian Herpetology. Washington, D.C.: Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 1982. 70 p. 143. Muoz, Bonifacio. Obras de autores ecuatorianos: catlogo especial de la Librera Sucre ... Quito: Tip. y Encuadernacin Tip. y Encuad. Salesianas, 1920. 144 p. 144. Muoz, Leonardo J. Hojas volantes que se han publicado en las diversas provincias del Ecuador, 1790-1920. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio del Gobierno, 1941. 16 p. As of July 1997, apparently the only bibliography to have been compiled of broadsheets and fliers. 145. Muoz Chvez, Ricardo. Bibliografa jurdica del Azuay, colaboradores: Rodrigo Abad Gmez, Juan Cordero Iiguez, Diego Mora Castro. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1991. 380 p. Describes 2,680 books and articles, licentiate and doctoral theses. Includes an introductory study on lawyers and legal societies in Cuenca. Indexed by subject. 146. Naranjo, Plutarco; and Carlos A. Rolando. Juan Montalvo, estudio bibliogrfico. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1966. 2 v. Vol. 1 is an analysis of Los escritos de Montalvo; vol. 2, Bibliografa montalvina, lists publications of and on Montalvo in chronological order through early 1966. Indexed. N.B. Naranjo incorporated and expanded upon Rolandos Don Juan Montalvo, 18321932 (item 174). Hence, the inclusion of Rolandos name in the credits. 147. Navas C., Bolivar. Bibliografa ecuatoriana de ciencias sociales aplicadas a la

vida rural, la reforma agraria y colonizacin. Quito: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrcolas, Oficina Nacional en Ecuador, 1971. ii, 131 p. 148. Noia, John de. Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1947. 56 p. (Guide to the Official Publications of the Other American Republics; 9) A comprehensive guide to government publications of the 1800s and the first half of the 1900s. 149. Norris, Robert E. Estudios norteamericanos sobre el Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 27:3/4 (jul./dic. 1971), 179-189. 150. Norris, Robert E. Gua bibliogrfica para el estudio de la historia ecuatoriana. Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978. ix, 295 p. The most comprehensive guide to Ecuadorian historiography in its day. Lists 3,577 plus books, pamphlets, articles, theses, and miscellaneous manuscripts. Annotates some items. Marred by errors of commission as well as of omission, however. Indexed by authors and subjects. 151. Ojeda V., Alejandro. Estadstica de la prensa nacional siguiendo el orden cronolgico y clasificado por provincias desde enero de 1792 hasta diciembre de 1940, Informe del seor Ministro de Hacienda y Crdito Pblico al H. Congreso Nacional (Quito: Ministerio de Hacienda y Crdito Pblico, 1941), 2 pte., p. 243-345. An exceptionally comprehensive guide to newspapers. A province by province, year by year list. Not always reliable, however, as to beginning and ending dates of publication. 152. Oleas G., Angel F. Catlogo modelo: Biblioteca del Convento de Santo Domingo, Quito. Quito: Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa; Brussels: Reino de Blgica; Quito: Comunidad Dominicana de Quito, 1992. viii, 347 p. Samples holdings of Library of Dominican Convent in Quito to exemplify how a level two catalog, employing current, internationally agreed upon bibliographic norms, should be constructed. Of minor utility as a subject bibliography, however, inasmuch as it describes only 250 items. 153. Patch, Richard Wilbur. Bibliography of the Andean Countries: A Selected, Current, Annotated Bibliography Relating to Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, Drawn from Reasonably Accessible Works Published in English and Spanish. New York: American Universities Field Staff, 1958. 23 p. Includes only eight entries for Ecuador. A good example of how little used to be available in the United States. 154. Paz y Mio, Luis Telmo. Bibliografa geogrfica ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1927. 69 p. Registers 751 items. Also published in: Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador, 2:10 (1927), 178-200;

2:11 (1927), 234-278. 155. Prez Concha, Jorge. Bibliografa histrica naval ecuatoriana, Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima, 8:15 (dic. 1993), 135-164. 156. Prez Sinz, Juan Pablo. Debate bibliogrfico: urbanizacin, sector informal y pobladores, Ecuador debate, 11 (jun. 1986), 195-202. 157. Pinto Gamboa, W. Fernando; and Carmen Bejarano de Nez. Repertorio bibliogrfico de la literatura latinoamericana, dirigido por Luis Alberto Snchez. T. 4. Cuba-Ecuador. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 1962. 242 p. Includes title and author indexes. 158. Pita Sevilla, Edgar; Peter C. Meier; and Pablo Samaniego Ponce. Bibliografa artesanal del Ecuador. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984. 56 p. 159. Pons E., Olga; and Marca Oviedo P. Catlogo colectivo de publicaciones peridicas en bibliotecas agrcolas del Ecuador. Quito: Asociacin Interamericana de Bibliotecarios y Documentalistas Agrcolas, Filial Ecuador, 1973. 285 p. 160. Restrepo G., Marco. Amazonia ecuatoriana: resea bibliogrfica comentada, 1950-1992. Quito: Centro de Investigacin de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador, 1992. 373 p. A major bibliography of materials on the Oriente. Annotated. 161. Resumenes analticos en educacin. 1/30 (ago./sept. 1981)-. Quito: CIPTE; REDUC, 1981-. The Ecuadorian equivalent of ERIC Resources in Education. 162. Rivera, Guillermo. A Tentative Bibliography of the Belles-Lettres of Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Council on Hispano-American Studies, 1934. 76 p. The pioneering bibliography of Ecuadorian literature. See also items 166 and 199. 163. Rivet, Paul. Index bibliographique de lethnographe ancienne de lEquateur, in Ren Verneau and Paul Rivet, Ethnographie ancienne de lEquateur (item 1282), vol. 2, p. i-xli. Apparently the earliest bibliography of Ecuadorian antiquities. 164. Roca Gutirrez, Jaime. Bibliografa sobre planificacin urbana de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Direccin Regional Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, 1984. 2 p., 40 leaves. 165. Rolando, Carlos A. Apndice a un estudio bibliogrfico acerca de los escritos del Ilmo. Gonzlez Surez, Dios y patria (Riobamba), 5:18 (abr. 1928), 117-133. Supplements item 32. 166. Rolando, Carlos A. Las bellas letras en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. i Tall. Municipales, 1944. 157, xii p.

Arranged by Universal Decimal classification. Includes an author index. Supplemented and updated but not altogether superseded by Welch and Gutirrez (item 199). 167. Rolando, Carlos A. Bibliografa de Eloy Alfaro, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 11:26/28 (1958), 5-69. 168. Rolando, Carlos A. Bibliografa mdica ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Benemrita Sociedad Filantropica del Guayas, 1953. 387, 55 p. 169. Rolando, Carlos A. Catlogo de la bibliografa nacional: (Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales de Carlos A. Rolando) Guayaquil: Impr. Mercantil, 1913. 135 p. 170. Rolando, Carlos A. Catlogo decimal de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1947. 268 p. 171. Rolando, Carlos A. Crnica del periodismo en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Sociedad Filantrpica del Guayas, 1947. 1 v. (145 p.) A calendar of newspapers. Only vol. 1, 1792-1849, was published. But continued in item 172. 172. Rolando, Carlos A. Crnica del periodismo en el Ecuador: ao de 1850 a 1869, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 10:23/24 (1955), 55-94. 173. Rolando, Carlos A. Cronologa del periodismo ecuatoriano; Pseudnimos de la prensa nacional. Guayaquil: Impr. i Papelera Mercantil, 1920-1934. 2 v. Vol. 2 printed by: Impr. de la Sociedad Filantrpica del Guayas. Two works in one: 1) Rolandos first attempt at a chronology of the press, listing newspapers issued through Oct. 1920; 2) a key to pseudonyms used by journalists. See also items 175 and 419. 174. Rolando, Carlos A. Don Juan Montalvo, 1832-1932. Guayaquil: Impr. y Tall. Municipales, 1932. 22 p. A bibliography. Organized chronologically. Updated by Plutarco Naranjo in item 146. 175. Rolando, Carlos A. Obras annimas y pseudnimas del Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 6:8/11 (1941), 186-223. 176. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. Bibliografa del P. Aurelio Espinosa Plit, S.I.: y resea de los crticos de sus obras. Quito: Edit. Don Bosco, 1961. 194 p. 177. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. Bibliografa [de Remigio Crespo Toral] Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, 1957. x, 179 p. 178. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. La literatura ecuatoriana en las tesis doctorales de las universidades norteamericanas desde 1943 a 1985, Revista iberoamericana, 54:144/145 (jul./dic. 1988), 1011-1018. An annotated list of dissertations on literary authors and literature. Arranged chronologically. 179. Rosero Jcome, Rocio; and Jackeline Contreras. Bibliografa sobre la mujer en el Ecuador. Quito: ILDIS, 1988. 164 p.

180. Ruiz, Lucia; and Nancy Snchez. Pobreza urbana en el Ecuador: bibliografa nacional, 1 ed. Quito: UNICEF: CIUDAD, Centro de Investigaciones, 1994. 239 p. As of July 1997, the most comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography on urban poverty, especially in Guayaquil and Quito and the major secondary cities. 181. Ruiz, Silvana. Bibliografa seleccionada para el estudio de aspectos urbanos en el Ecuador: el caso de Quito. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, 1981. iv, 66 p. 182. San Cristval, Evaristo. Bibliografa, la controversia limtrofe entre el Per y el Ecuador. Lima: Librera e Impr. Gil, 1937. 113 p. Issued in fascicules. Therefore not all copies may be complete. A bibliography of studies and published sources on the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru. 183. San Martn Caro, Alejandro; and Rafael Caro. Relaciones peruano-ecuatorianas: gua bibliogrfica de las publicaciones existentes en las bibliotecas de acceso pblico de Lima. Lima: Centro Peruano de Investigaciones Internacionales, 1985. 62 p. A useful guide to materials on Ecuadorian and Peruvian relations in libraries open to the public in Lima, but not nearly as comprehensive as Juan Miguel Bkulas Per y Ecuador (item 15). 184. Schwab, Federico. Algunos peridicos desconocidos del Per, Ecuador y Bolivia, Fnix (Lima), 4 (2 sem. 1945), 894-909. 185. Sheppard, George. Bibliografa de la geologa del Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad Central, 46:276 (1931), 285-298. Lists 104 items. 186. Smith, Ronna. Prosa de Ortiz: bibliografa, Cultura, 6:16 (mayo/ago. 1983), 197210. A bibliography of the prose writings of Adalberto Ortiz (1914-). 187. Stols, Alexandre A.M. Historia de la imprenta en el Ecuador de 1755 a 1830. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. xv, 261 p. A model as well as comprehensive but not exhaustive bibliography of early Ecuadorian imprints (275 books and 29 periodicals). In this regard, it should be noted that there are a considerable number of pre-1831 publications in archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Guayaquil, Cuenca, and elsewhere not seen by or known to Stols, who apparently limited his research to Quito. Nonetheless, it cannot be overemphasized that Stolss work is the most complete bibliography of early ecuatoriana that had been attempted as of July 1997. It is also technically sound. 188. Uhle, Max. Bibliografa ampliada sobre etnologa y arqueologa del Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 42:267 (1929), 53-83. Revises and updates item 189. 189. Uhle, Max. Bibliografa sobre etnologa y arqueologa del Ecuador, Anales de la

Universidad Central del Ecuador, 37:257 (jul./sept. 1926), 167-177. Describes 168 items. 190. Uribe, Maruja; Blanca Cecilia Salazar; and Margarita Hernndez. Bibliografa selectiva sobre desarrollo rural en el Ecuador. Bogot: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrcolas, OEA, Oficina en Colombia, Biblioteca IICa, 1979. ii, 203 p. Broader in coverage than the title implies. Includes a directory of 121 organizations and lists 139 periodicals as well as 1,549 books and articles. 191. Vega y Vega, Wilson. Bibliografa de Dr. Julio Tobar Donoso. Quito: W. Vega y Vega, 1994. 181 p. Apparently encompasses Tobar Donosos complete output. Describes and analyzes 568 published books, articles (newspaper as well as periodical), prologues, and reviews in chronological order. 192. Vega y Vega, Wilson. Jos Mara Vargas: bibliografa, Memoria, Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Investigaciones Histricas y Geogrficas, 1 (1989-1990), 181-244. Registers 839 publications of Father Vargas in chronological order from 1925 through 1988. 193. Viajeros, cientficos, maestros: misiones alemanas en el Ecuador: Quito, Galeras Artes, septiembre-diciembre, 1989. Quito: Artes Centro Cultural: Proyecto EBI, 1989. 195 p. A catalog of an exhibit of books, pamphlets, and other materials. 194. Villavicencio, Csar. Anuario de la prensa ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 1893-1895. 3 v. Covers the years 1892-1894. 195. Vivar Correa, Vctor Len. Hombres y cosas del Ecuador: noticia de algunas publicaciones ecuatorianas, Revista ecuatoriana, 4:41 (mayo 1892), 199-208; 4:42 (jun. 1892), 217-225. 196. Watiunk, Karus; and Juan Bottasso. Bibliografa general de la nacin jvaro. Suca: Mundo Shuar, 1978. 192 p. Also: Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1983. N.B. Abya-Yala is the successor to Mundo Shuar. 197. Watson, Gayle Hudgens. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela: An Annotated Guide to Reference Materials in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1971. 279 p. Useful for works published through 1960s, including some not to be found here within. Registers and comments upon 894 articles, books, and periodicals. Arranged by subjects and within subject by author, including issuing corporate body. Ecuador is the least well covered, partly because of the relative lack of bibliographic production vis-avis Colombia and Venezuela, partly because the University of Texas at Austin and

Southern Methodist University in Dallas, where this work was done, had not collected systematically or well on Ecuador. Lacks a country index. 198. Welch, Thomas L. The Indians of South America: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States, 1987. xii, 594 p. 199. Welch, Thomas L.; and Ren L. Gutirrez. Bibliografa de la literatura ecuatoriana. Washington, D.C.: Biblioteca Coln, Organizacin de los Estados Americanos, 1989. xii, 291 p. Beware the pitfalls in this and the preceding item. Unpublished theses, for example, are described as though they were published works. Nonetheless, both list many important and sometimes obscure materials. 200. Wiles, Dawn Ann. Some Geographical Aspects of Ecuador: An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Periodical and Serial Literature. Baton Rouge: Institute of Latin American Studies, Louisiana State University, 1970. 50 p. A substantial register of pre-1970 articles on the geography of Ecuador.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY LA REPUBLICA (1830-) This section is given over to those works that treat one or more aspects of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including those that are concerned with developments of the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Once again I must stress that it was not always possible to assign studies to their proper chronological, regional, or thematic category on the basis of data base, especially library, subject headings. The subject headings economic conditions and social conditions, for example, utilized by the Library of Congress and academic libraries in the United States and elsewhere in the world to refer to works on economic and social history as well as to works on contemporary or recent economic and social developments are not always helpful and sometimes misleading, especially when said subject headings are not accompanied by chronological subdivisions. It does not help either when cataloguers, abstracters, and indexers utilize country wide subject headings instead of specifying the region, province, canton, city or town to which the study is delimited or with which it is primarily concerned. Therefore once again my apologies in advance to the reader for the inconvenience this may cause insofar as the occasional inappropriate assignation of materials is concerned and to authors such as Andrs Guerrero, whom I have come to hold in very high regard as a scholar, for scattering his studies unnecessarily all over this bibliography. His La semntica de la dominacin (item 1937), for example, properly belongs under Historia regional y estudios relacionados: Sierra centro-norte as do the majority of his other works.

1898. Abad Franco, Armando. Parteiensystem und Oligarchie in Ecuador. Berlin: ColloquiumVerlag, 1974. 283 p. A socioeconomic study of the party system and of the role played by the elite in national politics from the 1830s through the 1960s. 1899. Acosta Espinosa, Alberto. Breve historia econmica del Ecuador. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1995. 262 p. A survey of the economic history of the national period. 1900. Acosta Espinosa, Alberto. La deuda externa: una historia de la deuda externa ecuatoriana. Quito: Grupo de Trabajo sobre Deuda Externa y Desarrollo, ALOP-CAAPCECCA-CERG-CIUDAD, 1990. 386 p. A useful introduction to the history of the external debt from 1830 through 1990. Written for non-specialists. See also the 3 ed. rev. y actualizada: Quito: Edit. El Duende, 1990. 415 p.

1901. Araujo, Angel F. Episodios de campaa y relatos histricos. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1922. 68 p. The memoirs of a participant in the civil wars of 1882-1895. 1902. Arzaga, Rafael Mara. Labores legislativas, 1887-1909, recopilacin y notas de Carlos Arzaga Vega. Cuenca: Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 1958. 352 p. Consists primarily of the authors speeches and participation in congressional debates and discussions. 1903. Armada del Ecuador. Una historia, una epopeya, un reto. Quito: Armada del Ecuador, 1981. 108 p. A history of the Navy. 1904. La Armada en imgenes, recopilacin y coordinacin, Jenny Estrada R. Guayaquil: Armada del Ecuador, Instituto de Historia Martima, 1987. 1 v. To the best of my knowledge, this set died with vol. 1. 1905. Arosemena, Guillermo. Ecuador, evolucin y bsqueda del despegue econmico, 18301938. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1992. 378 p. A data rich but methodologically unsophisticated history of economic crises during the first 108 years of the national period. 1906. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Estudios sobre historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Tehis: Iadap, 1993. 152 p. A set of miscellaneous essays on various events and developments of the nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries. 1907. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Los partidos polticos en el Ecuador: sntesis histrica. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1986. 83 p. An insightful review of the political history and of the political parties of Ecuador from the early nineteenth century through the recent present, with an emphasis on developments of the second half of the twentieth century, by a leading political historian. See also: 2 ed. actualizada. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1989. 94 p. 1908. Azanza J., F. Alberto. La depreciacin monetaria en el Ecuador, Boletn del Ministerio del Tesoro (Quito), 1:2 (1945), 28-38. A quantitative study of the devaluation of the national currency between 1830 and 1943. 1909. Azanza J., F. Alberto. El presupuesto nacional a travs de 115 aos, Boletn del Ministerio del Tesoro (Quito), 2:5 (1946), 1-136. A quantitative study of the national budget, 1830-1945. 1910. Baca Bartelotti, Washington. Radiografa del Estado ecuatoriano, 1 ed. Quito: El Duende, 1991. 160 p. 1911. Banco del Ecuador. Historia de medio siglo, 1868-1918. Guayaquil: Impr. de El

Independiente, 1919. 232 p. On the Banks first half century. 1912. Barrera, Isaac J. De nuestra Amrica: hombres y cosas de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. 164 p. Contents: Justificacin del libro; Introduccin a la historia y la literatura de la Repblica del Ecuador; Montalvo y Garca Moreno: dos hombres notables de Amrica; Federico Gonzlez Surez, el arzobispo historiador; Los poetas de 1910; Novelistas modernos. 1913. Blanksten, George I. Some Ecuadorian Constitutional Problems. 1949. iv, 535 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of California at Los Angeles. A political history of the first 120 years of the national period. See also item 2346. 1914. Bonilla, Heraclio. Lecciones del endeudamiento externo en los pases andinos antes de la primera guerra mundial, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:5 (1989), 79-92. A comparative study of the Peruvian, Ecuadorian, and Bolivian experiences with external debt from independence through the eve of World War I. 1915. Borja, Luis Alberto. La huella de la historia. Guayaquil: Edit. Jourvin, 1935. 155 p. Contents: La huella de la historia; La cabalgata de las pasiones; La mdula de la sublevacin; En el ao de 1931; El arribo de los vencedores; Un ebanista notable; El carabinero (Enrique Barriga); Montalvo; Carlos Valdiviezo Chiriboga; El CXII aniverario del 21 de abril de 1822; Escuchen; Es as; El smbolo; La coronacin; Sigue la huella. 1916. Borrero, Manuel Mara. Reminiscencias histrico-liberales. Cuenca: G. Molina, 1957. 140 p. Only vol. one was published: El Ecuador y sus instituciones antes y despus de 1895. 1917. Carrin, Alejandro. Imgenes de la vida poltica del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1980. 133 p. Includes 118 coeval photographs of presidents and political events from the 1860s through the 1970s. 1918. Casanova Loor, Neptal. El centenario: homenaje al centenario de la Repblica, 18301930. Guayaquil: Impr. El Tiempo, 1930. 476 p. 1919. Los Centenarios de 1932, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 2:2 (1932), 102-208. On the centennials of Ecuadors taking possession of the Galpagos, and of the births of Numa Pompilio Llona, Juan Montalvo, and Juan Len Mera. Includes essays by Efran Camacho Santos among others, and corresponding bibliographies compiled by Carlos A. Rolando. 1920. Correa Paredes, Julio. La economa de la repblica 1830-1980. Quito: Direccin General de Informacin, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1982. 102 p. A superficial review of the economic history of the first 150 years of the national period.

1921. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo. Estadsticas de sangre, Panoramas (Mxico, D.F.), 3:18 (1965), 69-102. An attempt to quantify civil strife from the 1830s through the mid 1960s. 1922. Crespo Toral, Remigio. Cien aos del Ecuador-Repblica, Amrica (Quito), 9:58 (nov./dic. 1934), 357-384. 1923. Crespo Toral, Remigio. La conciencia nacional y otros estudios sobre historia, seleccin y prlogo por el P. Julin Bravo. Quito: Grupo Aymesa, 1994. 568 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 11) Brings together almost all, of not all, of Crespo Torals publications on the independence period and on Garca Moreno. 1924. Chiriboga, Luca; and Silvana Caparrini. Identidades desnudas: Ecuador 1860-1920: la temprana fotografa del indio de los Andes, estudio introductorio Mathas L. Abram, 1 ed. Quito: ILDIS: Ediciones Abya-Yala: Taller Visual, 1994. 144 p. 1925. Deler, Jean-Paul. Transformaciones regionales y organizacin del espacio nacional ecuatoriano entre 1830 y 1930, Historia y regin en el Ecuador, 1830-1930 (item 6591), p. 295353. A masterful survey of infrastructure and structural changes at the regional level and of the gradual integration of the nation as a country and as a state during the first 100 years of the republican period. 1926 La Deuda externa del Ecuador, estudio introductorio y seleccin de Francisco Swett. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1981. 488 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 12) An anthology of position papers by Emilio Mara Tern, Antonio Flores, and Eloy Alfaro. 1927. Ecuador. Presidencia. Recopilacin de mensajes dirijidos por los presidentes y vicepresidentes de la Repblica, jefes supremos y gobiernos provisorios a las convenciones y congresos nacionales desde el ao de 1819 hasta nuestros das, por Alejandro Noboa. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo [etc.], 1900-1908. 5 v. Published the official messages of the heads of states to Congress and national conventions. Covers the years 1819-1906. 1928. El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia, 1830-1930, J. Gonzalo Orellana [editor]. Quito: Escuela Tipogrfica Salesiana, 1930. 2 v. A multi-authored history of the first century of the national period. Includes sections on the state of provinces, cantons, and cities (vol. 1, p. 295-438) and a section on La organizacin econmica de la repblica (vol. 1, p. 439-452) as well as a number of essays--here within listed separately--on political, diplomatic, military, cultural, and ecclesiastical events and developments. 1929. Elecciones y democracia en el Ecuador. Quito: Tribunal Supremo Electoral; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1989-1990. 5 v.

Provides detailed analyses of elections and the electoral process from the 1830s through the 1980s. Contents: vol. 1, El Proceso electoral ecuatoriano (186 p.); vol. 2, Los Partidos polticos en el Ecuador (350 p.); vol. 3, Los Resultados electorales en Ecuador (294 p.); vol. 4, Anlisis de los procesos electorales (230 p.); vol. 5, Legislacin electoral ecuatoriana (291 p.). 1930. Escritores polticos. Puebla: Edit J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1960. 694 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [16]) Consists of selections from the writings of Vicente Rocafuerte, Gabriel Garca Moreno, Antonio Borrero, Eloy Alfaro, Juan Benigo Vela, and Jos Peralta. 1931. Espinosa, Roque. Hacienda, comunidad y concertaje en el Ecuador, Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 135-209. A ground breaking essay on economic and social relationships between haciendas, debt peonage, and Indian communities in the 1800s and early 1900s. 1932. Espinoza, Leonardo. La influencia de 1830 en el desarrollo republicano del Ecuador, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 229-258. A stimulating reexamination of demographic, economic, and political cycles and trends in postindependence Ecuador. See also the Crticas y comentarios thereupon (ibid., p. 259-275). 1933. Etnia, poder y diferencia, Jos Snchez-Parga [et al.]. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1990. 215 p. Consists of six essays, three by Jos Snchez-Parga, and the other three by Fernando Guerrero, Maxime Haubert, and Roberto Santana, respectively, on various aspects of relationships between the state and other power groups on the one hand and ethnic groups, especially indigenous, in the highlands on the other, during the national period. 1934. Fuentealba, Gerardo. La sociedad indgena en las primeras dcadas de la repblica: continuidades coloniales y cambios republicanos, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 8, p. 45-77. A seminal essay on fiscal and labor exactions imposed on indigenes between 1830 and 1895, on how native Andeans governed themselves, on the question of communes, and on indigenous uprisings. Reflects some original research and considerable thought. 1935. Galarza Izquierdo, Luis. Ensayo poltico sobre clases sociales y partidos polticos en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Jurisprudencia, 1984. 238 p. 1936. Gonzlez Pez, Miguel Angel. Memorias histricas: gnesis del liberalismo, su triunfo y sus obras en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1934. viii, 638 p. An eyewitness account of the years 1867-1912. The author was a prominent member of the Partido Conservador. 1937. Guerrero, Andrs. La semntica de la dominacin: el concertaje de indios, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern, 1991. 336 p.

Descriptive and interpretative but not hung up on paradigms. Instead Guerrero attempts to reconstruct the realities of life on the great estates of the northern highlands in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, especially insofar as peones conciertos and after the de jure but not de facto abolition of concertaje in 1918, huasipungeros are concerned. One of the critical points that Guerrero makes is that although conciertos/ huasipungeros were homologous juridically-one might almost say institutionally--their lifestyles, family situations, relationships with the patrn, socioeconomic status, etc. varied considerably, depending primarily on whether they were members of an ongoing community of a hacienda (large estate) or temporarily and individually attached, to a finca, quinta, cuadra, or huerto (medium or small estate). Guerrero also recognizes that situaciones sociales concretas of conciertos/huasipungeros varied spacially and temporally, and from hacienda to hacienda (regardless of size) or patrn to patrn inasmuch as there were good as well as bad masters. Based on field work (including oral interviews), archival research, appropriate literature (including theoretical), and records of large estates in the valleys of Cayambe, Chillos, and Quito. Supposed to have had al final de este libro las referencias documentales sobre los libros de hacienda utilized by Guerrero, but, unfortunately, the corresponding bibliography nowhere appears. Notwithstanding this editorial defect, a well written and argued, unusually informative, exceptionally insightful study that considerably advances knowledge and understanding of the rural history of the region during the period in question. 1938. Hidalgo, Daniel B. Evolucin poltica del Ecuador: estudio histrico-jurdico sociolgico de las constituciones de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1917. 145 p. 1939. Hurtado, Osvaldo. El poder poltico en el Ecuador, 9a ed. Quito: Letraviva-Edit. Planeta del Ecuador, 1993. xix, 417 p. An outstanding political history of the national period by one of the writer/makers of recent history. A professionally trained social scientist, Hurtado is also active in politics, having been a president of the country. This work is doubly important because Hurtado endeavored to establish a model of Ecuadors development based on endogenous experience rather than exogenous paradigm. This edition includes a new introductory essay and name and subject indexes. Originally published: Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1977. 312 p. The original Spanish edition was also published in a English version with revisions as: Political power in Ecuador, translated by Nick D. Mills, Jr., 1st English ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980. xxvi, 398 p; and in an encore ed.: Boulder: Westview Press, 1985. xxxix, 398 p. For critical evaluations see: Enrique Ayala Mora, Felipe Burbano de Lara, and Simn Espinosa Corderos El poder poltico en el Ecuador, de Osvaldo Hurtado, vigsimo aniversario, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 10 (I sem. 1997), 107-122. 1940. Hurtado, Osvaldo. El sistema poltico en el Ecuador, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 99-167. A prcis of item 1939. 1941. Imgenes e imagineros: representaciones de los indgenas ecuatorianos, siglos XIX y XX, Blanca Muratorio, editora. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1994. 293 p.

An anthology of original essays that focus on the perception and description of indigenes on the one hand, and the reaction thereto and treatment thereof, on the other. A major contribution to the intellectual and political as well as social history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 1942. Iturralde G., Diego A. Nacionalidades indgenas y el Estado Nacional, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 9-58. An insightful and thought provoking review of the various ways in which the state has sought to deal with the Indian problem from the Spanish conquest through the late-twentieth century-with an emphasis on the 1900s--and of efforts by various ethnic groups, especially in the highlands and the Oriente, to survive, and in the 1980s and 1990s, to reassert themselves as separate nationalities and therefore also as polities in their own right. 1943. Libro del sesquicentenario. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1980-1983. 4 v. An exceptionally important set on the first 150 years of the national period. Each vol. consists of separately authored essays on various aspects of politics and government, art and culture, and economic events and developments. Sometimes described separately although clearly conceived of and published as a whole. Vol. 4 includes author, subject, personal name, and place name indexes for the entire set. Contents: vol. 1, Poltica y sociedad: Ecuador, 1830-1980; vol. 2, Arte y cultura: Ecuador, 1830-1980; vol. 3-4, Economa: Ecuador, 1830-1980. 1944. Linke, Lilo. Ecuador, Country of Contrasts, 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1960. ix, 193 p. A perspicacious introduction to the history of and to mid-twentieth-century Ecuador and its peoples by a long time foreign resident. Has rightly became a classic. The first edition appeared in 1954. 1945. Macas, Washington. Ecuador, de la agroexportacin a la industrializacin asociada, 1830-1986. [Ecuador? <i.e., Quito>]: Ecuatextos, [1986?]. 134 p. (Coleccin Problemas socio econmicos del Ecuador) Notwithstanding the question marks that North American cataloguers have added to the country and year of publication, it is known that this book was published in Ecuador, in Quito to be specific, and it is highly probable that the year of publication was 1986. A crudely reproduced work; it looks like photocopy in places. More importantly it is a high school text--a not insignificant consideration that North American catalog records overlook. A somewhat useful outline of economic developments and events from Ecuadors separation from Colombia through the beginning of the Febres Cordero administration, nonetheless, notwithstanding Macass Marxist approach. 1946. Maier, Georg. Presidential Succession in Ecuador, 1830-1970, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 13:3/4 (July/Oct., 1971), 475-509. Delineates the succession of national leaders from 1830 through 1970. 1947. Maloney F., Gerardo. El negro y la cuestin nacional, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 59-98. Attempts to establish the role of blacks in the history of Ecuador from the Spanish conquest

through the recent present. Reads more like a series of notes than an essay. 1948. Matamoros Jara, Carlos. Breves apuntes sobre las monedas en el Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 5:7 (1937), 317-341. Abstracts legislation of Colombia (1821-1830) and Ecuador (1831-1937) regarding emission, value, convertibility, and regulation of coinage. 1949. Moncayo, Abelardo. Aoranzas, introduccin por Po Jaramillo Alvarado. Puebla, Mxico: Cajica, 1967. 2 v. Reprint; originally published: Quito, 1923. A convenient anthology of otherwise difficult to obtain, mostly ephemeral writings of a Liberal intellectual and collaborator of Eloy Alfaro. Contents: P. Jaramillo Alvarado, Don Abelardo Moncayo y su poca, (1923); El doctor Mariano Acosta (1894); Don Pedro Moncayo y don Pedro Carbo (1890); La jubilacin del historiador Cevallos (1890); La reparacin: el doctor Antonio Borrero C. (1892); Un drama en miniatura: Dn. Miguel Valverde; Doa Mercedes G. de Moscoso: Athos a Silvio (1887); El general Lamar (1899); Doa Marietta de Veintimilla (1889); El teatro en Imbabura (1881); Nuestra cuestin de lmites: rplica al Sr. Dr. Dn. Luis Cordero (1902); El concertaje de indios (1912); La excomunin en Manab: cartas dirigidas al Sr. Dr. Dn. Felicsimo Lpez; Montalvo civilizador (1915). 1950. Monroy Garaicoa, Gustavo. Apuntes para la historia de la Marina de Guerra del Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 8:18/20 (1950), 55-62. 1951. Moreno S., Rubn Daro. Ecuador, economa y poltica en el ltimo siglo. Quito: Facultad Ciencias Econmicas, [1984?] 123 p. A neo-Marxist analysis of cacao, banana, and petroleum cycles. 1952. Muoz, Julio H. Doctrinas militares aplicadas en el Ecuador: historia y pedagoga militar; El Ejrcito que el Ecuador necesita. Quito: Estado Mayor General, 1949. 254 p. Two works in one. 1953. Nacin, cultura nacional y literatura en el Ecuador, Adrin Carrasco V. [et al.]., Revista del IDIS, 16 (nov. 1986), 205-278. Examines the interaction between the formation of a national identity and literature in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Utilizes as examples Roberto Andrades Pancho Villamar (1900) and Luis A. Martnezs A la costa (1904). Also published in: Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 38 (dic. 1986), 9-74. 1954. Naranjo Puente, Hugo. Historia de la polica en el Ecuador, 1830-1956. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1956. 352 p. 1955. Nicol Lpez, Gerardo. Sntesis de la historia de la Repblica, 2 ed. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Tungurahua, 1980. 508 p. 1956. Nurse, Charles. Ecuador, The State, Industrial Relations and the Labour Movement in Latin America, edited by Jean Carrirre, Nigel Haworth, and Jacqueline Roddick (New York: St. Martins Press), p. 99-127.

A prcis of the history of the labor movement in Ecuador. Nurse argues that the influence of the government over labor increased in the 1970s, more so in the rural than in the urban sector, however, as a result of the petroleum boom and agrarian reform. 1957. Oberem, Udo. Contribucin a la historia del trabajador rural en Amrica Latina: conciertos y huasipungeros en Ecuador, Sarance, 6 (1978), 49-78. A detailed, well researched working paper on the history of debt peonage in Ecuador from the beginning of forced labor on rural estates in the 1530s through the 1950s. Interestingly enough Oberem does not appear to have been aware of Prez T.s Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito (item 1469). Reprinted in item 607 and in: Peones, conciertos y arrendamientos en Amrica Latina, edicin de Jan Bazant [et al.] (Bogot: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1987), p. 47-90. 1958. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. Resumen histrico de la repblica, El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia (item 1928), vol. 1, p. 23-168. 1959. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. Resumen histrico-poltico de la repblica, Resumen histrico del Ecuador, 1830-930, 1947 (item 1969), vol. 1, p. 7-144. Updates item 1958. 1960. Paltn Domguez, Leonor del Carmen. Ecuador 1830-Repblica 1967. Quito: Impr. Don Bosco, 1978. 312 p. Although a high school text, Sister Leonor del Carmens Ecuador is an useful introduction to the national period, given her comprehensiveness of coverage and relative impartiality. 1961. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Ecuador, la Repblica de 1830 a nuestros das, 6a ed. corr. y aumentada. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1979. 557 p. An idiosyncratic, ideologically biased interpretation of the national period. 1962. Pea Herrera, Juan. Historia de la aviacin ecuatoriana, 1842-1943. Quito: Edit. Quito, [1944]. 254 p. 1963. Peralta, Jos. El rgimen liberal y el rgimen conservador juzgados por sus obras. Quito: Tip. de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1911. 156 p. Anti-Flores, Garca Moreno, Caamao, Flores Jijn, and Cordero. Pro-Alfaro. 1964. Prez Concha, Jorge. De la goleta Alcance al caonero Caldern. Guayaquil: Instituto de Historia Martima, Armada del Ecuador, 1987. 2 v. Highlights the history of the Navy from the wars for independence through the Peruvian invasion of 1941. 1965. Prez Merchant, Braulio. Las colonias siria, libanesa y palestina en el Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Grf. Kaleda, 1931. 133 p. 1966. Pike, Frederick B. The United States and the Andean Republics: Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977. 493 p. A political and ideological history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Peru, Bolivia, and

Ecuador--in that order--as well as a reconsideration of their relations with the United States. Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, Pike does not offer any new interpretations, but he does provide a useful digest of major developments for English-language readers. 1967. Prosistas de la Repblica. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1960. 706 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [17]) Consists of selections from the writings of Vicente Solano, Jos Flix Valdivieso, Rafael Villagmez Borja, Benigo Malo, Francisco Javier Salazar, Antonio Flores, Jos Modesto Espinosa, Roberto Espinosa, Francisco Febres Cordero Muoz (better known as Hermano Miguel), Honorato Vzquez, and Alberto Muoz Vernaza. 1968. Quintero, Rafael; and Erika Silva. Ecuador, una nacin en ciernes, 2 ed. rev. y corr. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1995. 3 v. A superior analysis and interpretation of the political, economic. and social history of republican Ecuador, the historiography of which the authors themselves have enriched through their other studies as well as through the considerable original research and thought that went into the preparation of this work. Incorporates Quinteros 1978 doctoral thesis, Los partidos polticos en el Ecuador y la clase terrateniente en las transformaciones del Estado. Although Quinteros discussion of the class structure of pre-1895 Ecuador is less than desirable, he and Silva are to be commended for their detailed and comprehensive coverage of economic and social developments of the post-1895 years. Their depiction of the labor and peasant classes and movements is especially strong and richly textured, not that everyone will agree with their Marxist approach. Well indexed. 1 ed.: Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1991. 3 v. 3 ed., rev. y corr. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1998. 3 v. 1969. Resumen histrico del Ecuador: 1830-1930, 1947, J. Gonzalo Orellana [editor]. Quito: Edit. Fr. Jodoco Ricke, 1948-1957. 3 v. Vol. 3 subtitled: Apuntaciones cronolgicas complementarias, 1947-1957. Almost a wholly new work, not just an update of: El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia (item 1927). Includes additional authors as well as new essays. 1970. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Historia de la Repblica: esquema de ideas y hechos del Ecuador, al partir de la emancipacin. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1931. 331 p. Subsequently reworked and updated as the second volume of the authors Breve historia general (item 636). 1971. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. Manual de ciencia de hacienda y conceptos de derecho fiscal ecuatoriano, 4a ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1951-1952. 2 v. Although the first vol. is a treatise on the public exchequer in Europe and Latin America at large, it includes considerable data on the history of the public exchequer in Ecuador from 1830 through the 1940s, and the second is given over entirely to the evolution of the tax structure of the country. 1972. Robalino Dvila, Luis. Orgenes del Ecuador de hoy. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana; Puebla, Mxico: Cajica, 1964-1970. 8 v. in 10.

An exceptionally detailed political history of the nineteenth and early- twentieth centuries. Diachronic but multifaceted in coverage insofar as data are concerned. Traditional in approach and methodology, however. Unfortunately not indexed. Vol. 1, Nacimiento y primeros aos de la repblica, covers Floress first presidency; vol. 2, Rocafurete, 2 ed., the Rocafuerte years and Floress second and third terms; vol. 3, La reaccin anti-floreana, the Roca, Urbina, and Robles years; vol. 4, Garca Moreno, 2 ed., the Garca Moreno period; vol. 5, Borrero y Veintimilla (2 v.), the Borrero and Veintimilla years; vol. 6, Diez aos de civilismo, the Progressive period; and vols. 7, Eloy Alfaro y su primera poca (2 v.) and 8, El ocaso del viejo luchador, the Alfaro years. The first edition of Garca Moreno (Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1949) is generally considered the most objective account of the politics and the politicians of 1860-1875. See also Robalino Dvilas Apndice al libro Garca Moreno (Quito: L. Robalino Dvila, 1964). 1973. Robalino Dvila, Luis. Testimonio de los tiempos. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1971. 303 p. A miscellany of Robalinos lesser writings on men and events of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Includes a useful summary of his opus magnus Orgenes del Ecuador de hoy (item 1972). 1974. Rodrguez, Linda Alexander. La poltica en el Ecuador, 1830-1925, Cultura, 9:26 (set./dic. 1986), 13-40. 1975. Rodrguez, Linda Alexander. The Search for Public Policy: Regional Politics and Government Finances in Ecuador, 1830-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. xv, 281 p. A revision of her doctoral thesis: Ecuadors National Development: Government Finances and the Search for Public Policy, 1830-1940. 1981. University of California, Los Angeles. xvii, 403 leaves. A superior study of the politics and the political economy of the first 110 years of the national period. Also one of the very few studies that examines the role of regionalism in the political history of the post independence period systematically. Includes statistical appendixes. Chapters 5-6 have been published in Spanish as: La Reforma bancaria de la revolucin juliana y sus secuelas econmicas, 1926-1937, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:2 (1987), 11-101, has as the work as a whole: Las finanzas pblicas en el Ecuador (1830-1940). Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1992. 273 p. (Biblioteca de historia econmica; 4) 1976. Rolando, Carlos A. Anuario administrativo de la Repblica del Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 7:12/17 (1947), 260-296. A chronology of the constitutional assemblies and congresses, including extraordinary sessions, heads of state and ministers. 1977. Rolando, Carlos A. Obras pblicas ecuatorianas: cronologa de las obras pblicas, fiscales, municipales y particulares, llevadas a cabo desde la fundacin de la Repblica del Ecuador, mayo de 1830 hasta nuestros das. Guayaquil: Tall. Tip. de la Sociedad Filantrpica, 1930. 346 p. 1978. Rolando, Carlos A. Los presidentes del Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones

Histricas, 4:4/6 (1934-1936), 234-246. A chronology. 1979. Romero y Cordero, Remigio. El ejrcito en cien aos de vida republicana, 1830-1930. Quito: Centro de Estudios Histricos del Ejrcito Ecuatoriano, 1991. 491 p. (Biblioteca del Ejrcito Ecuatoriano; vol. 1) Reprint; originally published in: Ejrcito Nacional, 12:67 (1933), 7-210. Includes a critical analysis of the work by General Marcos Gndara Enrquez. There is also a 1980 reprint: Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. 210 p. 1980. Roth, Karl Ernst. Das Heer von Ekuador, Zeitschrift fr Heereskunde, 48:312 (1984), 42-47; 48:313 (1984), 78-83. An overview of the history of the Ejrcito del Ecuador from its origins during the wars for independence through the recent present. 1981. Rubio Orbe, Gonzalo. Los indios ecuatorianos: evolucin histrica y polticas indigenistas. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1987. 226 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 18) Notwithstanding the title, much more a history of Ecuadorian policies towards and thought regarding Indians than of ethnic groups in Ecuador. Also Rubio Orbes final book. 1982. Rumazo Gonzlez, Alfonso. Gobernantes del Ecuador: (13 de mayo de 1830-20 de setiembre de 1932). Quito: Edit. Bolvar, 1932. 249 p. Although out-of-date as well as long since out-of-print, a classic as well as perennially useful reference work. 1983. Saint-Geours, Yves. La gense de lindustrie en Equateur, 1860-1914, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 13:3/4 (1984), 21-28. 1984. Saint-Geours, Yves. Quelques aspects de la vie conomique dEquateur de 1830 a 1930, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 9:3/4 (1980), 69-84. 1985. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Breve escorzo sobre historia del Ecuador y filatelia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 186-190. An introduction to the history of postage stamps, beginning with the first one issued in 1865. Includes 22 unnumbered pages of plates. 1986. Sevilla, Carlos Bolvar. Un siglo de vida republicana: rasgos y comentarios histricos. Ambato: Impr. Progreso, 1930. 52 p. 1987. Testimonios para la historia de la artesana ecuatoriana en el trnsito al capitalismo, estudio introductorio a cargo de Milton Luna Tamayo, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:2 (1987), 185-329. A useful compilation of sources materials on artisans and craftsmen, especially in Quito and Guayaquil, during the late-nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.

1988. Tobar Donoso, Julio. El indio en el Ecuador independiente. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1992. xi, 554 p. Primarily a study of legislation affecting as well as governing indigenes, especially laws relating to tithing, debt peonage, and agrarian reform, and of Indian institutions such as the cabildo de indios and comunas. 1989. Vacas Galindo, David. Apuntes histricos del telgrafo nacional. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1934. 36 p. An essay on the history of the telegraph system in Ecuador. 1990. La Vida de cada da: el Ecuador en avisos, 1822/1939, volumen realizado bajo la supervisin de Irving Ivn Zapater, 1 ed. en castellano. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1992. 281 p. Chiefly ill. (Coleccin imgenes; vol. 8) Not simply a pictorial history of advertising in/on Ecuador but a revealing compilation of how the country was depicted at home and abroad. The illustration are also useful, to some extent, as depictions of the material culture of everyday life. 1991. Vivar Cueva, T. El comercio ecuatoriano en cien aos de vida autnoma: acotaciones al margin del movimiento econmica realizado en la Repblica, desde el ao 1830 hasta nuestros das, El Ecuador comercial, 83 (mayo 1930). 1 v. (not paginated) A special issue of El Ecuador comercial. 1992. Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States and South America: the Northern Republics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948. xx, 280 p. Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, replaced but not altogether superseded by item 1966. Also important as a statement as to how Ecuador has been perceived by North American Latin Americanists. 1993. Wiles, Dawn Ann. Land Transportation within Ecuador, 1822-1954. 1971. vii, 276 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Louisiana State University. A useful survey. 1994. Ypez, Manuel A. Captulos: apuntes varos, 1830-1942. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1945. 441 p. Consists of miscellaneous essays on events and developments, politics and personages of the national period.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

SIGLO XIX (1830-1895) As of the late 1990s, the most important books on the years 1830-1895 were: Enrique Ayala Moras Lucha poltica y origen de los partidos (item 2007); Manuel Chiribogas Jornaleros y gran propietarios (item 5946); Gonzalo Ortz Crespos La incorporacin del Ecuador al mercado mundial (item 2143); Rafael Quintero and Erika Silvas Ecuador, una nacin en ciernes (item 1968); and Linda Alexander Rodrguezs The Search for Public Policy (item 1975). All five of these books broke new ground thematically; each reflected original research as well as a substantial grasp of the appropriate literature; and each added substantially to knowledge and interpretation of the period and topics covered. N.B. Quintero and Silvas Ecuador, una nacin en ciernes (item 1968) incorporated Quinteros not separately published doctoral thesis, Los partidos polticos en el Ecuador y la clase terrateniente en las transformaciones del Estado. The most detailed work on the nineteenth century was and may still be Luis Robalino Dvilas Orgenes del Ecuador de hoy (item 1972). Only a few major sets of primary sources appear to have been published on the first sixty-five years of the republican period. In chronological order, they are: the acts of the constituent assembles and national congresses of the 1830s (items 2059-2065); the more or less annual reports of the ministers of state (for an introduction to and list of which see item 360); the correspondence and collected works of Vicente Rocafuerte (items 2171 and 2172); and the letters and other writings of Gabriel Garca Moreno (items 2083 and 2087). Item 2087 includes Garca Morenos speeches. See also Antonio Borreros Refutacin del libro del Rvdo. Padre A. Berthe titulado Garca Moreno, presidente del Ecuador, vengador y mrtir del derecho cristiano (item 3080). Although none of the nineteenth-century presidents left an account of their administrations, at least their speeches to the constituent assemblies and Congress were eventually published (see item 1927). Furthermore, three of the presidents (Vicente Rocafuerte, Antonio Borrero [item 3080], Antonio Flores [item 2079]) provided us with accounts of their views on the politics of their opponents, predecessors, or successors. Of course, some of the works in question amount to diatribes such as Rocafuertes A la nacin (item 2170). Two other accounts that appear to be important are: Antonio Borreros La revolucin del 8 de septiembre de 1876 en el Ecuador (Lima: Tipografa de La Sociedad, 1877); and Teodoro Gmez de la Torres La carrera de mi vida (Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1920). Borreros La revolucin del 8 de septiembre de 1876 opens with a recapitulation of the national developments since 1845 and the emergence of Urbina, whom Borrero attacks. He slights Garca Morenos presidencies, but exalts his person, and scorches Veintemilla and his dictatorship. The

latter is not surprising inasmuch as Veintemilla overthrew Borrero. Gmez de la Torre was a career Army officer and an active politician, a common enough combination in the nineteenth century. He was also a liberal. Gmez de la Torres memoirs, posthumously published by Cristbal de Gangotena y Jijn, cover the years 1828-1876, and constitute an important account, sometimes as an insider, sometimes as an outsider, of the tumultuous years in question. It should also be noted that there is a much more substantial body of pamphlet literature from the 1800s than appears here within or that has ever been registered.

1995. El 25 de julio de 1867 en Quito. Quito: Manuel Rivadeneira, 1867. 29 p. Signed: Unos Republicanos. 1996. Ackerman, Samuel. The Trabajo Subsidiario: Compulsory Labor and Taxation in Nineteenth-Century Ecuador. 1977. ii, 220 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--New York University. 1997. Aguilar, Pedro T. El Ecuador de 1825 a 1875 por P.M.: refutacin. Guayaquil: Impr. Nacional, 1886. 132 p. Glosses and critiques the first edition of Pedro Moncayos El Ecuador de 1825 a 1875 (Santiago de Chile, 1885). 1998. Albornoz, Vctor Manuel. La transformacin poltica de 1845, Tres de noviembre, nueva ser., 97/98 (feb./mar. 1945), 81-104; 99/101 (abr./jun. 1945), 98-124; 107 (jun. 1947), 8491. Emphasizes developments in Cuenca. 1999. Alfaro, Eloy. Deuda gordiana, 2 ed., corr. y aum. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1896. 84 p. Regarding the external debt. 2000. Andrade, Roberto. Seis de agosto, o sea, Muerte de Garca Moreno. Portoviejo: Colegio Olmedo, 1896. viii, 415 p. 2001. Arboleda, Pacfico E. El combate naval de Jaramij referido por don Eloy Alfaro: refutacin. Guayaquil: Impr. Nacional, 1885. 88 p. 2002. Arboleda, Pacfico E. La renuncia del senador por la Provincia de Esmeraldas Dn. Toms Moncayo Avelln hecha ante sus electores. Guayaquil: Impr. Nacional, 1885. 36 p. 2003. Arciniegas, Germn. Montalvo y Garca Moreno en la Amrica del siglo XIX, Cultura, 5:12 (ene./mar. 1982), 335-345. 2004. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Fundacin del Partido Conservador Ecuatoriano, Revista de historia de Amrica, 99 (ene./jun. 1985), 27-40. 2005. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Gabriel Garca Moreno y la gestacin del Estado Nacional en Ecuador, Cultura, 4:10 (mayo/ago. 1981), 141-174. 2006. Ayala Mora, Enrique. La fundacin de la Repblica: panorama histrico (1830-1859),

Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 7, p. 143-195. A solid survey of the first three decades of the Republic. 2007. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Lucha poltica y origen de los partidos en Ecuador, 4 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 371 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 4) A social scientific study of politics, the State, and the Conservative and Liberal Parties between 1822 and 1895. A superb political history. 2008. Ayala Mora, Enrique. El municipio en el siglo XIX, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 1 (II sem. 1991), 69-86. A suggestive review of the role of the municipality in the early national period. 2009. Ayala Mora, Enrique; and Rafael Cordero Aguilar. El perodo garciano: panorama histrico (1860-1875), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 7, p. 197-235. Takes up where item 2006 leaves off. About as objective an evaluation of the Garca Moreno period as anyone is likely to achieve. 2010. Ayora A., Jorge. La primera emisin de sellos postales del Ecuador, 1865-1872. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1982. 97 p. 2011. Barrera, Isaac J. El Ecuador en 1844, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 24:63 (ene./jun. 1944), 5-10. 2012. Bernal, Sixto Juan. El General Urbina y sus proyectos contra el pas. Guayaquil: S.J. Bernal, 1864. 37 p. 2013. Borrero, Antonio. Correspondencia del Dr. Antonio Borrero C. con el Dr. Mariano Cueva, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 28 (jul. 1937), 378390; 29 (oct. 1937), 9-22. From 8 Mar. 1875 through 7 Jan. 1879. See also item 2038. 2014. Borrero Vega, Antonio. La revolucin de Cuenca contra Garca Moreno, 1869, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 13:44 (ene. 1969), 79-97. 2015. Bromley, Rosemary D.F.; and R.J. Bromley. The Debate on Sunday Markets in Nineteenth-Century Ecuador, Journal of Latin American Studies, 7:1 (May 1975), 85-108. During the colonial period markets were usually held on Sunday. During the 1860s, they were increasingly held on weekdays, partly for economic reasons, partly for political reasons, partly for religious reason. A cogent and insightful study. Also published in Spanish as: Cambios de los das de fera en la sierra central del Ecuador durante el siglo XIX, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 5:9 (jun. 1976), 7-32. 2016. Carbo, Pedro. Mensaje del Jefe Supremo de la Provincia del Guayas a la Convencin Nacional y decretos expedidos por el mismo. Guayaquil: Impr. de Gmez Hnos., 1883. 37 p. 2017. Carbo, Pedro. Obras. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983. 402 p. An exceptionally useful compilation inasmuch as the majority of the writings of Carbo are

individually very difficult to obtain. Contents: Vindicacin de Pedro Carbo; El concordato y el Concejo Cantonal de Guayaquil; El concordato ecuatoriano: defensa del poder temporal; La Repblica y la Iglesia y defensa de la exposicin del Concejo Cantonal de Guayaquil; Exclusin del doctor Gabriel Garca Moreno del Senado del Ecuador en la sesin del 24 de agosto de 1867; Pginas de la historia del Ecuador; Biografa de Olmedo; Estudio sobre el proyecto del canal interocenico a travs del Istmo de Panam; A fojas una desde 1881; Mensaje del Jefe Supremo de la Provincia del Guayas a la Convencin Nacional; Biografa del ilustre ecuatoriano D. Vicente Rocafuerte; La declaracin de los derechos del hombre, su origen y sus fundamentos. 2018. Carbo, Pedro. Pginas de la historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. de Ezequiel Gmez, 1878. 50 p. Regarding the revolution of Sept. 8, 1876. 2019. Castillo, Jos Abel. Proceso del Esmeralda, 3 ed., corr. y aum. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987. ii, xi, 121 p. Photofacsimile reprint; originally published: Guayaquil, 1896. 2020. Castro, Julio. La compra-venta del crucero Esmeralda. Quito: La Novedad, 1895. 58 p. 2021. Castro, Julio. Cuaspud: un diario histrico, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 33:81 (ene./jun. 1953), 80-104. The author was paymaster of the Ecuadorian Army. 2022. Causa criminal seguida contra el seor coronel Antonio Hidalgo, primer jefe que fue de la Brigada de Artillera Sucre, por varias infracciones. Guayaquil: Impr. Nacional, 1887. 216 p. 2023. Cevallos, Pedro Fermn. Aclaracin comprobada sobre la poltica del seor Dr. Vicente Rocafuerte, relativa a varias apreciaciones inecsactas de ella: el Resumen de la historia del Ecuador, tomo quinto. Guayaquil: Impr. del Guayas, por Atanasio Merino, 1874. 94 p. Cevallos corrects what he had to say about Rocafuerte in vol. 5 of his Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (item 554). 2024. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Entonces fue el Ecuador. Cuenca: Edit. Austral, 1942. 278 p. Primarily an analysis of the Garca Moreno years. Subsequently referred to by the author himself as muy derechista e incompleto ... Superseded by item 3120. 2025. Cevallos Salvador, Pedro Jos. El Dr. Pedro Moncayo y su folleto titulado El Ecuador de 1825 a 1875, sus hombres, sus instituciones y sus leyes ante la historia. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1887. vi, 219 p. A harsh as well as biased criticism of Moncayos work (item 2127), but important because Cevallos Salvador was a prominent politician and therefore provides data and views, albeit divergent from those of Moncayo, of an insider.

2026. Contestacin a los libelitas del bando ministerial. Quito: Impr. de M. Rivadeneira y Ca., 1848. 11 p. Signed and dated at end: La Oposicin. Setiembre 30 de 1848. 2027. El Contrabando de Esmeralda: absolucin al Gobierno. Quito: Impr. La Novedad, 1898. 94 p. Defense attorneys brief, testimonies, and court findings in the case of the Esmeralda transaction. 2028. Cordero, Benigno. Apuntamientos sobre la Expedicin del Sur. Quito: Fundicin de Tipos de M. Rivadeneira, 1884. 120 p. First hand account of and official communiques regarding the 1884 campaign of Generals Francisco Javier Salazar and Reinaldo Flores. 2029. Cordero, Benigno. Defensa del ex-Intendente de Polica de Guayaquil, teniente coronel don Benigno Cordero, respecto a su comportamiento en los aciagos das del 23, 24 y 25 de enero de 1888. Loja: Impr. del Clero, 1890. 77 p. 2030. Cordero, Luis. Cartas al Sr. don Juan Len Mera, Memorias de la Academia Ecuatoriana, 13 (jul. 1932), 243-292. Correspondence from 24 Mar. 1868 through 3 Nov. 1894. 2031. Cordero Palacios, Octavio. De potencia a potencia: captulo de historia en el cual se ve como el seor doctor don Manuel Vega devolvi la Gobernacin del Azuay al Presidente de la Repblica, don Gabriel Garca Moreno. Cuenca: Universidad del Azuay, 1922. 40 p. 2032. Cornejo, Jorge. Rocafuerte y su obra penitenciaria, Revista del derecho social ecuatoriano, 16/19 (ene./dic. 1959), 146-153. 2033. Cornejo, Rafael Federico. La conspiracin del 6 de agosto en Quito. Ipiales, 1875. 18 p. 2034. Coronel, Valeria. Repensando la tradicin y la diferencia, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 6 (II sem. 1994), 83-89. A commentary on Hernn Ibarras Nos encontramos amenazados por todita la indiada (item 2103). 2035. Crespo Toral, Remigio. Garca Moreno y un episodio de la cuestin peruanoecuatoriana, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 33/34 (abr. 1939/ago. 1940), 50-79. Examines Garca Morenos role in the Peruvian invasion and occupation of Guayaquil (18591860). 2036. Crespo Toral, Remigio. La revolucin contra Espinosa, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 31 (abr. 1938), 269-274. Pro-Garca Moreno. 2037. Criminal seguido de oficio para descubrir ocultadores o sustractores de los restos del gran Mariscal de Ayacucho seor general D. Antonio Jos de Sucre [1895], ARNAHIS, 13:19

(mar. 1973), 112-127. 2038. Cueva, Mariano. Cartas del Dr. Mariano Cueva, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 27 (mar. 1937), 234-252. Letters to Antonio Borrero from 3 Oct. 1848 through 28 Feb. 1869. See also item 2014. 2039. Cultura poltica e Iglesia: fray Vicente Solano y la formacin del estado nacional ecuatoriano. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay; Universidad de Cuenca, 1996. 525 p. Contents: Gustavo Vega-Delgado, Presentacin; Mara Cristina Crdenas Reyes, Introduccin; Luis Alberto Luna Tobar, El pensamiento de Solano y su influjo en la historia poltica de su tiempo; Miguel Daz Cueva, Fray Vicente Solano y su interaccin con la Iglesia; and Mara Cristina Crdenas Reyes, Fray Vicente Solano y la formacin del estado nacional ecuatoriano. 2040. Chiriboga, J. El Ecuador y Garca Moreno: una pgina para la historia de esa repblica. Valparaiso: Impr. Patria, 1869. 70 p. 2041. Deas, Malcolm. Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador: the First Half Century of Independence, Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell, vol. 3 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 507-538, 879-886. An essay on the early history of the national period. The second part is a bibliographic essay. See also item 57. 2042. Delgado R., M.A. La dinasta Mastuerzo. Guayaquil: Litogr. e Impr. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1984. 99 p. Reprint; originally published: Lima: La Epoca, 1888. 2043. Demlas, Marie-Danielle; and Yves Saint-Geours. Una revolucin conservadora de fundamento religioso: el Ecuador (1809-1875), Estados y naciones en los Andes, hacia una historia comparativa: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Per, J.P. Deler y Y. Saint-Geours, compiladores (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos; Instituto Francs de Estudios Andinos, 1986), vol. 2, p. 437-453. A thoughtful review of the role of the Catholic Church and of religious beliefs and ideologies in the political history of the early national period. See also the Debate sobre la ponencia de: Marie-Danielle Demlas, Yves Saint-Geours ..., ibid., p. 455-462, with commentaries by Germn Colmenares, Jean Piel, Nelson Manrique, Mario Rabey, Thierry Saignes, Manuel Burga, Henri Favre, and Ren Arze, and replies by Demlas and Saint-Geours. 2044. Destruge, Camilo. El Batalln Girandot, despus Flores, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:38 (oct./dic. 1913), 209-219; 3:39 (ene./feb. 1914), 225-229. The history of the Battalion and its uprising against the President in 1832. 2045. Destruge, Camilo. La carta del Gran Capitn: refutacin y anlisis de una de las cartas dirigidas por el Gran Capitn a S.E. el Presidente de la Repblica. Guayaquil: La Bandera

Nacional, 1895. 42 p. 2046. Destruge, Camilo. Ecuador, la Expedicin Flores: proyecto de monarqua americana, 1846-47. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo, 1906. iv, 55 p. Relacin histrica por un viejo liberal. 2047. Destruge, Camilo. Ecuador, estudios histricos. Guayaquil: Impr. Sucre, 1912. 200 p. 2048. Destruge, Camilo. Ecuador, estudios, relaciones y episodios histricos. Guayaquil: Edit. El Vigilante, 1907. vi, 269 p. This and the preceding item (2047) consist of essays on various episodes, aspects, and personages of the nineteenth century. 2049. Destruge, Camilo. Los guatusos, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 2:14 (abr. 1911), 213-223. On the montoneros of 1865-1866. 2050. Destruge, Camilo. Naves histricas: el vapor Chile, despus Machala, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 2:18 (ago. 1911), 277-285. 2051. Destruge, Camilo. Naves histricas: la fragata Colombia, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 2:16 (jun. 1911), 245-254; 2:17 (jul. 1911), 262-269. 2052. Destruge, Camilo. Naves histricas: incendio del Washington, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 1:6 (ago. 1910), 83-92. 2053. Destruge, Camilo. Proceso sobre la muerte del coronel Francisco Jado, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 1:4 (jun. 1910), 50-58. Jado was one of the victims of Otamendi. 2054 Destruge, Camilo. La sublevacin del Vargas, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:40 (mar./abr. 1914), 241-248. Regarding the 1831 rebellion of the Vargas Column. 2055. Documentos, [editados por] Samuel Guerra B. [y transcritos por Juan Freile Granizo], Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 299-538. Major compendium of previously unpublished materials from 1830, especially correspondence of Juan Jos Flores. 2056. Documentos que manifiestan la inicua revolucin acaudillada por Eloy Alfaro y sostenida por Francisco Ruz Sandoval, los Cerezos y dems montoneros. Guayaquil, 1887. 36 p. 2057. Duncan, Roland E. William Wheelwright and Early Steam Navigation in the Pacific, 1820-1840, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 32:2 (Oct. 1975), 257-281. Wheelwright, the North American consul in Guayaquil between 1825 and 1829, played a major role in the introduction of steamships to Ecuador and Peru.

2057. Ecuador. Documentos relativos al ramo de tabaco: estancado por la lejislatura de 1837 y desestancado por el poder ejecutivo en 1838. Guayaquil: Impr. de M.J. Murillo, 1838. 27 p. 2059. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del Congreso constitucional del Ecuador (ao 1839): precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1893-1894. 2 v. 2060. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del Congreso constitucional del Ecuador, ao de 1837: precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1892. 2 v. 2061. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del Congreso ecuatoriano de 1831: precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1888. lxxxviii, 212 p. 2062. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del Congreso ecuatoriano de 1832: precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1890. l, 214 p. 2063. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del Congreso ecuatoriano de 1833: precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1891. lxxxi, 191 p. 2064. Ecuador. Congreso Nacional. Actas del primer Congreso Constituyente del Ecuador (ao de 1830): precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1893. xcv, 160 p. Reprinted as: Discurso introductorio y actas del primer Congreso Constituyente del Ecuador, ao de 1.830. Quito: Centro de Estudios Histricos del Ejrcito, 1998. 261 p. (Biblioteca del Ejrcito Ecuatoriano; vol. 15) Includes a new introductory study: Discurso introductorio sobre la Constitucin Ecuatoriana de 1830: descripcin de antecedentes y del ambiente en que fue promulgada by Marcos Gndara Enrquez. 2065. Ecuador. Convencin Nacional (1835). Actas de la Convencin Nacional del Ecuador, ao de 1835: precedidas de una introduccin histrica, por Francisco Ignacio Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1891. ccxxiii, 177 p. Items 2059-2065 are basic sources for the study of the political history of the 1830s. Also they appear to be the only compendia of congressional and constitutional assembly sessions prior to 1885 to have been published, but extensive reports of congressional activities may be seen in the Registro oficial, for a guide to the titles and dates of publication of which see items 360 and 361. The editors introductions include additional source material (e.g., addresses by the President to Congress). See also item 2176. 2066. El Ecuador de 1848 a la luz de documentos inditos del Quai DOrsay, Cultura, 9:25 (mayo/ago. 1986), 385-408. 2067. El Ecuador y el Dr. Pedro Moncayo: ad majus diaboli gaudium. Quito: Impres por J. Sanz, 1871. 30 p. Signed at end: Los Ecuatorianos.

2068. Elas Murgua, Julio J.; and Armando Nieto Velez. Conflicto peruano-ecuatoriano 18581859, Historia martima del Per, t. 6, vol. 2 (Lima: Edit. Ausonia, 1976), p. 465-678. The most complete study to date of Ramn Castillas invasion and occupation of Guayaquil. Well documented and illustrated. 2069. Espinosa, Jos Modesto. Cartas al seor Juan Len Mera, Memorias de la Academia Ecuatoriana, 13 (jul. 1932), 105-145. Correspondence from 3 Jan. 1873 through 21 Dec. 1894. 2070 Espinoza, Leonardo. La influencia de 1830 en el desarrollo republicano del Ecuador, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 229-258. See also the discussion of Espinosas ponencia by Juan Cordero and others in ibid., p. 259-275. 2071. Estrada Carmona, Emilio. La campaa de los chapulos de 1884. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1984. 44 p. 2072. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. Los bancos del siglo XIX, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1976. xvii, 323 p. A detailed study of banks and other financial institutions founded in the 1800s. Does not stop with the turn of the century but continues coverage through the demise of the Banco Comercial y Agrcola in 1926. 2073. Fernndez L., Jorge; and David Loyola. Gnesis y constitucin de la burguesa agroexportadora en el Ecuador y su lucha por el poder en el siglo XIX, Revista del IDIS, 6 (1979), 257-304. An essay on the emergence of the landed bourgeoisie and its struggle to dominate national politics during the nineteenth century. Somewhat tendentious. 2074. Flor Vsconez, Jos L. La primera constitucin del Ecuador, 1830, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia (Quito), 63:135/136 (ene./dic. 1980), 171-194. 2075. Flores, Antonio. La conversin de la deuda anglo-ecuatoriana, estudio introductorio de Eduardo Santos Alvite. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1979. 378 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 3) Reprints the 2 ed corr. y aum.: Quito: Impr del Gobierno, 1890. 81, 140 p. A solid study of the external debt in the 1800s. See also the following item. 2076. Flores, Antonio. Crdito y derecho pblico. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1890. 46, 48 p. On the external debt of the state, how to finance the Ferrocarril del Sur, and Chinese immigration (which Flores opposed). 2077. Flores, Antonio. Documentos justificados de su manifiesto sobre su ninguna ingerencia en el asunto Esmeraldas con un apndice. Paris: Impr. Garnier, 1895. 11 p. 2078. Flores, Antonio. Don Eloy Alfaro refutado por documentos autnticos. New York, 1886. 38 p.

2079. Flores, Antonio. Para la historia del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. Catlica, 1891. xv, 250, 278, 14, xvi, [55] p. Refutes Marieta de Veintemillas Pginas del Ecuador (item 2205) and Eloy Alfaros verbal attacks on the government. Extensively documented. 2080. Flores, Reinaldo. La campaa de la costa: dirigida por Reinaldo Flores, Comandante en Jefe de Operaciones de las fuerzas del litoral, para debelar la revolucin injustificable encabezada por el seor Eloy Alfaro, en noviembre de 1884. Guayaquil: Impr. de Calvo y C., 1885. 206 p. 2081. Flores, Reinaldo. Parte general de la campaa y combate de Esmeraldas y documentos anexos a dicha parte. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1886. 35 p. 2082. Garca G., Eugenio. Numismtica ecuatoriana: las monedas de un cuarto de 1842 y de 1843, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 2:4/5 (ago. 1952), 65-78. 2083. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Cartas de Garca Moreno, [recopiladas por] Wilfrido Loor. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1953-1955. 4 v. The printer varies. The publisher was Loor himself. An exceptionally important source of data on political and other events of 1848-1875. Also published in a 2 ed.: Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1956-1966. 2084. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Cartas de Garca Moreno al Dr. Antonio Borrero, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 6 (mayo 1922), 146-166; 31 (abr. 1938), 210-231. Correspondence from 22 Dec. 1858 through 23 Apr. 1864, and from 29 Dec. 1858 through 30 Apr. 1870. Published by Alberto Muoz Vernaza. 2085. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Cartas de Garca Moreno al Dr. Manuel Vega, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 2 (abr. 1921), 126-146; 3 (jun. 1921), 257-264; 4 (sept. 1921), 334-342; 5 (nov. 1921), 31-37. Correspondence from 16 Mar. 1861 through 13 Sept. 1864. 2086. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Cartas polticas de Garca Moreno a don Carlos Ordez Lazo: 1860-1873, [edicin de] Alfonso Ordez Mata. Cuenca: Tip. Alianza, 1923. vi, 262 p. 2087. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Escritos y discursos de Gabriel Garca Moreno, recopilados y publicados por la Sociedad de la Juventud Catlica; prlogo de Juan Len Mera; 2 ed. aum. y anotada por Manuel Mara Plit Laso. Quito: Tip. y Encuad. Nacionales, 1923. 2 v. Originally published: Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1887-1888. 2 v. Plit Laso also annotated the first edition. 2088. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. Garca Moreno y el General Salazar, introduccin y notas por Francisco Salazar Alvarado, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:125 (ene./jun. 1975), 187-234. Consists of sixty-five previously unpublished letters from Garca Moreno to Francisco Javier Salazar from 1864-1873.

2089. Garca Moreno, Gabriel. La verdad a mis calumniadores. Piura, 1854. 16 p. 2090. Gabriel Garca Moreno, o, La verdad contra sus calumniadores. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1854. 24 p. An anonymous response to item 2089. 2091. Gimeno Gmez, Ana. Juan Jos Flores en Espaa: algunos antecedentes de la tentativa de expedicin del ex-presidente del Ecuador en 1846, Cultura, 9:25 (mayo/ago. 1986), 23-45. 2092. Gimeno Gmez, Ana. Una tentativa monrquica en Amrica: el caso ecuatoriano. Quito: Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. 496 p. (Coleccin histrica; 18) A detailed, well researched, solidly documented work on Juan Jos Floress project to convert Ecuador into a monarchy in 1846. Originally presented as the authors 1984 doctoral thesis at the Universidad de Valladolid: La expedicin del general Flores al Ecuador en 1846. 2093. Gold, Robert L. Negro Colonization Schemes in Ecuador, 1861-1864, Phylon, 30:3 (Fall 1969), 303-316. 2094. Guerrero, Andrs. Una imagen ventrlocua: el discurso liberal de la desgraciada raza indgena a fines del siglo XIX, Imgines e imagineros (item 1940), p. 197-252. A thoughtful and thought provoking analysis of the image of the Indian race and of the Indian problem in the liberal literature of the late nineteenth-century, beginning with Pedro Fermn Cevallos Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (item 553). 2095. Guerrero, Andrs. Naissance des bourgeoisies latino-amricaines au XIXe sicle: le cas de lEquateur, Annales, conomies, socits, civilisations, 35:6 (nov./dc. 1980), 1171-1193. 2096. Guerrero, Juan Agustn. Imgenes del Ecuador del siglo XIX, textos e investigacin, Wilson Hallo. Quito: Ediciones del Sol; Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1981. 178 p. Coeval water colors and black and white sketches, including cartoons, of daily life in the 1860s and 1870s. 2097. Guerrero Martnez, Alberto. La deuda externa del Ecuador, Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1:3 (jul./sept. 1930), 418-454. Focuses on the external debt of the 1800s. 2098. Hamerly, Michael T. Trayectoria martima del Ecuador, 1830-1859. Quito: Comandancia General de Marina, 1977. 21 p. Examines demographic and economic as well as political and maritime developments of the early national period. 2099. Haskins, Ralph W. Juan Jos Flores and the Proposed Expedition Against Ecuador, 1845-1847, Hispanic American Historical Review, 27:3 (Aug. 1947), 467-495. A detailed, objective study of the former presidents efforts to enlist men, money, munitions, ships, and the support of various European governments, especially those of Spain and France, to mount a filibustering expedition against his adopted country.

2100. Hassaurek, Friedrich. Arbitrariedades de Garca Moreno, a raz de la batalla de Jambel, ARNAHIS, 12:18 (10 ago. 1970), 35-38. Publishes two 1865 dispatches by Hassaurek, the American ambassador to Ecuador, regarding the excesses of Garca Moreno following the battle of Jambel. Includes a prefatory note by Robert E. Norris. 2101. Heredia, Jos Flix. El saln de sesiones en el Congreso Constituyente de 1830, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 5 (nov. 1921), 1-21. 2102. Huerta, Pedro Jos. La querella entre Rocafuerte y la Corte Superior de Justicia, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 5:15 (dic. 1955), 117-155; 6:16/18 (dic. 1956), 3-58; 9/10:25/26 (ene. 1959-dic. 1960), 81-106. An essay regarding the debate between Rocafuerte, then governor of the Province of Guayaquil, and the Superior Court of Guayaquil over the redemption of debased coinage in the 1840s. 2103. Ibarra, Hernn. Nos encontramos amenazados por todita la indiada: el levantamiento de Daquilema, Chimborazo 1871, 1 ed. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1993. 103 p. 2104. Jaramillo, Rafael E. Crnica de la traslacin de los restos del Sr. don Vicente Rocafuerte, de Lima a Guayaquil. Quito, 1884. 31 p. 2105. [Juicio por devolucin del vapor Washington, que intervin en el combate de Jambel, 1865], ARNAHIS, 12:18 (10 ago. 1970), 38-63. 2106. Jijn y Camao, Jacinto. La expedicin floreana de 1846. Quito: Tall. del Diario La Patria, 1943. 20 p. 2107. Lafond de Lurcy, Gabriel. Etudes sur lAmrique espagnole, sous le rapport du commerce maritime de France: de lEquateur. Paris: Bureau de Journal de la flotte 1845. 27 p. On Lafond and his reports on Ecuador see items 3339, and 7342. 2108. Le Gouhir Rodas, Jos Mara. Historia de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Tip. y Encuad. de la Prensa Catlica, 1920-1938. 3 v. Detailed, generally accurate, albeit not unbiased--Le Gouhir was a Jesuit and a Conservative-well documented history of the nineteenth century. Vol. 1 was issued in an edicin refundida (Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1935) that dropped coverage of the independence period (1809-1822), with which Le Gouhir never felt comfortable. Reprinted: Quito: Grupo Aymesa, 1992-1993. 5 v. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 2-6) N.B. The Aymesa ed. reprints the original edition of vol. 1. The original ed. of vol. 1 was also reprinted with an introductory study, Jos Mara Le Gouhir: historiador y maestro, by Francisco Miranda Ribadneira: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1992. 466 p. 2109. La Legislatura de 1888 y el poder ejecutivo: captulo de historia. Guayaquil: El Globo, 1888. 20 p. 2110. Loor, Wilfrido. La victoria de Guayaquil. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1960. 462 p. A detailed, extensively researched study of the civil war of 1859-1860, and of Castillas invasion

and occupation of Guayaquil. 2111. Lpez, Felicsimo. La revolucin de 1894 ante la historia y el Congreso. Jipijapa: Star, 1885. 16 p. 2112. Luna Tamayo, Milton; and Patricio Ynez. La transicin ecuatoriana: de la colonia a la repblica, Quitumbe, 5 (1982), 64-79. An essay on Ecuadors separation from Gran Colombia and emergence as a separate state. 2113. Maiguashca, Juan. El proceso de integracin nacional en el Ecuador: el rol del poder central, 1830-1895, Historia y regin en el Ecuador, 1830-1930 (item 6591), p. 355-420. A major reexamination of the role of the state in the formation of the nation and one that has already begun to provoke revision of the historiography of the nineteenth century. See, for example, Roland Anrup, El Estado ecuatoriano decimonnico y el proceso de integracin nacional, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 7 (I sem. 1995), 89-104. 2114. Malo, Benigno. Escritos y discursos. T. 1. Escritos no oficiales. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1940. 518 p. Includes essays on the Franco-Castilla Treaty, Urbina, Flores, Po Bravo, and several coeval newspapers. 2115. Martnez Delgado, Luis. Traiciones a la independencia hispanoamericana. Bogot: Edit. Kelly, 1975-1975. 2 v. Primarily a compendium of coeval sources on Floress filibuster attempts of 1846 and 1852 to regain power through invasion and the establishment of a monarchy. 2116. Mata, Rafael M. Juicios histricos sobre las Pginas del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Globo, 1890. 243 p. Although a son of General Mata and a veintemillista, the author disagrees with Marieta Veintemillas facts and interpretations (item 2206). 2117. Matamoros Jara, Carlos. Breves apuntes sobre las monedas en el Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 5:7 (1937), 317-341. 2118. Matamoros Trujillo, Carlos. Documentos desconocidos de nuestra historia: la grfica del primer escudo de armas de la Repblica del Ecuador, Boletn filatlico (Guayaquil), 2 (1973), 17. 2119. Medina Castro, Manuel. La otra historia: el Ecuador contra la dependencia y la intervencin, 1 ed. Guayaquil: [s.n.], 1984. 192 p. Editado por los amigos del autor. I have not yet seen this work, but it is supposed to be on the early national period (i.e., the years 1830-1895). 2120. Mera, Juan Len. Cartas a los seores Dr. J. Modesto Espinosa, Julio Zaldumbide y Dr. Antonio Flores, Memorias de la Academia Ecuatoriana, 13 (jul. 1932), 371-420. 2121. Mera, Juan Len. Catecismo explicativo de la Constitucin del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1894. iii, 89 p.

2122. Mera, Juan Len. La dictatura y la restauracin en la Repblica del Ecuador: ensayo histrico, 2 ed., segn la 1 ed. pstuma de 1932; estudio introductorio, Rafael Quintero. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1982. 278 p. Published posthumously. Although Mera originally intended to continue Cevalloss Historia, he only managed to cover the Borrero and Veintimilla years. Invaluable, nonetheless, as a relatively objective, eyewitness account. The original ed. (Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1932) included a biography of Mera by Julio Tobar Donoso, p. v-xlv. See also Meras Garca Moreno (item 3407). 2123. Mera, Juan Len. Observaciones sobre la situacin actual del Ecuador. Ambato, 1887. 43 p. 2124. Mills, Nick D., Jr. Liberal Opposition in Ecuadorean Politics, 1830-1845. 1972. vii, 224 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of New Mexico, 1972. 2125. Mills, Nick D., Jr. Liberalismo, ideologa y tradicin en la nacionalidad ecuatoriana: un ensayo interpretativo, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 7:13 (jun. 1978), 31-57. 2126. Moncada, Jos. De la independencia al auge exportador, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 111-135. A new approach essay on the nineteenth century by a young Turk (at the time). Written, however, before that much professional or social scientific research had been conducted on the years 1830-1895. 2127. Moncayo, Pedro. El Ecuador de 1825 a 1875: sus hombres, sus instituciones y sus leyes. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1979. 2 v. Reprints the 2d ed., posthumously corrected and augmented by Carlos E. Moncayo and Luis F. Veloz: Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1906. xxiii, 456 p. Originally published: Santiago de Chile, 1885. 336 p. Extensively documented. Moncayo, an early liberal, opposed caudillismo regardless of who was in power. One of the founders of El Quiteo libre, a short-lived anti-Flores newspaper, Moncayo spent almost his entire adult life in exile in Peru and Chile. 2128. Moncayo, Pedro. La partida de nacimiento del Estado ecuatoriano, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 21 (1982), 90-128. 2129. Montalvo, Juan. Cartas publicadas por el I. Concejo Municipal de Cuenca. Cuenca: Tip. Municipal, 1927. 58 p. Publishes Montalvos letters of 1885-1888 to Federico Malo from Paris. 2130. Montalvo, Juan. Las catilinarias. Ambato: Edicin Sesquicentenario II Convencin Nacional, 1987. 2 v. 2131. Montalvo, Juan. Las catilinarias; El cosmopolita; El regenerador, seleccin y prlogo, Benjamn Carrin; cronologa y notas, Gustavo Alfredo Jcome. Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho, 1977. xxxviii, 491 p. 2132. Montalvo, Juan. Juan Montalvo, estudio y selecciones de Gonzalo Zaldumbide. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 578 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [14])

Selections from: El cosmopolita, Los siete tratados, Pginas desconocidas, and Captulos que se olvidaron a Cervantes. 2133. Montalvo, Juan. Selections from Juan Montalvo, translated from the Spanish by Frank MacDonald Spindler and Nancy Cook Brooks. Tempe: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1984. v, 123 p. 2134. Mrner, Magnus. The Swedish Frigate Eugenie and the Flores Expedition Against Guayaquil, Pacific Historical Review, 34:1 (Feb. 1965), 51-64. Also published in Spanish as: La fragata sueca Eugenia y la expedicin de Flores contra Guayaquil en 1852, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 24:41 (1974), 155-171. 2135. Moscoso C., Martha. Comunidad, autoridad indgena y poder republicano en el siglo XIX, Revista andina, 7:14 (dic.1989), 481-499. 2136. Muratorio, Blanca. Nacin, identidad y etnicidad: imgenes de los indios ecuatorianos y sus imagineros a fines del siglo XIX, Imgines e imagineros (item 1940), p. 109-196. Focuses on el Ser blanco-mestizo como el principal interlocutor en el dilogo entre la nacinestado y la indianidad dominada. Como grupo dominante a fines del siglo XIX, la burguesa de la Costa us a los Indios como peones semiticos ... para sus propios intereses iconogrficos y para legitimar sus propios xitos econmicos. Especially fascinating is Muratorios discussion of the depiction of Indians in the several international expositions of the second half of the nineteenth century, especially those of Paris in 1889 and of Chicago in 1892. Also published in part in English as: Nationalism and Ethnicity: Images of Ecuadorian Indians and Imagemakers at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century, Ethnicity and the State, edited by Judith D. Toland (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1993; Political and Legal Anthropology; 9), 21-54. 2137. Muratorio, Ricardo. La transicin del obraje a la industria textil y el papel de la produccin textil en la economa de la sierra en el siglo XIX, Cultura, 8:24b (ene./abr.1986), 531-543. A study of the conversion of the obrajes of the Jijn family from sweat shops into factories. Also examines the role of textile production in the economy of the highlands in the 1800s. 2138. Murillo Mir, Juan. Historia del Ecuador de 1876 a 1888: precedida de un resumen histrico de 1830 a 1875. Quito: Empresa Editora El Comercio, 1946. 297 p. Reprint; originally published: Santiago: Impr. Santiago Hurfanos, 1890. iii, 396 p. Also available in a new edition with an introductory study by Elas Muoz Vicua. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1993. 344 p. An eyewitness account of the tumultuous years between the assassination of Garca Moreno and Flores Jijns election. 2139. Nieto, Jos. La verdad sobre las calumnias de la seora Marieta Veintimilla. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1891. 96 p. Reprinted in Museo Histrico, 29 (dic. 1957), 121-175; 30 (mar. 1958), 208-235; 31 (ago. 1958), 119-141. Anti-Veintimilla. 2140. Niza Troya, Kleber. La formacin econmica y social del Ecuador desde 1830 hasta la revolucin liberal. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas,

1982. 45 p. A superficial examination of economic and social developments between 1830 and 1895. 2141. Nmina de algunos abogados ecuatorianos recibidos en el siglo XIX, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 6:11 (dic. 1961), 108-117. 2142. Ortz Crespo, Gonzalo. La incorporacin del Ecuador al mercado mundial: la coyuntura socio-econmica, 1875-1895. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1981. 343 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 17) A fundamental work for the understanding of a critical yet previously poorly studied period in Ecuadorian history, especially insofar as economic and social developments are concerned, the initial years of the second cacao boom and its economic and social repercussions. Also published in a: 2 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 294 p. 2143. Ortz Crespo, Gonzalo. Panorama histrico del perodo 1875-1895, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 7, p. 237-275. A revisionist study of economic as well as political developments of the closing decades of the nineteenth century. Takes up where item 2009 leaves off. 2144. Pattee, Richard. La epoca crtica de la historia ecuatoriana, 1857-1861, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 6:8/11 (1941), 7-28. 2145. Pattee, Richard. Gabriel Garca Moreno y el Ecuador de su tiempo, 3 ed. Mxico: Edit. Jus, 1962. 397 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1941. 437 p. Favorable without being adulatory, one of the most scholarly studies ever undertaken of Garca Moreno and of his years in power. Includes three introductory chapters on the first thirty years of the national period. 2146. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Historia de la Casa de Moneda de Quito, 1534-1863, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 21 (1982), 7-97. Notwithstanding the chronological delimiters in the title, a history of the Casa de Moneda, established in 1831 and suppressed in 1863. 2147. Pereira Gamba, Prspero. El porvenir del Ecuador. Lima: Tip. de Aurelio Alfaro, 1860. 28 p. 2148. Prez, Felipe. Anlisis poltico, social y econmico de la Repblica del Ecuador: precedida de un resumen jeogrfico e histrico. Bogot: Impr. del Neo-Granadino, 1858. 125 p. The author was a nineteenth-century Colombian geographer. 2149. Prez Concha, Jorge. Veintemilla, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 8:18/20 (1950), 74-96. An in-depth examination of Veintemillas rise to power through the coup detat of Sept. 8, 1876. 2150. Pimentel Carbo, Julio. Los esclavos de hace un siglo, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 1:1 (ene. 1951), 60-65.

