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BI 2. IU CH TNG T CHO TN HIU S ASK, FSK, QPSK, QAM MODULATION-DEMODULATION 1. iu ch ASK.

a. L thuyt iu ch ASK. iu ch kho dch bin ASK(Ampitude Shift Keying) : sng iu bin c to ra bng cch thay i bin sng mang theo bin tn hiu bng gc. Phng php ny vi cc bit 0 v 1 lm thay i bin ca tn hiu sngmang, trong tc truyn tn hiu ASK b gii hn bi cc c tnh vt l ca mi trng truyn. Truyn dn ASK thng rt nhy cm vi nhiu .Nhi ny thng l cc tn hiu in p xut hin trn ng dy t cc ngun tn hiu khc nh hng c ln bin ca tn hiu ASK. Bng thng dng cho ASK: BW = (1+d).Nbaud Trong : BW: bng thng Nbaud : tc baud d: tha s lin quan n iu kin ng dy (c gi tr b nht l 0) Ta thy bng thng ti thiu cn cho qu trnh truyn th bng tc baud. Gii iu ch l qu trnh ngc li vi qu trnh iu ch .Trong qu trnh thu c c mt trong cc tham s : bin , tn s,pha ca tn hiu sng mang c bin i theo tn hiu iu ch v ty theo phng thc iu ch m ta c c cc phng thc gii iu ch thch hp ly li thng tin cn thit.

Hnh 1.1. S khi ca iu ch ASK.

Hnh 1.2. S khi ca gii iu ch ASK. b. Kt qu th nghim - iu ch ASK trc tip

Hnh 1.3. iu ch ASK trc tip. Gii iu ch ASK trc tip.

Hnh 1.4. Gii iu ch ASK trc tip. iu ch ASK m vi phn 1 bt.

Hnh 1.5. iu ch ASK vi phn 1 bt.

Gii iu ch ASK m vi phn 1 bt.

Hnh 1.6. Gii iu ch ASK vi phn 1 bt. Nhn xt: Kt qu t c gn ging vi l thuyt.

2. iu ch BPSK.
a. C s l thuyt. Kha dch pha nh phn-BPSK kha dch pha nh phn th hai pha u ra c th l vi mt tn s sng mang n .Trong hai pha th mt trong hai pha tng ng vi mc logic 1 v mt pha tng ng vi mc logic 0.Nu nh trng thi ca tn hiu nh phn u vo c s thay i th hai gc pha u ra cng bin i lch pha nhau 1800 .Cng v vy m tn hiu BPSK cn c gi l kha o pha (PRK-phase reversal keying ) hoc iu ch nh phn. Nguyn tc: cc tn hiu nh phn tc dng ln sng mang lm thay i pha ca sng mang . C th l : Bt 1: pha ca sng mang l 0 Bt 0: pha ca sng mang l 1800 Cc gi tr ny c th ngc li nhng nguyn tc chung l khi c s o bt th pha ca sng mang lch i 1800 .

Bng chn l ca tn hiu iu ch BPSK: Nh phn u vo Logic 0 Logic 1 Pha u ra 1800 00

C th thy r rng hn trong cch biu din trn th thi gian v trng thi ca tn hiu BPSK.

Hinh 2.1. th thi gian v trng thi. b. Kt qu th nghim. - iu ch BPSK trc tip.

Hinh 2.2. iu ch BPSK trc tip.

Gii iu ch BPSK trc tip.

Hinh 2.3. Gii iu ch BPSK trc tip.

iu ch D-BPSK

Hnh 2.4. iu ch D-BPSK.

Hnh 2.5. Gii iu ch D-BPSK.

3. iu ch FSK.
iu ch FSK l phng php iu ch dng 2 tn s khc nhau ca sng mang biu din bt 1 v 0. Tn s cao ng vi bt 1 v tn s thp ng vi bt 0.

Phng php i ch.

Hnh 3.1. Phng php iu ch FSK.

Ph ca iu ch FSK.

Hnh 3.2. Dng ph tn hiu FSK

4. iu ch QAM. iu ch QAM (Quature Amplitude Modulation: iu ch bin vung gc) lphng php iu ch kt hp gia iu bin v iu pha. phng php ny, sng mang sau iu ch c bin v pha thay i theo quy lut ca tn hiu iu ch. Sau y ta xt trng hp c th sau iu ch QAM 16 trng thi (iu ch 16 QAM). p ng yu cu thng tin tc cao, ngi ta phi tng s trng thi pha v bin ca sng mang c c s trng thi pha nhiu v khong cch gia cc trng thi pha ln.

Hnh 4.1. S khi iu ch 16 QAM.

Mch iu ch 16 QAM gm c: - Mch bin i ni tip sang song song c nhim v chia lung s u vo thnh 4 lung c tc bng nhau v bng 1/4 lung s vo. - Mch dao ng VCO: l b dao ng to sng mang c tn s iu khin bng in p. - Mch dch pha 90: bin i sng mang A.cos (t + ) thnh sng mang A.sin (t + ). - B bin i D/A c nhim v nhn hai lung s c hai mc bin u vo bin i thnh mt tn hiu c 4 mc bin (tn hiu tng t) ng ra. - M1, M2: cc b nhn c nhim v nhn cc sng mang vi tn hiu sau cc b bin i D/A. - B cng c nhim v cng cc tn hiu sau khi nhn M1 v M2 to thnh sng mang 16 QAM. Biu pha ca sng mang sau iu ch 16 QAM:

Hnh 4.2. Bi pha ca sng mang 16 QAM. Nguyn l hot ng: S liu cn iu ch c a n mch chuyn i ni tip sang song song, c chia thnh 4 lung D1, D2, D3, D4 c tc bng nhau v bng 1/4 lung s vo. Cc lung D1, D2 c a n b bin i D/A 1 chuyn thnh tn hiu tng t 4 mc A1. Cc lung D3, D4 c a n b bin i D/A 2 chuyn thnh tn hiu tng t

4 mc A2. Sau tn hiu tng t A1 c nhn vi sng mang A.cos(t + ) do b dao ng VCO to ra ti M1, u ra ca M1 ta thu c tn hiu. S1 = A1.Acos . (t + ). Tn hiu tng t A2 c nhn vi sng mang A.sin(t + ) do b dao ng VCO to ra v qua dch pha 90o ti M2, u ra ca M2 ta thu c tn hiu: S2 = A2Asin(t + ). Cc tn hiu S1 v S2 c cng vi nhau to thnh tn hiu 16 QAM. Hnh 4.3 m t dng sng ca iu ch 16 QAM.

Hnh 4.3. Dng sng mch iu ch 16 QAM