Like far too many of Pimentel Carbos essays, this one consists of the usual miscellany or tidbits of data, redeemed only by their novelty. 2151. Polanco, Jos Antonio. Recuerdos de un veterano en la campaa de 1859 y 1860, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:111 (ene./jun. 1968), 119-126. 2152. Polanco, Jos Antonio. Recuerdos de un veterano en la campaa de Cuaspud de 1863, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 253-257. 2153. Polanco, Jos Antonio. Recuerdos de un veterano en la campaa de Tulcn: 31 de julio de 1862, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:109 (ene./jun. 1967), 117-124. Items 2151-2153 are relatively objective accounts of the internecine strife and armed conflicts with Colombia and Peru of the late 1850s and early 1860s by a participant. Apparently the author was a professional military officer. 2154. Plit Ortiz, Francisco. La fundacin de la Repblica del Ecuador: mayo-septiembre de 1830. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1981. 93 p. 2155. Ponce, Camilo. El contrato DOksza ante el Consejo de Estado. Quito: Impr. Catlica, 1891. 134 p. Argues that the contract with Count DOksza for the construction of the railroad between Chimbo and Riobamba should have been nullified for failure on the part of the Count to comply with some of the terms of the contract. 2156. Pozo Monsalve, Tefilo. Entre el amor y el deber: escenas de la campaa de 1882-1883 en el Ecuador. Cuenca: Municipalidad de Cuenca, 1986. 106 p. 2157. Price, Joedd. Ecuadorian Opinions of the United States in the Nineteenth Century: an Attitudinal Study. 1968. v, 226 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2158. Price, Joedd. Images and Influences: The Legacy of the Founding Fathers and the Federal System in Ecuador, Latin American Research Review, 10:3 (Fall 1975), 121-136. 2159. Proao y Vega, Eloy. Coleccin de algunos escritos relativos a la memoria del excelentsimo seor doctor D. Gabriel Garca Moreno, presidente del Ecuador, asesinado el 6 de agosto de 1875: precedida de algunos artculos que revelan el verdadero espritu de su administracin catlica. Quito: Impr. de J. Campuzano y M. Rivadeneira, 1876. 1 v. in various paginations. 2160. Proao y Vega, Eloy. Historia de la campaa del Ecuador en defensa de sus instituciones republicanas contra la dictatura del General Ignacio de Veintemilla en 1882. Quito: Impr. de la heredera de Pablo S. Paredes, por J. Mora, 1884. vi, 260 p. Supposed to have been a tomo primero, but in fact the only vol. published. 2161. La Proyectada expedicin de Flores al Ecuador: polmica periodstica y parlamentaria (1845-1847), prlogo del Dr. Angel Francisco Brice; advertencia y notas del Dr. Pedro Grases. Maracaibo: Impr. del Estado, 1964. 349 p. Pro-Flores. Includes newspaper articles by Rafael Mara Baralt, whose name appears at head of

title. 2162. Quintero, Rafael. El carcter de la estructura institucional de representacin poltica en el Estado ecuatoriano del siglo XIX, Revista ciencias sociales, 2:7/8 (1978), 70-109. Demonstrates through analysis of voting requirements and election returns that the political process was not just dominated, but virtually monopolized by the upper class and its middle class retainers and clients during the first seventy years of the national period. And that the more things changed, the more they remained the same. Not even the advents of the Liberals in 1895 made any real difference. Whereas 5.7 percent of the estimated total population of 1,004,791 (not an improbable figure) participated in the presidential election of 1892 under the Progressives, only 1.7 percent of the estimated total population voted in the vice residential election of 1899. Also published in: Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, 219-266. 2163. Quintero, Rafael. La cultura tradicional y la Iglesia en la sociedad ecuatoriana del siglo XIX, Cultura, 2:4 (mayo/ago. 1979), 115-149. An essay on the role of the Catholic Church in the ideology, politics, economics, and society of the country in the 1800s. N.B. Items 2162 and 2163 are chapters from the authors 1978 doctoral thesis, Los partidos polticos en el Ecuador y la clase terrateniente en las transformaciones del Estado--per se not published as a separate but incorporated in essence in item 1968. 2164. Quintero, Rafael. El Estado terrateniente del Ecuador (1809-1895), Estados y naciones en los Andes, hacia una historia comparativa: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Per, J.P. Deler y Y. Saint-Geours, compiladores (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos; Instituto Francs de Estudios Andinos, 1986), vol. 2, p. 397-417. A preview of Quintero and Silvas Ecuador, una nacin en ciernes (item 1968). See also the Debate sobre las ponencias de: Hermes Tovar, Problemas de la transicin del Estado Colonial al Estado Nacional (1810-1850), and Rafael Quintero ... in ibid., p. 419-434, with commentaries by Thierry Saignes, Hermes Tovar, Germn Colmenares, Jean-Paul Deler, Marie-Danielle Demlas, Jean Piel, Manuel Chiriboga, Henri Favre, Nelson Manrique, and Yves Saint-Geours, and replies by Tovar and Quintero. 2165. La Regeneracin de setiembre y la reaccin del terrorismo. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1877. iv, 81 p. 2166. La Restauracin de 1883, Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga, 27 (abr. 1987), 267-270. Chiefly ill. Consists of period photographs from the private collection of Dr. Miguel Daz Cueva. 2167. Los Revolucionarios del 14 de diciembre. Quito, 1870. 63 p. 2168. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Primeros hechos de transformacin social en el Ecuador independiente, Amrica (Quito), 27:102/103 (jul./dic. 1951-ene./dic. 1952), 5-36. 2169. Robertson, William Spence. Garca Morenos Dream of a European Protectorate, Contribuciones para el estudio de la historia de Amrica: homenaje al Dr. Emilio Ravignani

(Buenos Aires: Peuser, 1941), p. 125-143. Also published in Spanish as: El sueo de Garca Moreno sobre un protectorado en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 25:65 (ene./jun. 1945), 67-80. 2170. Rocafuerte, Vicente. A la nacin. Guayaquil: Litogr. e Impr. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983. 283 p. A series of anti-Flores articles originally published in Lima between 1843 and 1845. 2171. Rocafuerte, Vicente. Epistolario, estudio y seleccin de Carlos Landzuri Camacho. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. 2 v. Includes a lengthy biobibliography of Rocafuerte by Landzuri (vol. 1, p. 15-117). 2172. Rocafuerte, Vicente. Vicente Rocafuerte, prlogo y notas de Neptal Ziga. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1983. 16 v. in 4. Reprint; originally published as: Coleccin Rocafuerte. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1947. 16 v. The collected works of Rocafuerte. A basic set of primary materials for the study of the latecolonial, independence, and early-national periods. Contents: vol. 1, Rocafuerte, perfiles y perennidad; vol. 2, Rocafuerte y la historia de Mxico; vol. 3, Rocafuerte y la democracia de Estados Unidos de Norte Amrica; vol. 4, Rocafuerte y los sistemas polticos de Amrica; vol. 5, Rocafuerte y las ideas liberales de Amrica independiente; vol. 6, Rocafuerte y la Gran Colombia; vol. 7, Rocafuerte y el ideario religioso del mundo; vol. 8, Rocafuerte y las ideas polticas de Mxico; vol. 9, Rocafuerte y las doctrinas penales; vol. 10, Rocafuerte y la Repblica de Cuba; vol. 11, Rocafuerte y el periodismo en Mxico; vol. 12, Rocafuerte y el periodismo en Inglaterra; vol. 13, Rocafuerte, su vida pblica en el Ecuador; vol. 14, Rocafuerte y quince aos de historia de la Repblica del Ecuador; vol. 15, Rocafuerte, documentos polticos; vol. 16, Rocafuerte y su obra diplomtica en Europa. 2173. Rodrguez, Linda Alexander. Las finanzas pblicas en el Ecuador del siglo XIX, Siglo XIX (Monterrey), 3:5 (ene./jun. 1988), 45-88. A quantitative study of public revenues and expenditures between 1830 and 1900. Reprinted in: Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 4:8 (1990), 13-57. 2174. Salazar, Francisco Ignacio. Defensa documentada del general doctor don Francisco Javier Salazar. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1887. 132 p. Defends his brother against the accusation made by Manuel Polanco that Francisco Javier had been involved in the assassination of Garca Moreno. 2175. Salazar, Francisco Ignacio. Introduccin histrica a las actas del Congreso constitucional del Ecuador (ao 1841), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 2:5 (mayo/jun. 1921), 199-255. 2176. Salvador Lara, Jorge. La Repblica del Ecuador y el General Juan Jos Flores. Caracas: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1980. 206 p. 2177. Sarasti, Jos Mara. Documentos relativos a la acusacin contra el Vicepresidente de la Repblica y el Ministro de Guerra y Marina ante el Congreso de 1885. Quito: Impr. del

Gobierno, 1886. 69 p. 2178. Sarasti, Jos Mara. Nmero 2 de la Vindicacin y protesta contra los escritos de los SS. Leopoldo y Reinaldo Pino: consignados en los nmeros 5 y 7 de El Independiente de Latacunga. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1889. 87 p. 2179. Sarasti, Jos Mara. Los pentaviros y Alfaro . Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1884. 67 p. 2180. Silva, Elas E. Pinceladas acerca de la Administracin Caamao y de la Administracin Flores. Guayaquil: Impr. de La Palabra, 1892. vii, 168 p. Although Silva identified himself as un liberal, he was pro-Caamao and pro-Flores. 2181. Silva, Erika. Estado, Iglesia e ideologa en el siglo XIX, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 8, p. 9-44. A provocative reexamination of the nature of the state, of the churchs role in politics, and of the ideological underpinnings of the state and the of the church as a political force, and therefore of what may be called the political culture of the nineteenth century. 2182. Sociedades democrticas de Ilustracin, de Miguel de Santiago y Filarmnica: discursos pronunciados en la sesin pblica efectuada el 6 de marzo de 1852, 2 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1984. 38 p. (Fuentes y documentos para la historia de la msica en el Ecuador; 2) Originally published: Quito: Impr. F. Bermeo, 1852. 2183. Solano, Vicente. Discurso pronunciado en la Iglesia Catedral de Cuenca en el Te Deum por el triunfo de Miarca. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1965. [41] p. 2184. Solemne pronunciamiento de la capital de Quito y dems pueblos del Sur de Colombia, por el cual se constituye el Ecuador en estado soberano, libre e independiente, publcalo, ilustrado con numerosos documentos explicativos Jacinto Jijn y Caamao. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1922. xi, 53, iv, dxiii p. 2185. Sosa, Ximena; and Cecilia Durn. Familia, ciudad y vida cotidiana en el siglo XIX, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 8, p. 157-191. A pioneering study of family, daily, and urban life, including public health and festivities, in the nineteenth century. See also items 1352 and 2612. 2186. Spindler, Frank MacDonald. Nineteenth century Ecuador: An Historical Introduction. Fairfax: Geroge Mason University Press, 1987. xiv, 285 p. More or less factually sound but a strictly political account. Also far more descriptive and narrative than analytical and interpretative. But beware the hidden, sometimes ill founded assumptions Spindler makes as to chronology, historiography, and cause and effect. 2187. Tern, Emilio Mara. Informe al jefe supremo general Eloy Alfaro sobre la deuda angloecuatoriana. Quito: [s.n.], 1896. 868, 12 p. Covers the years 1822-1890. 2188. Tern Guerrero, Jos Mara. La dictadura neroniana en el Ecuador. Ipiales: Tip. de N.

Medicis, 1870. 17 p. Anti-Garca Moreno. 2189. Tobar Donoso, Julio. La abolicin de la esclavitud en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 39:93 (ene./jun. 1959), 5-30. A useful overview of the abolition of black slavery, especially of the legislation involved. Does not address the specifics of implementation of the laws nor the social issues involved, however. 2190. Tobar Donoso, Julio. La administracin del Coronel Ascsubi en 1849 y 1850, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 3:7/8 (jul./oct. 1919), 53-83. Reprinted in authors Monografas histricas (item 2197), p. 45-98. 2191. Tobar Donoso, Julio. La administracin de don Diego Noboa, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (jul./oct. 1920), 59-72; 1:2 (nov./dic. 1920), 155-194. Reprinted in authors Monografas histricas (item 2197), p. 99-210. 2192. Tobar Donoso, Julio. La constituyente de 1.845, desde el punto de vista religioso, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 24-53. A detailed analysis of the issues faced by the Constitutional Assembly of 1845, especially but not exclusively those relating to state and church. 2193. Tobar Donoso, Julio. El Ecuador de 1822 a 1895, Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional, n.s., 1:6 (sept./oct. 1926), 358-374; 1:7 (nov./dic. 1926), 391-412. 2194. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Entre Roca y Urvina, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 60:129/130 (ene./dic. 1977), 5-24. 2195. Tobar Donoso, Julio. El fin de una fbula, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 31:77 (ene./jun. 1951), 20-77. Regarding Garca Morenos responsibility for the 1862 conflict with Colombia. Also available as a separate: Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1951. 60 p. 2196. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Legislaturas del perodo de Roca, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 56:121 (ene./jun. 1973), 33-54. 2197. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Monografas histricas. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1938. 539 p. Convenient anthology of eleven of Tobar Donosos essays on politics and politicians, the church and churchmen, education and educators in the nineteenth century. 2198. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Las segundas elecciones de 1875, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos mericanos, 1:2 (ago./sept. 1918), 118-135. Reprinted in authors Monografas histricas (item 2197), p. 311-346. 2199. Van Aken, Mark J. King of the Night : Juan Jos Flores and Ecuador, 1824-1864. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. ix, 382 p. As of the late 1990s, the most objective and apparently also the most well researched, account of

Floress political career, not just of the Flores years. Also published in Spanish in a revised and enlarged edition as: El rey de la noche: Juan Jos Flores y el Ecuador, 1824-1864. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1995. 439 p. (Coleccin histrica; 21) 2200. Van Aken, Mark J. The Lingering Death of Indian Tribute in Ecuador, Hispanic American Historical Review, 61:3 (Aug. 1981), 429-459. Rescues from rhetoric the fiscal and socioeconomic implications of the gradual suppression of Indian tributes. Also published in Spanish as: La lenta expiracin del tributo indgena en el Ecuador, Cultura, 6:16 (mayo/ago. 1983), 49-80. 2201 Vargas Torres, Luis. El gobierno del litoral y los pentaviros Alfaro y Sarasti. Guayaquil: Impr. de Murillo, 1884. 70 p. 2202. Vargas Torres, Luis. La revolucin del 15 de noviembre de 1884. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1984. 65 p. 2203. Vega Ugalde, Silvia. Ecuador, crisis polticas y Estado en los inicios de la repblica, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1991. 163 p. 2204. Veintimilla, Ignacio de. La regeneracin de septiembre y la reaccin del terrorismo. Quito: Zans, 1877. 81 p. 2205. Veintimilla, Marieta de. Pginas del Ecuador. Lima: Impr. Liberal de F. Masias, 1890. 411 p. A spirited defense of Ignacio de Veintimilla by his niece. Unfortunately it is far more of an attack on the dictators enemies than an account of the captain generals regime. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1982. 2206. Velsquez, Csar Vicente. La verdad histrica sobre la fundacin del estado ecuatoriano, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 63:135/136 (ene./dic. 1980), 97-104. 2207. Villacrs Moscoso, Jorge W. El general Flores y su proyectado protectorado francs para el Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 8:22/24 (dic. 1958), 35-71. 2208. Villalba F., Jorge. Eleccin de Vicente Rocafuerte a la presidencia de la repblica, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 66:141/142 (ene./dic. 1983), 65-86. 2209. Villamar, Rafael. El general Eloy Alfaro y la restauracin. Quito: Impr. Paredes, 1884. 60 p. 2210. Vintimilla, Maria Augusta. Luchas campesinas en el siglo XIX y la revolucin liberal de 1895, Revista del IDIS, 8 (abr. 1980), 83-94. A working paper. 2211. Wray Espinosa, Alberto. El derecho y la fundacin del Estado: notas para una interpretacin histrica de la Constitucin de 1830, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 27-53. See also the Crticas y comentarios thereof, in ibid., 55-68. 2212. Zaldumbide Gangotena, Julio. Cartas al seor don Juan Len Mera, Memorias de la

Academia Ecuatoriana, 13 (jul. 1932), 146-242. Consists of correspondence from 29 July 1857 through 21 July 1886. 2213. Zapater, Irving Ivn. El proyecto de Banco Nacional del Ecuador de 1890, Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 597-616. Examines the unsuccessful efforts of President Antonio Flores to establish a national bank in 1890.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

SIGLO XX (1895-) Here are entered works on the twentieth century in general and studies that have to do with both periods into which the years since the Liberals came to power have been divided, 1895-1960, and 1960-, in accordance with the periodization adopted by the editors of the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615). I have annotated fewer of the items that follow than I did for the colonial, independence, and early national periods, partly because I am still in the process of mastering the literature on the twentieth century and partly because to have done so would have made this bibliography appreciably longer than it already is. In turn this is because there are so many more published materials on the twentieth century than there are on the preceding centuries.

2214. 25 aos de planificacin, Germnico Salgado, [editor]. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1979. 643 p. 2215. Achig S., Lucas; and Tatiana Neira A. Movimiento obrero ecuatoriano y proceso sindical (los orgenes: 1880-1938), Revista IDIS, 21 (abr. 1989), 69-185. A scholarly sound and relatively objective study of the origins of the working class and the labor movement. 2216. Albornoz Peralta, Oswaldo. Ecuador: luces y sombras del liberalismo, 1 ed. Quito: El Duende, 1989. 196 p. Although Albornoz Peralta outlines the history of liberalism from the movements for independence through the 1980s in this work, his primary focus is the rise and fall of Eloy Alfaro. Employing the Marxism dialect at its worst, Albornoz Peralta argues that the triumph of liberalism in 1895 was a bourgeois revolution aided and abetted by a nascent proletariat (i.e., the monteros who swept Alfaro into power). He also attributes Alfaros downfall to a conspiracy of the elite or feudal aristocracy. 2217. Albornoz Peralta, Oswaldo. Historia del movimiento obrero ecuatoriano: breve sntesis. Quito: Edit. Letranueva, 1983. 187 p. Highly partisan. The author is unabashedly Marxist-Leninist in belief and interpretation. 2218. Alexander, Robert J. The Bolivarian Presidents: Conversations and Correspondence with Presidents of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994. x, 283 p. See pp. 113-125 for conversations with Galo Plaza Lasso (held in 1954, 1955, and 1962),

Osvaldo Hurtado (1985), and Rodrigo Borja Cevallos (1978). 2219. Almeida, Rebeca. Oscilaciones del dlar norteamericano en el mercado nacional durante setenta y ocho aos, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 2:4 (II sem. 1988), 253-263. A quantitative analysis of the value of the sucre vis-a-vis the dollar from 1910-1988. 2220. El Anarquismo en el Ecuador, estudio introductorio y seleccin de Alexei Pez. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; INFOC, 1986. 178 p. 2221. Antecedentes y trayectoria histrica del sector arrocero hasta 1970: fecha de expedicin del Decreto 1001. Guayaquil: Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Polticas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983. 37 p. 2222. Astudillo, Rafael. Entre el pasado y el provenir. Quito: Edit. Cyma, 1968. 262 p. An anthology of speeches, including radio discourses, given and of letters to editors written between 1925 and 1966. The author was one of the army lieutenants who participated in the July Revolution. 2223. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Ecuador Since 1930, Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 8 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 687-725, 854-859. See also item 14. 2224. Ayala Mora, Enrique. El Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano en la historia. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1988. 30 p. 2225. Ayala Paredes, Csar M. Panormica: ensayo: la Fuerza Area Ecuatoriana, 50 aos en la vida nacional. Quito: Impr. Edit. Don Bosco, 1971. 120 p. 2226. Bez Tobar, Ren. Panorama general de la economa ecuatoriana, 1948-1988, Sntesis: revista documental de ciencias sociales iberoamericanas (ene./abr. 1992), 291-316. 2227. Balarezo, Humberto; and Rubn Martnez. El movimiento obrero ecuatoriano y el proceso poltico (sus orgenes: 1880-1938), Revista IDIS, 21 (abr. 1989), 187-241. Examines the interaction between the working class and political parties during the formative years of the labor movement in Ecuador. 2228. Banco Central del Ecuador. Banco Central del Ecuador: cincuenta aos. Quito: El Banco, [1978?]. 158 p. 2229. Benalczar Ruales, Ren. Anlisis del desarrollo econmico del Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 533 p. An analysis of the economic development and political economy of the country from the 1940s through the 1980s. 2230. Bilbao, Luis Fernando. Economa y empleo, 1 ed. Quito: Calendarios Cromex, 1990-. <1> v. Contents: t. 1, Su realidad en el Ecuador hasta 1950. 2231. Bravo, Csar Augusto. Historia del Ecuador de la dcada de 1950 a la dcada de los 70.

Cuenca: Edit. Grficas Hernndez, 1995. 230 p. A useful review of political history from the administration of Plaza Lasso (1948-1952) through the military dictatorship of the Consejo Supremo de Gobierno (1976-1979). 2232. Bromley, R. J. Development Planning in Ecuador. London: Latin American Publications Fund, 1977. ix, 116 p. A well written and thoughtful essay on the political economy of the country since 1948 and on national planning since 1950 by a British geographer who knows Ecuador exceptionally well. 2233. Cabeza de Vaca, Manuel. Discursos y conferencias. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 382 p. 2234. Cabezas, Luis Cristobal. 50 aos de vida poltica y anecdtica del Ecuador. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica, 1986. 163 p. 2235. Calle Saavedra, Eduardo. La escabrosa historia de la Junta Nacional de Defensa del Artesano, 1 ed. Quito: Biblioteca General Ecuatoriana, 1989. 185, vii p. 2236. Campo, Esteban del. Ecuador, 1948-1978: los desequilibrios de la economa y el desarrollo desigual, Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 152-179. 2237. Carrasco Vintimilla, Adrin; Mara Augusta Vintimilla; and Cecilia Surez, Movimientos polticos y culturales en el Ecuador: 1922-1986, Revista IDIS, 18 (ene. 1988), 11-38. An interim report on the Nacin, Estado Nacional y Cultura Nacional research project. 2238. Carrin, Alejandro. Los partidos polticos, El Ecuador en el siglo XX (item 2255), p. 259-292. A more or less objective account of the twentieth-century history of the Conservative, Liberal, and Socialist parties. 2239. Clase y regin en el agro ecuatoriano, editor: Miguel Murmis, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1986. 356 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 7) Contents: Miguel Murmis, Introduccin (p. 11-16); Ignacio Llovet, Osvaldo Barsky, and Miguel Murmis, Caracterizacin de estructuras de clase en el agro ecuatoriano (p. 17-78); Marilyn Silverman, Variabilidad agraria en la costa ecuatoriana (p. 79-174); Osvaldo Barsky and Eugenio Daz Bonilla, Procesos de comercializacin de clases (p. 175-217); Teodoro Bustamante and Mercedes Prieto, Formas de organizacin y de accin campesina e indgena: experiencias en tres zonas del Ecuador (p. 219-267); Carlos Arcos, El espritu del progreso: los hacendados en el Ecuador del 900 (p. 269-317); Gustavo Cosse, Las polticas estatales y la cuestin regional en Ecuador (p. 319-357). 2240. Comunistas en la historia nacional, 1926-1986, Ricardo Paredes [et al.]. Guayaquil: Instituto de Investigaciones y Estudios Socioeconmicos del Ecuador, 1987. 254 p. 2241. Las Crisis en el Ecuador: los treinta y ochenta, R. Thorp [et al.]. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Instituto de Estudios Avanzados; Oxford University, St. Anthonys College, Latin American Centre 1991. 305 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 33)

A set of essays on the economic crises of the late 1920s/early 1930s and of the 1980s. Contents: Rosemary Thorp, Estudio comparativo introductorio (p. 11-17); Jos Samaniego, Conceptualizacin de la crisis (p. 19-30); Carlos Marchn Romero, La crisis de los aos treinta: diferenciacin social de sus efectos econmicos (1920-1932) (p. 31-60); Agustn Cueva, La crisis de 1929-32: un anlisis (p. 61-77); Juan Maiguashca, Los sectores subalternos en los aos 30 y el aparecimiento del velasquismo (p. 79-93); Guillermo Bustos Lozano, La politizacin del problema obrero: los trabajadores quiteos entre la identidad pueblo y la identidad clase (1931-34) (p. 95-131); Jos A. Moncada Snchez, Problemas y perspectivas de transformacin econmica y social (p. 133-166); Len Rolds Aguilera, Endeudamiento externo y crisis (p. 167-190); Ana Luca Armijos and Marco A. Flores, Las polticas econmicas aplicadas en la dcada de los ochenta: respuesta a la crisis (p. 191-223); Alberto Dahik, Los programas de ajuste en la ultima dcada (p. 225-234); Simn Pachano, La sociedad imperceptible (p. 235-258); Germnico Salgado, Integracin latinoamericana: problemas de hoy y nuevos rumbos, (p. 259-288); and Felipe Portocarrero M. , La economa peruana en los aos 80 (p. 289-305). 2242. Cruz L., J. Arturo. Paso obligado, 1941-1981. Quito: Grf. Rubn Daro, 1981. 76 p. 2243. Cueva, Agustn. Ecuador, 1925-1975, Amrica Latina, historia de medio siglo, coordinacin, Pablo Gonzlez Casanova, vol. 1 (Mxico, D.F.: Siglo XXI, 1977), p. 291-326. See comments on items 2383 and 2698. 2244. Cueva, Agustn. Interpretacin sociolgica del Velasquismo, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 32:3 (mayo/jun. 1970), 709-735. 2245. Cueva, Agustn. Ms all de las palabras: (introduccin a la mitologa velasquista, Indoamrica (Quito), 3:7/8 (ene./mayo 1967), 36-69. 2246. Cueva, Agustn. El proceso de dominacin poltica en Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones Crtica, 1972. 108 p. A Marxist interpretation. Especially concerned with populism and velasquismo. Latest known Spanish edition as of July 1997: (7a): Quito: Edit. Planeta, 1988. 188 p. Also published in English as: The Process of Political Domination in Ecuador, translated by Danielle Salti. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1982. 106 p. 2247. Chaves Granja, Jaime. El Comercio y el drama de la poltica nacional en el siglo XX, El Ecuador en el siglo XX (item 2255), p. 29-117. More a review of the political history of the first seventy years of the twentieth century than of El Comercio. 2248. Del Campo, Esteban. Ecuador, 1948-1978: los desequilibrios de la economa y el desarrollo desigual, Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 152-169. 2249. Daz, Oswaldo. Ecuador, estudios retrospectivos, 1 ed. Bogot: Ediciones Tercer Mundo, 1980. 120 p. Contents: El latifundio en el Ecuador; El Plan Andino en el Ecuador; La poltica agraria de Arosemena; Notas sobre la clase media del Ecuador; Cambios sociales de las clases

dominantes del Ecuador; Los partidos polticos del Ecuador; Ecuador, entre la revolucin y el miedo; La crisis econmica de las universidades ecuatorianas; Anexos: Gran descubrimiento arqueolgico en Ecuador; Ecuadors Loss; Respuesta al Gramma. 2250. Ecuador. Congreso. Cmara de Diputados. Diario de debates de la Cmara de Diputados. 1896/1897-1970. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1900-1970? 2251. Ecuador. Congreso. Cmara del Senado. Diario de debates de la Cmara del Senado. 1896/1897-1970. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1900-1970? Items 2250 and 2251 were not published for every session. Also they appeared under variant names (see, for example, items 2407 and 2408). For a more complete chronology than can be given here, see Cecilia Durn C., El Archivo-Biblioteca de la Funcin Legislativa, Memoria, MARKA, 1:1 (nov. 1990), p. 248-250. 2252. Ecuador. Fuerza Area Ecuatoriana. Cincuentenario. Quito: FAE, 1970. 98 p. 2253. Ecuador, a country study, edited by Dennis M. Hanratty, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: GPO., 1991. xxv, 306 p. Emphasizes political, social, and economic developments of the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Suffers from the same defects as its predecessors (Area Handbook for Ecuador, 1st and 2nd ed. [Washington, D.C.: GPO., 1966 and 1973]). Although the authors are members of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, they display more ignorance than knowledge of Ecuador and employ altogether too simplistic an approach. 2254. El Ecuador de la postguerra: estudios en homenaje a Guillermo Prez Chiriboga, [Ren Bez et al.], 1 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1992. 2 v. (842 p.) Essays on various aspects of the national reality in the 1950s and 1960s. 2255. El Ecuador en el siglo XX. Quito: Edit. Publitcnica, 1981. 400 p. A set of essays on national politics, boundary dispute developments, literature, political parties, the legislature, and education, for the particulars of which see items 2247, 5601, 4702, 2238, 5461, and 4270. 2256. Efimov, Aleksei Vladimirovich; Iosif Romualdovich Grigulevich; and Valerian M. Goncharova. Ekvador: istoriko-etnografischeskie ocherki. Moscow: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1963. 221 p. Analyzes political, economic, and social trends and conditions from the point of view of orthodox Marxism-Leninism. 2257. Enfoque Ecuador: estudios de la realidad nacional, [Manuel Chiriboga et al.]. Guayaquil: Fundacin Eugenio Espejo, 1983. 140 p. Contents: Manuel Chiriboga, Modernizacin capitalista y diferenciacin social; Luis F. Verdesoto C., El anlisis de algunas caractersticas sobresalientes de la evolucin en los ltimos treinta aos del sistema poltico ecuatoriano; Francisco X. Swett, Presente y pespectiva de la economa ecuatoriana; Jos Luis Ortiz, Formas de organizacin rural en el Ecuador: marco histrico; Xavier Ponce Cevallos, Apuntes generales sobre la cultura ecuatoriana; Jos Nuez

Cristiasen, Breves rasgos sobre los aspectos urbanos del Ecuador; Edmundo Vera Manzo, Fuerza laboral, bienestar social y educacin en el Ecuador. 2258. Espinoza, Leonardo. Ensayo preliminar sobre imperialismo, oligarquismo y sindicalismo para la elaboracin de la historia del movimiento obrero ecuatoriano, Revista IDIS, 16 (1986), 11-80. 2259. Espinoza, Leonardo. La formacin histrica del Ecuador en los orgenes del movimiento obrero sindicalizado (1880-1938): teora, proceso y crisis, Revista IDIS, 21 (abr. 1989), 9-68. Primarily concerned with the social and economic aspects of the origins of the working class and the labor movement. 2260. Fitch, John Samuel. Class Structure, Populism, and the Armed Forces in Contemporary Ecuador, Latin American Research Review, 19:1 (1984), 270-274. Reviews Varas and Bustamantes Fuerzas armadas (item 2947), Quinteros El Mito del populismo (item 2570), Hurtados Political Power (item 1939), and Cuevas The Process of Domination (item 2246). 2261. Fitch, John Samuel. The Military Cup DEtat as a Political Process: Ecuador, 19481966. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1977. xv, 243 p. A superb analysis of the role of the Armed Forces in national politics, especially in the overthrow of Velasco Ibarra in 1961, of his successor and former Vice President Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy in 1963, and of the downfall of the Junta Militar de Gobierno in 1966. Based largely on interviews with military officers and civilian politicians. Identities have been concealed in some cases at the request of the informants. 2262. Historia, cultura y poltica en el Ecuador, Ivn Carvajal [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: IDIS; Edit. El Conejo, 1988. 163 p. 2263. Historia del Seguro Social Ecuatoriano: la evolucin institucional. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social, 1984. 496 p. 2264. Hurtado, Osvaldo. El proceso poltico, Ecuador hoy (item 2734), p. 166-197. 2265. Larrea Maldonado, Carlos. Transnational Companies and Banana Exports from Ecuador, 1949-1972, NS / Northsouth, 7:14 (1982), 3-42. 2266. Larrea Stacey, Eduardo. Evolucin de la poltica del Banco Central del Ecuador 19271987. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1990. 157 p. (Biblioteca de historia econmica; no. 3) 2267. Las Luchas campesinas, 1950-1983: movilizacin campesina e historia de la FENOC, 1 ed. Quito: Centro de Educacin Popular, 1984. 48 p. Apparently Dalton Burgos was responsible for the text of this popular, heavily illustrated history of the Federacin Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas. 2268. Menndez Carrin, Amparo. La conquista del voto en el Ecuador de Velasco a Rolds: el suburbio guayaquileo en las elecciones presidenciales del Ecuador, 1952-1978, anlisis del comportamiento electoral a nivel local en un contexto de control social. Quito: Corporacin

Editora Nacional; Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, 1986. 556 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 9) A fascinating study by a professionally trained political scientist. Sheds considerable light on lower class participation in the political process and on upper class attempts to control the electoral process. Also available in English as: The 1952-1978 Presidential Elections in Ecuador and Guayaquils Suburbio: a Micro-Analysis of Voting Behavior in a Context of Social Control. 1985. 702 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Johns Hopkins University. 2269. Middleton, Alan. Division and Cohesion in the Working Class: Artisans and Wage Laborers in Ecuador, Journal of Latin American Studies, 14:1 (May 1982), 171-194. A cogent review of the history of labor and of the labor movement in Ecuador from the colonial period through the recent present, with an emphasis on the twentieth century. 2270. Moncada, Jos. La evolucin de la planificacin en el Ecuador, Nueva sociedad (San Jos, Costa Rica), 15 (nov./dic. 1974), 11--27. 2271. Moncayo, Patricio. Evolucin de la estructura del poder en el Ecuador actual ..., Cultura, 2:4 (mayo/ago. 1979), 197-219. 2272. Mora, Alfonso Mara. Ecuador. Quito: Editora Quito, 1963. iv, 272 p. An overview of twentieth-century political and social developments through the early 1960s. 2273. Muoz Rodas, Benigno. Vida, pasin y muerte de los ferrocarriles ecuatorianos. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Vicerectorado Acadmico, 1990. 36 p. 2274. Muoz Vicua, Elas; and Leonardo Vicua Izquierdo. Historia del movimiento obrero del Ecuador: resumen, 3 ed. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1980. 135 p. See also Muoz Vicuas El movimiento obrero ecuatoriano: sus primeros pasos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 74:157/158 (ene./dic. 1991), 116-139. 2275. Naranjo, Plutarco. La I Internacional en Latinoamrica. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1977. 459 p. 2276. Norris, Robert E. Jos Mara Velasco Ibarra: a Charismatic Figure in Ecuadorean Politics, 1934-1961. 1969. 484 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of New Mexico. Interestingly enough, this thesis does not appear to be available through OCLC or through UMI (that is to say, it does not appear in WorldCat or in Dissertation Abstracts Online). 2277. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. La poltica econmica en el Ecuador: una visin histrica. Quito: Publicaciones Tercer Mundo, 1985. 219 p. 2278. Palacios Senz, Carlos. La revolucin agraria: plusvala de distribucin. Guayaquil: Edit. ARA, 1962. 299 p. Includes Manifiesto de ARA, Accin Revolucionaria Agraria and Proyecto de Ley del Instituto de la Revolucin Agraria. 2279. Paz y Mio Cepeda, Juan J. La CEDOC en la historia del movimiento obrero ecuatoriano: 50 aos de lucha, 1938-1988, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Voluntad, 1988. 92 p.

2280. Pinoargote Cevallos, Alfredo. La repblica de papel, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Artes Grficas Senefedler, 1982. 403 p. 2281. La Planificacin en el Ecuador, estudio introductorio y seleccin de Leonardo Vicua Izquierdo. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1987. 665 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 27) An anthology of excerpts from official studies of planning in Ecuador, selections from development plans spanning the years 1934 through 1984, and essays on development planning in Ecuador. See also the Junta Nacional de Planificacins 25 aos de planificacin (Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin, 1979). 2282. El Populismo en el Ecuador: antologa de textos, recopilacin de Felipe Burbano y Carlos de la Torre Espinosa. Quito: ILDIS, 1989. 476 p. An anthology of materials originally published between 1930 and 1988, on Velasquismo. 2283. Prensa alternativa: hojas volantes, 1934-1964. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Comunicacin Social, 1984. 99 p. 2284. Ramrez Dueas, Violeta. Sntesis de la historia del servicio social en el Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1948. 79 p. 2285. Robalino Bolle, Isabel. El sindicalismo en el Ecuador, 2 ed. Quito: INEDES: CONUEP: PUCE, Ediciones de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador 1992. 273 p. A basic reference on the history of labor organizations in the country. 2286. Rump, Kay. Problem der Monokultur: dargestellt am Beispiel der Bananenwirtschaft Ecuadors. Gottingen: O. Schwartz, 1969. 174 p. 2287. Saad, Pedro. La CTE y su papel histrico, 3 ed. Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad, 1979. 62 p. History of the Confederacin de Trabajadores del Ecuador. 2288. Salgado, Germanico. La economa del Ecuador en los ltimos setenta aos, 1906-1976. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1978. p. 103-145. Published together with Crnica comercial e industrial de Guayaquil. (item 6751). 2289. Salgado, Germanico. Lo que fuimos y lo que somos, Ecuador hoy (item 2734), p. 1958. 2290. Salvador, Galo. La Junta Nacional de Planificacin y el desarrollo socio-econmico del Ecuador: 20 aos. Quito: Asociacin de Empleados de la Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, [1974?]. 48 leaves. 2291. Samaniego Ponce, Jos. Crisis econmica del Ecuador: anlisis comparativo de dos perodos histricos (1929-1933)- (1980-1984). Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. 243 p. (Biblioteca de historia econmica; 2) 2292. Temas obreros, Elias Muoz Vicua [editor]. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1986. 276 p.

2293. Velasco Ibarra, Jos Mara. Obras completas, edited by Juan F. Velasco Espinosa, 2 ed. Quito: Impr. y Eds. Lexigrama, 1973-1975. 15 v. Includes selected speeches and other materials from each of his terms of office, 1934-35, 194447, 1952-56, 1960-61, 1968-72. 2294. Velasco Ibarra, Jos Mara. Pensamiento poltico, estudio introductorio y seleccin, Enrique Ayala Mora. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1997. 527 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 38) 2295. Vera Arrata, Alfredo. Historia de un triste banano. Guayaquil: Impr. Abad, 1972. 79 p. 2296. Verdesoto C., Luis. Certezas e incertidumbres en la poltica ecuatoriana. Quito: CIUDAD, 1990. 497 p. 2297. Ycaza, Patricio. Historia del movimiento obrero ecuatoriano, 2 ed. rev. Quito: Centro de Documentacin e Informacin de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador, 1984-1991. 2 v. Vol. 2 published conjointly by Centro de Investigaciones de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador (CEDIME) and by Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD. Just to confuse matters, vol. 2 is a 1 ed. The first ed. of vol. 1 was published by the Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana in 1983. A solid, well documented history of the working class movement, notwithstanding the authors Marxist approach. Contents: vol. 1, De su gnesis al Frente Popular; vol. 2, De la influencia de la tctica del Frente Popular a las luchas del FUT. 2298. Zuvekas, Clarence, Jr. Economic Planning in Ecuador: An Evaluation, Inter-American Economic Affairs, 25:4 (Spring 1972), 39-69. Evaluates economic planning at the national level since the 1930s.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

1895-1960 2299. El 4 de mayo de 1897 y los RR.PP. jesuitas residentes en Riobamba. Riobamba: [s.n.], 1898. ix, 58 p. 2300. El 15 de noviembre de 1922 y la fundacin del socialismo, relatados por sus protagonistas Manuel Donoso Armas [et al.]; estudio y edicin de Vicente Plit. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; INFOC, 1982. 2 v. A set of primary sources for the study of the 15 de noviembre and the early history of Socialism in Ecuador. Consists of systematic testimonies drawn from oral interviews. 2301. El 28 de mayo, balance de una revolucin popular: documentos para la historia. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1946. xxxvi, 622 p. An important compendium of official sources. Issued by the Oficina de Informacin y Propaganda. 2302. El 28 de mayo de 1944: testimonio. Guayaquil: Litogr. e Impr. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1984. 271 p. Publishes nineteen eyewitness accounts of the overthrow of Arroyo del Ro and the return to power of Velasco Ibarra. 2303. El 28 de mayo de 1944 y fundacin de la CTE, Osvaldo Albornoz Peralta [et al.]. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; INFOC, 1984. 224 p. 2304. A la nacin: documentos. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1912. 50 p. 2305. La Administracin del Sr. Dr. Dn. Jos Luis Tamayo juzgada desde el origen de su candidatura. Quito: Impr. Edit. Quito, 1924. 54 p. 2306. Aguirre, Manuel Agustn. El marxismo, la revolucin y los partidos socialista y comunista en el Ecuador, Carlos Marx homenaje (Cuenca: Tall. del IDIS, 1983), p. 1-66. 2307. Aguirre, Manuel Agustn. El Partido Socialista en la revolucin del 28 de mayo. Quito: Partido Socialista, Departamento de Publicaciones, 1945. 44 p. 2308. Alarcn Falcon, Ruperto. Para la historia: el Congreso de 1949 y mi destitucin del cargo de Controlador General de la Nacin. Quito: Edit. Fr. Jodoco Ricke, 1949. 116 p. 2309. Albornoz Peralta, Oswaldo. Del crimen de El Ejido a la revolucin del 9 de julio de 1925. Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad, 1971. 163 p.

The author, a Marxist Leninist, holds the United States responsible for everything that went wrong in Ecuador between 1912 and 1925, beginning with the assassination of Alfaro in 1911. Reprinted several times. 2310. Albornoz Peralta, Oswaldo. Ecuador, luces y sombras del liberalismo, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones El Duende, 1989. 196 p. Items 2309 and 2310 are egregious examples of some of what is wrong with late twentiethcentury historiography of Ecuador, crude analysis of political events and developments based on blind acceptance of the Marxist and/or Marxist-Leninist paradigm. These two works are important, however, because of Albornoz Peraltas seminal influence on many national scholars of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. 2311. Alfaro, Eloy. Historia del ferrocarril de Guayaquil a Quito: pginas de verdad. Quito: Edit. Nariz del Diablo, 1931. 96 p. 2312. Alfaro, Eloy. Narraciones histricas, estudio introductorio, Malcolm Deas. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1983. 442 p. Includes correspondence from 1901-1904, and a section on the presidential elections of 1901. Originally published posthumously by Alfaros nephew Olmedo: New York, 1913. 2 v. 2313. Alfaro, Eloy. Obras escogidas. Guayaquil: Ediciones Viento del Pueblo, 1959. 2 v. A collection of Alfaros correspondence and official writings covering the years 1882-1912. Vol. 1 (p. 223-782) includes Nicols Augusto Gonzlez, El asesinato del gran Mariscal de Ayacucho: ndice de un libro, 2 ed. (Quito, 1906), both editions of which Alfaro financed. 2314. Alfaro, Olmedo. El asesinato de Alfaro ante la historia y la civilizacin, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Edit. Jouvin, 1938. iv, 252 p. Originally published: Panam: Tip. Diario de Panam, 1912. vii, 292 p. The author blames the partisans of Emilio Estrada in general and Carlos Freile Zaldumbide in particular for his uncles lynching. 2315. Almeida, Rebeca. Kemmerer en el Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: FLACSO Sede Ecuador, 1994. 211 p. 2316. Almeida Vinueza, Jos. Luchas campesinas del siglo XX (primera parte), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 10, p. 163-186. A working paper on peasant uprisings, movements, and organization from 1900 through 1961. See also item 2636. 2317. Alvarado Garaicoa, Teodoro. Exposicin necesaria. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Sociedad Filantrpica, 1938. 27 p. A defense of his conduct como Secretario de la Jefatura Suprema de la Repblica. 2318. Alvares, Juan C. Breves apuntes de las campaas y acciones de guerra a que ha ocurrido el Sr. Coronel Juan C. Alvares. Quito: Impr. Popular, 1906. 27 p. 2319. Anlisis sobre la cuestin eleccionaria de 1900-1901. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo,

1900. 32 p. 2320. Andrade, Carlos. Notas histricas. Quito: Impr. de El Tiempo, 1900. 32 p. 2321. Andrade, Manuel de Jess. Pginas de sangre, o, Los asesinatos de Quito: el 28 de enero de 1912. Panam: Tip. Diario de Panam, 1912. ii, 120 p. 2322. Andrade, Roberto. Campaa de 20 das: (estudios histricos). Quito: Tip. de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1908. vi, 277 p. A first hand account of Alfaros overthrow of Lizardo Garca and of Alfaros return to power in 1905. 2323. Andrade, Roberto. Sangre! quin la derram?: (historia de los ltimos crmenes cometidos en la nacin del Ecuador). Quito: Impr. Antigua de El Quiteo Libre, 1912. 219 p. Blames Plaza, Freile Zaldumbide, Daz, Navarro, Intriago, and Sierra, among others, for the assassinations of Alfaro in Quito and of Julio Andrade in Guayaquil. 2324. Andrade Coello, Alejandro. La ley del progreso: El Ecuador en los ltimos quince aos. Quito: Casa Edit. de J.I. Glvez, 1910. 64 p. 2325. Andrade Coello, Alejandro. Plaza. Quito: Impr. Jaramillo, 1905. 31 p. 2326. Antinazismo en Ecuador, aos 1941-1944: autobiografa del movimiento antinazi de Ecuador (MPAE-MAE), Raymond Meriguet Coussegal, 1 ed. Quito: R. Mergituet Coussegal, 1988. 415 p. Consists chiefly of photofacsimiles of the war years periodical Antinazi. 2327. Arcos, Carlos G. El espritu del progreso: los hacendados del Ecuador del 900, Cultura: 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 107-134. A preliminary study of the first years of the Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura. Reprinted in item 2239. 2328. Arcos, Gualberto. Aos de oprobio. Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1940. 303 p. A chronicle of the 1930s. 2329. Arvalo, Emilio. Artculos varios. Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad, [1972?]. 132 p. 2330. Arvalo, Emilio. La cooperativa y el alza del cacao en 1912, Cultura, 2:4 (mayo/ago. 1979), 261-290. Also reprinted in item 2351. Arvalo (1859-1915) was a cuencano, a lawyer, and a member of the Liberal Party. In this article, he examines the true causes of the depressed prices for cacao between 1907 and 1911. 2331. Aristizbal, Miguel. Somatn: artculos escogidos de El Pichincha: primer diario radical publicado en Quito en 1895-1896. Quito: Impr. de El Pichincha, 1896. lvii, 951, 6 p. An eyewitness account of coeval events. 2332. Arzaga, Rafael Mara. Escritos polticos y literarios, prlogo de Manuel Elicio Flor.

Cuenca: Edit. Don Bosco, 1962. 200 p. An anthology of the authors essays on various aspects of the politics and government, international relations, and political economy of the country. Originally published between 1897 and 1930. 2333. Armendaris, Luis A. Grmpola de combate: apuntaciones histricas que ponen al desnudo las dos ltimas dictaduras del Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Tribuna, 1939. 179 p. 2334. Arroyo del Ro, Carlos Alberto. Bajo el imperio del odio: (las sanciones en el Ecuador). Bogot: Edit. El Grfico, 1946. 2 v. Memoirs of reprisals ousted President Arroyo del Ro and members of his administration suffered at the hands of the second Velasco Ibarra government. 2335. Arroyo del Ro, Carlos Alberto. Documentos para la historia. Bogot: Edit. Grfico, 1948. 101 p. Regarding Arroyo del Ros efforts to recover his properties (confiscated and embargoed by the administration of Velasco Ibarra in 1944). 2336. Arroyo del Ro, Carlos Alberto. En plena vorgine: (etapa trgico-cmica). Bogot: El Grfico, 1946. 2 v. Attacks the second presidency of Velasco Ibarra. 2337. Arroyo del Ro, Carlos Alberto. Intereses polticos: coleccin de artculos publicados en la prensa de Guayaquil para el debido esclarecimiento de ciertos acontecimientos de la poltica ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Janer, 1926. 36 p. 2338. La Asamblea Liberal ante la historia, [Manuel B. Cueva et. al.] Quito: Impr. de El Tiempo, 1905. 120 p. The partisans of Alfaro against those of Plaza and Garca. 2339. El Asesinato del Sr. general Dn. Eloy Alfaro. Panam: Tip. Moderna, 1912. 3 v. in 1. Contents: vol. 1, Manifiesto a la opinin pblica; vol. 2, El Asesinato ... y el manifiesto A la nacin del Gobierno del Ecuador ; vol. 3, Documentos y comentarios. 2340. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Cacao, capitalismo y revolucin liberal, Cultura, 5:13 (mayo/ago. 1982), 91-125. Chap. 2 of the authors doctoral dissertation, The Liberal Revolution in Ecuador, 1895-1912. 2341. Ayala Mora, Enrique. De la revolucin alfarista al rgimen oligrquico liberal, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 9, p. 117-165. An excellent introduction to the politics and political economy of the years dominated by the Liberals (1895-1925) by an Oxford trained scholar. 2342. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Historia de la revolucin liberal ecuatoriana. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1994. 414 p. A solidly researched, comprehensive study of the Eloy Alfaro years and the Liberal Revolution

that has already begun to revolutionize the historiography of the period; see the Debate sobre la Historia de la revolucin liberal ecuatoriana, Procesos, 7 (I sem. 1995), 105-130, with contributions by Guillermo Bustos, Juan J. Paz y Mio Cepeda, Willington Paredes Ramrez, and Pablo Ospina. A revised version of Ayalas doctoral dissertation: The Liberal Revolution in Ecuador, 1895-1912. 1981. St. Anthonys College, Oxford University. 2343. Banco de Pichincha. Exposicin que hace el Banco de Pichincha a la Comisin del profesor Kemmerer y al pueblo ecuatoriano. Quito: Tall. de El Da, [1926?]. 103 p. 2344. Baquero C., Jos Antonio. Causas de la depreciacin monetaria en el Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 63:308 (ene./jun. 1940), 35-136; 63:309 (jul./sept. 1940), 387-390; 63:310 (oct./dic. 1940), 599-646; 65:311 (ene./jun. 1941), 107-138. 2345. Barrera, Jos Ricardo. Descalificacin presidencial: el Congreso de 1932. Quito: Tall. Grf. Minerva, 1950. 314 p. Pro-Neptal Bonifaz. 2346. Blanksten, George I. Ecuador, Constitutions and Caudillos. New York: Russell & Russell, 1964. xii, 196 p. Reprint; originally published: Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951. Based on authors doctoral dissertation (item 1913). 2347. Borrero, Manuel Mara. El coronel Antonio Vega Muoz y su ltima campaa militar. Cuenca: Edit. Austral, 1957. 329 p. Pro-Alfaro. 2348. Bueno, Luis Eduardo. El mes trgico: compilacin de documentos para la historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. Valdez, 1916. 311 p. Examines the rebellion of Pedro Montero and the lynching of Alfaro. 2349. Bustos, Guillermo. La identidad clase obrera a revisin: una lectura sobre las representaciones del Congreso Obrero de Ambato de 1938, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 2 (I sem. 1992), 73-104. A relatively sophisticated study of the working class of the early 1900s. Perhaps the most impressive aspect of this study is that Bustos endeavors to define the working class as it was rather than how it has been perceived ideologically. 2350. Bustos, Javier H. Campaa contra el Liberalismo desde 1895: concurrencia del centro, Dios y patria (Riobamba), 3:10 (abr. 1926), 205-215; 3:11 (jul. 1926), 299-317; 3:12 (oct. 1926), 359-364; 5:17 (ene. 1928), 27-45; 6:22 (abr. 1929), 113-117; 6:23 (jul. 1929), 183-137; 6:24 (oct. 1929), 188-194. 2351. El Cacao, Emilio Arvalo [et al.]. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1981. 222 p. Reprints several coeval essays and reports on economic conditions in the early-twentieth century, especially on the production and export of cacao. Includes: Emilio Arvalo, La cooperativa y el alza del cacao (1913); and Vctor Emilio Estrada, Ensayo sobre la balanza econmica del

Ecuador (1922). See also items 2329 and 2330. 2352. Cabrera, Luis G. Sumario instruido por el Fiscal General Militar de la Repblica, para establecer lo que hubiere de verdad en los denuncios y cargos formulados por el peridico El Guante, de Guayaquil, contra la conducta funcionaria de ... Luis Cabrera. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin del Estado Mayor General, 1913. 140 p. 2353. Calle, Ezequiel. Cartas polticas al General Eloy Alfaro, jefe supremo de la Repblica. Cuenca: Impr. J.M. Montesinos, 1896. 75 p. Unsolicited political advise from a Conservative and therefore an adversary. 2354. Calle, Manuel J. Charlas de Ernesto Mora, 3 ed. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1982. 2 v. An anthology of newspaper articles published in El Guante (Guayaquil) and other newspapers between 1911 and 1918 under authors nom de plume. 2355. Calle, Manuel J. Cuestin del da: algunas palabras sobre el Partido Conservador Ecuatoriano. Quito: Tip. de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1897. 20 p. 2356. Calle, Manuel J. Cuestiones del da: breve resumen de algunos asuntos de actualidad poltica. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1904. x, 238 p. 2357. Calle, Manuel J. Historia de un crimen. Quito: Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1897. 32 p. Regarding the execution of Luis Vargas Torres. 2358. Calle, Manuel J. Manuel J. Calle (Ernesto Mora): epistolario, prlogo y compilacin del Prof. Vctor Manuel Quesada. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1989. 202 p. 2359. Calle, Manuel J. Seores y amigos!, cuatro palabras al Partido Liberal Ecuatoriano: editoriales de El Diario, publicacin quitea. Quito: Impr. de El Diario, 1901. x, 47 p. 2360. Campaa, Anbal. 25 aos de vida del Seguro Social Ecuatoriano, Boletn del Instituto Nacional de Previsin, 90/91 (jul./dic. 1960), 22-32. 2361. Campaa, Anbal. Gnesis del Seguro Social Ecuatoriano y su evolucin, Revista del Instituto de Derecho del Trabajo y de Investigaciones Sociales, 1 (ene./jun. 1961), 93-101. 2362. Campaa, Anbal. El Seguro Social en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Caja del Seguro, 1954. 192 p. 2363. La Campaa de siete das: ataque a la Bolvar, combate de cuatro das, entrada de los invasores, narracin de testigos presenciales. Quito: Impreso por M.C. Gmez R., 1933. 102 p. 2364. Las Candidaturas de los seores doctores Jos Luis Tamayo y Gonzalo S. Crdova a la presidencia de la repblica: voto de un elector. Quito: Impr. de El Liberal, 1919. 16 p. 2365. Carbo, Luis Alberto. Historia monetaria y cambiaria del Ecuador desde la poca colonial. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1978. 675 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1953. A pioneering and still

basic work. Notwithstanding the title, almost entirely given over to post-1895 developments. 2366. Crdenas, Jos Corsino. La economa y los problemas del desarrollo en el Ecuador, Revista de derecho social ecuatoriano, 4/5 (ene./jun. 1953), 119-151. 2367. Crdenas de Bustamante, Hipatia. Encuesta: Que debe hacer el Ecuador para librarse de las dictaduras? Quito: Litografa e Impr. Romero, 1939. 189 p. 2368. La Carretera Rumichaca-Babahoyo: historia. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1928. 128 p. 2369. Carrillo, Gonzalo. Ajedrez y poltica universitaria: el a.b.c. de la juventud rebelde. Quito: Impr. 28 de Mayo, [1944?]. 160 p. 2370. Castro Medina, Manuel. Para la historia nacional de la codicia. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1992. 168 p. A social and economic as well as political and ideological study of the Liberal period. Not a complete or integral history but one, nonetheless, replete with insights on the bourgeoisie of the coast, large landowners throughout the country, the Catholic Church, and the state. 2371. Clark, A. Kim. Indians, the State and Law: Public Works and the Struggle to Control Labor in Liberal Ecuador, Journal of Historical Sociology, 7:1 (Mar. 1994), 49-72. 2372. Coello, Federico. Para el pueblo. Guayaquil: Impr. Gutenberg de Emilio A. Uzctegui, 1934. 87 p. 2373. Colomba Silva, Enrique. Aspectos generales de la poltica petrolera ecuatoriana, Boletn del Instituto Sudamericano de Petrleo, 2:1 (ago. 1945), 59-76. 2374. Concha Enrquez, Pedro. Realidad: crtica a la poltica contempornea del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1940. 131 p. 2375. Concha Enrquez, Pedro. Sancin 1941-1942: trgica etapa gubernamental ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1945. 200 p. Anti-Arroyo del Ro. 2376. Crdova, Andrs F. El problema vial del Ecuador. Cuenca: Edit. El Mercurio, 1944. 73 p. 2377. Crdova, Andrs F. La vida poltica ecuatoriana a travs de la Constitucin dcima tercera, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 8:32 (jul. 1938), 369-385. Analyzes the Constitution of 1929, the Congress of 1930, and the fall of Ayora in 1931. 2378. Crawford de Roberts, Lois. El Ecuador en la poca cacaotera: respuestas locales al auge y colapso en el ciclo monoexportador. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1980. 276 p. Publishes the authors doctoral dissertation (presented under a different name, Lois Johnson Weinman): Ecuador and Cacao: Domestic Response to the Boom-Collapse Monoexport Cycle. 1970. xi, 384 leaves. University of California, Los Angeles. A study of the politics and economics of the country at large, not just of the central-south coast, between 1890 and 1925. Based on interviews as well as some archival research and published materials.

2379. Crespo Ordez, Roberto. Historia del Ferrocarril del Sur. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1933. xvi, 273, ii p. 2380. Crespo Toral, Jorge. El comunismo en el Ecuador. Quito: Librera Cultura, 1958. 62 p. 2381. Crisis y cambios de la economa ecuatoriana en los aos veinte: ensayos conmemorativos por los sesenta aos de fundacin del Banco Central del Ecuador, Carlos Marchn Romero, compilador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1987. 553 p. 2382. El Cuerpo diplomtico y la guerra de los cuatro das, ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 41-56. Publishes the 1932 dispatches of William Dawson, the ambassador of the United States in Quito, regarding the War of the Four Days. Includes an introductory note by Robert E. Norris. 2383. Cueva, Agustn. El Ecuador de 1925 a 1960, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 10, p. 87-121. A regurgitation of the item 2243. Also incorporates sections from Cuevas El Ecuador en los aos treinta, Amrica Latina en los aos treinta, Luis Antezana [et al.] (Mxico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, 1977), p. 214-238, and his El proceso de dominacin poltica (item 2246). Important not as historical synthesis because Cuevas work suffers from ideological blinders, but as an example of how Ecuadorian Marxists interpret their recent past. Continued by item 2698. 2385. Cueva Silva, Jaime. Las finanzas pblicas del Ecuador. Quito: [s.n.], 1960. 246 p. 2386. Cunningham, Charles Henry. Economic and Financial Conditions in Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1931. ii, 40 p. (Trade Information Bulletin, U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce; 773) 2387. Chves, Angel Polibio. Libro de recortes. Ambato: Impr. Escolar, 1929. vii, 472 p. An anthology of newspaper articles on political events and literary developments by an Army officer. 2388. Chiriboga, Manuel. Auge cacaotero y economa regional: la costa ecuatoriana a inicios del siglo XX, Estados y naciones en los Andes, hacia una historia comparativa: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Per, J.P. Deler y Y. Saint-Geours, compiladores (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos; Instituto Francs de Estudios Andinos, 1986), vol. 1, p. 293-315. Concerned with concomitant developments in the highlands as well. See also the Debate sobre la ponencia de: Manuel Chiriboga ..., ibid., p. 317-322, with comments by Manuel Burga, Jean Piel, Germn Colmenares, Rafael Quintero, Jean-Paul Deler, and replies by Chiriboga. 2389. Chiriboga, Manuel. Auge y crisis de una economa agroexportadora: el perodo cacaotero, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 9, p. 55-115. A solid essay on the the cacao boom and bust of 1880-1919. (See also items 2388 and 5940.) Chronologically and thematically continued by item 2507.

2390. Chiriboga, Manuel. Emergencia y consolidacin de la burguesa agro-exportadora en el Ecuador durante el perodo cacatero, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 3:10/11 (1979), 29-57. See also item 5938. 2391. Chiriboga Ordez, Leonardo. Sepultureros de la patria: enjuiciamiento de las responsabilidades. Quito: [s.n.], 1945. 250 p. At head of titles: Para la historia del desastre nacional de 1941. Blames Arroyo del Ro for the 1941 loss of territory to Peru. 2392. Da Ros, Giuseppina. Orgenes del cooperativismo agrcola en el Ecuador, Cultura, 8:23 (set./dic. 1985), 259-279. 2393. Dvila, Aurelio. El 25 de abril de 1907: recuerdos histricos. Guayaquil: Impr. Popular, 1909. ii, 174 p. Memoirs of the student and worker protests of the rigged elections of 1907, and of the Apr. 25 slaughter of universitarios y obreros. 2394. De la Torre Espinosa, Carlos. La seduccin velasquista. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern; FLACSO-Sede Ecuador, 1993. 261 p. A well documented, methodologically sophisticated, exceptionally insightful study of the first and second Velasquismo. Based on the authors doctoral dissertation. 2395. De la Torre Espinosa, Carlos. Velasco Ibarra and La Revolucin Gloriosa: the Social Production of a Populist Leader in Ecuador in the 1940s, Journal of Latin American Studies, 26:3 (Nov. 1994), 683-711. Utilizes discourse analysis to explain how Velasco Ibarra was able to become the central political figure of the country in the mid-1940s. Also takes into account the economic, political, and social circumstances of the times. See also De la Torre Espinosas El Velasquismo: democracia y poltica de masas en el Ecuador de los aos 40, in El populismo en Espaa y Amrica, Jos Alvarez Junco, Ricardo Gonzlez Leandri, compiladores (Madrid: Edit. Catriel, 1994), p. 215-231. 2396. Deas, Malcolm. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, c. 1880-1930, Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell, vol. 5 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 641-682, 863-870. Includes a succinct but knowledgeable review of the historiography of the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century. See also item 56. 2397. Debates sobre la inconvertibilidad del sucre en el Directorio del Banco Central en 1932, estudio introductorio a cargo de Fernando Rodrguez Landvar, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 99-166. Publishes the discussions held by the Board of Directors of the Banco Central over the executive decrees of 8 Feb. 1932, suspending the conversion of the sucre to gold and the loan of 15,000,000 sucres to the government. 2398. Del Campo, Esteban. El populismo en Ecuador, Ecuador hoy (item 2734), p. 198-237.

2399. Daz, Octavio. Explicacin necesaria. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1911. 10 p. Regarding the lynching of Alfaro. 2400. Daz, Octavio. Los sucesos del 28 de enero de 1912: basta de silencio. Cuenca: Veintimilla, 1918. 8 p. 2401. Daz, Octavio. Los sucesos del 28 de enero de 1912: mi defensa ante la nacin. Cuenca: Veintimilla, 1916. 47 p. Items 2400 and 2401 are also available as: Los sucesos del 2 de enero de 1912: mi defensa. Cuenca: Manuel J. Vintimilla, 1918. 8, 47 p. 2402. Dillon, Luis Napolen. La crisis econmico-financiera del Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Artes Grficas, 1927. xii, 309 p. Written to inform the Kemmerer Mission of the true problems of the economy. Dillon, one of the promoters of the July Revolution, blamed private banks and previous governments for the crisis of 1917-1925. Includes supplementary material such as the 1925 report by Ernesto Molestina O., James Birch Rorer, and Luis A. Martnez to the Minister of Hacienda regarding the state of cacao haciendas in the region of Balao. 2403. Documentos: a la nacin. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1912. 50 p. Regarding the lynching of Alfaro. 2404. Drake, Paul W. La Misin Kemmerer en el Ecuador: revolucin y regionalismo, Cultura, 8:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 211-276. A detailed, objective, and scholarly study of the attempt by the July revolutionaries and President Ayora to reestablish the political supremacy of the central government and therefore of Quito over the banking and commercial elite of Guayaquil and to bring the country as a whole into the twentieth century and up to the level of the United States and Western Europe through the introduction of modern and therefore sound banking and fiscal policies. 2405. Drake, Paul W. The Money Doctor in the Andes: The Kemmerer Missions, 1923-1933. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989. 335 p. Also published in Spanish as Kemmerer en los Andes. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1995. 423 p. (Biblioteca de historia econmica; 5) See esp. chap. 4, Revolution and Regionalism in Ecuador, 1925-1933 (p. 125-174 and 298-307), the English version of item 2404. 2406. Durn Barba, Jaime. Orgenes del movimiento obrero artesanal, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 9, p. 167-204. A data rich account of the early history of the labor movement, from its beginnings in 1892 through the mid-1920s. An excellent prcis. Continued by item 2544. 2407. Ecuador. Asamblea Nacional (1928-1929). Diario de debates. Quito: Tall. Tip. Nacionales, 1929-1930. 3 v. 2408. Ecuador. Congreso. Cmara del Senado. Diez aos de labor legislativa, 1951-1960. Quito: El Congreso, 1961. 2 v.

2409. Ecuador. Junta de Gobierno Nacional (1925-1926). Documentos relacionados con la transformacin poltica-militar del 9 de julio de 1925. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1925. 134 p. 2410. Ecuador. President (1926-1931 : Ayora). Mensaje del presidente provisional de la Repblica a la Asamblea Nacional. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1928. 54 p. 2411. Ecuador. President (1934-1935: Velasco Ibarra). Un momento de transicin poltica. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1935. 311 p. A set of primary sources on the first administration of Velasco Ibarra. 2412. Ecuador. President (1937-1938: Enrquez Gallo). Para la historia. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1938. 106 p. Consists of documents demonstrating that the administration of General Enrquez enjoyed popular support. 2413. Ecuador. President (1944-1947: Velasco Ibarra). El 30 de marzo de 1946: actividades actuales del gobierno del 28 de mayo. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1947. 104 p. 2414. Ecuador. President (1944-1947: Velasco Ibarra). Los sucesos del 30 de marzo de 1946: documentos. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1946. 2 v. 2415. Ecuador. President (1948-1952: Plaza Laso). El gobierno del Sr. Galo Plaza, presidente constitucional del Ecuador para el periodo de 1948-1952. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1948. 120 p. 2416. Ecuador. President (1952-1956: Velasco Ibarra). Un paso en firme: seis meses de administracin del Dr. Jos Mara Velasco Ibarra. Quito: Tall. Grf. nacionales, 1953. 127 p. 2417. Ecuador. President (1956-1960: Ponce Enrquez). Programa y realizacin de gobierno. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1959-1960. 4 v. 2418. Elizalde, Rafael Hector. Intereses nacionales: necesidad de organizar los partidos polticos en el Ecuador. Santiago: Impr. Franco-Chilena, 1913. 42 p. 2419. Endara, Carlos Honorato. Desde el mirador de Amrica: la dictadura y la patria nueva. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1936. 45 p. 2420. Espinosa Plit, Aurelio. Apuntes de historia contempornea. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1948. 77 p. 2421. Estado, nacin y cultura: los proyectos histricos en el Ecuador, Adrin Carrasco V., Mara Augusta Vintimilla, Cecilia Surez; colaboradores, Pablo Estrella V., Tarquino Orellana, Edgar Cevallos, ed. nica. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1988. 375 p. Part of the Project Nacin, Estado Nacional y Cultura Nacional en el Ecuador, 1895-1944, sponsored by the Institute of Social Research of the University of Cuenca. 2422. Estrada, Emilio. Historia: revolucin de enero de 1906. Guayaquil: [s.n.], 1906. 10 p. 2423. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. Un captulo real de la historia nacional, o, El trmino de una regencia. Guayaquil: Edit. Cervantes, 1951. 35 p.

A defense of Carlos Freile Zaldumbide and of his father Emilio Estrada against Olmedo Alfaros charges that they were responsible for the assassination of Eloy Alfaro (see item 2314). 2424. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. La crisis de los cambios en el Ecuador: contribucin al estudio de sus causas. Guayaquil: Litografa e Impr. La Reforma, 1924. 34 p. 2425. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. El desastre monetario del Ecuador: causas y culpables. Guayaquil: Litografa e Impr. La Reforma, 1940. 43 p. 2426. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. La evolucin de la teora monetaria y del crdito, en sus aspectos relativos a la depreciacin del circulante. Guayaquil: Impr. La Reforma, 1925. 25 p. 2427. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. Informe al Sr. Ministro de Hacienda, para conocimiento del Sr. Presidente de la Repblica y del pas en general. Guayaquil: Edit. Jouvin, 1923. 107 p. 2428. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. El momento econmico en el Ecuador; Procurando hacer pas; La Tragedia monetaria pasada y la futura: sus casusas, sus narcticos y sus remedios. Guayaquil: Litografa e Impr. La Reforma, 1950. 86 p. 2429. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. Moneda y bancos en el Ecuador, estudio introductorio, Ren Benalczar; nota preliminar y revisin del original, Julio Estrada Ycaza. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1982. 412 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 17) Reprint; originally published: Quito, 1925. A major study of the fiscal crisis that began in 1914. Also an important source for understanding the political economy of the times inasmuch as Victor Emilio was a maker as well as a writer of history. 2430. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. Para la historia: mayo 28-septiembre 3 de 1944. Guayaquil: Artes Grf. Senefelder, 1945. 72 p. Justifies the authors participation in the overthrow of Arroyo del Ro and the return to power of Velasco Ibarra. 2431. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. La poltica econmica desde la revolucin juliana. Guayaquil: Edit. Cervantes, 1928. 70 p. 2432. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. El problema econmico del Ecuador en 1934: algunos fundamentos para su solucin. Guayaquil: Litografa e Impr. La Reforma, 1934. 2 v. Also available in reprint: Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1982. 2 v. 2433. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. El problema vital del Ecuador: fuertes o esclavos, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1982. 89 p. 2434. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. Una propuesta de poltica econmica ante la posibilidad de ocupara la cartera de hacienda en el gabinete de Neptal Bonifaz A. (1932), Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:5 (1989), 231-252. 2435. Estrada, Vctor Emilio. La tragedia monetaria del Ecuador: la construccin y destruccin del Banco Central en 1938. Guayaquil: Artes. Grf. Senefelder, 1940. 311 p.

2436. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. La campaa de Esmeraldas, 1913-1916, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 9:17 (jun. 1980), 5-125. 2437. La Evolucin poltica del 11 de agosto de 1911: relato de sus autores [Leonardo Narvez et. al.]. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1911. 25 p. 2438. Falcon, Luis Alberto. Lucas Noespinto vuelve a la carga. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1997. 620 p. Consists of newspaper articles of the 1920 and 1930s, by the riobambeo journalist Luis Alberto Falcon (1895-1941), who published under the pseudonym Lucas Noespinto. This anthology, taken from the pages of El Comercio and El Da in Quito and El Universo in Guayaquil, comments upon and illuminates many aspects and personages of the early twentieth century. 2439. El Ferrocarril de Guayaquil a Quito: contratos y otros documentos importantes, 18971911. Quito: Tall. de El Comercio, 1912. 451 p. 2440. El Ferrocarril de Riobamba y la revolucin del 1 de enero de 1906. Riobamba: Impr. Municipal, 1906. 61 p. Signed: Un riobambeo. 2441. Fischer, Sabine. Crisis mundial, poltica econmica y el sector manufacturero: algunas consideraciones en torno al desarrollo industrial en el Ecuador durante los aos 30, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 5:15/16 (1984), 139-157. 2442. Fischer, Sabine. Estado, clase e industria: la emergencia del capitalismo ecuatoriano y los intereses azucareros. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1983. 265 p. A study of the sugar industry and interests in the first half of the twentieth century. 2443. Franco, Ernesto. Conferencia poltica sobre la crisis econmica y fiscal. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1931. 29 p. 2444. Franco, Ernesto. La crisis econmica actual y sus causas. Quito: Impr. de El Comercio, 1910. 35 p. 2445. Franco, Ernesto. Inundacin de papeles inconvertibles. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1923. 19 p. Published under pseudonym: Focke. 2446. Franco, Ernesto. Nuestra crisis econmica: sus causas y remedios. Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1931. 64 p. 2447. Franco, Gustavo; and Palemn Custode. Historia del rgimen cambiario en el Ecuador, Economa ecuatoriana (Mxico, D.F.: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1960), p. 95-107. 2448. Fulvio. Ferrocarril de Alfaro. Cuenca: Impr. de F. Vintimilla, 1897. 35 p. Attacks the contract signed with Archer Harman. 2449. Garcs, Enrique. Bajo una lluvia de balas: los cuadros trgicos en el Hospital Civil.

Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1933. 46 p. An eye witness account of the War of Four Days (1932). 2450. Garca, Lenidas. Dos captulos de historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1961. 182 p. An analysis of the Liberal campaign of 1895 and of the events leading up to the Revolution of that year by a doctrinaire Liberal. 2451. Garca, Lenidas. Ideologa de la transformacin del 9 de julio. Quito: Tall. Tip. Nacionales, 1925. 33 p. At head of title: Conferencia. 2452. Garca, Lenidas. El presidente Alfaro y el 25 de abril de 1907. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1955. 31 p. 2453. Garca Ortiz, Humberto. La forma nacional: ensayo de una sociologa de la nacin ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1942. 384 p. 2454. Girn, Sergo Enrique. La revolucin de mayo. Quito: Edit. Atahualpa, 1945. 426 p. An account of La Gloriosa by a participant. 2455. Gonzlez Pez, Miguel Angel. Memorias histricas: gnesis del liberalismo, su triunfo y sus obras en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1934. viii, 638 p. 2456. Gonzlez V., Jorge Enrique. A donde va el Ecuador? Guayaquil: [s.n.], 1939. xxviii, 125 p. 2457. Guerra Bravo, Samuel. Introduccin al documento sobre el arrastre de los Alfaro, Cultura, 4:11 (sept./dic. 1981), 375-412. 2458. Guerrero, Rafael; and Erika Silva. La crisis nacional general de 1895, Cultura, 4:11 (sept./dic. 1981), 93-107. 2459. Guerrero Martnez, Alberto. Verdad y justicia: el problema poltico de 1932, la descalificacin presidencial. Quito: Impr. Industria, 1940. 152 p. 2460. Harman, Archer; and Eloy Alfaro. Ferrocarril trasandino: cartas cruzadas entre el gerente de la empresa y el General don Eloy Alfaro. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo, 1902. 12 p. 2461. Hidalgo, Daniel B. El militarismo: sus causas y remedios. Quito: R. Racines C., 1912. 236 p. Blames militarism for the problems of the country. 2462. Holligan, Mike. El medio circulante y la economa ecuatoriana en los aos treinta, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:6 (1989), 15-86. The lead essay in a series of four on the economic crisis of the 1927-1932. Originally presented at the Segundo Encuentro de Historia Econmica (1988: Quito). Holligan maintains that monetarism is the key to understanding the political economy of the late 1920s and early 1930s,

and offers methodologically more sophisticated and probably more accurate time series of money in circulation than heretofore available. See also Pablo Lucio Paredess Comentario (p. 8795) and the exchange between Holligan and Lucio Paredes (p. 95-101). 2463. Ibarra, Hernn. La formacin del movimiento popular, 1925-1936. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1984. 113 p. 2464. Insa Rodrguez, Ramn. Estudios de economa ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1942. 282 p. 2465. Intriago, J.F. Notas histricas sobre responsabilidades de los crmenes del 28 de enero de 1912. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1912. 39 p. By one of the accused. 2466. Jcome, Augusto R. El Explico de Federico Pez. Quito: Impr. Americana, 1939. 23 p. A commentary on Pezs Explico (item 2544). 2467. Jaramillo Alvarado, Po. La Asamblea Liberal y sus aspectos polticos. Quito: Impr. Editorial Quito, 1924. xlviii, 369 p. Memoirs and analysis of the 1923/1924 assembly of the Partido Liberal Radical by one of its members as well as one of the countrys leading intellectuals. 2468. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Poltica conservadora. Riobamba: Tip. y Encuadernacin La Buena Prensa del Chimborazo, 1929-1934. 2 v. 2469. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Poltica conservadora, estudio introductorio y seleccin, Ricardo Muoz Chvez . Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, [1980] 303 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 7) A representative statement of the political and social thought of the ideologues of the Partido Conservador during the early 1900s. Includes selections from item 2467. 2470. Jirn, Sergio Enrique. La revolucin de mayo. Quito: Edit. Atahualpa, 1945. 426 p. Jirn was one of the military leaders of the 28 de mayo. 2471. Jordn M., Aniceto. Revoluciones criollas. Quito: Ediciones Antorcha, 1938. 146 p. 2472. Juan, Jorge. Que significa la dictadura que pesa actualmente sobre el Ecuador?. Quito: Impr. Gmez, 1936. 72 p. An insightful account of the fall of Velasco Ibarra in 1935 and the establishment of the Federico Pez dictatorship by an eyewitness, the true identity of whom I have been unable to ascertain. 2473. Junta Liberal de Pichincha. Junta Liberal de Pichincha, 1918-1919. Quito: Impr. de El Diario Social, 1919. 93 p. 2474. Kemmerer, Edwin Walter. Diario personal de su permanencia en el Ecuador, Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 481-538. See also Rafael Cordero Aguilar, Introduccin al diario del Profesor Kemmerer, in ibid., 463-

479. 2475. La Moto, Marco Antonio. Lo que vi en El Oro: (el reportaje periodstico ecuatoriano ms trascendental de 1942). Guayaquil: Impr. El Telgrafo, 1942. 90 p. 2476. Lamus G., Ramn. Pginas de verdad: la ltima guerra ecuatoriana, 1911-1912. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1912. 329 p. Lamus was the private secretary of General Flavio E. Alfaro. 2477. Larrea Alba, Luis. La campaa de 1906: antecedentes de la revolucin alfarista, su desarrollo, sus consecuencias, el conflcito de 1910. Quito: Industrias Grf. Cyma, 1962. 173 p. 2478. Larrea Alba, Luis. La campaa de 1941: la agresin peruana al Ecuador, sus antecedentes histricos, polticos y militares. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1964. 2 v. Items 2477 and 2478 are military histories by a carrer officer. 2479. Larrea Chiriboga, Alberto. Algunas opiniones del profesor Kemmerer y mis puntos de vista. Quito: Impr. de El Comercio, 1931. 32 p. 2480. Larrea Jijn, Modesto. Apuntes para la historia: sucesos que culminaron con la revolucin de Tulcn, el 31 de enero de 1932. Quito: Tall. Grf. Minerva, 1957. 96 p. 2481. Larrea Stacy, Eduardo. Ensayo sobre la moneda: con un apndice sobre la situacin monetaria del Ecuador de 1925-1932. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1933. 340 p. 2482. Laso, Luis Eduardo. Estudios econmicos: dos conferencias dictadas en la Universidad Central de Quito. Quito: [s.n.], 1942. 63 p. Contents: Breves consideraciones sobre la economa nacional; Posibles proyecciones econmicas de la guerra sobre Amrica Latina y sobre el Ecuador. 2483. Lemus, Gil. Horcos: narra lo ocurrido en Quito y Guayaquil de 11 de agosto de 1911 a 28 de enero de 1912: con acopio de notas minuciosas relata la ultimacin de Montero, de Alfaro y de Andrade. Quito: Impr. de El Comercio, 1912. 42 p. 2484. El Liberalismo ecuatoriano dividido por la Junta Suprema del Partido. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, [1953?]. 39 p. 2485. El Liberalismo en el Ecuador: de la gesta al porvenir, edicin de Blasco Peaherrera Padilla. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Fundacin Eloy Alfaro; Fundacin Friedrich Naumann, 1991. 258 p. A collection of papers and commentaries presented at a 1990 seminar on the significance of liberalism in Ecuador. The authors include politicians and journalists as well as academicians. 2486. Linke, Lilo. Andean Adventure: a Social and Political Study of Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. London: Hutchinson, 1945. 288 p. 2487. Linke, Lilo. The Political Scene in Ecuador: President Velasco Takes Over, The World Today, 9:3 (Mar. 1953), 130-138.

2488. Literatura y cultura nacional en el Ecuador: los proyectos ideolgicos y la realidad social, 1895-1944, Adrin Carrasco [et al.]. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay; Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de a Universidad de Cuenca, 1985. 364 p. 2489. Loewenfeld, Eva. The Guayaquil and Quito Railway, Ecuador, Southwestern Social Science Quarterly, 27:1 (June 1946), 68-93. A history of the construction of the Guayaquil-Quito Railroad and its acquisition by the state. 2490. Loor, Wilfrido. Estudios histrico-polticos. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1939. 335 p. A study of the rebellion of Pedro Montero, the death of Eloy Alfaro, and of the church-state issue. In this work Loor, a Catholic Conservative, attacks Gonzlez Surez, also a Conservative, for the stance the archbishop historian took on the handling of the separation of the church and the state and therefore of the church by the Liberals. Provoked a major polemic. 2491. Lpez, Lenidas A. Monografa de la hacienda pblica ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1916. ix, 222 p. A study of the economic crisis of the times and a proposal for its solution. 2492. Lovato, Juan Isaac. Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano: un ao de lucha socialista: informe al VIII Congreso del PSE, 29 nov.-7 dic. 1941. Quito: Editora Socialista, 1942. 70 p. 2493. Luna Tamayo, Milton. Los movimientos sociales en los treinta: el rol protagnico de la multitud, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:6 (1989), 199-235. The fourth essay presented at the 1988 Encuentro de Historia Econmica. A study of economic and social uprest, especially of crowd movements. See also Hernn Ibarras Comentario (p. 236-242) and the exchange between Luna and Ibarra (p. 242-247). 2494. Luna Tamayo, Milton. Orgenes del movimiento obrero de la sierra ecuatoriana: el Centro Obrero Catlico, Cultura, 9:26 (sept./dic. 1986), 285-315. 2495. Llerena, Jos Alfredo. Frustracin poltica en 22 aos. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 113 p. Examines political violence between 1925 and 1947. 2496. Maier, Georg. The Impact of Velasquismo on the Ecuadoran Political System. 268 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1966. 2497. Maiguascha, Juan. Las clases subalternas en los aos treinta, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:6 (1989), 165-189. The third presentation at the Segundo Encuentro de Historia Econmica. An essay on the changing relationships between the classes and the political consequences thereof, including the origins of velasquismo. See also Enrique Ayala Moras Comentario (p. 190-197). 2498. Maldonado Estrada, Luis. Una etapa histrica en la vida nacional. Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1954. 270 p. A favorable account of the Galo Plaza administration (1948-1952) and the presidential elections of 1952.

2499. Maldonado Estrada, Luis. Socialismo ecuatoriano: ensayo sobre la revolucin nacional. Guayaquil: Edit. Pginas Selectas, 1935. 58 p. 2500. Maldonado Tamayo, Luis. Traicin a la democracia en el Ecuador. Quito: [s.n.], 1947. 58 p. 2501. Manrique Izquieta, Carlos. Estudio estadstico de algunos aspectos de la situacin general del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Tip. de la Sociedad. Filantrpica, 1936. 126 p. A pioneering quantitative study of the demography, education, and economy of Ecuador in the first third of the twentieth century. Includes some times series from the late 1800s onward. 2502. Marchn Romero, Carlos. La crisis deflacionaria de la economa ecuatoriana de los aos treinta, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:6 (1989), 103-156. The second article in the 1988 Encuentro de Historia Econmica. Marchn Romero divides the crisis years into two periods, 1927-1929 and 1930-1930. He finds that the expansionist monetary policy of the first period enable the country to weather the economic crisis provoked by the collapse of cacao, but that the the abandonment of the gold standard and the fall of the July government intensified the crisis during the second period. See also Germnico Salgados Comentario thereupon (p. 157-163). 2503. Martnez Mera, Juan de Dios. Manifiesto poltico. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1933. 54 p. 2504. Medina Castro, Manuel. Para la historia nacional de la codicia y otros apuntes sobre la reforma liberal, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, Ncleo del Guayas, 1992. 163 p. 2505. El Mes trgico: compilacin de documentos para la historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Impreso por V. Valdez, 1916. 307 p. 28 de enero de 1912--Cover. 2506. Milk, Richard Lee. Growth and Development of Ecuadors Worker Organizations, 18951944. 1977. v, 194 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Indiana University. 2507. Mio Grijalva, Wilson. La economa ecuatoriana de la gran recesin a la crisis bananera, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 10, p. 37-69. A solid survey of economic developments from the Kemmerer reforms through the 1960s. See also item 2620. 2508. Un Momento de transicin poltica, 1934-1935. Quito: Tall. Tip. Nacionales, 1935. 311 p. Official messages, decrees, etc. of Velasco Ibarra and media articles on his administration. 2509. Moeller, August. Der Exporthandel nach Ecuador. Bckeburg: H. Prinz, 1936. xix, 202 p. A doctoral dissertation on the export trade of Ecuador during the first third of the twentieth century. 2510. Moncayo Andrade, Abelardo. Pensamiento econmico de Abelardo Moncayo Andrade.

Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Archivo Histrico del Guayas: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1981. xix, 208 p. 2511. Moncayo Andrade, Abelardo. Pensamiento poltico. Guayaquil: Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983. 152 p. Items 2510 and 2511 reprint representative examples of the economic and political thought of a leading Liberal economist. Moncayo was instrumental in the reformation of the national financial system in the late 1920s. Item 2511 includes: Apuntes biogrficos sobre Abelardo Moncayo Andrade por Elas Muoz Vernaza (p. 11-68). 2512. Moncayo Gallegos, Paco. Las fuerzas armadas: de la revolucin alfarista al movimiento juliano, Boletin histrico (Quito), 11 (31/32), 22-48. 2513 Monsalve, Pedro. Las campaas por la libertad: ao 1896, Dios y patria (Riobamba), 2:6 (abr. 1925), 138-149; 2:7/8 (jul./oct. 1925), 354-369. 2514. Monteza Tafur, Miguel. El conflicto militar del Per con el Ecuador, 1941. Lima: Edit. Arica, 1976. 299 p. The author was a a member of the military command in charge of the invasion of Ecuador. 2515. Mora Bowen, Alfonso. El Liberalismo Radical y su trayectoria histrica: apuntes para una socio-poltica. Quito: Impr. Romero, 1940. 283 p. 2516. Mora Bowen, Alfonso. Mensaje laico a la juventud y docencia libres de mi patria!: exgesis de la poltica, a travs de los regmenes pseudo Liberales-Radicales. Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1946. 165 p. 2517. Mora Lpez, Jos. El Ecuador en la Constituyente de 1896. Portoviejo: Colegio Olmedo, 1896. 42 p. 2518. Mora Lpez, Jos. Historia del ferrocarril trasandino. Quito: [s.n.], 1908. 111 p. 2519. Mora Lpez, Jos. Pacificacin de la Repblica, o, Nueva poltica ecuatoriana. [Portoviejo]: El Eco, 1899. 48 p. 2520. Mora Lpez, Jos. El suicidio del coronel Antonio Vega Muoz. Guayaquil: Impr. de El Tiempo, 1907. 54 p. 2521. Moreano, Alejandro. Capitalismo y lucha de clases en la primera mitad del siglo XX, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 137-224. A Marxist interpretation of the years 1895-1960. Opens with the usual misstatements, citing the usual less than credible source: Tras las montaneras alfaristas vinieron los plantadores, comerciantes y banqueros. El machete del Viejo Luchador haba desbrozado los caminos para el desarrollo del capitalismo ecuatoriano. Con este objetivo, precisamente, lo haban llamado a Panam el 5 de junio de 1895. Moreanos source is none other than Albornoz Peraltas Del crimen de El Ejido (item 2309). 2522. Moreno, Julio E. La revolucin del 9 de julio y el gobierno de la dictadura. Quito: Talleres Tipogrficos Nacionales, 1928. 81 p.

An insiders account. Moreno was the Minister of the Interior (1926-1930). 2523. Moreno, Julio E. El sentido histrico y la cultura: (para una sociologa ecuatoriana). Quito: Litografa e Impr. Romero, 1940. 381 p. 2524. Moreno, Manuel. Rasgos histricos del 11 de agosto de 1911: como caen los tiranos. Quito: El Comercio, 1911. 80 p. 2525. Moreno, Segundo Luis. La campaa de Esmeraldas de 1913-1916: encabezada por el coronel graduado, don Carlos Concha Torres. Cuenca: Tip. Universidad, 1939. 50 p. Also published in: Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 33/34 (abr. 1939/ago. 1940), 1-49. 2526. Moreno Andrade, Alberto. Media centuria de ruina y opresin: breve esquema de la realidad poltica ecuatoriana: tres conferencias de actualidad. Quito: Impr. Amrica, 1943. 68 p. 2527. Muoz, Julio H. La campaa internacional de 1941. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1945. xxiv, 193 p. 2528. Muoz, Leonardo J. Testimonio de lucha: memorias sobre la historia del socialismo en el Ecuador, introduccin de Enrique Ayala Mora. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Ediciones La Tierra, 1988. 151 p. 2529. Muoz Vicua, Elas. La guerra civil ecuatoriana de 1895: una epopeya de la revolucin burguesa antifeudal: el triunfo del Partido Radical de Eloy Alfaro, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987. 520 p. Includes Manuel de Jess Andrades previously unpublished Ecuatorianos notables contemporneos (1912). 2530. Muriel H., Vctor M. La muerte del coronel Antonio Vega Muoz. Quito: Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1907. 35 p. 2531. Murkland, Harry B. Crisis in Ecuador, Current History, 11:59 (July 1946), 20-24. At head of title: President Velasco is the Only Man Strong Enough to Destroy Velasco. 2532. Naranjo Campaa, Jos Aurelio. Verdades sobre la Revolucin de Mayo: el Batalln de Infantera Carchi en La Gloriosa: efemrides del 28 y 29 de mayo de 1944, en Guayaquil. Quito: Edit. Escuela Central Tcnica, 1945. 42 p. An account by one of the army officers who participated in the revolution that resulted in the first return of Velasco Ibarra to the presidency. 2533. Narvez, Leopoldo. La revolucin poltica del 11 de agosto de 1911. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1911. 25 p. 2534. Narvez J., Pedro A. Por el Ecuador y por la Amrica Latina ... Quito: Impr. Fernndez, 1944. 84 p. 2535. Navarro, Juan Francisco. A la nacin y para la historia: exposicin documentada del Ministro de Guerra y Marina de la Repblica del Ecuador sobre los sucesos de la noche del 5-6

de marzo de 1912. Quito: Impr. y Encuad. Nacionales, 1912. 47 p. Navarro tries to demonstrate his lack of complicity and therefore lack of culpability in the assassination of Julio Andrade. 2536. Navas Portugal, Miguel. Los sucesos del 15 de abril. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1907. 76 p. 2537. Noboa, Guillermo. Pueblo y soldados de mi patria. Quito: Industrias Grficas Cyma, 1960. 166 p. 2538. Nuez Snchez, Jorge. La revolucin alfarista de 1895, 1 ed. Quito: Centro para el Desarrollo Social, 1995. 91 p. 2539. Ochoa O., Octavio A. Zarpazo en el Oriente. Quito: Tall. Grf. Senal, 1981. 230 p. Ochoa was in charge of military security in the South during the invasion of 1941. 2540. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. Ojeada sobre los crmenes de enero de 1912. Quito: Impr. de El Grito de Libertad, 1914. 11 p. 2541. Orellana, J. Gonzalo. La transmisin del poder ejecutivo en el Ecuador: con un breve estudio de la administracin de 1920 a 1924, que termin el 31 de agosto. Quito: Impr. y Encuad. de J. Senz Rebolledo, 1924. 98 p. 2542. Orellana Serrano, Tarquino. De las transformaciones liberales a la revolucin juliana: nacimiento de los partidos polticos, Revista IDIS, 18 (ene. 1988), 81-113. 2543. Ortiz Bilbao, Luis Alfonso. La historia que he vivido: de la Guerra de los cuatro das a la dictadura de Pez, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1989. 342 p. 2544. Pez, Federico. Explico. Quito: El Comercio, 1939. 118 p. The author attempts to defend and to justify his dictatorship. 2545. Pez Cordero, Alexei. El movimiento obrero ecuatoriano en el perodo (1925-1960), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 10, p. 123-162. Continues item 2406. 2546. Pez Cordero, Alexei. Los orgenes de la izquierda ecuatoriana: notas sobre movimientos sociales e ideologa, Quitumbe, 7 (1990), 81-99. A relatively objective and sophisticated analysis of the origins of the Ecuadorian left in the 1920s. Focuses on economic and social conditions as well as ideological developments. Pez stresses the need for a more intensive, multidisciplinary study of the events of the period, especially of the general strike of 7 Nov. 1922. 2547. Pginas de verdad: la ltima guerra ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1912. vii, 329 p. Coeval accounts of the civil war of Dec. 1911/Jan. 1912. 2548. Palacios Senz, Carlos. 1941: epopeya y traicin. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Departamento de Publicaciones, 1964. 304 p.

The author blames Nazi Germany as well as the Arroyo del Ro government for the territorial losses of 1941. He also accuses Velasco Ibarra of having collaborated with Fidel Castro against Ecuadorian interests during Velasco Ibarras fourth presidency (1960-1961). 2549. Paredes, Ricardo A. El imperialismo en el Ecuador: oro y sangre en Portovelo. Quito: Edit. Artes Grficas, 1938. 228 p. A well documented, scholarly account, notwithstanding authors ideological biases, of Ecuadors dealing with the South American Development Company in the 1930s, especially during the strikes of 1938. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad, 1970. 240 p. 2550. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. La lucha por la democracia en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1956. 144 p. 2551. Partido Conservador (Ecuador). El Partido Conservador sindica a los asesinos de Alfaro y compaeros. Quito: El Partido, 1913. 72 p. 2552. Partido Liberal Radical (Ecuador). Asamblea Liberal de 1923: programa y estatutos del Partido Liberal Ecuatoriano: votos de la asamblea. Quito: Tall. Tip. de El Da, 1924. 31 p. 2553. Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano. Labores de la Asamblea Nacional Socialista y manifiesto del Consejo Central del Partido: 16-23 de mayo. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1978. 98 p. Photofacsimile reprint; originally published: 1926. 2554. Partidos polticos organizados del Ecuador, El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia (item 1927), vol. 1, p. 169-178. 2555. Paz, Clotario E. Crnicas fugaces: (pginas de la historia ecuatoriana entre los das de 1925 a 1930). Guayaquil: Edit. Jouvin, 1930. 592, [4] p. Published under the pseudonym Kurt von Friede. 2556. Pepper, Charles M. Report on Trade Conditions in Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1909. 39 p. At head of title: Department of Commerce and Labor. Bureau of Manufactures . . . Issued in 1908 as: Senate doc. 282, 60th Congress, 1st session; and also in a Bureau edition. 2557. Peralta, Jos. Eloy Alfaro y sus victimarios: apuntes para la historia ecuatoriana, 2 ed. Cuenca: [s.n.], 1977. 495 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito, 1918. Also reprinted: Buenos Aires: Edit. Olimpo, 1951. Peralta, a doctrinaire anticlerical as well a resolute Liberal, blames Gonzlez Surez and other conservatives for Alfaros assassination. 2558. Peralta, Jos. Para la historia. Cuenca: Impr. Municipal, 1920. 104 p. Attacks the Congress of 1920. 2559. Peralta, Jos. El rgimen liberal y el rgimen conservador juzgados por sus obras.

Quito: Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1911. 156 p. Reprinted: Quito: Edit. Crtica, 1973; and: Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1978. 2560. Peralta Rosales, Csar. Un centenario y una infamia: el suicidio del coronel Antonio Vega. Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1956. 112 p. Maintains that partisans of Alfaro had nothing to do with Vegas death. 2561. Prez Concha, Jorge. 1910: la movilizacin integral del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Subgerencia del Centro de Investigacin y Cultura; Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1988. xi, 98 p. An account of Eloy Alfaros resistence to an attempt by Peru to impose its point of view regarding the boundary dispute between the two countries and of the Viejo Luchadors mobilization of the people behind his rallying cry of Tmbez, Maran o la guerra! 2562. Prez Guerrero, Alfredo. La aventura del espritu. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1959. 334 p. 2563. Prez Pazmio, Ismael. La forzada clausura de El Universo: una tempestad alrededor de una caricatura. Guayaquil: Impr. y Papelera Mercurio, 1939. 282 p. Regarding the political cartoon published in the 9 June 1937 issue of the guayaquileo daily El Universo. 2564. El Pichincha (Quito, Ecuador: Newspaper). Somatn, artculos escogidos de El Pichincha, primer diario radical publicado en Quito en 1895-1896, director-redactor, Miguel Aristzabal. Quito: Impr. de El Pichincha, 1896. 951 p. 2565. Ponce Enrquez, Camilo. Gnesis y ocaso de un regimen: apuntes impersonales de sociologa poltica, 2 ed. Quito: Juventud, Centro Edit., 1942. 85 p. 2566. Pozo D., Olmedo del. La crisis de las subsistencias y sus derivaciones polticas y sociales, El drama de una generacin (Quito: Edit. El Comercio, 1945), p. 49-75. 2567. Prieto Argello, Jorge. Bases de reconstruccin nacional. Guayaquil: Librera Reed, 1945-1948. 2 v. Vol. 2 also entitled: Y el porvenir del Ecuador? Reviews deterioration of the economy during the war years, especially in the agricultural sector, and proposes various improvements and solutions. 2568. La Propiedad privada y el salario, estudio introductorio de Ren Bez y Lucas Pacheco, seleccin de textos de Elena Albn. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1987. 539 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 30) An anthology of essays on labor, originally published between 1900 and 1930. 2569. Proyecto de ferrocarril de Quito a Esmeraldas: seccin de Quito a Ibarra: memoria descriptiva y presupuestos. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin Nacionales, 1918. 157 p. 2570. Quintero, Rafael. El mito del populismo en el Ecuador: anlisis de los fundamentos del

Estado ecuatoriano moderno (1895-1934), 2 ed. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1983. 386 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito: FLACSO, 1980. In order to place the emergence of velasquismo in context, Quintero examines in depth the economic and social as well as political history of the late- nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth. One of the most important studies of the years in question. 2571. Quintero, Rafael; and Erika Silva. La crisis nacional general de 1895, Cultura, 4:11 (sept./dic. 1981), 93-107. 2572. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Los ltimos siete aos. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1933. 201 p. A solid study of the July Revolution and the first period of Ayoras administration. 2573. Ribadeneira, Enrique. Los acontecimientos del 28 de noviembre de 1936. Quito: Impr. Industria, 1937. 23 p. 2574. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. La circulacin, los precios y el cambio en el Ecuador de 1913 a 1927, Anales de la Universidad Central, 39:261 (jul./sept. 1927), 94-124. 2575. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. Consideraciones financieras y econmicas, Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1:2 (abr./dic. 1945), 37-74. 2576. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. Gobierno y finanzas municipales. Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1945. 672 p. 2577. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. La participacin de las provincias en las finanzas pblicas del Estado. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1955. 116 p. A comparative study of the participation of the provinces in the financial structure of the state, both as collectors of taxes and therefore as sources of revenue, and as beneficiaries of the largess of the central government. Based on analysis of fiscal and budget data for 1953-1955. Maintains that the fiscal burden on Guayaquil was not onerous and that Quito was not receiving a disproportionate share of revenues. 2578. Riofro Villagmez, Eduardo. El problema monetario y el problema fiscal en el Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad Central, 38:255 (ene./mar. 1926), 21-102; 38:256 (abr./jun. 1926), 258-329; 38:257 (jul./sept. 1926), 138-158; 38:258 (oct./dic. 1926), 270-293. 2579. Robalino Dvila, Luis. El 9 de julio de 1925. Quito: Edit. La Unin, 1973. 236 p. 2580. Robalino Dvila, Luis. El ao trgico de 1941 y otros ensayos. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1971. 303 p. 2581. Robalino Dvila, Luis. Vida poltica: bonifacismo, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 57:112 (jul./dic. 1973), 13-25. 2582. Rodrguez Landvar, Fernando. Debate sobre la inconvertibilidad del sucre en el Directorio del Banco Central en 1932, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 99-166. Publishes with an introductory study the Actas del Directorio del Banco Central in which the

abandonment of the gold standard and the floating of a 15,000,000 sucre loan to the government were debated. 2583. Rodrguez S., Luis A. La agresin peruana: la campaa del Zarumilla, documentada. Quito: Edit. Fr. Jodoco Ricke, 1948. 460 p. 2584. Rodrguez S., Luis A. La agresin peruana documentada, 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1955. 516 p. A new edition of the preceding item. Both items 2583 and 2584 should have been listed under Lmites. 2585. Romero Tern, Domingo. Los traidores al Ecuador: apuntes para la historia. Quito: Tall. Grf. Servicio de Suministros, 1952. 208 p. Anti-Arroyo del Ro. 2586. Rosero Garcs, Fernando. Comunidad, hacienda y Estado: un conflicto de tierras en el perodo de las transformaciones liberales, Ecuador debate, 12 (dic. 1986), 163-187. 2587. Rosero Revelo, Luis Alberto. Memorias de un veterano de la guerra del 41. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 117 p. 2588. Rueda, Juan Manuel. Aspiraciones nacionales. Quito: Impr. Amrica, 1939. xiv, 228 p. 2589. Rueda Echevarra, Luis Alberto. Herosmo y constitucin: episodios histricos de la Batalla de los 4 das. Quito: Impr. L.I. Fernndez, 1939. 181 p. An eyewitness account by a participant. 2590. Rumazo Gonzlez, Alfonso. El Congreso de 1933. Quito: Edit. Bolvar, 1934. 213 p. Analyzes the Congress that under the leadership of Velasco Ibarra overthrew Martnez Mera. 2591. Saad, Pedro A. El Ecuador y la guerra. Guayaquil: Impr. Emporio Grf., 1943. 40 p. Outlines the impact of World War II on Ecuador, especially on social and economic conditions. 2592. Saavedra, Efren Homero. Cartas poltico-econmicas: ideas sobre un plan de accin econmica nacional. Quito: Escuela Tipogrfica Salesiana, 1934. 96 p. 2593. Salgado, Luis A. Los acontecimientos del 28 de enero de 1912 ante la ciencia y el derecho. Quito: Tip. y Encuadernacin Salesianas, 1917. 63 p. 2594. Snchez, Gustavo M. Decadencia poltica en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. El Ideal, 1924. 18 p. 2595. Snchez Andrade, Jaime. Un ao de tirana. Quito: Impr. Ecuador, 1934. 143 p. 2596. Snchez Nez, Csar. Fuego y sangre: revoluciones del 11 de agosto de 1911 a 6 de marzo de 1912: asesinatos de enero: Julio Andrade: documentos adicionales. Bogot: Impr. Elctrica, 1913. 226 p. Blames Gonzlez Surez for the death of Alfaro.

2597. Santamara, Pedro J. Relacin de la actuacin patritica del Sargento Pedro J. Santamara del Batalln #3 Pichincha: para evitar la dictadura de Martnez Mera en 1933. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1954. 31 p. 2598. Serrano, Manuel. A la nacin: la verdad en los asuntos de Zarumilla. Quito: Casa Edit. de J.I. Glvez, 1909. 64 p. 2599. Sheppard, George. The Salt Industry in Ecuador, Geographical Review, 22:3 (July 1932), 403-410. 2600. La Situacin de la industria textil ecuatoriana hacia 1949, nota introductoria de Milton Luna Tamayo, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:6 (1989), 269-280. Publishes with an introductory note by Luna Tamayo an informe reservado on the state of the textile industry as of 1949. 2601. Sols, Nicanor. Refutacin del ex-Inspector General del Ejrcito a los conceptos vertidos por el Dr. J.M. Velasco en su libro Consciencia o barbarie. Quito: Impr. Chimborazo, 1937. 14 p. 2602. Solow, Anatole A. Ecuador Builds Its Way Back, Amricas, 4:7 (July 1952), 3-5, 3031. Report on continuing consequences of and recovery from the earthquake of 1950. 2603. The South American Development Co.: su actuacin en el Ecuador desde el ao 1896. Quito: Impr. de El Da, 1929. 56 p. 2604. Tern Robalino, Jos Rafael. Velasco Ibarra, o, El afianzamiento de la democracia ecuatoriana. Buenos Aires: [s.n.], 1956. 20 p. The author was a brother-in-law of Velasco Ibarra. 2605. Tern Varea, Rafael Antonio. El Ecuador de hoy y sus problemas. Quito: Universidad Central, 1935. 190 p. 2606. Tobar Donoso, Julio. La Asamblea General del Partido Conservador y sus doctrinas, Dios y patria (Riobamba), 3:9 (ene. 1926), 92-138. On the Assembly of Oct. 9-14, 1925. An important statement of coeval Conservative thought by one of the principal ideologues of the Party. 2607. Traicin del 22 de diciembre y constitucionalismo ecuatoriano. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1955. 192 p. At head of title: Visitadura General de la Administracin. Regarding the Dec. 22, 1954 attempt to overthrow Velasco Ibarra. 2608. Troncoso, Julio C. Odio y sangre: la descalificacin del Sr. Neptal Bonifaz y la Batalla de los cuatros das en Quito. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, [1958]. 232 p. A solid account of the civil war of 1932. Preceded by a: Esbozo histrico-biogrfico de los presidentes del Ecuador de 1830 a 1958, p. 15-115.

2609. Trujillo Len, Jorge. La hacienda serrana, 1900-1930. Quito: Instituto de Estudios Ecuatorianos; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1986. 244 p. 2610. Urrutia Surez, Francisco. Apuntes para la historia: la agresin peruana. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1968. 218 p. An eye witness account. Coronel Urrutia participated in the 1941 conflict. 2611. Valdiviezo Ramrez, Emilio. Nueve de julio: la revolucin ante la historia. Quito: [s.n.], 1926. 34 p. The author, a major in the Army, was one of the participants in the July Revolution. 2612. Vsquez, Mara Antonieta. Familia, costumbres y vida cotidiana a principios del siglo XX, Nueva historia del Ecuador, (item 615), vol. 9, p. 205-233. The final portrait in the triptych on family and daily life. See also items 1352 and 2185. 2613. Vega Toral, Enrique. El asesinato del General Antonio Vega Muoz, 10 de diciembre de 1906. Cuenca: Don Bosco, 1956. 195 p. 2614. Vega Ugalde, Silvia. La Gloriosa: de la revolucin del 28 de mayo de 1944 a la contrarevolucin velasquista, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1987. 194 p. 2615. Velasco Ibarra, Jos Mara. El 28 de mayo: balance de una revolucin popular. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1946. xxxvi, 622 p. A compilation of Velasco Ibarras speeches from the tumultuous days that culminated in his promulgation as president for the second time (May 31, 1944) and from the first weeks of his second presidency. 2616. Velasco Ibarra, Jos Mara. Conciencia o barbarie: exgesis de la poltica americana, 2 ed. Quito: Edit. Moderna, 1937. 284 p. Also: Buenos Aires: Edit. Claridad, 1938. 201 p. 2617. Venta del territorio: artculos de la prensa del Ecuador. Quito: s.n., 1906. 40 p. Reprints articles from El Tiempo and La Prensa libre from July 12-23, 1906, asserting and denying that the administration of Eloy Alfaro had proposed selling the Galpagos and the Oriente to foreign powers. 2618. Vera, Alfredo. Anhelo y pasin de la democracia ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Impr. de la Universidad [para la] Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1948. 354 p. 2619. Villalobos, Fabio. Acerca del aperturismo y el proceso de industrializacin: notas sobre el caso ecuatoriano, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 5:15/16 (1984), 173-195. 2620. Villalobos, Fabio. El proceso de industrializacin hasta los aos cincuenta, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 10, p. 71-86. Outlines the history of industrialization from its beginnings in the late nineteenth century through the 1950s. Companion piece to item 2507. 2621. Villamar M., Claudio. El Ecuador a comienzos del siglo. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala,

1995. 80 p. 2622. V.M.A. El veinticinco de abril. Quito: Tip. de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1907. iv, 26 p. 2623. Weiser, B. Ecuador, Eight Years on Ararat: the Story of a South American Haven, Commentary, 3:6 (June 1947), 531-536. Consists of personal reflections on eight years of living and working (1938-1946) in Ecuador, especially in Quito, by a Jewish immigrant. 2624. Wylie, Kathryn H. Ecuadors Agriculture and the War, Foreign Agriculture, 10:2 (Feb. 1946), 18-32. 2625. Wylie, Kathryn H. Ecuadors Forests and the War, Foreign Agriculture, 10:5 (May 1946), 75-80. 2626. Ziga, Neptal. Fenmenos de la realidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Tall. Grf. de Educacin, 1940. 275 p. The authors Tesis para optar el ttulo de profesor de enseanza secundaria y normal, en la especializacin de historia, geografa y cuestiones econmico-sociales, en el Instituto Superior de Pedagoga y Letras de Quito.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I


por M ICHAEL T. HAM ERLY

19602627. 1984, el Ecuador en las urnas: lucha social, lucha poltica, Alberto Acosta [et al.]. Quito: Edit. El Conejo; Fundacin Friedrich-Naumann, 1984. 249 p. Contents: Luis Verdesoto, La primera vuelta presidencial: el conflicto principal de la actual coyuntura; Alberto Acosta, Crisis econmica y proceso electoral; Manuel Chiriboga, Clases sociales y lucha poltica en el Ecuador; Fernando Bustamante, La ideologa de los partidos polticos ecuatorianos; Luis Verdesoto, Los programas de los partidos del centro poltico, especial referencia al tema agrario; Vicente Martnez, La escena electoral; Paul Velasco, Los gremios, los partidos y el gobierno durante 1983; Carlos Larrea y Silvia Sommaruga, Participacin electoral, abstencin y consistencia de los resultados de la eleccin presidencial. 2628. A mi tambin me torturaron, [introduccin Edmundo Durn Daz], 1 ed. Quito: CEDHU; El Conejo, 1991. 124 p. 2629. Achig S., Lucas. La reconstruccin social y el movimiento obrero ecuatoriano: ensayo de coyuntura para la elaboracin de la historia del movimiento obrero ecuatoriano, Revista IDIS, 16 (nov. 1986), 81-123. A study of the national strikes of 1984 and 1985, their antecedents, and consequences. 2630. Agee, Philip. Inside the Company: CIA Diary. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1975. 639 p. Agee was stationed in Quito in the early 1960s. The section that treats Ecuador has been published in Spanish as: Objetivo Ecuador: diario de la CIA (Quito: Movimiento Segunda Independencia, 1977). 2631. Aguirre, Jos Manuel Agustn. Panorama poltico del Ecuador actual, Desarrollo indoamericano, 15:59 (jun. 1980), 9-14. 2632. Aguirre, Jos Manuel Agustn. El proceso poltico del Ecuador, Economa (Quito), 75 (mayo 1980), 13-24. 2633. Albornoz, Miguel. La campaa de los cien das: una visin de los problemas del Ecuador de hoy, 1 ed. Quito: Planeta, 1988. 204 p. 2634. Almanaque ecuatoriano 1990. Guayaquil: Edit. Pacfico, [1990?] 424 p. Includes chronologies, an index of legislation for 1963-1989, political documents, and statistics. 2635. Anlisis de los procesos electorales, [edicin de] Agustn Grijalva y Jorge Ortega. Quito:

Tribunal Supremo Electoral: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1990. 230 p. (Elecciones y democracia en el Ecuador; 4) 2636. Andrade, Xavier; and Fredy Rivera. El movimiento campesino e indgena en el ltimo perodo: fases, actores y contenidos polticos, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 257-281. A working paper on peasant and Indian movements in the 1960s and 1970s. Takes up where item 2316 leaves off. 2637. Arboleda, Mara; Ral Borja; and Jos Steinsleger. Mi poder en la oposicin, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1985. 254 p. El primer ao de gobierno de Len Febres Cordero, 1984-1985-- Cover. 2638. Argones, Nelson. El juego del poder: de Rodrguez Lara a Febres Cordero. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1985. 183 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 5) 2639. Argello Lpez, Carlos. Ecuador 2000. Quito: Tall. Grf. Formugraf, 1990. 122 p. An essay on late-twentieth-century and projected economic, political, and social conditions and policies. 2640. Arzaga Vega, Rafael. La mano negra y los palidos reflejos: (las elecciones de 1978). Quito: Impresenal, 1984. 190 p. 2641. Armas, Amparo [et al.] Los derechos humanos: el caso ecuatoriano. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1985. 325 p. I discovered too late that this path breaking work was multi-authored and therefore should have been title main entered. Fue preparado por la CEDHU [Comisin Ecuatoriana de Derechos Humanos] con un equipo editorial conformado por Toms Bamat, Ral Borja y Elsie Monge. Contents: Elsie Monge, Prlogo; Toms Bamat, Derechos humanos: luchas histricas y visiones de justicia; Laura Glynn, Los derechos humanos: un concepto en desarrollo; Manuel Chiriboga and Guadalupe Tobar, El conflicto de Culluctus; Ernesto Lpez, Enfoque histricojurdico [del derecho a la tierra]; La experiencia de Prudencia Andrango, testimonio recopilado por Amparo Armas y Fernando Rosero; Fernando Rosero, El ciclo de la pobreza: los migrantes de San Pablo de Lago; Franklin Prez C. and CEDHU, El desalojo a la cooperativa Pancho Jcome; Hernn Valencia, La lucha por la tierra en Guayaquil; Fernando Gutirrez and Gaitn Villaviencio, Testimonio de dos obreras; Fernando Gutirrez and Gaitn Villaviencio, Condiciones de vida y de trabajo; Franco Perretta, Palo, un nio de la calle; Cecilia Jaramillo, Derechos del nio y sistema de rehabilitacin; El jumento: la palabra de una trabajadora domstica, testimonio recopilado por Mercedes Romn; Mercedes Prieto, La mujer: igualdad de derechos?; FICI and CEDHU, Fiesta del Yamor: resistencia del pueblo quichua; Ruth Moya, Derechos culturales de los pueblos indgenas; Martha de Cruz, La sociedad y las crceles; Rodrigo Bucheli, El derecho a la defensa jurdica; Ral Borja, Violencia y dominacin; Patricio Ycaza, Seguridad nacional y derechos humanos; Gonzalo Ortz, Modelos econmicos y derechos humanos; Ral Borja, Anexos, derechos humanos y marco jurdico.

2642. Arosemena Monroy, Carlos Julio. Partido Nacionalista Revolucionario: un partido insobornable y sin claudicaciones. Guayaquil: Partido Nacionalista Revolucionario, 1982. 222 p. 2643. Astudillo Romero, Jaime. Mito y realidad de la seguridad nacional en el Ecuador, 1 ed. Cuenca: Fondo de Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1981. 249 p. 2644. Atkins, George Pope. La Junta Militar Ecuatoriana (1963-1966), Economa (Quito), 60 (mar. 1973), 94-115. 2645. Ayerve, Oscar. Tu voto es poder. Quito: Taski Editora, 1987. 314 p. 2646. Ayerve, Oscar; and Mateo Alemn. Quien gana la segunda vuelta? Quien es Abdal? Quito: Taski Editora, 1988. 239 p. 2647. Bacigalupo, Dalton. Discursos desde el poder. Quito: FESO, 1986. 106 p. 2648. Bez, Ren. Ecuador, genocidio econmica o va democrtica. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1992. 100 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 40) Proposes an alternative model for development, one that is national (i.e., sui generis) as well as democratic. 2649. Bez, Ren. Hacia un subdesarrollo moderno, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 249-271. 2650. Baquero, Marcello. Emerging Patterns of Political Culture in Ecuador: A Survey Analysis Approach. 1979. xi, 285 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Florida State University. 2651. Baratta, Robert Thomas. Political Violence in Ecuador and the AVC, Terrorism, 10:3 (1987), 165-174. Reports on political violence in the 1980s, especially the activities of the terrorist group Alfaro Vive Carajo. 2652. Barsky, Osvaldo. Iniciativa terrateniente en la reestructuracin de las relaciones sociales en la sierra ecuatoriana: 1959-1964, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 2:5 (1978), 74-126. A multivariant, refreshingly sophisticated analysis of changing relationships between hacendados and rural laborers in the highlands --notwithstanding the authors Marxist approach--during the 1950s and 1960s, with an emphasis on the five years preceding the Agrarian Reform Law of l964. Takes into account political as well as economic developments. Also published in: Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 2, p. 33-106. 2653. Berge, Geir. Ecuador, Two Decades of Growing Unity and International Interface in the Trade Union Movement, 1965-1982, Ibero Americana (Stockholm), 13:2 (1984), 39-60. 2654. Bocco, Arnaldo M. Auge petrolero, modernizacin y subdesarrollo: el Ecuador de los aos setenta. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Quito, 1987. 265 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 15) A political as well as economic study of the petroleum boom of the 1970s.

2655. Bocco, Arnaldo M. Ecuador: Economic Policy and Development Promotion during the Petroleum Boom, 1972-1978, NS / Northsouth, 7:14 (1982), 43-65. Also published in Spanish as: Ecuador, poltica econmica y estilos de desarrollo en la fase de auge petrolero, 1972-1978, Desarrollo econmico (Buenos Aires), 22:88 (ene./mar. 1983), 485510. 2656. Bocco, Arnaldo M. Ecuador: Estado, finanzas pblicas y excedente petrolero (19721978), Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 4:14 (1982), 45-77. 2657. Bocco, Arnaldo M. Ecuador: the State, Public Policy and Capital Accumulation, 197083, The State and Capital Accumulation in Latin America, edited by Christian Anglade and Carlos Fortn, vol. 2 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990), p. 88-105. 2658. Bonilla, Adrin. En busca del pueblo perdido: diferenciacin y discurso de la izquierda marxista en los sesenta. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador; Ediciones Abya-Yala, , 1991. 135 p. 2659. Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo. La tica del poder. Quito: Jorge Nuez Editor, 1992. 354 p. 2660. Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo. Socialismo democrtico, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Edit. Democrtica, [1983?]. 124 p. 2661. Brownrigg, Leslie Ann. Interest Groups in Regime Changes in Ecuador, InterAmerican Economic Affairs, 28:1 (Summer 1974), 3-17. 2662. Buenao Cabrera, Ernesto. Crimen planificado. Quito: Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano, [1985?]. 234 p. Argues that the plane crash in which President Rolds died was not the result of an accident, but deliberately engineered . 2663. Burgos, Dalton. Octubre 82: el ascenso del movimiento de masas y la encrucijada de la direccin poltica. Quito: CEDIS, Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, [1983?]. 66 p. 2664. Bustamante, Fernando. The Armed Forces of Colombia and Ecuador in Comparative Perspective, Democracy under Siege: New Military Power in Latin America, edited by Augusto Varas (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 17-34. Item 2664 appears to be the English version of item 2665. 2665. Bustamante, Fernando. El desarrollo institucional de las fuerzas armadas de Colombia y Ecuador, La Autonoma militar en Amrica Latina, coordinacin de Augusto Varas (Caracas: Edit. Nueva Sociedad, 1988), p. 83-108. 2666. Bustamante, Fernando. Fuerzas armadas en Ecuador: puede institucionalizarse la subordinacin al poder civil?, Democracia y fuerzas armadas (Quito: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, 1988), p. 129-160. Also published in: Sntesis: revista documental de ciencias sociales iberoamericanas (ene./abr. 1992), 179-202. 2667. Bustamante, Fernando. Los militares y la creacin de un nuevo orden democrtico en

Per y Ecuador. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1988. 112 p. 2668. Bustamante, Fernando. Problemas y dinmica de la poltica ecuatoriana actual. Santiago de Chile: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, 1987. 122 p. 2669. Cabezas, Rodrigo. Crnica de una poltica petrolera. Quito: Edit. Voluntad, 1978. 178 p. 2670. Cabezas, Rodrigo. Problemas petroleros ecuatorianos, 2 ed. Quito: Edit. Voluntad, 1968. 179 p. Items 2669 and 2670 are essays in political economy. 2671. Caldern Chico, Carlos. Palabras y realidades: Febrs Cordero y la cultura. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1985. 223 p. 2672. Campo, Esteban del. Crisis de la hegemona oligrquica, clases populares y populismo en Ecuador, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 40:3 (jul./sept. 1978), 1101-1118. 2673. Carrasco Vintimilla, Adrin. La poltica econmica del gobierno de Febres Cordero, su dimensin poltica, Revista IDIS, 16 (nov. 1986), 175-204. 2674. Con patriotismo y sin temor: discursos polticos. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1964. 136 p. Entrevistas de prensa, declaraciones y discursos de los miembros de la Junta Militar de Gobierno. 2675. Conaghan, Catherine M. Ecuador Swings Toward Social Democracy, Current History, 88:536 (Mar. 1989), 137-141, 154. Reviews the legacy of the Febres Cordero years (1984-1988) and examines the problems facing the then recently elected Rodrigo Borja. 2676. Conaghan, Catherine M. Ecuador, The Politics of Locos, Hemisphere, 1:1 (Winter 1989), 13-15. 2677. Conaghan, Catherine M. Politicians against Parties: Discord and Disconnection in Ecuadors Party System, Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, edited by Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995), p. 434-458. 2678. Conaghan, Catherine M. Restructuring Domination: Industrialists and the State in Ecuador. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988. xiii, 197 p. Analyzes the role of the industrial bourgeoisie in economic, political, and social developments of the 1970s and the early 1980s. Unfortunately Conaghan uses the term bourgeoisie in the Marxist sense. Although she states her ideological assumptions, an analysis and interpretation of the class structure of Ecuador would have been far more in order. Based on the authors doctoral dissertation: Industrialists and Reformist Interregnum: Dominant Class Behavior and Ideology in Ecuador, 1972-1979. 1983. xiii, 332 leaves. Yale University. 2679. Conaghan, Catherine M.; and James M. Malloy. Unsettling Statecraft: Democracy and

Neoliberalism in the Central Andes. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994. xii, 303 p. A comparative study of political and economic developments in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru during the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. Although a laudable work in many respects, Conaghan and Malloys Unsettling Statecraft suffers from a problem unfortunately altogether too common in Social Scientific literature, questionable and debatable use of terminology, especially when it comes to class. They employ the terms elite(s), oligarchy(ies), and bourgeoisie , for example, as though they were one and the same. Furthermore, although Conaghan and Malloy appear to recognize differences in class composition and interests from place to place and time to time, they fail to delineate and explicate those differences. In fact, there is an absolute lack of definition (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the various economic classes. See also Conaghans Loose Parties, Floating Politicians, and Institutional Stress: Presidentialism in Ecuador, 1979-1988, in The Failure of Presidential Democracy, edited by Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1994), vol. 2, The Case of Latin America, p. 328-359, and Party Politics and Democratization in Ecuador, in Authoritarians and Democrats: Regime Transition in Latin America, edited by James M. Malloy and Mitchell A. Seligson (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987), p. 146-163. 2680. Conaghan, Catherine M.; and Rosario Espinal. Unlikely Transitions to Uncertain Regimes?: Democracy Without Compromise in the Dominican Republic and Ecuador, Journal of Latin American Studies, 22:3 (Oct. 1990), 553-574. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this refreshingly more or less well written but not ideologically free article is the recognition that the democratic regimes of the 1970s and 1980s in countries such as the Dominican Republic and Ecuador defy customary definition and conventional wisdom. 2681. Conaghan, Catherine M.; James M. Malloy; and Luis A. Abugattas. Business and the Boys: the Politics of Neoliberalism in the Central Andes, Latin American Research Review, 25:2 (Spring 1990), 3-30. A comparative study of the neoliberal regimes of Presidents Hurtado (1981-1984) and Febres Cordero (1984-1988) of Ecuador, Paz Estenssoro (1985-1988) of Bolivia, and Belande-Terry (1985-1988) of Per. 2682. El Congreso Nacional del Ecuador, 1986/88: su funcionamiento y atribuciones, los nuevos diputados, la constitucin actualizada, el constitucionalismo ecuatoriano, [redaccin] Hernn Salgado. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 175 p. 2683. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Ecuador). Plan nacional de desarrollo del gobierno democrtico, ao 1980-1984. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, 1980. 6 v. There is also a versin popular: Otavalo: Edit. Gallocapitn, 1981. 2684. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Ecuador). Secretara General de Planificacin. Lineamientos generales para el Plan de desarrollo, 1984-1988, versin corr. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Secretara General de Planificacin, 1985. ii, 42 p. 2685. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Ecuador). Secretara General de Planificacin. Plan nacional de desarrollo 1985-1988. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Secretara General

de Planificacin, 1985. 4 v. 2686. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Ecuador). Secretara General de Planificacin. Plan nacional de desarrollo econmico y social, 1989-1992. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Secretara General de Planificacin, 1989. 4 v. 2687. Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Ecuador). Secretara General de Planificacin. Plan operativo 1985. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Secretara General de Planificacin, 1985. 6 v. 2688. Contreras Navas, Gilberto. El tringulo del poder. Quito: Impr. del Colegio Tcnico Don Bosco, 1985. 229 p. 2689. Corkill, David. Democratic Politics in Ecuador, 1979-1984, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 4:2 (1985), 63-74. Examines political and economic developments during the Rolds and Hurtados regimes. 2690. Corkill, David. The Ecuadorian Labour Movement under Dictatorship and Democracy, 1975-1985, Journal of Area Studies, 13 (1986), 30-33. Maintains that the traditionally weak labor movement was further weakened by the military government of 1972-1979, and the civilian regimes of the 1980s through neglect on the one hand and cooption on the other. 2691. Corkill, David. The Politics of Military Government in Ecuador: The Rodrguez Lara Regime, 1972-1976, Bulletin of the Society for Latin American Studies, 26 (1977), 44-63. 2692. Corkill, David; and David Cubitt. Ecuador, Fragile Democracy. London: Latin American Bureau (Research and Action), 1988. xxiv, 115 p. One of the better surveys of late-twentieth-century developments in English. Focuses primarily on economic, political, and social events of the 1960s, 1970s, and the first half of the 1980s. 2693. Cosse, Gustavo. Estado y agro en el Ecuador, 1960-1980. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1984. 112 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 1) 2694. Cosse, Gustavo. Reflexiones acerca del Estado, el proceso poltico y la poltica agraria en el caso ecuatoriano, 1964-1977, Estudios rurales latinoamericanos, 3:1 (ene./abr. 1980), 5183. 2695. Cronologa: hechos polticos, sociales y econmicos en el gobierno de Osvaldo Hurtado, 1 ed. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1984. iv, 330 p. 2696. Cueva, Agustn. La crisis de los aos 60, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 225-248. 2697. Cueva, Agustn. Crisis del capitalismo y perspectivas del nacionalismo en Amrica Latina: anlisis del caso ecuatoriano. Mxico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociales, Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos, 1976. 28 p. Reprint; originally published as an article in: Revista mexicana de sociologa, 38:4 (oct./dic.

1976), 825--841. 2698. Cueva, Agustn. El Ecuador de 1960 a 1979, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 149-179. Continues regurgitation of item 2243. Also includes selections from Cuevas El proceso de dominacin poltica (item 2246). As ideologically myopic as Cuevas other work. 2699. Cueva, Agustn. Ecuador, la qumera del petroleo y la encrucijada del nacionalismo pequeoburgus. Mxico, D.F.: CELA, 1975. 19, 12 p. 2700. Chiriboga, Manuel. El Estado y las polticas hacia el sector rural (1979-1982), Ecuador agrario: ensayos de interpretacin, 1 ed. (Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1984), p. 91-141. 2701. Chiriboga, Manuel. Movimiento campesino e indgena y participacin poltica en Ecuador: la construccin de identidades en una sociedad heterognea, Sntesis: revista documental de ciencias sociales iberoamericanas (ene./abr. 1992), 227-253. 2702. Damerval, Jaime Francisco. Semillas polticas. Guayaquil: [s.n.], 1988. 623 p. Apparently this work, which I have not yet seen, is a treatise on the politics and political economy of the 1970s and 1980s. 2703. Darlic Mardesic, Vjekoslav; and Santiago Escobar. Los gobiernos seccionales del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 225 p. 2704. Dvila Alds, Francisco R. Las luchas por la hegemona y la consolidacin de la burguesa en el Ecuador, 1972-1978. Mxico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociales, 1984. 247 p. 2705. Dvila Alds, Francisco R. Los partidos polticos tradicionales y el descenso de la oligarqua en el Ecuador, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 43:3 (jul./sept. 1981), 1141-1168. 2706. Dvila Andrade, Oswaldo. Reflexiones entre dos siglos. Quito: Editora Delta, 1987. 175 p. Reflections of an economist who played a leading role in development planning in Ecuador for many years. 2707. Dvila Loor, Luis. Equateur, 1984: dception, espoir et retour en arrire, Amrique latine, 19 (jui./sep. 1984), 12-16. 2708. De Janry, Alain; Elisabet Sadoulet; and Andr Fargeix. Politically Feasible and Equitable Adjustment: Some Alternatives for Ecuador, World Development, 19:11 (Nov. 1991), 1577-1594. Analyzes the political as well as the economic consequences of the efforts of the Febres Cordero government to stabilize the public sector through spending reductions. In the process the authors develop a computable general equilibrium model, more fully spelled out in item 7575. 2709. Una Dcada de opinin en el Ecuador: la pgina editorial de Hoy de 1982 a 1992, estudio introductorio y seleccin, Samuel Guerra Bravo, Susana Hidalgo Saa. Quito: Hoy, 1992. 318 p.

A compilation of editorials and cartoons from Hoy, satirizing political and social conditions. 2710. Defina, Abel. Un gobierno ...: sus problemas y una respuesta, 1 ed. Quito: Editora General del Ecuador, 1989. 161 p. 2711. Del indigenismo a las organizaciones indgenas. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala, 1985. 179 p. 2712. Deler, Jean Paul. Estructuras espaciales del Ecuador contemporneo (1960-1980), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 12, p. 73-134. Reprints appropriate sections of Ecuador del espacio al estado nacional (item 564). 2713. Delgado Jara, Diego. ID + DP: que mismo le toca al pueblo?, 1 ed. Quito: CEDEP, 1989. 75 p. 2714. Democracia Popular. Democracia Popular: el Comit de Base. Quito: Departamento de Capacitacin de la Democracia Popular, 1981. 110 p. 2715. Los Derechos humanos en Ecuador, investigacin y recopilacin de datos de Remigio Rivera y Juan Ortz. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1987. 358 p. Delineates human rights violations by the government of Ecuador between 1984 and 1986. 2716. Dilogo, pueblo, gobierno. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1984. 149 p. El presente trabajo se basa en el anlisis de las cinco presentaciones televisadas del Presidente de la Repblica, Dr. Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea--p. 9. 2717. Directorio nacional de autoridades. Ecuador: Producciones Editorales, 1986. 182 p. Includes provincial office holders and heads of private sector enterprises. See also item 2774. 2718. Documentos indios: declaraciones y pronunciamientos, Jos E. Juncosa, compilador. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1991-. <2> v. 2719. Drekonja, Gerhard. Ecuador, How to Handle the Banana Republic Turned Oil State, Boletn de estudios latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 28 (jun. 1980), 77-94. 2720. Durn Balln, Csar. Frente al futuro: temas tratados en los escritos, conferencias y entrevistas en los ltimos seis aos. Guayaquil: Edit. Amauta, 1979. vii, 233 p. 2721. Echeverra Gavilanes, Enrique. Secuestro, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1988. 186 p. Regarding the authors kidnaping in 1986 for alleged political crimes and offenses. 2722. La Economa poltica del Ecuador: campo, regin, nacin, editor, Louis Lefeber. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1985. 460 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 6) 2723. Ecuador. Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica. Evaluacin de polticas, objetivos y metas: plan integral de transformacin y desarrollo 73-77. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1978. v, 171 p. 2724. Ecuador. Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica. Lineamientos fundamentales del plan integral de transformacin y desarrollo, 1973-1977. Quito: Junta

Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1972. [87] p. in various pagings. 2725. Ecuador. Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica. Plan general de desarrollo econmico y social. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1963-1966. 5 v. 2726. Ecuador. Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica. Plan integral de transformacin y desarrollo, 1973-77: resumen general. Quito: Edit. Santo Domingo, 1973. xix, 390 p. 2727. Ecuador. Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica. Poltica planificada para el desarrollo: resumen del Plan general de desarrollo econmico y social del Ecuador. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, 1966. 129 p. 2728. Ecuador. President (1984-1988: Febres Cordero). Inventario grfico. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica, 1988. 141 p. Chiefly ill. Obra del gobierno del Ing. Len Febres-Cordero, 1984-1988. 2729. Ecuador. President (1984-1988: Febres Cordero). Pensamiento y obra: gobierno constitucional del ingeniero Len Febres-Cordero Ribadeneyra. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica, 1987-1988. 4 v. Basic source on the Febres Cordero administration. 2730. Ecuador. Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica. Informe a la nacin: obra del Gobierno de las Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales del Ecuador, ejecutadas en el perodo 1972-1978. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica, 1980. xv, 470 p. 2731. Ecuador 88: elecciones, economa y estrategia, Gaitn Villavicencio [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: CERG: Edit. El Conejo, 1988. 184 p. 2732. Ecuador, el mito del desarrollo, Alberto Acosta [et al.]. Quito: Edit. El Conejo: ILDIS, 1982. 237 p. 2733. El Ecuador frente al siglo XXI: seguridad y geopoltica, [compilador Oswaldo Jarrn R.], 1 ed. Quito: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Direccin de Protocolo, Prensa y Relaciones Pblicas, 1992. 178 p. Regarding the current and future role of the Armed Forces in internal politics and as the defender of the nation state. 2734. Ecuador hoy, Gerhard Drekonja [et al.], 1 ed. Bogot: Siglo Veintiuno, 1978. 381 p. A set of essays on economic and political developments of the twentieth century, especially of the 1960s and 1970s. 2735. Ecuador, la coyuntura econmica y poltica de 1977, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Polticas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1978. 115 p. 2736. Ecuador, la coyuntura econmica y poltica de 1980, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Polticas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Departamento de

Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1981. 158 p. 2737. Ecuador, la coyuntura econmica y poltica de 1981. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas Polticas, 1983. 136 p. 2738. Ecuador, la coyuntura econmica y poltica de 1982, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Polticas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1984. 251 p. 2739. Ecuador, la coyuntura econmica y poltica en 1979, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Polticas de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1980. 141 p. Whether items 2735-2739 constitute a monographic series or an annual and therefore a serial has yet to be ascertained as do the beginning and ending(?) dates of this set. 2740. Ecuador, la democracia esquiva, Amparo Menndez Carrin [et al.]. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1991. 205 p. Analyses challenges to restoration of democracy during the 1980s. Solidly documented. Describes the political economy in the context of the external debt crisis and the impact of structural adjustment policies on democratic consolidation. 2741. Ecuador, presente y futuro, J. Moncada [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1983. 189 p. Contents: Jos Moncada, La economa ecuatoriana, 1960-1983; Luciano Martnez, Capitalismo agrario, crisis e impacto social; Jaime Moncayo, Al encuentro de aos difciles; Alejandro Romn Armendariz, Democracia real y cambio estructural; Alejandro Moreano, La tautologa del poder y el lenguaje del pueblo. 2742. Ecuador, Public Sector Reforms for Growth in the Era of Declining Oil Output. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1991. xxi, 210 p. 2743. Egas, Jos Mara. La correlacin de fuerzas en la escena poltica ecuatoriana 1972-77, Ecuador hoy (item 2734), p. 238-265. 2744. Egas, Jos Mara. Ecuador y el gobierno de la Junta Militar, 1 ed. Buenos Aires: Tierra Nueva, 1975. 87 p. 2745. Ehlers, Jessica A. Izquierda Democrtica or Democratic Left?: A Case Study of the Origins, Philosophy, Organization and Quest for Power of a Political Party in Ecuador. 1988. x, 274 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--City University of New York. 2746. Eisenlohr, Edda. Agarreform in Ecuador in entwicklunaspolitischen Kraftspiel. Dortmund: Sozialforschungsstelle an der Universitat Munster, 1969. 267 p. 2747. Elecciones en Ecuador 1978-1980: anlisis, partidos, resultados. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales; Bogot: Edit. La Oveja Negra, 1984. 288 p. Contents: Enzo Faletto, Notas para el anlisis del proceso poltico ecuatoriano, 1968-1979; Vicente Martnez, Anlisis de la coyuntura poltico-electoral, 1976-1979; Nomenclatura; Informacin estadstica; Luis Verdesoto, Hiptesis para la interpretacin de los resultados

agregados de las votaciones realizadas entre 1978 y 1980; Composicin por tendencias en la eleccin de representantes nacionales; Composicin de la votacin cantonal en las elecciones de concejales cantonales y consejeros provinciales de 1980. 2748. Elecciones, ideologas y programas polticos, Ernesto Albn [et al.]. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1994. 247 p. Latest edition as of Dec. 1995, of Vote sabiendo (items 2904 and 2961). Revised and updated. Includes two new essays by Enrique Ayala Mora on Los sistemas electorales contemporneos and Ernesto Albn Gmez on Evolucin del sistema electoral ecuatoriano. 2749. Emanuel Morn, Carlos Julio. Estrategia econmica frente a la crisis. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985. 47 p. 2750. Emanuel Morn, Carlos Julio. La poltica econmica del gobierno nacional. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985. 48 p. 2751. Emanuel Morn, Carlos Julio. Respuesta a la crisis: polticas aplicadas por el Banco Central del Ecuador a partir del 10 de agosto de 1984. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985. 57 p. 2752. Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina (6: 1989: Cuenca, Ecuador). VI Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina (13-18 noviembre 1989): seminario internacional: democracia y alternativas de poder en Ecuador y Amrica Latina, Mara Cristina Crdenas Reyes, coordinadora. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1991. 284 p. N.B. Apparently it was with this meeting that the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador became the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina. 2753. Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina (6: 1989: Cuenca, Ecuador). VI Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina (13-18 noviembre 1989): seminario internacional: pensamiento y prctica del movimiento obrero latinoamericano y ecuatoriano en los aos ochenta y sus perspectivas en la prxima dcada, Lucas Achig Suba, coordinador. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1991. 3 v. See also: Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina (6: 1989: Cuenca, Ecuador). Los campesinos en el proceso latinoamericano de los aos ochenta y sus perspectivas, coordinacin de Ivn Gonzlez Aguirre. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1991. 2 v. (510 p.) About half of the contributions to which set focus on various aspects of the peasantry and modernization (vol. 1) and peasant conflicts and movements (vol. 2) in Ecuador. 2754. Espinosa Ramn, Petronio. Crisis econmica, clases sociales y poltica en el Ecuador: elementos para su anlisis, Politcnica (Quito), 12:3 (1987), 43-63. 2755. El Estado y la economa: polticas econmicas y clases sociales en el Ecuador y Amrica Latina, introduccin y compilacin de Lucas Pacheco; artculos de Cristin Seplveda [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador,

1983. 443 p. 2756. Estado, poltica y democracia en el Ecuador, Adrin Carrasco [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo; Cuenca: IDIS, 1988. 255 p. 2757. Estupin de Burbano, Patricia. Recuento del perodo 1979-1990, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 319-354. A solid review of political and economic developments of the twelve years in question. 2758. Etnia, poder y diferencia en los Andes septentrionales, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones AbyaYala, 1990. 215 p. 2759. Febres Cordero, Len. Autopsia de una traicin. Quito: Editora General del Ecuador, 1989. 210, xvi p. Responds to Peaherrera Padillas El viernes negro (item 2878). 2760. Febres Cordero, Len. El pensamiento de Len Febres Cordero, [seleccin por] Ramiro Rivera, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Culturales-UNP, 1986. 272 p. 2761. Fellner, Jaime; Wendy Gimbel; and Diego Garca Sayn. Human rights in Ecuador. New York: Americas Watch Committee; Lima: Andean Commission of Jurists, 1988. 86 p. 2762. Fernndez Espinosa, Ivn; and Gonzalo Ortiz Crespo. La agona del populismo?: informe urgente sobre las elecciones presidenciales de 1988, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Plaza Grande, 1988. 168 p. Explores the defeat of Abdal Bucaram in the 1988 elections. Focuses primarily on dynamics of the campaign and the major players. 2763. Field, Les W. Ecuadors Pan-Indian Uprising, NACLA Report on the Americas, 25:3 (Dec. 1991), 39-44. 2764. Franco, Galo. Traicin en Taura. Quito: [s.n.], 1987. 2 v. 2765. Galarza Arizaga, Rafael. Esquema poltico del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Edit. Alborada, 1963. 198 p. 2766. Galarza Izquierdo, Luis. Ensayo poltico sobre clases sociales y partidos polticos en el Ecuador. Quito: Ctedras Ciencia Poltica y Derecho Constitucional, U.C., 1984. iv, 239 p. 2767. Galarza Izquierdo, Luis. Partidocracia y descomposicin de la clase poltica ecuatoriana: separata de la investigacin CONUEP: clases sociales y partidos polticos del Ecuador 1992, 1 ed. Quito: CONUEP, 1992. 374 p. 2768. Galarza Izquierdo, Luis. La trampa burguesa del progresismo poltico en el Ecuador: la Doctrina Rolds y el progreso de desestabilizacin del regimen poltico: motivos de su muerte, 1 ed. Quito: Editorial Universitaria, 1986 [i.e., 1988]. 268 p. Cover title: La trampa burguesa del centro poltico en el Ecuador, 1979-1986. 2769. Galarza Zavala, Jaime. Ecuador, el oro y la pobreza, Ecuador hoy (item 2734), p. 9-18.

2770. Galarza Zavala, Jaime. El festn del petroleo. Quito: Ediciones Solitierra, 1972. 311 p. Most recent known ed.: 6a ed. Quito: Edit. Alberto Crespo Encalada, 1981. 462 p. 2771. Galarza Zavala, Jaime. Quienes mataron a Rolds?, 2 ed. Quito: Ediciones Solitierra, 1982. iv, 232 p. 2772. Garaycoa, Xavier; and Luis Emilio Veintimilla. Defending Democracy and Fighting for the Working Peoples Rights, World Marxist Review, 29:5 (May 1986), 93-99. The authors are members of the Partido Comunista del Ecuador. 2773. Gobierno y poltica en el Ecuador contemporneo, edicin de Luis Verdesoto. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1991. 558 p. A basic reader on standard political themes by several leading social scientists, including Agustn Cueva, Osvaldo Hurtado, and Amparo Mendndez-Carrin. 2774. Los Gobiernos seccionales del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales; Vicepresidencia de la Repblica; Programa Nacional de Desburocratizacin, 1986. 225 p. A directory of national, provincial, cantonal, and municipal divisions and autonomous agencies of the state and of their officeholders as of 1986. 2775. Granda Aguilar, Vctor. En defensa de la dignidad nacional: interpelacin del diputado Vctor Granda A. al Ministro de Defensa General Medardo Salazar N. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1989. 70 p. 2776. Granda Aguilar, Vctor. Informe al XLII Congreso del PSE. Quito: Ediciones La Tierra, 1989. 60 p. 2777. Granda Arciniega, Daniel. La modernizacin del Estado y las fuerzas armadas del Ecuador. Quito: Concejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa: Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo, 1992. 158 p. 2778. Grayson, George W. Populism, Petroleum and Politics in Ecuador, Current History, 68:401 (Jan. 1975), 15-19, 39-40. 2779. Guerrero, Andrs. Haciendas, capital y lucha de clases andinas: disolucin de la hacienda serrana y lucha poltica en los aos 1960-1964, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1983. 146 p. 2780. Guerrero, Fernando. Algo ms sobre Taura, las amnistas y el Congreso, 86-88. Riobamba: Edit. Pedaggica Freire, [1989?]. 51 p. 2781. La Gua del ciudadano. Quito: ILDIS, 1983. 193 p. 2782. Handelman, Howard. The Dilemma of Ecuadorian Democracy. Hanover, New Hampshire: Universities Field Staff International, 1984. 3 v. (UFSI reports; 1984/no. 34-36). Contents: pt. 1, Jaime Rolds and the Politics of Deadlock; pt. 2, Hurtado and the Debt Trap; pt. 3, The 1983-84 Presidential Elections.

2783. Handelman, Howard. Ecuador: A New Political Direction. Hanover, New Hampshire: American Universities Field Staff, 1979. 24 p. (Reports; 1979/no. 47) 2784. Handelman, Howard. Ecuadorian Agrarian Reform: The Politics of Limited Change. Hanover, New Hampshire: American Universities Field Staff, 1980. 19 p. (Reports; 1980/no. 49) 2785. Hanson, David Parker. Political Decision Making in Ecuador: The Influence of Business Groups. 1971. xi, 378 leaves. Ph.D. thesis--University of Michigan. 2786. Hidalgo Ruales, Diego; and Fabin Navarro Dvila. La burocracia pblica en el Ecuador. Quito: Fundacin Friedrich Naumann: Asociacin Latinoamericana Pblica, Seccin Nacional Ecuatoriana, 1988. 2787. Hidalgo V., Francisco; Eduardo Gordillo R.; and Eduardo Valencia V. Innovaciones de polticas econmicas y comportamiento de los actores sociales en el contexto de la crisis, 19801987: el caso ecuatoriano, Haca un nuevo orden estatal en Amrica Latina?: los actores socioeconmicos del adjuste estructural, coordinacin de Mario R. dos Santos y Fernando Caldern (Buenos Aires: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, 1988), vol. 3, p. 289343. A solid survey of the political economy and socioeconomic conditions during the 1980s. 2788. Hoffmann, Karl-Dieter. Militrherrschaft und Entwicklund in der Dritten Welt: der Fall Ecuador unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Militrregimes 1972-1979. Saarbrcken: Breitenbach, 1985. 670 p. A doctoral dissertation on military intervention and participation in Ecuadorian politics. 2789. Hurtado, Osvaldo. Democracia y crisis. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, 1984-1985. 12 v. A set of basic sources on the Rolds-Hurtado and Hurtado administrations. 2790. Hurtado, Osvaldo. La dictatura civil, 1 ed. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1988. 525 p. Not surprisingly Hurtado extolls the accomplishments of his administration and condemns the regime of his successor Febres Cordero. 2791. Hurtado, Osvaldo. Dos dilogos sobre el futuro. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1992. 83 p. 2792. Hurtado, Osvaldo. Gobernabilidad y reforma constitucional. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1993. 92 p. 2793. Hurtado, Osvaldo. Poltica democrtica. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1990. 2 v. Contents: vol. 1. Los ltimos veinticinco aos (264 p.); vol. 2. Testimonios, 1964-1989 (506 p.). 2794. Hurtado, Osvaldo. La victoria del no: crnica de un plebiscito. Quito: FESO, 1986. 245 p.

A detailed analysis of the 1986 elections by a professional social scientist as well as a former president of the country. 2795. Ibarra Illnez, Alicia. Los indgenas y el Estado en el Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: Edciones Abya-Yala, 1987. 261 p. See also her Los indios del Ecuador y su demanda frente al Estado, Boletn de antropologa americana, 26 (dic. 1992), 69-85. 2796. Indios: una reflexin sobre el levantamiento indgena de 1990, Ileana Almeida [et al.]. Quito; ILDIS; El Duende: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1991. 527 p. Examines conditions underlying the June 1990 Indian uprising. 2797. Isaacs, Anita. Military Rule and Transition in Ecuador, 1972-92. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993. xii, 178 p. Primarily an analysis of authoritarianism and civil-military relations during the Rodrguez Lara years (1972-1976) and secondarily of the subsequent return to and consolidation of democratic government. 2798. Isaacs, Anita. Problems of Democratic Consolidation in Ecuador, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 10:2 (1991), 221-238. A preliminary version of final chapter of item 2797. 2799. Jcome, Nicanor. Evolucin de la poltica social ecuatoriana, 1963-1979, Revista interamericana de planificacin, 17:68 (dic. 1983), 183-193. 2800. Jcome, Nicanor; and Patricio Moncayo. Partidos polticos y programas del gobierno del Ecuador. Quito: Centro de Estudios Sociales Latinoamericanos CESLA, 1979. 104 p. 2801. Jaramillo, Marco. Ecuador, impacto de las polticas econmicas sobre el medio rural 1964-1985, Economa (Quito), 84 (mar. 1987), 71-123. 2802. Jarrn Jarrn, Ricardo Arturo. Alfaro Vive, Carajo!: el cementerio de los vivos: testimonio, 2 ed. Mxico, D.F.: Ediciones Patria Nueva, 1988. 76 p. 2803. Larrea Maldonado, Carlos; and M. Silvia Sommaruga. Las elecciones presidenciales del Ecuador: participacin y consistencia de los resultados de la primera vuelta presidencial, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Quito, 1984. 40 p. 2804. Lawson, Victoria A. Government Policy Biases and Ecuadorian Agricultural Change, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78:3 (Sept. 1988), 433-452. Examines interplay between national policy, agricultural production, and economic change by regions. 2805. Lawson, Victoria A. National Economic Policies, Local Variations in Structure of Production, and Uneven Regional Development: the Case of Ecuador. 1986. x, 128 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Ohio State University. 2806. Len Gonzlez, Carlos. La ideologa ecuatoriana. Guayaquil: Edit. Universidad de Guayaquil, 1991. 228 p.

2807. Len Trujillo, Jorge. De campesinos a ciudadanos diferentes: el levantamiento indgena. Quito: CEDIME: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1994. 235 p. A detailed, scholarly study of the 1990 uprising. Analyzes the movement in terms of its multiple actors and their opponents, myriad actions and various objectives. 2808. Len Velasco, Juan Bernardo. Las elecciones en el Ecuador: concejales cantonales, 1978-1990. Quito: CIESA, 1992. 166 p. A detailed analysis of the results of local elections from 1978 through 1990. 2809. Len Velasco, Juan Bernardo. Elecciones, votos y partidos: evolucin y geografa de las preferencias electorales en el Ecuador, 1978-1986. Quito: Centro de Documentacin e Informacin de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador, 1987. 138 p. 2810. El Levantamiento indgena y la cuestin nacional. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala: CDDH, Comisin por la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, 1990. 114 p. 2811. Levy, James R.; and Nick D. Mills, Jr. The Challenge to Democratic Reformism in Ecuador. Albuquerque: Latin American Institute, University of New Mexico, 1981. i, 59 p. Revised and updated in: Studies in Comparative International Development, 18:4 (Winter 1983), 3-33. 2812. Liberazione in Ecuador: limpegno di una chiesa, Roberto Cremaschi. Bologna: E.M.I., 1982. 225 p. This work should have been listed under Church history as it has to do with liberation theology much more than it has to do with political developments of the late-twentieth century. The author is a priest. 2813. Linke, Lilo. Ecuadors Politics: President Velascos Fourth Exit, World Today, 18:2 (Feb. 1962), 56-69. 2814. Luna Osorio, Luis. Ecuador, sociedad limitada ... ?: propuesta para el futuro. Quito: PROMOSER, 1989. 292 p. Analyzes recent economic developments and proposes structural changes needed for resolution of the countrys socioeconomic problems. 2815. Macario Briones, la otra cara de la leyenda, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Paimga, 1985. 92 p. 2816. Maier, Georg. The Ecuadoran Presidential Election of June 2, 1968: An Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Comparative Study of Political Systems, 1969. v, 90 p. 2817. Maiguashca G., Franklin E. The Role of State and Market in the Economic Development of Ecuador, Journal of Economic Issues, 27:2 (June 1993), 441-450. A provocative yet probably valid assessment of the economic sins of the state since 1972 and of the inability of the Market to right the transgressions of recent administrations. Maiguashca maintains that neither the hands on nor the hands off approach have worked in Ecuador because neither presidents nor their advisors really understand nor know what to do or realize the consequences of their actions. Also as Maiguashca reminds us, The Market . . . [is] a set of

social institutions and learned behaviors that [in Ecuador] needs to be build practically from scratch . . . 2818. Maldonado, John. Taura: lo que no se ha dicho, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1988. 144 p. 2819. Maldonado Lince, Guillermo. La reforma agraria en el Ecuador, Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-brsilien (Caravelle), 34 (1980), 33-56. Analyzes the Ley de reforma agraria of 1973 and its implementation through 1979. The author is a former Minister of Agriculture. 2820. Manual de gobierno de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto de Estudios Administrativos, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas y Administrativas, Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1962. 348 p. 2821. Martnez Estrada, Alejandro. Ecuador, estado de emergencia. [Quito?: s.n., 1986]. 184 p. 2822. Martz, John D. Ecuador, Conflicting Political Culture and the Quest for Progress. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1972. viii, 216 p. A solid essay on political developments of the 1950s and 1960s. Martz is careful to take into account the demographic, economic, and social aspects of political culture. Better written than his Politics and petroleum (item 2828). 2823. Martz, John D. Ecuador, the Right Takes Command, Current History, 84:499 (Feb. 1985), 69-72, 84-85. On the first six months of the Febres Cordero regime and the problems facing his administration. See also item 2823. 2824. Martz, John D. Electoral Campaigning and Latin American Democratization: the Grancolombian Experience, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 32:1 (Spring 1990), 17-43. A comparative study of national politics and presidential elections in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. 2825. Martz, John D. Instability in Ecuador, Current History, 87:525 (Jan. 1988), 17-20, 3738. On the Febres Cordero regime. Continues item 2823. 2826. Martz, John D. Marxism in Ecuador, Inter-American Economic Affairs, 33:1 (Summer 1979), 3-28. 2827. Martz, John D. The Military in Ecuador: Policies and Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Albuquerque: Latin American Institute, University of New Mexico, 1988. 66 p. (Occasional Paper Series; no. 3) Primarily concerned with the years 1972-1979. 2828. Martz, John D. Politics and Petroleum in Ecuador. New Brunswick: Transaction Books,

1987. xii, 432 p. A dispassionate, scholarly assessment of politics and the impact of petroleum on political developments between 1972 and 1984. Unfortunately riddled with word processing errors. 2829. Martz, John D. Populist Leadership and the Party Caudillo: Ecuador and the CFP, 196281, Studies in Comparative International Development, 18:3 (Fall 1983), 22-49. 2830. Mass Media and Political Information in Quito, Ecuador, J.M. McLeod [et al.], Public Opinion Quarterly, 32:4 (Winter 1968/1969), 575-587. 2831. Mauge Mosquera, Ren. Ever in Search, World Marxist Review, 32:12 (Dec. 1989), 913. 2832. Mauge Mosquera, Ren. Political Situation in Ecuador, World Marxist Review, 21:2 (Feb. 1978), 124-128. 2833. Memoria del primer Encuentro Nacional de Planificacin Regional y Desarrollo. Cuenca: Centro de Reconversin Econmica del Azuay, Caar y Morona Santiago, 1981. 240 p. 2834. Mena Soto, Joaqun. Enfoques universitarios: de la dictadura militar al quinto velasquismo: hombres, hechos y proyecciones. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1968. 213 p. Comments on political, economic, and social conditions and developments between 1963 and 1968. The author was a member of the Facultad de Filosofa of the Universidad Central. 2835. Mendoza. Luis Anbal. El costo poltico en el Ecuador: estudio crtico de la realidad econmica, social y poltica de la repblica en esta ltima dcada. Guayaquil: Impresos Nueva Luz, 1983. 188 p. 2836. Menndez Carrin, Amparo. La democracia en el Ecuador: desafos, dilemas y perspectivas, Pensamiento iberoamericano, 14 (jul./dic. 1988), 123-142. 2837. Menndez Carrin, Amparo. La democracia en el Ecuador: desafos, dilemas y perspectivas, Sntesis: revista documental de ciencias sociales iberoamericanas (ene./abr. 1992), 101-123. Notwithstanding their identical titles, items 2836 and 2837 are not the same study. 2838. Mills, Nick D. Crisis, conflicto y consenso: Ecuador, 1979-1984. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, 1984. 207 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 2) An assessment of the Rolds and Hurtado administrations by a North American historian well acquainted with the politics and politicians of Ecuador. 2839. Mita Vera, Jos Antonio. Diagnstico de poltica econmica, 1961-1972. [La Paz?: s.n., 1974?] 2 v. in 1 (243 p.) 2840. Molina Tapia, Telmo. Balance de la poltica petrolera ecuatoriana en el perodo 19701981, Economa (Quito), 80 (nov. 182), 57-88. 2841. Moncada, Jos. El decenio de los 70: petrleo, evolucin econmica y compleijidad socio-poltica, Economa (Quito), 75 (mayo 1980), 24-45.

2842. Moncada, Jos. Dos decenios se van, una crisis se queda. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional: CIPAD, Publicaciones Tercer Mundo, 1988. 131 p. 2843. Moncada, Jos. La economa ecuatoriana de los sesenta a los ochenta, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 55-95. A solid review of the political economy of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s by an exceptionally literate and prolific economist. 2844. Moncada, Jos. Ecuador, integracin mundial o desintegracin nacional? Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1992. 126 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 39) 2845. Moncada, Jos. Ecuador, los lmites del (sub)desarrollo. Quito: CEDEP, 1989. 136 p. Items 2843 and 2844 are critiques of the Rodrigo Borja (1988-1992) government by a prominent economist and spokesperson of the Left. 2846. Moncagatta, Juan Pablo. Democracia Popular: invitacin a una busqueda. Quito: Empresa Editora Porvenir, 1986. 84 p. 2847. Moncayo, Patricio. Ecuador, grietas en la dominacin. Quito: [s.n.], 1977. 256 p. 2848. Moncayo, Patricio. Evolucin de la estructura de poder en el Ecuador actual, Cultura, 2:4 (mayo./ago. 1979), 197-219. 2849. Moncayo, Patricio. Reforma o democracia: alternativas del sistema poltico ecuatoriano. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1982. 201 p. 2850. Montero, Nely. Cronologa: hechos polticos, sociales y econmicos en el gobierno de Osvaldo Hurtado. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1984. 330 p. 2851. Moreano, Alejandro. El proceso de formacin del nuevo regimen poltico. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, [1981?]. ii, 72 p. 2852. Moreano, Alejandro. El sistema poltico en el Ecuador contemporneo, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 181-219. 2853. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E.; and Jos Figueroa. El levantamiento indgena del Inti Raymi de 1990. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1992. 160 p. 2854. Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (Ecuador). La crisis del proyecto socialdemcrata. Quito: Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria, 1980. 177 p. 2855. Movimiento obrero del Ecuador, 1970-1979: documentos, recopilacin de Elas Muoz Vicua y Leonardo Vicua Izquierdo. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1985. 300 p. 2856. Las Nacionalidades indgenas en el Ecuador: nuestro proceso organizativo, 2. ed., rev. y aum. Quito: Editorial TINCUI/CONAIE: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1989. 317 p. Outlines the history, structure, ideologies, and demands of the organizations that make up the Confederacin de Nacionalidades Indgenas del Ecuador (CONAIE). 2857. Narvez Quionez, Ivn. Flexibilizacin laboral y crisis. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1992. 236 p.

Examines political and social aspects of unionization of government workers. 2858. Navarro Dvila, Fabin. La divisin poltica administrativa del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, Seccin Nacional del Ecuador, 1981. 71 p. 2859. Needler, Martin C. Anatomy of A Coup dEtat: Ecuador 1963. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Comparative Study of Political Systems, 1964. v, 54 p. 2860. Needler, Martin C. The President of Ecuador, Contemporary Review, 244:1417 (Feb. 1984), 57-61. Outlines the career of Osvaldo Hurtado and socioeconomic and political developments since 1948. 2861. Nickelsburg, Gerard. Inflation, Expectations and Qualitative Government Policy in Ecuador, 1970-82, World Development, 15:8 (Aug. 1987), 1077-1085. 2862. Nueva agresin al pueblo del F.M.I. y del gobierno neoliberal: medidas econmicas del 11 de agosto de 1986: recopilacin. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil; Frente Democrtico de Economistas (F.D.E.), 1986. 93 p. 2863. Oquendo, Diego. Alegato por la prensa y sus libertades, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1987. 309 p. 2864. Ortiz, Santiago; Ral Borja; and Franz Josef Hinkelammert. Ecuador, coyuntura poltica: ensayos, entrevista. Quito: Centro de Educacin Popular, 1990. 92 p. 2865. Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo. La hora del general, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1986. 169 p. 2866. Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo. Operacin Taura, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Plaza Grande, 1987. 222 p. Items 2865 and 2866 are accounts of the movement led by Air Force General Vargas Pazzos against the government of Febres Cordero in 1987. The author is a journalist. 2867. Ortiz Villacs, Marcelo. El control del poder: Ecuador, 1966-1984. Quito: Grficas San Pablo, 1984. 185 p. 2868. Oviedo, Jorge. El movimiento obrero ecuatoriano entre 1960 y 1985, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 11, p. 221-256. A useful survey of the history of the labor movement during the 25 years under review. 2869. Pachano Bertero, Abelardo. Polticas econmicas comparadas: Ecuador, 1981-1987, Neoliberalismo y polticas econmicas alternativas (Quito: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo [CORDES], 1987), p. 205-242. A comparative study of the economic policies of the Hurtado (1981-1984) and Febres Cordero (1984-1988) administrations. 2870. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. La poltica econmica del gobierno de Febres Cordero, Ecuador debate, 8 (abr. 1985), 11-30. 2871. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. La poltica econmica en el Ecuador: los aos setenta, El Estado y la economa: poltica econmica y clases sociales en el Ecuador y Amrica Latina,

introduccin de Lucas Pacheco (Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, 1983), p. 115-144. 2872. Pez, Alexei. La nueva derecha ecuatoriana, Sntesis: revista documental de ciencias sociales iberoamericanas (ene./abr. 1992), 169-178. 2873. Paredes Avila, Eduardo. La oligarqua y la crisis. Quito: Centro de Estudio y Difusin Social, 1985. 116 p. (Serie la economa ecuatoriana de los ltimos aos; no. 2) 2874. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Democracia o demagogia en el Ecuador, Combate (San Jos, Costa Rica), 3:15 (mar./abr. 1961), 18-27. 2875. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Teora y prctica del conductor conducido, Combate (San Jos, Costa Rica), 4:20 (ene./feb. 1962), 9-23. 2876. Los Partidos polticos: documentos bsicos. Quito: Tribunal Supremo Electoral; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1989. 350 p. (Elecciones y democracia en el Ecuador; 2) A basic reference work on history and ideology of the currently important political parties. See also items 2896 and 5469. 2877. Peaherrera Padilla, Blasco. Controversia. Quito: Artes Grficas Senefelder, 1987. 450 p. 2878. Peaherrera Padilla, Blasco. El viernes negro, 3 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo 1988. 191 p. An anti-Febres Cordero diatribe, to which the former president responded in Autopsia de una traicin (item 2759). Also a best seller in that it went through three editions in the same year that it appeared. 2879. El Pensamiento de ARNE. Quito: Industrias Grficas CYMA, 1969. 267 p. 2880. Prez Romo-Leroux, Santiago. Crisis externa y planificacin en Ecuador, 1980-1984, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1985. 104 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 8) 2881. Prez Sinz, Juan Pablo. Clase obrera y democracia en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1985. 208 p. Includes a survey of the history of the urban working class since World War II. 2882. Los Placeres del poder, Mara Arboleda [et al.]. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1986. 247 p. A critical review of the first half of the Febres Cordero administration. 2883. La Poltica econmica del gobierno de Febres Cordero. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1986. 84 p. Also available in a 2 ed. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, 1988. 84 p. 2884. Poltica econmica, Estado y lucha de clases en el Ecuador, perodo 1972-1975, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:3/4 (1977), 13-76. 2885. Poltica estatal y poblacin indgena, Ministerio de Bienestar Social, Oficina Nacional de Asuntos Indgenas. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1984. 517 p.

Papers presented at the 1984 Seminario sobre Poltica Estatal y Poblacin Indgena, sponsored by the Ministerio de Bienestar Social and the Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo. 2886. The Political Feasibility of Adjustment in Ecuador and Venezuela, by Alain de Janry [et al.]. Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1994. 155 p. 2887. Politically Feasible and Equitable Adjustment: Some Alternatives for Ecuador, Alain de Janry [et al.], World Development, 19:11 (Nov. 1991), 1577-1594. 2888. Polticas sociales, desarrollo y compensacin social, Alberto Acosta [et al.]. Quito: Grupo de Trabajo sobre Dueda Externa y Desarrollo-FONDAD, 1993. 243 p. 2889. Los Polticos y los indgenas: diez entrevistas a candidatos presidenciales y mximos representantes de partidos polticos del Ecuador sobre la cuestin indgena, Erwin H. Frank, Ninfa Patio y Marta Rodrguez. Quito: ILDIS, 1992. viii, 160 p. Interviews with Enrique Ayala Mora (Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano), Abdal Bucaram Ortiz (Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano), Cecilia Caldern (Partido Frente Radical Alfarista), Alberto Dahik (Partido Conservador), Jaime Hurtado (Partido Movimiento Popular Democrtico), Ren Mauge (Partido Frente Amplio de Izquierda), Jamil Mahuad (Partido Democracia Popular), Jaime Nebot (Partido Social Cristiano), Flavio Torres (Partido Liberal Ecuatoriano), and Andrs Vallejo (Partido Izquierda Democrtica). 2890. Ponce Enrquez, Camilo. Discursos y alocuciones pronunciados durante la campaa electoral y los primeros meses de gobierno. Quito: Editora Nacional, 1986. 377 p. 2891. Populismo, Blasco Peaherrera Padilla [et al.]. Quito: ILDIS; El Duende; Ediciones Abya-Yala 1992. 213 p. 2892. Un Presidente, un pueblo, una obra. Quito: Secretara Nacional de Informacin Pblica, 1985. 66 p. On the presidency of Len Febres Cordero. 2893. Principios ideolgicos y planes de gobierno de los partidos polticos de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Tribunal Supremo Electoral, 1981. 289 p. Official philosophies and platforms of the sixteen political parties as of 1981. 2894. Proao, Franklin. Desequilibrios de la balanza de pagos y polticas cambiarias en el Ecuador, 1972-1985. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, 1987. 46 p. 2895. Proao Maya, Marco. Yo, CFP: ensayo poltico. Quito: [s.n.], 1980. 277 p. 2896. El Proceso electoral ecuatoriano. Quito: Tribunal Supremo Electoral: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1989. 183 p. (Elecciones y democracia en el Ecuador; 1) Includes retrospective data. See also items 2876 and 5469. 2897. Pueblos indios, Estado y derecho, Enrique Ayala Mora [et al.]. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1992. 226 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 36) 2898. Pyne, Peter. Legislature and Development: The Case of Ecuador, 1960-1961,

Comparative Political Studies, 9:1 (Apr. 1976), 69-92. 2899. Pyne, Peter. The Politics of Instability in Ecuador: The Overthrow of the President, 1961, Journal of Latin American Studies, 7:1 (May 1975), 109-133. A detailed analysis of the overthrow of Velasco Ibarra and his replacement by Carlos Julio Arosemena. Takes into account economic and foreign policy factors as well as political developments and personalities. 2900. Pyne, Peter. Presidential Caesarism in Latin America, Myth or Reality?: A Case Study of Jos Mara Velasco Ibarra, 1960-1, Comparative Politics, 9:2 (Apr. 1977), 281-304. 2901. Pyne, Peter. The Role of Congress in the Ecuadorian Political System and Its Contribution to the Overthrow of President Velasco Ibarra in 1961. Glasgow: Institute of Latin American Studies, 1973. 36 p. (Occasional Papers; no. 7) 2902. Ramn Valarezo, Galo. El regreso de los runas: la potencialidad del proyecto indio en el Ecuador contemporneo. Quito: COMUNIDEC: Fundacin Interamericana, 1993. xv, 349 p. 2903. La Reforma del Estado en el Ecuador: alternativas para el cambio institucional, coordinadores de Ecuador Siglo XXI, Cornelio Marchn, Alexander Schubert; consultor, Robinson Prez. Quito: Ecuador Siglo XXI: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo: Proyecto CONADE/GTZ, 1992. xii, 186 p. 2904. Reyes, Beatriz; and Ramn Gorriarn. Vote sabiendo: que ofrecen los partidos y los candidatos. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1983. 303 p. The original version of what has become a standard guide to the platforms and candidates of the political parties (seventeen as of 1983). Periodically updated: see items 2748 and 2961. 2905. Rivera, Ramiro. Modernizacin econmica, transformaciones sociales y crisis del sistema poltico en el Ecuador, 1960-1980, Humanismo (Quito), 1 (jul./sept. 1983), 144-180. 2906. Rodrguez Peaherrera, Carlos A. Administracin pblica ecuatoriana: breve recuento histricos y algunas ideas para planificar su cambio. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1987. 191 p. 2907. Rolds Aguilera, Jaime. Jaime Rolds, ideario poltico del presidente, [recopilacin de] Alba Chvez de Alvarado, Carlos Alvarado Loor; colaboracin de Nury Castro Soriano [et al.]. Guayaquil: Departamento de Investigacin de la Comunicacin Social, Facultad de Comunicacin Social, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1982. 222 p. 2908. Rolds Aguilera, Len. El abuso del poder: los decretos-leyes econmicos urgentes aprobados por el gobierno del Ing. Len Febres Cordero, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1986. 213 p. 2909. Romero Simancas, Nelson. Planificacin, programacin e investigacin de proyectos de desarrollo social. Quito: Junta Nacional de Planificacin y Coordinacin Econmica, Oficina de Publicaciones, 1979. viii, 354 p. 2910. Rosales, Mario. El municipio ecuatoriano: sntomas y razones de su fragilidad, Descentralizacin y democracia: gobiernos locales en Amrica Latina, edicin de Jordi Borja [et

al.] (Buenos Aires: CLACSO/SUR/CEUMT, 1989), p. 241-284. 2911. Rosero Garcs, Fernando. Estado y agricultura en el Ecuador: el proceso de formulacin de la Ley de reforma agraria de 1973, El Estado y la economa: poltica econmica y clases sociales en el Ecuador y Amrica Latina, introduccin de Lucas Pacheco (Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, 1983), p. 245-294. 2912. Rosero Garcs, Fernando. Levantamiento indgena: tierra y precios, 1 ed. Quito: CEDIS, 1990. 96 p. 2913. Roucek, Joseph Slabey. Ecuador in Geopolitics, Contemporary Review, 205:2 (Feb. 1964), 74-82. 2914. Saad, Pedro A. La revolucin ecuatoriana y sus caractersticas. Guayaquil: Edit. Universidad de Guayaquil, 1989. 112 p. Saad is a leading Communist and major spokesperson for the Party. 2915. Senz Andrade, Alvaro. Comportamiento electoral ecuatoriano. Quito: INFOC, [1989?]. 61 p. 2916. Saint-Geours, Yves. Lquateur de Len Febres Cordero Rodrigo Borja (1984-1988), Problmes dAmrique Latine, 89 (3e tri. 1988), 3-28. 2917. Saint-Geours, Yves. Equateur, lalternance, Problmes dAmrique Latine, 75 (1er tri. 1985), 121-135. Examines the significance of the 1984 election of a rightist president on the one hand, and of a largely leftist congress on the other. 2918. Salamea Crdova, Marco. El rgimen febrescorderista. Cuenca: Departamento de Difusin Cultural y la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas de la Universidad de Cuenca, 1988. 160 p. A balanced assessment. 2919. Salgado, Germnico; and Germn Acosta C. El Ecuador del maana: una ruta con problemas. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, 1991. xxvi, 402 p. A detailed analysis of recent demographic, economic, and social trends with projections to the year 2000. 2920. Salgado Pesantes, Hernn. Instituciones polticas y Constitucin del Ecuador. Quito: ILDIS, 1987. 271 p. 2921. Snchez-Parga, Jos. Ecuador, en el engranje neoliberal, Nueva sociedad (Caracas), 123 (ene./feb. 1993), 12-17. An assessment of the political and social costs of the neoliberal policies of the Durn Balln regime. 2922. Sanders, Thomas G. Ecuador, Politics of Transition. Hanover, New Hampshire: American Universities Field Staff, 1977. 16 p. (West Coast South America Series; vol. 24, no. 1)

2923. Sandoval Peralta, Carlos. Poltica cambiara en el Ecuador, 1970-1986. Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1987. 123 p. 2924. Santana, Roberto. Actores y escenarios tnicos en Ecuador: el levantamiento de 1990, Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-brsilien (Caravelle), 59 (1992), 161-188. Santana argues that the June 1990 uprising represents a turning point in the struggle for the preservation and revitalization of native rights as espoused by the Confederacin Nacional de Indgenas del Ecuador (CONAIE). Maintains that the uprising revealed the limits of CONAIEs ability to bargain with the state and to utilize mass mobilization as an agency. 2925. Santos, Guillermo Manuel. La conspiracin, 1 ed. Quito: Letra Nueva, [1982?]. 117 p. 2926. Santos Alvite, Eduardo. Ecuador, hacia el diseo de una teora del desarrollo humano, 1 ed. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Jurisprudencia, Ciencias Polticas y Sociales, Escuela de Ciencias Internacionales, 1983. 156 p. 2927. Santos Alvite, Eduardo. Ecuador, la dcada de los noventa: principales desafos. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional: Colegio de Economistas de Quito, 1993. 86 p. 2928. Santos Alvite, Eduardo; and Mariana Mora Duque. Ecuador, la dcada de los ochenta: crisis econmica y ensayo neoliberal. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1987. 122 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 19) Criticizes the economic policies of the Febres Cordero administration (1984-1988). 2929. Sarmiento Palacio, Eduardo. Hacia un modelo de crecimiento equitativo: ensayos recientes, 1 ed. Bogot: Facultad de Economa, Universidad de los Andes, 1987. 228 p. 2930. Schmidt, Wolgang. Discurso poltico y coyuntura econmica en Ecuador, Estudios andinos (Lima), 19 (1983), 3-26. 2931. Schodt, David W. Austerity Policies in Ecuador: Christian Democratic and Social Christian Versions of the Gospel, Paying the Costs of Austerity in Latin America, edited by Howard Handelman and Werner Baer (Boulder: Westview Press, 1989), p. 171-194. 2932. Schodt, David W. Ecuador, an Andean Enigma. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. xvi, 188 p. A thoughtful, well informed analysis and interpretation of late-twentieth-century economic and political developments by a North American economist. 2933. Schodt, David W. State Structure and Reformist Politics: Ecuador during the Petroleum Period, 1972-1983, SECOLAS Annals, 17 (Mar. 1986), 73-94. Examines the impact of the oil boom on social and political developments, especially state projects for the poor and the increase in the financing of public services. Also published as a separate under the title: The Ecuadorian Petroleum Sector during the Petroleum Period, 19721983. Austin: Office for Public Sector Studies, The Institute of Latin American Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, 1986. 21 p. 2934. El Secuestro del poder, Fernando Artieda [et al.],1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1987. 118 p.

Examines the frustrated attempt by Air Force General Frank Vargas Pazzos to seize the presidency by seizing the president. 2935. Seminario Internacional: Metas de la Ayuda al Desarrollo: Acciones para un Cambio Socio-econmico del Ecuador. Quito: INEDES, [1973?]. xi, 126 p. Contents: Fernando Velasco, Crecimiento econmico-social del Ecuador; Oswaldo Hurtado, Diagnstico socio-poltico del Ecuador; INEDES, Anlisis cuantitativo de la educacin; Luis Lpez, Situacin fiscal del Ecuador; Jos Vicente Eguiguren, Iglesia y promocin en el Ecuador; INEDES, Orientaciones para el cambio socio-econmico; Heinz-Bernd Knuvener, El Tercer Mundo desde la perspectiva del mundo desarrollado. 2936. Sevilla Salgado, Juan. Diario de un cambio poltico: enero 1979-mayo 1981. Quito: Impr. del Colegio Tcnico Don Bosco, 1984. 171 p. 2937. Sierra Castro, Enrique. El estilo de la planificacin en el Ecuador: antecedentes, problemas y perspectivas. Quito: CORDES (Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo), 1988. 44 p. 2938. Silva Luvecce, Jorge. El militarismo en la accin poltica nacional, Economa (Quito), 74 (dic. 1979), 50-102. 2939. Silva Luvecce, Jorge. Nacionalismo y petrleo en el Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1976. 236 p. Also published under the title: Ecuador 1976: fracas el nacionalismo? 2940. Tafur, Marco. La relacin estado-empresa privada a travs de las transferencias financieras: los signos de la acumulacin. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, 1991. 163 p. 2941. Tern, Juan Fernando. AVC: revelaciones y reflexiones sobre una guerrilla inconclusa? Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, 1994. 250 p. 2942. Thoumi, Francisco E. The Hidden Logic of Irrational Economic Policies in Ecuador, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 32:1 (Summer 1990), 43-68. Argues the nation needs more rather than less state intervention in the economy to promote development, that is to say, to create the conditions necessary for sustained growth, especially if the country is to become regionally competitive and socially equitable. Critical of recent administrations yet sanguine as to possibilities. 2943. Ulloa Vernimmen, Jos. Taura, patologa de un complot: la verdad documentad. Guayaquil: Edit. Tercer Milenio, 1989. vii, 218 p. 2944. Urriola, Rafael. Crisis, FMI y neo-liberalismo. Quito: Centro de Planificacin y Estudios Sociales, 1984. 80 p. 2945. Vallejo, Carlos. Polticas estatales de comercializacin agropecuaria, 1980-1986. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios para el Desarrollo, [1987?]. 34, [62] p. 2946. Van Dongen, Toine. The Restrepo Case: Murky Waters, Human Rights Quarterly, 14:3 (Aug. 1992), 289-302.

Reports on results of fact-finding mission of a commission of inquiry established by the United Nations Secretary General to look into the disappearance of two sons of prominent Colombian residents. It turned out that members of the National Police had killed the two teenagers, neither of whom appear to have been problem children in any sense, and secretly disposed of their bodies. The why and wherefore are bizarre. 2947. Varas, Augusto; and Fernando Bustamante. Fuerzas armadas y poltica en Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones Latinoamericana, 1978. 214 p. 2948. Verdesoto C., Luis F. 1972-1976: petrleo, expansin capitalista, tiempo, reforma y ordenamiento de fuerzas, Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 3, p. 191-251. A more or less objective assessment of political and economic developments during the Rodrguez Lara administration. 2949. Verdesoto C., Luis F. Cmaras de industria, estrategia reformista y poltica 1972-1976, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 2:7/8 (1978), 204-240. 2950. Verdesoto C., Luis F. El sistema de partidos polticos y la sociedad civil en Ecuador, Los Sistemas polticos en Amrica Latina, coordinacin de Lorenzo Meyer y Jos Luis Reyna (Mxico, D.F.: Siglo Veintiuno Editores; Tokio: Universidad de las Naciones Unidas, 1989), p. 127-170. 2951. Verduga, Csar. Algunos rasgos de un caso particular de intervencin estatal en el desarrollo del capitalismo en el agro, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 2:7/8 (1978), 286-300. 2952. Verduga, Csar. Se consolidar el proceso democrtico ecuatoriano?, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 44:4 (oct./dic. 1982), 1163-1185. 2953. Verduga, Csar; and Gustavo Cosse. El Estado y el agro en el caso ecuatoriano: reflexiones sobre una investigacin, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 40:3 (jul./sept. 1978), 1055-1100. 2954. Verduga, Csar; and Gustavo Cosse. Las polticas estatales para el agro ecuatoriano en el perodo 1941-1968, Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 2, p. 135-193. Notwithstanding the title, the authors focus on the years 1964-1975 and wander all over the economic face of the country. Also they write as though the state were an entity in and of itself, independent of the Armed Forces, politicians and other personages, and the political parties. 2955. Verduga, Csar; and Ninfa Len. El arte de diferenciar: dilogos con Csar Verduga. Quito: Fundacin Grupo Esquel-Ecuador: ILDIS, 1992. 140 p. Verduga is a politician, an academician, a former Minister of Labor, and a human rights worker. 2956. Vicua Izquierdo, Leonardo. Ecuador, la poltica ecnomica en la dcada de los aos ochenta. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1992. 173 p. A chronicle of economic stabilization and related policy-making by the Rolds, Hurtado, Febrs

Cordero, and Rodrigo Borja administrations. 2957. Vicua Izquierdo, Leonardo. Poltica de desarrollo del Ecuador: resumen y evaluacin 1973-1977 (una visin general), 2 ed. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1979. 155 p. 2958. Villamizar Herrera, Dario. Ecuador, 1960-1990: insurgencia, democracia y dictadura, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1990. 252 p. 2959. Villavicencio, Gaitn. La poltica de vivienda de los Gobiernos de las Fuerzas Armadas Ecuatorianas (1972-1977): elementos para una discusin. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, 1981. 39 p. 2960. Viva la patria!, por Jaime Roldos Aguilera [et al.], 3 ed. Quito: Edit. El Conejo, 1981. 247 p. 2961. Vote sabiendo: lo que ofrecen los partidos y los candidados. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1992. 240 p. Edited by Agustn Grijalva. For the original version of this guide to parties and their candidates, see item 2904 and for the latest edition as of July 1997, item 2748. 2962. El Voto ecuatoriano 1986: anlisis de las eleciones, [Marco] Arteaga [et al.]. Guayaquil: Corporacin de Estudios Regionales: Universidad de Guayaquil, Instituto de Estudios Sociales, Jurdicas y Polticas, 1986. 141 p. 2963. Wray, Natalia. La constitucin del movimiento tnico-nacional indio en Ecuador, Amrica indgena, 49:1 (ene./mar. 1989), 77-99. 2964. Wright, Freeman J. The 1968 Ecuadorean Presidential Campaign, Inter-American Economic Affairs, 23:4 (Spring 1970), 81-94. 2965. Zambrano Castillo, Guido. Batallas por la presidencia. Quito: Corporacin de Informacin, Liderazgo y Desarrollo Ecuatoriano, 1988. 125 p. 2966. Zambrano Castillo, Guido. Len Febres Cordero: significacin histrica. Quito: Consultora para la Organizacin e Innovacin del Desarrollo Ecuatoriano, 1987. 155 p. 2967. Zambrano Castillo, Guido. Todos contra Nebot: el cambio ya ... : ... con amor y esperanza. Guayaquil: Corporacin para la Informacin, Liderazgo y Desarrollo Ecuatoriano Cilde, 1992. 127 p. 2968. Zambrano Pasquel, Alfonso. Ran Gazit: la sombra tras el poder, 1 ed. Guayaquil: EDINO, 1990. 121 p. 2969. Zamosc, Leon. Agrarian Protest and the Indian Movement in the Ecuadorian Highlands, Latin American Research Review, 29:3 (1994), 37-68. An analysis and assessment of the June 1990 uprising--by and large a peaceful protest--and of the factors underlying the Levantamiento Nacional Indgena as convoked by the Confederacin de Nacionalidades Indgenas del Ecuador (CONAIE). 2970. Zavala Baquerizo, Jorge E. Una relacin para la historia, 1969. Quito: Impr. de

Suministros del Estado, 1969. 43 p. 2971. Zevallos, Jos V. Cronologa de la poltica agraria en el Ecuador, 1972-1979. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Departamento de Sociologa, 1985. 159 p. 2972. Zevallos, Jos V. El Estado ecuatoriano y las transnacionales petroleras: ocho aos de alianza y conflicto, 1972-1979. Quito: Universidad Catlica, 1981. 72 p. 2973. Zevallos, Jos V. La poltica petrolera ecuatoriana 1976-79, Economa y desarrollo (Quito), 2:4 (nov. 1980), 54-63.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

ESTUDIOS HISTORIOGRAFICOS Y RELACIONADOS

This section is given over to published materials having to do with the study and teaching of the Humanities and the Social Sciences in Ecuador as well as historiographical studies per se. Only a few books and articles on the study and teaching of the Humanities appear because there do not seem to have been more than a handful published before 1996. Apparently this is because the Humanities, with the notable exception of Literature, did not attract nearly as much attention in Ecuador as History and the Social Sciences, at least not during the last third of the twentieth century. Interestingly enough national historiography did not generate all that much in the way of publications either. There were many studies, however, of Ecuadorian historians, mostly biographical in nature. Until the 1970s, history in Ecuador was dominated by self-taught men of letters who were usually also men of action. Scholars of the latetwentieth century, mostly professionally trained, were often actively involved in politics too. Therefore almost all Ecuadorian writers of history have also been makers of history. Hence it is not surprising that not only have traditional Ecuadorian historians largely concerned themselves with persons and politics, but that the majority of writermakers of history, including the professionally trained, should in turn be the subject of numerous biographies. Post-1974 lives of the writer-makers of history are cited below under Biographies as are older works of continuing importance. For a more complete listing of pre-1975 studies of Ecuadorian historians see Norriss Gua bibliogrfica (item 150), p. 14-26. The best survey of the traditional historiography of Ecuador was Adam Szszdis 1964 article, now available in Spanish as well as in the original English (item 288). The best introduction to the new history, on the other hand, was Jorge Nez Snchezs 1994 La historiografa ecuatoriana (item 265). Nez Snchezs study is primarily concerned with the nature of history and the difficulty of being a historian in Ecuador in the latetwentieth century. His discussion of la institucionalidad existente is especially informative and enlightening. The only comprehensive review of recent work on the colonial period was Rosemarie Terns contribution to the 1993 Congreso Ecuatoriano de Historia (item 291), but see also Christiana Borchart de Moreno and Segundo E. Moreno Ynezs outstanding

analysis of the new historiography on the eighteenth century (item 208). On the national period see Juan J. Paz y Mio Cepedas contribution to the 1993 Congreso (item 270). On historiographic developments of the first half of the twentieth century, see item 2421. Another study of some importance is Jeffrey Klaibers Estudios recientes sobre la Iglesia en Per, Bolivia y Ecuador: un balance historiogrfico, Histrica (Lima), 19:2, dic. 1995, p. 251-280. N.B. Klaiber includes studies of the history of Protestantism in the central Andean republics. Two other articles of interest are: Heraclio Bonillas Progresos y dilemas de la historiografa en el Ecuador: primera parte, Nariz del diablo, 16 (1990)--not yet seen by me--and Vctor Peralta Ruizs La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990) (item 272). Professionally trained scholars, Bonilla and Peralta Ruiz are Peruvians and therefore bring a somewhat different perspective to bear. Peralta Ruiz, for example, examines recent historiographical developments from the vantage of lo andino--a more appropriate paradigm than the in vogue at the time dependency model--and from that of a country where History at a discipline is more strongly rooted. Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia (1991-) (item 491) has begun and hopefully will continue to revolutionize the study of history as a discipline in Ecuador. Six of the first ten issues of Procesos (i.e., nos. 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 10) include a critical review essay, beginning with no. 1, or an historiographic essay, beginning with no. 2 (see item 228). In additions to the studies listed below, see Jorge Caizares, Aportes historiogrficos de la obra de Eduardo Estrella, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 10 (I sem. 1997), 123-129.

201. Alvarez , Silvia G. Una dcada de arqueologa en la ESPOL, Cuadernos del ro, 4/5 (sept. 1993), 22-39. Delineates and evaluates the activities of the Escuela Tcnica de Arqueologa of the Escuela Superior Politcnica del Litoral in Guayaquil (founded in 1980) during its first ten years, especially under the leadership of Jorge G. Marcos. See also items 280 and 324. Reprinted in item 810. 202. Astudillo Espinosa, Celn. El den Juan Flix Proao, cientfico, historiador y guerrillero, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 105-154. A more or less useful source of information on the career and publications of Juan Flix Proao (1850-1938), a riobambeo, a priest, a Conservative, a combatant in the 18951899 campaigns, the founder and editor of Dios y patria (1923), a self-taught paleontologist and antiquarian, and a staunch defender of Juan de Velasco. Apparently most, of not all, of Proaos studies appeared as newspaper articles. See also Carlos Freile Granizos Juan de Velasco: apuntes sobre una incomprensin, Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealgicas y Antropolgicas, 12:11 (jul. 1993), 19-36, a reevaluation of the Historia del reino de Quito, especially of Velascos reliance on oral tradition and his thesis that there existed a Kingdom of Quito

prior to the Inca and Spanish conquests. Includes a presentation and discussion of a heretofore unknown portion of the early-twentieth-century polemic between Jijn y Caamao, the most important of Ecuadors first field archaeologists, an avid critic of Velasco, and Proao, nominally one of the countrys first scientific historians, an equally avid defender of Velasco. 203. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Historia, compromiso y poltica: ensayos sobre historiografa ecuatoriana, 1 ed. Quito: Planeta, 1989. 114 p. An anthology of essays, all of which had been previously published, on major works of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Ecuadorian historians. 204. Barnadas, Josep Mara. El P. Mario Cical (1718-?) y su obra, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 93-105. Cical was the author of a major, late colonial period Descrizione istorio-fisica della provincia del Quito (1771), for the particulars of the long delayed publication of which see item 7248. 205. Barrera, Isaac J. Federico Gonzlez Surez; Pedro Fermn Cevallos. Mxico: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1968. 71 p. Adds nothing to the following item (206). 206. Barrera, Isaac J. Historiografa del Ecuador. Mxico: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1956. 124 p. An adulatory survey of the traditional historians Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermn Cevallos, Federico Gonzlez Surez, and Jacinto Jijn y Caamao. 207. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. El desarrollo del estudio de la arqueologa en el Ecuador a partir de Gonzlez Surez, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 191-200. A detailed, highly factual review. 208. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana; and Segundo E. Moreno Ynez. La historia socio-econmica ecuatoriana del siglo XVIII, Revista de Indias, 49:186 (mayo/ago. 1989), 379-409. A solid review of the then mostly new literature, almost all of which dated from the 1970s and 1980s, on the demographic, economic, and social history of the eighteenth century. Also published as: Balance y tendencias de la historia socio-econmica ecuatoriana, siglo XVIII. Quito: FLACSO, 1990. 50 p. See also items 270 and 291. 209. Bravo, Julin G. Contribucin del humanista P. Aurelio Espinosa Plit a la historiografa ecuatoriana, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 66:141/142 (ene./dic. 1983), 132-160. A somewhat informative but hardly unbiased and far from complete review of Espinosa Plits major contributions to Ecuadorian letters.

210. Bravo, Julin G. La Iglesia ecuatoriana y las relaciones con el Estado durante el gobierno de Garca Moreno, 1859-1863, por William M. King, S.I., Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 71-78. A critical review of Kings doctoral dissertation (item 5262). 211. Brubaker, George A. Federico Gonzlez Surez, Historian of Ecuador, Journal of Inter-American Affairs, 5:2 (Apr. 1963), 235-248. An objective evaluation of the archbishop-historians historical studies. Also published in Spanish as: Federico Gonzlez Surez, historiador del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 258-267. 212. Caillavet, Chantal. Investigaciones en etnohistoria de Ecuador, Revista andina, 2:3 (jul. 1984), 163-167. Makes several enduring points. 1) Although archival research in the country has become easier to do than it used to be, it still takes for more time and patience than it should. 2) Primary sources may not be as complete or extensive as for the more important colonies of New Spain and the Perus. [Nonetheless, more and more sources turn up as more and more research is undertaken.] 3) Too many scholars have relied on Juan de Velascos Historia del Reino de Quito (items 540 and 1532), accepting it as an accurate, detailed chronicle instead of recognizing it as an expression of protonationalism and therefore insofar as the prehispanic period is concerned, a fable. 4) Almost all of the ethnohistorical research done, not just as of 1984 but also as of 1997, has been of the highlands. 213. Carpio Vintimilla, Julio. Por qu no investiga la universidad ecuatoriana?, Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 107-131. Examines and explicates the limited research that was being done in national universities in the 1970s and early 1980s. Attributes lack of research to the emphasis on preparation of practitioners, the lack of communication between universities and society, the lack of definition of mission, and the lack of support for research. See also item 237. 214. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Algunos hechos y dos nombres en la historiografa azuaya, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 81-115. An appreciation of the oeuvre of Vctor Manuel Albornoz and Jos Mara Vargas. 215. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Panorama del pensamiento histrico en el Ecuador, del siglo XVI al siglo XIX: (fragmento), Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 19:3/4 (jul./dic. 1963), 431-460. A precis of item 216. Reprinted in the authors Temas histricos ecuatorianos (item 217). 216. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Reflexiones sobre la historia del Ecuador. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1957-1960. 2 v.

Consists of insightful reflections on the traditional historiography, especially on the histories of Juan de Velasco, Pedro Fermn Cevallos, and Federico Gonzlez Surez, as well as on the history of Ecuador, by a leading historian of ideas and philosopher of history. Reprinted with an introductory study by Jos Mara Vargas: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1987. 2 v. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 35-36) Also: Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1988. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos Garca; 4-5) 217. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Temas histricos ecuatorianos. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1987. 2 v. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos Garca; 1-2) An anthology of previously published essays on various aspects of the historiography and history of the country. Contents: vol. 1, Para entender bin al Ecuador (1957); Panorama del pensamiento histrico del Ecuador del siglo XVI al siglo XIX (1963); Programa de historia de la cultura ecuatoriana (1964); Historiadores ecuatorianos: Juan de Velasco (1958); Juan de Velasco e Iigo Abad y La Sierra (1970); Teora del hombre-pueblo (1944); La Audiencia de Quito: colofn de una guerra de cien aos (1966). Vol. 2, El diez de agosto y nosotros (1959); Garca Moreno conservador? (1940); Por un Garca Moreno de cuerpo entero (1978); El concordato Garciano (1976); Borrero y Veintemilla (1980); La era del Progresismo (1980); Alfaro y su poca (1980); La ideas liberales en el Ecuador (1960). 218. Collier, Donald. One Hundred Years of Ecuadorian Archaeology, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 5-37. A survey of developments by one of the pioneers of modern archaeological studies of Ecuador. 219. Contreras C., Carlos. Balance de la historia econmica del Ecuador, HISLA, 5 (1985), 127-134. 220. Cordero de Espinosa, Susana. Panorama de los estudios crticos sobre la obra de Juan Montalvo, Cultura, 5:12 (ene./mar. 1982), 15-93. 221. Crespo Toral, Remigio. La conciencia nacional: estudio crtico de los historiadores ecuatorianos, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 1 (ene. 1921), 73-96. One of the earliest attempts to establish and evaluate the history of history in/of Ecuador. Still worth reading. Reprinted in the authors La conciencia nacional y otros estudios sobre historia (item 1923), p. 31-66. 222. De la Torre Espinosa, Carlos. Regin, clase y discurso: anlisis crtico de varias obras recientes sobre el proceso social y poltico ecuatoriano entre 1930 y 1950,

Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 4 (I sem. 1993), 103-115. A critical review of almost all, if not all, of the then recent studies on the 1930s and 1940s. 223. Drekonja, Gerhard. Ecuador, ensayo bibliogrfico, Ecuador hoy (item 2730), p. 283-313. More of a historiographic than a bibliographic essay. Objective and perspicacious. 224. Duranti, Reginaldo. La veracidad del Sr. Dr. Federico Gonzlez Surez en orden a ciertos hechos referidos en el tomo IV de su Historia general. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1894. 48 p. A coeval reaction to the archbishop-historians expos of the scandalous behavior of some members of the clergy in the capital in the 1700s. 225. Espinoza, Leonardo. La investigacin histrica en el Ecuador, Revista del IDIS., 11 (mayo 1982), 19-26. See also Espinozas Perspectivas de la investigacin histrica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285. 226. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. Etnohistoria Carengue y Cayambe: lo investigado y lo que falta investigar, Boletn de Lima, 9:49 (ene. 1987), 89-95. Reviews recent ethnohistorical research on ethnic groups of prehispanic Ecuador and delineates that which as of the late 1980s, remained to be done in Espinozas opinion. 227. Estrella Vintimilla, Pablo. Una dcada de investigacin social en la Universidad de Cuenca, 1 ed. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1985. 96 p. Reports on the activities of the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales. 228. Fernndez Rueda, Sonia. Historiografa de la arquitectura en la poca colonial: algunas consideraciones, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 2 (I sem. 1992), 105-117. A brief review of studies of the history of architecture during the colonial period. Emphasizes the contributions of Jos Gabriel Navarro and Jos Mara Vargas. 229. Flor M., Felix. Por los campos de la biografa ecuatoriana, Revista, Casa de la Cultura, Ncleo del Chimborazo, 2:3 (nov. 1954), 43-56. 230. Flor Vsconez, Jos Joaqun. El historiador franco-ecuatoriano J.M. Le Gouhir, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 202-244. 231. Flor Vsconez, Jos Joaqun. El historiador Luis Robalino Dvila. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1975. 32 p. 232. Gmez E., Nelson. Los estudios regionales en el Ecuador, Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografa del Ecuador (item 559), p. 23-34. 233. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Defensa de mi criterio histrico. Quito: Archivo

Municipal, 1937. vi, 284 p. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 12) Published posthumously. Written in 1913. 234. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. El escribano Ascaray, Boletn eclesistico (Quito), 16:14 (15 jul. 1909), 527-545. Juan de Ascaray (b.1743) was one of the earliest chroniclers of the Presidency of Quito (see items 1348, 1349, 4962, and 6934). 235. Granata, Massimo. Lintransigentismo cattolico ed il mito di Garca Moreno, Bollettino dellArchivio per la Storia del Movimento Sociale Cattolico in Italia, 19:1 (1984), 49-77. A critical review of the posthumous mythification of Garca Moreno by conservative Catholics. 236. Guerra Bravo, Samuel M. Apuntes para una crtica a los estudios sobre Eugenio Espejo, 1796-1976, Quitumbe, 4:4 1976), 59-83. A dispassionate review of the mostly passionate studies of the philosophe and precursor, from Pablo Herreras Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana (item 4647) through Ekkehart Keedings Espejo y las banderitas de Quito de 1.794 (item 4355). See also item 3200. 237. Hernndez, Mercedes A. de; and Gaitn Villavicencio. Diagnstico intencionado sobre la situacin de la investigacin cientfico-tcnica en la Universidad de Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Departamento de Planificacin Universitaria, 1986. 177, [63] p. 238. Historiografa ecuatoriana, estudio introductorio y seleccin, Rodolfo Agoglia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1985. 564 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 25) Exemplifies and delineates the state of historiography in Ecuador, as of the mid-1980s, through the reproduction of representative texts by national authors and introductory comments by Agoglia. 239. Idrovo Urigen, Jaime. Panorama histrico de la arqueologa ecuatoriana, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107. A solid survey of the history of archaeology in and on Ecuador. 240. La Investigacin econmica en el Ecuador, Germnico Salgado [et al.], 1 ed. Quito: ILDIS, 1989. 469 p. A comprehensive listing and analysis of economic research in Ecuador during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. 241. La Investigacin socio-econmica en el Ecuador: reflexiones acerca del mtodo, seleccin de textos e introduccin, Fernando Rosero Garcs. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, Facultad de Economa, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1982. 162 p.

242. Jerves, Alfonso Mara. Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador: (observaciones histrico-crticas), Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 5:17 (dic. 1930), 140-160; 5:18 (abr. 1931), 140-160; 5:19 (jun. 1931), 213-236; 5:20 (ago. 1931), 325-342; 6:21 (nov. 1931), 36-64; 6:22 (ene. 1932), 132-162; 6:23 (mar. 1932), 214-229. Continued in: Oriente dominicano, 9:40 (ene./feb. 1936), 174-176; 9:41 (mar./abr. 1936), 209-212; 9:42 (mayo/jun. 1936), 250-252; 9:43/44 (jul./oct. 1936), 312-314. Glosses and critiques Gonzlez Surezs Historia general (item 1388). 243. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Examen crtico de la veracidad de la Historia del Reino de Quito del P. Juan de Velasco de la Compaa de Jess, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1:1 (jun./jul. 1918), 33-63. As anti and vehement yet at the same time as well founded a rejection of Velascos prehispanic Kingdom of Quito as one is likely to find in the literature. Es la historia de los shyris fbula perniciosa que urge borrar de todo libro serio ... (p. 62). 244. Jimnez, Nicols. La biografa en el Ecuador, Amrica (Quito), 10:60/61 (1935), 152-164. A discourse on the role of biography in national letters. Stresses the importance of great men and the need to write up their exemplary lives. Jimnez was not altogether an ingenue, however. According to him, Ecuador has had only a handful of great men. Exemplifies the mentality and approach of all too many of the countrys biographers. Reprinted in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 109124. 245. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra. Archivos eclesisticos e historia del arte ecuatoriano aplicada: el caso del Convento de Santo Domingo de Quito, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 9 (1992), 9-25. A cogent review of the historiography of art history of/in Ecuador as well as a report on the authors activities and efforts to make a go of it as an art historian. 246. Landzuri Camacho, Carlos. La historiografa ecuatoriana: (una apretada visin de conjunto), Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 57-69. A sketchy but nonetheless insightful review of the historiography of Ecuador from the chroniclers of the conquest through the cultivators of the new history. 247. Landzuri Camacho, Carlos; Cristbal Landzuri N.; and Guadalupe Soasti. Tres comentarios a la Historia demogrfica y econmica de la Audiencia de Quito de Robson B. Tyrer, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 4:7 (1990), 283-296. An extended review of Tyrers Historia demogrfica y econmica (item 5427). Evaluates and partially updates Tyrers findings in accordance with subsequent research. 248. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Las biografas de Santa Mariana de Jess. Quito:

Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1970. 172 p. Analyzes biographical studies and hagiographies of the Azucena de Quito. Includes a summary of the life of the saint and a chapter on Fuentes para las biografas de Mariana de Jess: los procesos. 249. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Introduccin y notas a la Relacin de Miguel de Estete, sobre el descubrimiento y la conquista del Per, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1:3 (oct./dic. 1918), 300-350. The introduction to Estetes El descubrimiento y conquista del Per published for the first time by Larrea in Quito a year later (1919) in what Means (in item 258) describes as a splendid edition, in transcript and in facsimile, with important introductory material and terminal [i.e., end] notes, of the 1535 Ms. 250. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El padre Juan de Velasco y su Historia del Reino de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 5-23. A useful biobibliography and a more or less objective assessment of Ecuadors first historian. 251. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Resea sinttica del desarrollo de los estudios etnolgicos en el Ecuador, Boletn de investigaciones cientficas nacionales (Quito), 6:56 (1953), 159-167. A brief history of ethnographic and archaeological studies in the country through 1951. Reprinted in item 599. 252. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Tres historiadores: Velasco, Gonzlez Surez, Jijn y Caamao, prlogo de Jorge Salvador Lara. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, 1988. 322 p. A posthumous collection of Larreas biobibliographical studies of Father Velasco, of the archbishop-historian (Gonzlez Surez), and of the first field archaeologist in Ecuador (Jijn y Caamao). 253. Lpez-Ocn Cabrera, Leoncio. Las actividades americanistas del naturalista espaol Marcos Jimnez de la Espada, La Ciencia espaola en ultramar: actas de las I Jornadas sobre Espaa y las expediciones cientficas en Amrica y Filipinas (Madrid: Doce Calles, 1991), p. 362-380. An appreciation of the life and oeuvre of the compiler and editor of the classic Relaciones geogrficas de Indias: Per (item 1406). See also Lpez-Ocns 1990 doctoral thesis De viajero naturalista a historiador: las actividades americanistas del cientfico espaol Marcos Jimnez de la Espada (1831-1898). Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 254. Maiguashca, Juan. Breves apuntes sobre la historia econmica en el Ecuador, Historia econmica en Amrica Latina, 1 ed. (Mxico: SepSetentas, 1972), vol. 1, p. 142-162. A pioneering examination of the status of economic historiography in Ecuador, barely nascent at the time Maiguashca wrote this essay. See also item 132.

Reprinted (but not updated) as: Breves apuntes sobre la situacin de la historia econmica en el Ecuador, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 93-105. 255. Mrquez, Ezequiel. Historia del Ecuador, Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 207-225. Reports on authors work as a member of the commission formed by an act of Congress in 1921 to prepare an official, revised, and up-to-date edition--not that one ever was--of Pedro Fermn Cevalloss Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (item 553). 256. Martnez Borrero, Juan. La investigacin de la cultura popular en el Ecuador, Artesanas de Amrica, 20/21 (abr. 1986), 21-40. 257. Mayor Lpez, Carlos. La obra lexicogrfica de Antonio de Alcedo (1735-1812). 1991. 295 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--State University of New York, Albany. 258. Means, Philip Ainsworth. Biblioteca Andina: Essays on the Lives and Works of the Chroniclers, or, The Writers of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Who Treated of the Prehispanic History and Culture of the Andean Countries, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 29 (May 1928), 271-525. Has long since become a classic. Although dated insofar as more recent versions of the chroniclers are concerned, still very much worth consulting inasmuch as Means was a perspicacious commentator. Reprinted as a book under the same title with the same pagination: Detroit: Blaine Ethridge, 1973. 259. Merino, Luis. The Relation between the Noticias secretas and the Viaje a la Amrica meridional, The Americas: a Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 13:2 (Oct. 1956), 111-125. A critical analysis of Juan and Ulloas Relacin histrica del viaje a la Amrica Meridional (item 7382) and their Noticias secretas de Amrica (item 7330), the authorship of both of which Merino attributes entirely to Ulloa and of the extent to which either work may be said to have been based on personal observation. N.B. Merino maintains that the 1826 edition of the Noticias secretas is faithful to the manuscript version used by Barry. See also item 5110. 260. Moreno Egas, Jorge. Cristbal de Gangotena y Jijn y los estudios genealgicos en el pas, Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealgicas y Antropolgicas, 4/5:6 (dic. 1985), 1-4. An appreciation of the genealogical work of Gangotena y Jijn (1884-1954). 261. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Antropologa ecuatoriana: pasado y presente. Quito: Edit. Ediguas, 1992. 136 p. A solid account of the emergence of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnohistory as disciplines, their historical antecedents, and the state of anthropological, archaeological, and ethnohistorical research in Ecuador as of the early 1990s. A preliminary version appeared as: Pasado y presente de la antropologa ecuatoriana:

notas para su historia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152(ene./dic. 1988), 303-394. 262. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. La etnohistoria y el protagonismo de los pueblos colonizados: contribucin en el Ecuador, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 53-73. An important statement as to the then recent and current status of ethnohistory and history as disciplines and professions in Ecuador by a leading Ecuadorian ethnohistorian. See also Moreno Ynezs Historiografa indgena y tradicin de lucha Ecuador indgena (item 571), p. 63-70. 263. Naranjo, Marcelo F. Ideologa de la investigacin en el Ecuador, Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 196-206. An important delineation of the ideological constraints to which research was and may still be subject in Ecuador. During the 1960s and 1970s the focus of government agency research was ideologically driven and the token amount the government allocated to state universities for research was a reflection of the States negative view of the antiestablish-mentarianism of academicians, for example. 264. Navarro, Jos Gabriel. El estado actual de los estudios histricos en el Ecuador y su importancia para la historia de Espaa, Boletn del Instituto Nacional Meja, ser. 7, 2:23/26 (ene./abr. 1935), 85-109. Navarros only statement on the state of historiography in Ecuador. Delimited to studies on the colonial period. Reprinted in his: Estudios histricos, presentacin por Jorge Salvador Lara, recopilacin por Wilson Vega (Quito: Aymesa; Academia Nacional de Historia, 1995), p. 21-53. 265. Nez Snchez, Jorge. La historiografa ecuatoriana contempornea (19701994). Quito: Ediciones de la FAU, 1994. 135 p. A major review of late-twentieth-century works by Ecuadorian or national scholars who cultivate the past and Ecuadorianists or foreign historians by one of the leading national cultivators of the new history. Especially concerned with trends (i.e., ideological and theoretical frameworks), approaches to the past, and types of history. Includes a substantial bibliography (p. 57-132). The text under the same title--but not the accompanying bibliography--also appeared in: Anuario de estudios americanos, 53:1 (1996), 277-308. 266. Ortiz Crespo, Gonzalo. La construccin de la historia social en el Ecuador, Economa y desarrollo (Quito), 1:2 (nov. 1979), 9-30. An important commentary on works published by Ecuadorians and Ecuadorianists on the political economy and social history of the country. Primarily concerned with those studies that attempt to provide a theoretical framework, however incomplete, for understanding the process of [Ecuadors] development or that focus on the nineteenth

century. 267. Ospina, Pablo. Imaginarios nacionalistas: historia y significados nacionales en Ecuador, siglos XIX y XX, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 9 (II sem. 1996), 111-124. A critical review of the role of history, especially of officially sponsored histories, in the formation of nationalism in Ecuador. Emphasizes the boundary dispute issue and views of indigenous groups. 268. Pachano, Simn. Ciencias sociales y polticas en el Ecuador, Ciencias sociales y polticas en Amrica Latina (Quito: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, 1987), p. 48-64. An exceptionally insightful, highly suggestive outline of political, socioeconomic, and Social Scientific trends and developments and relationships between politics and intellectuals, the state and the Social Sciences in Ecuador from the advent of the Liberals through the late-twentieth century. 269. Pacheco Prado, Lucas. El desarrollo de la investigacin social en el Ecuador: apuntes para su estudio, Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 51-74. A superficial review of the emergence of social scientific research in the twentieth century, beginning with the publication of Espinosa Tamayos Psicologa y sociologa del pueblo ecuatoriano in 1916 (item 8324). 270. Paz y Mio Cepeda, Juan J. La historiografa econmica del Ecuador sobre el s. XIX y XX en los ltimos 25 aos, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 75-115. An insightful analysis of late-twentieth century studies of the economic history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 271. Pealoza Bretel, Marco Antonio. La investigacin historiogrfica sobre la hacienda serrana ecuatoriana del s. XIX, Procesos, 7 (I sem. 1995), 35-58. A solid review of the relatively limited work that had been done as of the mid 1990s on the history of rural estates in the highlands in the 1800s. Thematically and chronologically specific. Includes a bibliography. 272. Peralta Ruiz, Vctor. La historia en el Ecuador (1980-1990), Revista andina, 9:1 (jul. 1991), 261-274. A favorable yet nonetheless critical analysis of the advances of the 1980s in terms of the ideological debates prevalent in Ecuadorian (but not necessarily Ecuadorianist) historiography during the decade in question. The author is a Peruvian and an Andeanist. 273. Perspectivas de la investigacin histrica ecuatoriana: siglos XIX y XX, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 277-285. The conclusions of the 1980 Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830. 274. Ponce Ribadeneira, Alfredo. Algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Noticias

secretas de Amrcia, Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 2 (1976), 79-82. Maintains that the Barry edition or 1826 version is not entirely faithful to the original text and that Juan and Ulloas treatise is not altogether accurate. 275. Porras Barrenechea, Ral. Los cronistas del Per, 1528-1650, y otros ensayos, edicin, prlogo y notas de Franklin Pease G.Y., revisada, aumentada y actualizada por Oswaldo Holgun Callo, bibliografa de Flix Alvarez Brun y Graciela Snchez Cerro. Lima: Banco de Crdito del Per: Ministerio de Educacin, 1986. 964 p. One of the most important analysis of the chroniclers of the conquest and early colonial periods ever undertaken. 276. Porras G., Pedro I. Resea histrica de las investigaciones arqueolgicas en el Oriente ecuatoriano, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 133-146. A detailed review of the limited scientific archaeological work done in the Oriente by Clifford Evans, Betty Meggers, and Porras himself. Includes a discussion of the amateur and dilatory labor of their predecessors. 277. Porras P., Mara Elena. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la historia territorial del Ecuador y Per: crticas de los textos escolares de historia de lmites, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 117-123. The most important points that Mara Elena Porras makes are: 1) to base Ecuadors territorial claims on the alleged pre-Inca Reino de Quito and the doctrine of uti possidetis of 1810 perpetuates the mythification of the history of Ecuador; 2) that to continue to portray Peru as the villain tends to exacerbate tension and misunderstanding between Ecuador and Peru; and 3) that the history of boundaries as taught in both countries contributes neither to the formation of national consciousness nor to the resolution of the conflict. 278. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. Pedro de Mercado, historiador y escritor del siglo XVII, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 68:145/146 (ene./dic. 1985), 103120. Mercado (1620-1701) was a Jesuit priest and the author of the monumental Historia de la Provincia del Nuevo Reino y Quito de la Compaa de Jess (item 5109). 279. Ruales B., Ricardo. Los estudios sobre Manuela Senz, Quitumbe, 5 (1982), 34-63. A critical review of literature on Bolvars quitea lover. 280. Salazar, Ernesto. La arqueologa contempornea del Ecuador (1970-1993), Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 5-28. A balanced survey of scientific archaeology in Ecuador. Includes a discussion of pre1970 developments, especially of the work of Jacinto Jijn y Caamao, Emilio Estrada, Betty J. Meggers, and Clifford Evans.

281. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Cuenca y los historiadores, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 119-134. 282. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Tres artculos del P. Juan de Velasco, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 164-170. An unabashedly favorable appreciation of Father Velasco. An example of the traditional, still all too prevalent great man approach to the past. 284. Schmit, Marilee. Ethnicity, Cultural Continuity, and Socioeconomic Processes: Recent Works in Ecuadorian Ethnology and Ethnography, Latin American Research Review, 23:3 (1988), 238-247. Reviews Luzuriaga and Zuvekass Income Distribution and Poverty (item 129), Political Anthropology of Ecuador (item 7956), Whittens Sicuanga Runa (item 8178), and Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity (item 7939). 285. Schroder, Barbara. Indians in the Halls of Academe: Rural Andean Peoples Confront Social Science, Peasant Studies, 18:2 (Winter 1991), 97-116. Reviews scholarship on the Levantamiento Nacional Indgena of 1990. 286. Smith, Peter H. The Image of a Dictator: Gabriel Garca Moreno, Hispanic American Historical Review, 45:1 (Feb. 1965), 1-24. A critical review of pro and con literature by Ecuadorian and other Latin American scholars. 287. Szszdi, Adam. The Economic History of the Diocese of Quito, 1616-1787, Latin American Research Review, 21:2 (1986), 266-275. Reviews Claytons Los astilleros de Guayaquil colonial (item 6744), Cushners Farm and Factory (item 1370), Freile Granizos transcription of the Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), and the Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas (item 509), and comments on other recent work on the economic history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Marred by personalism unlike the authors earlier survey (item 288). 288. Szszdi, Adam. The Historiography of the Republic of Ecuador, Hispanic American Historical Review, 44:4 (Nov. 1964), 503-550. A comprehensive, more or less objective survey of traditional Ecuadorian historiography. Also published in Spanish as: La historiografa de la Repblica del Ecuador, Cultura, 8:22 (mayo/ago. 1985), 129-172. 289. Los Talleres de Investigacin Social: una experiencia referente a la historia social, Felicia Astudillo [et al.], Revista del IDIS, 10 (feb. 1982), 135-170. Outlines the research plan for Estructura social y lucha de clases en la regin centrosur del Ecuador (1820-1861) under the direction of Lucas A. Achig S. 290. Tern, Francisco. Los gegrafos de la patria, Estudios de historia y geografa

(Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1983), p. 149-183. A knowledgeable review of geographic studies of the country, beginning with those of Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera in the mid-eighteenth century, through those of professionally trained scholars of the late-twentieth century, including Tern himself. Written in 1982. 291. Tern Najas, Rosemarie. La historia econmica y social sobre la poca colonial ecuatoriana: un balance de la produccin historiogrfica en los ltimos 25 aos, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 5 (II sem. 1993/I sem. 1994), 29-52. An interesting but far from complete survey of studies of the 1970s, 1980s, and the early 1990s on the colonial period. Important as an indicator of what the new historians believe to have been the most important developments during the two and a half decades in question. 292. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Un libro y un hombre, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 174-185. A detailed sketch of the life of Francisco X. Aguirre and an appreciation of his posthumously published Bosquejo histrico de la Repblica del Ecuador (item 529). 293. Uhle, Max. El desarrollo de la prehistoria ecuatoriana en los primeros cien aos de la repblica, El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia (item 1927), vol. 1, p. 1-22. Still a useful survey of the state of study of the prehispanic period as of 1930. Especially interesting is Uhles critique of the then virtually sacrosanct Gonzlez Surez. Reprinted in: Resumen histrico del Ecuador, 1830-930, 1947 (item 1966), vol. 1, p. 202-217; and in: Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 9 (abr. 1986), 211-250. See also item 1259. 294. Urigen, Jaime Idrovo. Panorama histrico de la arqueologa ecuatoriana, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 8 (1989), 9-107. A diachronic review of the development of Ecuadorian archaeology from the pre-1878 contributions of foreign scholars through the institutional studies of the 1970s and 1980s. Eighteen seventy-eight was a benchmark year because of the publication of Federico Gonzlez Surezs Estudio histrico sobre los Caaris (item 895), la primera obra de arqueologa ecuatoriana. 295. Villacrs Moscoso, Jorge W. Breve historia de la ciencia geogrfica ecuatoriana, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 14/16:30/32 (abr. 1967), 16-62. Also a diachronic review, but of foreign and national geographic studies of the country. Includes useful bibliographic data. 296. Viteri Gamboa, Julio. 3 voluntades y una finalidad. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1971. 51 p. Assesses the contributions of Emilio Estrada, Betty Meggers, and Clifford Evans to the

archaeology of Ecuador. 297. Zapater, Irving Ivn. La revolucin juliana a travs del ojo crtico de Oscar Efrn Reyes: (apuntes preliminares para una crtica de Los ltimos siete aos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152 (ene./dic. 1988), 291-302. A critical review of item 2572.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

AYUDAS DE INVESTIGACION

This section consists primarily of guides to and studies of archives, libraries, museums, and private collections in Ecuador and repositories located elsewhere in the world that have materials on Ecuador. By the 1980s, archival research in Ecuador had become somewhat more feasible and practical than it was previously. As of the late twentieth century, historical archives were usually open to the public, maintained more or less regular albeit limited hours, and had helpful, sometimes even knowledgeable, directors and staff. Furthermore, guides had been published to many of the repositories, and in some cases, also inventories, at least of some of fondos. Some of the more important ecclesiastical archives, most notably of Cuenca, had finally opened their doors to qualified researchers, and guides to their holdings had began to appear too (e.g., items 303 and 305). Full time personnel were and probably still are not always assigned to church repositories, however. When it comes to administrative archives, little had changed. Some like the Archivo y Biblioteca de la Funcin Legislativa, were and presumably still are usually open and easy enough to use. Some undoubtedly remain closed. A few like the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores had established and organized historical archives. Access to the majority of administrative archives probably remains a question of personal contacts and contingent upon the good will of whoever is in charge of the repository. Another important development of the late-twentieth century was the acquisition of major private collections, such as those of Carlos Manuel Larrea and Jacinto Jijn y Caamao, by the Banco Central del Ecuador, and the preparation of guides thereto (see, for example, items 308 and 309). Insofar as the Archivos Histricos of the Banco Central are concerned, however, their status had become problematic. Established together with Centros de Investigacin y Cultura in every provincial branch of the bank as well as in the capital in the 1970s and 1980s --consolidating many local repositories, especially notarial archives--the majority of the Archivos Histricos and Centros de Investigacin y Cultura were closed in the 1990s. It is not known if this will turn out to be temporary, or whether their manuscript and library holdings will be transferred to the Centros de Investigacin y Cultura of Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. Notwithstanding the badly needed and therefore more than welcome specialized guides that appeared in the 1980s and 1990s, a detailed as well as comprehensive vade

mecum of the administrative, ecclesiastical, and historical archives of the country at large was still and may still be lacking. (A comprehensive survey of the whereabouts and status of private collections such as those of the deceased Cristbal de Gangotena y Jijn or the also late Pedro Robles y Chambers did not exist either.) But the researcher could obtain a good idea of the repositories to which he/she should turn and a sense, if not a delineation, of their contents through the Research Guide to Andean History (item 412), Grecia Vasco de Escuderos Los archivos quiteos (item 435), her Directorio ecuatoriano de archivos (item 436), and Christian Vogels Los archivos coloniales del Ecuador (item 440). Not surprisingly many Colombian and Peruvian as well as Spanish archives contain materials of importance to the reconstruction of the history of Ecuador. For a comprehensive guide to guides thereof, as of the mid 1990s, see Sylvia L. Hilton and Ignacio Gonzlez Casasnovass generally reliable but not altogether accurate Fuentes manuscritas para la historia de Iberoamrica: guas de instrumentos de investigacin (Madrid: Fundacin Mapfre Amrica; Instituto Histrica Tavera, 1995).

298. Albornoz, Vctor Manuel. Algo sobre bibliografa azuaya, Revista, Casa de la Cultura, Ncleo del Azuay, 3:4 (ago. 1951), 201-232. Primarily a guide to manuscript sources of the colonial, independence, and early national periods, including some materials in private hands. 299. Alcina Franch, Jos; and Remedios de la Pea. Textos para la etnohistoria de Esmeraldas. Madrid: Departamento de Antropologa y Etnologa de Amrica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1974. 99 leaves. 300. Alvarez Mantilla, Mauro; and Irving Ivn Zapater. Peridicos ecuatorianos en la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia, Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 309-327. 301. Anda Aguirre, Alfonso. Cedulario del Monasterio de Conceptas de Ntra. Sra. de las Nieves de la ciudad de Loja, Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 10 (1990), 179-191. Abstracts in chronological order the volume in the Archives of the Conceptas of Loja that brings together albeit in disparate order the documents relating to the crown grant of 800 ducats per year for the sustenance of the nuns in their poverty. The earliest manuscript apparently dates from 1616, and the latest from 1794. 302. Aparicio, Mnica; and Alfonso Ortiz Crespo. Diagnstico de museos del Ecuador. Quito: Asociacin Ecuatoriana de Museos, 1982. 163, 33, 37 p. 303. Archivo de la Curia Arquidiocesana de Cuenca. Catlogo del Archivo de la Curia Arquidiocesana de Cuenca, volumen preparado por el Centro de Investigacin y Cultura con la participacin de Martha Maldonado Samaniego y de Lucia Villavicencio de Burbano. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1989-<1990>. <2> vol. The ACA/C is an exceptionally important repository. It also includes materials, especially from the colonial, independence, and early national periods, for what are now

the Dioceses of Azogues and Loja and the Archdioceses of Guayaquil inasmuch as not all appropriate documents were transferred from Cuenca to Guayaquil upon the establishment of the Diocese of Guayaquil in 1838. The same holds true for the Archivo del Cabildo Eclesistico de Cuenca (see item 305). Hopefully the catalog of the ACA/C will some day be continued. Contents: vol. 1, Diezmos y economa; vol. 2, Juicios, inventarios, testamentos. 304. Archivo de Pedro Robles Chambers, Sociedad Amigos de la Genealoga, 1:1 (mar. 1983), 12-36. Publishes Robles y Chamberss fichero. See items 403 and 344 (in that order) for parts two and three. 305. Archivo del Cabildo Eclesistico de Cuenca. Catlogo del Archivo del Cabildo Eclesistico de Cuenca, volumen preparado por el Centro de Investigacin y Cultura del Banco Central del Ecuador, Sucursal en Cuenca, con la colaboracin del Dr. Juan Chacn Z. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986. xvii, 324 p. 306. Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Estructura agraria de la sierra centro-norte, 1830-1930, Carlos Marchn Romero, Bruno Andrade Andrade, Eduardo Guevara Valencia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984-1986. 4 v. Vols. 1-3 consist of indexes of records of rural properties in the Provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Chimborazo. Organized estate by estate and chronologically. Vol. 4 is subtitled Conformacin orgnica de las familias terratenientes and includes bibliographical references and indexes for the set. A fifth vol., tentatively entitled Progreso y tradicin: un siglo de desarrollo agropecuario y econmico de la sierra norcentral (1820-1933) in which Marchn is supposed to interpret the sources and offer a detailed study of the agrarian history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, has apparently been ready since 1990, but as of the late 1990s, had not been published. Almost all of the original records, formerly scattered in various notaries and administrative archives, are apparently now housed in one or more branches of the Archivo Histrico del Banco Central. 307. Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Banco Central, volumen preparado por Mauro Alvarez Mantilla. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1985-1986. 2 v. (xxiii, 319, xi, 402 p.) (Catlogos del Archivo Histrico; 9-10) Vol. 2 prepared by Mauro Alvarez Mantilla and Germn Solano de la Sala Veintemilla. Contents: vol. 1, Circulares postales del Departamento de Cambios, 1950-1965; vol. 2, Circulares postales del Departamento de Cambios, 1966-1984. 308. Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Jijn y Caamao, preparado por Milton Luna Tamayo y Patricio Ordez Chiriboga, 1 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1983-1987. 3 v. (ix, 308, x, 302, xi, 414 p.) (Catlogos del Archivo Histrico; 2, 5, 7) Vol. 3 prepared by Milton Luna Tamayo, Patricio Ordez Chiriboga, and Ftima Ponce Estupin. The former collection of Jacinto Jijn y Caamao is incredibly rich. It

consists of at least twenty-one distinct series. These three volumes describe only the first series, Documentos miscelneos, consisting of approximately 13,000 manuscripts, from 1543 through 1914. Well indexed. See also item 437. 309. Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Neptal Bonifaz, preparado por Luca Surez Pasquel, 1 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 19831984. 2 v. (315, 323 p.) (Catlogos del Archivo Histrico; 1, 4) Catalogs the private papers of one of the more important members of the traditional elite and one of the founders of the Banco Central. Vol. 2 includes a guide to the records--dating from as early as 1606--of Bonifazs estate, the Hacienda Guachal. Indexed. 310. Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. Fondo Notaras de Ambato, preparado por Mara Teresa Larrea, 1 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 19841987. 2 v. (x, 310, 383 p.) (Catlogos del Archivo Histrico; 3, 6) The Fondo Notaras de Ambato consists of registers (protocolos) from 1749-1900 and litigation (juicios) from 1604-1939. Indexed. 310a. Archivo Histrico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Catlogos del Archivo Histrico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1996. 3 v. This important repository contains materials from the colonial and independence periods (from 1692-1821) as well as from the 1822 onward. 311. Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito, Ecuador). Gua del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1981. 219 p. 312. Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito, Ecuador). Gua de los fondos documentales del Archivo Nacional del Ecuador. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Archivos, 1994. 2 v. (474, 506 p.) As of July 1997, the most up-to-date as well as complete check list of the holdings of the ANH/Q. Other useful guides are items 311, 323, 347. 313. Archivo Secreto Vaticano, investigacin, seleccin y notas, Francisco Miranada Ribadeneira. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989. 3 v. (Catlogos del Archivo Histrico; 12-14) Covers the years 1823-1903. 314. Arroyo del Ro, Carlos Alberto. El Instituto Cultural Ecuatoriano: su fundacin e inauguracin. Quito: Tall. Grf. del Ministerio de Educacin, 1943. 42 p. 315. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Gua de la documentacin diplomtica britnica sobre Ecuador: elaborada a base de las referencias existentes en los archivos del Foreign Office, Public Record Office de Londres. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Quito, 1986. 85 p. 316. Barrera, Isaac J. El nmero 100 del Boletn de la Academia de Historia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 44:100 (jul./dic. 1962), 131-146. An overview of the first 53 years of the Academy and its labors and of the contributions

of its members. See also Jos Mara Vargass Fundacin de la Sociedad de Estudios Histricos Americanos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 67:143/144 (ene.-dic. 1984), 6-17. 317. Barrera, Isaac J.; and Carlos Manuel Larrea. El Archivo Luis Felipe Borja Prez, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 35:86 (jul./dic. 1955), 249-255; 37:89 (ene./jun. 1957), 106-108; 38:92 (jul./dic. 1958), 229-234. Lists manuscripts, including but not limited to family papers, donated by Sofia Borja del Alczar to the Academia Nacional de Historia. The documents span the years 16421896. 318. Barrera B., Jaime. Obras y documentos antiguos existentes en la Bibliotoeca de la Universidad Central, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 57:297 (jul./sept. 1936), 471-526. 319. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinosa Plit. Cincuentenario de la Biblioteca y Museo Ecuatorianos Aurelio Espinosa Plit, 1929-1979. Quito: La Biblioteca, 1980. 140 p. 320. Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Exposicin del periodismo ecuatoriano: contribucin de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Grf. del Ministerio de Educacin, 1941. 119 p. Sntesis de la Hemeroteca de la Biblioteca Nacional. 321. Las Bibliotecas en Cuenca, Antonio Lloret Bastidas [et al.], Tres de noviembre, 32:147 (ene./abr. 1987), 25-34, 44-125. 322. Bognoli, Jos Clemente. La Biblioteca Municipal: antecedentes histricos y su legislacin municipal moderna. Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1965. 60 p. 323. Bonnett Velez, Diana. La Seccin Indgenas del Archivo Histrico de Quito, siglos XVI-XVIII: documentos, 1 ed. Quito: FLACSO: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 100 p. A guide to materials in the Indgenas section of the Archivo Nacional de Historia. 323a. Botasso, Juan. Archivo Histrico de las Misiones Salesianas: catlogo. Quito: Procura de las Misiones Salesianas, 1979. 27 p. 324. Buys, Josef E.; and Jorge G. Marcos. Centro de Estudios Arqueolgicos y Antropolgicos del Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Guayaquil: Proyecto Regional de Patrimonio Cultural y Desarrollo PNUD/UNESCO, 1985. 19 p. 325. Caillavet, Chantal. Les archives quatoriennes, Cahiers du monde hispanique et luso-brsilien (Caravelle), 34 (1980), 171-175. An introduction to public archives, especially historical, and private collections of Quito. 326. Caillavet, Chantal. Fuentes para la historia andina: los archivos privados indgenas de la zona de Saraguro, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985),

87-90. Reports the results of a survey of private papers held by indigenous families of Saraguro. The survey was conducted by members of the communities of Lagunas, San Lucas, and Tenta. The two most important points that Caillavet makes are: 1) archivos privados familiares exist in the lower as well as in the upper sectors; and 2) that documentacin indgena has been virtually ignored in Ecuador. 327. Caillavet, Chantal. Fuentes y problemtica de la historia colonial de Loja y su provincia, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr.1983), 355-370. A cogent introduction to archival sources in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Spain for the reconstruction of the history of Loja and its province. 328. Carrin, Fernando. Centros de investigacin y bibliotecas: directorio ecuatoriano, 1 ed. Quito: CIUDAD-CONUEP, 1988. 306 p. A comprehensive directory of research centers and libraries throughout the country. 329. Cartas de cabildos hispanoamericanos: Audiencia de Quito (siglos XVI-XIX), edicin e introduccin Javier Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Montserrat Fernndez Martnez, Agueda Rivera Garrido. Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1991. xx, 506 p. A calendar of letters and accompanying documents from town councils of Spanish towns and Indians pueblos in the Audiencia de Quito fondo of the Archivo General de Indias (Seville). Well indexed. 330. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Indice general de los papeles de Pedro Franco Dvila: (volmenes I y II), Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 6276. A calendar of transcriptions of papers of Franco Dvila deposited by Castillo in the Centro de Investigaciones Histricas de Guayaquil, the archives and library of which are now in the Archivo Histrico del Guayas. N.B. In some instances Castillos transcriptions may be the only extant versions inasmuch as some of the corresponding originals or coeval copies seen by him in Spain were destroyed during the Civil War. Far more of the manuscripts in question survived, however, than used to be thought: see Calatayuds biography of Franco Dvila (item 3086). 331. Clayton, Lawrence A. Documentos en el Archivo General de Indias para el estudio de la historia martima y comercial de Guayaquil en el siglo XVII, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 3:6 (dic. 1974), 64-82. 331a. Corts Alonso, Vicenta. Catlogo de mapas de Colombia. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispnica, 1967. 337 p. A guide to the cartographic holdings of the Archivo Histrico Nacional in Bogot. The Archivo Histrico Nacional is also known as the Archivo General de la Nacin and the Archivo Nacional, apropos of a not insignificant point. Repositories are sometimes referred to by variant names. 332. Chacn Zhapn, Juan. El Archivo Histrico Municipal, Huellas (Cuenca), 5

(nov. 1987), 34-36. On the Historical Archives of the Municipality of Cuenca. 333. Chacn Zhapn, Juan. Nociones de paleografa y archivstica, Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 629-719. Delineates the origins of the Archivo Nacional de Historia in Quito and the Archivo Nacional de Historia: Seccin del Azuay in Cuenca. Not a complete or altogether reliable account of the early years of the ANH/SA, however. 334. Chaves, Alfredo. Indice general de las publicaciones que han aparecido en la Revista de la Jurdico Literaria [sic] desde su fundacin en 1902 hasta 1932, Revista de la Sociedad Jurdico-Literaria, 51:133 (ene./dic. 1953), 221-251. 335. Chaves, Alfredo. Trayectoria del Archivo Nacional de Historia: pasado y presente de sus actividades, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4 (1956), 3-5. 336. Destruge, Camilo. Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil: apuntaciones histricas, desde su fundacin hasta la fecha, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:25 (mar. 1912), 8-13; 3:26 (abr. 1912), 17-28. On the early history of the Municipal Library of the port city. 337. Destruge, Camilo. La Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, Revista Municipal (Guayaquil), 1:6 (9 mar. 1926), 9-20. Updates item 336. 338. Directorio de organizaciones no gubernamentales dedicadas al desarrollo en el Ecuador. Quito: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; Fundacin Alternativas para el Desarrollo, 1992-. <1 v. (298 p.)>. A directory of NGOs. 339. Ecuador en la investigacin francesa, aos 80, realizado por Groupe de recherches sur lAmrique latine Toulouse-Perpignan [y] Centro de Estudios Documentarios sobre Amrica Latina, Universit de Toulouse-Le Mirail [GRAL/CEDOCAL-Universidad de Toulouse II-Le Mirail]. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 1 v. (not paginated) 340. Erazo Arias, Luis Abdn. Los 25 aos de la Revista del Ncleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Revista del Ncleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 12:25:24 (jul. 1979), 160-186. Includes an index of contributors to the Revista (see items 498 and 518). 341. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. El Archivo del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1:1 (primer semestre 1972), 22-36. A detailed account of the antecedents, especially vicissitudes, of what is now the Archivo de la Secretara Municipal de Guayaquil. 342. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. Documentacin indiana en el Archivo Histrico del

Guayas, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 5 (1980), 487-511. Includes lists of and seventeenth-century holdings, especially of notarial records and court proceedings, of the AHG. 343. Facultad Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), Latin American Research Review, 12:2 (1977), 240-242. See also item 425. 344. Fichero Pedro Robles Chambers: tercera parte, Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga, 23 (nov. 1986), 27-38. See items 304 and 403 for parts one and two. 345. Freile Granizo, Juan. Los archivos ecuatorianos y la historia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 65:139/140 (ene./dic. 1983), 288-296. 346. Freile Granizo, Juan. Los documentos y la investigacin histrica, Miscelnea histrica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1986), 96-111. A somewhat rambling discourse on the history and state of archives in the country. Freile Granizo was director of the Archivo Nacional at the time. 347. Freile Granizo, Juan. Gua del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1974. xi, 174 p. An excellent introduction to and survey of the holdings of the ANH/Q. Especially strong on the colonial period. 348. Freile Granizo, Juan. Lista parcial de documentacin guayaquilea en la Seccin Gobierno del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Quito, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1:1 (primer semestre 1972), 9-13; 1:2 (dic. 1972), 25-32. 349. Fundacin de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito, Mensaje, poca 3, 8/9 (1938), 154-160. 350. Gandara Enrquez, Marcos. Memorias de hombres de estado, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 71:151/152 (ene./dic. 1988), 75-145. Analyzes and describes the memoirs and other writings of presidents (from Juan Jos Flores through the fifth presidency of Velasco Ibarra) and some, but far from all, of their ideologues and other supporters. Ignores the more or less annual reports of the ministers of state, however, on which see items 360 and 361. 351. Grijalva de Dvila, Adriana. Gua de organismos culturales y de investigaciones en el Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1991. 415 p. An incomplete and poorly organized guide to cultural and research organizations. 352. Gua de museos y archivos, Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 109112. A guide to museums and archives of Cuenca.

353. Gua del Fondo Mestizos del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 123-137. 354. Gua para investigadores del Ecuador, Instituto Geogrfico Militar. Quito: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1982. 23, 117 p. A guide to the activities, holdings, and publications of the Instituto Geogrfico Militar. 355. Guilln, Alejandro. El Centro de Poblacin: una experiencia en el Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad de Cuenca, Revista del IDIS, 19 (nov. 1988), 9-17. Outlines the history and activities of the Centro de Poblacin established in 1983. 356. Hamerly, Michael T. Archives of Cuenca, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 37:3 (Jan. 1981), 379-392. N.B. Revises and updates authors chapter on repositories in Cuenca in item 412. 357. Hamerly, Michael T. Archives of Guayaquil: Colonial and Nineteenth-Century Institutions and Administrative Archives, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of InterAmerican Cultural History, 38:3 (Jan. 1982), 379-391. 358. Hamerly, Michael T. Archives of Guayaquil: Ecclesiastical Entities and Archives, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 38:4 (Apr. 1982), 515-523. 359. Hamerly, Michael T. Archives of Guayaquil: Historical Archives and Private Collections, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 39:1 (July 1982), 107-116. Items 357-359 are comprehensive albeit inevitably dated surveys of archives of and private collections in the port city. 360. Hamerly, Michael T. Informes ministeriales y registros oficiales del siglo XIX como fuentes cuantitativas, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 6:11 (jun. 1977), 27-61. More comprehensive than the necessarily abridged English version (item 361). 361. Hamerly, Michael T. Quantifying the Nineteenth Century: The Ministry Reports and Gazettes of Ecuador as Quantitative Sources, Latin American Research Review, 13:2 (1978), 138-156. For a more comprehensive list of official newspapers see: Cecilia Ortiz, La prensa oficial (1830-1940), Memoria, MARKA, ao 1, no. 1 (nov. 1990), 257-262. 362. Hamerly, Michael T. Registros parroquiales e inventarios de iglesias del litoral, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 6:12 (dic. 1977), 25-69. Surveys parishes registers and coeval inventories of parishes churches in what are now the Archdiocese of Guayaquil and the Dioceses of Manab, Los Ros, and El Oro. 363. Heredia Herrera, Antonia. Organizacin y descripcin de los fondos de la Audiencia de Quito del Archivo General de Indias, Historiografa y bibliografa

americanistas, 21 (1977), 139-165. A useful guide to the Audiencia de Quito fondo of the Archivo General de Indias. 364. Ibarra, Hernn. Monografas y guas comerciales como fuentes de historia social y local, Revista andina, 4:7 (jul. 1986), 237-251. Discusses and exemplifies the importance of commemorative monographs and commercial directories as sources for local and social history. Unfortunately both are not only inadequately known for Ecuador but some of the hardest materials to come by. 365. Indice de documentos correspondientes a los aos 1741 [al 1753], Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 8-179. Abstracts and indexes documents from 1741 through 1753 in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. 366. Indice de documentos correspondiente al ao de 1754 [etc.], Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 10:16 (jul. 1966), 71-212. Abstracts and indexes documents nos. 1845-2335 in the Archivo Nacional de Historia from 1754 through 1763. See also items 368-379, 407, and 408. 368. Indice de materias del tomo II de la Seccin Presidencia de Quito del Archivo Nacional de Historia, ARNAHIS, 12:18 (ago. 1970), 185-265. This and the following eleven indices are calendars of documents in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. See also items 365, 366, 407, and 408. 369. Indice-extracto de 444 cdulas reales del primer volumen concerniente a los aos de 1563 a 1612, contenidas en 28 ttulos segn sus diversas materias, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 13 (ago. 1964), 46-50. 370. Indice-extracto de los documentos correspondientes a los aos de 1715-1716 y 1717-1719, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 47-112. 371. Indice-extracto de los documentos del Archivo Nacional de Historia nos. 607 al 685, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 18-63. Covers the years 1713-1714. 372. Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 468 a 606 desde 1700 1705 [i.e., 1712] del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 3:5 (ene./jul. 1954), 21-123. 373. Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 751 al 775, correspondientes a los aos de 1720 a 1722: volumen 24, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 6:11 (dic. 1961), 68-96. 374. Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 776 al 809, correspondiente al ao de 1723: volumen 25, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 6:11 (dic. 1961), 97-107. 375. Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 810 al 1016, correspondientes a los aos de 1724 a 1733, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 7:12 (ago. 1963), 1359.

376. Indice-extracto de los documentos nros. 1017 al [1229], correspondientes a los aos 1734 a [1740], Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 13 (ago. 1964), 51-106. 377. Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 1 248 del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Ecuador, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (ene./jun. 1950), 22176. Includes personal and place name indexes. 378. Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 249 462, desde 1670 a 1699 del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:2 (jul./dic. 1950), 243-424. Includes personal and place name indexes. 379. Indices-extractos de los documentos nos. 463 467, desde 1696 1723, de Archivo Nacional de Historia, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./dic. 1951), 52-158. 380. Inventario de los volmenes conservados en el Archivo Histrico de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, Universidad, Universidad Catlica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 16/17 (jun. 1972), 153-162. N.B. Many, if not the majority, of the materials now housed in the AH/BMG came from the Archivo de la Gobernacin del Guayas. 381. Juncosa, Jos Enrique. El V centenario desde el punto de vista indgena en Ecuador, SALALM and the Area Studies Community: Papers of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials . . ., David Block editor (Albuquerque: SALALM Secretariat, 1994), p. 19-23. Reports on recent publications of indigenous organizations, especially those relating to the June 1990 uprising. 382. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra. Catlogo del Archivo General de la Orden Franciscana del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural, 1980. 330 p. (Coleccin archivos y bibliotecas; 1) A detailed, well organized guide to the colonial and national period holdings of the Franciscan Archives in Quito (AGOFE), previously a virtually unknown and ignored repository. Indexed. The AGOFE is country wide in its holdings. 383. Kennedy Troya, Alexandra; and Marcia Sigenza Crespo. Monasterio de las Conceptas de Cuenca: catlogo del archivo histrico. Cuenca: Fundacin Paul Rivet, 1990. xvii, 344 p. A guide to the holdings of the second oldest religious order for women in Cuenca. 384. Lara, Daro. La historia del Ecuador vista por los diplomticos franceses, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 67-78. 385. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Catlogo documental sobre el 10 de agosto de 1809, del Museo Britnico, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:90 (jul./dic. 1957), 269-276.

385a. Larrea, Gregorio Csar de. Fichero histrico. Quito: S.A.G., 1991. 180 p. (Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga; 44) Apparently a guide to sources from the colonial period that are to be found in private collections. 386. Lista de legajos manuscritos del Museo de Historia de la Ciudad de Quito, Museo Histrico, 1:1 (mayo 1949), 31-36. 387. Lista parcial de documentos que sobre el Ecuador se hallan en el Archivo Nacional de Bogot, Museo Histrico, 2:5 (mayo 1950), 193-208; 3:9 (mayo 1951), 130-157. Lists primary sources on the 10 de agosto. 388. Lovato, Mara Fernanda. Gua de centros de investigacin, Quitumbe, 7 (1990), 151-157. A useful directory of research centers, archives, and libraries in Quito. Lists their addresses, telephone numbers, and hours. 389. Lloret Bastidas, Antonio. Museos y archivos de Cuenca, Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 9-13. 390. Matamoros Jara, Carlos. Peridicos publicados en Guayaquil, existentes en la Biblioteca Municipal: primera parte, 1822-1900, Revista municipal (Guayaquil), 8:15/17 (mar./mayo 1933), 23-24; 8:18 (jun. 1933), 2, 96. 391. Montalvo, Antonio. Registro bibliogrfico de la revista Amrica: nmeros 1-100, 1925-1950, Amrica (Quito), 26:101 (ene./jun. 1951), 7-82. 392. Montoto, Santiago. El proceso contra Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa en Quito, 1737-1739, Anuario de estudios americanos, 5 (1948), 747-780. Regarding the research potential of said legajo in the Archivo General de Indias. 393. Mora Castro, Diego. Archivo Nacional de Historia: Seccin del Azuay, Tres de Noviembre, 31:144 (ene./abr. 1986), 98-104. 394. Mora Castro, Diego. Fondos documentales del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1984. 20 p. 395. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. La Coleccin documental Bernardo Mendel y su importancia en la historiografa ecuatoriana, Suplemento de Anuario de estudios americanos, 46:1 (1989), 35-50. Describes the Mendel Collection in the Lilly Library (University of Indiana). This collection includes 23 legajos that used to be in the Archdiocesan Archives of Quito. Also published in: Memoria, MARKA, ao 2, no. 2 (nov. 1993), 151-168. 396. Norris, Robert E. La coleccin de peridicos guayaquileos en la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1:2 (dic. 1972), 17-24.

397. Oleas Montalvo, Julio; and Bruno Andrade Andrade. Indices de debates econmicos del parlamento ecuatoriano, 1830-1950. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1985. xii, 479 p. (Fuentes para la historia econmica del Ecuador. Serie indices de documentacin; 1) 398. Ortiz Bilbao, Luis Alfonso. Indice general a la Coleccin Vacas Galindo, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 241-258; 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 49-92; 50:109 (ene./jun. 1967), 81-116; 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 220252; 51:111 (ene./jun. 1968), 64-85; 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 209-239; 52:113 (ene./jun. 1969), 114-128; 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 256-277; 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 87-112; 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 367-395; 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 174-196; 55:119 (ene./jun. 1972), 135-143; 55:120 (jul./dic. 1972), 294-304; 56:121 (ene./jun. 1973), 177-192; 57:123 (ene./jun. 1974), 201-212; 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 150-165. The Vacas Galindo Collection, housed in the Dominican Convent in Quito, consists of early twentieth century transcriptions--mostly typewritten, but not always reliable--of Archivo General de Indias materials. See also item 433. 399. Pez Tern, Juan Fernando. Documentos relativos a la historia del Ecuador que se encuentran en la Biblioteca del Congreso de la Argentina, Museo Histrico, 30 (mar. 1958), 249-256. 400. Pattee, Richard. Libraries and Archives for Historical Research in Ecuador, Hispanic American Historical Review, 17:2 (May 1937), 231-237. Although much out-of-date as to the location and status of libraries and archives, still useful as a source of information as to their whereabouts, organization, staffing, and relative usefulness as of the mid 1930s. Interestingly enough, the best library for historical research at that time was the Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando, according to Pattee. Also published in Spanish as: Bibliotecas y archivos de investigacin en el Ecuador, Libros i bibliotecas, 1 (1939), 29-32. 401. Paz y Mio, Luis Telmo. Gua para la historia de la cartografa ecuatoriana. Quito: Ministerio del Tesoro, 1948. 56 p. 402. Paz y Mio, Luis Telmo. Mapas coloniales del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 23:62 (jul./dic. 1943), 165-187. 403. Pedro Robles Chambers fichero: segunda parte, Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga, 21 (jun. 1986), 9-24. See items 304 and 344 for parts one and two. 403a. Peru. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Gua del Archivo Histrico de Lmites. Lima: Direccin de Proyectos, Sub-Proyecto de Archivo de Lmites y General, 1994. 47 p. Perus Archivo Histrico de Lmites should be consulted by anyone endeavoring to add new data or fresh perspective to the boundary dispute between Ecuador and Peru. 404. Pimentel Carbo, Julio. Los escribanos en la colonia, Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 53/54 (jul./dic. 1983), 175-182.

405. Porras Barrenechea, Ral. Fuentes histricas peruanas: (apuntes de un curso universitario). Lima: Instituto Ral Porras Barrenechea, 1963. 601 p. An exceptionally important vade mecum. In the section on the colonial period, for example, Porras Barrenechea describes and discourses on published collections of primary sources and repositories, chronicles, and modern (i.e., post-colonial period) historians of the viceroyalty, not just of Peru proper. 406. Porras G., Pedro. I. Manuscritos ecuatorianos en la Biblioteca Lilly de la Universidad de Indiana, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 171-173. The relevance of the Lilly Library as a research repository cannot be over emphasized. It includes numerous manuscripts and imprints of the colonial, independence, and early national periods, Ecuadorian examples of which Porras G. here within provides. 407. Presidencia de Quito: indice de materias [del tomo I], ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 182-219. 408. Presidencia de Quito: indice de materias [del tomo III], ARNAHIS, 13:19 (mar. 1973), 208-222. Items 407-408 are additional calendars of documents in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. They continue items 365, 366 and 368-379. 408a. Proao. Luis Octavio. Inventario del Convento Mximo de la Merced de Quito, 1535-1860, in Proaos, Miscelnea histrica (item 5156), vol. 1, p. 195-251. 409. Quintero, Rafael. Escuela de Sociologa y Ciencias Polticas: la poltica acadmica de la Direccin, 1974-1976, Latin American Research Review, 13:2 (1978), 236-242. For the full text see Informe de labores del Director de la Escuela en el bienio 1.9741.976, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 127-145. The Escuela de Sociologa y Ciencias Polticas was and presumably still is a division of the Universidad Central. 410. Reig Satorres, Jos. Complemento de documentacin ecuatoriana sobre derecho indiano, in: Congreso del Instituto Internacional de Historia del Derecho Indiano (3rd: Madrid: 1972). Actas y estudios (Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Jurdicos, 1973), p. 1079-1094. Supplements item 410. 411. Reig Satorres, Jos. Documentacin ecuatoriana sobre derecho indiano, Universidad, Universidad Catlica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 10-11 (dic. 1970), 59-89. A guide to published and unpublished sources for the study of institutions in the colonial period. Supplemented by item 410. 412. Research Guide to Andean History: Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru, contributing editors, Judith R. and Peter Bakewell [et al.], coordinating editor, John J. TePaske. Durham: Duke University Press, 1981. xiii, 346 p.

Although somewhat out-of-date, still useful. N.B. Estrada Ycazas and Hamerlys chapters on repositories in Guayaquil and Cuenca were superseded by items 356-359. Partial contents: Jaime E. Rodrguez O., Introduction (p. 136-137); Adam Szszdi, Comments on the Historiography of Ecuadors Pre-Independence Period (p. 138-145); Jaime E. Rodrguez O., Research in the National Period (p. 146-150); Linda A. Rodrguez, The Libraries and Archives of Quito (p. 151-163); Juan Freile Granizo, The Archivo Nacional de Historia (p. 164-169); Joedd Price, The Archivo Nacional de Relaciones Exteriores del Ecuador and the Biblioteca General del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (p. 170-171); Luis A. Rodrguez S., The Military Archives of Ecuador (p. 172-174); Michael T. Hamerly, The Archives and Libraries of Cuenca (p. 175-181); Julio Estrada Ycaza, The Archives and Libraries of Guayaquil (p. 182-196); Rosemary D.F. Bromley, The Provincial Archives and Libraries of Ecuador (p. 197204). For a partial update on the status of repositories in the capital see Federica Morellis Doing Archival Research in Quito: A Guide to Archives and Libraries, Itinerario, 18:2 (1994), 143-147. 413. Riao, Jos Camilo. Inventario del Archivo del historiador Jos Manuel Restrepo, Archivos (Bogot), 1:1 (ene./jun. 1967), 179-199. It will be recalled that Restrepo (1781-1863) took advantage of his ministerial position to obtain originals and copies of official sources in bulk from throughout what are now Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador in order to prepare his monumental Historia de la revolucin de la Repblica de Colombia (item 1833). Fortunately his descendants have maintained and allow access to his collection. 414. Rodrguez O., Jaime. E. New Research Opportunities in Ecuador, Latin American Research Review, 8:2 (1973), 95-100. Superseded by Rodrguezs introduction to the section on Ecuador in item 412. 414a. Roggiero, Roberto. Ecuador, in: Documentos de la primera Reunin Iberoamericana para la Recuperacin y Conservacin de Archivos y Documentacin de los Trabajadores y Movimientos Sociales (Buenos Aires, 13/15 abril 1992), edicin preparada por Aurelio Martn Njera y Agustn Garrigs Fernndez (Madrid: Edit. Pablo Iglesias, 1992), p. 233-241. 415. Rolando, Carlos A. Anales de la Universidad de Quito, Libros i bibliotecas, 1:1 (mar. 1939), 2-5; 1:2 (jun. 1939), 1-3; 1:4 (dic. 1939), 2-6. 416. Rolando, Carlos A. Biblioteca del Archivo del Poder Legislativo, Libros i bibliotecas, 1:2 (jun. 1939), 46-48. Included here for the same of completeness and to demonstrate that the importance of this major repository has long been known. Superseded by Cecilia Durn C.s El Archivo-Biblioteca de la Funcin Legislativa: visin general del fondo, Memoria, MARKA, ao 1, no. 1 (nov. 1990), 189-256. 417. Rolando, Carlos A. El Centro de Investigaciones Histricas de Guayaquil: breve crnica de 20 aos de existencia (1930-1950), Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones

Histricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 3-8. 418. Rolando, Carlos A. Libros, archivos i bibliotecas nacionales: (conferencia). Guayaquil: Tall. Grf. Municipales, 1944. 17 p. 419. Rolando, Carlos A. Pseudnimos en la prensa del Ecuador, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 3:3 (1933), 208-231. Corrects and updates list of pseudonyms used by Ecuadorian journalists. See also item 173 and 175. 420. Rolando, Carlos A. XXV anniversario de la fundacin de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales Carlos A. Rolando, 1913-1938. Guayaquil: Impr. Municipal, 1938. 104 p. 421. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. El indice del Archivo de la antigua Provincia de Quito de la Compaa de Jess, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 7:12 (ago. 1963), 60-110; 8:13 (ago. 1964), 107-111; 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 180-191. 422. Salgado, Cristbal. Tesis que se conservan en el Archivo de la Secretara de la Universidad Central para la consulta de los alumnos, Revista de derecho y ciencias sociales, 1:2 (mayo 1933), 98-106. Lists theses presented between 1905 and early 1933. 423. Silva, Rafael Euclides. El Archivo Nacional de Historia: institucin cultural ecuatoriana, Anales del Archivo Nacional y Museo Unico, 2 poca, 1(1939), 7-19. 424. Silva, Rafael Euclides. Labor paleogrfica de restauracin y descifracin de las actas del Cabildo colonial de Santiago de Guayaquil, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 9:21/22 (1952), 174-182. Describes his work as transcriber of the Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), and the state of the Archivo de la Secretara Municipal de Guayaquil as of the early 1950s. 425. Social Science Centers in Quito, Latin American Research Review, 14:2 (1979), 208-212. An introduction to the Centro de Planificacin y Estudios Sociales (CEPLAES), the Fundacin de Investigacin y Asesora para el Desarrollo (FIAD), the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO)--on which see also item 343--and the Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones (ILDIS). 426. Sols Chiriboga, Mara Cristina. El Fondo Escribanas Pblicas del Cantn Quito: Seccin Protocolos, del Archivo Nacional, Miscelnea histrica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1989), 105-125. 427. Tern, Enrique. Fundacin de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito, Mensaje (Quito), 8/9 (1938), 154-160. 428. Torres Lanzas, Pedro. Relacin descriptiva de los mapas, planos, etc. de las antiguas Audiencias de Panam, Santa F y Quito existentes en el Archivo General de Indias. Madrid: Tip. de la Revista de Arch., Bib. y Museos, 1906. 185 p.

Reprinted as: Catlogo de mapas y planos: Audiencias de Panam, Santa F y Quito. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Direccin General de Bellas Artes y Archivos, 1985. 429. Ubidia Rubio, Luis Enrique. Resumen general de los documentos que se refieren a la poca colonial de la Repblica del Ecuador, tomados del catlogo general del Archivo Central, anexo a la Universidad del Cauca, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:103 (ene./jun. 1964), 87-107; 47:104 (jul./dic. 1964), 260-273; 48:105 (ene./jun. 1965), 129-137; 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 281-285; 49:107 (ene./jun. 1966), 116-132; 49:108 (jul./dic. 1966), 263-266. Title varies: Indice de documentos en la Universidad del Cauca. Abstracts manuscript holdings, vol. by vol, in the Archivo Central del Cauca, housed in the University of Cauca, relating to the Audiencia of Quito. 430. Universidad Central del Ecuador. Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas. Catlogo de tesis de grado de la Facultad de Economa 1950-1984. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1985. 250 p. 431. Valdospinos Rubio, Marcelo. El IOA: cultura y crisis. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1990. 39 p. On the Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa. 432. Vargas, Jos Mara. Fuentes documentales para la historia del Ecuador, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 9:14/15 (ago. 1965), 3-7. 433. Vargas, Jos Mara. Misiones ecuatorianas en archivos europeos. Mxico: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1956. 192 p. Includes a guide to the Vacas Galindo Collection. See also item 398. 434. Vargas Ugarte, Ruben. Manual de estudios peruanistas. Lima: Ediciones Libr. Studium, 1951. 346 p. Included here because Vargas Ugarte took in greater Peru and therefore the literature on the former viceroyalty, including the Presidency of Quito during most of the colonial period. 435. Vasco de Escudero, Grecia. Los archivos quiteos. Quito: Seccin Ecuatoriana del Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1977. 178 p. A detailed guide to ecclesiastical, administrative, and historical archives of the capital. 436. Vasco de Escudero, Grecia. Directorio ecuatoriano de archivos. Quito: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, Seccin Nacional del Ecuador, 1979. 163 p. A country wide directory of ecclesiastical, administrative, and historical archives. 437. Villacs V., Eduardo. Los indices del Archivo Jacinto Jijn y Caamao, Cultura, 2:5 (sept./dic. 1979), 311-338; 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 286-346. 438. Villacrs Moscoso, Jorge W. Cartografa histrica del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 22:39 (1972), 30-76. A calendar of maps of Ecuador and its component regions from the sixteenth century

through the 1960s. 439. Villavicencio de Burbano, Luca. Gua de documentos para el estudio de la historia econmica de Cuenca y su regin. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1986. 91 p. 440. Vogel, Christian. Los archivos coloniales del Ecuador, Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 1 (1974), 189-227. Reprint; originally published in El Comercio (Quito) in the Aug. 8, 15, 22, and 29, 1965 issues. The first comprehensive introduction to archives of the country at large, including ecclesiastical, municipal, and provincial, housing materials from and on the colonial period. Although now somewhat out-of-date, still very much worth consulting. 441. Whitten, Dorothea S.; and Norman E. Whitten, Jr. Art, Knowledge, and Health: Development and Assessment of a Collaborative, Auto-Financed Organization in Eastern Ecuador. Cambridge, Mass.: Cultural Survival, Inc.; Urbana, Ill.: Sacha Runa Research Foundation, 1985. 126 p. A history of the Sacha Runa Research Foundation.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

REVISTAS

This section lists every historical and related journal for which I was able to find or to establish an acceptable bibliographic description (that is to say, a description that includes enumeration, place of publication, and date of initial, and also, when known, of terminal publication. The number of issues or volumes, again when know, in the case of defunct titles is also specified.) N.B. Journals that are primarily bibliographic or statistical in coverage are entered under Bibliografas or Estadstica for the most part. I have not indicated frequency of publication except in a few instances. This is because the majority of Ecuadorian periodicals, especially scholarly journals, appear sporadically, even those that claim to be issued regularly. Indicative of this are the total numbers of issues (not titles) of Ecuadorian periodicals registered by Edgar Freire Rubio in vol. 3 of his Desde el mostrador del librero (item 80): 254 for 1992; 267 for 1993; 258 for 1994; and 242 for 1995. As of the late 1990s, bibliographic control over Ecuadorian serials remained to be achieved. The histories of some periodicals, annuals, and irregular serials were known, but the particulars of far too many titles had, and probably still have, yet to be established. This is true whether one consults North American, European, or Ecuadorian records. Neither the Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada, 3rd ed. (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1965) and its several supplements, nor the ongoing Ulrichs International Periodicals Directory (New York: Bowker, 1965-) provide comprehensive coverage of Ecuadorian serials. In part this is because North American and European libraries have not made a concerted effort to collect and to describe Ecuadorian periodicals, annuals, and irregular serials. Insofar as Ecuador is concerned, this section supersedes my Historical and Related Journals of Spanish South America: a Current and Retrospective Checklist, Handbook of Latin American Studies, 36 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1974), 194-200. Only one North American librarian other than myself had attempted to establish control over Ecuadorian serials, the late Rosa Quintero Mesa, in vol. 8 of her indispensable Latin American Serial Documents (item 138). When it comes to serials, Ecuadorian bibliographies suffer from the same defect as their North American and European counterparts, incomplete coverage. At least one Ecuadorian scholar, however, recognized the need for a comprehensive bibliography of

serials. In his classic Indice bibliogrfico de las revistas de la Biblioteca Jaramillo de Escritos Nacionales (item 109), Miguel Angel Jaramillo gave us a paradigm of bibliographic description of periodicals as art and as science, an issue by issue accounting and description thereof. Unfortunately, no one has taken up where Jaramillo left off, at least not as of the late 1990s. Freire Rubio, however, provides a running account of publicaciones peridicas in his ongoing Desde el mostrador del librero (item 80). I am aware of other historical and related periodicals that should have been listed here (e.g., Nariz del diablo). But not yet having been able to determine to my satisfaction the particulars of the serials in question, I have not included them. The economic crisis of the 1980s and 1990s took its toll. A number of major serials published or sponsored by the Banco Central ceased to be published or appeared with considerable delay. As of the late 1990s, it was not know whether the demises of Boletn del Archivo Histrico (item 457), Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana (item 483), Miscelnea histrica ecuatoriana (item 484), Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas (item 509), and Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica (item 520) were temporary or permanent. At least the Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica reappeared for 1994 and 1995, after an hiatus of three years. Yet another periodical that apparently disappeared in the early 1990s was the annual Ecuador indgena (Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala; Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1987-1992). It apparently appeared in a total of six issues, none of which was numbered, and each one of which had a different subtitle and an edition statement (1 ed.). Understandably, therefore, all six have been treated as discrete, unrelated items by North American libraries. Ecuador indgena also eluded me as a periodical, until too late to include it in its proper place. The first issue appears to have been Ecuador indgena: simbolismo y cotidianidad (item 7941); the second, Ecuador indgena: estudios arqueolgicos y etnogrficos de la sierra norte (item 827); the third, Ecuador indgena: aspectos histricos y actuales de la cultura andina (item 571); the fourth, Ecuador indgena: antropologa y relaciones intertnicas (item 7940); the fifth, Ecuador indgena: sincretismo e identidad en las culturas nativas de la sierra norte (item 8026); and the sixth, Ecuador indgena: espiritualidad, msica y artesana. That we are dealing with a periodical, however, is evident from the following statements in the Presentacin of the sixth issue: En este nmero de Ecuador Indgena, presentamos algunos artculos ... and Con ocasin del V Centenario, revistas como stas ponen de manifiesto ... (p. 7). It also turns out that we may be dealing with monographic or special issues of Sarance (item 521). At least this is the case insofar as the sixth issue of Ecuador indgena and the sixteenth number of Sarance are concerned. The contents of the sixth and apparently the final issue are: Roco Vaca Bucheli, El problema del tiempo y el espacio en el studio de las culturas populares andinas (p. 1130); Barbara Y. Butler, Espiritualidad y uso del alcohol entre la gente otavalea (p. 3164); Hernn Jaramillo Cisneros, El trabajo con fibra de cabuya en la Provincia de Imbabura (p. 65-83); Carlos Alberto Coba Andrade, Clasificacin y tipologa de la copla (p. 101-130); Peter Banning, El sanjuanito o sanjun en Otavalo: anlisis de

caso (p. 131-150); Clara Len Vinueza, Juegos infantiles de tradicin oral en el rea urbana de Otavalo (p. 151-172); A. Jorge Arellano, Asentamientos arqueolgicos tardos del perodo de integracin en la Cuenca del Ro Chumbo, Ecuador (p. 173204). 442. Amrica. Ao 1, no. 1 (1925)-. Quito: Grupo Amrica, 1925-. Here within cited as: Amrica (Quito). Apparently defunct. For a partial guide to Amricas contents see item 391. 443. Amrica libre, director, Carlos Manuel Noboa. Guayaquil: Prensa Ecuatoriana, 1920-1934. 3 v. (384, lxi p.; 500 p.; 610 p.) An exceptionally important irregular. Vol. 1 commemorated the 9 de octubre with a number of interesting articles on the port city as it had been in 1820 and as it had become by 1920. Vol. 2 and 3, which appeared in 1922 and 1934, respectively, are crammed with considerable data on the country at large in the 1920s and early 1930s. All three folio size vols., moreover, are profusely illustrated. 444. Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. T. 1, no. 1 (mar. 1883)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1883-. The titles varies. Originally entitled: Anales de la Universidad de Quito. Cumulative indexes exist for 1883-1934 and 1935-1964: Indice general de los Anales de la Universidad Central (Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1935); and Ruth Matilde Altamirano Silva, Indice analtico de los Anales de la Universidad Central, 1935-1964 (Medelln: Escuela Interamericana de Bibliotecologa, 1965). 445. Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca. T. 1, no. 1 (oct. 1940)-. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1940-. A subject index exists for 1940-1982: Michurn Velez Valarezo, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca: indice anltico. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Biblioteca General Juan Bautista Vzquez, 1982. 129 p. Continues: Revista de la Universidad de Cuenca (item 506). 446. Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico. Epoca 2, t. 1 (1939). Quito: Tall. Grf. del Ministerio de Educacin, 1939. 1 v. (320 p.) Continued: Revista del Archivo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito (item 508). 447. Antropologa: cuadernos de investigacin. No. 1 (jun. 1983)-. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Departamento de Antropologa, Centro de Investigacin, Documentacin y Difusin de Antropologa (CIDDA), 1983-. 448. Antropologa ecuatoriana. No. 1 (1978)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Seccin Acadmica de Antropologa y Arqueologa, 1978-. 449. Anuario de la Fundacin Los Andes de Estudios Sociales. Ao 1, no. 1 (jul. 1990)-. Quito: Fundacin Los Andes de Estudios Sociales, 1990-. 450. Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano (Guayaquil). 1 (1970)-. Guayaquil:

Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, Seccin de Investigaciones Histrico Jurdicas, 1970-<1985>. <9> v. This serial is as much a series as an annual. The monographic issues are entered separately here within (e.g., item 529). Moribund, if not defunct. 451. Boletn arqueolgico. No. 1 (feb. 1990)-. Guayaquil: Arquelogos Asociados (ARAS), 1990-. 452. Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales: rgano de las Secciones Cientficas de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Vol. 1, no. 1 (mayo 1947)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1947-. 453. Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia. Vol. 1, no. 1/2 (jul. 1920)-. Quito: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1920-. The frequency varies: a semiannual during most of its existence; a de facto annual since 60:129/130 (ene./dic. 1977). Suspended 1932-1935. Several years late in appearing during the 1980s and 1990s. Vols. 46 and 47 were published in two, continuously paginated issues (i.e., vol. 46:103 [ene./jun. 1964] and vol. 47:104 [jul./dic. 1964]), apparently by mistake. There are two cumulative indexes: Indice del Boletn de la Sociedad de Estudios Histricos Americanos 1918-1920 y de la Academia Nacional de Historia 1920-1949 (Quito: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1950); and Robert E. Norris, Indice del Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos (1918-1920) y del Boletn de la Academia Nacional de la Historia (1920-1970) (Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1973). Norriss Indice originally appeared in: Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 2:3 (jun. 1973), 27-124; unfortunately it is not altogether reliable. Continues: Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos (item 456). 454. Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. T. 1 (mar. 1910)-? Guayaquil: Biblioteca Municipal, 1910-? Long since defunct. Known to have been suspended in 1918, but not for how long. An important serial inasmuch as it published many of the historical studies of Camilo Destruge, director of the Municipal Library for many years, but one whose history remains to be constructed. 455. Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ago. 1918)-vol. 2, no. 9 (ene. 1919); nueva ser., no. 1 (oct. 1920)-no. 15 (dic. 1921); t. 1, no. 1 (dic. 1925)-v. 2, no. 12 (oct. 1927). Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1918-1927. 39 (?) nos. Continued by: Mensaje de la Biblioteca Nacional (item 482). 456. Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos. T. 1, no. 1 (jun. 1918)-t. 4, no. 12 (feb. 1920). Quito: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1918-1920. 4 v. in 12 issues. Reprinted in photofacsimile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1986-1988. For indexes to this title see item 453.

Continued by: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia (item 453). 457. Boletn del Archivo Histrico. No. 1 (sept. de 1988)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988-. <2 v.> Variant title: Boletn del Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador. As of July 1997, only the inaugural issue and No. 2 (sept. de 1991) had appeared. Partial contents of no. 1: Ramiro Avila Paredes, El Archivo Histrico del Banco Central del Ecuador (p. 7-9); Mauro Alvarez Mantilla, La Seccin Econmica del Archivo Histrico (p. 10-23); Pedro Navas Cumba, La Seccin General del Archivo Histrico (p. 25-29); Cosme Vsquez Guzmn, El fondo audiovisual (p. 30-33); Honorio Granaja Azanza, El fondo musical (p. 34-38). Partial contents of no. 2: Mnica Muoz Carrasco, El Archivo Histrico de la sucursal del Banco Central del Ecuador en Cuenca (p. 40-43); Roco Viteri A. Museo Nacional de Historia de la Medicina (p. 40-43); Roco Viteri A, Museo Nacional de Historia de la Medicina (p. 48-50). 458. Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Ao 1, no. 1 (ene./jun. 1950)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1950-. Entitled: ARNAHIS: rgano del Archivo Nacional de Historia. Ao 11, no. 17 (1968)ao 13, no. 19 (1973). 459. Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas. T. 1, no. 1 (1930)-t. 13, no. 31/32 (1962). Guayaquil: Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 1930-1962. 32 nos. in 14 issues. Tomo 1 (1930-1931) reprinted in photofacsimile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1989. 460. Boletn del Museo Municipal Remigio Crespo Toral. Ao 1, no. 1 (oct. 1947)-. Cuenca: Museo Municipal Remigio Crespo Toral, 1947-. 461. Boletn eclesistico de la Provincia Ecuatoriana. Ao 1, no. 1 (dic. 1893)-. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1893-. The official organ of the Archdiocese of Quito. 462. Boletn histrico: organo de la Direccin de Historia y Geografa Militares del Estado Mayor Conjunto de las FF.AA. Ao 1, no. 1 (sept. 1976)-. Quito: Direccin de Historia y Geografa Militares del Estado Mayor Conjunto de las FF.AA., 1976-. Here within cited as: Boletn histrico (Quito). 463. Casa de Montalvo: rgano de la Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales y Extranjeros. Ao 1, no. 1 (ago. 1931)-. Ambato: Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales y Extranjeros, 1931-. 464. Corona de Mara: revista religiosa mensual, dirigida por PP. de la Orden de Predicadores. Ao 1, no. 1 (ene. 1900)-. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1900-. 465. Crnica del ro: revista de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin,

Ncleo del Guayas. No. 1 (sept./oct. 1986)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, Ncleo del Guayas, 1986-. 466. Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa. Ao 1, no. 1 (ene. 1951)-ao 31, no. 44 (ene. 1982); 2 poca, no. 45 (1991)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1951-1982; 1993-. No. 45 (1991) includes chronological, onomastic, and subject indexes for the first 44 nos. (i.e., 27 issues): Indice de Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa (1951-1982) by Mara Antonieta Funes, Ruth Garaicoa, and Guillermo Hurel (p. 7-92). 467. Cuadernos del Guayas: revista de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, Ncleo del Guayas. Ao. 1, no 1 (mar./abr. 1948)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1948-. 468. Cuestiones econmicas. Vol. 1 (1979)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1979-. 469. Cultura: revista del Banco Central del Ecuador. No. 1 (mayo/ago. 1978)- vol. 10, no. 28 (mayo/ago. 1992); segunda poca, no. 1 ([abr.] 1997)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1978-1995, 1997-. The most important journal in the Humanities and the Social Sciences from the late 1970s through the mid 1980s. Sporadic in appearance after 1986; only one issue appeared between 1987 and 1996: no. 28 in 1995, no. 27 not having been published. The new series appears to be aimed at a broader, less scholarly audience. The inaugural issue of the new series even featured a comic strip. The original series included several special issues devoted to symposia and other conference proceedings: no. 3 (ene./abr. 1979): Primer encuentro sobre literatura ecuatoriana; vol. 2, no. 6 (ene./abr. 1980): Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830: ideologa, economa y poltica; vol. 3, no. 9 (ene./abr. 1981): Segundo encuentro sobre literatura ecuatoriana; vol. 4, no. 15 (ene./abr. 1983): Provincia de Loja; vol. 6, no. 18a18b (ene./abr. 1984): Coloquio de cultura ecuatoriana; vol. 7, no. 21a-21b (ene./abr. 1985): La Cultura andina en el Ecuador; vol. 8, no. 24a-24c (ene./abr. 1986): 250 aos de la primera misin geodsica. A cumulative index exists for nos. 1-18: Bruno Andrade Andrade, Cultura: revista del Banco Central del Ecuador: ndices no. 1-no. 18, mayo-agosto 1978-enero-abril 1984 (Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985; 57 p.). 470. Economa. No. 1 (1950)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, 1950-. Irregular. Title varies: Boletn de informacin econmica (1950-1953); Boletn trimestral de informacin econmica (1953-1962); Economa y administracin (1962). Here within cited as: Economa (Quito). 471. Economa y desarrollo: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas de la PUCE. Ao 1, no. 1 (mayo 1979)-. Quito: Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1979-.

472. Ecuador debate. 1 (dic. de 1982)-. Quito: Centro Andino de Accin Popular, 1983-. Each issue is devoted to a current topic. Published three times per year. 473. Estudios y datos. Ao 1, vol. 1, no. 1 (jul. 1979)-. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Datos, 1979-. A useful source of information on economic conditions, politics and government. Published irregularly: jul. 1979-sept. 1980; monthly: mayo 1981-. 474. Hombre y ambiente. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene./mar. 1987)-. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1987-. 475. Humanismo. No. 1 (jul./sept.1983)-. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1983-. 476. Humanitas: boletn ecuatoriano de antropologa. 1:1 (1958)-7:1 (1969-1970). Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Instituto de Antropologa, 1958-[1972?]. 11 nos. in 7 v. 477. Iglesias, pueblos y cultura. Ao 1, no. 1 (1987)-. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1987-. Quarterly. 478. Libroteca: revista bibliogrfica mensual. No. 1 (jun. 1991)-. Quito: Abrapalabra Editores, 1991-. Probably defunct. As of July 1997, the latest issue appeared to have been: n 13 (dic. 1993 y ene./feb. 1994). Based primarily on Freires monthly column (see items 80-81). 479. Llacta. [Ao 1, vol. 1] (1956)-. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1956-. Confusingly as well as inconsistently numbered. Usually monographic in nature and therefore more of a series than a serial. Monographic issues are described as separates in this bibliography. 480. Memoria: revista del Instituto de Historia y Antropologa Andina. Ao. 1, no. 1(nov. 1990)-. Quito: MARKA, Instituto de Historia y Antropologa Andina, 1990-. Here within cited as Memoria, MARKA. As of 1997, almost a true annual, five issues having appeared, and one of the most important venues for the diffusion of professionally done, original studies in Ecuadorian studies, especially in Anthropology, Archaeology, Ethnohistory, and History. 481. Memorias de la Academia Ecuatoriana correspondiente de la Espaola. T. 1, entrega 1 (1884)-. Quito: Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, 1884-. 482. Mensaje de la Biblioteca Nacional. Epoca 3, no. 1 (feb.1936)-nos. 11(1940). Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1936-1940. 11 nos. Continued: Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional del Ecuador (item 455). 483. Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana: boletn de los Museos del Banco Central

del Ecuador. Ao 1, no. 1 (1981)-. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1981-. Apparently ceased publication with No. 7, corresponding to 1987. 484. Miscelnea histrica ecuatoriana: revista de investigaciones histricas de los Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador. Ao 1, no. 1 (1988)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988-. Apparently ceased publication with No. 2, corresponding to 1989. 485. Museo Histrico: rgano del Museo de Historia de la Ciudad de Quito. Ao 1, no. 1 (mayo 1949)-. Quito: Municipalidad de Quito, 1949-. 486. Opus: revista de la Musicoteca del Banco Central del Ecuador. 1 (jun.1986)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986-. 487. Oriente dominicano: misiones de Canelos y Macas. Ao 1, no. 1 (ago./sept. 1927)-. Quito: Impr. de Santo Domingo, 1927-. 488. Pginas de cultura. No. 1 (jun. de 1949)-. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Facultad de Jurisprudencia y Ciencias Sociales, 1949-. 489. Pginas de la historia, Galo Martnez Acosta (compilador). 1985(?)-. Quito: Instituto Geogrfico Militar; Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia (Seccin Ecuador), 1985(?)-. 490. Poltica y sociedad. Ao no. 1 (1984)-. Quito: FLACSO; INFOC, 1984-. 491. Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia. No. 1 (II sem. 1991)-. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1991-. As of the late 1990s, the most important journal of Ecuadorian history being published. The only journal as of the 1990s, moreover, to attempt to review recently published monographs in history and related topics systematically as well as critically. Edited by Tehis (Taller de Estudios Histricos). No. 10 (I sem. 1997) includes Indices de contenido: nmeros 1-10. 492. Publicaciones de la Academia Arquidiocesana de Historia Eclesistica. No. 1 (ago. 1977)-. Guayaquil: Ediciones Justicia y Paz, 1977-. 493. Pucar: revista de la Facultad de Filosofa, Letras y Ciencias de la Educacin, Universidad de Cuenca. No. 1 (1977)-. Cuenca: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Filosofa, Letras y Ciencias de la Educacin, Universidad de Cuenca, 1977-. 494. Quitumbe: revista del Departamento de Historia y Geografa de la Facultad de Pedagoga de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador. Ao. 1, no. 1 (jun. 1971). Quito: Departamento de Historia y Geografa de la Facultad de Pedagoga de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1971-. Irregular; a total of ten issues had appeared as of July 1997. Includes articles by faculty as well as by students. 495. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Ao 1, no. 1 (ene./mar. 1945)-no. 24

(1966). Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1945-1966. 24 nos. Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. 496. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Chimborazo. Ao 1, no. 1 (1953)-. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Chimborazo, 1963-. Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Chimborazo. 497. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Imbabura. Vol. 1, no. 1 (ene. 1954)-[1967?]. Ibarra: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Imbabura, 1954[1967?]. Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Imbabura. Continued by: Revista del Ncleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana (item 518). 498. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay. Ao 1, no. 1 (oct. 1948). Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1948-. Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay. 499. Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas. Ao 1, no. 1 (nov. 1963)-. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1963-. Here within cited as: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas. 500. Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana. No. 1 (1974)-. Quito: Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 1974-. Title changed to: Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, beginning with no. 7 (1983). Nos. 1-5/6 here within cited as: Revista, Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana. 501. Revista ciencias sociales. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1977)-. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Jurisprudencia, Ciencias Polticas y Sociales, Escuela de Sociologa y Ciencias Polticas, 1977-. 502. Revista de antropologa (Cuenca) 1 (dic. 1969)-. Cuenca: Seccin de Antropologa del Ncleo del Azuay de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1969-. No. 10 (abr. 1989) includes a cumulative: Indice onomstico y de ttulos de las Revistas de antropologa del Ncleo del Azuay de la Casa de la Cultura. 503. Revista de la Sociedad de Amigos de la Genealoga. Ao 1, vol. 1 (mar. 1983)-. Quito: Sociedad Amigos de la Genealoga, 1983-. Extremely irregular. As of July 1977, only three issues had appeared. Also forms part of the Coleccin SAG (i.e., vols. 1, 2, and 5) 504. Revista de la Sociedad Jurdico Literaria. Ao 1, no. 1 (mayo 1902)-. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1902-. 505. Revista de la Universidad Catlica. Ao 1, no. 1 (1973)-. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1973-.

506. Revista de la Universidad de Cuenca. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 18901940. No. 1 (mar. 1890)-no. 22 (abr. 1940). Title varied: Revista cientfica y literaria de la Universidad del Azuay (1890-1912); Revista de la Universidad del Azuay (1916). Continued by: Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca (item 445). 507. Revista de la Universidad de Guayaquil. Ao 1 (1930)-ao 14 (1943); 2 poca, ao 1, no. 1 (1958)-. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1930-. Title varies: Anales de la Universidad de Guayaquil (1949-1956). 508. Revista del Archivo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Quito. Ao 1, no. 1 (1937). Quito: Biblioteca Nacional, 1937. 1 no. (209 p.) Continued by: Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico (item 446). 509. Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas. 1 (primer semestre 1972)-ao 10, no. 19 (junio 1981). Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1972-[1990(?)]. Beginning with second issue, changed numbering to: Ao 1, no. 2 (dic. 1972)-. In addition to having been a venue for original monographic studies, mostly on various aspects of local and regional history, the RAHG constituted one of the only two sets of professionally published primary sources on the past of the port city and its district as of July 1997. The other is Actas del Cabildo colonial de Guayaquil (item 6789), also a publication of the Archivo Histrico del Guayas. Beginning with ao 1, no. 2 (dic. 1972) and continuing through ao 10, no. 19 (junio 1981), RAHG also listed holdings of its Fondo de escribanos pblicos. There are two cumulative indexes: Indices de esta revista para los aos de 19721973, 3:5 (jun. 1974), 147-181; and Indices de las revistas 5 al 8, 5:9 (jun. 1976), 99134. 510. Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay. 1 (1979)-. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1979-. Irregular in appearance, but as of Jul. 1997, still being published. 511. Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca. Entrega 1 (ene. 1921)-. Cuenca: Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos, 1921-. Title varies: Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos del Azuay. There is a cumulative index for nos. 1-47: Rodrigo Abad Gmez and Michurn Velez Valarezo, Indice analtico de la Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos del Azuay, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 13-79. T. 1, no. 1 (ene. 1921)-t. 2, no. 8 (jul. 1923) reprinted in photofac-simile: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1989. 512. Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealgicas y Antropolgicas. Ao 1, no. 1 (mar. 1981)-. Quito: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealgicas y

Antropolgicas, 1981-. Given over almost entirely to genealogical studies. 513. Revista del folklore ecuatoriano. No. 1 (oct. 1965)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana [para el Instituto Ecuatoriano de Folklore], 1965-. 514. Revista del IDIS: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad de Cuenca (I.D.I.S.). No. 1 (1975)-. Cuenca: IDIS, 1975-. The title varies: IDIS; Revista IDIS; Revista del I.D.I.S. 515. Revista del Instituto Azuayo de Folklore. No. 1 (ene. 1968)-. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1968-. No. 10 (abr. 1989) includes a cumulative: Indice onomstico y de ttulos de las Revistas del Instituto Azuayo de Folklore (p. 128-131). 516. Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima. Ao 1, no 1 (dic. 1986)-. Guayaquil: Instituto de Historia Martima, 1986-. Variant title: Revista, Instituto de Historia Martima. 517. Revista del Ncleo del Caar. No. 1 (mar. 1955)-. Azogues: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Caar, 1953-. 518. Revista del Ncleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. T. 1, no. 1 (1968)-. Ibarra: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Imbabura, 1968-. Continues: Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Imbabura (item 497). 519. Revista ecuatoriana de educacin. Vol. 1, no. 1 (jul./ago. 1947)-. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1947-. 520. Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica. Ao. 1, no. 1 (primer semestre 1987)-. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1987-. Publishes original studies and reprints articles and sources originally published in other countries. Articles originally appearing in another language are translated. Makes available materials that most Ecuadorian scholars probably would not see otherwise. Not published for 1991-1993; may have ceased publication with no. 12 (segundo semestre 1995). 521. Sarance: revista del Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa. 1 (oct. 1975)-. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1975-. Also numbered: Ao 1, no 1-. 522. Unin literaria. Ao 1, no. 1 (abr. de 1893)-ser. 8, no. 7/9 (jun. 1937). Cuenca: Unin Literaria, 1893-1938. 523. Universidad. No. 1 (1967)-. Guayaquil: Universidad Catlica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 1967-. Here within cited as: Universidad, Universidad Catlica de Guayaquil.

524. Universidad-verdad: revista de la Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Sede en Cuenca. Ao 1, no. 1 (ene./abr. 1986)-. Cuenca: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1986-. 525. Vistazo. Ao 1, no. 1 (jun. 1957)-. Guayaquil: Editores Nacionales, 1957-. A semimonthly as of the 1990s. Useful source of more or less accurate and relatively unbiased information on recent and current events.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

HISTORIA OBRAS GENERALES Y MISCELANEAS

The first general history of Ecuador was Father Juan de Velascos Historia del Reino de Quito. Completed in 1789, while he was in exile in Faenza, the expelled Jesuits work was not published until nearly a half century after his death in a less than satisfactory version (Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1841- 1844; 3 v.), and had to wait almost two centuries to be published in scholarly acceptable versions (see items 540 and 1532). The next attempt at a general history was Pedro Fermn Cevalloss six volume Resumen de la historia del Ecuador (Lima, 1870-1873; 2 ed. rev., Guayaquil, 1886Lima, 1888), for the specifics of which see items 553 and 554. Only two other writermakers of history produced general histories during the nineteenth century, Francisco Xavier Aguirre Abad and Federico Gonzlez Surez. Aguirre Abads Bosquejo histrico did not appear until many years after his death too (see item 529), and Gonzlez Surezs eight volume Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador (item 1388) advanced only as far as the late colonial period. The twentieth century saw a number of general histories, ranging from one volume essays to multi-authored as well as multivolume sets. Among the shorter works, undoubtedly the best was: Leopoldo Benites Vinuezas Ecuador, drama y paradoja (item 537). The most comprehensive and scholarly of the multivolume histories was the truly new Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615). Also important was Piedad Peaherrera de Costales and Alfredo Costales Samaniegos pioneering four volume Historia social del Ecuador (item 620). A number of high school or upper form and university texts--some of which are important as syntheses or because of their influence upon one or more generations of students and scholars--appeared in the twentieth century too. At the risk of being invidious, the most noteworthy were: Gabriel Cevallos Garcas Historia del Ecuador (item 555); and Oscar Efrn Reyess Breve historia general del Ecuador (item 636). Until the 1960s, the writing of history was dominated by amateurs and autodidacts. For the most part they limited themselves to political, ecclesiastical, and cultural developments. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, a cadre of professionally trained scholars, exemplified by the producers of the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), with different interests and new approaches to the past, started to come into their own. By new history is meant not just demographic history, economic history, ethnohistory,

and/or social history but the borrowing of methodologies and models from practitioners of the Social Sciences. By the 1990s, the subjugation of the past to professionally albeit at times awkwardly manipulated lenses and its filtering through a myriad of Social Scientific paradigms appears to have been in ascendency and to have begun the process of eclipsing the amateur and autodidactic studies that had previously slighted albeit not ignored altogether socioeconomic events and developments in their multiple aspects. Nonetheless, the amateurs and autodidacts continued to find outlets for their work, even if this meant establishing new journals such as Revista de la Sociedad de Amigos de la Genealoga or Revista del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Genealgicas y Antropolgicas. There was no comprehensive, up-to-date history of Ecuador in English as of the late 1990s, but the assiduous reader could piece one together, more or less, from: the bilingual but difficult to obtain edition of Cevallos Garcas Historia nacional del Ecuador (item 556); C. Reginald Enocks early twentieth-century Ecuador (item 575); Lowry Walkers regrettably rare Tumult at Dusk (item 600); Magnus Mrners The Andean Past (item 608); Frederick B. Pikes The United States and the Andean Republics: Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador (item 1965); and Victor Wolfgang Von Hagens Ecuador and the Galpagos Islands (item 657). Turning to the auxiliary disciplines, the multivolume, not yet complete (as of Dec. 1999) Geografa bsica del Ecuador (item 581) is highly recommended. As are also two superb historical geographic studies: Jean-Paul Delers Gense de lespace quatorien (item 564) and Alain Dublys Los poblados del Ecuador (item 568). The ethnohistory of the country had become somewhat better known than it used to be. See especially items 539 and 607.

527. Actas del primer Congreso de Historia del Negro en el Ecuador y Sur de Colombia: Esmeraldas 14-16 de Octubre, 1988: VI Jornadas Nacionales, V Internacionales de Genealoga e Historia Social, coordinador: Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Edicin Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, Departamento de Pastoral AfroEcuatoriano, 1988. 272 p. (Coleccin CCA; vol. 1) (Coleccin SAG; t. 38) Contents: Pedro Porras Garcs, Evidencias arqueolgicas sobre la presencia del hombre de raza negra en la prehistoria ecuatoriana (p. 15-28); Rafael Savoia, El negro Alonso de Illescas y sus descendientes (entre 1553-1867) (p. 29-62); Rafael Savoia, Asentamientos nebros en el norte de la Provincia de Esmeraldas (1761-1825) (p. 63-80); Alfonso Castro Chiriboga, Revolucin de Concha (p. 81-86); Jos Mayorga Barona, Los Pimentel de Esmeraldas: sntesis de u cudruplo fluido tnico (p. 87111); Ezio Garay Arellano, La lite econmica de los negros de Guayaquil de 1742 a 1765 (p. 113-121); Ezio Garay Arellano, Los negros en Guayaquil en 1850 (p. 123133); Fernando Jurado Noboa, El aporte de Africa a la historia y a la genealoga ecuatorianas (p. 135-152); Fernando Jurado Noboa, Presidentes del Ecuador con ancestro africano (p. 153-169); Rosario Coronel, Indios y esclavos negros en el Valle del Chota colonial (p. 171-187); Leopoldo Jibaja Rubio, Casos de compra y venta de esclavos en la sierra ecuatoriana (1778-1838) (p. 189-192); Gerardo Andrade Gonzlez, Aprecio econmico y desprecio social del negro (p. 193-225); Francisco U.

Zuluaga R., Cimarronismo en el sur-occidente del antiguo Virreinato de Santa F de Bogot (p. 227-243); Narciso Binayn Carmona, Nobles negros esclavos (p. 245261). See also items 612 and 613. 528. Aguilar Paredes, Jaime. Pginas cvicas de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. del Colegio Tcnico Don Bosco, 1976. 357 p. 529. Aguirre Abad, Francisco X. Bosquejo histrico de la Repblica del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, Seccin de Investigaciones Histrico-Jurdicas, 1972. 510 p. (Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano; 3) First edition of a late nineteenth-century history of Ecuador by a writer-maker of history. Important for eye witness testimony as well as coeval perspective. 530. Alcina Franch, Jos. El proceso de prdida de la identidad cultural entre los indios del Ecuador, Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 428 (1986), 91-108. Examines the progressive disappearance of distinct Indian groups through the accumulated assault of three different forces, the Inca invasion, the Spanish conquest, and the industrial era. 531. Arias, Augusto. Obras selectas. Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1962. 950 p. Partial contents: Mariana de Jess (1929); El cristal indgena (1934); Vida de Pedro Fermn Cevallos (1946); Luis A. Martnez (1937); Mujeres de Quito (1934); El Quijote de Montalvo (1948); Espaa en los Andes (1950); Almas y lugares. 532. Arosemena, Guillermo. El comercio exterior del Ecuador, 1 ed. Guayaquil: G. Arosemena, 1992-1993. 3 v. A noteworthy attempt to quantify the export sector of the economy from the late 1500s through the 1980s. Contents: vol. 1, Perodo colonial: la Audiencia de Quito; vol. 2, Perodo republicano, 1821-1920; vol. 3, Perodo contemporneo, 1921-1990. 533. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Periodizacin de la historia del Ecuador, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 13, p. 213-250. An explanation and justification of the periodization adopted in the Nueva historia. At the same time an important statement as to how the new historians of the latetwentieth century view the watersheds of their past. 534. Ayala Mora, Enrique. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1993. 162 p. A brief but cogent and insightful overview. 535. La Balsa en la historia de la navegacin ecuatoriana: compilacin de crnicas, estudios, grficas y testimonios, Jenny Estrada [compiladora]. Guayaquil: Armada del Ecuador, 1990. 383 p.

536. Barrera, Isaac J. Historia mnima de la nacin y de la Repblica del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 34:84 (jul./dic. 1954), 231-245. Originally published in English as From Theocracy to Democracy, in: Ecuador, Andean Mosaic (item 569). Barreras only overview of the history of his country, from Huayna Capacs alleged division of the Tahuantinsuyu between Huascar and Atahualpa through the election of Galo Plaza Laso to the presidency of the republic. 537. Benites Vinueza, Leopoldo. Ecuador, drama y paradoja, 1 ed. Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Econmica, 1950. 280 p. A delightfully written survey of the history of Ecuador. Dated but still very much worth reading. Especially noteworthy as a pioneering attempt to relate economic and social to political developments. Also Benites Vinueza was one of the first Ecuadorian scholars to focus on the people as protagonist. At the same time, however, it should be noted that his characterization of el pueblo was somewhat simplistic. 538. Benites Vinueza, Leopoldo. Ecuador, drama y paradoja, 2 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1986. 326 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 28) Includes a biobibliographical study by Simn Espinosa Cordero. 539. Benitez, Lilyan; and Alicia Garcs. Culturas ecuatorianas: ayer y hoy, 3 ed., corr. y aum. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1988. 231 p. A useful introduction to indigenous and other ethnic groups and their cultures of the country on the eve of the Spanish conquest, on the one hand, and as of late-twentieth century, on the other. 540. Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima. Puebla, Mxico: Cajica, 1959-1960. 29 v. Issued under the auspices of the General Secretariat of the 11th Inter-American Conference, supposed to have been held in Quito in 1960, this unnumbered set is a cornucopia of mostly national writers of the colonial, independence, and national periods. Contents: [1] Visin terica del Ecuador; [2] El Arte ecuatoriano, [3-4] Cronistas coloniales; [5] Historiadores y cronistas de las misiones; [6] Fray Gaspar de Villarroel; [7] Los Dos primeros poetas coloniales ecuatorianos; [8] Los Jesuitas quiteos del extraamiento; [9-10] Padre Juan de Velasco, S.I.; [[11] Prosistas de la colonia; [12] Precursores; [13] El Ecuador visto por los extranjeros; [14-15] Jos Joaqun Olmedo; [16] Juan Montalvo; [17] Cronistas de la independencia y de la Repblica; [18] Escritores polticos; [19] Prosistas de la Repblica; [20] Pedro Fermn Cevallos; [21] Historiadores y crticos literarios; [22] Federico Gonzlez Surez; [23] Jacinto Jijn y Caamao; [24] Juristas y socilogos; [25] Novelistas y narradores; [26] Poetas romnticos y neoclsicos; [27] Remigio Crespo Toral; [28] Poetas parnasianos y modernistas; and [29] Poesa popular, alcances y apendice; Indices. Reprinted in 1989 as Biblioteca ecuatoriana clsica by the Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones.

541. Bork, Albert William; and Georg Maier. Historical Dictionary of Ecuador. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973. 192 p. Superficial in coverage and riddled with errors. 542. Bossano, Guillermo. Disertaciones. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1979. 209 p. 543. Bossano, Guillermo. Mensaje de ecuatorianidad, 2 ed. Quito: Edit. Fr. Jodoco Ricke, 1973. xiii, 329 p. Bossano mensajes, not mensaje inasmuch as this work is a compendium of patriotic and political discourses, are those of a white, middle class, traditional liberal on the one hand and of an attorney and pedagogue on the other. These discourses. almost all of which date from the 1960s, should be read as primary sources insofar as the development of white, middle class, liberal mentality vis-a-vis national politics and personages, historic and contemporary, during the second third of the twentieth century or thereabouts, and on the Ateneo Ecuatoriano, founded in 1938 and of which Bossano (1920-) was a leading and long term member, are concerned. 544. Bossano, Guillermo. Vicisitudes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana: mirajes histricosociolgicos de la conquista a travs del proceso vital patrio, 3 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1975. 256 p. Originally published: Quito: [s.n.], 1949. 180 p. Tesis universitaria previa a la incorporacin al cuerpo de abogados de la Repblica. Nominally a review of the origins of the Kingdom of Quito or nation of Ecuador in the prehispanic period, beginning with the Scyri and continuing through the Inca conquest, the Spanish conquest, the 10 de agosto, etc. In this work Bossano confuses nation with country and myth with history. Apparently the reason for this works popularity lies in Bossanos application of legends and traditions to the defense of Ecuadors right to the territory permanently lost to Peru in 1941. Without meaning to denigrate the importance or even the vital role legends and traditions play in societies, I wish to make it clear that Bossanos Vicisitudes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana belongs to the deplorable genre that interprets mythos literally and has little, if any, use for logos. 545. Bromley, R.J. Precolonial Trade and the Transition to a Colonial Market System in the Audiencia of Quito, Nova americana, 1 (1978), 269-283. Discusses patterns of trade prior to the Spanish conquest and examines the transition from the indigenous to the European system of trade and markets during the colonial period. Based on archival research as well as published materials. Also published in Spanish as: El comercio precolonial y la transicin a un sistema de mercado colonial en la Audiencia de Quito, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 41-58. 546. Burgos, Dalton. Historia de las luchas populares. Quito: Centro de Estudios y Difusin Social, CEDIS, 1985-1988. 5 v. The statement of responsibility appears on the inside of the front cover of this works. In fascculos 1-4, it reads: Textos: Dalton Burgos; Ayudante de investigacin: Eduardo

Villacs+ Dibujos y diagramacin: Chicho. The research assistant statement is dropped in fascculo 5. I have no idea whether Chicho is a nickname, a pseudonym, a nom de artiste, or a last name. This is an interesting work. It was an attempt by CEDIS rescatar a travs de estos folletos ... esa estampa tenaz de los pueblos que grab la historia en el tiempo, esa presencia de hombres y mujeres humildes y sencillos que erigi a lderes y hroes ... Unfortunately, it does not succeed in being a history of the crowd, partly because of the limitations of the historiography on which it was necessarily based, partly because little or no effort was made to undertake the original research that would have been required to produce such a study, partly because Dalton and CEDISs approach is not just didactic but simplistic. Nonetheless, Historia de las luchas populares is important for two reasons: 1) It provides a more or less detailed chronology of popular movements (through 1984) that serves as a checklist, so to speak, of uprisings, rebellions, strikes, etc. that for the most part remain in need of detailed study, multivariant analysis, and comprehensive interpretation; and 2) many of the illustrations, especially the photographs, are revealing. Contents: fac. 1, De la conquista a la independencia (42 p.); fac. 2, De inicios de la Repblica a la revolucin liberal (30 p.); fac. 3, De la revolucin liberal a la masacre de 1922 (37 p.); fac. 4, De la revolucin juliana a la gloriosa de 1944 (36 p.); fac. 5, De la constituyente de 1945 a nuestros das (52 p.). 547. Cameron, Ian. Kingdom of the Sun God: A History of the Andes and Their People. New York: Facts on File, 1990. 224 p. A general history of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from prehispanic times through the 1980s. Light reading for the casual reader. 548. Carrin, Alejandro. La otra historia, 2 ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1983. 189 p. The anecdotal, hidden, and more often than not, the seamier side of the past. 549. Carrin, Benjamn. El cuento de la patria: (breve historia del Ecuador), 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1973. 320 p. Unfortunately there are three deplorable aspects of altogether too much of what passes for historical scholarship in Ecuador, of which this work is a classic example: 1) the substitution of fact for fiction; 2) the substitution of armchair reading for archival and field research; and 3) the substitution of the well turned phrase for analysis and interpretation. A single quotation from Carrin suffices to demonstrate my point: 25 de junio de 1795 [sic]: La sublevacin de los barrios de Quito. Con la Revolucin de las Alcabalas, este es un acto de presencia heroico y multitudinario, en el cual, an los miembros de la nobleza criolla, secundaron la insurreccin justiciera del pueblo (p. 315). The intelligentsia responsible for these historiographical defects, from the point of view of an unreconstructed modernist, consider them to be virtues. Again according to Carrin, Pienso yo--y he tratado de sustentarlo--que las patrias se nutren y mantienen ms de la leyenda que de la historia (p. 7). I hasten to add that El cuento de la patria should be read, nonetheless, but as

ideological discourse, not as historical discourse. Originally published by the Edit Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana in 1967 in 237 pages , and reprinted by Libresa in Quito in 1992 in 275 pages. 550. Carrin, Fernando. Evolucin del espacio urbano ecuatoriano, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 12, p. 37-72. A schematic analysis of the role of cities from the Spanish conquest through the census of 1982. Divided into two macro-periods, 1534-1895 and 1895-1983. 551. Carrin, Germn. Ecuador fundamental. Guayaquil: A.G. Senefelder, 1980. 247 p. Amenably written Ecuador fundamental should be read not as an introduction to the geography and history of the country but as yet another example of the extent to which myth and tradition continue to permeate the mentality of middle and upper class Ecuadorians, including not only the university educated but also university educators, including the author of this work. 552. Cevallos, Pedro Fermn. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador: desde su origen hasta 1845. Lima: Impr. del Estado, 1870-1873. 6 v. See under 553. 553. Cevallos, Pedro Fermn. Resumen de la historia del Ecuador: desde su origen hasta 1845, 2 ed. rev. Guayaquil: Impr. de la Nacin, 1886-Lima: Impr. del Estado, 1888. 6 v. A classic history of the country through 1845. Primarily political in coverage with some attention paid to economic and social developments, however, especially in vol. 6. Listed under Ceballos in some library catalogs, including the Library of Congresss Catalog of Printed Cards, for no valid reason. The first edition (item 552) included the rare Geografa poltica (t. 6; Lima, 1873)--a copy of which I have seen in the private library of Dr. Miguel Daz Cueva. Tomo 6 of the original edition was withdrawn by Cevallos before more than a few copies could circulate because he was dissatisfied with it.; it was retitled Geografa de la Repblica del Ecuador in the 2 ed. The 2 ed. is available in several reprints (e.g.: Historia del Ecuador. Ambato: El Municipio, 1985-1986) Selections from the work as a whole were published as: Pedro Fermn Cevallos, estudio y selecciones de Isaac J. Barrera. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 517 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [18]) A digest in the form of a catechism, Compendio de la historia del Ecuador, was supposed to have been adopted as an official text in the national school system in 1871, nominally a tribute to his objectivity. That the conservative Garca Moreno should adopt the work of a conservative intellectual, however, is not surprising. The earliest edition of the Compendio that I have been able to verify, however, dates from 1879: Quito: Impr. del Clero. 435 p. 554. Cevallos, Pedro Fermn. Instituciones del derecho prctico ecuatoriano. Quito: Impr. de los Hurfanos de Valencia, 1867. iii, 349 p.

The multifaceted Cevallos was also a practicing attorney. It is not surprising therefore that he should have produced a treatise on contemporary legal practices, as much Hispanic and Napoleonic in origin as sui generis. This work is also a commentary on the political system of the times. 555. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Historia del Ecuador: texto. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigaciones y Cultura, 1987. 645 p. (Obras completas, Gabriel Cevallos Garca; 3) Reprint; originally published: Cuenca, 1967. A standard upper form/junior college level text. Nonetheless, a solid survey of developments and events through the early 1960s. 556. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Historia nacional del Ecuador, edicin bilinge = bilingual edition. Cuenca: Romlacio Editor, [1992?]. 399 p.: ill. A bilingual edition of what has become a standard history of Ecuador (item 555). Includes a section on the prehistory of the country by Juan Cordero Iiguez. Chronologically updated by Antonio Lloret Bastidas. Enriched with appropriate illustrations. 557. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. Visin terica del Ecuador. Puebla, Mxico: Cajica, 1959. 627 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [1]) A thought provoking, occasionally brilliant essay on how Ecuador came into being (Integracin del territorio), what it means to be Ecuadorian (Configuracin del hombre), and how Ecuador became as nation state and what Ecuador had become as of the mid-twentieth century (Para entender bien al Ecuador). Of course, it has to be understood that the Ecuador in question is that of the blanco and the mestizo who consider him/herself to be and is considered to be a blanco and the Ecuadorian, the blanco and the mestizo who functions as a blanco. See also items 216 and 217. Reprinted: Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigaciones y Cultura, 1987. 558. Las Ciudades en la historia, Eduardo Kingman Garcs, coordinador; Lucas Achig [et al.]. Quito: CIUDAD, 1989. 456 p. Publishes some of the papers presented at the Seminario Las Ciudades en la Historia realizado en noviembre de 1987 con los auspicios del Consejo Nacional de Universidades y Escuelas Politcnicas, la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Central, la Asociacin de Historiadores del Ecuador, el CIID de Canad, la Fundacin Quito y el Centro de Investigaciones CIUDAD, institucin a cargo de la cual estuvo la organizacin del evento. All but one of the published papers have to do with the history of cities and towns in Ecuador, the state of which several of the ponencias here within included considerably enhanced. Partial contents: Antonio Narvez R. Quito: la conquista del territorio de la ciudad (p. 25-43); Vctor Hugo Torres, Los municipios ecuatorianos: historia de una derrota (p. 45-57); Galo Ramn, El territorio y los asentamientos en las sociedades norandinas (p. 81-134); Ins del Pino, Caractersticas de la arquitectura prehispnica del Ecuador (p. 135-157); Alfonso Ortiz Crespo, Visin general de las fundaciones y del urbanismo colonial espaol en el territorio de la antigua Audiencia de Quito (p. 161-186); Jorge

Benavides Sols, El urbanismo en el Ecuador: los orgenes de Quito (p. 187-206); Ivn Gonzlez, Los orgenes urbanos de Cuenca (p. 207-229); Rubn Moreira V., Ecuador: transformaciones urbanas y arquitectnicas en la primera mitad del siglo XX (p. 233-247); Manuel Chiriboga V., Ciudad y campo en la costa durante el perodo cacaotero (p. 249-255); Ramn Gutirrez, La nueva Guayaquil entre la utopa y la modelstica (p. 257-267); Rosa Ferrn Schettini, Rol del capital comercial y usurario en el desarrollo de Baha de Carquez (p. 269-294); Gaitn Villavicencio [y] Henry [i.e., Henri] Godard, Modernizacin agrcola y debilidad del poder municipal: el caso de Quevedo (p. 297-310); Lucas Achig [y] Fernando Landvar, El proceso de crecimiento urbano de Macas (p. 311-323); Carlos Larrea Maldonado, Agroexportacin y estructura social en Machala: 1948-1984" (p. 325-340); Martha Moscoso C., Indgenas y ciudades en el siglo XVI (p. 343-356); Eduardo Francisco Kingman G., Ana Mara Goetchel, [y] Cecilia Mantilla, Obras pblicas y fuerza de trabajo indgena: (el caso de la provincia de Pichincha) (p. 357-383); Csar Hermida Bustos [y] Mara Eugenia Castelo, Los hospitales de Quito: caracterizacin histrico geogrfica (inicial) (p.387395); Ana Mara Goetschel [y] Eduardo Kingman G., La participacin de los indgenas en las obras pblicas y los servicios de la ciudad de Quito, en el ltimo tercio del siglo XIX (p. 397-403); Carlos Ortiz Arellano, Riobamba en la primera mitad del siglo XX (p. 405-418); Nicols Kingman, El humor de los quiteos (p. 419-422); Adrian Carrasco Vintimilla [y] Claudio Cordero Espinosa, Testimonio de la transicin de una sociedad patriarcal a la sociedad burguesa en Cuenca: La Escoba (p. 423-456). 559. Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografa del Ecuador (5: 1986: Cuenca, Ecuador) Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografa del Ecuador, Cuenca, 10-13 de diciembre de 1986. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1987. 412 p. 560. Cooper, John. Historia de la oveja en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Central, 1952. 21 p. 561. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo; and Piedad Peaherrera de Costales. Los seores naturales de la tierra. Quito: Xerox del Ecuador, 1982. 256 p. (i.e., p. 1-256) A study of pre- and post-conquest kurakas, more commonly known as caciques in Ecuador. Published together with: Fernando Jurado Noboas Las coyas y pallas del Tahuantinsuyo: su descendencia en el Ecuador hasta 1900 (item 3309). 562. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Ejrcito y Marina del Ecuador, El Ecuador en cien aos de independencia (item 1926), vol. 1, p. 261-274. A prcis of the history and official perception of the Armed Forces from prehispanic times through the 1920s. Reprinted in: Indianistas, indianfilos, indigenistas (item 7946), p. 639-676. 563. De la Torre Reyes, Carlos. Ensayos. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1989. 2 v. A potpourri of miscellaneous essays on the history, politics, and art of Ecuador and of Latin America at large.

564. Deler, Jean-Paul. Gense de lespace quatorien: Essai sur le territoire et la formation de ltat national. Lima: Institut franais dtudes andines; Paris: Editions A.D.P.F., 1981. 279 p. (Travaux de lInstitut franais detudes andines; t. 22) A superb historical geography. The pioneering work in this genre for Ecuador. Interpretative as well as analytical. Mandatory reading. Also published in Spanish as: Ecuador, del espacio al estado nacional. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1987. 341 p. (Biblioteca de geografa ecuatoriana; vol. 2) 565. Deler, Jean-Paul; Michel Portais; and Nelson Gomez E. El Manejo del espacio en el Ecuador: etapas claves. Quito: CEDIG, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigacin Geogrfica, 1983. 239 p. (Geografa bsica del Ecuador; t. 1) Also a historical geography of Ecuador, but not as detailed as item 564. 566. Demlas, Marie-Danielle; and Yves Saint-Geours. Jerusaln y Babilonia: religin y poltica en el Ecuador, 1780-1880. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Instituto Francs de Estudios Andinos, 1988. 222 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 21) A novel study of the role of ideas, especially but hardly exclusively religious beliefs, in the political culture of the late colonial, independence, and early modern periods. The authors focus on the Quito rebellions of 1809 and 1810-1812, the presidential administration of Rocafuerte (1835-1839), and the Garca Moreno years (1859-1875). Based on original research in Ecuador, France, and Spain. N.B. Not an altogether satisfactory version; Demlas herself refers to it as a traduccin defectuosa. But in fairness to the translator, the authorss prose is tortuous. Also published in French as: Jerusalem et Babylone: politique et religion en Amrique du Sud, le cas quatorien (Paris: ERC, 1989). 567. Documentos para la historia militar, por la Direccin de Historia y Geografa Militar del Estado Mayor. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1974-1977. 3 v. A potpourri of primary sources, mostly on military aspects of the colonial and independence periods. 568. Dubly, Alain. Los poblados del Ecuador: estudio geogrfico, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1990. 402 p. (Biblioteca de ciencias sociales; 26) An examination of the emergence and evolution of human settlements in Ecuador from prehistoric times through the present. N.B. Neither a study of the population nor a population history of the country as misdescribed in some North American library catalogs. A fundamental work, based on many years of field and library research. 569. Ecuador, Andean Mosaic, edited by Rolf Blomberg. Stockhom: Hugo Geber Frlag, 1952. 319 p. An interesting albeit now considerably dated introduction to the country and its peoples for English language readers. Contents: Rolf Blomberg, Foreword; Anbal Buitrn, Ancient Ecuador; Isaac J. Barrera, From Theocracy to Democracy; Francisco Tern, The Country on Latitude 0; Francisco Tern, The Coast; Anbal Buitrn, The Sierra; Francisco Tern, The

Oriente; Rolf Blomberg, The Galpagos Islands; Jorge Enrique Adoum, Cultural Facts; Lillian Robinson, Ecuador in Foreign Eyes. 570. Ecuador, In the Shadow of the Volcanos, Misael Acosta Sols [et al.]. Quito: Libri Mundi, 1981. 302 p. A more recent, considerably more detailed, and linguistically more accommodating introduction to Ecuador and Ecuadorians than item 569. Also published in a new or [2nd] ed. in 1991. In Italian as: Ecuador allombra dei vulcani. Venezia: Erizzo Ed., 1981; and in Spanish as: Ecuador a la sombra de los volcanes. Quito: Libri Mundi, 1981. Contents: H.N. Hoeck, Galpagos, the Islands of the Past and Present; H.N. Hoeck, Different Types of Volcanoes in Ecuador; H.N. Hoeck, Galpagos, a Challenge for the Preservation of Species; J.G. Marcos, A Brief Prehistory of Ecuador; P. Norton, Excavations on the Sacred island of La Plata; G. Rossi-Osmida, Voyages and Explorations in the Ecuador of Atahualpa; J. Bottasso, The Price of Survival: the Shuar; J.A. Yost, People of the Forest: the Waorani; G. Ligabue, Survival and Environments of Ecuador; M. Acosta Sols, Ecology and Conservation of Nature in Ecuador; E. Patzelt, Flora and Fauna of Ecuador; G. Rallo, The Guacharo; G. Rallo, The Harpy Eagle; P. Basaglia, Classification of Dwellings and Boats of Ecuador; Photographic Documentation. 571. Ecuador indgena: aspectos histricos y actuales de la cultura andina, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala; Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1989. 146 p. The third issue of Ecuador indgena. Contents: Marcelo Valdospinos Rubio, Nomenclatura y mestizaje (p. 13-18); Hernn Jaramillo Cisneros, El teido de lana con cochinilla en Salasaca, Tungurahua (p. 1931); Carlos Alberto Coba Andrade, Visin histrica de la msica en el Ecuador (p. 3362); Segundo E. Moreno Ynez, Historiografa indgena y tradicin de lucha (p. 6370); Hernn Jaramillo Cisneros, La alpargatera: una antigua actividad artesanal en Imbabura (p. 71-97); Carlos Alberto Coba Andrade, Comentario a una fiesta que ha muerto: El Coraza (p. 99-104); Johann Von Kessel, Los espacios andinos y urbano y su articulacin: validez de los conceptos (p. 105-125); Ceciel Kockelmans, El fandango en las fiestas privadas de los indgenas de Otavalo, Ecuador (p. 127-138); Betsy Salazar, Comunidad de Calpaqu: tecnologa utilizada actualmente por la familia rural y/o incorporacin de tecnologas apropiadas (p. 139-146). 572. Ecuador pasado y presente, Leonardo Meja [et al.]. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1975. 273 p. A set of essays on the economic history of prehistoric, colonial, and modern Ecuador by a group of at the time young social scientists, written from the perspective of historical modernism, equivalent in their minds to la teora moderna de la historia. Relatively sophisticated. Had a major, continuing impact on national historiography. Also published in a ed. actualizada with an added chapter by Ren Bez on La qumera de la modernizacin that continues coverage through the early 1990s: Quito: Libresa, 1995. 227 p.

573. Elizalde, Gorki. Periodizacin histrica del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1981. 17 p. (i.e., p. 1-17). A superficial delineation of periods in the history of the country. Lumps the colonial and independence periods together (1534-1822) but recognizes the Gran Colombian years as a separate period (1822-1830), and divides the national period into three (18301895, 1895-1922, and 1922-1979) without any explanation whatsoever or specification of the characteristics of said periods. Published together with: Vctor A. Gonzlez S., De la disgregacin gentilicia a la esclavitud patriarcal en el Ecuador (item 585). 574. Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador (2: 1978: Cuenca, Ecuador). Segundo Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador, Cuenca, abril, 1978. Cuenca: IDIS, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1978. 3 v. Vols. 1-2 consist of 24 papers on various aspects of the history of Ecuador. Vol. 3 is given over to what were then recent and contemporary economic issues and concerns. Noteworthy presentations are listed and annotated separately. I have been unable to ascertain when the Primer Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador was held or whether any of the papers presented at it were published. Some of the papers presented at the Tercer Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador, held at the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales in 1980, however, were published as: Ensayos sobre historia regional: la regin centro sur (item 6345). Furthermore, some, if not all, of the papers presented at the IV Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador, held in 1983, were published as: Carl Marx: en homenaje al centenario de su muerte, 1 ed. (Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1983; 349 p.); and as: Simn Bolvar: en homenaje al bicentenario de su muerte, 1 ed. (Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1983; vii, 350 p.). For those presented at the V Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador, organized by the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales and held in 1986, see item 7562. For those presented at the sixth encounter, held in 1989, apparently at which time the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador became the Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador y Amrica Latina, see items 2572 and 2573. Since then a seventh and eight encounter were held, also in Cuenca and also sponsored, if not organized, by the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, in 1993 and 1996, respectively. 575. Enock, C. Reginald. Ecuador, Its Ancient and Modern History, Topography and Natural Resources, Industries and Social Development. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1914. 375 p. The first attempt to write a history of and a comprehensive introduction to Ecuador in English. Still useful as a statement of what the country was like in the early 1900s by an unjaundiced and for the time, well informed observer. Eventually published in Spanish as: Ecuador, su historia, antigua y moderna, su topografa y recursos naturales, sus industrias y su desarrollo social (Quito: El Comercio, 1947; 354 p.); and

as Ecuador, geografa humana: su historia antigua y moderna, topografa, recursos naturales, industrias y desarrollo social, segn la traduccin de Cesar O. Bahamonde T.; introduccin, Enrique Ayala Mora (Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1981; 427 p.). 576. Espinosa Plit, Aurelio. Escritos selectos, seleccin y prlogo por Luis Andrade Reimers. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1994. 499 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 9) A potpourri of Espinosa Plits multifaceted writings. Includes essays on the Catholic Church, the Jesuits, Santa Mariana de Jess, Olmedo, and the national hymn. 577. Estrella, Eduardo. El pan de Amrica: etnohistoria de los alimentos aborgenes en el Ecuador. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Centro de Estudios Histricos, 1986. xvii, 390 p. A detailed study of the autochthonous flora and fauna utilized by the indigenous peoples of Ecuador as foodstuffs from prehispanic times through the recent present. Although not the only study of its kind, it was and perhaps still is the most comprehensive. Reprinted by Abya-Yala in 1988 and 1990. 578. Gallardo Moscoso, Hernn. 1.000 aos de cultura aborigen: antropognesis del Ecuador, etnofolklorismo, ciencia ficcin. Loja: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, Ncleo de Loja, 1983-1985. 2 v. 579. Gallegos Naranjo, Manuel. Manuel de efemrides: lecciones de historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Tip. El Vigilante, 1900. 168 p. It is not clear whether this was a primary or a secondary level textbook. It is important today for two reasons: 1) for the curious tidbits of data, some amusing and erroneous such as the rebuffed June 6, 1624 invasion of Guayaquil by doscientos galeones holandeses, al mando del pirata Jacobo LHermite or the smallpox epidemic of 1785 that was responsible for the death of ms de 25,000 [personas] in the city of Quito alone, and others quite interesting and informative such as the event of 4 March 1852, Se reuni por primera vez la Junta protectora de la libertad de esclavos [en Guayaquil], y quedaron manumitidos veintiocho individuos. Or the event of 21 April 1857, Se comenz la construccin del Muelle principal de Guayaquil. 2) Because the data, false as well as factional, and interpretations contained in this primer shaped at least one, if not more, generations of Ecuadorians, including scholars. In this regard, it will be recalled that several major intellectuals, such as Isaac J. Barrera (1884-1970), of the first two thirds of the twentieth century had no more than a high school (colegio) education. 580. Garca Ortiz, Humberto. Las rutas del futuro: una interpretacin sociolgica del hecho histrico ecuatoriano. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1956. 239 p. Notwithstanding its promising subtitle, this is not a social history of the country. Instead it is a superficial interpretation of the past and ongoing present, based far less on knowledge of the land and the peoples of Ecuador than on application of the sociological models in vogue in the 1950s to national realities. Also on the then widespread but in retrospect surrealistic belief that cultural as well as biological

mestizaje would eventually resolve the problems of the country. Does not even contain a detailed or insightful paradigm of the class structure. Important, nonetheless, a source for the study of the history of ideas and mentalities in Ecuador. 581. Geografa bsica del Ecuador. Quito: CEDIG, Centro Ecuatoriano de Investigacin Geogrfica, 1983-<1991>. <5> v. This work may be treated and should be thought of as a whole--even though it is multiauthored as well as multi-thematic--inasmuch it was conceived of as an integral set, not as a series, and because for the most part it succeeds as an integral set. For its component parts as of July 1997, see: t. 1, El Manejo del espacio (item 565); t. 2, vol. 1, Transicin demogrfica (item 8719); t. 2, vol. 2, Geografa de la salud (item 8520), t. 3, El Espacio urbano (item 6605); and t. 5, vol. 1, Transformaciones agrarias (item 7877). An exceptionally comprehensive and sophisticated geography. 582. Gmez E., Nelson. Organizacin del espacio ecuatoriano, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 12, p. 9-36. A less than satisfactory essay. Not even an acceptable synthesis of the contemporary state of knowledge. 583. Goncharova, Valerian M. Ecuador: tierra y hombres. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1979. 144 p. A set of essays by a Marxist-Leninism on indigenous movements, Eloy Alfaro, Enrique Gil Gilbert, and related developments and personages of interest to the Communist world. I could forgive Goncharova his ideological bias if he at least got his facts right but this could not have happened, given his dependence on such fellow travelers as Oswaldo Albornoz and fictionalizers like Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco. 584. Gonzlez, Luis Aurelio. Ideario y remembranzas. Quito: Impr. Luz de Amrica, 1961. 261 p. 585. Gonzlez S., Vctor A. De la disgregacin gentilicia a la esclavitud patriarcal en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana: Ncleo del Guayas, 1981. 107 p. (i.e., p. 19-128). Should have been listed under Perodo prehispnico inasmuch as it is an attempt to reconstruct the economic, political, and social structures of the ethnic groups of the central coast during the Integration period. An significant essay that contain some important insights. Maintains that the League of Merchants was on the point of becoming a nation state. See also items 891 and 892. Published together with Gorki Elizalde, Periodizacin histrica del Ecuador (item 573). 586. Gonzlez S., Vctor A. Las tierras comunales en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1982. 109 p. 587. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Ultima miscelnea del Excmo. Sr. D. Federico Gonzlez Surez, arzobispo de Quito, recogida y publicada por el Excmo. Sr. D. Manuel Mara Plit. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1932. 559 p. Consists of miscellaneous letters and religious, archaeological, historical, literary, and

scientific essays of the archbishop-historian. See also items 5035 and 5036. 588. Guevara, Daro C. Las mingas en el Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, 86:341 (1957), 163-310. An essay on corvee labor practices, past and mid-twentieth-century. Also published as a monograph: Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 168 p. 589. Harris, Leo J.; Percy Bargholtz; and Rodrigo Pez Tern. Ecuador, historia postal y catlogo de marcas prefilatlicas. New York: Collectors Club, Inc., 1984. 98 p. 590. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: Salvat Editores Ecuatoriana, 1980-1982. 8 v. A multi-authored history of Ecuador from prehistoric times through the recent present. More traditional than innovative in approach as the majority of the authors were/are members of the old guard. Worthwhile but difficult to obtain inasmuch as it was issued in fascicles. Profusely illustrated. 591. La Historia del Ecuador: ensayos de interpretacin, editor, Enrique Ayala M. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1985. 403 p. An anthology of grand sweep, highly interpretative essays by leading members of the new and old guard. 592. Historiadores y crticos literarios. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 548 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [19]) Consists of selections from the writings of Pablo Herrera, Pedro Moncayo, Juan Len Mera, Abelardo Moncayo, Vctor Len Vivar Correa, Manuel J. Calle, Julio E. Moreno, Nicols Jimnez, Alejandro Andrade Coello, Manuel Mara Plit Laso, Camilo Destruge, Jos Gabriel Pino Roca, Modesto Chvez Franco, and Pedro Jos Huerta. 593. Huerta Rendn, Francisco. Historia del Ecuador. Barcelona: Cartongraf, 1966. 312 p. One of the better surveys. Especially strong on the prehispanic period, the authors forte. 594. Idrobo Urigen, Tarquino Anbal. Ecuador inmortal: lecturas para las nuevas generaciones. Quito: Tall. Grf. Nacionales, 1950. 239 p. A set of essays on the history and great men of the country. 595. Investigacin histrica de la minera en el Ecuador, [realizada por] Maximina Navarro Crdenas, 2 ed. Quito: Direccin de Industrias del Ejrcito, 1990. 527 p. Consists of chronologically ordered extracts from primary and secondary sources on mining in Ecuador. Most of the materials date from the colonial period and had not been published previously. 596. Jaramillo Alvarado, Po. Estudios histricos, 2 ed. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1960. 499 p. Contents: La revolucin del 10 de agosto de 1809: apuntamientos para su estudio; La dictadura de Bolvar; Caudillos y dictadores; En defensa de Rocafuerte;

Montalvo poltico; El general Eloy Alfaro; La victimacin [sic] del Gral. Alfaro y sus tenientes; Don Abelardo Moncayo y su poca; Resumen histrico del rgimen constitucional ecuatoriano; Ubicacin histrica del descubrimiento y conquista del Maran y Amazonas; Los tratados con Colombia; Sntesis histrica y jurdica de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana y de su defensa territorial. 597. Jaramillo Alvarado, Po. La nacin quitea: perfil biogrfico de una cultura. Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 566 p. Contents: La nacin quitea; Reflexiones sobre el Reino de Quito y sus Shyris; Atahualpa, creador de la nacionalidad quitea; Algo ms sobre la nacionalidad de Atahualpa; El secreto de Guayaquil en la entrevista de Bolvar y San Martn; El gran mariscal Jos de La Mar: su posicin histrica; La gobernacin de Quito y el descubrimiento del Amazonas. 598. Jordn M., Aniceto. Revoluciones criollas. Quito: Ediciones Antorcha, 1938. 146 p. A Marxist interpretation of rebellions and revolutions in Ecuador. See also item 604. 599. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Notas de prehistoria e historia ecuatoriana. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1971. 370 p. An anthology of previously published essays on the prehispanic period and on archaeologists, historians, and other students of Ecuador. 600. Lowry, Walker. Tumult at Dusk: Being an Account of Ecuador, Its Indians, Its Conquerors, Its Colonists, Its Rebels, Its Dictators, Its Politicians, Its Landowners, Its Artists and Its Priests with a Prologue and an Epilogue. San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1963. 159 p. According to Norris (223:3533), Tumult of Dusk sic recounts los viajes del autor por el Ecuador en busca de caucho durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial [con] algunas observaciones sobre la sociedad, la poltica y la cultura. Although Norris is partly right, Lowrys Tumult at Dusk is much more than a travel account; it is also a general history of Ecuador. Unfortunately it was issued in only 100 copies. 601. Luna Tamayo, Milton. Estado, regionalizacin y lucha poltica del Ecuador, 1800-1869, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 7 (1987), 105-127. A thoughtful essay on regionalism, incipient nationalism, and civil strife during the late colonial, independence, and early national periods. Also published in: Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 45-55; and in: Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografa del Ecuador (item 559), p. 323-345. 602. Martnez Amador, Joaqun. Ecuador, races y esperanzas, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Senefelder, 1995. 310 p. 603. Memorias del primer Simposio Europeo sobre Antropologa del Ecuador, compilador, Segundo E. Moreno Ynez. Bonn: Instituto de Antropologa Cultural, Universidad de Bonn; Quito: Abya-Yala, 1985. 452 p.

An important compendium of original essays on the anthropology, ethnohistory, and history of Ecuador. Reissued as: Antropologa del Ecuador, 3 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1989. 505 p. 604. Mio, Ernesto. El Ecuador ante las revoluciones proletarias. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1981. 167 p. A reprint; originally published as: El Ecuador frente a las revoluciones proletarias. Ambato: Colegio Bolvar, 1935. A Marxist interpretation of the social history of Ecuador. See also item 598. 605. Monge, Celiano. Lauros. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Tungurahua, 1977. iv, 189 p. 606. Monge, Celiano. Relieves: (artculos histricos). Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana [para la] Academia Ecuatoriana, 1936. 398 p. Items 605 and 606 are anthologies of Monges writing on events and persons of the colonial, independence, and early national periods. 607. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E.; and Udo Oberem. Contribucin a la etnohistoria ecuatoriana. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1981. 406 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 20, 21) Morenos contributions include La etnohistoria, anotaciones sobre su concepto y un examen de los aportes en el Ecuador, written especially for this volume, and the previously unpublished Colonias mitmas en el Quito incaico: su significacin econmica y poltica. Oberems contributions include Los Caranquis de la sierra norte del Ecuador y su incorporacin al Tahuantinsuyu, published here for the first time (see also item 1327), and Indios libres e indios sujetos a haciendas en la sierra ecuatoriana a fines de la colonia, not previously available in Spanish. Reprinted: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. 2 v. 608. Mrner, Magnus. The Andean Past: Land, Societies, and Conflicts. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. xiv, 300 p. A general history of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from prehispanic times through the early 1980s. Emphasizes demographic, economic, and social developments. Readable and insightful. Insofar as the twentieth century is concerned, supplements Pikes more ideological and political in coverage The United States and the Andean Republics (item 1965). Chapters eight and nine have been published in Spanish as: La evolucin del mercado mundial y su relacin con el cambio de la economa andina (1890-1950): estudio comparativo de Bolivia, Ecuador y Per, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 3:5 (1989), 13-78. 609. Muoz Vernaza, Alberto. Orgenes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana y otros ensayos, estudio introductorio, Juan Corderno Iquez. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 274 p. Contents: Orgenes de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana, 1 parte; Memorias de la revolucin de Quito; Obras de Espejo; Fray Vicente Solano.

610. Muoz Vicua, Elas. El Ecuador, un pas clsico. Guayaquil: Edit. U.G., 1988. 358 p. A general history. 611. Navas Jmenez, Mario Oswaldo. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: M.O. Navas Jmenez, 1990. 212 p. 612. El Negro en la historia: aportes para el conocimiento de las races en Amrica Latina: conferencias del Segundo Congreso [y] XI Jornadas de Historia Social y Genealoga, Esmeraldas, 7-9 septiembre 1990, coordinador, Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, Departamento de Pastoral Afro-Ecuatoriano, 1990. 230 p. (Coleccin CCA; vol. 2) (Coleccin Sociedad Amigos de la Genealoga; no. 57) Partial contents: Fernando Jurado Noboa, Medardo Angel Silva: cspide paradgica de la poesa afroecuatoriana (p. 11-47); Rosaura Garca A., La poblacin negra de Quito a fines de la colonia (p. 49-56); Piedad y Alfredo Costales Completando la historia nacional: Ambrosio Mondongo, rebelde del Chota (p. 57-64); Alfonso Castro Chiriboga, La poblacin negra en el Quito de 1840 (p. 75-83); Fernando Jurado Noboa, Algunos cabos sueltos sobre esclavitud y negros en la Provincia de Bolvar: 1758-1910 (p. 85-88); Marcia Stacey de Valdivieso, Negros en Chaupicruz: 16481980; Leopoldo Jibaja Rubio, Eslavitud en la sierra: 1738-1816; Jorge Villalba, Una repblica de trabajadores negros en las minas de Zaruma en el siglo XVI (p. 121-125); Fernando Jurado Noboa, Demografa y trascendencia del grupo africano en el Guayaquil de 1738 (p. 143-145); Jos Mayorga Barona, Los Tobar del Tolima en Esmeraldas: el aporte africano de los Jan en la clase alta local (p. 147-165); Ezio Garay Arellano, Dispensas matrimoniales de negros, indios y blancos en la Provincia de Los Ros (p. 167-192); Manuel Loor Villaquirn, Alonso de Illescas, estratega militar y poltico (p. 193-198); Rafael Savoia, Historia social de Uimb (p. 199-230). 613. El Negro en la historia: races africanas en la nacionalidad ecuatoriana: conferencias del Tercer Congreso [y] XVI Jornadas de Historia Social y Genealoga, Esmeraldas, 20-22 noviembre 1992, coordinador, Rafael Savoia, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Afroamrica, Centro Cultural Afro-Ecuatoriano, 1992. 239 p. (Coleccin CCA; vol. 3) (Coleccin Medio milenio; vol. 9) Contents: Rafael Savoia, Esmeraldas a mediados del siglo XVIII (p. 11-30); Fernando Jurado Noboa, Esmeraldas en los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII: sus tres afluentes negros coloniales (p. 31-39); Ricardo Ordoez and Mauricio Alvarado, Anlisis del censo de Ro Verde, Atacames y Sa (p. 41-42); Ezio Garay Arellano, Vecinos y familias de Ro Verde en poca garciana (p. 43-55); Jos Mayorga, Esmeraldas y su poblacin de 1871 (p. 57-74); Jos Arteaga P., Alfaro y los negros (p. 75-79); Nelson Estupin Bass, Memorias de una ciudad: 1920-1930 (p. 81-91); Julio Estupin Tello, Esmeraldas de ayer (p. 93-98); Gustavo A. Rivadeneira, Biologa y genealoga de un esmeraldeo de ascendencia inglesa (p. 99-127); Luis Argentina Chiriboga, Races africanas en la nacionalidad ecuatoriana (p. 129-139); Rafael Savoia, Genealoga e historia social del Valle del Chota y Cuenca del Ro Mira (p. 141-144); Fernando Jurado Noboa, Una visin global sobre el Chota: 1475-1813 (p. 145-154); Salomn

Chal, Cmo vivimos en el Valle del Chota? (p. 155-165); Rosaura Garca de Plit, El mundo negro de Cuajara al tiempo de la expulsin jesuta (p. 167-169); Rosaura Garca de Plit, El sistema esclavista en la poca del General Flores: 1840 (p. 171181); Ezio Garay Arellano, Diecisis aos de historia documentada de las compraventas, cartas de horro y libertad de los negros de Guayaquil en el siglo XVII (p. 183202); Rafael Savoia, La presencia del hombre negro en Zaruma (p. 205-210). 614. Nicol Lpez, Gerardo. El Ecuador en cuatro siglos. Ambato: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Tungurahua, 1963. 58 p. 615. Nueva historia del Ecuador, Enrique Ayal Mora, editor. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Grijalbo, 1983-1994. 15 v. A multi-authored, new approach history of Ecuador from pre-Inca times through 1990. Vols. 1-2 cover the prehispanic period; vols. 3-5, the colonial period; vol. 6, the independence and Gran Colombian period; and vols. 7-11, the national period. Vols. 12-13 consist of grand sweep essays. Vol. 14 consists of a comparative chronology or time lines of events in Europe, the Americas, and Ecuador itself, and vol. 15 of documentos or sources. Almost all of the vols. include more or less useful bibliographies, but they are incomplete: the bibliographies do not list all of the works cited or referred to by the individual contributors. Furthermore, many of the citations suffers from errors of commission and omission. Also this work is inadequately indexed; the name and place indexes for vols. 1-13 (at the end of vol. 13) are incomplete. Nonetheless, the majority of the essays are cogent, insightful syntheses of traditional and new studies on all periods, but not all aspects in every case, of the past of the country at large and of its component regions, cities and towns. Moreover, almost all of the authors are professionally trained scholars and active researchers. An exceptionally extraordinary benchmark in Ecuadorian historiography. 616. Pez, J. Roberto. Estudios de historia ecuatoriana y otros ensayos, seleccin y prlogo por Enrique Villass Tern. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1995. 592 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 12) A welcome compendium of Pezs numerous, heretofore scattered essays on multiple aspects of the history of Ecuador, especially major figures, chroniclers, sources, and the colonial and independence periods. 617. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Breve historia del Ecuador. Caracas: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1992. 386 p. 618. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Historia del Ecuador, 2 ed. rev. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1958. 2 v. Both items 617 and 618, are idiosyncratic and fictionalized accounts. Both are available in several editions or versions with variant titles. 619. Peaherrera, Guillermo. Opsculos para la historia. Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1958. 3 v. 620. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Historia social del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1964-

1971. 4 v. Vols. 1-3 appeared as Nos. 17-19 of Llacta. Vol. 4: Quito: Edit. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Although factually inaccurate in places--the Costales were careless in their acceptance of data, especially quantitative data--and methodologically unsophisticated, this work is notable because it constituted not just one of the earliest attempts to write a social history of Ecuador from the Spanish conquest through the 1960s but more importantly to incorporate Indians and blacks, mestizos and zambos into the mainstream of national historiography. The section on the abolition of slavery is especially important (vol. 1, pp. 288-369). Contents: vol. 1, El concertaje de indios y manumisin de esclavos (1964); vol. 2, Aspectos socio-econmicos de la estructura agraria ecuatoriana (1964); vol. 3, Recopilacin de leyes sociales indgenas de 1830 1918 (1964); vol. 4, Reforma agraria. 621. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Los Isaminas. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala; Centro de Investigaciones para la Educacin Popular, [1986?]. 317 p. A popular history of Ecuador. Emphasizes Indian wars, including resistance to the Inca conquest, and uprisings. 622. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Los Llactaios. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala: Centro de Investigaciones para la Educacin Popular, [1985]. 238 p. A history of Indian resistance and uprisings in Ecuador from the Spanish conquest through the 1871 rebellion of Daquilema. 623. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Llacta runa. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1961. 244 p. (Llacta; no. 12) Delineates the ethnogeography of the indigenous peoples of Ecuador on the eve of contact and circa 1960. 624. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. Nos, la plebe. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1986. 204 p. A documented but methodologically unsophisticated study of the role of urban crowds in riots and rebellions during the late colonial and independence periods, especially in Quito, Cuenca, and Riobamba. 625. Prez Concha, Jorge. Escritos histricos: pginas de historia ecuatoriana, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1990. 150 p. A potpourri of the authors historical essays. 626. Prez Guerrero, Alfredo. Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1948. 183 p. 627. Prez Guerrero, Alfredo. Semillas al viento, 1 ed. Quito: Publitcnica, 1966. xii, 229 p.

628. Prez Pimentel, Rodolfo. El Ecuador profundo: mitos, historias, leyendas, recuerdos, ancdotas y tradiciones del pas. Guayaquil: Edit. de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1988-1990. 4 v. A la Ricardo Palma. 629. Pino Roca, Jos Gabriel. Fundamentos de la historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Impr. del Progreso, 1909. 101 p. A primer. Important as an example of early twentieth-century thought regarding the formation and history of the country. The author, a guayaquileo, was a leading intellectual of the time. 630. Ponce Ribadneira, Alfredo. Once ensayos. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1963. 222 p. Partial contents: El descubrimiento del Amazonas; Reflexiones sobre las gestas libertarias de Quito; El general Salazar; Don Jacinto Jijn y Caamao. 631. Portal Valenzuela, Blfor. Ecuador. Madrid: Anaya, 1988. 127 p. A superficial introduction to the land, people, and history of the country. 632. Poveda, Carlos Samuel. Ensayos y opiniones: coleccin de artculos literarios, de historia y administracin pblica. Quito: Impr. Ecuador, 1938. 72 p. 633. Quevedo, Belisario. Historia del Ecuador: compendio de historia patria. Quito: Edit. Bolvar, 1931. 246 p. Edited by Alfonso and Jos Rumazo Gonzlez. Originally published in successive instalments in 1919 in the Revista de la Sociedad Jurdico-Literaria. Reprinted with an introductory study Pensamiento y patria en Belisario Quevedo by Samuel Guerra Bravo (p. 7-24). Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1982. 315 p. 634. Quevedo, Belisario. Texto de historia patria. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 153 p. Items 633 and 634 are panoramic treatments from the point of view of a staunch Liberal. Widely used as textbooks in their day, they influenced several generation of Ecuadorians. 635. Ramn Valarezo, Galo. El Ecuador en el espacio andino: idea, proceso y utopa, Allpanchis (Cuzco), 35/36 (1990), 517-578. 636. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Breve historia general del Ecuador, 6a ed., ampliada de acuerdo con los ltimos estudios histricos. Quito: Tall. Grf. del Instituto Nacional Meja, 1960. 3 v. in 2. T. 2-3: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke. Despite the edition statement, a reprint of the 4a ed. with coverage through 1949 only. Continuously but not consecutively paged. Originally published in 1938. The classic secondary level text. For many years also used at the university level, given the lack of a more appropriate work. See also item 1970.

637. Ribadeneira Araujo, Jorge. Tiempos idos ..., 1 ed. Quito: [s.n.], 1988. 205 p. 638. Rivera Villavicencio, Oswaldo. Vibraciones del tiempo. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1973. 288 p. 639. Rolando, Carlos A. Cronologa histrica ecuatoriana, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 1:1 (ene. 1951), 29-42; 2:4/5 (ago. 1952), 79-100. Covers the months of Jan. through Aug only. 640. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Apuntes para la historia de la poblacin indgena del Ecuador, Amrica indgena, 34:3 (jul./set. 1974), 685-712. Consists of notes for a history of Indians and indigenismo in Ecuador. 641. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Breve historia contempranea del Ecuador. Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Econmica, 1994. 638 p. A general history from approximately 30,000 B.C.E. through 1992. More or less traditional in approach. Well written. Includes a brief bibliographic essay and an onomastic index. 642. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Escorzos de historia patria. Quito: Ediciones Quitumbe, 1977. 357 p. An anthology of previously published essays on the prehistory, protohistory and history of the country. 643. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Introduccin al estudio de la historia general del Ecuador, Museo Histrico, 15:43/44 (ago. 1963), 40-60. 644. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Testimonio. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1972. 486 p. A group of miscellaneous essays, some historical, some contemporary on the Catholic Church, significant events of the day, and major personages. 645. Segarra Iiguez, Guillermo. Historia del Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones OFIMEX, 1986-. <1 v. {268 p.}> . Contents: t. 1, El medio natural, prehistoria. 646. Silva, Erika. Los mitos de la ecuatorianidad. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala, 1992. 85 p. A critical assessment of past and present relations between the several ethnic groups that comprise the Ecuadorian nation. 647. Stornaiolo, Ugo. Anatoma de un pas latinoamericano: El Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: BSM, Ediciones Culturales, 1988. 300 p. 648. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Estudios sobre historia ecuatoriana, seleccin de textos Jorge Salvador Lara; estudios introductorios por Jorge Salvador Lara [et al.]. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1994. 551 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 10)

A representative selection of the authors numerous contributions to multiple aspects of the history of Ecuador. Partial Contents: La organizacin jurdico territorial de las colonias espaolas; Aspectos jurdicos de la ereccin de la Audiencia de Quito; Santa Mariana de Jess; Los historiadores y cronistas de Indias; El restablecimiento de la Audiencia de Quito; Un nuevo mapa de misiones ecuatorianas; La obra capital de P. Juan de Velasco, S.J.; La transformacin de 1809 fue eminentemente jurdica; Origenes constitucionales de la Repblica del Ecuador; Iglesia y Estado en las primeras constituciones de la Gran Colombia; Vinculaciones entre los estadistas granadinos y ecuatorianos en los primeros aos de la repblica; Las leyes sociales de la Gran Colombia. 649. Trabucco, Federico E. Sntesis histrica de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Edit. Santo Domingo, 1968. xvi, 1117 p. An exceptionally useful vade mecum, especially of dates and events. 650. Uzctegui, Emilio. Hechos y hombres de nuestra cultura. Quito: Edit. ENA, 1984. 153 p. 651. Uzctegui, Maruja de. Apuntes para una historia de la proteccin y de los servicios sociales en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1952. 38 p. A survey of social services from the foundation of the hospital of Quito in 1565 through the early 1950s. 652. Vaquero Dvila, Jess. Aspectos sociolgicos de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Manuel Piedra N., 1930. xv, 265 p. 653. Vaquero Dvila, Jess. Gnesis de la nacionalidad ecuatoriana. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad, 1941. 417 p. An insightful survey of the history of the country from prehispanic times through the first third of the twentieth century. 654. Villacrs Moscoso, Jorge W. Geohistoria del Estado ecuatoriano, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 23:40 (1973), 29-161. 655. Villass Tern, Enrique M. Elogio del Ecuador, 2 ed., rev. Quito: Grficas Iberia, 1992. 493 p. A general introduction to past and present Ecuador. Emphasizes regional and local history. 656. Viteri Lafronte, Homero. El precursor Espejo y otros estudios sobre historia, seleccin y prlogo por Jorge Salvador Lara. Quito: Grupo Aymesa: Academia Nacional de Historia, 1993. 470 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 8) Contents: El centenario de la Repblica del Ecuador; Gonzalo Daz de Pineda; Un libro autografo de Espejo; El impreso de Espejo en Bogot; Bolvar; La agresin de 1941; El Ecuador y su salida al Maran; El Ecuador y su propia salida al Maran. 657. Von Hagen, Victor Wolfgang. Ecuador and the Galpagos Islands. Norman:

University of Oklahoma Press, 1949. ix, 290 p. A popular introduction to past and mid-twentieth-century Ecuador. Marred by careless mistakes. Von Hagen appears to have been more concerned to tell a good tale than to get facts and figures right. 658. Weilbauer, Arthur. Los alemanes en el Ecuador: estudio histrico = Die Deutschen in Ekuador: historische Studie. Quito: Colegio Alemn, 1975. 117 p. In Spanish and German. Reviews German activities in and writings on Ecuador. N.B. It cannot be overemphasized that the German contribution to Ecuadorian studies has been monumental, beginning with the works of Humboldt.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

PERIODO PREHISPANICO

Although Federico Gonzlez Surez was the founder of scientific historiography in Ecuador, his pioneering works on the prehispanic period --the 1878 Estudio histrico sobre los Caaris (item 895) and the first volume together with the accompanying archaeological atlas of his Historia general (item 1388)--were those of an amateur and an autodidact. The first professional survey of the antiquities of the country was Ren Verneau and Paul Rivets 1912-1922 two volume Ethnographie ancienne de lEquateur (item 1282). For Gonzlez Surezs understandable but ill founded reaction to Verneau and Rivet, see the archbishop-historians Notas arqueolgicas (item 896). The first important vade mecum was Jacinto Jijn y Caamaos 1941-1947 four volume El Ecuador interandino y occidental antes de la conquista espaola (item 972)--largely based on Jijn y Caamaos own extensive field work--for a digest of which see his posthumously published Antropologa prehispnica (item 969). N.B. Jijn y Caamao was the first Ecuadorian to attempt to establish successions of cultures and to publish the data on which his conclusions were based. As of July 1997, the most recent, up-to-date, and scholarly introductions to the prehispanic period were: Aurelia Bravomalo de Espinosas 1992 Ecuador ancestral (item 739) and Ernesto Salazars 1995 Entre mitos y fbulas (item 1178). Also important as surveys were the chapters in the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615) by Salazar (items 1183 and 1179--in that order), Jorge G. Marcos (items 1029 and 1026), Jos Echeverra Almeida (item 824), Segundo E. Moreno Ynez (item 1062), and Udo Oberem (item 1088). Moreno Ynezs contribution is especially interesting because he came close to achieving a history of the prehispanic period. Two other general work that deserves special attention are the late Father Pedro Porrass 1987 Manual de arqueologa ecuatoriana (item 1140), and vol. 1 of Historia del arte ecuatoriano (item 3854). Porras used to be one of the few archaeologists and the only Ecuadorian to have done field work in the Oriente. Vol. 1 of Historia del arte ecuatoriano (in the four vol. version) is given over almost entirely to the prehispanic developments in general, not just to art, and constituted a solid survey at the time of its publication (1977). Unfortunately the authorship of the sections on the Formative, Regional Development, and Integration periods was not specified, but it is known that Hernan Crespo Toral, the late Olaf Holm, Jorge Marcos, and the prematurely deceased Presley Norton--all respected authorities--played major roles in their drafting and editing.

Although Betty Meggers 1966 Ecuador (item 1041) has long since been superseded by the findings of later scholars, her book continued to be the only overview of the prehistory of the country in English. Insofar as Formative period and early Regional Development period developments on the central-south coast are concerned, see Donald W. Lathraps also dated 1975 Ancient Ecuador: Culture, Clay and Creativity, 3000-300 B.C. (item 996), and Karl Dieter Gartelmanns somewhat more recent but less scholarly 1985 Digging Up Prehistory (item 880), primarily an account of archaeological developments on the coast. Another recent, exceptionally important work on the archaeology of the coast is the Primer Encuentro de Investigadores de la Costa Ecuatoriana en Europa: arqueologa, etnohistoria, antropologa sociocultural, Alvarez, Aurelio [et al.],1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. 568 p. It includes a useful list of the publications of Jos Alcina Franch, Silvia Alvarez, F. Jean Bouchard, Alejandro Cerda Esteve, Mercedes Guinea Bueno, Mara Luisa Laviana Cuetos, Jorge Marcos, Josefina Palop Martnez, and Montserrat Ventura i Oller on the Area Septentrional Andina (p. 535-553). The prehispanic period in what would become Ecuador cannot be understood without taking into account developments in neighboring Peru and elsewhere in the Andean culture area. At the time this bibliography was compiled, the best of the most recent surveys were: Michael E. Moseleys The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992); Craig Morris and Adriana Von Hagens The Inka Empire and Its Andean Origins (New York: Abbeville Press, 1993); and from the historical point of view, Mara Rostworowski de Diez Cansecos fundamental Historia del Tahuantinsuyu, 4a ed. (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 1992), the product of forty years of archival research. Rostworowski de Diez Cansecos work, also available in an English version, History of the Inca Realm(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), should force a revision of many of the myths regarding not only the struggle for supremacy between Huascar and Atahualpa but also the alleged nationality of Atahualpa and the implications thereof. That Atahualpa was a cuzqueo and full fledged Inca in every sense are no longer subject to doubt. Perhaps the most controversial theme in the history of the prehispanic period is whether the Kingdom of Quito existed. I for one do not believe that it did. Nonetheless, the term Kingdom of Quito or Reino de Quito has been employed in the annotations to this section and in the subject headings in reference to the mythical polity created by Juan de Velasco. For a detailed discussion of the furor the negation of Velascos Cara and/or Shyri Reino de Quito used to generate, see Neptal Zuigas Atahualpa (item 3698), esp. p. 42-76. See also item 202. Furthermore, I do not believe that the Kingdom of Quito came into existence during the colonial period either, at least, not as usually defined. Juridically the Reino de Quito was created and did exist by imperial fiat. Institutionally it corresponded to the Presidency, if not the Audiencia, of Quito--jurisdictionally and therefore territorially two distinct entities. But in fact there appear to have been at least three kingdoms during the colonial period, the independence period, and for some time thereafter during the national period as well: the kingdoms of Cuenca (i.e., the southern highlands),

Guayaquil (the central and southern coast), and Quito (the northern and central highlands).

659. 5000 aos de ocupacin, Parque Nacional Machalilla, Presley Norton, Marco Vinicio Garca, editores. Quito: Centro Cultural Artes; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 102 p. 660. Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andinomesoamericanas (Salinas, Ecuador, 1971), edicin de Jorge G. Marcos y Presley Norton. Guayaquil: Escuela Superior Politcnica del Litoral, 1982. xiii, 495 p. 661. Agro, Robert J. Algunas sugerencias ambientales determinantes que se relacionan con la geografa poltica del Per preincsico y del sur del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 22:39 (1972), 186-209. 662. Alcina Franch, Jos. La arqueologa de Esmeraldas (Ecuador): introduccin general. Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Direccin General de Relaciones Culturales, 1979. 165 p. (Memorias de la Misin Arqueolgica Espaola en el Ecuador; vol. 1) A solid survey of the prehistory of Esmeraldas. Based on nearly a decade of extensive as well as intensive field and archival research by a team of Spanish archaeologists and historians. For other volumes in this set see items 796, 909, and 1203, and for papers on related findings and results, items 700, 759, 777, 783, 908, 910, 911, 1165. 1204-1206, and 1268. 663. Alcina Franch, Jos, La arqueologa de Esmeraldas, Ecuador: una investigacin interdisciplinaria, Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 298 (abr. 1975), 132-159. This items and items 664, 665, 670, and 672 are reports by Alcina Franch on the field work done in the 1970s by himself and other members of the Proyecto Arqueologa de Esmeraldas. The first report appears to have been Alcina Franchs Exploracin arqueolgica en costa de Esmeraldas, Ecuador, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 6 (1971), 125-142. 664. Alcina Franch, Jos. La arqueologa de Esmeraldas: un proyecto de investigacin interdisciplinaria, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales (Quito), 15:109/110 (1979), 130-139. 665. Alcina Franch, Jos. Un bosquejo de la arqueologa de Esmeraldas, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 25:42 (1975), 9-50. 666. Alcina Franch, Jos. Las cabezas-clava de Ingapirca, Ecuador, Indiana, 8 (1983), 229-242. 667. Alcina Franch, Jos. Excavaciones arqueolgicas en Ingapirca, Ecuador, Historiografa y bibliografa americanistas, 21 (1977), 237-240. 668. Alcina Franch, Jos. Los indios Caaris de la sierra sur del Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 141-188.

A solid statement as to what was known, as of the mid-1980s, from archaeological, ethnohistorical, and linguistic studies and sources, and what could be inferred about the Caar Indians before and after they were subdued by the Incas. 669. Alcina Franch, Jos. Ingapirca: arquitectura y reas de asentamiento, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 8 (1978), 127-146. 670. Alcina Franch, Jos. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en la Provincia de Esmeraldas (Ecuador), Historiografa y bibliografa americanistas, 21 (1977), 241-247. 671. Alcina Franch, Jos. El modelo terico de jefatura y su aplicacin al rea andina septentrional norte, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 265-288. 672. Alcina Franch, Jos. El proyecto de arqueologa de Esmeraldas (Ecuador), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 56:121 (ene./jun. 1973), 55-76. 673. Alcina Franch, Jos. Tomebamba y el problema de los indios Caaris de la sierra sur del Ecuador, Anuario de estudios americanos, 37 (1980), 403-433. 674. Alcina Franch, Jos. La vasija trpode como rasgo diagnstico para la determinacin de influencias mesoamericana en el area andina, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 349357. 675. Alcina Franch, Jos; and Mara Carmen Garca Palacios. Materias primas y tecnologa en Esmeraldas, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 303-318. 676. Alejandro Valdez, Erasmo. Terrazas arqueolgicas de San Lucas, Provincia de Loja, Revista de la Universidad Tcnica Particular de Loja, 9 (ago. 1987), 209-222. 677. Almeida, Napolen. El perodo de integracin en el sur de la Provincia de Loja, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 89-97. Originally published in: Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 11:3/4 (jui./dc. 1982), 29-37. 678. Almeida Reyes, Eduardo. Aspectos de la agricultura prehistrica del Ecuador, Quitumbe, 4 (1976), 1-17. 679. Almeida Reyes, Eduardo; and Holguer Jara Chvez. El pucar de Rumicucho. Quito:Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984. 156 p. 680. Alvarez, Silvia G. Tecnologa prehispnica, naturaleza y organizacin cooperativa en la Cuenca del Guayas, 1 ed. Guayaquil: CEAA-ESPOL, 1989. 245 p. 681. Anawalt, Patricia Rieff. Ancient Cultural Contacts between Ecuador, West Mexico, and the American Southwest: Clothing Similarities, Latin American Antiquity, 3 (1992), 114-129. 682. Andrade Marn, Luciano. La excavacin arqueolgica de Huaraqu, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales (Quito), 5:54 (mayo 1953), 746-758.

683. Andrade Marn, Luciano. El Reino de Quito. Quito: Edit. Los Andes, 1954. 260 p. Supports the thesis that a prehispanic Kingdom of Quito existed. 684. Andrade Reimers, Luis. El siglo heroico. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1992. 281 p. (Coleccin histrica; vol. 22) A noteworthy but considerably biased attempt to reconstruct the history of the Inca conquest of what is now Ecuador, the alleged civil war between Quito and Cuzco-the least satisfactory section of the work--and the Spanish conquest of what would become the Kingdom of Quito. In Andrades hands, Atahualpa becomes a hero franco y leal por temperamento ... See also items 1307 and 1308. 685. Aruz, Julio. La Tolita. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1946. 89 p. Historiographically interesting but archaeologically superficial. 686. Arellano, A. Jorge. Asentamientos arqueolgicos tardos del perodo de integracin en la Cuenca del Ro Chumbo, Ecuador, Sarance, 16 (ago. 1992), 173204. 687. Arias Palacios, Hugo. Evolucin socioeconmica del Ecuador: sociedades primitivas y perodo colonial. Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, 1980. 310 p. A major analysis of economic and social events and developments of the prehispanic and colonial periods. Unfortunately this work has not had much of an impact on the historiography of either period, probably because it appeared in a limited, poorly distributed edition. At the same time, it should be noted that Arias was not familiar with all of the relevant literature. 688. Archologisch Funde aus Ecuador, herausgegeben von Helmut Schindler; mit Beitragen von Udo Oberem, Roswith Hartmann, Hennng Bischof. Munchen: Staatliches Museum fur Vlkerkunde, 1991. 87 p. 689. Arqueologa de la costa ecuatoriana: nuevos enfoques, editor Jorge Marcos. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional; Guayaquil: ESPOL, 1986. 300 p. A set of essays by Jorge G. Marcos, Donald W. Lathrap, James A. Zeidler, Deborah M. Pearsall, and Silvia Alvarez on rescue archaeology, with particular reference to local and regional sites. 690. Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador: simposio del 45 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Universidad de los Andes, 1-7 julio 1985, Bogot, Colombia, compiladores: Jos Alcina Franch, Segundo E. Moreno Ynez. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador; Quito: Abya- Yala, 1986. 288 p. Papers presented at the 45th International Congress of Americanists. Contributions on Ecuador are entered separately under their authors. 691. Arriaga, Jess. Apuntes de arqueologa Caar. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1965. 120 p.

Reprint; originally published: Cuenca: Impr. del Clero, 1922. 103 p. Also reprinted in Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 21:3 (jul./sept. 1965), 399-512. 692. Artieda, Alfonso Anbal. Cochasqui: historia de una civilizacin destruida. Quito: Tip. Hispana, 1978. 37 leaves. 693. Athens, J. Stephen. Evolutionary Process in Complex Societies and the Late Period Cara Occupation of Northern Highland Ecuador. 1978. xix, 310 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of New Mexico. Published in Spanish as: El proceso evolutivo en las sociedades complejas y la ocupacin del perodo tardo Cara en los Andes septentrionales del Ecuador. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1980. 307 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 2) 694. Athens, J. Stephen. Formative Period Occupations in the Highlands of Northern Ecuador: A Comment on Meyers, American Antiquity, 48:3 (July 1978), 493-496. See item 1052. 695. Athens, J. Stephen. Pampuentsa 1: un sitio arqueolgico cerca del Ro Macuma en el Oriente ecuatoriano, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 4:4 (1984), 129-140. 696. Athens, J. Stephen. The Site of Pampuentsa and the Pastaza Phase in Southeastern Lowland Ecuador, awpa Pacha, 24 (1986), 111-124. 697. Athens, J. Stephen. Teora evolutiva y montculos prehistricos de la sierra septentrional del Ecuador, Sarance, 7 (oct. 1979), 29-44. 698. Athens, J. Stephen; and Alan J. Osborn. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en la sierra norte del Ecuador: dos estudios preliminares. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1974. 108 p. 699. Barnes, Monica; and David Fleming. Charles-Marie de la Condamines Report on Ingapirca and the Development of Scientific Field Work in the Andes, 1735-1744, Andean Past, 2 (1989), 175-236. Translates into English La Condamines report on Ingapira and comments upon its value as source for reconstruction of the site and its functions. Perhaps the most important point Barnes and Fleming make is that archaeologists too often overlook the labors of their predecessors and cultivators of other fields. 700. Barriuso Prez, Mara Angeles. Sistemas de enterramiento en Atacames (Esmeraldas), Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 979), p. 245-257. 701. Barros Grez, Daniel. La escritura entre los Caaris, Actas de la Sociedad Cientfica de Chile, 3 (1893), 162-170. Reprinted in: Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 9 (abr. 1986), 251-262. 702. Batchelor, Bruce E. Los camellones de Cayambe en la sierra del Ecuador, Amrica indgena, 40:4 (oct./dic. 1980), 671-689. 703. Baumann, Peter. Valdivia: d. Entdeckung d. ltesten Kultur Amerikas. Frankfurt

am Maine: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1981. 222 p. Reprint; originally published: Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1978. 276 p. A popular introduction to prehispanic cultures of Ecuador at large, not just to that of Valdivia. 704. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. La arqueologa en la regin interandina de Ecuador, 2 ed. aum. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 271 p. An important but somewhat dated study of various sites, in the highlands. Based on field work as well as archaeological and ethnohistorical studies and sources. 705. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. Aspectos de la arqueologa en la regin de Caar. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1965. 223, [50] p. 706. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. Recientes investigaciones arqueolgicas en la Provincia de Imbabura. Quito: Instituto Geogrfico Militar, 1990. 124 p. 707. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. Ruinas arqueolgicas en la Provincia de Loja, Memorias del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 202-206. 708. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. Las ruinas de Pachuzala y el Cerro de Callo, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 11/12:28/29 (1962-1963), 85-97. Presents the evidence from chronicles and travel accounts on the Inca, possibly preInca ruins of Pachuzala, near Quito. 709. Bell, Robert E. Evidence of a Fluted Point Tradition in Ecuador, American Antiquity, 26:3 (July 1960), 102-106. 710. Bell, Robert E. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en el sitio de El Inga = Archeological Investigations at the Site of El Inga. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1965. 330 p. In Spanish and English. 711. Bell, Robert E. Obsidian Hydration Studies in Highland Ecuador (El Inga), American Antiquity, 42:1 (Jan. 1977), 68-77. 712. Benavides Sols, Jorge. La arquitectura y el urbanismo de Cochasqu. Quito: Departamento de Cultura de la Universidad Central, 1986. 84 p. 713. Bennett, Wendell Clark. Excavations in the Cuenca Region, Ecuador. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1946. 84 p. 714. Berenguer R., Jos; and Jos Echeverra Almeida. Propesta metodolgica para el registro de sitios arqueolgicos en los Andes septentrionales del Ecuador: sistema regional de designacin y ficha de prospeccin, Sarance, 7 (oct. 1979), 5-28. 715. Bergse, Paul. The Gilding Process and the Metallurgy of Copper and Lead among the Pre-Columbian Indians. Copenhagen: Danmarks Naturvidenskabelige Samfund, 1938. 58 p. 716. Bergse, Paul. The Metallurgy and Technology of Gold and Platinum among the Pre-Columbian Indians, English translation by F.C. Reynolds. Copenhagen: Danmarks

Naturvidenskabelige Samfund i Kommission hos G.E.C. Gad, 1937. 44 p. Items 715 and 716 are analyses of copper, lead, gold, platinum, and alloys artifacts from Atacames and La Tolita sites. 717. Bischof, Henning. The Origins of Pottery in South America: Recent Radiocarbon Dates from Southwest Ecuador, Atti del XL Congreso Internazionale degli Americanisti (Rome and Genoa: Tilgher, 1972), vol. 1, p. 269-281. Regarding the evidence for pre-Valdivia ceramics. 718. Bischof, Henning. San Pedro und Valdivia: Frhe Keramikkomplexe an der Kste Sdwest Ekuadors: ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des sdamerikanischen Formativums, Beitrge zur allgemeinen und vergleischenden Archologie, 1 (1979), 335-389. 719. Bischof, Henning; and Julio Viteri Gamboa. Pre-Valdivia Occupations on the Southwest Coast of Ecuador, American Antiquity, 37:4 (Oct. 1972), 548-551. 720. Bodenhorst, Benno. Los sellos cermicos de Manab, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 2/3 (1983-1984), 23-40. 721. Bolaos Baldassari, Aldo. Observaciones generales sobre la arqueologa del Ro Napo, Gaceta arqueolgica andina, 17 (1990), 41-48. 722. Bollaert, William. Antiquarian, Ethnological, and Other Researches in New Granada, Equador, Peru, and Chili: With Observations on the Pre-Incarial, Incarial and Other Monuments of Peruvian Nations. London: Trbner & Co., 1860. 279 p. Based on the authors second sojourn in South America in 1853-1854. 723. Bonifaz, Emilio. Cazadores prehistricos del Ilal. Quito: Offset Ecuador, 1979. 115 p. An amateur archaeologist and big game hunters interpretations of how the PaleoIndians of Ilal used the artifacts found at that site to hunt and to trap. 724. Bonifaz, Emilio. Comentarios arqueolgicos, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7:7 (1987), 55-58. A critical review of Mayer-Oakess El Inga (item 1037). 725. Bonifaz, Emilio. Datacin por la hidratacin de la obsidiana, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 123-128. 726. Bonifaz, Emilio. Dating of Obsidian Artifacts of the Ilal Region of Ecuador. Quito: E. Bonifaz, 1977. 8 p. 727. Bonifaz, Emilio. Microlitos arqueolgicos. Quito: E. Bonifaz, 1972. 34 p. 728. Bonifaz, Emilio. Notas sobre la arqueologa de la zona del Ilal, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 85-88. 729. Bonifaz, Emilio. Nueva aproximacin para la antigedad de obsidianas de la regin Ilal, Boletn histrico (Quito), 3:11/12 (jul./dic. 1979), 130-144.

730. Bonifaz, Emilio. Obsidianas del paleo-indio de la regin del Ilal. Quito: E. Bonifaz, 1978. 104 p. 731. Bonifaz, Emilio. Origen del hombre ecuatoriano, Sarance: revista del Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 4 (jul. 1977), 5-14. 732. Bonifaz, Emilio; Sylvia Elizondo; and Bernard Vandermeersch. El hombre fsil de Punn, resto fsil no. 2 (Ecuador, Amrica del Sur), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 65:139/140 (ene./dic. 1982), 5-24. 733. Bouchard, Jean-Franois. Evidencias de relaciones interculturales en la regin norte (sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador), Relaciones interculturales en el area ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 29-44. Reexamines the question of cultural influence of the central coast of Ecuador upon the north coast of Ecuador and the southern coast of Colombia during the Late Formative and Regional Development periods. 734. Bouchard, Jean-Franois. Las ms antiguas culturas precolombinas del Pacfico ecuatorial septentrional, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 109-129. See also Bouchards El formativo final y el desarrollo regional en el litoral pacfico norecuatorial, Gaceta arqueolgica andina, 6:22 (1992), 5-21, in which he argues that local adaptation to mangrove and other swamps was disrupted circa AD 300 when La Tolita and associated sites were abandoned (albeit only temporarily). 735. Brainerd, George W. A Cylindrical Stamp from Ecuador, Masterkey, 27:1 (Jan./Feb. 1953), 14-17. Maintains that a stamp found just south of modern Esmeraldas, with stylized speech scrolls, is indicative of contact with Mesoamerica. 736. Braun, Robert. Nuevo anlisis del Cerro Narro in: Donald Collier and John V. Murra, Reconocimientos y excavaciones en el sur del Ecuador (item 782), p. 143-165. 737. Braun, Robert. The Formative as Seen from the Southern Ecuadorian Highlands, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andinomesoamericanas (item 660), p. 41-99. 738. Bravo Guerreira, Mara Concepcin. Relaciones culturales de los grupos indgenas de la costa norte peruana y la regin interandina del sur del Ecuador, Relaciones interculturales en el area ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 45-55. 739. Bravomalo de Espinosa, Aurelia. Ecuador ancestral. Quito: Artes Grf. Seal, 1992. 280 p. A descriptive summary of field research results by period, region, and cultural complex. A comprehensive, balanced survey. Well illustrated. 740. Bray, Tamara L. Archaeological Survey in Northern Highland Ecuador: Inca Imperialism and the Pas Caranqui, World Archaeology, 24:2 (Oct. 1992), 218-233.

Utilizes field data to examine the processes of Inca imperialism in the northern highlands. The relative absence of trade goods in Inca period sites implies that the Incas may have sought to transform the local organization of production by stressing conformity with the imperial model inasmuch as the economic organization of the Pas Caranqui before its occupation by the Incas emphasized long-distance exchange as one of the primary means of obtaining desired extra-local goods. Also published in Spanish as: Los Incas en el norte del Ecuador: estrategias de incorporacin y control en la frontera imperial, Memoria, MARKA, 3 (1993), 167-187. 741. Brothwell, Don; and Richard Burleigh. The Human Cranium from Punin, Ecuador: With Particular Reference to Morphology and Dating, Journal of Archaeological Science, 7:1 (Mar. 1980), 97-99. 742. Brothwell, Don; and Richard Burleigh. On Sinking Otavalo Man, Journal of Archaeological Science, 4:3 (Sept. 1977), 291-294. Ecuador has its Piltdown Man too. But Punin Man is not a fake and may in fact be quite old, at least for the Americas. 743. Bruhns, Karen Olsen. Intercambio entre la costa y la sierra en el formativo tardo: nuevas evidencias del Azuay, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 57-74. Drawing on her field work at Pirincay, Bruhns demonstrates that trade in luxury items and the raw materials for the production of those items between the coast, the highlands, and the Upper Amazon Basin was an integral part of the local economy by the Late Formative. 744. Bruhns, Karen Olsen. Prehispanic Weaving and Spinning Implements from Southern Ecuador, Textile Museum Journal, 27-28 (1988-1989), 70-77. 745. Bruhns, Karen Olsen. Los talleres de cristal de roca de Pirincay, Provincia del Azuay, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 91-100. 746. Bruhns, Karen Olsen; and Norman Hammond. A Reply to Damp, Journal of Field Archaeology, 11:4 (Winter 1984), 428-429. See item 806. 747. Bruhns, Karen Olsen; and Norman Hammond. A Visit to Valdivia, Journal of Field Archaeology, 10:4 (Winter 1983), 485-487. 748. Bruhns, Karen Olsen; James H. Burton; and George R. Miller. Excavations at Pirincay in the Paute Valley of Southern Ecuador, 1985-1988, Antiquity, 64:243 (June 1990), 221-233. See also item 912. 749. Buchwald, Otto von; and Jacinto Jijn y Caamao. Notas acerca de la arqueologa del Guayas, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1:3 (oct./nov. 1918), 237-252. 750. Buitrn, Anbal. Reconocimiento arqueolgico del alto Ecuador austral, Boletn

de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 22:59 (ene./jun. 1942), 153-173. Preliminary report on work of the Institute of Andean Research project in southern Ecuador (1941-1942). 751. Burger, Richard L.; Frank Asaro; and Helen V. Michel. The Sources of Obsidian for Artifacts from Chobshi Cave, Ecuador, Andean Past, 2 (1989), 33-38. Apparently the occupants of Chobshi Cave in the southern highlands of Ecuador obtained [the] obsidian [they worked] directly or indirectly from two primary sources in the Ilalo [sic] region of the northern highlands. See also items 828, 961, and 1020. 752. Burgos Guevara, Hugo. El guaman, el puma y el amaru: formacin estructural del gobierno indgena del Ecuador, versin ampliada y mejorada. Quito: Ediciones AbyaYala, 1995. 383 p. An ethnohistorical study of the political system and history of the Incas in what would become Ecuador and of the role of the descendants of Atahualpa during the colonial period in what the author refers to as the cacicazgo incaico. Revised version of authors 1975 doctoral thesis (v, 353 leaves; University of Illinois) and a somewhat different interpretation of political and social developments on the eve of the Spanish conquest. Burgos Guevara argues that the Chinchasuyu Incas were on the verge of establishing a new or second empire, centered on Quito and Tomebamba and that Atahualpa was el primer gobernador de lo que podra llamarse el estado nativo moderno ... His contention, however, is nothing more or less than a restatement of the traditional Reino de Quito thesis, albeit somewhat modified. 753. Bushnell, G.H.S. An Archaeological Collection from Macas, on the Eastern Slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, Man, 46:2 (Jan./Feb. 1946), 2-6. 754. Bushnell, G.H.S. The Archaeology of the Santa Elena Peninsula in South-West Ecuador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951. xiv, 154 p. A report on the Guangala, Engoroy, and Manteo cultures. Based on field work, conducted in the 1930s. 755. Bushnell, G.H.S. Semejanzas y relaciones entre Mesoamrica, el Ecuador y el Per: unas observaciones en la cultura, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 37-40. 756. Buys, Jozef E.; and Victoria Dominguez. Arqueologa de Cumbaya, Provincia de Pichincha, Ecuador, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 75-95. 757. Buys, Jozef E.; and Victoria Dominguez. Excavaciones arqueolgicas en Cumbaya, Provincia de Pichincha, Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 31-48. Items 756 and 757 are preliminary reports of field work on an agricultural settlement, apparently dating from the second century before the Christian era, approximately 10 km. east of Quito. The ceramics found indicate close contacts with coastal cultures like Jama-Coaque and La Tolita, probably linked to an exchange system that may have

involved obsidian and metal. 758. Byrd, Kathleen Mary. Changing Animal Utilization Patterns and Their Implications: Southwest Ecuador (6500 B.C.-A.D. 1400) 1976. viii, 155 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida. 759. Cabada, Juan Jos. Elementos de adorno personal en la cultura material de Atacames, Esmeraldas (Ecuador), Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 97-112. 760. Cadena, A.; and Jean-Franois Bouchard. Las figurillas zoomorfas de cermica del litoral pacfico ecuatorial, regin de La Tolita, Ecuador, y de Tumaco, Colombia, Bulletin de lInstitut franais detudes andines, 9:3/4 (1980), 49-68. 761. Caillavet, Chantal. La adaptacin de la dominacin incaica a las sociedades autctonas de la frontera septentrional del imperio: (territorio Otavalo, Ecuador), Revista andina, 3:6 (dic. 1985), 403-423. 762. Caillavet, Chantal. Les chefferies prhispaniques du nord de lEquateur: formes dhabitat et organisation territoriale, Bulletn de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 18:2 (1988), 41-59. Analyzes a 1582 tributary lists to determine probable population size and distribution and organization by chiefdoms prior to the Spanish conquest. Also published in Spanish as: Las jefeturas prehispnicas del norte del Ecuador: formas de hbitat y organizacin territorial, Memoria, MARKA, ao 2, no. 2 (nov. 1991), 1-25. 763. Caillavet, Chantal. Etnohistoria ecuatoriana: nuevos datos sobre el Otavalo prehispnico, Cultura, 4:11 (sept./dic. 1981), 109-127. 764. Caillavet, Chantal. Los grupos tnicos prehispnicos del sur del Ecuador segn las fuentes etnohistricas, Memorias del primer Simposio Europeo sobre Antropologa del Ecuador (item 603), p. 127-158. Also published in French as: Les groupes etniques prhispaniques selon les sources ethnohistoriques, Loja prehispanique (item 1013), p. 289-1013. 765. Caillavet, Chantal. Toponimia histrica, arqueologa y formas prehispnicas de agricultura en la regin de Otavalo, Ecuador, Bulletn de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 12:3/4 (1983), 1-21. 766. Cameron, William R.; and William J. Meyer-Oakes. A Fluted Lanceolate Point from El Inga, Ecuador, awpa Pacha, 7/8 (1969/1970), 55-64. 767. Carluci, Mara Angelica. Antiguas tradiciones lticas del paleoindio ecuatoriano, Humanitas, 6:2 (1968), 51-67. 768. Carluci, Mara Angelica. El crneo de Otavalo: medidas y ubicacin racial, Memorias del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 250-258. 769. Carluci, Mara Angelica. La obsidiana y su importancia en la industria litica del

paleoindio ecuatoriano, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales, 11:94 (1961), 19-36. 770. Carluci, Mara Angelica. Puntas de proyectil: tipos, tcnicas y areas de distribucin en el Ecuador andino, Humanitas, 4:1 (1963), 5-56. 771. Carluci, Mara Angelica. Recientes investigaciones arqueolgicas en la Isla de La Plata, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 33-65. 772. Carmichael, Elizabeth; Warwick Bray; and John Erikson. Informe preliminar de las investigaciones arqueolgicas en el rea de Minas, Ro Jubones, Ecuador, Revista de antropologa, 6 (jul. 1979), 130-142. 773. Carrera Andrade, Jorge. El camino del sol: historia de un reino desaparecido. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 372 p. 774. Carrera Andrade, Jorge. El fabuloso Reino de Quito. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 285 p. Items 773 and 774 are literary approaches to the prehispanic period. They incorporate popular legends and native traditions as well as observations of early European authors. 775. Carrera Coln, Juan. Las botellas de asa y pico de Cotocollao: discusin preliminar en torno a su origen y evolucin, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 4/5 (1986/1987), 51-61. Suggests several lines of evolution from bottle gourd prototype to stirrup spout and double spout vessels. 776. Cedeo Snchez, Jos Viliulfo. Lo sagrado y lo profano de la cultura mantea, Memorias del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 28-41. 777. Ciudad Ruiz, Andrs. Las cubiertas de incensario de la Propicia, Esmeraldas, Ecuador, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 11 (1981), 103-111. 778. Cochasqu: estudios arqueolgicos, (compilador) Udo Oberem. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1981. 3 v. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 3-5) Consists of detailed reports on the field work undertaken at this major site, now a national park, in the 1960s and 1970s. See also item 861. 779. Cody, Bertha Parker. Gold Ornaments of Ecuador, Masterkey, 15:3 (May 1941), 87-95. 780. Cole, John Rice. Stone Tools from Ceramic Period Cultures of Southwest Ecuador. 1977. vii, 345 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University. 781. Collier, Donald. The Archaeology of Ecuador, Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 2 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of American Ethnology, 1946), p. 767-784. 782. Collier, Donald; and John V. Murra. Survey and Excavations in Southern Ecuador. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1943. 108 p.

Reports on field reconnaissance of Chimborazo, Caar, Azuay, and Loja, and site excavations in Caar. Also published in Spanish as: Reconocimiento y excavaciones en el Sur del Ecuador, revisin y coordinacin por Juan Cordero I., traduccin del ingls por Lucas Astudillo L. Cuenca: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1982. 165 p. 783. Coln de Carvajal, Anunciada; and Joaqun Meco. Anlisis de los materiales metacolgicos de La Propicia, Esmeraldas, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Socit international des amricanistes, 1979), p. 351-360. 784. Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (1: 1976: Ibarra, Ecuador) Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa: reunido en Ibarra, Ecuador, del 20 al 24 de septiembre de 1976. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1979. 268 p. 785. Corbett, John Maxwell. Some Unusual Ceramics from Esmeraldas, Ecuador, American Antiquity, 19:2 (Oct. 1953), 145-152. 786. Cordero Iiguez, Juan. Las culturas originales y el incario: captulo de una interpretacin social del arte ecuatoriano, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 48 (1983), 193-246. 787. Cordero Iiguez, Juan. Ingapirca y Tomebamba: gua de los complejos arqueolgicos y museos = Arqueological [sic] Sites and Museums Guide = Guide des sites archologiques et museums. Cuenca: Monsalve Moreno Ca. Ltda., [1993]. 69 p. In Spanish, English, and French. Versin ampliada de Caaris e Incas. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1987. 30 p. See also: Cordero Iiguez, Juan; and Antonio Fresco Gonzlez. Nueva imagen de Ingapirca. Cuenca: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1995. 95 p. 788. Cordero Palacios, Octavio. El Azuay histrico: los Caaris y los Inco-Caaris. Cuenca: Edit. Amazonas, 1981. 146 p. Reprint; originally published: Cuenca, 1926. See also following item. 789. Cordero Palacios, Octavio. El quechua y el caari: contribucin para la historia precuencana de las provincias azuayas. Cuenca: Concejo Municipal, 1924. xvi, vi, 335 p. 790. Crdova Jaramillo, Diana E. Petroglifos, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 124-128. 791. Crespo Toral, Hernn, Nacimiento y evolucin de la botella silbato, Humanitas (Quito), 6:1 (1966), 66-87. 792. Crespo Toral, Hernn, Queros ecuatorianos, Humanitas (Quito), 7:1 (19691970), 7-34. 793. Cueva Jaramillo, Juan. El arte de la metalurgia en el Ecuador prehispnico, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 2 (1970) 217-231. 794. Cueva Jaramillo, Juan. Descubrimientos arqueolgicos en Ingapirca, Revista

de antropologa (Cuenca), 3 (1971), 215-226. 795. Cueva Jaramillo, Juan; and Albert Meyers. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en Ingapirca, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 4/5 (1986/1987), 73-91. Items 794 and 795 report results of the authorss 1970 field work. 796. La Cultura Tiaone, por Miguel Rivera Dorado [et al.]. Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Direccin General de Relaciones Culturales, 1984. 383 p. (Memorias de la Misin Arqueolgica Espaola en el Ecuador; 4) 797. Currie, Elizabeth J. Prehistory of the Southern Manabi Coast, Ecuador: Lopez Viejo. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm, 1995. iii, 64 p. (BAR International Series; 618) Detailed report on authors excavations in 1992 and 1993 of a production rea for luxury ornaments, that in all likelihood contributed to the long-distance trade in which the seafaring league of Manteo merchants engaged up and down the Pacific coast from Mexico through Peru. 798. Chase, Thomas. Restos faunicos, in Karen E. Stothert, La prehistoria temprana de la Pennsula de Santa Elena, Ecuador (item 1235), p. 171-178. 799. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. En tierra caari: las armas de cobre, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 29:74 (jul./dic. 1949), 250-254. 800. Christensen, Ross T. An Archaeological Study of the Illescas-Jubones Coast of Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador. 1956. xxvi, 416 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Arizona. Presents the results of the first scientific excavations in the Province of El Oro. 801. Christensen, Ross T. A Recent Excavation in Southern Coastal Ecuador, Bulletin of the University Archaeological Society, 5 (Oct. 1954), 30-54. Also published in Spanish as: Una excavacin reciente en la costa meridional del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 5:13/14 (ago. 1955), 83-92. The Spanish version includes an evaluation by Olaf Holm of Christensens findings and interpretations (p. 91-92). 802. Damp, Jonathan E. Architecture of the Early Valdivia Village, American Antiquity, 49:3 (July 1984), 573-585. A report on authors study of the architecture of the early Valdivia village sites of Real Alto and Loma Alta. Household units from said sites exhibit domestic patterning in sleeping areas, cooking, tool working, cotton spinning, garbage disposal, and burial of the dead. 803. Damp, Jonathan E. La primera ocupacin Valdivia de Real Alto: patrones econmicos, arquitectnicos e ideolgicos. Guayaquil: Escuela Politcnica del Litoral, Centro de Estudios Arqueolgicos y Antropolgicos; Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 148 p. Publishes Damps Ph.D. thesis: Better Homes and Gardens: the Life and Death of the Early Valdivia Community. 1979. University of Calgary, Alberta.

804. Damp, Jonathan E. Environmental Variability, Agriculture, and Settlement Processes in Coastal Ecuador (3300-1500 B.C.), Current Anthropology, 25:1 (Feb. 1984), 106-111. 805. Damp, Jonathan E. Pretexto, contexto y falacias en la Isla de la Plata, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 109-121. A critique of Marcos and Nortons Interpretacin sobre la arqueologa de la Isla de la Plata (item 1033). 806. Damp, Jonathan E. Salvaging Sites and Specimens: To Fake or Not to Fake, Journal of Field Archaeology, 11:4 (Winter 1984), 427-428. Part of the exchange between Damp, on the one hand, and Bruhns and Hammond, on the other (see items 746 and 747). 807. Damp, Jonathan E.; Deborah M. Pearsall; and Lawrence T. Kaplan. Beans for Valdivia, Science, 212 (May 15,1981), 811-812. Also published in Spanish as: La evidencia agrcola en Valdivia temprano, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 49-53. 808. De Paepe, Paul; and Josef E. Buys. Anlisis mineralgico y qumico de la cermica procedente del sitio arqueolgico Jardn del Este, Cumbay, Provincia de Pichincha, Gaceta arqueolgica andina, 20 (1990), 5-18. See also item 1149. 809. DeBoer, Warren R. Traces behind the Esmeraldas Shore: Prehistory of the Santiago-Cayapas Region, Ecuador. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996. xvii, 234 p. An eminently readable account of archaeological research on the rea inland from La Tolita. 810. Una Dcada de arqueologa en la ESPOL, Silvia G. Alvarez, editor. Guayaquil: Centro de Estudios Arqueolgicos y Antropolgicos, 1991. 1 v. in various paginations. 811. Di Capua, Constanza. Anlisis morfolgico y esttico de algunos fragmentos de la cultura Valdivia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 56:121 (ene./jul. 1973), 102-114. 812. Di Capua, Constanza. Consideraciones sobre una exposicin de sellos arqueolgicos, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 2/3 (1983-1984), 79-103. 813. Di Capua, Constanza. Shamn y jaguar, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 157-169. 814. Di Capua, Constanza. Valdivia Figurines and Puberty Rituals: an Hypothesis, Andean Past, 4 (1994), 229-279. 815. Dorsey, George Amos. Archaeological Investigations on the Island of La Plata, Ecuador. Chicago: Field Columbian Museum, 1901. p. 248-280. (Anthropological Series, Field Columbian Museum; vol. 2, no. 5)

Reports on the first archaeological work done on La Plata (1892). Dorsey found an Inca burial. The associated pottery are in the Field Museum of Natural History and have been restudied by Colin McEwan and Mara Isabel Silva (see item 1038). Reprinted: New York: Kraus, 1968. 816. Dorsinfang-Smets, A. Cramique de la province dEsmraldas, Muses royaux dart et dhistoire (Brussels), ser. 4, 21:1(jan. 1949), 87-90. 817. Drake, Robert J. Some Marine Shells Used by Prehistoric Indians in Ecuador, Nautilus, 65:4 (Apr. 1952), 120-122. 818. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Area septentrional andina oeste, formas de produccin concretas en la cultura Valdivia: el control racionalizado del manglar, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 2/3 (1983-1984), 7-22. 819. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Contribucin al conocimiento arqueolgico de la Provincia de Pichincha: sitios Chilibulo y Chillogallo, Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador (item 853), p. 181-225. 820. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Figurinas prehistricas de la Provincia de Pichincha, Revista de la Universidad Catlica (Quito), 3:10 (1975), 171-188. 821. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Glosario arqueolgico. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1981. 343 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 1) 822. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en Tazones (Atacames, Esmeraldas), Segundo Encuentro de Historia y Realidad Econmica y Social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 617-628. A working paper on results of field work at the Cueva del Duende and adjacent sites. The collected materials, mostly ceramic, pertain to the Jama-Coaque phase (500 B.C.500 D.C.). 823. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Localizaciones culturales del rea norandina del Ecuador, Cultura, 7:21 (ene./abr. 1985), 83-94. 824. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. Los primeros poblados, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 1, p. 181-222. A good review of the state of archaeological knowledge circa 1980 regarding the emergence of such early towns as Cotocollao in the northern highlands and of Tolita, Baha, and Coaque on the coast. 825. Echeverra Almeida, Jos. La vivienda prehispnica en los Andes septentrionales del Ecuador, Sarance, 14 (ago. 1990), 41-71. 826. Ecuador al rescate de su pasado = Ecuador regains its past. Quito: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Ecuador: Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador; Washington, D.C.: Organizacin de los Estados Americanos, 1984. [52] p. In Spanish and English. Regarding the recovery in 1983 of 9,263 artifacts from an Italian collector. Includes an outline of the prehispanic period and representative examples of the pieces that had been illegally exported.

827. Ecuador indgena: estudios arqueolgicos y etnogrficos de la sierra norte, Vctor Pablo Echeverra A. [et al.], 2 ed. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa; Quito: Abya Yala, 1988. 195 p. The second issue of Ecuador indgena. 828. Ecuadorian Obsidian Sources Used for Artifact Production, and Methods for Provenance Assignments, Frank Asaro [et al.], Latin American Antiquity, 5:3 (Sept. 1994), 257-277. See also its companion piece (item 961). 829. Edwards, Clinton R. Aboriginal Watercraft on the Pacific Coast of South America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965. x, 160 p. A major study of the balsa and other prehispanic seagoing vessels. 830. Erazo Vallejo, Marco T. Estudio petrogrfico de objetos arqueolgicos de las provincias australes del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 10:27 (1961), 113-126. 831. Errzuriz, Jaime. Tumaco-La Tolita: una cultura precolombina desconocida = An Unknown Precolumbian Culture. Bogot: Valencia Editores, 1980. 316 p. In Spanish and English. 832. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. Los Cayambes y Carangues, siglos XV-XVI: el testimonio de la etnohistoria. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1983-1988. 3 v. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 61) A comprehensive study of the ethnic groups of the Cayambes and Carangues before the Inca and Spanish conquests, under the Incas, and subsequently the Spaniards. Based on the archaeological research of others (e.g., item 778) and on extensive archival research. 833. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. El curaca de los Cayambes y su sometimiento al imperio espaol, siglos XV y XVI, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 9:1/2 (1980), 89-119. 834. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. Etnohistoria ecuatoriana: estudios y documentos, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1988. 396 p. 835. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. Los mitmas huayacuntu en Quito o guarniciones para la represin armada: siglos XV y XVI, Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima), 41 (1975), 351-394. 836. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. El reino de los Chono, al este de Guayaquil, siglos XV y XVI: el testimonio de la arqueologa y la etnohistoria, Historia y cultura (Lima), 13/14 (1981), 7-60. 837. Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar. La vida pblica de un prncipe inca residente en Quito en los siglos XV y XVI, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 7:3/4 (1978), 1-31.

838. Estrada, Emilio. Arqueologa de Manab central. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1962. 205 p. Items 838-847 are the work of an amateur turned professional. They are based on considerable field work and more or less sound laboratory analysis. 839. Estrada, Emilio. Cronologa de la Cuenca del Guayas, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 7:19/21 (dic. 1957), 232-235. Also published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:89 (ene./jun. 1957), 84-89. 840. Estrada, Emilio. Las culturas pre-clsicas, formativas o arcaicas del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1958. 113 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1975. 841. Estrada, Emilio. Ensayo preliminar sobre arqueologa del Milagro. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1954. 111 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979 842. Estrada, Emilio. Los Huancavilcas: ltimas civilizaciones pre-histricas de la costa del Guayas. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1957. 82 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979. 843. Estrada, Emilio. The Jambel Culture of South Coastal Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1964. 75 p. 844. Estrada, Emilio. Nuevos elementos en la cultura Valdivia: sus posibles contactos transpacficos. Quito: Sub-Comit Ecuatoriano de Antropologa, Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1961. 14 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979. 845. Estrada, Emilio. Prehistoria de Manab. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1957. 176 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979. 846. Estrada, Emilio. Ultimas civilizaciones prehistricas de la Cuenca del Ro Guayas. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1957. 87 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979. 847. Estrada, Emilio. Valdivia: un sitio arqueolgico formativo en la costa de la Provincia del Guayas, Ecuador. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1956. 11 p. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1979. 848. Estrada, Emilio; and Clifford Evans. Cultural development in Ecuador, Aboriginal Cultural Development in Latin America: an Interpretative Review, edited by Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1963), p. 77-88.

849. Estrada, Emilio; and Betty J. Meggers. A Complex of Traits of Probable Transpacific Origin on the Coast of Ecuador, American Anthropologist, 63:5:1 (Oct. 1961), 913-939. 850. Estrada, Emilio; Betty J. Meggers; and Clifford Evans. The Jambeli Culture of South Coastal Ecuador, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 115:3492 (1964), 483-558. 851. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. La invasin imaginaria, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 18:34/35 (1968), 3-20. Argues against alleged Inca invasion of the central and southern coast and the incorporation of the littoral ethnic groups into the Tahuantinsuyu. 852. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. Mito y nacionalidad, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 17:33 (1967), 169-183. Argues against the existence of Velascos Reino de Quito. 853. Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador, Betty J. Meggers [et al.]. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1977. 271 p. 854. Estudios sobre la arqueologa del Ecuador, editado por Udo Oberem. Bonn: Bonner Amerikanistische Studien, 1975. 129 p. 855. Evans, Clifford; and Betty J. Meggers. Archaeological Investigations on the Ro Napo, Eastern Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. xvi, 127 p. + 94 p. of plates. Reports the results of field work conducted in 1956. 856. Evans, Clifford; and Betty J. Meggers. Cronologa relativa y absoluta en la costa del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 10:27 (1961), 147-152. 857. Evans, Clifford; and Betty J. Meggers. Preliminary Report on Archaeological Investigations in the Guayas Basin, Ecuador = Informe preliminar sobre las investigaciones arqueolgicas realizadas en la Cuenca del Guayas, Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 4:12 (dic. 1954), 307-336. In English and Spanish. 858. Evans, Clifford; and Betty J. Meggers. Tcnicas decorativas: diagnsticos y variantes regionales Chorrera, un anlisis preliminar, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 121-133. 859. Evans, Clifford; and Betty J. Meggers. Valdivia: An Early Formative Culture of Ecuador, Archaeology, 11:3 (Sept. 1958), 175-182. 860. Evans, Clifford; Betty J. Meggers; and Emilio Estrada. Cultura Valdivia. Guayaquil: Museo Vctor Emilio Estrada, 1959. 126 p. 861. Excavaciones en Cochasqui, Ecuador, 1964-1965, edicin de Udo Oberem y Wolfgang W. Wurster. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1989. 264 p.

An account of excavations undertaken to ascertain building materials, construction techniques, and coeval usage of monumental earth platforms at Cochasqui Site. Describes pottery (classified by vessel shape), worked stone, fauna, human remains, and miscellaneous artifacts in detail. The twenty-four C14 dates reported extend from AD 930 through 1560. See also item 779. 862. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. The Archaeological Survey of Ecuador, El Palacio, 47:6 (June 1940), 137-145. A report of the coeval state of archaeological research in and on the country. Also published in Spanish as: Investigacin arqueolgica en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 103-108. 863. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. Characteristic Figurines from Esmeraldas, El Palacio, 52:11 (Nov. 1945), 221-245. Also published as a separate: Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research, 1945. 25 p. (School of American Research Papers; new ser., no. 40) 864. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. The Excavation at La Libertad, El Palacio (Santa F), 48:2 (Feb. 1941), 38-42. N.B. Ferdon was the second professionally trained archaeologist to undertake field work in the Peninsular of Santa Elena, Bushnell having been the first (see item 754). Also published in Spanish as: Excavaciones arqueolgicas cerca de La Libertad, Provincia del Guayas, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 22:59 (ene./jun. 1941), 74-81. 865. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. Exploring Ecuadors Ro Upano, El Palacio, 59:8 (Aug. 1952), 223-250. 866. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. Holocene Mangrove Formations on the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador: Pluvial Indicators of Ecological Response to Physiographic Changes, American Antiquity, 46:3 (July 1981), 619-626. Argues that there has been no major prehistoric climatic shift on the Peninsula for any extensive time since its occupation by man . . . 867. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. Preliminary Notes on the Artefacts from La Libertad, Ecuador, El Palacio, 48 (1941), 204-210. 868. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr. Reconnaissance in Esmeraldas, El Palacio (Santa F), 47:12 (Dec. 1940), 257-272; 48:1 (Jan. 1941), 7-15. 869. Ferdon, Edwin N., Jr.; and John Maxwell Corbett. Depsitos arqueolgicos de La Tolita, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 21:57 (ene./jun. 1941), 5-15. Summarizes the authorss work at La Tolita. 870. Feriz, Hans. Ecuador 1960: verslag van een archaeologische studiereis. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, 1960. 72 p. 871. Francisco, Alice E. An Archaeological Sequence From Carchi, Ecuador. 1969.

vi, 276 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Univeristy of California, Berkeley. The first scientific study of the archaeology of the northernmost province of the highlands. 872. Fresco Gonzlez, Antonio. La arqueologa de Ingapirca, Ecuador: costumbres funerarias, cermica y otros materiales. Cuenca: Comisin del Castillo de Ingapirca, Consejo de Gobierno del Museo Arqueolgico del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984. 203 p. Reports the results of the field work undertaken by the Misin Cientfica Espaola at Ingapirca in 1974 and 1975. 873. Fresco Gonzlez, Antonio. La red vial incaica en la sierra sur del Ecuador: algunos datos para su estudio, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 109-148. 874. Fresco Gonzlez, Antonio. El tambo incaico de paredones de Culebrillas, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 7 (nov. 1981), 137-143. 875. Fresco Gonzlez, Antonio; and Wania Cobo. Consideraciones etnohistricas acerca de una tumba de pozo y cmara de Ingapirca, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 8 (1978), 147-161. 876. La Frontera del estado Inca: actas, edited by Tom D. Dillehay and Patricia J. Netherly. Oxford, Eng.: B.A.R., 1988. 275 p. Papers presented at the 45th International Congress of Americanists (Bogot, 1985). 877. Gallardo Moscoso, Hernn, Arqueologa del sombrero, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 42-45. 878. Galvn Garca, J.R.; and Mara Angeles Barriuso Prez. Estudio de las chaquiras de Atacames (Ecuador), Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 61-80. 879. Gardner, Judith S. Pre-Columbian Textiles from Ecuador: Conservation Procedures and Preliminary Study, Technology and Conservation, 4:1 (1979), 24-30. Also published in Spanish as: Textiles precolombinos del Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1982), 9-23. 880. Gartelmann, Karl Dieter. Las huellas del jaguar: la arqueologa en el Ecuador, 1 ed. Quito: Impresora Mariscal, 1985. 399 p. A popular introduction to the prehistory of Ecuador. Emphasizes the coast. Also published in English as: Digging Up Prehistory: The Archaeology of Ecuador, 1st ed. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi, 1986. 395 p. 881. Gillin, John. An Urn from the Ro Aguarico, Eastern Ecuador, American Anthropologist, 38:3 (July/Sept. 1936), 469-470. 882. Goff, Linda Ann. An Art Historical and Archaeological Ceramic Analysis From the Ecuadorian Northern Highlands. 1980. 2 v. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Washington University.

883. Gmez de la Torre Barba, Joaqun. Historia y tradiciones del Padre Anello Oliva S.J.: la leyenda de Quitumbe, personaje mtico de nuestra prehistoria, Quitumbe, 3:3 (1973 ), 133-143. 884. Gondard, Pierre. Inventario y organizacin del espacio precolombino en los Andes septentrionales del Ecuador, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 171-187. 885. Gondard, Pierre; and Freddy Lpez. Inventario arqueolgico preliminar de los Andes septentrionales del Ecuador. Quito: Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1983. 274 p. 886. Gonzlez C., Celiano E. Estudios arqueolgicos en el Cantn Zaruma, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales, 6:56 (ago./sept. 1953), 187-198; 6:57 (oct./nov. 1953), 303-313. Reports on investigation of stone ruins at Cerro de Tocto. 887. Gonzlez C., Celiano E. Petroglifos de la Provincia de El Oro: ensayo de estudio y comprensin. Ambato: Edit. Po XII, 1982. 107 p. 888. Gonzlez C., Celiano E. Reconocimientos arqueolgicos en el Cantn Zaruma, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 105-121. An interim report on authors field work. 889. Gonzlez de Merino, Juana. Culturas del formativo temprano en el Ecuador: nuevos elementos y su difusin a otras reas, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 122-129. 890. Gonzlez de Merino, Juana. Investigacin cientfica de arqueologa en el sitio Milagro 1, Cantn Milagro, Provincia del Guayas. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Filosofa, Letras y Ciencias de la Educacin, 1984. 105 p. 891. Gonzlez S., Vctor A. La comunidad gentilicia y los rasgos de su descomposicin en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1979. 108 p. An essay on regional development cultures of Baha, Jama-Coaque, and Tolita. See also item 585. 892. Gonzlez S., Vctor A. La sociedad nmada y su transicin a la sedentaria en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: [s.n.], 1983. 53 p. An essay on the emergence of agriculturally based groups on the coast. 893. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Los aborgenes de Imbabura y del Carchi: investigaciones arqueolgicas sobre los antiguos pobladores de las Provincias del Carchi y de Imbabura en la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Tip. y Encuad. Salesiana, 1908. xiv, 145 p. + 1 atlas (41 plates). 894. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Advertencias para buscar, coleccionar y clasificar objetos arqueolgicos pertenecientes a los indgenas antiquos pobladores del territorio ecuatoriano. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1914. xiv, 90 p.

895. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Estudio histrico sobre los Caaris: pobladores de la antigua Provincia del Azuay. Cuenca: Universidad del Azuay, 1965. 135 p. Reprint; originally published in 100 copies: Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1878. viii, 55 p. Also reprints Carlos Manuel Larreas Introduccin to the 1922 Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos edition (p. 11-47). The pioneering study of the archaeology of the Caaris and the first publication by an Ecuadorian national on the prehistory of Ecuador except of course for Juan de Velascos Historia del Reino de Quito (Quito, 1841-1844; 3 v.). Based on excursions to sites and library research. Notwithstanding the adulation accorded the archbishop-historian by Larrea and other national scholars,Our understanding of Ingapiraca was not made any clearer by . . . Gonzlez Surez . . . who seems to have changed his mind regarding the sites nature and purpose every time he visited it according to Barnes and Fleming (item 699). 896. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Notas arqueolgicas, y, Prehistoria ecuatoriana. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1967. 306 p. Reprint; originally published as separate monographs: Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1915 (vi, 212 p.); Quito: Ricardo Jaramillo, 1904 (vi, 88 p.) Also reprinted as: De prehistoria y de arqueologa. Cuenca: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cuenca, 1968. 207 p. In Notas arqueolgicas the archbishop-historian glosses and critiques Verneau and Rivets Ethnographie ancienne de lEquateur (item 1282). 897. Grijalva, Carlos Emilio. La expedicin de Uhle a Guasmal, o sea, La protohistoria de Imbabura y Carchi. Quito: Edit. Chimborazo, 1937. 294 p. 898. Grijalva, Carlos Emilio. Nombres y pueblos de la antigua Provincia de Imbabura, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./abr. 1921), 33-70. 899. Grove, David C. The Meso-American Formative and South America, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 279-297. 900. Guevara, Daro. Exgesis de topnimos indgenas ecuatorianos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 57:124 (jul./dic. 1974), 274-298. 901. Guffroy, Jean. Les dbuts de la sdentarisation et de lagriculture dans les Andes mridionales de lEquateur, LAnthropologie, 91:4 (1987), 873-888. 902. Guffroy, Jean. Implantaciones humanas y ocupacin del espacio en la Provincia de Loja durante la poca prehispnica, Cultura, 8:24b (ene./abr. 1986), 579-591. 903. Guffroy, Jean. Inhumaciones tardias en la regin de Macar, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 99-108. Originally published as: Inhumations tardives dans la rgion de Macar Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 11:3/4 (jui./dc. 1982), 39-49. 904. Guffroy, Jean. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en el sur de la Provincia de Loja. Loja: Misin Arqueolgica Loja, [1981]. 50 p. Reports preliminary results of the French archaeological survey of southern Loja. For

more detailed results see items 901-903, 905, 906, and especially 1013. 905. Guffroy, Jean. El poblamiento de la Provincia de Loja durante el perodo formativo: datos e hiptesis, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 59-63. 906. Guffroy, Jean. Las tradiciones culturales formativas del Valle de Catamayo, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 65-72. Originally published as: Les traditions culturelles formatives de la valle de Catamayo, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 11:3/4 (jui./dc. 1982), 3-11. 907. Guignabaudet, Philippe. Nuevos descubrimientos arqueolgicos en las tolas de Huaraqu, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales, 6:56 (ago./sept. 1953), 168186. 908. Guinea Bueno, Mercedes. El formativo de la regin Sur de Esmeraldas: visto desde el yacimiento del Chvele, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 19-46. See also: Guinea Buenos El desarrollo espacial del poblado de Atacames, Esmeraldas, Ecuador, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 24 (1994), 93111, in which she traces the development of prehispanic Atacames from a small, dispersed hamlet to a large town during the Integration period; and her: Subsistencia, ecologa y explotacin territorial en el poblado de Atacames, Ecuador, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 12 (1982), 131-155. 909. Guinea Bueno, Mercedes. Patrones de asentamiento en la arqueologa de Esmeraldas (Ecuador) Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Direccin General de Relaciones Culturales, 1984. 243 p. (Memorias de la Misin Arqueolgica Espaola en el Ecuador; 8) A detailed report on settlement patterns in what is now the Province of Esmeraldas. The majority, if not in fact all, of prehispanic towns and villages were found along rivers and the shoreline. Also examines the issues of population density and therefore size and the economic bases of the settlements studied. 910. Guinea Bueno, Mercedes. Relaciones comerciales en Esmeraldas como resultado del anlisis de las cermicas por difraccin de rayos X y microscopia electrnica, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 259-272. 911. Guinea Bueno, Mercedes. Valoracin de las evidencias de intercambio en la desembocadura del Ro Esmeraldas: el problema cronolgico, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 127-146. Maps and discusses the probable dating of various archaeological sites in the vicinity of the mouth of the Esmeraldas. 912. Hammond, Norman; and Karen Olsen Bruhns. The Paute Valley Project in Ecuador, 1984, Antiquity, 61:1 (Mar. 1987), 50-56. See also item 748.

913. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Arqueologa de Imbabura-Ecuador. Imbabura: Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1979. 40 p. 914. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. El culto del agua en el Reino de Quito. Quito: Impr. La Favorita, 1974. 90 p. 915. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. El culto del sol y de la madre tierra en el Reino de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 65:139/140 (ene./dic. 1982), 186217. 916. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Mitos de origen del Reino de Quito, Revista geogrfica (Quito), 18 (1983), 76-93. 917. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Mitos y cultos del Reino de Quito. Quito: Editora Nacional, 1980. 446 p. 918. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Montaas sagradas del Reino de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 56:121 (ene./jun. 1973), 115-142. 919. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Puruh: estudios arqueolgicos, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 1:2/3 (dic. 1951), 79-124; 2:6 (dic. 1952), 131-166; 3:9 (dic. 1953), 137166; 4:10/11 (ago. 1954), 103-155. 920. Haro Alvear, Silvio Luis. Puruha, nacin guerrera. Quito: Editora Nacional, 1977. 300 p. 921. Hartmann, Roswith. La Exposicin Tesoros del Ecuador en Alemana, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:131/132 (ene./dic. 1978), 129-144. Notwithstanding the title, an introduction to the history of archaeology in Ecuador. 922. Hartmann, Roswith. Mercados y ferias prehispnicas en el rea andina, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:118 (jul./dic. 1971), 214-235. 923. Hartmann, Roswith. El papel de los mitmas en el proceso de quechuizacin: el caso del Ecuador y la problemtica de las fuentes, Amrica indgena, 54:4 (oct./dic. 1994), 61-98. Utilizes historical materials to reconstruct the probable distribution of languages and ethnic groups in the highlands as altered by the Inca practice of population redistribution, on the eve of the Spanish conquest. Stresses that the extant sources are not as revealing as for other parts of the former Tahuantinsuyu and therefore not altogether conclusive. 924. Hartmann, Roswith; and Olaf Holm. La Romana en tiempos prehispnicos y su uso actual en la costa del Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1981), 155-178. 925. Heras y Martnez, Csar Manuel. Balao: un enclave arqueolgico esmeraldeo, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 21 (1991), 77-119. Describes ceramics encountered at an integration period site. See also Heras y Martnezs La cermica de integracin de la costa nordecuatoriana: el caso

esmeraldeo, Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 24 (1994), 113-138. 926. Heras y Martnez, Csar Manuel; and Jess Adnez Pavn. Chimeneas cermicas: un rasgo cultural de significacin controvertida, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 147162. Reexamines the usage of ceramic chimneys on the coast. Suggests that they may have not have been tombs per se but utilized as drains in burial mounds. 927. Heyerdahl, Thor. Balsa Raft in Aboriginal Navigation off Peru and Ecuador, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 11:3 (Autumn 1955), 251-264. 928. Heyerdahl, Thor; and Arne Skjolsvold. Archaeological Evidence of Pre-Spanish Visits to the Galapagos Islands. Salt Lake City: Society for American Archaeology, 1956. 71 p. Reprint; originally published in: American Antiquity, 22:2, pt. 3 (1956). Also reprinted: Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus Reprint, 1974; and: Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1990. 107 p. 929. Hill, Betsy Dupois. A New Chronology of the Valdivia Ceramic Complex from the Coastal Zone of Guayas Province, Ecuador, awpa Pacha, 10/12 (1972/1974), 1-32. 930. Holland, Leicester Bodine. Note on Horns of Consecration, American Journal of Archaeology, 21:4 (Oct. 1917), 417-419. 931. Holm, Olaf. Cmara funeraria No. 5 Bellavista (Ecuador), Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 12/13:28/29 (1962-1963), 129-157. 932. Holm, Olaf. Cortadura a piola: una tcnica prehistrica. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1969. 27 p. 933. Holm, Olaf. El cucharn: un utensilio domstico de la Cultura Mantea, Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 9/10:25/26 (ene. 1959-dic. 1960), 121145. 934. Holm, Olaf. Cultura Mantea-Huancavilca. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Museo Antropolgico y Pinacoteca, 1982. 48 p. 935. Holm, Olaf. Cultura Milagro-Quevedo, 2 ed. rev. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Museo Antropolgico y Pinacoteca, 1983. 28 p. 936. Holm, Olaf. Dientes de tiburn: el utensilio prehistrico y un comentario folklrico. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1969. 22 p. 937. Holm, Olaf. Fuelles que son unos cautos. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1968. 30 p. 938. Holm, Olaf. Las Islas Galpagos en la prehistoria ecuatoriana, Revista, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1:2 (ene./mar. 1964), 25-39. 939. Holm, Olaf. Lanzas silvadoras, Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador (item 853), p. 71-88.

940. Holm, Olaf. Navegacin precolombina, Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima, 16 (jul. 1994), 9-17. 941. Holm, Olaf. Navegacin precolombina I, Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima, 1 (dic. 1986), 7-13. 942. Holm, Olaf. Navegacin precolombina II, Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima, 2 (jun. 1987), 97-108. 943. Holm, Olaf. Navegacin precolombina III, Revista del Instituto de Historia Martima, 3 (dic. 1987), 148-160. 944. Holm, Olaf. Los primeros hombres del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Museo Antropolgico del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1981. 40 p. 945. Holm, Olaf. Quipu o sapn: (un recurso mnemonico en el campo ecuatoriano), Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 18:34/35 (1968), 85-90. 946. Holm, Olaf. Quito, la ciudad poblada ms antigua del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 159-161. 947. Holm, Olaf. El tatuaje entre los aborgenes prepizarrinos de la costa ecuatoriana, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 3:7/8 (ago. 1953), 56-92. 948. Holm, Olaf. Torteras vs. toberas, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 2 poca, 45 (1991 [i.e., 1993]), 103-114. Regarding the use of molds in gold and silver casting. 949. Holm, Olaf. El uso prehistrico de la resina fsil, Revista de la Universidad Catlica (Guayaquil), 3:10 (nov. 1975), 65-73. 950. Hosler, Dorothy; Heather Lechtman; and Olaf Holm. Axe-Monies and Their Relatives. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1990. 103 p. See also item 1148. 951. Howell, Carol L. Daring to Deal With Huaqueros, Archaeology, 45:3 (May/June 1992), 56-58. 952. Huerta Rendn, Francisco. San Biritute, seor de Zacachn, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 5:13/14 (ago. 1955), 46-65. The unfortunate tale of an attempt at salvage archaeology. The statute of San Biritute would have been better off left where it was found and where it was far better cared for, in Zacachn (Peninsula of Santa Elena) 953. Hyams, Edward; and George Ordish. The Last of the Incas: the Rise and Fall of an American Empire. New York: Dorset Press, 1963. 294 p. A semi-scholarly account of the waxing and waning of the Tahuantinsuyu under Huayna Capac, Huascar, and Atahualpa. 954. Idrobo Urigen, Jaime. Panorama histrico de la arqueologa ecuatoriana.

Cuenca: [s.n.], 1990. 107 p. 955. Idrobo Urigen, Tarquino Anbal. Contribucin al conocimiento de la humanidad prehistrica del Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 114 p. 956. Idrobo Urigen, Tarquino Anbal. Culebrillas: historia y arqueologa de una laguna sagrada, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 9 (1992), 93-111. Also published in: Memoria, MARKA, ao 2, no. 2 (nov. 1991), 107-126. 957. Idrobo Urigen, Tarquino. Tomebamba: primera fase de conquista en los Andes septentrionales, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 6 (1986), 49-70. 958. Iglesias, Angel Mara. Los aborgenes de Caar. Cuenca: El Carcter, 1964. 63 p. 959. Iglesias, Angel Mara. Los Caaris: aspectos histricos y culturales. Caar: Impr. Amrica, 1987. 156 p. 960. El Indio ecuatoriano: pasado ancestral y problemas de aculturacin. Valladolid: Seminario Americanista de la Universidad, 1980. 208 p. 961. An Initial Consideration of Obsidian Procurement and Exchange in Pre-Hispanic Ecuador, Richard L. Burger [et al.], Latin American Antiquity, 5:3 (Sept. 1994), 228255. See also its companion piece (item 828). 962. Isaacson, John S. Volcanic Activity and Human Occupation of the Northern Andes: the Application of Tephrostratigraphic Techniques to the Problem of Human Settlement in the Western Montaa during the Ecuadorian Formative. 1987. xvii, 432 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)-- University of Illinois, Urbana. 963. Jackson, Donald. Clasificacin morfo-funcional y anlisis de huellas de uso en un conjunto ltico del sitio arqueolgico de Salango, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 59-90. 964. Jaramillo P., Vctor Alejandro. Artesana ltica precolombina imbaburea, Sarance, 4 (jul. 1977), 46-54. Also published in: Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 259-268. 965. Jaramillo P., Vctor Alejandro. La cermica Imbaya, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 164-193. 966. Jaramillo P., Vctor Alejandro. Paleoltico y neoltico de Imbabura. Otavalo: Edit. Gallocapitn, 1982. 351 p. 967. Jaramillo Paredes, Mario. Estudio histrico sobre Ingapirca. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1976. 171 p.

Summarizes work done at and on Ingapirca in the1970s. 968. Jarrn A., Irma. Elementos comunes en Mesoamrica y en el rea andina, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 359-381. 969. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Antropologa prehispnica del Ecuador: Resumen. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1952. 412 p. Useful summary of Jijns archaeological contributions, especially his opus magnus El Ecuador interandino y occidental (item 972). Reprinted: Quito: Embajada de Espaa, Agencia Espaola de Cooperacin Internacional; Museo Jijn y Caamao, 1997. 387 p. 970. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Artefactos prehistricos del Guayas, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1:3 (oct./dic. 1918), 253-275; 2:5 (mar./abr. 1919), 169. 971. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Contribucin al conocimiento de los aborgenes de la Provincia de Imbabura en la Repblica del Ecuador. Madrid: Impr. Blass, 1912. 351 p. 972. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. El Ecuador interandino y occidental antes de la conquista espaola. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1941-1947. 4 v. Although superseded by subsequent work to some extent, especially insofar as interpretation of the data is concerned, still a basic source on the archaeology of the highlands and the coast. Jijn y Caamao was the first Ecuadorian to attempt to establish successions of cultures and to publish the field data on which his conclusions were based. 973. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Nueva contribucin al conocimiento de los aborgenes de la Provincia de Imbabura. Madrid: Impr. Blass, 1919. 182 p. Also published in Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 4:10 (ene./feb. 1920), 1-120; 4:11 (mar./abr. 1920), 183-244. 974. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Una punta de jabalina en Puengas, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 1:2 (ago./sept. 1918), 109111. 975. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Puruh: contribucin al conocimiento de los aborgenes de la Provincia de Chimborazo de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1927. 2 v. Originally published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 3:6 (jul./ago. 1921), 1-60; 5:12/14 (jul./dic. 1922), 205-291; 6:15/17 (ene./jun. 1923), 32-66; 7:19 (sept./oct. 1923), 185-193; 9:24/26 (jul./dic. 1924), 267-406. 976. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. El tesoro del Itschimbia (Quito-Ecuador) London: J. Bale, Sons & Danielsson, [1912]. 19 p. 977. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto. Los tincullpas y notas acerca de la metalurgia de los aborgenes del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (jul./oct.

1920), 4-40. 978. Jijn y Caamao, Jacinto; and Carlos Manuel Larrea. Un cementerio incasico en Quito y notas acerca de los Incas en el Ecuador. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1918. 102 p. Reprinted from: Revista de la Sociedad Jurdico-Literaria, nueva ser., 20:58/59 (mar./abr. 1918), 159-260. 979. Kaddatz, Corinna. Kleidung und Schmuck im vorkolumbischen Esmeraldas. Bremen: Im Selbstverlang des Museums in Zusammenarbeit mit BAS, 1975. xi, 107 p. 980. Klepinger, Linda L. Paleodemography of the Valdivia III Phase at Real Alto, Ecuador, American Antiquity, 44:2 (Apr. 1979), 305-309. 981. Knapp, Gregory W. Ecologa cultural prehispnica del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. 206 p. Based on authors doctoral dissertation (item 984). See also item 7689. 982. Knapp, Gregory W. El nicho ecolgico llanura hmeda, en la economa prehistrica de los Andes de altura, Sarance, 9 (1981), 83-96. 983. Knapp, Gregory W. Riego precolonial en la sierra norte, Ecuador debate, 14 (1987), 17-45. 984. Knapp, Gregory W. Soil, Slope, and Water in the Equatorial Andes: A Study in Prehistoric Agricultural Adaptation. 1984. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Wisconsin at Madison. xvii, 377 leaves. 985. Knapp, Gregory W.; and David A. Preston. Evidence of Prehistoric Ditched Fields on Sloping Land in Northern Highland Ecuador, Prehispanic Agricultural Fields in the Central Andes, (item 1139), vol. 2, p. 403-424. 986. Knapp, Gregory W.; and Roy Ryder. Aspects of the Origin, Morphology, and Function of Ridged Fields in the Quito Altiplano, Ecuador, Drained Field Agriculture in Central and South America, edited by J.P. Darch (Oxford: B.A.R., 1983), p. 201-220. Also published in Spanish as: Aspectos del origen, morfologa y funcin de los camellones en el altiplano de Quito, Cultura, 8:23 (sept./dic. 1985), 205-222. 987. Landzuri N., Cristbal. Los curacazgos pastos prehispnicos: agricultura y comercio. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa; Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. 229 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 13) An exceptionally detailed, well researched, and properly documented study of the economics of Pastos chiefdoms in what is now northern Ecuador. Based on several years of archival research in Ecuador, Colombia, and Spain. See also item 6177. 988. Landvar, Manuel Agustn. El sitio arqueolgico de Todos Santos, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 8 (ene. 1984), 138-152. 989. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. La cultura incsica del Ecuador: notas histricas y cronolgicas. Mxico, D.F.: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1965. 41

p. (Plan piloto del Ecuador) A useful compendium of what could be inferred about the Incas in the future Ecuador from the chronicles and other post-Spanish conquest sources and archaeological studies. 990. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El estudio sobre los Caaris, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 24:63 (ene./jun. 1947), 20-44. 991. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El misterio de las llamadas sillas de piedra de Manab, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:90 (jul./dic. 1957), 232-259. Concludes that what is now known to have been the stonework of the Baha and Manteo cultures may have been introduced by Mayan immigrants from southern Mexico and/or Central America. Reprinted in item 599. 992. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Nota acerca de dos objetos arqueolgicos de oro hallados en Imbabura, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 2:5 (mar./abr. 1919), 208-216. Of no importance then or now. Larrea based this piece on drawings of two gold objects found during the excavation of the much delayed rail line to Esmeraldas. Reprinted in item 599. 993. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Notas acerca de la arqueologa de la Provincia de Esmeraldas: contribuciones al conocimiento de los aborgenes de La Tola, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos , 3:7/8 (jul./oct. 1919), 85109. Consists of an introduction and what was a promising chapter one, Descripcin geogrfica de la Provincia de Esmeraldas of Larrea and Jacinto Jijn y Caamaos early twentieth-century studies of the archaeology of La Tolita. 994. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Notas sobre la antigedad del hombre en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 48:106 (jul./dic. 1965), 151-158. Review the findings at El Inga, according to which man had been in the highlands since at least 9,000 years before present. Reprinted in item 599. 995. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Prehistoria de la regin andina del Ecuador. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1972. 207 p. A more or less solid survey of what was known and could be inferred by the late 1960s. It is important to note, however, that the author was an armchair, not a field scholar. 996. Lathrap, Donald W. Ancient Ecuador: Culture, Clay and Creativity, 3000-300 B.C. = El Ecuador antiguo: cultura, cermica y creatividad, 3000-300 a.c., text by Donald W. Lathrap; catalogue by Donald Collier and Helen Chandra. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1975. 110 p. Lathraps text is a major essay on the Formative cultures of the coast. Only the catalogue is in Spanish as well as English. 997. Lathrap, Donald W. The Upper Amazon. London: Thames and Hudson, 1970.

256 p. Drawing on many years of field work by himself, his spouse, and students as well as by others, Lathrap delineates the prehistory of the Upper Amazon Basin as divided between and disputed by Ecuador and Peru. Argues that the origins of Tropical Forest Culture were continental rather than Coastal and that Tropical Forest Culture had reached a reasonably high state of efficiency by 3000 B.C. and that therefore Valdivia represents a branch of Tropical Forest Culture which was rather early extruded from the Amazon Basin and which settled in a locality that offered easily worked agricultural lands and, secondarily, fairly rich marine resources to make up the protein deficiency-a thesis that he maintains and develops more fully in Ancient Ecuador (item 996). 998. Lathrap, Donald W.; Jorge G. Marcos; and James A. Zeidler. Real Alto: an Ancient Ceremonial Center, Archaeology, 30:1 (Jan. 1977), 2-13. 999. Le Gouhir Rodas, Jos Mara. Estudios de prehistoria ecuatoriana, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 18:54 (jul./dic. 1939), 38-58; 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 68-102. Reviews limited fieldwork that had been done as of the 1930s and stresses the importance of colonial period accounts, especially the sixteenth-century chronicles, as sources in part one and defends Juan de Velascos thesis regarding the millenarian Kingdom of Quito in part two. 1000. Le Gouhir Rodas, Jos Mara. Tesis de prehistoria ecuatoriana, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 9 (dic. 1923), 436-452; 10 (ago. 1924), 1-20. 1001. Lecoq, Patrice. El perodo del desarrollo regional en el sur de la Provincia de Loja, Cultura, 5:15 (ene./abr. 1983), 73-88. Originally published as: La priode de dveloppement regional dans le Sud de la province de Loja, Bulletin de lInstitut franais dtudes andines, 11:3/4 (jui./dc. 1982), 13-27. 1002. Ledergerber C., Paulina. Comparacin entre la cermica bruida Guangala (del Ecuador) y Nasca (del Per), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 291-360. 1003. Ledergerber C., Paulina. El origen de un cuarto de siglo de investigaciones sobre la cultura Valdivia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 65:139/140 (ene./dic 1982), 25-44. Reviews the history of excavations of Valdivia sites. Includes an excellent bibliography. 1004. Len, Luis A. La mujer indgena en la rgimen laboral incsico y colonial del Reino y de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Amrica indgena, 35:3 (jul./set. 1975), 539556. 1005. Len Borja, Dora. Prehistoria de la costa ecuatoriana, Anuario de estudios americanos, 21 (1964), 381-436. At the time of its publication an important synthesis of what was known and could be

surmised regarding the ethnic groups of the coast. Also published in: Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 22:1 (ene./marzo 1966), 33-84. 1006. El Levantamiento tectnico y el formativo temprano en los Andes septentrionales, Jonathan Damp [et al.], Gaceta arqueolgica andina, 17 (1990), 9-16. Maintains that Real Alto when occupied was adjacent to the shore and that therefore early Valdivia culture was marine oriented. See also item 1090. 1007. Lippi, Ronald D. Arqueologa de los Yumbos, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 189-207. 1008. Lippi, Ronald D. La arqueologa de los Yumbos: resultados de prospecciones en el Pichincha occidental, Etnohistoria e historia de las Amrica (Bogot: Ediciones Uniandes, 1988), p. 77-88. Items 1007 and 1008 are important statements as to the emerging prehistory of the Yumbos in Western Pichincha. Based on field work conducted in 1984 and 1985, they join the results of archaeology to the ethnohistorical work of Frank Salomon on the Yumbos (e.g., item 1191). 1009. Lippi, Ronald D. Paleotopography and Phosphate Analysis of a Buried Jungle Site in Ecuador, Journal of Field Archaeology, 15:1 (Spring 1988), 85-97. The site is that of Nambillo in the Province of Pichincha. 1010. Lippi, Ronald D. La Ponga and the Machalilla Phase of Coastal Ecuador. 1983. 534 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Wisconsin, Madison. 1011. Lippi, Ronald D.; and Marco Surez Capello. Sondeos pedolgicos en Nambillo: un mtodo de prospeccin subterrnea, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 7-34. Nambillo is a Formative period site (Cotocallao Phase) in the Parish of Mindo, Province of Pichincha. 1012. Lippi, Ronald D.; Robert Mck. Bird; and David M. Stemper. Maz primitivo encontrado en La Ponga, en un contexto Machalilla, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 3:3 (1983), 143-154. Concludes that two primitive varieties [of cultivated maize] were present on the coast of Ecuador by 1200 B.C. See also items 1023 and 1114. Also published in English as Maize Recovered at La Ponga, an Early Ecuadorian Site, American Antiquity, 49:1 (Jan. 1994), 118-124. 1013. Loja prehispanique: recherches archologiques dans les Andes meridionales de lEquateur, par J. Guffroy [et al.]. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1987. 342 p. (Travaux de lInstitut franais dtudes andines; 32) Reports research conducted between 1979 and 1982 by members of the Institut franais dtudes andines and the Mission archeologique franaise de Loja, especially at the Vega Site. 1014. Loor, Wilfrido. Caras y shiris, Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934),

191-206. 1015. Loor, Wilfrido. Los indios de Manab. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1937. 155 p. Based entirely on published materials. Accepts Max Uhles thesis that the migrant Mayas were responsible for the emergence of high cultures on the coast and Velascos Kingdom of Quito. Anachronistic in light of subsequent, mostly professional work. Republished in Loors Manab, prehistoria y conquista (item 6000). 1016. Lpez y Sebastin, Lornezo Eladio. Contribucin al estudio de las culturas formativas en la costa norte del Ecuador, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 47-60. 1017. Lpez y Sebastin, Lorenzo Eladio; and Chantal Caillavet. La fase Tachina en el contexto cultural del horizonte Chorrera, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 199215. 1018. Lozano Castro, Alfredo. Cuenca, ciudad prehispana: significado y forma, 1 ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala: Ciudad; Madrid: Centro de Investigacin Urbana y Arquitectura Andina, 1991. 227 p. Apparently a scholarly sound study of Inca Cuenca or Tomebamba. Of the pre-existing Caari settlement, only the name is known, Guapdondelic. 1019. Lubinsky, Earl H. Los cementerios de Anllulla: informe preliminar sobre una excavacin arqueolgica, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 57:123 (ene./jun. 1974), 16-23. 1020. Lynch, Thomas F. Chobshi Cave in Retrospect, Andean Past, 2 (1989), 1-32. Concludes that the Chobshi Cave, a lithic industry site, represents an early stage in the diversification process or Archaic transition that followed the Paleo-Indian horizon. The results of the radiocarbon carbon tests, ranging from 8060 to 5585 B.C., agree with the point types recovered, although the occupation may have been . . . longer . . . 1021. Lynch, Thomas F.; and Susan Pollock. La arqueologa de la Cueva Negra de Chobshi, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1981), 92-119. 1022. Lyon, Patricia J. Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: Where Is the Evidence?, awpa Pacha, 10/12 (1972-1974), 33-48. 1023. Maize Recovered at La Ponga, an Early Ecuadorian Site, Ronald D. Lippi [et al.], American Antiquity, 49:1 (Jan. 1984), 118-124. 1024. Marcos, Jorge G. The Ceremonial Precinct at Real Alto: Organization of Time and Space in Valdivia Society. 1978. iv, 554 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1025. Marcos, Jorge G. Cruising to Acapulco and Back with the Thorny Oyster Set: A Model for a Lineal Exchange System, Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 9:1/2 (Fall 1977/Spring 1978), 99-132. Also published in Spanish as: De ida y vuelta a Acapulco con mercaderes de mullu,

Arqueologa de la costa ecuatoriana: nuevos enfoques (item 684), p. 163-196. 1026. Marcos, Jorge G. Economa e ideologa en Andinoamrica septentrional, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 2, p. 167-188. A disappointingly brief and exceptionally disjointed chapter cobbled together from other better articulated and far more important works by Marcos himself. 1027. Marcos, Jorge G. La investigacin y enseanza de la arqueologa en el Ecuador, Amrica indgena, 40:2 (abr./jun. 1980), 329-339. 1028. Marcos, Jorge G. Los Morros, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas(item 660), p. 177-201. 1029. Marcos, Jorge G. El origen de la agricultura, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 1, p. 129-180. An excellent summary of what was known or could be inferred as of the early 1980s, regarding the origins of agriculture in Ecuador. Not surprisingly emphasizes the importance of cultures of the coast, especially that of Valdivia. 1030. Marcos, Jorge G. Puntas de proyectil bifaciales en la cultura Guangala, Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 20:37 (1970), 287-338. 1031. Marcos, Jorge G. Real Alto: la historia de un centro ceremonial Valdivia. Guayaquil: Escuela Politcnica del Litoral, Centro de Estudios Arqueolgicos y Antropolgicos; Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 2 v. Detailed report on more than two decades of field work at Real Alto, an early Formative Period site that was occupied for more than 3,000 years, from at least as early as 2,000 B.C. 1032. Marcos, Jorge G. Woven Textiles in a Late Valdivia Context (Ecuador), The Junius B. Bird Pre-Columbian Textile Conference : May 19th and 20th, 1973, Ann Pollard Rowe, Elizabeth P. Benson and Anne-Louise Schaffer, editors (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1979), p. 19-26. Demonstrates that the ancient Valdivians wove cotton textiles at least as early as 3,000 years B.C. Also published in Spanish as: Tejidos hechos en telar en un contexto Valdivia tardo, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 23:40 (1973), 163-184. 1033. Marcos, Jorge G.; and Presley Norton. Interpretacin sobre la arqueologa de la Isla de la Plata, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 1:1 (1981), 136-154. A report on Marcos, Norton, and Colin McEwans 1978 excavations in which Inca materials were found. See also item 1038. 1034. Marotzke, Hans; and Francisca de Marotzke. Guayaquil y su variante cultural arqueolgica. Guayaquil: Publicaciones Arqueolgicas, 1970. 10 p. 1035. Masucci, Maria A. Marine Shell Bead Production and the Role of Domestic Craft Activities in the Economy of the Guangala Phase, Southwest Ecuador, Latin American Antiquity, 6:1 (Mar. 1995), 70-84.

1036. Mayer, Eugen Friedrich. Vorspanische Metalwaffen und Werkzeuge in Ecuador = Armas y herramientas de metal prehispnicas en Ecuador. Mainz am Rhein: P. von Zabern, 1992. x, 142 p. In German and Spanish Profusely illustrated. 1037. Mayer-Oakes, William. El Inga, a Paleo-Indian Site in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1986. xiv, 235 p. (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society; vol. 76, pt. 4) 1038. McEwan, Colin; and Mara Isabel Silva. Que fueron a hacer los Incas en la costa central del Ecuador?, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 163-185. Argue that Inca burials and associated artifacts found on the island of La Plata, by Dorsey in 1892 (see item 815) and Jorge Marcos, Presley Norton, and McEwan in 1978 (item 1033), are indicative of the rites used by the Incas to demarcate the political and sacred incorporation of territory. Although the authors are convinced that there were Inca incursions into Manteo territory, they do not go so far as to argue that the Incas were successful in incorporating the central coast into the Tahuantinsuyu. 1039. McEwan, Gordon F.; and D. Bruce Dickson. Valdivia, Jomon Fishermen, and the Nature of the North Pacific: Some Nautical Problems with the Meggers, Evans, and Estradas (1965) Transoceanic Contact Thesis, American Antiquity, 43:3 (July 1978), 362-371. Challenges Meggers, Evans, and Estradas thesis that storm-tossed Jomon fishermen drifted across the North Pacific to the coast of Ecuador and introduced pottery-making at the Valdivia site as presented in items 849, 1042, and 1047. 1040. Meggers, Betty J. Did Japanese Fishermen Really Reach Ecuador 5000 Years Ago?, Early Man, 2:4 (Winter 1980), 15-19. 1041. Meggers, Betty J. Ecuador. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966. 220 p. At the time of its publication, an excellent introduction to the prehispanic period. Largely based on field work undertaken by the author, Clifford Evans (her late husband), and the late Emilio Estrada. 1042. Meggers, Betty J. El origen transpacfico de la cermica Valdivia: una revaluacin, Boletn del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino, 2 (1987), 9-31. See also Meggerss restatement of her and Evans thesis regarding the transpacific introduction of Valdivia ceramics from western Japan: Jomon-Valdivia Similarities: Convergence or Contact?, NEARA Journal, 27 (1992), 23-32. 1043. Meggers, Betty J.; and Clifford Evans. Comienzos de la produccin agrcola en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 320325. 1044. Meggers, Betty J.; and Clifford Evans. Early Formative Period Chronology of the Ecuadorian Coast: A Correction, American Antiquity, 42:2 (Apr. 1977), 266-267.

1045. Meggers, Betty J.; and Clifford Evans. Formative Period Cultures in the Guayas Basin, Coastal Ecuador, American Antiquity, 22:1 (Jan. 1957), 235-247. 1046. Meggers, Betty J.; and Clifford Evans. Machalilla Culture: An Early Formative Period Complex on the Ecuadorian Coast, American Antiquity, 28:4 (Oct. 1962), 186192. See also the response by Donald W. Lathrap in ibid., 29:4 (Oct. 1963), 239-241. 1047. Meggers, Betty J.; Clifford Evans; and Emilio Estrada. Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: The Valdivia and Machalilla Phases. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. xix, 234 p. + 196 p. of plates. A comprehensive account of Estrada, Evans, and Meggerss major contributions to the study of the Formative period on the coast. 1048. Meja, Leonardo. La economa de la sociedad primitiva ecuatoriana, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 11-60. 1049. Mester, Ann M. Un taller manteo de la concha madre perla del sitio Los Frailes, Manab, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 101-111. See also Mesters doctoral dissertation: The Pearl Divers of Los Frailes: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Explorations of Sumptuary Good Trade and Cosmology in the North and Central Andes. 1990. xxiii, 558 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1050. Meyers, Albert. Die Inka in Ekuador. Bonn: Universitt Bonn, Seminar fr Vlkerkunde, 1976. 186 p. A doctoral dissertation on Inca influences in what would become Ecuador. 1051. Meyers, Thomas P. Evidence of Prehistoric Irrigation in Northern Ecuador, Journal of Field Archaeology, 1:3/4 (1974), 309-313. 1052. Meyers, Thomas P. Formative Period Occupations in the Highlands of Northern Ecuador, American Antiquity, 41:3 (July 1976), 353-360. See also the exchanges between Betty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Meyers in ibid., 42:2 (Apr. 1977), 266, and between J. Stephen Athens and Meyers in ibid., 43:3 (July 1978), 493-500. 1053. Meyers, Thomas P. Formative Period Occupations in the Highlands of Northern Ecuador: Rejoinder to Athens, American Antiquity, 43:3 (July 1978), 497-500. 1054. Meyers, Thomas P.; and Van A. Reidhead. Site Stratification in a Lacustrine Environment: Evidence from Highland Ecuador, Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 83 (1974), 65-73. 1055. Miller, George R.; and Anne L. Gill. Zooarchaeology at Pirincay: A Formative Period Site in Highland Ecuador, Journal of Field Archaeology, 17:1 (Spring, 1990), 4968. 1056. Mio Grijalva, Manuel. Algunos problemas arqueolgicos en la sierra norte del

Ecuador, Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador (item 853), p. 161-180. 1057. Molestina Zaldumbide, Mara del Carmen. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en la zona negativo del Carchi o Capul, Cultura, 7:21a (ene./abr. 1985), 31-82. 1058. Molestina Zaldumbide, Mara del Carmen. Tcnica utilizada en las vasijas funearias pertenecientes a la cultura negativa del Carchi en Cayambe, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 24-27. 1059. Molestina Zaldumbide, Mara del Carmen. Toctiuco, un sitio arqueolgico en las faldas de Pichincha, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 57:122 (jul./dic. 1973), 124-152. 1060. Molina, Manuel Jess. Arqueologa ecuatoriana: los Caaris. Roma: LAS; Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala 1992. 118 p. Primarily useful for illustrations of stone carvings from the collection of the late Father Crespi, many of which have turned out to be folk artifacts of the twentieth century. 1061. Moreno Mora, Manuel. El Reino preincaico de Quito, Amrica (Quito), 9:58 (nov./dic. 1934), 317-343. 1062. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Formaciones polticas tribales y seoros tnicos, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 2, p. 9-134. A pioneering effort to write the history of the prehispanic period from the beginnings of agriculture through the Spanish conquest. Draws on ethnohistorical sources as well as archaeological data. Well worth reading. 1063. Mothes, Patricia. La acequia del Pimampiro: riego tradicional en el norte del Ecuador, Ecuador debate, 14 (1987), 69-86. 1064. Munizaga, Juan R. Intentional Cranial Deformation in the Pre-Columbian Populations of Ecuador, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 45:3, pt. 2 (Nov. 1976), 687-694. 1065. Munizaga, Juan R. Skeletal Remains from Sites of Valdivia and Machalilla Phases, (in) Betty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Emilio Estrada, Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador (item 1047), p. 219-234. 1066. Murra, John V. The Historic Tribes of Ecuador, Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 2 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of American Ethology, 1946), p. 785-822. 1067. Murra, John V. El trfico de mullu en la costa del Pacfico, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 265273. 1068. Muse, Michael C. Cronologa regional y relaciones de territorialidad en la regin oeste del rea septentrional andina, siglo XVI, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 187-197. Examines Manteo and Chono access to and control of resources.

1069. Muse, Michael C. Products and Politics of a Milagro Entrepot: Pen del Ro, Guayas Basin, Ecuador, Research in Economic Anthropology, 13 (1991), 269-323. 1070. Naranjo, Plutarco. Chamanaismo y poder en las culturas primitivas del Ecuador, Rituales y fiestas de las Amricas (Bogot: Ediciones Uniandes, 1988), p. 269-277. Reconstructs the history of the role of shamans, beginning with their apparent preeminence during the Formative period, through subordination to chiefs and priests on the eve of the Spanish conquest. Based on analysis of ceramic artifacts. 1071. Naranjo, Plutarco. Plantas alimenticias del Ecuador precolombino, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 4:4 (1984), 63-82. 1072. Navegacin precolombina: el caso del litoral, Jos Alcina Franch [et al.], Revista espaola de antropologa americana, 17 (1987), 35-73. 1073. Neira, Ignacio. Algo sobre la cultura caari, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 80-84. 1074. Netherly, Patricia J. Wandering Shellfish: New Insights into Intra-Regional Distribution Networks from Southeastern Coastal Ecuador, Perspectives on Andean Prehistory and Protohistory: Papers from the Third Annual Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by Daniel H. Sandweiss and D. Peter Kvietok (Ithaca, N.Y.: Latin American Studies Institute, Cornell University, 1986), p. 917. Preliminary report on the salvage program of survey and sample excavations undertaken within the impact rea of the Tahuin Dam (i.e., the middle Arenillas Valley, El Oro) during the late 1970s. 1075. Nicholson, H.B. On a Supposed Mesoamerican Thin Orange Vessel from Ecuador, American Antiquity, 19:2 (Oct. 1953), 164-166. 1076. Nojovich Ch., Hctor Omar. Nota crtica sobre Native Lords of Quito in the Age of the Incas de Frank Salomon, Histrica (Lima), 15:2 (1991), 343-362. Attempts to apply Inca or Peruvian/Bolivian models to Ecuador. For Salomons response see: ibid., 359-362. 1077. Norton, Presley. Preliminary Observations on Loma Alta: An Early Valdivia Midden in Guayas Province, Ecuador, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 101-119. 1078. Norton, Presley. El seoro de Salangone y la liga de mercaderes, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 131143. 1079. Norton, Presley; Richard Lunnis; and Nigel Nayling. Excavaciones en Salango, Provincia de Manab, Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 3:3 (1983), 972. 1081. Nyberg, John Leroy. An Examination of Vessel Flutes from Pre-Hispanic

Cultures of Ecuador. 1974. 531 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Minnesota. 1082. Oberem, Udo. El acceso a recursos naturales de diferentes ecologas en la sierra ecuatoriana, siglo XVI, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976 (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1978), vol. 4, p. 51-64. The seminal article on the Ecuadorian model of utilization of different ecological zones in the highlands. Reprinted in item 607 and in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 61:131/132 (ene./dic. 1978), 191-208. 1083. Oberem, Udo. Algunos hallazgos arqueolgicos de la sierra ecuatoriana, inicios de posibles relaciones con Mesoamrica, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 341-347. 1084. Oberem, Udo. Aportes alemanes a la arqueologa del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 61:131/132 (ene./dic. 1978), 145-150. 1085. Oberem, Udo. Complejo de fortalezas en el rea andina, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 103-116. An introduction to an inadequately studied subject (as of July 1997) in Andean archaeology, forts in prehispanic Ecuador and Peru. See also item 1129. 1086. Oberem, Udo. La fortaleza de montaa de Quitoloma, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 196-205. 1087. Oberem, Udo. Montculos funerarios con pozo en Cochasqu, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 243-249. 1088. Oberem, Udo. El perodo incaico en el Ecuador, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 2, p. 135-166. A superrior essay on the conquest of the future Ecuador by the Incas, of the incorporation of the highlands and their peoples into the Tahuantinsuyu, and of the major changes wrought by the Incas. 1089. Obsidian Bearing Lava Flows and Pre-Columbian Artifacts from the Ecuadorian Andes: First New Multidisciplinary Data, G. Bigazzi [et al.], Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 6:1/2 (1992), 21-32. 1090. On the Waterfront: Quaternary Environments and the Formative Occupation of Southwestern Ecuador, Jonathan E. Damp [et al.], Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, 5:2 (Apr. 1990), 171-185. Argues that coastal uplift rather than aridity, social conflict, or demographic pressure was responsible for the eventual abandonment of Real Alto. 1091. Ortiz, Cecilia. El problema del abastecimiento y sus mecanismos de solucin en la economa aborigen: caso Puruh, Quitumbe, 6 (1987), 15-20. 1092. Ortiz, Lenin. Pasado antiguo del Ecuador: evolucin social. Quito: Consejo Provincial de Pichincha, 1981. 246 p. 1093. Ortiz de Villalba, Juan Santos. Antiguas culturas amaznicas ecuatorianas: fase

Napo 1188-1480 D.C. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Culturales de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, 1981. 78 p. 1094. Palop Martnez, Josefina. Los Cayapas en el siglo XVI, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 231-252. Also published in: Etnohistoria e historia de las Amricas (Bogot: Ediciones Uniandes, 1988), p. 61-76. 1095. Palop Martnez, Josefina. Territorio y sociedad entre los Cayapas del siglo XVI, Anuario de estudios americanos, 47 (1990), 65-94. An ethnohistorical analysis of the baptism lists of Friar Gaspar de Torres, who proselyted along the headwaters of the Mira, Mataje, Santiago, Cayapas, and Onzole Rivers in the 1590s. The Mercedarian baptized members of at least three, possibly four distinct ethnic groups, Cayapas, Malabas, and Lachas and Yambas according to Palop Martnez. 1096. Parducci Z., Resfa. Un sello excepcional, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 18:34/35 (1968), 75-83. 1097. Parducci Z., Resfa. Sellos antropomorfos de Manab, Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 17:33 (1967), 143-167. 1098. Parducci Z., Resfa. Sellos zoomorfos de Manab (Ecuador), Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 12/13:28/29 (1962-1963), 123-128. 1099. Parducci Z., Resfa; and Ibrahim Parducci Z. Un sitio arqueolgico al norte de la Ciudad: fase Guayaquil, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 20:37 (1978), 57-154; 22:39 (1972), 97-185; 25:42 (1975), 155-284. An extensive report on field work done in 1966 and 1967 in the midden of San Pedro in the Sabana Grande, an rea of the port city long since built over. Apparently the site in question dates from the late Formative (circa 300 B.C.) and coincides with late Chorrera and early Guangala. 1100. Paredes, Domingo. Ecuador, ciencia y tecnologa precolonial, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. El Duende, 1989. 142 p. 1101. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Ecuador, de la prehistoria a la conquista espaola. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1979. 434 p. 1102. Parsons, James J. Ridged Fields in the Ro Guayas Valley, Ecuador, American Antiquity, 34:1 (Jan. 1969), 76-80. Authors initial report on the presence of ridged fields and planting platforms in the Guayas River Basin. Also published in Spanish as: Campos de cultivos prehistricos con camellones paralelos, en la Cuenca del Ro Guayas, Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 23:40 (1973), 185-202. 1103. Parsons, James J.; and Roy Shlemon. Nuevo informe sobre los campos

elevados prehistricos de la Cuenca del Guayas, Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1982), 31-37. Updates Parsonss 1969 article. Reports on additional field work undertaken in 1976, according to which the areas along the R. Guayas and R. Babahoyo where raised field agriculture was practiced were much more extensively than previously thought. Supported by aerial reconnaissance photography. 1104. Paulsen, Allison C. A Chronology of Guangala and Libertad Ceramics of the Santa Elena Peninsula in South Coastal Ecuador. 1970. x, 244 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University. 1105. Paulsen, Allison C. Environment and Empire: Climatic Factors in Andean Culture Change, World Archaeology, 8:2 (Oct. 1976), 121-132. 1106. Paulsen, Allison C. Patterns of Maritime Trade Between South Coastal Ecuador and Western Mesoamerica, 1500 B.C.-A.D. 600, The Sea in the PreColumbian World: A Conference at Dumbarton Oaks, October 26th and 27th, 1974, Elizabeth P. Benson, editor (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collections, 1977), p. 141-160. Reviews the archaeological evidence, especially ceramic, for maritime contact between Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, and Peru, the epicenters of which Paulsen maintains to have been, in sequential order, the Machalilla, Engoroy, and Guangala cultures. See also the appendix by Robert Sonin on The Processes Involved in the Production of Iridescent-Painted Pottery Found Archaeologically on the South Coast of Ecuador, (p. 161-162) and the ensuing discussion between Michael D. Coe and Paulsen and between Donald W. Lathrap and Paulsen (p. 163-166). 1107. Paulsen, Allison C. La secuencia de la cermica de Guangala de la Peninsula de Santa Elena y sus implicaciones para un contacto prehistrico entre el Ecuador y Amrica Central, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andinomesoamericanas (item 660), p. 203-210. Details the evidence regarding contact by sea between the Guangalans and the peoples of Guanacaste Province and Nicoya Peninsula in western Costa Rica between 100 B.C. and A.D. 600. 1108. Paulsen, Allison C. The Thorny Oyster and the Voice of God: Spondylus and Strombus in Andean Prehistory, American Antiquity, 39:4:pt. 1 (Oct. 1974), 597-607. 1109. Paz y Mio, Luis Telmo. Las agrupaciones y lenguas indgenas del Ecuador, en 1500 y 1959, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 43:97 (ene./jun. 1961), 5-17. Also published as a separate: Estudios sobre prehistoria ecuatoriana: las agrupaciones y lenguas indgenas del Ecuador en 1500 y en 1959. Quito: Industrias Grficas Lyma, 1961. 46 p. See also items 4514-4517. 1110. Pearsall, Deborah M. Analysis of an Archaeological Maize Kernal Cache from Manabi Province, Ecuador, Economic Botany, 34:4 (Oct./Dec. 1980), 344-351.

Also published in Spanish as: Un anlisis del maz arqueolgico encontrado en la Provincia de Manab, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 91-99. 1111. Pearsall, Deborah M. La produccin de alimentos en Real Alto: la aplicacin de las tcnicas etnobotnicas al problema de la subsistencia en el perodo formativo ecuatoriano. Guayaquil: Escuela Politcnica del Litoral, Centro de Estudios Arqueolgicos y Antropolgicos; Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1988. 240 p. Publishes the authors doctoral dissertation: The Application of Ethnobotanical Techniques to the Problem of Subsistence in the Ecuadorian Formative. 1979. 280 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1112. Pearsall, Deborah M. Early Movements of Maize between Mesoamerica and South America, Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 9:1/2 (Fall 1977/Spring 1978), 41-75. 1113. Pearsall, Deborah M. Phytolith Analysis of Archaeological Soils: Evidence for Maize Cultivation in Formative Ecuador, Science, 199:4325 (13 Jan. 1978), 177-178. 1114. Pearsall, Deborah M. and Dolores R. Piperno. Antiquity of Maize Cultivation in Ecuador: Summary and Reevaluation of the Evidence, American Antiquity, 55:2 (Apr. 1990), 324-337. The authors maintain that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the presence of maize as a cultigen at Valdivia sites by at least 5,000 B.C. See also Pearsalls later article, Prehistoric Subsistence and Agricultural Evolution in the Jama River Valley, Manab Province, Ecuador, Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 20 (1992), 181-207, in which she reports on the presence of maize remains in Chorrera culture (1500-500 BC). 1115. Pearson, Richard. Migration from Japan to Ecuador: the Japanese Evidence, American Anthropologist, 70:1 (Feb. 1968), 85-86. 1116. Peaherrera de Costales, Piedad; and Alfredo Costales Samaniego. El Reino de Quito. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992. 289 p. Reviews ethnographic and archaeological data and the chroniclers and early colonial sources in a less than convincing attempt to prove that Father Velasco was right, that there was a pre-Inca and therefore a prehispanic Kingdom of Quito. 1117. Prez T., Aquiles R. Los Caaris. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 501 p. Items 1117, 1118, 1120, and 1123-1126 constitute a series of detailed studies of preInca ethnic groups of the highlands. They also include considerable information on the post-conquest history of the groups in questions. Although richly detailed, they are difficult to read, given Prez T.s propensity to heap data upon data without adequate analysis and interpretation. Moreover, although he obviously did considerable archival research--in fact Prez T. was the first scholar to make extensive use of national repositories for the reconstruction of the history of indigenes in Ecuador--he was an autodidact in archaeology, history, and linguistics.

1118. Prez T., Aquiles R. Los Chimbus: Provincia de Bolvar. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1982. 164 p. 1119. Prez T., Aquiles R. El complejo prehistrico de Cangahua, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 79:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 33-46. 1120. Prez T., Aquiles R. Contribucin al conocimiento de la prehistoria de los pueblos del norte del territorio de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1958. p. 243-406. (Llacta; ao 3, vol. 5-6) Archaeological, historical and linguistic study of the prehispanic peoples of the Province of Carchi. Published together with Piedad Peaherrera de Costales and Alfredo Costales Samaniegos Yunga an (item 6225) 1121. Prez T., Aquiles R. Contribucin al mejor conocimiento de los Caaris, Llacta, 2:3 (1957), 45-67. 1122. Prez T., Aquiles R. La minscula nacin de Nasacota Puento resiste la invasin de la gigantesca de Huaina Capac. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 20 p. 1123. Prez T., Aquiles R. Los Paltas: Provincia de Loja. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1984. 254 p. 1124. Prez T., Aquiles R. Los Puruhuayes. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1969-1970. 2 v. A historical and linguistic study of ethnic groups in what is now the Province of Chimborazo. Not all of the groups in question were Puruhuay as Prez T. convincingly demonstrates. Whether the Caari and Jbaro languages had as much an impact on the Puruhuay language, for whatever reason(s), as he argues is another matter. Highly critical of the linguistic contributions of Jacinto Jijn y Caamao and Luis Telmo Paz y Mio, probably rightly so, not that Prez T.s studies are necessarily any sounder. 1125. Prez T., Aquiles R. Quitus y Caras. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1960. 2 v. (Llacta; nos 9-10) 1126. Prez T., Aquiles R. Los Seudo-Pantsaleos. Quito: Instituto Ecuatoriano de Antropologa y Geografa, 1962. 264 p. (Llacta; no 14) A linguistic, historical, and archaeological study of the prehistory of the Provinces of Cotopaxi and Tungurahua. Prez argues that the Pantsaleos are an invention of Jacinto Jijn y Caamao, Jos Mara Coba Robalino, Father Juan de Velasco, and Velascos sycophants, and that the original inhabitants of the Provinces of Imbabura, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, and Tungurahua were Cayapas or Quitus and that subsequently they were absorbed by the Colorados or Caras, who were more civilized. 1127. Pino, Ins del. Tipologas arquitectnicas precolombinas en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Central del Ecuador, 1981. 124 p. 1128. Piperno, Dolores R. Primer informe sobre los fitolitos de las plantas del OGSE-

80 y la evidencia del cultivo de maz en el Ecuador, (in) Karen E. Stothert, La prehistoria temprana de la Pennsula de Santa Elena, Ecuador (item 1235), p. 203-214. 1129. Plaza Schuller, Fernando. El complejo de fortalezas de Pambamarca: contribucin al estudio de la arquitectura militar prehispnica en la sierra norte del Ecuador. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1977. 53 p. A detailed study of 14 of 17 known prehispanic forts in the Province of Pichincha. 1130. Plaza Schuller, Fernando. La incursin Inca en el septentrin ecuatoriano: antecedentes arqueolgicos de la convulsiva situacin de contacto cultural. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1976. 130 p. 1131. Porras G., Pedro I. Arqueologa de la Cueva de los Tayos. Quito: Centro de Publicaciones, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1978. 83 p. 1132. Porras G., Pedro I. Arqueologa de Quito: I fase, Cotocollao. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1982. 267 p. Only vol. published. 1133. Porras G., Pedro I. Arqueologa, Palenque, Los Ros, La Ponga, Guayas. Quito: Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas, PUCE, 1983. 238 p. 1134. Porras G., Pedro I. Arte rupestre del Alto Napo-Valle del Misagualli, Ecuador. Quito: Artes Grficas Seal, 1985. 345 p. 1135. Porras G., Pedro I. Contribucin al estudio de la arqueologa e historia de los Valles Quijos y Misagualli (Alto Napo) en la regin oriental del Ecuador. Quito: Editora Fnix, 1961. 172 p. 1136. Porras G., Pedro I. El Encanto-La Pun: un sitio insular de la fase Valdivida asociado a un conchero anular. Guayaquil: Ediciones Huancavilva, 1973. 167 p. 1137. Porras G., Pedro I. Fase Alaus, Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador (item 853), p. 89-160. 1138. Porras G., Pedro I. Fase Cosanga. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1975. 192 p. 1139. Porras G., Pedro I. Investigaciones arqueolgicas a las faldas del Sangay: tradicin Upano. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas, Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1987. 432 p. 1140. Porras G., Pedro I. Manual de arqueologa ecuatoriana: nuestro ayer, 1 ed. Quito: Centro de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas, 1987. vii, 326 p. A scholarly and comprehensive but out-of-date survey. Reworks authors earlier, several times revised Arqueologa del Ecuador,1 ed. (Quito: P.I. Porras G., 1980), which in turn was a rework of Ecuador prehistrico (Quito: Impr. y Ediciones Lexigrama, 1975), the latter coauthored with Luis Piana B. Also a by product of Porrass earlier, multiple edition Breves notas sobre arqueologa del Ecuador (e.g., 5a ed., corr. y aum.

[Quito: [s.n.], 1974]). 1141. Porras G., Pedro I. Paramentros incsicos en el casco colonial de Quito, Sociedad Amigos de la Genealoga, 1:2 (sept. 1983), 5-28. See also Porrass Reliquias incsicas en el casco colonial de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 67:143/144 (ene./dic. 1984), 19-41. Both of these essays make clear that there was a Inca Quito in and around the modern Plaza de la Independencia. Furthermore, it appears that the Palace of Atahualpa was located on the same site or in front of the Palacio de Gobierno. 1142. Porras G., Pedro I. Una plataforma convexa de lajas de esquisto, varias de estas esculpidas en forma de arabescos con motivos zoolgicos y asociados a cermica del Carchi y de Cosanga (Quijos) se descubre en Pimampiro, Provincia de Pichincha, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 22:39 (1972), 210-233. 1143. Porras G., Pedro I. Resea histrica de las investigaciones arqueolgicas en el Oriente ecuatoriano, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:117 (ene./jun. 1971), 133-145. 1144. Porras G., Pedro I. Se realizan excavaciones en uno de los concheros ms grandes de Amrica, situado en Agua-Piedra, al norte de la isla la Pun, llamado por los pobladores El Encanto, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 21:38 (1971), 210233. 1145. Porras G., Pedro I. Seriacin cermica de la fase de Cozanga, en el nororiente ecuatoriano, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 238242. 1146. Porras G., Pedro I. Sitio Sangay A.: informe preliminar de la primera etapa. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1981. 144 p. 1147. Prehispanic Agricultural Fields in the Andean Region: Proceedings, 45 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, [edited by] William M. Denevan, Kent Mathewson, and Gregory W. Knapp. Oxford, Eng.: B.A.R., 1987. 2 v. Papers presented at the 45th International Congress of Americanists (Bogot, 1985). 1148. Prmers, Heiko. Zum Problem des Axtgeldess im Alten Peru, Beitrge zur Kulturgeschichte des westlichen Sdamerika, Albert Meyers, Martin Volland (Hrsg.) (Opladen: Westdeutschler Verlag, 1990), p. 11-33. An essay on money-axes in Ecuador and Peru. Identifies five types for Ecuador. See also item 950. 1149. Quito antes de Benalczar. Quito: Centro Cultural Artes, 1988. 109 p. Summarizes archaeological data on Guayllabamba basin from Paleo-Indian through protohistoric times. Includes report on salvage archaeology at Jardn del Este, on which see also item 808. 1150. Raddatz, Corinna. Kleidung und Schmuck im vorkolumbischen Esmeraldas. Bremen: Im Selbstverlag des Museums in Zusammenarbeit mit BAS, 1975; Druck:

bersee-Museum Bremen, 1977. xi, 107 p. A well illustrated catalog of prehispanic ceramics from Esmeraldas and Manab in European collections and museums. 1151. Ramrez Salcedo, Carlos. Herramientas de carpenteria de la Cultura MilagroQuevedo (costa ecuatoriana), Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 12 (feb. 1994), 246257. 1152. Raymond, J. Scott. Patrones de subsistencia durante el formativo temprano en el Valle de Valdivia, Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 7 (1987), 101108. 1153. Raymond, J. Scott; Jorge Marcos; and Donald W. Lathrap. Evidence of Early Formative Settlement in the Guayas Basin, Current Anthropology, 21:5 (Oct. 1980), 700-701. 1154. Real Alto: an Ancient Ceremonial Center, Donald W. Lathrap [et al.], Archaeology, 30:1 (Jan. 1977), 2-13. 1155. Reino Garcs, Pedro Arturo. Los Panzaleos: una visin histrico-lingstico. Ambato: Ediciones Universidad y Sociedad, 1988. 161 p. 1156. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. Excavaciones arqueolgicas en Chontamarca, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 1 (1969), 167-188. Chontamarca is a parish in the Canton of Caar. 1157. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. Horizonte precermico de Chopshi, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 2 (1970), 232-251. Chopshi site is in the Canton of Sigsig, Province of Azuay. 1158. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. Periodico precermico de la costa ecuatoriana: bosquejo del periodo precermico de la Peninsula de Santa Elena. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1982. 42 p. Reprint; originally published: Cuenca: Colegio Nacional Manuela Garaicoa de Caldern, 1979. 35 p. Also published in: Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 7 (nov. 1981), 144175. 1159. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. El periodo precermico del Ecuador. Cuenca: Departamento de Difusin Cultural, Universidad de Cuenca, 1993. 297 p. 1160. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. Punn y Chaln, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 4 (1973), 130-175. 1161. Reinoso Hermidia, Gustavo. Vestigios arqueolgicos en la regin occidental del Nudo del Azuay, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 3 (1971), 227-248. 1162. Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina, editado por J.F. Bouchard and M. Guinea. Oxford, Eng.: B.A.R., 1989. iii, 258 p.

Papers presented at 46th International Congress of Americanists (Amsterdam, 1988). Those relating to Ecuador are listed and annotated separately here within. 1163. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Quito, culminacin y fin del Incario, Ecuador, 2 (jul. 1936), 5-12. 1164. Ribadeneira Altamirano, Jorge. Informe que el seor capitn Jorge A. Ribadeneira ... presenta ... sobre sus investigaciones geolgicas, realizadas en la Provincia de Esmeraldas y, especialmente, en la poblacin prehistrica La Tolita, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 21:57 (ene./jun. 1941), 16-27. 1165. Rivera Dorado, Miguel. Algunos rasgos mesoamericanos en la costa de Esmeraldas (Ecuador), Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 399-404. 1166. Rivera Dorado, Miguel. Arqueologa de Ingapirca, Ecuador: informe preliminar, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 24:41 (1974), 83-98. Reports on the initial excavations undertaken by the Misin Arqueolgica Espaola headed by Jos Alcina Franch and the not altogether surprisingly sparse work of any importance previously undertaken. Does consider to have been significant, interestingly enough, Charles Marie de La Condamines write up of his 1739 visit, and the field work done by Juan Cueva Jaramillo in 1970 (see items 794 and 795). 1167. Rivera Dorado, Miguel. Arqueologa y etnohistoria de la costa norte del Ecuador, Revista de Indias, 38:153/154 (jul./dic. 1978), 547-562. 1168. Rivera Dorado, Miguel. Ensayo de tipologa de la cermica Tiaone, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 229-244. 1169. Rivet, Paul. Paul Rivet, 1876-1976: seleccin de estudios cientficos y biogrficos, [edicin de] Luis A. Len. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1977. 365 p. 1170. Robinson, Richard. The Palace of the Inca at Tomebamba, History Today, 44:1 (Jan. 1994), 62-63. 1171. Robinson Prez, Lillian. Middle American Mosaic Crossroads of Culture on Ecuadors Coast, Pacific Discovery, 8:5 (Sept./Oct. 1955), 16-25. 1172. Rojas C., J. Heriberto. El Castillo de Ingapirca = The Castle of Ingapirca, 2 ed. Cuenca: Edit. Amazonas, 1979. 182 p. In Spanish and English. 1173. Rojas C., J. Heriberto. Miscelnea de arqueologa caari = Caari Archaeological Miscelanea. Cuenca: Edit. Fondo de Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1988. 263, [8] p. In Spanish and English. 1174. Romero R., Alfonso; and Ricardo A. Muoz. Empleo de la termoluminiscencia

para la determinacin de edades en objetos cermicos ecuatorianos, Politcnica (Quito), 8:1 (1983), 123-148. 1175. Rumazo Gonzlez, Jos. El Ecuador en la Amrica prehispnica. Quito: Edit. Bolvar, 1933. 284 p. Apparently important nowadays only as a source for the study of the history of history in Ecuador. 1176. Salazar, Ernesto. Cazadores recolectores del antiguo Ecuador. Cuenca: Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1984. 100 p. 1177. Salazar, Ernesto. Chinchiloma: anlisis tipolgico del material de superficie, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 5 (dic. 1974), 131-199. Analysis of burins and other lithic materials found at a paleolithic site near Quito. 1178. Salazar, Ernesto. Entre mitos y fbulas: el Ecuador aborigen, 1 ed. Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1995. 236 p. (Biblioteca general de cultura; 4) An outstanding survey of the prehispanic period from c. 10,000 B.C. through the eve of the Spanish conquest. Based on ethnohistorical as well as archaeological findings. Incorporates authors earlier Mitos de nuestro pasado (Quito: Museo del Banco Central, 1988; 87 p.). 1179. Salazar, Ernesto. El hombre temprano en el Ecuador, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 1, p. 73-128. A solid survey of the paleolithic period. 1180. Salazar, Ernesto. El hombre temprano en la regin del Ilal, sierra del Ecuador. Cuenca: Departamento de Difusin Cultural de la Universidad de Cuenca, 1979. 112 p. 1181. Salazar, Ernesto. El intercambio de obsidiana en el Ecuador precolombino: perspectivas terico-metodolgicos, Arqueologa en Amrica Latina hoy, Gustavo Politis, ed. (Bogot: Fondo de Promocin de la Cultura, Banco Popular, 1992), p. 116131. 1182. Salazar, Ernesto. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en Mullumica (Provincia del Pichincha), Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 129-160. Report on excavations at the Cueva del Colibr (Mullumica Gorge) where obsidian was cut and worked. The cave is located in a natural outcrop of obsidian. 1183. Salazar, Ernesto. El proceso cultural en el Ecuador aborigen y en Amrica, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 1, p. 33-71. An introduction to the prehispanic period in Ecuador and throughout the Americas. 1184. Salazar, Ernesto. Talleres prehistricos en los altos Andes del Ecuador. Cuenca: Departamento de Difusin Cultural de la Universidad de Cuenca, 1980. 129 p. 1185. Salomon, Frank. Autobiografa de un mitmaj, Miscelnea antropolgica

ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 99-101. A review of Espinoza Sorianos Los mitmas huayacuntu en Quito (item 835), and a commentary on how to read some of the data there within contained. 1186. Salomon, Frank. Frontera aborigen y dualismo inca en el Ecuador prehispnico: pistas onomsticas, Arqueologa de las Amricas (Bogot: Fondo de Promocin de la Cultura, 1988), p. 87-102. See also: La poltica vertical en las fronteras del Tahuantinsuyu, Memoria, MARKA, ao 1, no. 1 (nov. 1990), 7-43. 1187. Salomon, Frank. Native Lords of Quito in the Age of the Incas: the Political Economy of North Andean Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. 274 p. A revision of his doctoral dissertation (item 1190). Pioneering ethnohistory of the northern and central highlands during the late 1400s and early 1500s. Mandatory reading. 1188. Salomon, Frank. A North Andean Status Trade Complex under Inka Rule, Ethnohistory, 34:1 (Winter 1987), 63-73. 1189. Salomon, Frank. Pochteca and Mindal: A Comparison of Long-Distance Traders in Ecuador and Mesoamerica, Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 9:1/2 (Fall 1977/Spring 1978), 231-246. 1190. Salomon, Frank. Los seores tnicos de Quito en la poca de los Incas Otavalo: Instituto Otaveleo de Antropologa, 1980. 370 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 10) Spanish version of Salomons doctoral dissertation. Originally presented as: Ethnic Lords of Quito in the Age of the Incas: the Political Economy of North-Andean Chiefdoms. 1978. Cornell University. 1191. Salomon, Frank; and Clark Erickson. Tulipe, un recinto sagrado en la montaa ecuatoriana, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 2/3 (1984), 57-78. 1192. Salomon, Frank; and Sue Grosboll. Names and Peoples in Incaic Quito: Retrieving Undocumented Historic Processes Through Anthroponymy and Statistics, American Anthropologist, 88:2 (June 1986), 387-399. Also published in Spanish as: Nombres y gente en el Quito incaico: recuperacin de un proceso histrico indocumentado a travs de la antroponima y la estadstica, Visita y numeracin de los pueblos del Valle de los Chillos, 1551-1559 (item 5435), p. 49-68. 1193. Salvador Lara, Jorge. La antigedad del hombre en el Ecuador segn los datos de la paleontologa, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 151-195. 1194. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Breve ensayo sobre paleobotnica ecuatoriana, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 88-104. 1195. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Los Caras segn la moderna arqueologa, Memoria del

primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 85-87. 1196. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Esquema para el estudio de la prehistoria del Ecuador, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 26:1/2 (ene./jun. 1970), 157-166. Also published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 230-237. 1197. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Nuevos datos sobre el problema de la antigedad del hombre en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 239-244. 1198. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Paleo-antropologa fsica de la regin andino-ecuatorial, Humanitas, 6:2 (1968), 5-50. Reviews and analyzes controversy surrounding the Paltacalo, Punn, and Alangas skulls. 1199. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Posibles referencias al formativo en leyendas aborgenes, Humanitas, 6:1 (1966), 199-220. 1200. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Quito en la prehistoria, Revista de la Universidad Catlica del Ecuador (Quito), 1 (feb. 1972), 231-275. 1201. Salvador Lara, Jorge. Los restos humanos ms antiguos en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 182-201. 1202. San Andrs Tovar, Jos. Mi aporte a la arqueologa del Ecuador: expedicin y estudios en la regin litoral. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1951. 40 p. 1203. Snchez Montas, Emma. Las figurillas de Esmeraldas: tipologa y funcin. Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, 1981. 120 p. (Memorias de la Misin Arqueolgica Espaola en el Ecuador; 7) 1204. Snchez Montas, Emma. Precisiones sobre un estilo de figurillas del norte del Ecuador, Revista de Indias, 37:147/148 (ene./jun. 1977), 277-285. 1205. Snchez Montas, Emma. Quince aos de trabajos de la Misin Cientfica Espaola en el Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 4:4 (1984), 59-62. 1206. Snchez Montas, Emma. Un tipo de placa ritual de la cultura TumacoTolita, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 273-281. 1207. Santiana, Antonio; and Mara Angelica Carlucci. El paleoindio en el Ecuador, Plan piloto del Ecuador: seccin de antropologa (Mxico, D.F.: Instituto Panamericano de Geografa e Historia, 1960), p. 1-61. Also published in: Humanitas, 3:2 (1962), 5-45. 1208. Santos Ortiz de Villalba, Juan. Antiguas culturas amaznicas ecuatorianas: fase Napo (1188-1480 d.c.) Pompeya: Centro de Investigaciones Culturales de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, 1981. 78 p.

1209. Sarma, Akkaraju Venkata Nagarjuna. The Cultural Implications of Upper Pleistocene and Holocene Ecology of Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador. 1969. v, 211 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University. 1210. Sarma, Akkaraju Venkata Nagarjuna. Holocene Paleoecology of South Coastal Ecuador, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 18 (1974), 93-134. 1211. Sarma, Akkaraju Venkata Nagarjuna; and Barry Bogin. Effects of Climatic Change Upon Pacific Coastal (Ecuador) Archaeological Cultures. Greeley: University of Northern Colorado, Museum of Anthropology, 1986. [33] leaves. 1212. Saville, Marshall Howard. The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador. New York: Irving Press, 1907-1910. 2 v. A comprehensive albeit considerably dated survey of the archaeology of Manab. 1213. Saville, Marshall Howard. The Gold Treasure of Sigsig, Ecuador. New York: Heye Foundation, 1924. 20 p. (Leaflets of the Museum of the American Indian; no. 3) 1214. Schvelzon, Daniel. Arqueologa y arquitectura del Ecuador prehispnico,1 ed. Mxico: Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, 1981. 435 p. 1215. Schwarz, Frederock A.; and J. Scott Raymond. Formative Settlement Patters, in the Valdivia Valley, SW Coastal Ecuador, Journal of Field Archaeology, 23:2 (Summer 1996), 205-224. Focuses on the question of why ceremonial activities at old village sites (e.g., Valdivia itself, Loma Alta, and Real Alto) appear to have ceased at the end of the Formative period, while the population seemingly remained dispersed. 1216. Scott, David A.; and E. Doehme. Soldering with Gold Alloys in Ancient South America: Examination of Two Small Gold Studs from Ecuador, Archaeometry, 32:2 (Aug. 1990), 183-190. Also published in Spanish as La soldadura con aleaciones de oro en la Amrica antigua: un anlisis de dos pequeos adornos provenientes del Ecuador, Boletn del Museo del Oro, 29 (1990), 52-61. 1217. Serrano Iiguez, Gonzalo. Historia de las famosas huacas en la parroquia de Chordeleg, Revista de antropologa, 6 (jul. 1979), 145-153. 1218. Simmons, Michael Patrick. The Ceramic Sequence From La Carolina, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador. 1970. xxv, 530 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Arizona. 1219. Spath, Carl David. The El Encanto Focus: a Post-Pleistecene Maritime Adaptation to Expanding Littoral Resources. 1980. xii, 245 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1220. Stahl, Peter W. Arid Landscapes and Environmental Transformations in Ancient Southwestern Ecuador, World Archaeology, 22:3 (Feb. 1991), 346-359. Regarding continuity and change in the environment of the Peninsula of Santa Elena during the early Formative period. Based on field work at Loma Alta, a Valdivia site.

1221. Stahl, Peter W. Hallucinatory Imagery and the Origin of Early South American Figurine Art, World Archaeology, 18:1 (June 1986), 134-150. Utilizes knowledge of contemporary practices of shamans to intepret figurines of the early Formative period from the coast of Ecuador. 1222. Stahl, Peter W. On Climate and Occupation of the Santa Elena Peninsula: Implications of Documents for Andean Prehistory, Current Anthropology, 25:3 (June 1984), 351-355. Includes a commentary by Allison C. Paulsen. 1223. Stahl, Peter W. Tropical Forest Cosmology: the Cultural Context of the Early Valdivia Occupations at Loma Alta. 1984. 327 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1224. Stahl, Peter W.; and Presley Norton. Animales domsticos y las implicaciones del intercambio precolombino desde Salango, Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 4:4 (1984), 83-96. Presents evidence of domesticated forms of cavy or guinea pigs and possibly domesticated muscovy duck from a Guangala phase site in southern Manab. Authors believe that the guinea pigs originated as trade goods from Peru. Also published in English as: Precolumbian Animal Domesticates from Salango, Ecuador, American Antiquity, 52:2 (Apr. 1987), 382-391. 1225. Stahl, Peter W.; and James A. Zeidler. Differential Bone-Refuse Accumulation in Food-Preparation and Traffic Areas on an Early Ecuadorian House Floor, Latin American Antiquity, 1:2 (June 1990), 150-169. Based on field work at Real Alto Site, Valdivida Culture. 1226. Staller, John Edward. Late Valdivia Occupation in Southern Coastal El Oro Province, Ecuador: Excavations at the Early Formative Period (3500-1500 B.C.) Site of La Emergencia. 1994. xxii, 527 p. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Southern Methodist University. 1227. Stemper, David M. The Persistence of Prehispanic Chiefdoms on the Ro Daule, Coastal Ecuador = La persistencia de los cacicazgos prehispnicos en el Ro Daule, costa del Ecuador, Spanish translation by / traduccin al espaol por Juana Camacho. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology; Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern, 1993. 212 p. In English and Spanish on facing pages. Detailed report of field work along the Daule. Analysis of ceramic remains from several sites suggest two phases: Silencio from c. 400 BC-250 AD; and Yumes, from c. 400-1600 AD, with chiefdoms emerging toward the beginning of the second phase. Raised fields, on the other hand, appear to have been in use by the beginning of the first phase. Stemper attributes their persistence to religious, economic, and military factors, in that order of importance. 1228. Stigler, Robert Leath, Jr. Negative Painted Pottery in South America. 1954. 181 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University.

1229. Stirling, Matthew Williams. New Culture in Ecuador: Seven Figurines Found at Tachina, Archaeology, 16:3 (Sept. 1963), 170-175. 1230. Stothert, Karen E. Early Economies of Coastal Ecuador and the Foundation of Andean Civilization, Andean Past, 3 (1992), 43-54. Concludes that the foundations of Ecuadorian civilization were not supported by a diet centered on food from the sea, but maritime trading did play a very salient role in the evolution of their civilization, and the ancient Ecuadorians became preeminent maritime sailors late in prehistory. 1231. Stothert, Karen E. The Early Prehistory of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador: Continuities between the Preceramic and Ceramic Cultures, Actas del XLI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas (Mxico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, 1976), vol. 2, p. 88-98. 1232. Stothert, Karen E. The Lithic Technology of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador: A Method for the Analysis of Technologically Simple Stonework. 1974. 340 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Yale University. 1233. Stothert, Karen E. The Preceramic Las Vegas Culture of Coastal Ecuador, American Antiquity, 50:3 (July 1985), 613-637. Summarizes the excavation of the Vega type site (OGSE-80), and treats the analysis and interpretation of Las Vegas floral and faunal remains, burial and settlement patterns, paleo-environment, and culture history. Based on five years of field research, conducted between 1977 and 1982. 1234. Stothert, Karen E. La prehistoria temprana de la Peninsula de Santa Elena, Ecuador: una interpretacin preliminar, Vnculos, 5:2 (1979), 73-87. 1235. Stothert, Karen E. La prehistoria temprana de la Peninsula de Santa Elena: Cultura Las Vegas. Guayaquil: Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. 271 p. An in-depth study of the oldest known culture in Ecuador (10,800-6,600 B.P.) The people of Las Vegas were hunters, fishermen, and gatherers. Includes contributions by Thomas Chase (item 798), Dolores R. Piperno (item 1128), Douglas H. Ubelaker (see item 1250), and Elizabeth S. Wing (item 1292) 1236. Stothert, Karen E. Review of the Early Preceramic Complexes of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, American Antiquity, 48:1 (Jan. 1983), 122-127. Maintains that the only securely defined [preceramic] cultural complex from southwest Ecuador is Las Vegas. In other words, that more in-depth research does not support the other sites defined by Edward P. Lanning in an apparently unpublished 1967 report as late Pleistocene and early post-Pleistocene. For a more detailed report of Stotherts findings see item 1233. 1237. Stothert, Karen E. Un sitio de Guangala temprano en el suroeste del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Museo Antropolgico, Banco Central del Ecuador, 1993. 112 p. (i.e., p. 399)

Reports on field work conducted in a habitation site adjacent to Valdivia. The ceramics, burials, and subsistence remains found suggest that social stratification was still minimal. Published together with: Douglas H. Ubelaker. Restos humanos esquelticos de OGSE-MA-172, un sitio Guangala temprano en la costa del Ecuador (item 1251) 1238. Sullivan , Louis R.; and Milo Hellman. El crneo de Punn, Anales de la Universidad Central, 60:304 (1938), 729-742. 1239. Szszdi, Adm. Las rutas del comercio prehispnico de los metales Cuadernos prehispnicos, 9/10 (1982/1983), 5-131. An ethnohistorical study of prehispanic trade in precious metals, gem stones, and other valuable commodities such as spondylus between western South America and the Antilles. 1240. Szszdi, Adm; and Dora Len Borja. Atavo, joyas y adornos de los pueblos balseros: estudio etnohistrico, Cuadernos prehispnicos (Valladolid), 8 (1980), 5-52. 1241. Szszdi, Adm; and Dora Len Borja. Localizacin del pueblo aborigen de Guayaquil, Cuadernos prehispnicos (Valladolid), 3 (1975), 5-18. 1242. Temme, Mathilde. Excavaciones en el sitio precermico de Cubiln (Ecuador), Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1982), 135-164. 1243. Tolstoy, Paul; and Warren R. DeBoer. An Archaeological Sequence for the Santiago-Cayapas River Basin: Esmeraldas, Ecuador, Journal of Field Archaeology, 16:3 (Fall, 1989), 295-308. 1244. Turner, Christy G. Dental Caries and Early Ecuadorian Agriculture, American Antiquity, 43:4 (Oct. 1978), 694-697. 1245. Turolla, Pino. Beyond the Andes: My Search for the Origins of Pre-Inca Civilization. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. xix, 364 p. Tales, some tall, of an amateur archaeologist who made several trips to Ecuador between 1966 and 1972, in search of artifacts and adventure. 1246. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Alteraciones dentales en el Ecuador prehistrico, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 89-94. 1247. Ubelaker, Douglas H. The Ayalan Cemetery: A Late Integration Period Burial Site on the South Coast of Ecuador. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1981. 175 p. 1248. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Drilled Human Teeth from the Coast of Ecuador, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 67:2 (June 1977), 83-85. Also published in Spanish as: Dientes humanos taladrados de la costa ecuatoriana, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 95-98. 1249. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Human Skeletal Remains from OGSE-46, La Libertad, Guayas Province, Ecuador, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 78:1

(Mar. 1988), 3-16. 1250. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Human Skeletal Remains from OGSE-80, a Preceramic Site on the Sta. Elena Peninsula, Coastal Ecuador, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 70:1 (Mar. 1980), 13-24. Also published in Spanish as: Restos de esqueletos humanos del sitio OGSE-80, in Karen E. Stothert, La Prehistoria temprana de la Peninsula de Santa Elena, Ecuador (item 1235), p. 105-132. 1251. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Human Skeletal Remains from OGSE-172, an Early Guangala Cemetery Site on the Coast of Ecuador, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences,7 3:1 ( Mar. 1983), 16-27. Also published in Spanish as: Restos humanos esquelticos de OGSE-MA-172, un sitio Guangala temprano en la costa del Ecuador (Guayaquil: Museo Antropolgico, Banco Central del Ecuador, 1993), p. 99-112. The Spanish version was published together with Karen E. Stothert, Un sitio de Guangala temprano (item 1237). 1252. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Prehistoric Human Biology at La Tolita, Ecuador: A Preliminary Report, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 78:1 (Mar. 1988), 23-37. 1253. Ubelaker, Douglas H. A Preliminary Report of Analysis of Human Remains from Agua Blanca: A Prehistoric Late Integration Site from Coastal Ecuador, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 78:1 (Mar. 1988), 17-22. 1254. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Skeletal Biology of Prehistoric Ecuador: An Ongoing Research Program, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 78:1 (Mar. 1988), 1-2. 1255. Ubelaker, Douglas H. Skeletal Evidence for Kneeling in Prehistoric Ecuador, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 51:4 (Nov. 1979), 679-685. Based on results of his excavation of the cemetery at Ayaln. Also published in Spanish as: Evidencia esqueltica de postura arrodillada en el Ecuador, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 5:5 (1985), 35-46. 1256. Uhle, Max. Antiguas civilizaciones de Manta, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 12:33/35 (ene./jun. 1931), 5-72. 1257. Uhle, Max. [Las antiguas civilizaciones del Per y Ecuador] Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 13:36/39 (ene./jun. 1936), 7-12. Excerpts from Uhles alleged Las antiguas civilizaciones del Per y Ecuador con relacin a la arqueologa e historia del continente americano ([Berlin?], 1935), a work I have not been able to verify, but he is known to have published Die alten Kulturen Pers im Hinblick auf die Archologie und Geschichte des amerikanischen Kontinents that year (Berlin: W. Ssserott, 1935; 50 p.). 1258. Uhle, Max. Las antiguas civilizaciones esmeraldeas, Anales de la Universidad Central, 38:259 (ene./mar. 1927), 107-136.

1259. Uhle, Max. Estado actual de la prehistoria ecuatoriana, prlogo de Carlos Manuel Larrea. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1960. 75 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito: Tall. Tip. Grf. Nacionales, 1929. 48 p. 1260. Uhle, Max. Estudio sobre las civilizaciones del Carchi e Imbabura. Quito: Tall. Tipogrficos Nacionales, 1933. 62 p. Also published in: Anales de la Universidad Central, 50:284 (abr./jun. 1933), 351-410. 1261. Uhle, Max. Estudios esmeraldeos, Anales de la Universidad Central, 39:262 (oct./dic. 1927), 219-279. Reports on the field work he conducted. In this and other publications, Uhle appears to have been incapable of accepting local or regional developments as having occurred independently. In item 1260, for example, he argues that the ceramics he found at La Tolita were of Toltec origin. 1262. Uhle, Max. Influencias mayas en el alto Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 4:10/11 (mar./jun. 1922), 205-240; 5:12/14 (jul./dic. 1922), 1-3. Uhle was convinced that the Mayas were responsible for the majority of developments in the highlands prior to their conquest by the Incas either directly through migration from Central America or indirectly through cultural diffusion. 1263. Uhle, Max. El Reino de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 10:27/29 (ene./mayo 1930), 1-17. 1264. Uhle, Max. Las ruinas de Cochasqui, Revista del Museo Nacional de Lima, 6 (1937), 86-91. Maintains that the mounds and other ruins at this site were Inca in origin, an interpretation that has long since been superseded and supplanted (see item 779). Also published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 18:54 (jul./dic. 1939), 514. 1265. Uhle, Max. Las ruinas de Tomebamba: conferencia leda en el Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos del Azuay. Quito: Impr. y Encuadernacin de Julio Senz Rebollendo, 1923. 12 p. 1266. Uhle, Max. Sepulturas ricas de oro en la Provincia del Azuay, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 4:9 (ene./feb. 1922), 108-114. 1267. Uribe, Mara Victoria. La estratificacin social entre los Protopasto, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 211218. 1268. Usera Mata, Luis de. Ensayo de tipologa de la cermica de Balao, Esmeraldas, Actes du XLIIe Congrs international des amricanistes: Paris, 1976, vol. 9a (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1979), p. 217-227. 1269. Uzctegui Andrade, Byron. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en Achupallas, Estudios arqueolgicos: Antillas y tierras bajas de Sudamrica, Ecuador (item 853), p. 227-257.

1270. Valdez, Francisco. La evolucin demogrfica en los manglares de la costa noroeste del Ecuador en los perodos formativo y de desarrollo regional, Cultura, 8:24b (ene./abr. 1986), 593-610. 1271. Valdez, Francisco. Investigaciones arqueolgicas en La Tolita (Esmeraldas), Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 81107. 1272. Valdez, Francisco. Proyecto arqueolgico La Tolita, 1983-1986. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador Fondo Arqueolgico del Museo Guillermo Prez Chiriboga, 1987. 89 p. Useful, well illustrated synthesis of chronology and characteristics of classic and late La Tolita. 1273. Vargas, Jos Mara. Las huacas y los huaqueros en el Caar, Memorias del V Congreso Nacional de Historia y Geografa del Ecuador (item 559), p. 135-144. 1274. Vsquez Fuller, Csar. La antigedad del hombre en Otavalo, Revista del Ncleo de Imbabura de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 12:25:24 (jul. 1979), 204229. 1275. Vega Toral, Toms. El Castillo de Ingapirca: monografa histrica, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 14 (nov. 1928), 87-99; 15 (nov. 1929), 43-100. 1276. Vega Toral, Toms. La Tomebamba de los Incas. Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, 1921. 21 p. 1277. Velasco C., Raquel Guadalupe. Breve informacin sobre Punn, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 88-91. 1278. Velsquez, Csar Vicente. El Reino de Quito en tiempo de Atahualpa. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1980. 131 p. 1279. Vlez V., Carlos R. Las grandes divisiones de la prehistoria ecuatoriana, Revista de antropologa (Cuenca), 1 (1969), 102-116. 1280. Vliz Litardo, Jaime. Sumpa: proyeccin csmica del cholo. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986. 116 p. 1281. Vliz Mendoza, Angel. El cacique Guayaquile: el pueblo y el ro de su nombre, culturas de la poca a la llegada de los conquistadores espaoles. Quito: Fundacin Ecuatoriana de Estudios Sociales, 1990. 65 p. 1282. Verneau, Ren; and Paul Rivet. Ethnographie ancienne de lEquateur. Paris: Ministre de lInstruction Publique, 1912-1922. 2 v. (Mission du Service gographie de lArme pour la mesure dun arc de mridien quatorial en Amrique du Sud sour le controle scientifique de lAcadmie des sciences, 1899-1906; t. 6, fasc. 1 & 2) The first professional attempt to reconstruct the prehistory of Ecuador. 1283. Villalba O., Marcelo. Cotocollao, una aldea formativa del valle de Quito. Quito:

Museos del Banco Central del Ecuador, 1988. xxv, 571, [62] p. 1284. Villegas Domnguez, Rodrigo. La cultura de las tolas, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 92-105. 1285. Villegas Domnguez, Rodrigo. Investigaciones prehistricas, Revista de la Casa de la Cultura (Ibarra), 10:9 (mayo 1964), 28-38. 1286. Viteri Gamboa, Julio. Importancia de la arqueologa ecuatoriana para la prehistoria de Amrica, Memoria del primer Congreso Ecuatoriano de Arqueologa (item 784), p. 198-201. 1287. Viteri Gamboa, Julio; and Adolfo Hctor Venturini. Influencia de las culturas formativas del Ecuador en la regin N.O. Argentina. Guayaquil: Escuela Politcnica del Litoral, 1981. 22 p. 1288. Volland, Martin. Los Punaes: una jefatura del perodo tardo de integracin, Relaciones interculturales en el rea ecuatorial del Pacfico durante la poca precolombina (item 1162), p. 247-258. An ethnohistorical study that delineates and clarifies multiple aspects of the nature of the complex, apparently prosperous and populous chiefdom of Pun on the eve of the Spanish conquest. Among the more interesting of Vollands conclusions is that the Incas imposed a commercial blockade on Pun, at least during the early 1500s, in order to weaken and isolate what was still an independent polity. 1289. Wellmann, Klaus F. ber Felsbilder in Ecuador, Almogaren, 9/10 (1978/1979), 225-235. 1290. Wiener, Charles. Les Indiens Colorados et les sige de pierre de la rgion de Manab, Revue dethnographie, 1 (1882), 454-458. 1291. Wiley, Gordon R. Ecuadorean Figurines and the Ceramic Mold in the New World, American Antiquity, 13:3 (July 1947), 85-86. 1292. Wing, Elizabeth S. Dusicyon Sechurae en contextos arqueolgicos tempranos, (in) Karen E. Stothert, La Prehistoria temprana de la Pennsula de Santa Elena, Ecuador (item 1235), p. 179-185. 1293. Zeidler, James A. Environment, Cultural Chronology, and Prehistoric Subsistence in the Jama River Valley = Medio ambiente, cronologa cultural y subsistencia prehistrica en el Valle del Ro Jama. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology; Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi Enrique Grosse Luemern, 1994. xxiii, 224 p. (Regional Archaeology in Northern Manabi, Ecuador = Arqueologa regional del norte de Manab, Ecuador, edited by James A. Zeidler, Deborah M. Pearsall; vol. 1) Reports the stratigraphic, ceramic, sediment, and botanical evidence that bear witness to the occupation of the Jama River Valley from late Valdivia (i.e., circa 3620 BC) through the present. 1294. Zeidler, James A. La etnoarqueologa de una vivienda Achuar y sus

implicaciones arqueolgicas, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 3:3 (1983), 155193. 1295. Zeidler, James A. Feline Imagery, Stone Mortars, and Formative Period Interaction Spheres in the Northern Andean Area, Journal of Latin American Lore, 14:2 (Winter 1988), 243-283. 1296. Zeidler, James A. Social Space in Valdivia Society: Community Plan and Domestic Structure at the Real Alto Site, 3000-2000 B.C. 1984. 724 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Illinois, Urbana. 1297. Zeller, Richard. Los sellos de la cultura Guangala, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 12/13:28/29 (1962-1963), 67-78. 1298. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. La agricultura en el formativo temprano del Ecuador (Cultura Valdivia) Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1971. 32 p. Argues that the existence of habitation sites distant from the shore and the presence of grinding stones, female figurines, and incised and punctuate decoration resembling a maize plant indicate the presence of maize agriculture during the early Formative period on the coast, a hypothesis that was subsequently verified by a number of other archaeologists. 1299. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. Cmaras funerarias del cerro Bellavista. Guayaquil: Sub-Comit Ecuatoriano de Antropologa, 1961. 17 p. Reports on archaeological investigations made by the author in shaft tombs in the Bellavista hills, Guayas Province, between Guayaquil and Santa Elena peninsula near the modern town of Simn Bolvar. The shaft tombs consist of a vertical entrance with an antechamber, similar to those found in the highlands around Quito and in Colombia. 1300. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. Estudio regional de la orfebrera precolombina de Ecuador y su posible relacin con las areas vecinas, Revista del Museo Nacional de la Historia (Lima), 34 (1965-1966), 68-81. Discusses metallurgical techniques employed on the coast, especially by the Milagro culture of the Guayas River Basin. 1301. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. La gran navegacin prehispnica en el Ecuador. Guayaquil: Comisin Permanente para la Defensa del Patrimonio Nacional, 1987. 190 p. Reviews evidence on maritime trade between what are now Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Panama, the Central American countries, and Mexico. 1302. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. La mutilacin dentaria en el antiguo Ecuador, Actas del primer Simposio de Correlaciones Antropolgicas Andino-mesoamericanas (item 660), p. 233-257. 1303. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos. Orfebrera prehistrica del Ecuador, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 6:16/18 (dic. 1956), 209-215.

An illustrated article on prehispanic gold artifacts in the Casa de la Cultura, Ncleo del Guayas collection. 1304. Zevallos Menndez, Carlos; and Olaf Holm. Excavaciones arqueolgicas en San Pablo: informe preliminar. Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1960. 42 p. Describes results of excavations at the site of San Pablo, an excellent example of the Valdivia Culture. Some new styles of pottery figurines were found, in addition to complete shell fish hooks and the tools used to make them. Includes 29 pages of excellent illustrations. In addition to items 1298-1304, see Zevallos Menndezs posthumously published Nuestras races huancavilcas (Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1995; 455 p.), an anthology that brings together his studies on the archaeology of the coast, especially of the Valdivia, Mantea, and Huancavilca cultures. 1305. Zilkowski, Mariusz S.; and Robert M. Sadowski. Investigaciones arqueoastronmicas en el sitio de Ingapirca, Prov. de Caar, Ecuador, Rivista di archeologia, 9 (1989), 151-167. Identifies calendrical-astronomical functions, focusing on the June solstice, in three of the structures at Ingapirca. See also the authorss La arqueoastronoma en las investigaciones de las culturas andinas. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1992. 378 p. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 9)

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY

PERIODO HISPANICO LA CONQUISTA ESPAOLA Y LAS GUERRAS CIVILES As of the late 1990s, the Spanish conquest of what would become--not what had been-the Kingdom of Quito and the subsequent civil wars between the conquistadores had not been well treated insofar as the future Ecuador per se is concerned. The most extensive account was that of Luis Andrade Reimers (item 1307), but what Andrade Reimers did was to rework older studies such as Jacinto Jijn y Caamaos well documented Sebastin de Benalczar (item 3298) and published sources such as the Libros de cabildos de Quito (item 7034) without adding anything appreciably new in the way of interpretation or approach. Much more important was John Hemmings brief but insightful account of The Conquest of Quito in his The Conquest of the Incas (item 1322). There are no chronicles of the conquest period specific to Ecuador. A number of the early chroniclers, however, treat the Spanish subjugation and initial exploitation of the northern part of the Tahuantinsuyu. With a few exceptions, there is no need to list them here, given Teodoro Hampe Martnezs, Philip Ainsworth Meanss, and Ral Porras Barrenecheas outstanding guides to and studies thereof (items 92, 258, and 275). Furthermore, Robert E. Norris devoted a section to the chronicles in item 150 (p. 36-42) as did Ruben Vargas Ugarte in item 434. See also J. Roberto Pezs well edited Crnicas coloniales (item 1318) and Horacio Larran Barross Cronistas de raigumbre indgena (item 1319). There were only a few relevant published sources on the conquest and the civil wars, apart from the chronicles. The most important are items 1309, 1316, and 1331, and the probanzas or relaciones de mritos of conquistadores published in the Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas (items 1323 and 1332-1335).

1306. Andrade Coello, Alejandro. El ocaso de los conquistadores. Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1934. 28 p. Reprinted from: Gaceta municipal (Quito), 19:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 49-76. 1307. Andrade Reimers, Luis. La conquista espaola de Quito. Quito: Concejo Provincial de Pichincha, 1981. 444 p. A more or less traditional account, based on the usual published sources. See also item 684.

1308. Andrade Reimers, Luis. Hacia la verdadera historia de Atahualpa. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1978. 392 p. A critique of accounts and studies of the capture of Atahualpa and a not altogether successful attempt to produce a realistic and modern reconstruction of what happened at Cajamarca. Furthermore, Atahualpa as portrayed by Andrade Reimers ceases to be historical and become a mythical hero, flawed only by his blind trust in others, being himself totally trustworthy. 1309. Aporte documental a la captura de Rumiahui: copia tomada de su original del Archivo Central del Cauca, por Luis Enrique Ubidia Rubio, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./dic. 1951), 5-42. Publishes the relaciones de mritos of Miguel de la Chica and Rodrigo de Villalobos, two of the conquistadores who participated in the defeat and capture of the Inca war leader Rumiahui. 1310. Avellaneda Navas, Jos Ignacio. La expedicin de Sebastin de Belalczar al Mar del Norte y su llegada al Nuevo Reino de Granada. Bogot: Banco de la Repblica, 1992. 252 p. Largely given over to: Biografas de los compaeros de Belalczar (p. 23-191). 1311. Barrera B., Jaime. Tiempo y ritmo de la aventura: estampa del fabuloso conquistador Sebastin de Benlcazar. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1940. 44 p. 1312. Bedoya Maruri, Angel Nicanor. La batalla de Iaquito, 18 de enero de 1546 Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 57:123 (ene./jun. 1974), 132-138. Abstracts and quotes extensively from Pedro Gutirrez de Santa Claras eye witness account of the Battle of Iaquito. 1313. Benzoni, Girolamo. La historia del Mondo Nuovo: relatos de su viaje por el Ecuador, 1547-1550, traducida por primera vez en lengua castellana por Carlos Radicati di Primaglio, autor igualmente de la introduccin y de las notas, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Museo Antropolgico y Pinacoteca, Banco Central del Ecuador, 1985. iv, 135 p. An exceptionally important account of the conquest and colonization of the coast by an early Italian traveler who spent several years in the future Ecuador and came to know many of its places and peoples. Benzoni spent some months in and around Portoviejo, for example. Includes an excellent introductory essay. Benzoni also traveled extensively elsewhere in the Americas. Originally published in Italian as: La historia del Mondo Nuovo (Venice: Francesco Rampazetto, 1565; 175 leaves). Available in a number of modern editions and several languages (e.g., Historia del Nuevo Mundo Madrid: Alianza Edit., 1989 ed. 350 p.) 1314. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. La Audiencia de Quito: colofn de una guerra de cien aos, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 22:1 (ene./mar. 1966), 9-32. An essay on the significance of the turbulent years from the civil wars of the Incas

through the pacification of Quito and the Perus by La Gasca. Cevallos Garca maintains that it was during those years that the future Ecuador was forged and following the Spanish conquest, when Quito emerged as the dominant as well as the predominant city of the country in the making. Reprinted in the authors Temas histricos ecuatorianos (item 217), vol. 1, p. 289-318. 1315. Cieza de Len, Pedro de. Obras completas, edicin crtica, notas, comentarios e indices, estudios y documentos adicionales de Carmelo Senz de Santa Mara. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Instituto Gonzalo Fernndez de Oviedo, 1984-1985. 3 v. An excellent edition of the basic Crnica del Per. Cieza de Len spent several years in Quito and the Perus (1547-1551). He took copious notes and interviewed numerous countrymen, Incas, and other natives. Contents: vol. 1, La crnica del Per; Las guerras civiles peruanas; vol. 2, Las guerras civiles peruanas; vol. 3, Estudio biobibliogrfico: Cieza de Len, su persona y su obra. Another outstanding edition is that of the Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Per, Fondo Editorial, and the Academia Nacional de Historia: Crnica del Per. Primera parte, introduccin de Franklin Pease G.Y., notas de Miguel Maticorena E., 2a ed. cor. (1986); Segunda parte, edicin, prlogo y notas de Francesca Cant (1986); Tercera parte, edicin, prlogo y notas de Francesca Cant (1989). 1316. Coleccin de documentos inditos relativos al adelantado Capitn don Sebastin de Benalczar, 1535-1565, descifrados y anotados por Jorge A. Garcs G. Quito: Archivo Municipal, 1936. xxiv, 590, liii p. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 10) A major group of primary sources on the Spanish conquest and settlement of the northern Andes. 1317. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo; and Piedad Peaherrera de Costales. Centuria, 1534-1634. Riobamba: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Chimborazo, 1982. 200 p. A popular, pro-Andean account of the first century of the colonial period. 1318. Cronistas coloniales, estudio, biografas y seleccin de J. Roberto Pez. Puebla: Edit. J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1959. 2 v. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [3]) A useful compendium of selections relating to the conquest of what would become Ecuador, from chronicles of the period. 1319. Cronistas de raigumbre indgena, [recopilacin de] Horacio Larran Barros. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleo de Antropologa, 1980. 2 v. (Coleccin Pendoneros; 1415) An anthology of chronicles by Andean (i.e., mestizos) and early Andeanists. 1320. Documentos relativos a D. Pedro de La Gasca y a Gonzalo Pizarro, edicin de Juan Prez de Tudela Bueso. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1964. 2 v. (Archivo documental espaol; 21)

Included here because of the major role Quito and its encomenderos played in the civil wars. Indexed by name, but unfortunately not by place. 1321. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. Andanzas de Cieza por tierras americanas. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1987. xi, 281 p. Maintains that Cieza de Len did not have personal knowledge of the coast of Ecuador but depended on the oral testimony of others. Nonetheless, Estrada finds Cieza de Len to be reliable for the most part. 1322. Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. London: Macmillan, 1970. 641 p. Hemmings chapter on The Quitan Campaign (p. 151-168) is a lucid analysis and solid interpretation of the Spanish excursion into and subjugation of the future Ecuador. 1323. Informacin de Diego de Sandoval, 7.III.1542, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 4:7 (jun. 1975), 105-114. Together with item 1333, important primary sources for the study of the conquest and civil war years inasmuch as Sandoval and those who testified on his behalf were either conquerors themselves or early settlers. 1324. Lohmann Villena, Guillermo. Las ideas jurdico-polticas en la rebelin de Gonzalo Pizarro: la tramova doctrinal de levantamiento contra las leyes nuevas en el Per. Valladolid: Casa-Museo de Coln y Seminario Americanista, Secretariado de Publicaciones, de la Universidad de Valladolid, 1977. 112 p. 1325. Loor, Wilfrido. La conquista de Quito. Quito: El Comercio, 1943. 104 p. A popular account of the conquest period with an emphasis on Spanish excursions into the future Province of Manab and the foundation of Portoviejo (1534). Incorporates Loors 1935 Los espaoles en Manab (item 5997). Republished in his: Manab, prehistoria y conquista (item 6000), p. 194-291. 1326. Muller, Richard. The History of the Conquest of Quito. Santo Domingo, Repblica Dominicana: V. Montalvo, 1929. 95 p. 1327. Oberem, Udo. Los Caaris y la conquista espaola de la sierra ecuatoriana: otro captulo de las relaciones intertnicas en el siglo XVI, Journal de la Socit des amricanistes, 63 (1974/1976), 263-274. Delineates the role of the Caaris in the Spanish conquest of the Ecuadorian highlands. Severely punished by Atahualpa because they had sided with Huascar, the Caaris allied with Benalczar against the victorious Inca and his cohorts. Ironically and tragically for the Caaris, they were subjugated by Francisco Atahualpa Inca, son of Atahualpa Inca, during the rebellion of the Quijos, with whom they also sided. Reprinted in item 605 and in: Cultura, 3:7 (mayo/ago. 1980), 137-151. See also item 607. 1328. Orellana, Francisco de. Documentos sobre el descubrimiento de Amazonas, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:87 (ene./jun. 1956), 124-132. Sometimes incorrectly cited as: Cartas de Francisco de Orellana. Reprints Gonzalo Pizarros letter of 3 Sept. 1542 to the crown, Francisco de Orellanas letters of 9 May,

30 May, 20 June, 22 Oct., and 21 Nov. 1544 to the crown, and the capitulacin or contract between Orellana and the crown. 1329. Ortiz Bilbao, Luis Alfonso. Las leyes nuevas en Quito, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 6 (1980), 273-319. 1330. Plit Montes de Oca, Vicente. Conquista del Per, Quito y descubrimiento del ro de las Amazonas, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 67-90. A bare bones sketch. 1331. Primigenios documentos notariales y jurdicos de la historia ecuatoriana, [transcritos y con una introduccin por] Rafael Euclides Silva, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 10:27 (1961), 17-62. Consists of modernized transcriptions of the earliest notarial records produced in what is now Ecuador, having been drawn up in Coaque in 1531. 1332. Probanza de Diego de Navarrete (Quito, 25.XI. 1578), Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 7:13 (jun. 1978), 79-109. Regarding the merits and services of an early vecino of Guayaquil who participated in the civil wars, allegedly on the side of the crown. 1333. Probanza de Diego de Sandoval, 19.XI.1539, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, transcripcin de Juan Freile Granizo, 4:7 (jun. 1975), 73-104. See also item 1323. 1334. Probanza de mritos de Martn Ramrez de Guzmn, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 5:10 (dic. 1976), 27-146. Consists of eye witness accounts from the 1570s regarding the role played by Ramrez de Guzmn, a vecino and encomendero of Guayaquil, in the defeat of Gonzalo Pizarro and the early history of the coast. Compiled between 1573 and 1577. Transcribed by Juan Chacn Zhapn. 1335. Probanza de Pedro Domnguez Miradero, Quito, 26.IX.1564, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 9:18 (dic. 1980), 97-132. The relacin de mrito of an early vecino of Quito, who was also one of the conquistadores of the northern Andes. Transcribed by Juan Chacn Zhapn. 1336. Reyes, Oscar Efrn. Descubrimiento y conquista del Ecuador: historia de las exploraciones espaolas en territorio ecuatoriano. Quito: Impr. Caja del Seguro, 1948. 46 p. 1337. Rodicio Garca, Sara. La ayuda indgena en la conquista espaola del norte del Ecuador: el caso de don Sancho y Velasco, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 685), p. 219-230. 1338. Romero Arteta, Oswaldo. El indio quiteo en el siglo XVI, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:104 (jul./dic. 1964), 212-223.

A well meaning but poorly informed and paternalistic attempt to understand the mentality of the conquered. 1339. Salomon, Frank. Crisis y transformacin de la sociedad aborigen invadida (1528-1573), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 91-122. A solid essay on the role of ethnic groups, especially of the Caaris in the Spanish conquest of Quito and of the multivariant impact of the conquest on the ethnic groups of the highlands. 1340. Szszdi, Adm. En torno a la balsa de Salango, Ecuador, que captur Bartolom Ruiz, Anuario de estudios americanos, 35 (1978), 453-554. Maintains that the Relacin Smano, the most important of the early contact chronicles for Ecuador, was written by Gonzalo Fernndez de Oviedo, and not Francisco de Xrez. Also argues that the balsa taken by Bartolom Ruiz was not an Inca vessel but pertained to one of the ethnic groups of the coast of Ecuador. 1341. Tern, Francisco. Presencia de Nicaragua en la conquista de Quito y el Per, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 63:135/136 (ene./dic. 1980), 229-248. Regarding the incursion of Pedro de Alvarado and other marauders from Central America.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY LA COLONIA Notwithstanding the considerable number of works on the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and/or early nineteenth centuries, as of the late 1990s, the colonial period had not nearly as well worked as it could have been, especially insofar as chronologically and thematically comprehensive studies are concerned. The most detailed account continued to be that of Federico Gonzlez Surez (item 1388). There had been some notable advances, nonetheless, a good example of which is the Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615). Furthermore, the most thematically comprehensive as well as up-to-date in approach introduction to the colonial period was that to be found by various scholars in vols 3-6 of the Nueva historia del Ecuador, for the specific contributions to which items 1347, 1351, 1352, 1357, 1401, 1410, 1430, 1433, 1435, 1447, 1478, and 1513. In addition to the didactic accounts referred to in the introductory remarks to Historia: Obras generales y miscelneas, see also Aquiles R. Prez T.s Historia de la Repblica del Ecuador (item 1468), an essay on the colonial period--regardless of its title--largely based on original research, mostly in the Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito). Insofar as the sixteenth century is concerned, only Jos Mara Vargas had produced a new overview (item 1529). The same held true for the seventeenth century (item 1530). Although useful, Vargass two quasi-chronicles left much to be desired. The late Father Vargas relied on the not altogether satisfactory transcriptions of Archivo General de Indias materials in the Vacas Galindo Collection and was methodologically weak, having been an autodidact. Vargas had a very strong interest in cultural and economic developments, however, and gave us a number of notable works along those lines, especially his Historia de la cultura ecuatoriana (item 3758)--the latter of which also takes in the national period--and La economia poltica del Ecuador durante la colonia (item 1528). The eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, however, had been exceptionally well treated by Kenneth J. Andrien in The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830 (item 1343). See also: Rosemarie Tern Najass promising Los proyectos del imperio borbnico en la Real Audiencia de Quito (item 1510); and Douglas A. Washburns somewhat disappointing doctoral dissertation, The Bourbon Reforms (item 1542). Notwithstanding the numerous, mostly important by any standard, contributions made in ethnohistory during the final third of the twentieth century, a comprehensive history of Andean ethnic groups from the Spanish conquest through the eve of independence remained to be produced. The same could be said for the social history of the colonial

period, but in the interim, Hugo Arias Palacioss Evolucin socioeconmica del Ecuador: sociedades primitivas y perodo colonial (item 687) helped fill in some of the gaps. The economic history of the period was in appreciably better shape. In addition to Vargass Historia econmica, Arias Palacioss Evolucin socioeconmica, and Andriens The Kingdom of Quito, see: Robson Brines Tyrers pioneering Historia demogrfica y econmica (item 5427); Nicholas P. Cushners Farm and Factory (item 1370); and Manuel Mio Grijalvas La protoindustria colonial hispanoamericana and La manufactura colonial: la constitucin tcnica del obraje (items 1435 and 1436). The population history of the period had also begun to become known in some detail as well as in outline (in addition to the works listed below, see those in the Demografa histrica section, almost all of which examine developments of one or more of the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and early-nineteenth centuries). Some readers will note the apparent absence of a number of other pre-1996 studies of importance on the colonial period in this section. But that is because they are to be found in elsewhere in this bibliography (for example, in the Historia regional and Historia urbana sections). The past of Ecuador continued to be intertwined with those of neighboring Peru and Colombia during the colonial period. Many of the documentary sets published on the Viceroyalties of Peru and Nueva Granada, to both of which the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito was subordinated at one time or another, contain not just data but entire documents relating to the future Ecuador. In addition to the guides to the chronicles and other Peruvian materials mentioned in the introductory remarks to the La conquista espaola y las guerras civiles subsection, see Ral Porras Barrenecheas Fuentes histricas peruanas (Lima: Instituto Ral Porras Barrenechea, Escuela de Altos Estudios y de Investigaciones Peruvianistas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 1963). Bibliographies and guides to historical materials of Colombia were and may still be less complete, but Mario Germn Romero, Guillermo Hernndez de Alba, and Sergio Elas Ortiz, Papeles bibliogrficas para el estudio de la historia de Colombia (Bogot: Banco de la Repblica; Biblioteca Luis-Angel Arango, 1961) is helpful as is also the ongoing History: Spanish South America: Colonial Period section of the Handbook of Latin American studies. Few Ecuadorian historians and Ecuadorianists appear to be aware of the substantial number and variety of relevant imprints of the colonial period. Admittedly it is no easy matter to locate colonial period imprints, but as primary sources they are just as indispensable as manuscripts of the era. I too was unaware of just how many published informes, memorias, and other materials of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth century exist in addition to the long since known chronicles and travel accounts before coming to the John Carter Brown Library in 1998--too late to incorporate said imprints in this bibliography. I am referring of course to materials printed during the colonial period, not to subsequently published materials of the colonial period. Although Ecuador did not have a printing press of its own until 1755, a number of Spaniards, Ecuadorians, and other colonials published many materials of importance on or relating to the colony in Madrid, elsewhere in Spain, and in Lima. For substantial

albeit incomplete guides to said items, see Jos Toribio Medinas Biblioteca hispanoamericana, 1493-1810 (Santiago de Chile: J.T. Medina, 1898-1907; 7 v.; reprint: Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1966); Medinas La imprenta en Lima (Santiago de Chile: J.T. Medina, 1904-1907; 4 v.); and Rubn Vargas Ugartes Impresos peruanos (Lima, 19351957; 7 v.; vols. 6-12 of his Biblioteca peruana, 6-12)--cited in a variety of bewildering ways by bibliographers, cataloguers, and scholars. Unfortunately the author indexes to these bibliographies are incomplete and subject indexes nonexistent. Some examples of what I mean are: 1) Memorial, que el licenciado don Matias Lagunez, del consejo de su Magestad, y oydor de la Real Audiencia de San Francisco de Quito, haziendo oficio de fiscal en ella, di, y present en dicha Real Audiencia, cerca del beneficio, y cobrana de los tributos de los indios. Y de los medios que se pueden poner, para que se eviten los fraudes, que en dicha cobrana se cometen, en dao, y perjuicio de la Real Hazienda (Madrid, 1686; 12 leaves); 2) Manifiesto veridico, y legal, que en hecho, y derecho evidencia lo que contienen los autos de pesquisa, y la inculpabilidad, que de ellos resulta en todos los cargos, que se le hicieron a D. Joseph de Araujo y Rio, del Consejo de su Magestad, presidente, governador, y capitan general de la Real Audiencia de Quito, por el juez de pesquisa don Manuel Rubio de Arevalo, del consejo de su Magestad, provisto oidor de Santa F ([Madrid, 1745]; 168, [2] leaves); 3) Informe, que en virtud de poderes, e instrucciones del Rdo. Obispo de Quito, hace a V. Magestad el Dor. D. Diego de Riofrio y Peralta, cura de la parroquial de Santa Barbara de dicha ciudad, y visitador nombrado en consequencia de reales cedulas de V. Mag. de las Provincias de los Quixos Zucumbios, del gran Rio de las Amazonas, y del Puthumayo, para el reconocimiento de sus misiones, y otros encargos. Expone lo que sobre ellos ha reconocido; el numero, y nombre de los pueblos en missiones establecidos; su actual consistencia en missioneros, vecindarios, y numero de almas convertidas; sus costumbres, y otras noticias utiles (Madrid, 1747; 15 leaves); 4) Compendio historico de la prodigiosa vida, virtudes, y milagros de la venerable sierva de Dios Mariana de Jesus, Flores, y Paredes, conocida con el justo renombre de la Azucena de Quito / escrito por don Thomas de Gijon y Leon, doctor theologo en la Universidad del angelico doctor Santo Thomas, y en sagrados canones en la del seor S. Gregorio, examinador sinodal del obispado de Quito, racionero de su Santa Iglesia Cathedral, y procurador deputado las curias regia, y pontificia para la beatificacion, y canonizacion de la referida sierva de Dios (Madrid. : En la Imprenta del Mercurio, por Joseph de Orga, impressor., ao de 1754; [58], 217, [3] p.); and 5) Carta pastoral, que con occasion de la ruyna de la ciudad de Quito, participada a esta capital, escribe el Illmo. Sor. Dor. D. Pedro Antonio de Barroeta y Angel, arzobispo de los Reyes, a sus amadas ovejas, exhortandolas, que aplaquen la ira de Dios, que les amenaza; satisfagan con frutos dignos de penitencia la Divina Justicia; y merezcan conseguir su misericordia (Impressa en Lima, en la Plazuela de S. Christoval. Por Juan Joseph Cossio. Ao de 1755; 29 leaves). The first example is described in Medinas Biblioteca hispano-americana and the fifth in

Medinas La imprenta en Lima and Vargas Ugartes Impresos peruanos. The first example is also listed in Norriss Gua bibliogrfica. The second example, one of Araujos defense briefs as it were, does not appear in Medina, Vargas Ugarte, Norris, or Larreas Bibliografa cientfica, however. Nor does the third example, Riofro y Peraltas Informe--a significant historical demographic as well as ecclesiastical historical source. The only known copies of the second and third examples are in the John Carter Brown Library; copies of the other three examples may also be seen in the John Carter Brown Library. The fourth example is, of course, described and discussed in Larreas Las biografas de Santa Mariana de Jess (item 248).

1342. Almedia Muoz, Wilson. Revisin de las Noticias secretas: su importancia para la historia del Ecuador y de Amrica Latina. Quito: Comisin Nacional Permanente de Conmemoraciones Cvicas: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamn Carrin, 1988. 245 p. Glosses Juan and Ulloas Noticias secretas (item 7330) and reexamines the importance of the Geodesic Mission of 1736. 1343. Andrien, Kenneth J. The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830: The State and Regional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. xi, 255 p. An exceptionally well researched, structured, and articulated study of demographic and economic events and developments in the three major regions (the northern and central highlands, the southern highlands, and the central and southern coast) and in the three primary cities (Quito, Cuenca, and Guayaquil), and of the political economy of the colony per se from the epidemics of the 1690s through the establishment of the nation state in 1830. Draws heavily on royal treasury data, for which see item 1403. The most important economic study of the Presidency of Quito at large since Arias Palacioss Evolucin socioeconmica (item 687), Vargass La economa poltica (item 1527), and Tyrers Historia demogrfica y econmica (item 5427). Although Andrien does not appear to have seen item 687, his The Kingdom of Quito clearly surpasses but does not wholly supplant items 1527 and 5427, insofar as the second half of the colonial period is concerned. Also it undoubtedly will continue to be one of the best studies, if it is no longer still the best, of the implementation of the Bourbon reforms in the Audiencia and of their impact. Previews of this work appeared as: Corruption, Self-Interest, and the Political Culture of Eighteenth-Century Quito, Virtue, Corruption, and Self-Interest: Political Values in the Eighteenth Century, edited by Richard K. Matthews (Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press, 1994), p. 270-296; and as: The State and Dependency in Late Colonial and Early Republican Ecuador (item 1344). 1344. Andrien, Kenneth J. The State and Dependency in Late Colonial and Early Republican Ecuador, The Political Economy of Spanish America in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1850, edited by Kenneth J. Andrien and Lyman L. Johnson (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994), p. 169-195. Utilizes dependency literature as qualitative framework and treasury records of Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca as quantitative basis to reassess role of the state in economic development of Ecuador during the late colonial, independence, and early national

periods. Concludes that the state regardless of period or persona promoted economic polices that created a discriminatory, arbitrary, and irrational economic environment for promoting sustained, autonomous development. 1345. Arcila Farias, Eduardo. Comercio entre Venezuela y Mxico en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Mxico, D.F.: El Colegio de Mxico, 1960. 324 p. Includes a running discussion of the running disputa de Venezuela y Guayaquil por el mercado [de cacao] de la Nueva Espaa. 1346. Argello, Patricia; and Loreto Rebollero G. Explotacin de oro en la Real Audiencia de Quito durante el siglo XVI, Antropologa (Quito), 1 (jun. 1983), 32-49. A superficial analysis of the exploitation of gold mining during the second half of the sixteenth century. Insofar as primary sources are concerned, relies on the relaciones geogrficas published by Jimnez de la Espada (item 1406), whose name Argello and Rebollero could not even spell correctly, and ignores other published sources such as Las Minas de Zamora: cuentas de la Real Hacienda, 1561-1565 (item 6392). 1347. Arias Palacios, Hugo. La economa de la Real Audiencia de Quito y la crisis del siglo XVIII, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 187-229. A somewhat anachronistic account of the crisis of the eighteenth century and the restructuring of the economies of the highlands and of the coast in response thereto. Arias ignored all of the newer literature on what was happening in the mother country and in the Perus, almost all of the newer studies on the highlands, and relied excessively on Hamerlys Historia social y econmica (item 5975) when it comes to developments in the former Province of Guayaquil. 1348. Ascaray, Juan de Abogados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 8:13 (ago. 1964), 29-45. Lists lawyers licensed between 1733 and 1829. 1349. Ascaray, Juan de. Serie chronlogica de los seores presidentes que ha tenido la Audiencia y Chancillera Real de Quito, desde su fundacin ... Quito: Impr. de Mauricio de los Reyes, 1794. 1 v. (not paginated) A calendar of the presidents of the audiencia. Ascaray (b. 1743) was the first lay chronicler of the Presidency of Quito. 1350. Autos acordados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1578-1722, [transcritos y con una introduccin por] Juan Freile Granizo. Guayaquil: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1971. 615 p. (Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano; 2) Publishes resolutions of the Audiencia. Includes related documents. An important primary source group on multiple, not just institutional, aspects of the colonial period. Indexed. 1351. Benavides Vega, Carlos. Sinopsis histrica del siglo XVII, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 105-137. Examines political and cultural developments of the 1600s.

1352. Bentez, Silvia; and Gaby Costa. La familia, la ciudad y la vida cotidiana en el perodo colonial, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 187-230. An attempt to examine family, urban, and daily life during the colonial period. Not altogether satisfactory given the then scant literature on the topics in question. Nonetheless, a commendable first effort. See also items 2185 and 2612. 1353. Blanco, Jos Mara. Noticias histrico-econmicas de Quito, Museo Histrico, 4:14/15 (1952), 11-30. An 1825 chronicle by the continuador of Ascaray. Blanco was a priest. 1354. Bonnett Vlez, Diana. El protector de naturales en la Audiencia de Quito: siglos XVII y XVIII, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1992. 153 p. A well researched master's thesis on the Protectorate of Indians. Examines the office and analyzes a number of cases relating to land and labor disputes and to tribute impositions. A historiographical first for Ecuador. 1355. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. Beyond the Obraje: Handicraft Production in Quito toward the End of the Colonial Period, The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, 52:1 (July 1995), 1-24. A pioneering essay on a largely neglected aspect of the economy of the colonial period, the domestic as well as guild and workshop production of handicrafts other than woolen textiles. Borchart focuses mostly on the northern and central highlands, tackles the late colonial period because of the existence of a record group (the libros de guas) that sheds light on the subject, and examines a wide variety of cottage craft industries. Nonetheless, she has much more to say on the production of cotton textiles than of other handicrafts, but that is because of limitations in the sources consulted. Also published in Spanish as: Ms all del obraje: la produccin artesanal en Quito hacia finales del perodo colonial, Memoria, MARKA, 5 (1995), 1-34. 1356. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. Capital comercial y produccin agrcola: Nueva Espaa y la Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVIII, Anuario de estudios americanos, 46 (1989), 131-172. Primarily a study of Carlos Araujo, a major merchant and landowner of Quito in the 1700s, with some discussion of several of his Mexican counterparts. 1357. Borchart de Moreno, Christiana. Origen y conformacin de la hacienda colonial, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 139-166. A solid introduction to the emergence of landed estates during the early colonial period by a leading authority on the subject (see items 6090, 6091, 6093-6095). 1358. Borja, Luis Felipe (hijo). La mujer ecuatoriana, Gaceta municipal (Quito), 10:79 (oct./dic. 1934), 243-247. A brief appreciation of the role of women, especially of exceptional women, during the colonial and independence periods.

1359. Borrero, Manuel Mara. Espaa en Quito. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1969. 472 p. An apologetic for the Spanish conquest and colony. Exalts Spaniards, especially peninsulars, as christianizers and civilizers, and blames Indians, blacks, and the castes for Ecuadors past and present problems. 1360. Buchwald, Otto von. Propiedad rstica en tiempo de la colonia, Revista de la Sociedad Jurdico-Literaria, 23:74/75 (1920), 69-79. An essay on rural estates, especially haciendas, during the colonial period. 1361. Bschges, Christian. Familie, Ehre, und Macht: Konzept und soziale Wirklichkeit des Adels in der Stadt Quito (Ecuador) whrend der spten Kolonialzeit, 1765-1822. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1996. A social and economic history of the nobility in the city of Quito and the northern and central highlands during the late colonial and independence periods. By nobility is meant the titled, hidalgos, and those generally reputed to be noble, especially descendants of conquistadores and primeros vecinos and high ranking members of the local bureaucracy, Church, and militia. Well researched and solidly documented. A major contribution to the history of the much touted but previously poorly studied creole elite, a group whom Bschges rightfully maintains was quite conservative. 1362. Caillavet, Chantal. Ex-voto coloniaux et pense andine: une iconographie du syncrtisme religieux, Religions des Andes et langues indignes: Equateur, Prou, Bolivie avant et aprs la conqute espagnole: actes du Colloque III dtudes andines, Pierre Duviols coordinateur (Aix-Marseille: Publications de lUniversit de Provence, 1993), p. 261-279. A pioneering essay, insofar as Ecuador is concerned, of the extent to which Andean religious beliefs and practices persisted after the Spanish conquest and Christian proselytization of the indigenous populations and of the ways and means by which lo andino permeated Catholic rituals and iconography, especially the Marian cult and its multiple manifestations, during the colonial period and beyond. 1363. Caldas, Francisco Jos de. Cartas de Caldas, recopiladas y publicadas por E.P. Bogot: Impr. Nacional, 1912. xxvii, 596 p. (Biblioteca de historia nacional; vol. IX) An important compendium of sources. It will be recalled that Caldas was a pensador who was active in the Presidency of Quito as well as in his native New Granada during the early 1800s, and subsequently a prcer of the movements for independence. See also items 7235-7237. 1364. Carondelet, Luis Hector, Barn de. El Barn de Carondelet y la apertura del camino a Esmeraldas, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 617. An 1800 proposal by the Barn de Carondelet to reopen the road to Esmeraldas. 1365. Carondelet, Luis Hector, Barn de. Informe reservado, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:88 (jul./dic. 1956), 256-265.

Also regarding the reopening of the road to Esmeraldas. 1366. Carrin, Alejandro. En el reino de los golillas. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1991. 177 p. (Obras completas de Alejandro Carrin; vol. 13) A set of semi-fictionalized essays on various aspects of and incidents during the colonial period. Yet the author understood and articulated the mentality of his ancestors well. Contents: Pedro de Puelles, primer gobernante quiteo; Salazar de Villasante, defensor de los indios; Los hijos de Benalczar y el gobierno de los oidores; Dos hombres de la revolucin de las alcabalas; Nacimiento de la poesa quitea; La primera rebelin estudiantil. 1367. Coleccin de cdulas reales dirigidas a la Audiencia de Quito, versin de Jorge A. Garcs G. Quito: Archivo Municipal, 1935-1946. 2 v. (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 7, 19) Vol. 1 covers the years 1538-1600, and vol. 2, the years 1601-1660. A major set of primary sources. Royal decrees were frequently issued in response to local and regional issues and problems. Those directed to the Audiencia of Quito were no exception. 1368. Costales Peaherrera, Jaime A. Las ordenanzas de obrajes, Boletn de informaciones cientficas nacionales, 119 (mayo 1986), 17-62. Publishes without analysis the 1621 ordenanzas de obrajes of inspector general Matias de Peralta as found in the Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito). Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasses version and study thereof (item 1466) is preferable. Interestingly enough in his opening remarks Costales Peaherrera complains of una edicin apcrifa de tales Ordenanzas, en aos recientes one that, however, he was unable to confirm. It is not surprisingly therefore that Costales Peaherrera, whose parents are Alfredo Costales Samaniego and the late Piedad Peaherrera de Costales, does not give the bibliographic particulars of the alleged pirate edition. But Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse published his transcription first (in 1976, three years before Costales Peaherrera presented the licentiate thesis to which he appended as an anexo documental the ordenanzas in question), a contemporary copy of which Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse long since saw in the Archivo General de Indias. Furthermore, Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse is a reputable scholar. Unfortunately and most regrettably, Costales Peaherreras ill founded remarks are symptomatic of the poorly grounded scholarship that afflicts some historical publications in Ecuador. 1369. Cruz Ziga, Pilar. Mestizos e indgenas en la Real Audiencia de Quito: (segunda mitad del siglo XVIII), Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 89-115. Tabulates and analyzes the demographic, economic, and social characteristics of mestizos according to the data presented in petitions of mestizaje and related sources. 1370. Cushner, Nicholas P. Farm and Factory: The Jesuits and the Development of Agrarian Capitalism in Colonial Quito, 1600-1767. Albany: State University of New

York, 1982. viii, 231 p. An exceptionally important study of the agrarian history of the colonial period. Demonstrates integration of obrajes and haciendas inasmuch as the Jesuits produced their own wool and other inputs. Andean and lay Spanish textile factories, however, may have been mostly dependent upon the vagaries of the market for raw materials. Based on extensive research in Ecuador, Spain, and the Jesuit archives in Rome. Regrettably not a work that has had much impact on historiography in Ecuador, at least not as of July 1997. Not known to Manuel Mio Grijalva, for example (see items 1435 and 1436). 1371. Chacn, Jorge. Races hispnicas de ecuatorianidad. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1953. 247 p. A defense of the conquest, the mother country, and the Catholic Church. 1372. Chandler, David L. Slave Over Master in Colonial Colombia and Ecuador, The Americas, 38:3 (Jan. 1982), 315-326. Barely touches upon slavery in the Audiencia/Presidency of Quito. 1373. Descalzi, Ricardo. Historias de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Publicaciones ESPE, 1990. 4 v. A curious set of some interest inasmuch as Descalzi sheds some light on several themes that had not received sufficient attention although they had not been altogether neglected either. Literally pocketbooks lacking tables of contents, indexes, or proper documentation. However, Descalzi knew the colonial period well and therefore is worth reading. Contents: t. 1, Historia colonial de la plaza mayor de San Francisco de Quito; t. 2, Historia de las misiones amaznicas de la Real Audiencia de Quito; t. 3, Agua, higiene y medicina de la Quito colonial; t. 4, Las revoluciones en la colonia. 1374. Destruge, Camilo. La esclavitud en el Ecuador, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:27 (mayo 1912), 33-44; 3:28 (jun. 1912), 49-62; 3:29 (jul. 1912), 65-74. Methodologically long since surpassed but still useful for the data contained. Some of the sources Destruge consulted no longer survive or have deteriorated beyond the point of being decipherable. 1375. Documentos para la historia de la Audiencia de Quito, investigacin y compilacin por Jos Rumazo Gonzlez. Madrid: A. Aguado, 1948-1950. 8 v. A substantial set of apparently accurately transcribed primary sources from the Archivo General de Indias and other peninsular repositories. Well indexed (chronologically, by person, and by place). Nominally devoted to materials relating to Pedro Vicente Maldonado, Rumazo Gonzlez interpreted his charge broadly to include multiple sources from the entire colonial period having to do with Maldonado in one way or another and the road to Esmeraldas, including its antecedents and post-Maldonado resurrections. Given the nature of these materials, almost every student of the colonial period will find some, if not considerable, data of importance in them. Vol. 5, for example, reprints La Condamines Journal du voyage fait par ordre du roi, a lEquateur

... (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1751) and his Histoire des pyramides de Quito ... ([Paris: Imprimerie Royale], 1751), and publishes the Expediente sobre las pirmides de Yaruqu (1740-1749). And vol. 8, to cite two other examples, includes a lengthy expediente on the erection of the Diocesis of Cuenca and published for the first time Jos Romualdo Navarros 1761 Idea del Reino de Quito. 1376. Documentos sobre el camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas, [transcripciones de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:87 (ene./jun. 1956), 120-121. See also items 1364, 1365, 1400, and 1507. 1377. La Economa colonial: relaciones socio-econmicas de la Real Audiencia de Quito, introduccin y seleccin, Manuel Mio Grijalva. [Quito]: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1984. 322 p. Reprints six standard accounts of the late colonial period: 1) Miguel de Santiestebans Viaje muy puntual y curioso que hace por tierra ... desde Lima hasta Caracas en 1740 y 1741; 2) Jos Romualdo Navarros Idea del Reino de Quito (1761); 3-5) Francisco Jos de Caldass Viaje al corazn de Barnuevo (1804) Viajes al sur de Quito (1804); and Viaje de Quito a Popayn (1805); and 6) Andrs Baleatos Monografa de Guayaquil (1820). Also Mios Estudio introductorio (p. 13-85), at the time of the publication of this work, was a useful introduction to the population and economic history of the colonial period. 1378. Espinosa Fernndez de Crdoba, Carlos R. La mascarada del Inca: una investigacin acerca del teatro poltico de la colonia, Miscelnea histrica ecuatoriana, 2:2 (1989), 7-39. A detailed analysis of the multifaceted roles memory of the Sapa Inca played in colonial society. In this case the Inca was represented not just allegorically in fiestas or iconographically in processions but also in the person of don Alonso Arena Florencia Inca, a great grandson of Atahualpa--therefore an auqui--and the corregidor of Ibarra in the 1660s. 1379. Fernandez Martnez, Montserrat. La alcabala en la Audiencia de Quito, 17651810. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1984. 185 p. An original licentiate thesis on the administration and collection of sales tax during the reigns of Charles III and IV, and on the socioeconomic impact of the Bourbon reforms on the upper class of the city of Quito as revealed by analysis of real estate sales and other transactions. A novel study that illuminates many aspects of the period. 1380. Fiehrer, Thomas. El camino a Esmeraldas: un problema en la administracin del Reino de Quito, 1790-1807, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 7:13 (jun. 1978), 59-75. Reexamines Carondelets attempts to reopen the road from Quito to Esmeraldas. Based on original research in the Archivo General de Indias and the ANH/Q. 1381. Flores, Antonio. El Reino de Quito segn las relaciones de los virreyes del Nuevo Reino de Granada, las de antiguos autores, etc. Santiago [de Chile], 1870. 50

p. Consists of excerpts and notes from eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century sources. For the complete texts of the relaciones de mando excerpted see items 1455 and 1456. 1382. Flores Jaramillo, Renn. Notas histricas sobre el terremoto de 1797: sacadas del Archivo de Indias de Sevilla, Museo Histrico, 4:12/13 (1952), 67-70. 1383. Fuentealba, Gerardo. Forasteros, comunidades indgenas, Estado y grupos de poder en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 4:8 (1990), 59-98. Reexamines the increase in forasteros in the eighteenth century. Maintains that Indians employed migration as an agency to reduce amount of tribute they were charged, to avoid mita, and to obtain and therefore to retain land and usage thereof. Fuentealbas first and second conclusions have been substantiated for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as well by Karen Powers (see item 5421). Fuentealba also reexamines the largely succesful efforts of the state under the Bourbons to rationalize tribute schedules and to exact more tribute from Indians and the socioeconomic consequences thereof. 1384. Gangotena y Jijn, Cristbal de. Indice cronolgico de los abogados recibidos en la Real Audiencia de Quito, Boletn de la Biblioteca Nacional, 4/5 (ene./feb. 1921), 136-144; 6/7 (mar./abr. 1921), 209-221; 8/15 (mayo/dic. 1921), 273-283. Includes biographical notes. 1385. Gangotena y Jijn, Cristbal de. Un proyecto de camino de Quito a Guayaquil en el siglo XVIII, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 1:2 (nov./dic. 1920), 242-250. Publishes with an introduction Informe de Miguel Agustn de Olmedo on the need to open an all weather road between the capital and the port city. Miguel Agustn was the father of Jos Joaqun Olmedo. 1386. Gonzlez Pujana, Laura. Minera y trabajo indgena en los Andes: Guamanga y Zaruma, Revista complutense de historia de Amrica, 18 (1992), 117-131. A comparative study of the assignation of Indian labor in the 1500s to the mines of Guamanga (in Peru) and Zaruma in the southern highlands. 1387. Gonzlez S., Vctor A. Crtica a las concepciones de razas y clases en la colonia, segn los historiadores nacionales, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Ed. Graba, 1986. 156 p. A thoughtful analysis and digest of idiosyncratically selected literature on social and economic history of the colonial period. 1388. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1890-1903. 7 v. The classic Old Guard account of the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods. Primarily concerned with political and ecclesiastical events yet notable for the inclusion of some economic and social developments. Based on archival research in Ecuador, Spain, Peru, and other countries. Sometimes described as having been issued in eight

volumes, depending upon the copy seen. In some sets the plates to the Atlas arqueolgico were/are bound separately. Vol. 1 and accompanying Atlas arqueolgico discourse on Tiempos antiguos, o, El Ecuador antes de la conquista. N.B. The archbishop-historian was one of the advocates of Mayan influence on the culture and languages of pre-Inca ethnic groups of Ecuador, especially of the coast. The Atlas arqueolgico contains text as well as illustrations. Regardless of their artistic merit, the latter are of no scientific importance, being reproductions of pen-and-ink drawings that do not depict the original artefacts in detail or to scale. Vols. 2-5 are a detailed account of the political and ecclesiastical history of the highlands and the coast with some consideration of economic and social developments during the colonial period, beginning with the Spanish conquest and terminating with the Presidency of the Barn de Carondelet. Vol. 6 is given over to the history of the Oriente and vol. 7, to cultural developments during the colonial period. Available in several reprints. See also the archbishop-historians Historia eclesistica (item 5034) with which his Historia general has been confused by some scholars. Although Gonzlez Surez is one of the most important icons, if not the most import, of modern Ecuadorian historiography, he has been praised and criticized far more often than he has been read. In part this is because no textbook edition of his work exists except for the Elementos de Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador (Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1915; iv, 148 p.), a question and answer primer on the prehistory of the country. There is, however, an abridged version; see item 1452. 1389. Gonzlez Surez, Federico. Obras escogidas, prlogo y seleccin del Sr. Dn. Jacinto Jijn y Caamao. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio de Gobierno, 1944. li, 518 p. Partial contents: Memorias ntimas; Notas arqueolgicas; Memoria histrica sobe Muts y la expedicin botnica de Bogot; Un opsculo indito de don Francisco Jos de Caldas; Manifiesto a los ecuatorianos. 1390. Guerra, Sabrina. Los ilegtimos de la sociedad colonial, Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 21-35. A working paper on mestizos, the majority of whom appear to have been illegitimate, according to quantitative and qualitative analysis of sample of 40 cases of petitions of declaration of mestizaje presented between 1731 and 1797. 1391. Guerrero, Andrs. Los obrajes en la Real Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVII y su relacin con el Estado colonial, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 65-89. 1392. Guerrero, Andrs; and Rafael Quintero. La transicin colonial y el rol del Estado en la Real Audiencia de Quito, Revista ciencias sociales (Quito), 1:2 (1977), 13-57. See also the Comentario by Fernando Velasco Abad (p. 59-63). Items 1391 and 1392 together with item 1532 are watersheds in Ecuadorian historiography because Guerrero, Quintero, and Velasco, then young Turks, brought to bear concerns and methods of the Social Sciences on the colonial period--previously the domain of autodidacts and traditionalists, for the most part (at least within Ecuador itself), with little or no interest in demographic, economic, or social history. Also published as: La

formacin y rol del Estado colonial en la Real Audiencia de Quito: algunos elementos para su anlisis, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 39:2 (abr./jun. 1977), 611-674. Subsequently Guerrero and Quintero devoted themselves primarily to the national period and have produced some of the best studies on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries heretofore done. The equally promising Velasco Abad, however, died the following year. 1393. Guevara Gil, Armando; and Frank Salomon. A Personal Visit: Colonial Political Ritual and the Making of Indians in the Andes, Colonial Latin American Review, 3:1/2 (1994), 3-36. The visita in question is that of 1623 to the Collaguazos, a dispersed ethnic group in and around Quito. Neither mitimaes nor forasteros, their paramount cacique apparently resided in Pomasqui. What the authors are trying to tell us about how to read this and other visitas is not altogether clear, but apparently Guevara-Gil and Salomon mean that we should try and steep ourselves in the totality, not just the mentality, of the time and place and then somehow recreate and explicate that decidedly other time and place in postmodernistic qualitative discourse. 1394. Herrn Baquero, Maro. El virrey don Antonio Amar y Borbon: la crisis del rgimen colonial en la Nueva Granada. Bogot: Banco de la Repblica, 1988. 368 p. Includes a discussion of developments in the Presidency of Quito during Amars viceregency. 1395. Herzog, Tamar. Los ministros de la Audiencia de Quito, 1650-1750. Quito: Libri-Mundi Enrique Grosse-Luemern, 1995. 170 p. A dictionary of presidents and oidores of the Audiencia during the second half of the seventeenth century and the first half of the eighteenth. Organized alphabetically. Each entry delineates career (in, before, and after being posted to Quito), family data, and sources as appropriate. A basic reference. 1396. Herzog, Tamar. Sobre justicia, honor y grado militar en Quito, s. XVIII, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 6 (II sem. 1994), 49-57. Examines claims of civilian presidents in the 1700s to title of captain general in addition to those of president and governor general. Illumines overlapping concepts of justice, honor, and military rank and therefore mentalities of period. 1397. Ibarra, Alexia. La condicin del mestizaje en el contexto de las reformas borbnicas (segunda mitad del siglo XVIII), Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 55-75. A solid but somewhat sketchy analysis of 274 petitions of declarations of mestizje presented between 1780 and 1815, and the impact of the decree of 1764. 1398. Ibarra, Hernn. Haciendas y concertaje al fin de la poca colonial en el Ecuador: (un anlisis introductorio), Revista andina, 6:11 (jul. 1988), 175-200. Apparently a study of the Hacienda Chisinche. 1399. Imbernn, Jos Mara. La Real Audiencia de Quito: reflexiones en torno al

contrabando colonial, Revista mexicana de sociologa, 68:1 (ene./mar. 1986), 87-113. A thought-provoking study of the implications of what amounted to the institutionalization of illicit trade. 1400. Importante documento acerca del camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas, [transcripcin de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 36:88 (jul./dic. 1956), 255. 1401. Jcome, Nicanor. Economa y sociedad en el siglo XVI, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 123-160. A reexamination of the economic and social structures of the early colonial period. Reflects some original research. 1402. Jcome, Nicanor. La tributacin indgena en el Ecuador, Sarance, 2 (feb. 1976), 79-107. Sketches the history of Indian tribute in Ecuador from its take over by the Spaniards through its final abolition in 1857. Based on original research. Also published in: Bulletin de l'Institut d'etudes andines, 3:1 (1974), 49-80; and as: La tributacin indgena como un mecanismo de explotacin durante la colonia y primeros aos de independencia, Economa: revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Econmicas y Financieras, 60 (marzo 1974), 44-86. And in English as: Ecuador, the Indigenous Tribute System as a Mechanism of Exploitation during the Colonial Period and the First Years of Independence, Western Expansion and Indigenous Peoples: the Heritage of Las Casas, edited by Elias Sevilla-Casas (The Hague: Mouton, 1977), p. 87-119. 1403. Jara, Alvaro; and John Jay TePaske. Eighteenth-Century Ecuador. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. xxii, 169 p. (The Royal Treasuries of the Spanish Empire; vol. 4) Publishes the annual cartas cuentas for Cuenca (1722-1803), Guayaquil (1714-1804), Jan de Bracamoros (1762-1792), and Quito (1702-1813), all of which constitute exceptionally important record groups for the study of the economic as well as of the financial history of the Audiencia at large during the late colonial period. Based almost entirely on research in the Archivo General de Indias. 1404. Jaramillo Prez, Csar. El trabajo en la colonia, Revista del Instituto de Trabajo y de Investigaciones Sociales, 1 (1961), 75-85. 1405. Jerves, Alfonso A. Apuntes de historia ecuatoriana, o, Materiales paleogrficas de historia patria. Cuenca: Tall. de El Progreso, 1919. [83] p. in various paginations (i.e., 35, 12, 8, 12, 16) Contents: Guayaquil, sus primeras noticias paleogrfico-histricas, 1557-1564; La Real Audiencia de Quito: sus primeras provisiones, 1564; El primer monasterio fundado en el Ecuador, 1575-1577; Don Marcos de Lamar, 1771-1777; El periodismo en Cuenca: el fundador de l, el Padre Solano, 1828. 1406. Jimnez de la Espada, Marcos. Relaciones geogrficas de Indias: Per, edicin y estudio preliminar por Jos Urbano Martnez Carreras. Madrid: Ediciones Atlas,

1965. 4 v. in 3. (Biblioteca de autores espaoles desde la formacin del lenguaje hasta nuestros das [continuacin]; 183-185) Originally published between 1881 and 1897: Madrid: Tip. de M.G. Hernndez. Vols. 3 and 4 are largely given over to sixteenth- and seventeenth-century accounts of the Presidency of Quito, district by district. Basic sources for the ethnohistory as well as historical demography and geography of the first half of the colonial period. See also items 1493 and 1494. 1407. Jurado Noboa, Fernando. Algunas reflexiones sobre la tenencia de los esclavos en la colonia, 1536-1826, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 22 (ago. 1992), 93-101. Consists of research notes, mostly drawn from notarial records. 1408. Jurado Noboa, Fernando. El estrato de los caciques en el primer siglo del coloniaje, 1534-1634, Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga, 23 (nov. 1986), 239-244. 1409. Kuethe, Allan J. Military Reform and Society in New Granada, 1773-1808. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1978. 234 p. Includes sections on the military reforms undertaken by the Bourbons in the Presidency of Quito and the implications thereof. 1410. Landzuri Camacho, Carlos. De las guerras civiles a la insurreccin de las alcabalas (1537-1593), Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 3, p. 161-210. An able account of political developments from the civil wars of the conquistadores through the rebellion of the alcabalas. 1411. Landzuri Camacho, Carlos. El Dr. Antonio de Morga: octavo presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1615-1636, Quitumbe, 3:3 (1973), 1-112. The authors M.A. thesis. Although based on original research, marred by reliance on the not altogether reliable Vacas Galindo collection. 1412. Landzuri Soto, Alberto. El regimen laboral indgena en la Real Audiencia de Quito. Madrid: A. Landzuri Soto, 1959. 223 p. Primarily a compendium of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century documents, the originals of which are in the Archivo General de Indias, on various aspects of Indian labor, especially the regulation thereof. 1413. Langue, Frderique. Minas ecuatorianas de principios del siglo XIX: sanguijuelas y holgazanes, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 6 (1986), 101-124. A novel reexamination of the state of mining in the early 1800s. Based on reports in the Archivo General de Indias on the silver strike at Condorasto in the central highlands and the by then virtually depleted gold mines of Zaruma in the southern highlands. A significant contribution to the economic history of the late colonial period. 1414. Larran, Carlos J. D. Santiago de Larran y Vicua, presidente del Reino de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Chilena de Historia, 11:30 (1944), 4-37.

A well documented biography of the nineteenth president of the Audiencia. Larran y Vicua (1666-1748) had the distinction of governing Quito before the dissolution of the Audiencia (1715-1720) and after its restoration (1722-1728) during Quitos first annexation to Nueva Granada. Unfortunately, the author has little to say about his ancestors turns as president of Quito. 1415. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Cartografa ecuatoriana de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII. Quito: Corporacin de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1977. 177 p. Well researched and textually sound. The maps, however, are poorly reproduced. 1416. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Cuarto centenario de la creacin y fundacin de la Audiencia y Presidencia de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 151-170. An important statement of the myth on which altogether too much Ecuadorian historiography and nationalism used and to some extent continues to be based, that the Audiencia de Quito was founded in reconocimiento de la existencia de una circunscripcin territorial dotada de vida propia y de carcter particular en lo geogrfico, histrico, etnogrfico y poltico, que necesitaba, por consiguiente de gobierno propio. 1417. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Dn. Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1961. 52 p. Reprint; originally published as: Don Dionisio de Alsedo y Herrera, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:109 (ene./jun. 1967), 57-80. A useful summary of the life and career of the twenty-second president of the Audiencia. 1418. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. Primeros mapas en que aparece territorio ecuatoriano y su ms antique toponimia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 44:100 (jul./dic. 1962), 149-160. A chronological account of the earliest maps that take in what is now Ecuadorian territory, beginning with Diego Riberas world map of 1529. 1419. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. La Real Audiencia de Quito y su territorio. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 138 p. Reprints items 1416 and 1418 and adds an additional chapter on Cartografa de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Unfortunately as in the case of item 1415, the maps are not well reproduced. Reprinted: Quito: Direccin General de Informacin, Impr. del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1987. 152 p. 1420. Larrea, Carlos Manuel. El vigesimonono presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Barn Luis Hctor de Carondelet. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1971. 217 p. A detailed, well documented and researched study of the presidency of Carondelet (1798-1806). Originally published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:111 (ene./jun. 1968), 20-37; 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 155-177; 52:113 (ene./jun. 1969), 43-64; 52:114 (jul./dic. 1969), 236-255; 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 47-71. 1421. Larrea y Villavicencio, Juan de. Las manufacturas de la Provincia de Quito, introduccin y transcripcin por Christian Bschges, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de

historia, 9 (II sem., 1996) 139-143. A brief but highly informative and heretofore unknown 1802 description of textile and other industries in the northern and central highlands by an exceptionally literate hacendado and obrajero. See also item 1710. 1422. Lavall, Bernard. El cuestionamiento de la esclavitud en Quito a finales de la poca colonial, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 6 (II sem. 1994), 23-48. An original study of the scrutiny of slavery as a morally acceptable institution during the late colonial period, interesting enough, by slaves as well as by their masters. Also examines ways in which slaves could obtain or were granted freedom. 1423. Lavall, Bernard. Lgica esclavista y resistencia negra en los Andes ecuatorianos a finales del siglo XVIII, Revista de Indias, 53:199 (sept./dic. 1993), 699722. Delineates and documents three instances of slave resistance (through flight) to abusive treatment by lay administrators and new owners of former Jesuit estates (in the northern highlands. 1424. Lenz-Volland, Birgit; and Martin Volland. Ostras, perlas y prpura: su uso durante el poca colonial hasta comienzos de la independencia en el Ecuador occidental, Miscelnea antropolgica ecuatoriana, 6:6 (1986), 49-69. A preliminary study of the use of shellfish as a foodstuff and a source for dye during the colonial period. Based on published materials. 1425. Len Borja, Dora; and Adm Szszdi. Respaldo de los caciques de la Provincia de Quito a Salazar de Villasante, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 54:118 (jul./dic. 1971), 284-285. Publishes a 1564 petition by various caciques requesting the crown to appoint Juan de Salazar de Villasante an oidor of the Audiencia. Important as a list of ethnic lords. 1426. Lucena Salmoral, Manuel. Sangre sobre piel negra: la esclavitud quitea en el contexto del reformismo borbnico. Quito: Centro Cultural Afroecuatoriano: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1994. 245 p. (Coleccin Mundo Afro; 1) The first major study of slavery in the Audiencia. Far from exhaustive, however, not just in terms of surviving sources but curiously enough, also secondary studies. Includes an appendix of documents. 1427. Luna Yepes, Jorge. Sntesis histrica y geogrfica del Ecuador. Quito: Salesiana, 1944. 258 p. Primarily a study of the colonial period. The author, one of the founders of ARNE, is unabashedly pro-Hispanic. 1428. Maier S., Jorge. Historia postal de Quito, 1534-1864, Cultura, 8:23 (sept./dic. 1985), 223-258. A history of postal service prior to the emission of stamps. Based on archival research.

1429. Maiguashca, Juan. El desplazamiento regional y la burguesa en el Ecuador, 1760-1860, Segundo encuentro de historia y realidad econmica y social del Ecuador (item 574), vol. 1, p. 23-39. Outlines demographic, economic, and social changes in the central-south coast and the highlands during the late colonial, independence, and early national periods. Maintains that economically there were two periods, 1760-1820 or the primer auge cacaotero, and the second, 1820-1860 or el embotellamiento del cacao. Suggestive of the promising research in which Maiguascha was engaged but the results of which he never seems to have fleshed out. 1430. Marchn Romero, Carlos. Economa y sociedad durante el siglo XVIII, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 231-259. An important reexamination of economic developments of the 1700s. Especially concerned with the so-called economic crisis of the late colonial period. Includes new data drawn from archival research. Originally published in: Cultura, 8:24a (ene./abr. 1986), 55-76. 1431. Marchn Romero, Carlos. La sierra centro-norte del Ecuador: su delimitacin geogrfico-conceptual y su economa en el siglo XVII, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 12, segundo semestre 1995, p. 59-90. Less than half of this article is actually dedicated to the seventeenth century. The rest consists of general remarks on the region or regions (northern highlands vis-a-vis central highlands) and economic developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 1432. Marchn Romero, Carlos. El sistema hacendario serrano, movilidad y cambio social, Cultura, 7:19 (mayo/ago. 1984), 63-106. Outlines the agrarian history of the highlands during the colonial period. Proposes two cycles: 1) that of textiles (1500s-1700); and 2) that of cacao (1700-1820), the latter of which continued through the early 1900s. 1433. Mills, Nick D., Jr.; and Gonzalo Ortiz Chiriboga. Economa y sociedad en el Ecuador poscolonial, 1759-1859, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 71-152. A pioneering attempt to pull together traditional and newer scholarsip on demographic, economic, and social trends and developments in the country as a whole during the neocolonial period. Presented at the Simposio sobre el Ecuador en 1830. See also the Crticas y comentarios thereof in: ibid., p. 153-167. Also published in abridgement as: Economa y sociedad en el perodo de la independencia (1780-1845) in Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 6, p. 127-163. 1434. Mio Grijalva, Manuel. La economa de la Real Audiencia de Quito, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 47-103. A revisionist study of population and economic history of the seventeenth century. Not altogether satisfactory insofar as the demographic developments of the 1600s are concerned, but well worth reading when it comes to economic developments.

1435. Mio Grijalva, Manuel. La protoindustria colonial hispanoamericana, 1a.. Mxico: El Colegio de Mxico; Fideicomiso Historia de las Amricas; Fondo de Cultura Econmica, 1993. 227 p. A comparative study of textile manufacturing in the Presidency of Quito, Lower Peru, and New Spain. Especially concerned with labor issues. Based on archival research as well as the appropriate literature. 1436. Mio Grijalva, Manuel. La manufactura colonial: la constitucin tcnica del obraje. Mxico: Centro de Estudios Histricos, El Colegio de Mxico, 1993. 204 p. Also a comparative study of textile manufacturing in the Presidency of Quito, Lower Peru, and New Spain, but with an emphasis on the technological aspects of the industry. N.B. These two important books by Mio Grijalva do not appear to have been adequately known in Ecuador or by Ecuadorianists, at least as of July 1997. See also Mio Grijalavas earlier Capital comercial y trabajo textil: tendencias generales de la protoindustria colonial latinoamericana, HISLA, 9 (1987), 57-79; La manufacturera colonial: aspectos comparativos entre el obraje andino y el novohispano, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 2:4 (1988), 13-6; and El obraje colonial, Revista europea de estudios latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 47 (dic. 1989), 3-19. 1437. Montenegro, Fernando; and Patricia Gudio. Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito: (su aplicacin en los obrajes y transicin hacia el concertaje). Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1985. 50 p. A brief, didactic work on the forced labor system employed during the colonial period to obtain indigenous workers, especially for textile sweat shops in the north-central highlands. Consists more of illustrations, pen and ink drawings by Segundo Obando, than of text. Apparently intended for high school students and/or campesinos. Of no scholarly value. But indicative of how misleading library catalog records can sometimes be. Erroneously subject headed in OCLC: Indians of South America -- Ecuador -Quito -- Religion and mythology; Indians of South America -- Ecuador -- Quito -Legends. 1438. Moore, John Preston. The Cabildo in Peru under the Hapsburgs: A Study in the Origins and Powers of the Town Council in the Viceroyalty of Peru, 1530-1700. Durham: Duke University Press, 1954. 309 p. Includes coverage of the Cabildo of Quito. 1439. Mora, Alfonso Mara. Resea de instituciones colonizadoras y mineras, Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 29 (oct. 1937), 7099; 30 (ene. 1938), 170-192; 31 (abr. 1938), 242-266. Incomplete. Supposed to have been continued. May safely be ignored partly because Mora appears to have had little to say about institutions and mining in the country during the colonial period, but mostly because his work has long since been superseded. 1440. Moreno Proao, Agustn. La formacin del mestizaje segn los cronistas,

Coleccin Amigos de la Genealoga, 24 (nov. 1987), individually paginated. 1441. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Alzamientos indgenas en la Audiencia de Quito, 1534-1803 = Runacunapaj macanacuicuna, versin Quichua, Abel Inga Tenesaca, Carlos Moreno Maldonado. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1987. 72 p. A popular overview in Spanish and Quichua. 1442. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Los caciques mayores: renacimiento de su concepto en Quito a finales de la colonia, Antropologa ecuatoriana, 1 (mar. 1978), 3139. 1443. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. De las formas tribales al seoro tnico: don Garca Tulcanaza y la insercin de una jefatura en la formacin socio-econmica colonial, Arqueologa y etnohistoria del sur de Colombia y norte del Ecuador (item 690), p. 253-263. 1444. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Los doctrineros Wiracochas recreadores de nuevas formas culturales: estudios de caso en el Quito colonial, Reproduccin y transformacin de las sociedades andinas, siglos XVI-XX: simposio auspiciado por el Social Science Research Council, SSRC, Segundo Moreno Y., Frank Salomon, compiladores, 1 ed. (Quito: Abya-Yala; Roma: MLAL, Movimiento Laicos para Amrica Latina, 1991), t. 2, p. 529-553. Reexamines the role of Catholic priests as agents of cultural change and continuity during the colonial period. On the one hand, the clergy was largely responsible for substantive changes in indigenous culture, including the imposition of Quichua as a lingua franca. On the other, some doctrineros acculturated and to some extent helped preserve elements of the very culture the majority of their brethren sought to replace. 1445. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Elementos para una anlisis de la sociedad indgena en la Audiencia de Quito, Sarance, 6 (1978), 79-89. An analysis of the then state of the art of ethnohistorical and historical studies regarding indigenous groups during the colonial period. In that regard somewhat dated, but timeless insofar as Moreno Ynezs discussion of primary sources (published and archival) is concerned. Reprinted in item 607. 1446. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. El formulario de las ordenanzas de indios: una regulacin de las relaciones laborales en las haciendas y obrajes del Quito colonial y republicano, Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, n.f., 5:3 (1979), 227-241. Publishes and comments upon an 1851 Formulario de las ordenanzas de indios found among the private papers of a highland hacienda. Although this document dates from the mid-nineteenth century, it is based on autos issued by the Audiencia of Quito a century or more earlier. Reprinted in item 607. 1447. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. La sociedad indgena y su articulacin a la formacin socioeconmica colonial en la Audiencia de Quito, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 93-136. A reexamination of the role of Indians in the society and economy of the colony and of

the impact of the Spanish conquest and the established colony on Indian societies and polities by a leading ethnohistorian. 1448. Moreno Ynez, Segundo E. Sublevaciones indgenas en la Audiencia de Quito: desde comienzos del siglo XVIII hasta finales de la colonia, 3 ed. corr. y aum. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1985. 453 p. A revised edition of authors Ph. thesis, published under the same title: Bonn: Bonner amerikanistische Studien, 1976. The first systematic study of Indian uprisings in the highlands during the late colonial period. Comprehensive, well researched, and methodologically sound. As of the late 1990s, no comparable work for either the colonial period as a whole or the national period existed, but a more or less complete, although not always reliable, summary of indigenous movements during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century could be found in an otherwise not recommendable work, Oswaldo Albornoz Peraltas Las luchas indgenas en el Ecuador (Guayaquil: Edit. Claridad , 1976; 226 p.). 1449. Mrner, Magnus. Aspectos socioraciales del proceso de poblamiento de la Audiencia de Quito durante los siglos XVI y XVII, Homenaje a Jos Mara de la Pea y Cmara (Madrid: Ediciones Porrua, 1969), p. 265-287. Demonstrates that attempts of the early colonial period to resettle Indians into reducciones were only partially successful in the highlands and that royal decrees prohibiting Spaniards from residing in Indian pueblos were ignored. Reprinted in: Memoria, MARKA, ao 1, no. 1 (nov. 1990), 43-56. 1450. Moscoso, M.C. Indgenas y ciudades en el siglo XVI, Las Ciudades en la historia (item 558), p. 343-356. As it turned out, this item should have been included under Historia urbana as it is a study of the interaction between Spaniards and Andeans in Cuenca during the second half of the sixteenth century. 1451. Moscoso C., Luca. Aproximacin al estudio de los diezmos en la Real Audiencia de Quito, Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 127-140. A preliminary study of tithes. As the late 1990s, only Andrien had also utilized tithe data to examine the rural sector of the economy (see item 1343). 1452. Moscoso R., Leonardo. Compendio de la Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador. Ambato: Impr. y Librera Escolar de Ricardo Costales, 1920-1924. 3 v. An abridgement of Gonzlez Surezs Historia general (item 1388) 1453. Moya Torres, Luz del Alba. Auge y crisis de la cascarilla en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII, 1 ed. Quito: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede Ecuador, 1994. 251 p. Another original masters thesis from FLACSO. Outlines, to some extent fleshes out, and analyzes what had been a virtually unknown chapter in the economic history of the late colonial period, the trade in cinchona bark, the source of quinine. A solid study based on research in archives of Cuenca and Quito.

1454. Muoz Borrero, Eduardo. Entonces fuimos Espaa, 1492-1822, 1 ed. Quito: Edit. Grficas Iberia, 1989. 765 p. A popular, semi-anecdotal history of the colonial and independence periods. 1455. Nueva Granada (Virreinato). Relaciones de mando de los virreyes de la Nueva Granada: memorias econmicas, edicin preparada por Gabriel Giraldo Jaramillo. Bogot: Banco de la Repblica, 1954. 283 p. 1456. Nueva Granada (Virreinato). Relaciones de los virreyes del Nuevo Reino de Granada, ahora Estados Unidos de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Colombia y Ecuador ..., compiladas y publicadas por Jos Antonio Garca y Garca. Nueva York: Impr. de Hallet & Breen, 1869. xx, 705 p. Items 1455 and 1456, the latter of which is only partially superseded by the former, are basic sources for the study of the administration of the Presidency of Quito during the years it was subordinated to the Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717-1720 and 17391822). They also include demographic, economic, and social data. 1457. Nez Snchez, Jorge. Familias, elites y sociedades regionales en la Audiencia de Quito, 1750-1822, Historia de la mujer y la familia (Quito: Editora Nacional, 1991), p. 171-224. A pioneering essay on the composition and renovation of the creole aristocracy during the late colonial period, the differences in attitudes and ideologies of the elites by region, and their respective roles in the movements for independence. Based almost entirely on archival reseach either in the Archivo General de Indias itself or on Banco Centrals microfilm copies of Archivo General de Indias materials. See also Nez Snchezs Oligarquas regionales y familias oligrquicas en el Ecuador, 1765-1912, Europa e Iberoamrica: cinco siglos de intercambios: actas, IX Congreso Internacional de Historia de Amrica (Sevilla: Asociacin de Historiadores Latinoamericanos Europeos [AHILA]; Consejera de Cultura y Medio Ambiente [Junta de Andaluca], 1992), vol. 1, p. 107-125. Although the latter is a notable attempt to examine a neglected question, the relationship between regional oligarchies and oligarchy families, unfortunately Nez Snchez puts the cart before the horse; he presupposes that the basic characteristics of said families are known and that they were static. The former was hardly true and the latter, fallacious. 1458. OPhelan Godoy, Scarlett. Rebeliones anticoloniales: Nueva Granada, Per y Charcas entre el siglo XVIII y el XIX, Anuario de estudios americanos, 49 (1992), 395440. Includes a discussion of the 1765 uprising of the barrios of Quito, other late colonial rebellions in the highlands, and of the revolutions of 1809 and 1810-1812. See also OPhelans Por el rey, religin y patria: las juntas de gobierno de 1809 en La Paz y Quito, Bulletin de lInstitut franais detudes andines, 17:2 (1988), 51-80. 1459. Orden de traslado a Bogot del Archivo de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1720, ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 4-6. Fortunately this order was not implemented, but it is an interesting commentary on the

bureaucratic mentality of the empire and on what sometimes happened and still happens to archives, reorganization and/or transfer to other repository. 1460. Ordez de Cevallos, Pedro. Viage del mundo. Madrid: Luis Snchez, 1614. [10], 290, [4] leaves. The memoirs and travelogue of a soldier turned priest who spent some years among the Quijos, the Cofanes, and in the city of Quito during the late 1500s and early 1600s. Invaluable but beware the element of fable. The corresponding chapters are reproduced in: Cronistas coloniales (item 1318), vol. 2, p. 477-519; and the work as a whole has been reprinted several times (e.g., Madrid: Aguilar, 1958). 1461. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Economie et socit Quito (1765-1810), LAmrique espagnole lpoque des Lumires: tradition, innovation, reprsentations: (Colloque franco-espagnol du CNRS, 18-20 septembre 1986) (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1987), p. 161-176. A cogent review of economic and social developments, especially in the highlands, during the late colonial period. Based on appropriate literature as well as the authors own considerable original research. Also published in Spanish as: Economa y sociedad en Quito (1765-1810), La Amrica Espaola en el siglo de las luces: tradicin, innovacin, representaciones: Coloquio franco-espaol, Maison des Pays Ibriques, Burdeos, 18-20 septiembre 1986 (Madrid: Ediciones de Cultura Hispnica, 1988), p. 183-199. 1462. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Los encomenderos de Quito, 1534-1660: origen y evolucin de una lite colonial. Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos, 1993. xvi, 377 p. The first major study of encomienda holders in the highlands. A social history pieced together from a wide variety of sources, mostly original. A remarkable tour de force inasmuch as the majority of encomienda records per se for the Presidency of Quito do not appear to have survived. Delineates and elucidates emergence of regional and local elites during the first half of the colonial period. Well written, analyzed, and interpreted but more in the way of time lines, especially in the genealogical tables and discussion of encomendero families, would have been helpful. 1463. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Modelos peninsulares en la estratificacin social del Ecuador, Europa e Iberoamrica: cinco siglos de intercambios: actas, IX Congreso Internacional de Historia de Amrica (Sevilla: Asociacin de Historiadores Latinoamericanos Europeos [AHILA]; Consejera de Cultura y Medio Ambiente [Junta de Andaluca], 1992), vol. 1, p. 99-105. An outline of the Spanish model of social stratification that implicitly, if not inevitably, accompanied the Spaniards during the conquest of Quito and as it was subsequently implemented during the early colonial period. 1464. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. El obraje colonial ecuatoriano: aproximacin a su estudio, Revista de Indias, 37:149/150 (jul./dic. 1977), 471-541. A major contribution to the economic history of the colonial period. Although not the

first study of the textile industry based on Archivo General de Indias materials, it was the first professional study to utilize said sources and at the time of its publication, the most methodologically sophisticated. Reprinted in: Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 2:4 (1988), 63-142. 1465. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Obrajes y obrajeros del Quito colonial, Anuario de estudios americanos, 39 (1982), 341-365. An insightful overview of textile manufacturing in the northern and central highlands. Textiles were the motor of the economy of the northern and central highlands from the 1540s through the 1700s. 1466. Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, Javier. Las ordenanzas de obrajes de Matas de Peralta para la Audiencia de Quito, 1621: rgimen laboral de los centros textiles coloniales ecuatorianos, Anuario de estudios americanos, 33 (1976), 875-931. Publishes and analyzes the 1621 ordenanzas de obrajes, a major source for the study of the history of textile labor. 1467. Pareja Diezcanseco, Alfredo. Las instituciones y la administracin de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1975. 296 p. A college level text. Of some usefulness as a handbook. Reprinted in a so-called 2 ed.: Guayaquil: Editorial UG, 1988. 287 p. 1468. Prez T., Aquiles R. Historia de la Repblica del Ecuador. Quito: Impr. Romero, 1956. 214 p. Notwithstanding the title, a survey of the colonial period. Notable because of the extensive archival research on which it is based. 1469. Prez T., Aquiles R. Las mitas en la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Impr. del Ministerio del Tesoro, 1947. 536 p. The pioneering and nowadays the classic work on the forced labor system in Ecuador. Delineates and exemplifies the different kinds of mita to which indigenes were subject during the colonial period. Based on considerable original research, especially in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, 1987. 1470. Phelan, John Leddy. The Kingdom of Quito in the Seventeenth Century: Bureaucratic Politics in the Spanish Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967. xvi, 432 p. A pioneering study of the Antonio de Morga years (1615-1636). Although primarily concerned with political developments, The Kingdom of Quito includes several chapters on demographic and economic developments during the early colonial period. Also published in a Spanish version: El Reino de Quito en el siglo XVII: la poltica burocrtica en el imperio espaol. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, 1995. 531 p. (Coleccin histrica; vol. 20) 1471. Pimentel Carbo, Julio. Caminos y medios de transporte en nuestro 1er siglo colonial. [Guayaquil]: Comisin Permanente para la Defensa del Patrimonio Nacional, 1985. [35] p.

Contains some useful information. 1472. Ponce Leiva, Pilar. Un espacio para la controversia: la Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVIII, Revista de Indias, 52:195/196 (mayo/dic. 1992), 839-865. A critical reexamination of the usual view, dating from coeval cries of decadence and despair, of the economy of the highlands as being in a state of crisis in the 1700s, and of the recent literature on the more or less concurrent economic boom of the coast. Ponce maintains that at worst the textile dependent economy of the northern and central highlands was in trouble, but that the economy of the more diversified southern highlands was holding its own, perhaps even growing. 1473. Powers, Karen Vieira. Indian Migration and Sociopolitical Change in the Audiencia of Quito. 1990. 509 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--New York University. A revisionist study of the population history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and an evaluation of the impact of migration on indigenous societies and of population movements on the socioeconomic development of the colony. Published in Spanish as: Prendas con pies: migraciones indgenas y supervivencia cultural en la Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Abya-Yala, 1994. 429 p. See also item 5421. 1474. Powers, Karen Vieira. Resilient Lords and Indian Vagabonds: Wealth, Migration, and the Reproductive Transformation of Quitos Chiefdoms, 1500-1700, Ethnohistory, 38:3 (Summer 1991), 225-249. A study of the utilization of migrant Indians by ethnic lords to maintain their status and to enhance their wealth. Focuses on the Hatis of Latacunga. Also published in Spanish as: Seores dinmicos e indios vagabundos: riqueza, migracin y transformacin reproductiva de los cacicazgos de Quito, 1500-1700, Memoria, MARKA, ao 2, no. 2 (nov. 1991), 27-58. 1475. Pozo Alvarez, Gonzalo. Relieve de la patria: ensayo. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. 65 p. Consists of miscellaneous, wholly unsupported, and frequently erroneous statements in leftist prose on the colonial and independence periods. Of no historiographical value whatsoever. Of interest only to students of history as (mis)perceived and of pseudoMarxism. 1476. Primeras doctrinas en la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1570-1640, estudio preliminar y transcripcin de las relaciones eclesiales y misionales de los siglos XVI y XVII [por] Hugo Burgos Guevara, 1ra ed. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1995. xliii, 488 p. Publishes--mostly for the first time--31 relaciones ranging in time from 1552 through 1648, and in theme from the organization and staffing of the Diocese of Quito through the complaints of caciques, indios principales, and pueblos regarding abuses of the clergy. A major set of primary materials not only for the history of the church in Ecuador but more importantly for the study of the interaction of conquerors and conquered and the persistence of autochthonous beliefs and practices during the early colonial period. Includes a solid introductory study by Burgos Guevara. 1477. Primicias de la cultura de Quito. Quito: [Impr.de] Raymundo Salazar, 1792. 7

nos. 56 p. Ecuadors first periodical as well as the organ of the short lived Sociedad Patritica de Amigos del Pas de Quito. Largely authored by Eugenio Espejo, the papers editor. Reprinted by the Archivo Municipal de Quito in facsimile in 1947 (Publicaciones del Archivo Municipal; 23), and in modern typeface by the Museo de Arte e Historia in 1953 (Publicaciones del Museo Municipal de Arte e Historia; 29). Both reprints include the Instruccin previa sobre el papel peridico, intitulado Primicias de la cultura de Quito (Quito:[Impr.de] Raymundo Salazar, 1791; [5] p.) and the separately paginated Suplemento al papel peridico: Primicias de la cultura de Quito del da 5 de enero de 1792 (11 p.). 1478. Quintero, Rafael. El estado colonial, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 5, p. 7-56. A thoughtful and thought provoking review of the economic, political, and social structures of the Presidency of Quito. 1479. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. La acusacin contra el Presidente electo Dn. Jos de Araujo y Ro, sobre la introduccin de mercancas ilcitas a su llegada a Quito en diciembre de 1736, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:163/154 (1989), 249-272. Examines the undoubtedly true charges that President elect Araujo introduced merchandise illicitly prior to and upon taking office. Perhaps the only novelty in the charges is the amount and blatancy of the traffic. Inasmuch as Araujo donated 26,000 pesos--probably borrowed--to obtain the office, he needed to recover his investment. 1480. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. El bien comn como pretexto del Presidente Jos de Araujo para crear una compaa de soldados y prohibir el aguardiente de caa en Quito en 1737, Revista andina, 11:22 (dic. 1993), 381-402. President Araujo established a company of soldiers not only for his protection and that of his spouse but to enforce the prohibition of the distillation and sale of sugar cane aguardiente. Ramos Gmez agrees with Araujos detractors that the President was less concerned with the public good than he was in lining Victorino Montero's and indirectly his own pockets. Brother-in-law Victorino was the local distributer of grape aguardiente. 1481. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. Dos pareceres sobre el salario de los mitayos de Quito en 1735: el informe a la Audiencia de Martnez de Arizala, visitador de Cuenca, y el parecer del fiscal Lujn, Histrica, 20:2 (dic. 1996), 271-283. A well researched article on the divergent views of two members of the Audiencia regarding the salary to be paid and treatment accorded mitayos. Understandably the proposals of Lujn, the protector de naturales, were more favorable to mitayos than those of Martnez de Arizala, who sided with the local elite, but they were based on ordinances written for the Perus that had little or nothing to do with the realities of Quito. 1482. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. Un ejemplo de la lucha por el poder en Quito, Cultura,

8:24a (ene./abr. 1986), 117-132. Examines the 1737 struggle between the president of the Audiencia and the Cabildo over who should serve as alcaldes ordinarios de primer y segundo voto. At issue was who would control the citys government, Araujo and his allies or those members of the local elite who opposed him. 1483. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. La estructura social quitea entre 1737 y 1745 segn el proceso contra Jos de Araujo, Revista de Indias, 51:191 (ene./abr. 1991), 25-56. Examines shifting alliances and fortunes of prominent members of the elite as revealed by analysis of proceedings against Araujo. 1484. Ramos Gmez, Luis J. La pugna por el poder local en Quito entre 1737 y 1745 segn el proceso contra el Presidente de la Audiencia Jos de Araujo y Ro, Revista complutense de historia de Amrica, 18 (1992), 179-196. Discusses the documents that provided the basis for the allegations of bribery and corruption brought against Araujo y Ro by Juan de Valpardo and his supporters. 1485. Ramos Prez, Demetrio. El cambio de las mentalidades sociales en Quito en la poca del despotismo ilustrado, Jahrbuch fr Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas, 26 (1989), 85-111. A somewhat rambling and not altogether convincing attempt to demonstrate that the mentality of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was moralistic and humane whereas that of the eighteenth was pragmatic and utilitarian. Also published in: Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:153/154 (1989), 57-83. 1486. Real cdula de 31 de diciembre de 1704 e informacin respecto a su cumplimiento en relacin con que cesase enteramente el entero y servicio de la mita, en los obrajes de esa provincia, que manteniendose estos, se compusiese el trabajo de ellos, de solo indios voluntarios, etc., etc., Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 37-46. 1487. Recopilacin de documentos oficiales de la poca colonial: con un apndice relativo a la independencia de Guayaquil y a las batallas de Pichincha, Junn, Ayacucho y Tarqu, [editada por Cornelio Escipin Vernaza]. Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1979. xii, 335 p. A photofacsimile reprint; originally published: Guayaquil, 1894. Still useful, notwithstanding defects of transcription. 1488. Reig Satorres, Jos. Cabildo, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 5:10 (dic. 1976), 9-24. 1489. Reig Satorres, Jos. Medios de socorrer y fomentar el Reyno de Quito y sus vasallos, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 6 (1981), 647-714. Publishes with a substantial introductory essay the late eighteenth-century Expediente sobre los medios de socorrer, y fomentar el Reyno de Quito ..., an important source on the state of the colony and coeval thought on how to grow the economy.

1490. Reig Satorres, Jos. Precisiones sobre la Audiencia y la Presidencia de Quito, Revista chilena de historia del derecho, 11 (1985), 377-403. Distinguishes between the Audiencia and the Presidency of Quito. The two entities overlapped jurisdictionally but were not synonymous territorially as has been maintained by some Ecuadorian scholars and at least one Spanish jurist (see item 1500). The failure to distinguish between audiencia and presidency has resulted in a number of misinterpretations regarding administrative developments of the colonial period as well as questions of authority. 1491. Reig Satorres, Jos. Reales audiencias, Autos acordados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1578-1722 (item1350), p. 525-614. 1492. Relaciones geogrficas de la Nueva Granada (siglos XVI a XIX), recopilacin, seleccin, proemio, notas y edicin de Vctor Manuel Patio. Cali: Impr. Departamental, 1983. 556 p. Presumably important for the study of what is now northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. Unfortunately, I have not been able to see this item as it appears to be held, at least in the United States and Canada, only by the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Hawaii at Manoa Libraries, neither one of which would lend it. 1493. Relaciones geogrficas de la Presidencia de Quito, 1776-1815, transcripcin de Nadia Flores de Nez; notas de explicacin, Alfredo Costales y Juan Freile Granizo. Quito: Mundo Shuar, 1978. 155 p. Publishes nine late colonial period descriptions of the Upper Amazon Basin, including territory of the Bracamoros, Xbaro (i.e., Shuar and Achuar), and Quijos peoples. Bulk of information concerns inroads of extractive economy, notably canela and quinine. The originals are in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Also published as: Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 14:20 (sept. 1976) 1494. Relaciones histrico-geogrficas de la Audiencia de Quito: s. XVI-XIX, edicin, estudio introductorio y transcripcin por Pilar Ponce Leiva. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Centro de Estudios Histricos, Departamento de Historia de Amrica, 1991-1992. 2 v. Consists of 62 previously published but newly transcribed for the most part and 35 previously unpublished relaciones geogrficas of the Audiencia of Quito. Major compendium of basic sources for reconstruction of demographic history, ethnohistory, local and regional, and socioeconomic history of the colonial period. Indexed. There is also an Ecuadorian edition: Quito: MARKA, Instituto de Historia y Antropologa Andina; Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1992-1994. 2 v. 1495. Rengel Valdivieso, Jorge Hugo. La familia ecuatoriana en la colonia, Memoria del primer Congreso de Sociologa Ecuatoriana (item 8315), t. 2, p. 131-145. A legal approach of limited validity. Based on ideals or norms as expressed in the Recopilacin de leyes de los reynos de las Indias. Does not even broach the question of the application of said ideals or norms, let alone deviations or violations thereof. 1496. Revelo, Luis Alberto. El estanco de aguardiente a finales del perodo colonial

(1765-1822), Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 141-156. A student paper on the cane liquor monopoly. Includes archival data. 1497. Rodrguez Fernndez, Francisco. Ideario de don Francisco Rodrguez Fernndez, prroco criollo en los Andes (1696), Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 2:3 (1988), 145-241. Reprint; originally published: Anuario de estudios americanos, 17 (1960), 301-406. Extracts with interspersed commenary by Juan Prez de Tudela Bueso from an extensive treatise (El pecado original: exhortacin previa a los reinos de las Indias, sobre el lamentable estado a que los va reduciendo su culpa original con la serpiente enemiga [282 folios]) by the cura doctrinero of Ticsn in the Corregimiento of Cuenca on the lamentable state not just of his flock, but of native Andeans throughout the highlands in the late 1600s. An exceptionally important source. 1498. Rueda Novoa, Roco. La ruta a la Mar del Sur: un proyecto de las lites serranas en Esmeraldas (s. XVIII), Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 3 (segundo semestre 1992), 33-54. Adds some new data to attempts of Quito to open an alternative route to the coast via the Province of Esmeraldas. Especially concerned with the Barn de Carondelets Malbucho project. 1499. Salomon, Frank. The Fury of Andrs Arvalo: Disease Bundles of a Colonial Andean Shaman, Political Anthropology of Ecuador (item 7956), p. 83-105. Regarding the witchcraft allegedly practiced by a traditional healer in the early eighteenth century in the pueblo of Paccha near Zaruma. Also published in Spanish as: La furia de Andrs Arvalo: envoltorio de enfermedades de un shaman andino colonial in Antropologa poltica en el Ecuador, p. 115-137. 1500. Salomon, Frank. Shamanism and Politics in Late Colonial Ecuador, American Ethnologist, 10:3 (Aug. 1983), 413-428. Examines four trials of native brujos between 1703 and 1786. Demonstrates that the judicial system could be manipulated by shamans. The conflicts they exploited were specifically economic (e.g., expansion of cattle-ranching into native zones), but the Spanish authorities prosecuted on demonological, not political, grounds, and in so doing, strengthened the shamanss prestige and power. Also published in Spanish as: Shamanismo y poltica en la ltima poca colonial del Ecuador, Cultura, 7:21a (ene./abr. 1985), 487-509. 1501. Snchez Bella, Ismael. Quito, audiencia subordinada, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 5 (1980), 1-46. A study of how the subordination of the Audiencia of Quito to the viceroy of Peru functioned in theory and in practice. 1502. Snchez Villavicencio, Dora; and Luis Torres Caldern. Formacin econmicosocial precapitalista del Ecuador (etapa colonial) Guayaquil: Universidad de Guayaquil, Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, 1982. 62 p.

The authorss thesis in Economics. Adds nothing whatsoever to the elucidation of economic and social developments and events of the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries. As good an example as any, however, of the misapplication of Marxism and the so-called scientific approach to past by some national scholars. N.B. It is not the application of la concepcin materialista de la historia to which I object, but the fact that Snchez Villavicencio and Torres Caldern appear to be inadequately grounded in historical materialism and obvious from the paucity of their bibliographic references that they are less than adequately steeped in knowledge and interpretations of the colonial period of their own country. Yet Snchez Villavicencio and Torres Caldern are probably representative of the majority of Marxist academicians and scholars in Ecuador, at least as of the late twentieth century. 1503. Santilln, Hernando de. Carta dirigida por el primer presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, el licenciado Hernando de Santilln, al rey don Felipe II, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 37:89 (ene./jun. 1957), 109-111. A 1570 recapitulation of Santillns accomplishments as the first President of Quito. Published with a brief note by Carlos Manuel Larrea. 1504. Silva, Rafael Euclides. Estructura jurdico-administrativa de la Audiencia de Quito en el ocaso del imperio espaol, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 6 (1981), 207-237. A solid introduction to the administrative structure of the colony. 1505. Silva, Rafael Euclides. Hacienda pblica del Reino de Quito, Revista del Colegio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte, 17:52 (1940), 66-71. 1506. Simposio por los 250 aos de la Misin Cientfica Franco-Espaola a la Amrica Ecuatorial (1986: Quito, Ecuador). Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 72:153/154 (1989), 4-405; 73:155/156 (1990), 9-211. Publishes the proceedings of the symposium held in Quito 7-12 July 1986 on the Earth Measuring Expedition of 1736. Only those ponencias having something original to say are listed separately here within. 1507. Sobre el camino de Ibarra a Esmeraldas, [versin de] Carlos Manuel Larrea, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 35:86 (jul./dic. 1955), 265-266. Additional sources on the road to Esmeraldas. 1508. Super, John C. Partnership and Profit in the Early Andean Trade: The Experiences of Quito Merchants, 1580-1610, Journal of Latin American Studies, 11:2 (Nov. 1979), 265-281. A pioneering study of early colonial merchants of Quito. Based on notrarial records in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Also published in Spanish as: Empresarios quiteos en 1580-1620, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 8:16 (dic. 1979), 5-20; and as: Compaas y utilidades en el comercio andino temprano: la prctica de los comerciantes de Quito, 1580-1610, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:1 (primer semestre 1987), 59-79.

1509. Szszdi, Istvan. El indio en la Dicesis de Quito hasta el snodo de 1570, Cuadernos prehispnicos, 8 (1980), 139-170. Although this article includes some ethnographic data from the acts of the 1570 synod, it consists mostly of praise for Archbishop Pedro de la Pea. 1510. Tern Najas, Rosemarie. Censos, capellanas y lites: aspectos sociales del crdito en Quito colonial (primera mitad del siglo XVIII), Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia, 1 (1991), 23-48. Studies utilization of loans from ecclesiastical entities and endowments of chaplaincies as vehicles of credit by elite of the capital during the first half of the 1700s. Also examines social aspects thereof. A well researched, novel contribution. 1511. Tern Najas, Rosemarie. Los proyectos del imperio borbnico en la Real Audiencia de Quito, 1 ed. Quito: Abya-Yala; Taller de Estudios Histricos, 1988. 114 p. An original tesis de maestra on administrative reforms attempted as well as implemented by the Bourbons in the Audiencia of Quito. See also item 1512. 1512. Tern Najas, Rosemarie. Los rasgos de la configuracin social en la Audiencia de Quito, Quitumbe, 9 (jun. 1995), 11-19. An overview of the social structure and change of the colony from the Spanish conquest through the eve of independence. Especially concerned with the Los mestizos en la sociedad colonial, to whom the entire issue is devoted (see also items 1369, 1390, 1396, and 1530). 1513. Tern Najas, Rosemarie. Sinopsis histrica del siglo XVIII, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 4, p. 261-300. A revisionist account by an upcoming Ecuadorian historian of political and economic developments of the eighteenth century, especially of the selective implementation of the Bourbon reforms in the Audiencia of Quito and of their impact. See also item 1510. 1514. Tern Najas, Rosemarie; and Mara Elena Porras P. Las cofradas serficas: estudios de casos, Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 57-69. A student paper on Franciscan sponsored brotherhoods throughout the Presidency. Important because it is based on research in the Archivo General de la Orden Franciscana in Quito. 1515. Tisns J., Roberto Mara. Don Juan de la Cruz Mourgen: 35 presidente de la Presidencia de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 50:110 (jul./dic. 1967), 164-181. De la Cruz was the penultimate president of Quito (24 Dec. 1820-8 Apr. 1822) 1516. Tisns J., Roberto Mara. Eclesisticos y autoridades en la colonia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 123-127. Research notes regarding a quarrel between the President of the Audiencia and a diocesan priest. The Barn de Carondelet charged Father Mariano Enrquez with libel

and slander and had him arrested. 1517. Tisns J., Roberto Mara. Movimientos pre-independientes gran colombianos. Bogot: Edit. e Impr. Salesianas, 1963. 351 p. On precursor movements and tendencies in what would become Ecuador, see p. 293330. Extensively researched and well documented. 1518. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Aspectos jurdicos de la erecin de la Audiencia de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 174-192. Primarily of interest to students of institutions. 1519. Tobar Donoso, Julio. Las instituciones del perodo hispnico, especialmente en la Presidencia de Quito. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1974. 479 p. A vade mecum on the institutions and institutional history of the colonial period. 1520. Tobar Donoso, Julio. El restablecimiento de la Audiencia de Quito, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 19:55 (ene./jun. 1940), 5-12. Maintains that Gonzlez Surez and those who have parroted him were incorrect in asserting that the Audiencia of Quito was suppressed for a total of six years (17171722) during the initial annexation of the Presidency to the new Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada. Tobar argues instead, through documentary evidence, that the Audiencia was suppressed on 28 Oct. 1718, upon the realization of the transfer of judicial as well as administrative functions to Santaf de Bogot, only to be reestablished by royal decree of 18 Feb. 1720, the latter of which was not effectuated, however, until 26 March 1722. 1521. Valencia, Pedro de. Relaciones de Indias. I. Nueva Granada y Virreinato de Per, estudios introductorios y notas histricas por Jess Paniagua Prez; edicin crtica por Francisco Javier y Jess Fuente Fernndez. Len: Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Len, 1993. 519 p. Additional research has revealed that the well known relaciones geogrficas of the early seventeenth century were compiled by Pedro de Valencia (1555-1620), in 1607 and 1608, utilizing the responses received to the 1604 questionnaire prepared by him. This vol. consists of new transcriptions replete with explanatory notes, based on manuscript originals in the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, of: Los Quijos; Panam; Portobelo; Tunja; Nuestra Seora de Leiva; Villar Don Pardo; Los Pueblos de la villa de el Villar Don Pardo; Guayaquil y Portoviejo; Jan de Bracamoros; Relacin de San Leandro de Jan, Baeza y Guayaquil; and Santiago de la Frontera y su distrito. 1522. Valencia Sala, Gladys. El mayorazgo en la Audiencia de Quito, Quitumbe, 8 (jun. 1994), 107-125. A prcis of authors original thesis on entailed estates (item 1522). 1523. Valencia Sala, Gladys. El mayorazgo en la Audiencia de Quito. Quito: AbyaYala, 1994. 133 p.

The authors masters thesis. Based on research in the Archivo Nacional de Historia. Exemplifies institutionalization of entitled estates through a study of the properties of the Snchez de Orellana or marqueses de Solanda. 1524. Vargas, Jos Mara. Audiencia de Quito: residencias y visitas del siglo XVI, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 58:125 (ene./jun. 1975), 5-17; 58:126 (jul./dic. 1975), 52-61. A brief review of judicial reviews of the early seventeenth century (i.e., through the administration of President Morga [1614-1636]). 1525. Vargas, Jos Mara. Los cacicazgos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 250-264. Consists of miscellaneous research notes. 1526. Vargas, Jos Mara. Creacin de la Real Audiencia de Quito: su valor histrico, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 45:102 (jul./dic. 1963), 193-201. A utilitarian essay inasmuch as it delineates the cities and towns in the Governorships of Popayn and Quito that were included in the new audiencia. 1527. Vargas, Jos Mara. Don Hernando de Santilln y la fundacin de la Real Audiencia de Quito. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1963. 173 p. A well documented study of the first president of the Audiencia of Quito and of the establishment of the audiencia. 1528. Vargas, Jos Mara. La economia poltica del Ecuador durante la colonia. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador; Corporacin Editora Nacional, [1981]. 366 p. (Biblioteca bsica del pensamiento ecuatoriano; 15) Reprint; originally published: Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1957. xvi, 322 p. The reprint includes an Estudio introductorio by Carlos Marchn Romero (p. 13-58). The first and as of July 1997, still almost the only economic history of the entire colonial period. The only exception was item 687. 1529. Vargas, Jos Mara. Historia del Ecuador, siglo XVI. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1977. 344 p. As of July 1997, items 1528 and 1529 constituted the most detailed study of the first half of the colonial period since Gonzlez Surezs Historia general de la Repblica del Ecuador (item 1388). Quasi-modern in approach inasmuch as Father Vargas includes some coverage of economic and social as well as cultural developments. Based on several decades of research and reflection. Nonetheless, these two items are chronicles, however modern, primarily of the city of Quito and the north-central highlands, rather than true histories of the entire colony. 1530. Vargas, Jos Mara. Historia del Ecuador, siglo XVII. Quito: Editora Royal, [1979]. 296 p. Continues item 1529. 1531. Vela, Mara Susana. Mulato conocido y reputado por tal, Quitumbe, 9 (jun.

1995), 77-88. A student paper on racial passing during the late colonial period. Interestingly enough mulattoes found it legally and socially advantageous to petition to be recognized as mestizos. Based on archival research. 1532. Velasco, Juan de. Historia del Reino de Quito en la Amrica Meridional. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1977-1979. 3 v. One of the only two scholarly acceptable and apparently textually accurate versions (as of July 1997) of this classic, late eighteenth-century history of pre-Hispanic and colonial Ecuador by Quitos most famous Jesuit expulso. The other is the edition prepared by Espinosa Plit for the Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima, (item 541). The Casa de la Cultura version was prepared from one of the two known manuscript originals, the one in the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid, whereas Espinosa Plit worked from the coeval copy now held by the Biblioteca Ecuatoriana Aurelio Espinosa Plit. There is yet another modern edition, but it does not include the Historia natural: Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho, 1981. Edicin. prlogo, notas y cronologa, Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco. 1533. Velasco Abad, Fernando. La estructura econmica de la Real Audiencia de Quito: notas para su anlisis, Ecuador pasado y presente (item 572), p. 61-110. A refreshingly novel essay for its time. Velasco Abad attempted to analyze the economic structure of the colonial period in accordance with its internal realities and its role within the economy of the Spanish empire at large. Also he recognized that the Spanish sector of the economy of the Kingdom of Quito was at least quasi-capitalistic. 1534. Velasco y Unda, Ignacio de. El terremoto de 1797, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 47:104 (jul./dic. 1964), 228-242. A detailed account of the earthquake of Feb. 4, 1797, by Josep M. Barnadas, who reproduces the request for information on the disaster submitted by Velasco y Unda, the procurator of the Cabildo of Riobamba, to the Corregidor of Riobamba. Hence the confusion on the part of the editors of the Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia as to the authorship of this piece. Includes a documentary appendix. 1535. Villalba F., Jorge. El licenciado Miguel de Ibarra: sexto presidente de la Audiencia de Quito, su gobernador y capitn general, 1550-1608. Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, 1991. 442 p. An in-depth study of Ecuador in the early 1600s as well as of the administration of the sixth president of the Audiencia. Well researched but poorly proofed. 1536. Villalba F., Jorge. Los obrajes de Quito en el siglo XVII y la legislacin obrera, Revista del Instituto de Historia Eclesistica Ecuatoriana, 8 (1986), 43-212. A data rich study on the trade in as well as manufacture of textile and on the various attempts by viceroys, presidents, and oidores to mitigate the abuse of Indian labor in the 1600s. 1537. Villalengua, Juan Josef. Relacin exacta y circunstanciada de todos los

empleos polticos de Real Hacienda y militares que hay en la ciudad de Quito y toda su provincia ... (29 marzo 1790), Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 4:6 (ene./dic. 1956), 64-108; 5:7/8 (ene./jun. 1959), 6-36. An audiencia wide register of royal and local bureaucrats as of 1790. Includes a muster of the military. 1538. Villegas, Juan. Negros y mulatos esclavos: Audiencia de Quito. Montevideo: Centro de Estudios de Historia Americana, 1992. 25 leaves. Consists of research notes. Mimeographed. 1539. La Visita de Garca de Len y Pizarro a la Audiencia de Quito: (aporte documental), [con una nota introductoria por] Eduardo Martir, Anuario histrico jurdico ecuatoriano, 6 (1980), 323-344. Publishes with an introduction the 7 Dec. 1782 Resolucin adoptada por la corona acera de las medidas tomadas en la visita a la Audiencia de Quito por el Regente y Visitador General don Jos Garca de Len y Pizarro. 1540. Vivanco, Carlos A. Anotaciones para los cacicazgos ecuatorianos, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 22:59 (ene./jun. 1942), 119-152. 1541. Vivanco, Carlos A. La Real Audiencia de Quito en el siglo XVI, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (ene./jun. 1950), 7-21. 1542. Washburn, Douglas A. The Bourbon Reforms: A Social and Economic History of the Audiencia of Quito, 1760-1810. 1984. xi, 281 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Texas at Austin. At the time of its presentation as well as in retrospect Washburns doctoral dissertation was important only for some of the data, especially demographic and fiscal, it contains. Washburn displays an inadequate grasp of the literature, including such critical studies as those by Rosemary D.F. Bromley, Nicholas P. Cushner, and Javier Ortiz de la Tabla Ducasse, on the late colonial period and of altogether too many important works on the 10 de agosto, and a tendency to wring far too much from the data. His analysis and interpretation of demographic, economic, social, and political events and developments in Quito per se and the north-central highlands are not only overdrawn but frequently erroneous in light of what was known as well as unknown as of the early 1980s. His discussions of the characteristics of the elite, the sales tax rebellion of 1765, and the abortive rebellion of lords and lawyers of 1809 and Quitos subsequent attempt to establish independence in 1810-1812 are especially weak and poorly nuanced. Also it should be noted that although Washburn has something to say, sometimes of significance, about what was happening in Cuenca and Guayaquil and their districts during the late colonial period, The Bourbon Reforms is primarily about the city of Quito and its district. 1543. Wenzel, Karl-Heinz. Wandel in der Landwirtschaft bei den Indianern in der Audiencia de Quito im 16. Jahrhundert. Bonn: Holos, 1987. 162 p. A masters thesis on the takeover of ayllu or community lands in the 1500s by Spaniards and caciques. Done at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in

Bonn. 1544. Wolf, Teodoro. Crnica de los fenmenos volcnicos y terremotos en el Ecuador: con algunas noticias sobre otros pases de la Amrica Central y Meridional, desde 1533 a 1797. Quito: Impr. de la Universidad Central, 1904. 120 p. Reprint; originally published: Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1873. Also reprinted in: Anales de la Universidad Central, 19:132 (oct. 1903), 26-40; 19:133 (nov. 1903), 78-99; 19:134 (dic. 1903), 37-177; 19:135 (ene. 1905), 223-264. A basic reference work. 1545. Ziga, Neptal. El camino de Quito a Tierra Firme, Revista de Indias, 9:33/34 (jul./dic. 1948), 891-948. A comprehensive, well researched review of the several efforts of Quito to open a road to Esmeraldas with emphasis on Maldonados project. See also item 3701.

BIBLIOGRAFIA HISTORICA DEL ECUADOR Vol. I por MICHAEL T. HAMERLY PERIODO NACIONAL As of the late 1990s, the political history of the national period, regardless of whether the national period is defined as having begun in 1809, or in 1830, was well known and had been recounted not just in considerable detail but multiple times, from the conservative, the liberal, the socialist, and the communist points of views, and in a few instances, more or less impartially and objectively. Moreover, the economic history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries had begun to be studied in depth. Population history, however, had barely begun to be cultivated, and much of the social history that had been done, suffers from a major ideological bias. Almost all the studies by social scientists--regardless of nationality--and historians trained or influenced by social scientists--and therefore virtually the entire cadre of professionally trained historians in Ecuador as of the late 1990s--were predicated on Marxist or MarxistLeninist paradigms, not just in their assumption of the working out of the class struggle whereby the triumph of the Liberals in 1895, for example, has been depicted as a revolution during the course of which the capitalist bourgeoisie of the coast displaced, if not overthrew, the traditional landowners of the highlands--the feudal aristocracy according to some scholars--but in their assumption that the class structure of the country existed and continues to exist primarily in political-economic terms. I would be the last to deny that elites, bourgeoisie, petite bourgeoisie, proletarians, and peasants exist in Ecuador, but I remain unconvinced that they exist as conceived by Marx and Engels or by Marx, Engels, and Lenin. What were needed--desperately needed, perhaps still needed --were/are analyses of the social structure that take into account place as well as period, and the whole gamut of variables involved (i.e., age, education, ethnicity, family, gender, income, lo andino, nationality as well as national origin, occupational status, political power, the urban/rural dichotomy, etc.). In other words, endogenous models based on Ecuadorian realities, not exogenous European paradigms. In fairness to national scholars, however, it cannot be overemphasized that as of the late 1990s, original research, especially but not exclusively insofar as economic, population, and social history are concerned, remained the province of the independently wealthy (usually amateurs), on the one hand, and subsidized scholars, on the other. But the months and years of archival, field, library, museum, and/or private collection research required to produce historical demographic and/or social historical studies do not usually appeal to financially well off amateurs--just as well inasmuch as they lack the methodological training required to do such work--and the subsidies (including full time, well paying, time release positions as well as grants) required by professional researchers to undertake in depth, systematic, and long term

research in order to produce the compendia of published sources, monographic studies, and time series needed to develop solid economic, population, and social histories of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, remained few and far between. Nonetheless, it also cannot be overemphasized that more than sufficient endogenous sources and more than adequate exogenous methodologies existed and exist for the reconstruction of regional and national models based on regional and national realities, provided the professionally trained researcher is willing and in a position to put in the time and effort. Fortunately this sometimes happens, sometimes with spectacular results. Case in point is the brilliant study by Andrs Guerrero, La semntica de la dominacin (item 1937), a work that contributes more to the reconstruction of the history and the elucidation of hacendados/haciendas and huasipungos/huasipungeros, at least in the northern highlands, than the entire body of indigenista and social protest literature conjointly as well as individually.

LA INDEPENDENCIA Y BAJO LA GRAN COLOMBIA(1809-1830) The year 1809 constitutes a watershed in the history of Ecuador. For some scholars 1809 marks the beginning of the end of the colonial period. For others it signifies the commencement of the national period. Strong, more or less equally valid arguments can be made for both points of view. Far more often than not, however, authors who stretch the colonial period to 1830, or those who begin the national period in 1809, do not address the issue but assume agreement with their periodization of Ecuadorian history on the part of the scholarly community and therefore also the general reader. To cite just a few examples, Frank MacDonald Spindler begins his account of Nineteenth Century Ecuador (item 2186) with a survey of The Epoch of Independence and Gran Colombia, 1808-1830" but does not explain why 1808" was a pivotal year. Linda Alexander Rodrguez presumes that the national period began in 1830 in her The Search for Public Policy: Regional Politics and Government Finances in Ecuador, 18301940 (item 1975). Kenneth J. Andrien ends coverage of the colonial period in 1830 on the grounds that it marked the culmination of the independence movements and therefore the end of the colonial period in his The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830 (item1343). Parenthetically, it cannot be over emphasized, that Andriens and Rodrguezs books have provided us with comprehensive and scholarly sound coverage of the political economy of Ecuador for two-and-a-half centuries (1690-1940), or somewhat more than half of the countrys history, for the first time in the historiography of Ecuador. The Oxford trained Enrique Ayala Mora, however, adopted 1822 as the beginning year for coverage of the political history of the national period in his Lucha poltica y origen de los partidos en Ecuador (item 2007). At the same time Ayala is one of the few Euadorianists to have addressed the problems of periodization. The only other was and may still be Gorki Elizalde in Periodizacin histrica del Ecuador (item 573), but Elizaldes analysis is so superficial as to be worthless. This is what Ayala has to say:

No se ha discutido suficientemente si el proceso de independencia y la efmera vida de la Gran Colombia, constituyen una poca histrica separada, o si deben, en rigor, ser considerados como el perodo final de la Colonia o el inicial de la Repblica. No cabe duda de que esos aos que van desde 1809 hasta 1830 tienen sustantividad propia y atestiguan acelerados cambios, dramticos conflictos y una prolongada guerra que devino en el comienzo de la vida del Ecuador. Pero pueden ser vistos como el inicio de la poca Republicana, en la medida en que constituyeron la ruptura definitiva del orden colonial y el lapso en el que se ensayaron inicialmente regmenes autnomos (Periodizacin de la historia del Ecuador [item 533], p. 240). As of the late 1990s, the most complete as well as the most objective account of the movements for independence in Ecuador as a whole was Demetrio Ramos Prezs Entre El Plata y Bogot (item 1835). Nonetheless, Ramos Prezs work suffers from many lacunae, largely because the historiography of the independence period on which he depended, continued to be skewed rather than balanced in terms of the period as a whole and far from adequate insofar as economic and social developments are concerned. There were many books and even more articles on the 10 de agosto. The most significant monographs were: Manuel Mara Borreros Quito, luz de Amrica (item 1580) and his La revolucin quitea, 1809-1812 (item 1581); Carlos De la Torre Reyess La revolucin de Quito del 10 de agosto de 1809 (item 1628); Jos Gabriel Navarros La revolucin de Quito del 10 de agosto de 1809 (item 1780); Alfredo Ponce Ribadeneiras Quito, 1809-1812 (item 1824); and Jorge Salvador Laras La patria heroica (item 1856). See also item 566. The classic account of the 9 de octubre and the Provincia Libre de Guayaquil was and will probably remain Camilo Destruges 1920 Historia de la revolucin de octubre y la campaa libertadora de 1820-22 (item 1636). But see also the more recent studies of David J. Cubitt (items 1608-1613), Estrada Ycaza (item 1659), and Mariano Fazio Fernndez (item 1666). Cubitt reexamined economic and social as well as political aspects of the short-lived Free Province. Estrada Ycaza offered a new account of the role of Guayaquil in the movements for independence. Fazio Fernndez reviewed the political philosophies of the men of October in depth and with fresh perspective. The most important accounts of the 3 de noviembre were Alfonso Mara Borreros classic Cuenca en Pichincha (item 1577) and Octavio Codero Palacios also standard Crnicas documentadas para la historia de Cuenca (item 1601). Latacunga has been well served by Neptal Ziga. See his Historia de Latacunga: independencia (item 1896). The best study of Lojas participation in the movements for independence appeared to be Alejandro Carrins La independencia de Loja (item 1590). Insofar as other towns and the provinces are concerned, one had and may still have to make do with brief sketches and patriotic discourses for the most part. But see also Carmen Dueas de Anhalzers doctoral dissertation, The Political Culture in the Presidency of Quito at Independence: a Regional Comparison, subsequently published in Spanish as: Marqueses, cacaoteros, y vecinos de Portoviejo: (cultura poltica en la Presidencia de Quito) (item 1651).

Ecuadorians had given, and may still give, short shift to the Gran Colombian years. The most detailed, well researched, and objective accounts, again as of the late 1990s, were those of the Argentine Jesuit Fazio Fernndez, El Guayaquil colombiano, 18221830 (item 1665) and the doctoral dissertation by the North American Roger P. Davis, Ecuador under Gran Colombia (item 1623). The history of Ecuador is even more intertwined with that of Colombia during the independence period than it was during the colonial period. Fortunately there is a relatively recent as well as comprehensive guide to the literature and published sources: Javier Ocampo Lpezs Historiografa y bibliografa de la emancipacin del Nuevo Reino de Granada (Tunja: Universidad Pedaggica y Tecnolgica de Colombia, 1969). And of course, one may update Ocampo Lpez through the pages of the ongoing Handbook of Latin American Studies. In addition to the individual and collected primary sources listed here within, it should be noted that virtually every issue of the Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia and of Museo Histrico contains documents of greater or lesser importance on the independence and Gran Colombian years. Almost all of the literature on the independence and Gran Colombian years focuses on political developments. The most comprehensive coverage of demographic, economic, and social developments for any of the three major regions continued to be Michael T. Hamerlys Historia social y econmica de la antigua Provincia de Guayaquil, 1763-1842 (item 5976). When I wrote the aforesaid work (in the early 1970s), originally presented as my doctoral dissertation (in 1970), I deliberately chose not to be drawn into the controversy regarding the encounter between Bolvar and San Martn in the port city in July 1822. Most of the literature on the subject was and remains not just passionate but inflamed. Now as then I refuse to be baited by this can of worms. Nonetheless, I have included and annotated the more important of the relevant studies below, but do not pretend to have resolved all of the bibliographic and substantive conundrums related thereto. It will be noted that for the most part I have not listed works of fiction such as Manuel J. Calles Leyendas del tiempo heroico: episodios de la guerra de la independencia. Although such pseudo chronicles have passed as history among intellectuals as well as the population at large, they are best forgotten. Nonetheless, their importance as primary sources for the study of mentalits should not be overlooked.

1546. El 2 de agosto de 1810: la verdadera historia: (del archivo del Dr. Jos Gabriel Navarro), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 41:96 (jul./dic. 1960), 236-251. Publishes miscellaneous primary sources from Navarros private collection. 1547. Achig S., Lucas. La estructura administrativa de la Gobernacin de Cuenca en el siglo XIX (1820-1822), Revista del IDIS, 8 (abr. 1980), 43-82. Reconstructs the political history of the Governorship of Cuenca during the two years preceding Cuencas declaration of independence. Based on original research.

1548. Actas de las elecciones de diputados al Congreso de la Sancin del Plan de Gobierno de la Provincia Libre e Independiente de Cuenca, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 1 (1979), 153-193. 1549. La Actuacin de Juan Po Montfar y su familia en la independencia del Ecuador, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 39:94 (jul./dic. 1959), 280-284. 1550. Albornoz, Vctor Manuel. La independencia de Cuenca: relato histrico. Cuenca: Tip. Municipal, 1943. 16 p. 1551. Alemn, Hugo. Sucre: parbola ecuatorial. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1970. 440 p. An eulogistic account of the heroe of Pichincha. Emphasizes Sucres multiple links to Quito. 1552. Andrade, Manuel de Jess. Prceres de la independencia: ndice alfabtico de sus nombres con algunos bocetos biogrficos. Quito: Tip. y Encuadernacin de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1909. 418 p. A basic reference work. See also item 1873. 1553. Andrade, Roberto. Historia del Ecuador. Guayaquil: Reed and Reed, 19341937. 7 v. <2787 p.> Originally issued in fascicules, but continuously paginated. Given over almost entirely to the independence and Gran Colombian periods. Advanced only as far as 1847. The chapters on the colonial period tend to be anti-clerical. And the several tomes on the independence period are critical of Montfar y Larrea and other men of August whom Andrade considered to be pusillanimous, if not traitors. Heavily documented. Also published in a 2 ed. with an introductory study by Manuel Chiriboga Vega: Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1982-1984. 4 v. 1554. Andrade Marn, Luciano. La batalla del Panecillo, 7 de noviembre de 1812; Antecedentes de la batalla del Pichincha 24 de mayo de 1822. Quito: Impr. Municipal, 1954. 45 p. 1555. Andrade Reimers, Luis. Sucre en el Ecuador. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1982. 366 p. Somewhat more objective than item 1551. Also available in reprint: Quito: Corporacin Editora Nacional, 1995. 1556. Asesinato del Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho: reproduccin de publicaciones hechas por el Gobierno del Ecuador en 1830 y 1843. Quito: Impr. del Gobierno, 1891. 52 p. 1557. Barrera, Angel T. Iniciativa de la independencia en Sud-Amrica. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1909. 60 p. Defends Quitos claim to be the initiator of the movements for independence in Spanish America. 1558. Barrera, Isaac J. 9 de octubre de 1820: homenaje a los prceres de la

independencia de Guayaquil: documentos histricos y artculos conmemorativos. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1920. 52 p. 1559. Barrera, Isaac J. Ensayo de interpretacin histrica: introduccin a los acontecimientos del 10 de agosto de 1809. Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1959. 204 p. An essay on the background to the 10 de agosto and therefore on the colonial period at large. Exemplifies the view by some scholars that the origins of the movement for independence can be detected in early as well as in late colonial period dissatisfaction with royal policies and decrees and their selective implementation by imperial bureaucrats. 1560. Barrera, Isaac J. Fuentes para la historia de la emancipacin: necesaria revisin de antecedentes, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 42:96 (jul./dic. 1960), 160-170. 1561. Barrera, Isaac J. El obispo Jos Cuero y Caicedo, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 14:40/41 (jul./dic. 1936), 5-29. 1562. Barrera, Isaac J. Los patriotas del ao 12, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 22:60 (jul./dic. 1942), 259-264. 1563. Barrera, Isaac J. Prceres de la patria: lecturas biogrficas. Quito: Edit. Ecuatoriana, 1939. 180 p. Consists of biographical sketches of 18 patriots, including Bolvar and Sucre. Apparently intended for popular consumption. 1564. Barrera, Isaac J. Relacin de las fiestas del primer centenario de la batalla de Pichincha, 1822-1922. Quito: Tall. Tipogrficos Nacionales, 1922. 146 p. 1565. Barrera, Isaac J. La revolucin de agosto, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 24:64 (jul./dic. 1944), 320-326. 1566. Barrera, Isaac J. La revolucin en Esmeraldas en 1820, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (jul./oct. 1920), 93-97. 1567. Barrera, Isaac J. Los ltimos das de la Gran Colombia, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 49:108 (jul./dic. 1966), 230-240. 1568. Batalla de Riobamba, 21 de abril de 1822. Quito: Tip. Edit. Chimborazo de V.A. Cabrera M., 1924. 73 p. 1569. Batallas, Lenidas. Quito y la que fue su metrpoli. Quito: Impr. del Clero, 1887. xii, 89 p. Primarily a study of the 10 de agosto (1809) and the 2 de agosto (1810). 1570. Bermeo, Antonio. Acotaciones en el primer sesquicentenario de la independencia guayaquilea, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 5-10. 1571. Bierck, Harold A., Jr. The Struggle for Abolition in Gran Colombia, Hispanic

American Historical Review, 33:3 (Aug. 1953), 365-386. Includes data on the manumission of slaves in the future Ecuador. 1572. Bolvar, Simn. Cartas del Libertador al General Vicente Aguirre, Museo Histrico, 23 (mayo 1956), 290-305. Consists of correspondence from 1826-1828. 1573. Bolvar, Simn. Cartas ecuatorianas, ordenadas por Juan Viteri Durand, Revista del Colegio Nacional Teodoro Gmez de la Torre (Ibarra), 13 (nov. 1979), 275717. 1574. Bolvar, Simn; and Juan Jos Flores. Correspondencia del Libertador con el General Juan Jos Flores (1825-1830). Quito: Archivo Juan Jos Flores, 1977. 581 p. Partial contents: Jorge Salvador Lara, La Repblica del Ecuador y el general Juan Jos Flores (p. 15-101); Gustavo Vscones [i.e., Vsconez] Hurtado, Cartas de Bolvar al General Juan Jos Flores (p. 103-130); Jorge Villalba F., El Distrito del Sur de Colombia durante la presidencia de Bolvar y prefectura del general Juan Jos Flores, 1825-1830" (p. 131-173); Cartas del Libertador al general Juan Jos Flores (1825-1830)" (p. 175-288); Cartas del general Juan Jos Flores al Libertador (18261830) (p. 289-531). Salvador Laras essay was subsequently republished as a book: Caracas: Italgrfica, 1980. 1575. Borja, Luis Felipe (hijo). Introduccin a los documentos inditos para la historia del 10 de agosto de 1809, Boletn de la Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Estudios Histricos Americanos, 2:6 (mayo/jun. 1919), 220-229. 1576. Borja, Luis Felipe (hijo). La responsabilidad del asesinato de Sucre, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 13:36/39 (ene./jun. 1936), 13-36. 1577. Borrero, Alfonso Mara. Cuenca en Pichincha. Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1972. 2 v. (xvi, 578 p.) Reprint; originally published: Cuenca: Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos del Azuay, 1922. iv, 511 p. A history of the movements for independence in Ecuador at large, beginning with the 10 de agosto. The title is not altogether inaccurate, however, as the author emphasized developments in and relating to Cuenca. 1578. Borrero, Alfonso Mara. Reivindicacin histrica del Mariscal Jos de la Mar y Cortzar. Cuenca: Edit. Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos, 1958. 59 p. Posthumously published. Also appeared in: Revista del Centro de Estudios Histricos y Geogrficos de Cuenca, 13:44 (ene. 1959), 12-67. 1579. Borrero, Manuel Mara. El 10 de agosto de 1809, Museo Histrico, 41/42 (ago. 1962), 51-79. 1580. Borrero, Manuel Mara. Quito, luz de Amrica. Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1959. 338 p. The notorious work in which Borrero accused Selva Alegre and other men of August of having betrayed the nascent Ecuador and the cause of independence. On the

polemic provoked by Quito, luz de Amrica and its sequel, La revolucin quitea, see item 1683. 1581. Borrero, Manuel Mara. La revolucin quitea, 1809-1812. Quito: Edit. Espejo, 1962. 454 p. The rev. and aug. ed. of: Quito, luz de Amrica (item 1580). 1582. Breve relacin de los regocijos con que se recibieron y publicaron las constituciones de la monarqua en 1813, [edicin de] Luis F. Borja (hijo), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 24:64 (jul./dic. 1944), 327-344. 1583. Brice, Angel Francisco. El asesinato del General Sucre, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de la Historia (Caracas), 46:183 (jul./sept. 1963), 421-446. Exonerates Flores. 1584. Burbano Vzquez, Jos Rafael. Adiciones histricas, Revista de la Universidad de Cuenca, 15 (feb. 1935), 14-48. Regarding the 1827 misunderstanding with Peru. 1585. Bushnell, David. The Santander Regime in Gran Colombia. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1954. ix, 381 p. Also published in Spanish as: El rgimen de Santander en la Gran Colombia, traduccin de Jorge Orlando Melo. Bogot: Ediciones Tercer Mundo: Facultad de Sociologa, Universidad Nacional, 1966. 403 p. See especially chapter 19: The Plight of Ecuador (p. 310-317) = La difcil situacin del Ecuador (p. 341-349). 1586. Caicedo, Manuel Jos. Viaje imaginario por las provincias limtrofes de Quito, Cronistas de la independencia y de la Repblica (item 1607), p. 29-111. An eye witness account of the events leading up to and culminating in the massacre of Aug. 2, 1810, by a nephew of Bishop Cuero y Caicedo. 1587. Camacho Santos, Efran. Ciento cincuenta aos de existencia cvica guayaquilea, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:115 (ene./jun. 1970), 26-46. Notwithstanding the title, a synthesis of the movement for independence in Guayaquil. 1588. Carbia, Romulo D. San Martn y Bolvar, frente al hallazgo de nuevos documentos: pruebas tcnicas de la autenticidad de los que diera a conocer el embajador Eduardo L. Colombres Mrmol, y respuesta a las impugnaciones formuladas contra ellos por don Vicente Lecuna, todas las cuales fueran aceptadas por la Academia Nacional de la Historia, de Venezuela. Buenos Aires: Tall. Grf. de la Compaa Gral. Fabril Financiera, S.A., 1941. 234 p. Carbias attempt to justify his authentication of the Colombres Mrmol letters, supposedly written by Bolvar, Sucre, and San Martn, regarding the 1822 meeting between the Liberator and the Protector and Sucres opinion of San Martn as a military leader, but considered to be apocryphal by almost everyone else, including apparently the real Colombres Mrmol (see item 1839). See also items 1598, 1599, 1716, and

1804. 1589. Carrin, Agustn; and Rafael Riofro. Loja en la batalla de Pichincha (18221922). Loja: Impr. El Heraldo, 1922. 53 p. 1590. Carrin, Alejandro. La independencia de Loja, Revista del Archivo Nacional de Historia, Seccin del Azuay, 5 (1985), 64-106. Not just another eulogistic regurgitation, but a critical reexamination of political and economic developments in Loja and its province during the 1820s, based on original research. 1591. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Dos guayaquileos precursores de la independencia americana: el Coronel Jacinto Bejarano y el egregio Jos de Antepara, Cuadernos de historia y arqueologa, 9:25/26 (ene. 1959- dic. 1960), 107-120. Also published as a separate: Guayaquil: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Guayas, 1963. 17 p. 1592. Castillo, Abel Romeo. Relatos de la revolucin de Octubre, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 53:116 (jul./dic. 1970), 153-159. Regarding the three coeval accounts of Villamil (item 1889), Fajardo (item 1663), and Roca (item 1840); reworked as the Introduccin to item 1695. 1593. Castillo, Abel Romeo. La versin guayaquilea oficial de la entrevista de Guayaquil, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1:2 (dic. 1972), 5-16. Reproduces and analyzes the July 27, 1822 Suplemento al Patriota de Guayaquil, i.e., the issue containing the earliest version of the meeting between the Liberator and the Protector. 1594. Cevallos Garca, Gabriel. El 10 de agosto y nosotros, Anales de la Universidad de Cuenca, 15:3/4 (jul./dic. 1959), 423-448. An extended commentary on Borreros Quito, luz de Amrica (item 1580). Cevallos Garca reminds Ecuadorians that independence although inevitable was not a simple process and the men of August were neither heroes nor traitors but human beings groping for solutions to complicated problems and complex issues. Reprinted in the authors De aqu y de all: seleccin de artculos y estudios publicados en los ltimos diez aos (Cuenca: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo del Azuay, 1962), p. 331363. Also in his: Temas histricos ecuatorianos (item 217), vol. 2, p. 1-35. 1595. Coleccin de documentos para la historia de Colombia: (poca de la independencia), compilados por Sergio Elas Ortiz. Bogot: Academica Colombiana de Historia, 1964-1965. 2 v. Includes many primary sources, especially vol. 1, relating to the movements for independence in the future Ecuador. 1596. Coloma Coloma, Luis Fernando. La batalla de Camino Real: en el contexto histrico de 1809 a 1822. Guaranda: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Ncleo de Bolvar, 1984. 32 p.

1597. Colombia. Cuerpo de leyes de la Repblica de Colombia. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela, Consejo de Desarrollo Cientfico y Humanstico, 1961. xxiii, 605 p. Covers the years 1821-1827. Indexed. A basic set of sources for the Gran Colombia period. 1598. Colombres Mrmol, Eduardo L. San Martn y Bolvar en la entrevista de Guayaquil: a la luz de nuevos documentos definitivos. Buenos Aires: Coni, 1940. xlix, 460 p. This work may have been written by Jos M. Gonzlez Alfonso and the correspondence or letters constituting the nuevos documentos definitivos on which he based his spirited defense of San Martns withdrawal from the South American scene shortly after meeting with Bolvar in Guayaquil, may have been apocryphal. See items 1716 and 1839. 1599. Colombres Mrmol, Eduardo L. (hijo). La entrevista de Guayaquil: hacia su esclarecimiento. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1972. 230 p. Just when I though I had this particular conundrum resolved, at least to my satisfaction, it turns out that the controversy regarding the authenticity of the Lafrond letter and supporting documentation refuses to die. Furthermore, it may be that Eduardo L. Colombres Mrmol (padre) really wrote item 1598. Or is it that his son is apocryphal too? Especially at pains to refute Romulo D. Carbia (item 1588) and Antonio Jorge Prez Amuchstegui (item 1804). It would help the sons case had he indexed this defense of his fathers book and provided a proper bibliography. Be that as it may, it is curious, to say the least, that there does not appear to be a single reference there within to William Spence Robertsons acclamatory article (item 1839) on the true identity of Colombres Mrmol (padre) and the lack of authenticity of the Lafond letter. 1600. Cordero Palacios, Octavio. La contra revolucin de 1809, Unin literaria (Cuenca), ser. 6, 7 (ene. 1917), 293-306, 341-355. 1601. Cordero Palacios, Octavio. Crnicas documentadas para la historia de Cuenca: la emancipacin, noviembre de 1820-mayo de 1822. Cuenca: Universidad del Azuay, 1920. vi, 396 p. Nominally Tomo I, but no more were published. Advances only to Jan. 1821. Includes a chapter on Nuestros prceres. Published the texts of many documents and therefore is as much a compendium of primary sources as a monograph. 1602. Correspondencia de la Secretara General del Libertador Simn Bolvar: aos de 1823 1826, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 2:3/4 (ene./dic. 1951), 159220. 1603. Correspondencia de la Secretara Gral. del Libertador Simn Bolvar, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 1:1 (ene./jun. 1950), 177-231. Items 1602 and 1603 published dispatches from 1823-1826 and 1822-1823, respectively, the originals of which are in the Archivo Nacional de Historia (Quito).

1604. Correspondencia del Presidente de la Real Audiencia, don Joaqun de Molina, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 30:75 (ene./dic. 1950), 75-110; 30:76 (jul./dic. 1950), 190-215. 1605. Correspondencia del Presidente de la Real Audiencia de Quito, don Toribio Montes, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 31:77 (ene./jun. 1951), 120-148. Molina was president of the Audiencia between 1810 and 1812 and Montes between 1812 and 1817. 1606. Costales Samaniego, Alfredo. Dcada sangrienta, 1809-1822. Quito: Edit. Fray Jodoco Ricke, 1954. 118 p. 1607. Cronistas de la independencia y de la repblica, introduccin [y selecciones] de Carlos R. Tobar [et al.]. Puebla: J.M. Cajica, Jr., 1960. 650 p. (Biblioteca ecuatoriana mnima; [15]) One of the least satisfactory volumes in the set. Overly ambitious and poorly edited. Important only because it made available the otherwise scarce: Viaje imaginario of Manuel Jos Caicedo (item 1586). 1608. Cubitt, David J. La anexin de la Provincia de Guayaquil, 1822: estudio del estilo poltico bolivariano, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 7:13 (jun. 1978), 729. Examines the final steps leading up to the incorporation of the Free Province of Guayaquil into Colombia, revising previous accounts to some extent. Also published in: Revista de historia de Amrica, 86 (jul./dic. 1978), 193-219. 1609. Cubitt, David J. La composicin de una elite hispanoamericana de la independencia: Guayaquil en 1820, Revista de historia de Amrica, 94 (jul./dic. 1982), 7-31. Attempts to draw a collective portrait of the political leadership of the port city and its district, with inclusion of both examples of individuals and some quantitative analysis of the group. Limited, however, by less than full scale research. Does not offer any startling findings--merchants and landowners loom large--but nonetheless, a solid contribution. Also published as: La composicin social de una elite hispanoamericana a la independencia: Guayaquil en 1820, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 66:141/142 (ene./dic. 1983), 217-237. 1610. Cubitt, David J. Economa y poltica en Guayaquil independiente: El Amigo del pas de Francisco Roca, 1822, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 10:19 (jun. 1981), 5-58. A solid study of a rare yet important source on the political econony of the Free Province of Guayaquil, Francisco Mara Rocas El amigo del pas, o, Ensayos sobre la felicidad de esta provincia (Guayaquil: Impr. de la Ciudad, 1822), the text of which Cubitt reproduces. Also published in English as: Economy and Politics in Independent Guayaquil: Francisco Rocas El amigo del pas, 1822, Revista de historia de Amrica, 121 (ene./dic. 1996), 83-129. See also the anonymous response to Roca, a work that heretofore seems to have eluded most of us: El amigo de sus conciudadanos, por un

hijo de Guayaquil. Lima: Impr. del Estado, 1822. [3], 27, [2], 28-39, [2] p. 1611. Cubitt, David J. Economic Nationalism in Post-Independence Ecuador: The Guayaquil Commercial Code of 1821-1825, Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, N.F., 11:1 (1985), 65-82. An insightful as well as original analysis of the ideological underpinnings and economic ramifications of the yet to be recovered Cdigo de comercio of 1 Mar., 1821, the provisions of which Cubitt reconstructs through collateral sources. Also published in Spanish as: El nacionalismo econmico en la post-independencia de Ecuador: el Cdigo de comercio de Guayaquil de 1821-1825, Revista ecuatoriana de historia econmica, 1:2 (1987), 131-150. 1612. Cubitt, David J. The Government, the Criollo Elite and the Revolution of 1820 in Guayaquil, Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, n.f., 8:3 (1982), 283-295. A well researched study of the port city and its province in the decade preceding the 9 de octubre. Argues that the colonial order was subverted by the controversy over the Spanish constitution, problems with the administration of Indian tributes, and the growing financial difficulties of merchants and planters. 1613. Cubitt, David J. Guerra y diplomacia en la Repblica de Guayaquil, 18201822, Revista de historia de Amrica, 72 (jul./dic. 1971), 391-411. A succinct, well balanced review of the military-diplomatic situation of the Free Province of Guayaquil. N.B. Taken together, items 1608-1613 apparently constitute a revision of Cubitts doctoral dissertation on the 9 de octubre. 1614. Chacn Izurieta, Galo E. Historia militar del Ecuador: fragmento: guerra de la independencia,1820-1823. Quito: Edit. Ena, 1978. 202 p. Cover title: Historia militar del Ecuador, 1820-1823. 1615. Chaves, Julio Csar. La entrevista de Guayaquil. Buenos Aires: Edit. Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1965. 107 p. Chaves, a Paraguayan historian, defends the authenticity of the Lafond letter (i.e., San Martns letter of 29 Aug. 1822), published for the first time in French by Gabriel Lafond de Lurcy in his Voyages autour du monde et naufrages clbres (Paris: Administration de librarie, 1844), rejected by Vicente Lecuna (see item 1717), but accepted by more objective scholars such as Gerhard Masur (see item 1748). 1616. Chiriboga, Manuel. Las fuerzas del poder durante el perodo de la independencia y la Gran Colombia, Nueva historia del Ecuador (item 615), vol. 6, p. 263-306. Originally published as Las fuerzas del poder en 1830, Cultura, 2:6 (ene./abr. 1980), 171-208. See also the Crticas y comentarios (p. 209-225). An exceptionally important essay inasmuch as Chiriboga examines the reasons why Ecuador became a colony of itself in 1830 or rather why it did not emerge from the wars for independence as a nation state but rather as an agglutination of heterogenous regions dominated by local and regional elites.

1617. Chiriboga C., Gustavo. El ayuntamiento constitucional de Quito da principio en nueve de septiembre de 1820, Autos acordados de la Real Audiencia de Quito, 15781722 (item1350), p. 433-464. 1618. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Bolvar en el Ecuador. Quito: Tall. Grf. de Educacin Pblica, 1942. 189 p. The Bolvars that emerges from the pages of this work is a larger than life hero, the Liberator who could do no wrong, but who has been misunderstood and maligned by lesser mortals. To be read not as a study of the Gran Colombian years but as a contribution to the cult of Bolvar in Ecuador. Reprinted: Guayaquil: Departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil, 1986. (Biblioteca Ecuatoriana; 61) 1619. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Campaas de libertad: guerra entre Colombia y el Per, 1828-1829: campaa de los 30 das: Tarqui. Quito: Estado Mayor General, 1950. 274 p. 1620. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Compilacin: documentos histricos oficiales sobre las campaas de la libertad. Quito: Estado Mayor General, 1948. 108 p. 1621. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Divulgacin: historia militar: campaas de la libertad 1819-1829. Quito: Estado Mayor General, 1948. 2 v. 1622. Chiriboga N., Angel Isaac. Tarqui documentado. Quito: Impr. Ziga, 19601961. 2 v. (Biblioteca militar ecuatoriana; vol. 23) Reprint; originally published: Quito: Tall. Tip. Nacionales, 1929. 3 v. Fortunately Chiriboga was a much better compiler of documents and military historian than he was a biographer. Items 1619-1621, therefore, are more or less solid accounts of the wars of independence, if somewhat overdrawn insofar as the prcer participants are concerned. 1623. Davis, Roger P. Ecuador Under Gran Colombia, 1820- 1830: Regionalism, Localism, and Legitimacy in the Emergence of an Andean Republic. ix, 306 leaves. 1983. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Arizona. A detailed, well documented study of political and military developments and events of the 1820s. Examines what was happening in Guayaquil as well as in Quito. Also takes into account demographic and economic aspects of the decade and their impact on the political scene and vice versa to some extent, especially during the second half of the decade. Cuenca and the Department of Azuay are not taken into account as fully as they should have been, however, and less than ideal attention is paid to what went on at the local level even in Guayaquil and Quito. This appears to be because Davis was unable to undertake research in Guayaquil, Cuenca, and oddly enough, not even Bogot. Nonetheless, the best work on Ecuador in Colombia as of July 1997. 1624. Davis, Roger P. The Local Dynamics of National Dissent: the Ecuadorian Pronunciamientos of 1826, Historian, 55:2 (Winter 1993), 289-302. A comparative study of the pronunciamientos of Guayaquil, Quito, and Cuenca against Santander and in support of Bolvar. Argues that the outlines of early Ecuador can be

discerned said manifestations. In this regard, it should be remembered that Bolvar tended to offset the negative impact of the centralization on the southern departments through the exercise of executive fiat regardless of what he personally thought about the attitudes and behavior of quiteos and guayaquileos. A revision of chapter 6 of the authors dissertation (item 1623). 1625. De la Barra, Felipe. La campaa de Quito, 1820-1822: estudio histrico militar. Chorrillos, Peru: Impr., Litogr. y Encuadernacin de la Escuela Militar, 1924. vi, 57, [2] p. 1626. De la Torre, Carlos H. Apuntes de historia militar nacional: campaa libertadora 1820-1823, primer perodo. Quito: Tall. Tip. Nacionales, 1923. 133 p. 1627. De la Torre Reyes, Carlos. Gnesis y proyecciones de la batalla de Pichincha, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 55:119 (ene./jun. 1972), 55-60. 1628. De la Torre Reyes, Carlos. La revolucin de Quito del 10 de agosto de 1809. Quito: Tall. Grf. de Educacin, 1962. 721 p. Detailed and well documented but clearly the work of an amateur. The background chapters on Antecedentes, for example, are less than satisfactory. Reprinted with an introductory study Carlos de la Torre y su historia del 10 de agosto de 1809 by Jorge Salvador Lara: Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1990. 621 p. (Coleccin histrica; 13) 1629. De los procesos contra los patriotas del 10 de agosto de 1809: acta en la que se ve al Obispo de Quito, Jos Cuero y Caicedo, presidiendo la sesin de la Sala Capitular, Museo Histrico, 9:29 (1957), 104-111. 1630. Destruge, Camilo. La columna de Octubre: relacin histrica del homenaje de Guayaquil a los prceres de la independencia. Guayaquil: Impr. Municipal , 1918. 60 p. 1631. Destruge, Camilo. Cuestin histrica, la entrevista de Bolvar y San Martn en Guayaquil. Guayaquil: Impr. Municipal, 1918. 59 p. Originally published as: Entrevista de Bolvar y San Martn en Guayaquil, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:71 (mar./abr. 1918), 471-476; 3:72 (mayo 1918), 488-494; 3:73 (jun. 1918), 1-7; 3:74 (jul. 1918), 17-25. 1632. Destruge, Camilo. Ecuador: controversia histrica sobre la iniciativa de la independencia americana: refutacin de un alegato. Guayaquil: Uzctegui & Ca., 1909. 134 p. Defends Quitos claim to have been the first city in Spanish America to declare its independence from Spain. 1633. Destruge, Camilo. El Ecuador en la campaa libertadora del Per, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 8:21/23 (ene./jun. 1924), 146-155. 1634. Destruge, Camilo. La goleta Guayaquilea, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:30 (ago./sept. 1912), 81-88; 3:31 (oct./nov. 1912), 97-106; 3:32 (dic. 1912), 113-119.

1635. Destruge, Camilo. Guayaquil en la campaa libertadora del Per: relacin histrica. Guayaquil: Libr. e Impr. La Reforma, 1924. v, 106 p. 1636. Destruge, Camilo. Historia de la revolucin de octubre y la campaa libertadora de 1820-22, 2 ed. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1982. xxii, 480 p. Reprint; originally published: Barcelona: Impr. Elzeviriana de Borrs, 1920, under the pseudonym DAmecourt. 407 p. The classic account of the 20 de octubre and the Provincia Libre de Guayaquil. Exceptionally detailed. But see also the modern studies of Cubitt (items 1608-1613), Estrada Ycaza (item 1659) and Fazio Fernndez (items 1666 and 1667). 1637. Destruge, Camilo. Los realistas de Guaranda, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 2:21 (nov. 1911), 337-342. 1638. Destruge, Camilo. San Martn en Guayaquil, Boletn de la Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil, 3:57 (mayo 1916), 137-148. 1639. Daz Venteo, Fernando. Las campaas militares del Virrey Abascal, 1 ed. Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1948. xii, 416 p. A solid study of the suppressions of the rebellions of 1809 and 1810 in Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. On the campaigns undertaken against Quito, see p. 81124. 1640. Diez documentos sobre la participacin del clero en la independencia de la Real Audiencia de Quito, [recopilados y publicados] por Luis Prez Tern, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 62:133/134 (ene./dic. 1979), 211-224. 1641. Documentos: causa criminal contra Apolinar Morillo y cmplices del asesinato de Sucre. Bogot: Impr. del Estado por J. Cualla, 1843. 163 p. Reprinted: Quito: Edit. Rumiahui, 1953. 332 p. 1642. Un Documento interesante, [publicado por] Sergio Elas Ortz, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 48:105 (ene./jun. 1965), 38-69. Publishes with an introduction by Ortz the Anteojo fiscal ltimo para leer la vista fiscal (p. 42-57) Although undated this document appears to have been written in mid 1810. Anonymous but obviously drafted by a sympathizer, if not supporter, of the Men of August, it was written in response to the crown prosecutors charges against the prceres (Acusacin del Fiscal Arechaga) of 21 Apr. 1810, here within reproduced (p. 58-69). 1643. Documentos de la guerra de 1828-1829: la campaa de los treinta das, terminada por la batalla Tarqui, [recopilados por] Angel I. Chiriboga. Quito: Impr. Nacional, 1928. 80 p. Consists primarily of correspondence between OLeary, Sucre, and Lamar. 1644. Documentos del Archivo de Indias de Sevilla sobre la revolucin de Quito, copia de J. Rumazo [y con una introduccin por] Isaac J. Barrera, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 27:70 (jul./dic. 1947), 233-312.

1645. Documentos para el estudio de la independencia, [versin de] Rafael Euclides Silva, Anales del Archivo Nacional de Historia y Museo Unico, poca 2, 1 (1939), 170194. 1646. Documentos referentes a la batalla de Ibarra con la narracin histrica de la campaa de Pasto, [recopilados] por C. de Gangotena y Jijn. Quito: Tall. Tipogrficos Nacionales, 1923. xxi, 87 p. Reprinted: Ibarra: Centro de Estudios Culturales de Imbabura, 1992. 1647. Documentos referentes al prcer y mrtir guayaquileo doctor don Juan Pablo Arenas, los publica C. de Gangotena y Jijn. Quito: [s.n.], 1924. 20 p. 1648. Documentos relacionados con el primer grito de la independencia: 10 de agosto de 1809, Boletn del Archivo Nacional de Historia, 5:9/10 (dic. 1959), 7-83. 1649. Documentos sobre la entrevista de Guayaquil, selecciones de Abel Romeo Castillo. Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1972. 94 p. A potpourri of standard sources. 1650. Documentos y relaciones sobre la accin de armas del 21 de abril de 1822. Quito: Prensa Catlica, 1922. 51 p. Refers to the Battle of Tapi. 1651. Dueas de Anhalzer, Carmen. The Political Culture in the Presidency of Quito at Independence: a Regional Comparison. 1992. v, 346 leaves. Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Florida. A comparative study of the political culture of the aristocracy of Quito, the merchants and planters of Guayaquil, and the vecinos (including indigenous) of Portoviejo. Published as: Marqueses, cacaoteros, y vecinos de Portoviejo: (cultura poltica en la Presidencia de Quito). Quito: Universidad San Francisco de Quito; Edit. Abya-Yala, 1997. 320 p. 1652. La Emancipacin de Cuenca: compilacin de documentos oficiales del ao 1.820 relativos a la independencia de las provincias azuayas, [recopilados por] Remigio Romero Len. Cuenca: Impr. de la Universidad, 1915. 32 p. 1653. Encina, Francisco Antonio. Bolvar y la independencia de la Amrica Espaola. Santiago: Edit. Nacimiento, 1954-1965. 8 v. See especially vol. 5: Emancipacin de la Presidencia de Quito, del Virreinato de Lima y del Alto Per (1954). 1654. Encina, Francisco Antonio. La entrevista de Guayaquil: fin del protectorado y defuncin del Ejrcito Libertador de Chile. Santiago: Edit. Nascimento, 1953. 195 p. 1655. Espejo, Guillermo. Recuerdos histricos: San Martn y Bolvar: entrevista de Guayaquil (1822). Quito: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1984. 173 p. Reprint; originally published: Buenos Aires: Impr. de T. Goodby, 1873.

1656. Espinosa Plit, Aurelio. Cundo empez Olmedo a pensar en la independencia, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 7:12/17 (1947), 133145. 1657. Espinoza, Leonardo. Bolvar y el parto del rgimen gamonalicio oligrquico en el Ecuador, Simn Bolvar: en homenaje al bicentenario de su nacimiento (Cuenca: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1983), p. 271-302. 1658. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. El comercio de armas en la guerra de independencia: la Compaa Muoz-Henderson en 1820-1821, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 8:16 (dic. 1979), 29-59. 1659. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. La lucha de Guayaquil por el Estado de Quito, 1 ed. Guayaquil: Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1984. 2 v. (xxii, 653 p.) A modern account of the role of Guayaquil in the movements for independence. Includes new data on the late colonial and Gran Colombia years as well. Maintains that Guayaquil no era partidaria de Colombia, como tampoco era de Per; lo que deseaba era el Estado de Quito, y para ello era menester lograr, en primer trmino, la libertad de Quito y de Cuenca ... Supplements but does not supersede Destruges classic Historia de la revolucin de octubre (item 1636). Indexed. 1660. Estrada Ycaza, Julio. El triunfo del civilismo en el Estado de Guayaquil, Revista del Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 9:18 (dic. 1980), 5-24. 1661. Estupin Bass, Csar Nevil. Albores de libertad: memorial sobre la independencia de Esmeraldas, 1 ed. Esmeraldas: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1986. 107 p. Loosely based on the expediente published four years previously in Cultura (item 1800). Unfortunately Estupin Bass is not nearly as good a historian as he is a poet. It is not his rhetoric that is bothersome but his gross ignorance of the past of his terruo. But lacking any scholarly study, see also Estupin Basss La independencia de Esmeraldas, the first edition of which appeared in 1943, and the second in 1961. 1662. Expediente sobre la licencia que concedi el Superior Tribunal de la Real Audiencia, al alcalde ordinario don Vicente Rocafuerte, para ausentarse de esta ciudad, y la sospecha que induce haber ocultado que su destino era a lugares ultramarinos, Universidad, Universidad Catlica de Santiago de Guayaquil, 10/11 (dic. 1970), 91-109. At head of title: Guayaquil, ao de 1810. Transcribed by Juan Freile Granizo. 1663. Fajardo, Manuel J. Resea histrica de los sucesos polticos y militares de la Provincia de Guayaquil desde 1810 hasta 1823. Lima: Impr. de A. Alfaro, 1867. 40 p. One of the three coeval accounts (see also items 1840 and 1889). Available in several reprints (e.g., Acontecimientos polticos, octubre 1.820, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 11:26/28 [1958], 97-128) and anthologies (e.g., item 1695). 1664. Favaloro, Ren G. La memoria de Guayaquil. Buenos Aires: Torres Agero Editor, 1991. 79 p.

Adds absolutely nothing new to the controversy. According to Favaloro, a physician who dabbles in history, Bolvar and San Martn were two larger than life heroes who not only admired and respected one another but worked for the unity of America, a unity that would be shattered by otros polticos y los pueblos, con sus nacionalismo o regionalismo o simples odios recprocos ... 1665. Fazio Fernndez, Mariano. El Guayaquil colombiano, 1822-1830. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Subgerencia del Centro de Investigacin y Cultura, Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1988. x, 453 p. A detailed, well documented study. Considerably enriches our knowledge of the politics of the port city and its district during the years between Guayaquils annexation to Colombia and the southern departmentss separation therefrom. Also includes some new data on ecclesiastical and cultural developments. 1666. Fazio Fernndez, Mariano. Ideologa de la emancipacin guayaquilea. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, Archivo Histrico del Guayas, 1987. ix, 168 p. A study of ideological developments in the port city during the late- colonial and independence periods. Especially concerned with the emergence of liberalism in Ecuador. 1667. Ferro, Carlos A. San Martn y la revolucin ecuatoriana. Buenos Aires: Edit. Cuarto Poder, 1976. 183 p. An exceptionally dispassionate account that details the major presence of Argentinian and Peruvian officials and troops in the defeat of the royalists at Pichincha, the ties between Guayaquil and Peru, and Olmedos not altogether unsuccessful efforts to obtain San Martns support in consolidating the port citys independence, in the liberation of the highlands from Spanish rule, and in blocking Bolvars takeover of the Provincia Libre de Guayaquil. In this regard, it should be remembered that Colombian accounts of the independence of the future Ecuador, especially insofar as the port city is concerned, are less than objective. Well documented. 1668. Flores, Antonio. El asesinato del Gral. Sucre y el Discurso de monseor Gonzlez Surez. Paris: Wattier Hermanos, 1900. 17, xii p. 1669. Flores, Antonio. El asesinato del Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho. New York: Impr. de Las Novedades, 1882. 93 p. 1670. Flores, Antonio. El Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho: el asesinato, 2 ed. corr. y aum. New York: Impr. de Las Novedades, 1883. 695 p. Revised and considerably augmented version of item 1669. Antonio Flores Jijn never tired of trying to prove that his father Juan Jos had nothing to do with the assassination of Sucre. Reprinted with a Prlogo por Jorge Villalba F. S.J.: Quito: Grupo Aymesa, 1995. 517 p. (Biblioteca Grupo Aymesa; 13) 1671. Flores y Caamao, Alfredo. Descubrimiento histrico relativo a la independencia de Quito, con una cartaprlogo del eminente historigrafo Ilmo. Federico Gonzlez Surez. Quito: Impr. de El Comercio, 1909. v, 39, lxxix p.

Examines the role of Juan Jos Guerrero, the Marqus de Selva Florida, in the 10 de agosto. Includes an appendix of sources. 1672. Flores y Caamao, Alfredo. Don Jos Meja Lequerica en las Cortes de Cdiz, de 1810 a 1813. Barcelona: Casa Edit. Maucci, 1908. lx, 570 p. 1673. Flores y Caamao, Alfredo. Objeciones histricas a la obra intitulada: Angel Grisanti. El gran Mariscal de Ayacucho y su esposa la Marquesa de Solanda. Caracas, Impr. Nacional, 1955 y a tres anteriores del mismo origen. Lima: Edit. Salesiana, 1960. 390 p. 1674. Fuentes-Figueroa Rodrguez, Julin. La emancipacin del Ecuador: (el Libertador y Sucre en el sur), 1 ed. Caracas: Grficas Herpa, 1974. 296 p. (Historia general de Venezuela: documentos - narracin - crtica ; t. III) This vol. covers Aug. 1822 through June 1823, and consists entirely of correspondence of Bolvar, all of which has been published before elsewhere. A useful but hardly indispensable compendium of primary source materials therefore. 1675. Gilmore, Robert L. The Imperial Crisis, Rebellion and the Viceroy: New Granada in 1809, Hispanic American Historical Review, 40:1 (Feb. 1960), 1-24. Examines the reactions of Bogot, Popayn, and Pasto to 10 de agosto in Quito. 1676. Gonzlez, Julio Csar. La misin Guido Luzuriaga a Guayaquil (1820), Boletn del Instituto de Historia Argentina Doctor Emilio Ravignani, 2 ser., 13:22/23 (1970), 5116. A solid study of initial relations between San Martn, in Lima, and the Provincia Libre de Guayaquil. 1677. Gonzlez, Nicols Augusto. El asesinato del Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho. Lima: Librera E. Moreno, 1901. 4 v. A rambling and somewhat tendentious but heavily documented work that touches upon many aspects of the independence, Gran Colombian, and early national periods. Blames Flores for Sucres death. Also published in a 2 ed.: Quito: Tip. Escuela de Artes y Oficios, 1906-Bogot: Impr. de La Luz, 1908. 2 v. 1678. Gray, William H. Bolvars Conquest of Guayaquil, Hispanic American Historical Review, 27:4 (Nov. 1947), 603-622. A solid study of the Liberators annexation of the Free Province of Guayaquil to his Colombia. Based on published materials and research in the Archivo Diplomtico y Consular in Bogot, a repository that appears to have been slighted by Ecuadorianists. 1679. Grisanti, Angel. El proceso contra los asesinos del Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho. Caracas: Ediciones Garrido, 1955. 402 p. Accuses Obando. 1680. Guerrero, Antonio Esteban. Carta sobre los sucesos del 10 de agosto, ARNAHIS, 11:17 (ago. 1968), 108-110.

1681. Guzmn Carrasco, Marco Antonio. La revolucin quitea del 10 de agosto de 1809. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1961. 116 p. (i.e., p. 1-116) Published together with: the authors Significado y consecuencias de la batalla de Pichincha (item 1682); and Carlos Eduardo Prezs El 10 de agosto de 1809 (item 1803). 1682. Guzmn Carrasco, Marco Antonio. Significado y consecuencias de la batalla de Pichincha. Quito: Edit. Universitaria, 1961. 16 p. (i.e., p. 117-132). Published together with: the authors La revolucin quitea del 10 de agosto de 1809 (item 1681); and Carlos Eduardo Prezs El 10 de agosto de 1809 (item 1803). 1683. Hamerly, Michael T. Selva Alegre, President of the Quitea Junta of 1809: Traitor or Patriot?, Hispanic American Historical Review, 48:4 (Nov. 1968), 642-653. A dispassionate discussion of the question and a critical review of literature on the subject, especially of studies published in conjunction with the sesquicentennial of the 10 de agosto. 1684. Harker Valdivieso, Roberto. La entrevista de Guayaquil: Bolvar y San Martn, Museo Histrico, 15:43/44 (1963), 210-231. Adds nothing new to the controversy. 1685. Hazaas y mritos de los gobernadores de Guayaquil, Cuenca y Popayn, en la revolucin del 10 de agosto de 1809, Museo Histrico, 12/13 (mayo 1952), 32-66. 1686. Heredia, Jos Flix. El 11 de noviembre de 1820 en Riobamba, Dios y patria (Riobamba), 4:16 (oct. 1927), 351-386. 1687. Heredia, Jos Flix. D. Len de Febres Cordero, gobernador y comandante militar de Riobamba independiente: (28 de abril-25 de octubre de 1822), Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 4:10/11 (mar./abr. 1922), 241-289. Also published as a separate: Quito: Tip. y Encuadernacin Salesianas, 1922. 49 p. 1688. Hoja de servicios del prcer Juan de Dios Morales, Boletn de la Academia Nacional de Historia, 51:112 (jul./dic. 1968), 267-271. Published by Sergio Elas Ortiz. 1689. Hojas militares de prceres, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 1:1 (1930/1931), 28-30; 4:4/6 (1934-1936), 158-161. 1690. Homenaje a los prceres de la independencia de Guayaquil: documentos histricos y artculos conmemorativos. Quito: Tall. Tipogrficos Nacionales, 1920. 52 p. 1691. Hoover, John P. La ruta de Sucre a Guayaquil, Museo Histrico, 54 (1972), 55-73. Includes some new data. 1692. Hoover, John P. Sucre y la entrevista de Guayaquil, Boletn de la Academia

Nacional de la Historia (Caracas), 53:210 (abr./jun. 1970), 294-301. 1693. Ibaez Snchez, Jos Roberto. Campaa del sur, 1822: Bombona-Pichincha. Bogot: Impr. de las Fuerzas Militares, 1972. xv, 453 p. 1694. Illingworth, Juan. Comunicaciones dirigidas por el General Juan Illingwort [sic], intendente del Departamento de Guayaquil al intendente del Departamento de Quito, durante el mes de enero de 1823, [edicin de] Jorge Prez Concha, Boletn del Centro de Investigaciones Histricas, 6:8/11 (1941), 182-185. 1695. La Independencia de Guayaquil: 9 de octubre de 1820, Jos Villamil [et al.]; seleccin de Abel Romeo Castillo. Guayaquil: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1983. xiv, 179 p. A convenient anthology of memoirs of participants Fajardo (item 1663), and Villami