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GII TCH NHIU BIN S


Bi 4
PGS. TS. NGUYN XUN THO
6. Trng v hng, o hm theo hng, gradient
Trng v hng
o hm theo hng (mc 19.5)
Gradient
Dng ton c bn
1. Trng v hng. Cho mt trng v hng trong min
3
, l cho mt
hm v hng w = f(x, y, z) xc nh trn min .
V d 1. S phn b nhit trong vt th to nn mt trng v hng trong vt
th y v mi im ca vt th u c mt nhit biu th bng mt s.
Nhng trng v hng m gi tr ca w khng ph thuc vo thi gian c gi l
trng dng.
2. o hm theo hng
Cho hm s w = f(x, y, z) xc nh trn
3
, P , tc
bin thin ca hm f(x, y, z) khi P di chuyn theo hng
dng ca cc trc Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt l
f
x

,
f
y

,
f
z

.
Khi P bin thin khng theo hng cc trc to th tc
bin thin ca hm f(x, y, z) s nh th no?
Cho P(x, y, z), R = xi + yj + zk l vc t ch v tr ca
P(x, y, z), hng ang xt c xc nh bi vc t n
v u Hnh 19.10
t s = |R|, khi
f
s

l tc bin thin trung bnh ca hm f khi di chuyn t


im P n im Q, PQ

cng hng vi u.
nh ngha. o hm ca hm f ti im P theo hng u (o hm theo hng
ca hm f) l
0
d
lim
d
s
f f
s s


nh ngha trn r rng, nhng s tnh
d
d
f
s
nh th no?
Da vo b c bn ta c
. . .
df f dx f dy f dz
ds x ds y ds z ds

= + +

= .
f f f
i j k u
x y z
| |
+ +
|

\
, u
dR
ds
= .
V d 2. u = x + y + z, tnh o hm ti P(0 ; 1 ; 2) theo hng PQ

, Q = (1 ; 2 ; 1).
1
u u u
x y z

= = =


2
1
P P
P
u u u
x y z
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |

\ \ \

( ) 1; 1; 1 PQ=

, 3 PQ =

, do
1 1 1
; ;
3 3 3
u
| |
=
|
\

P P P
du u u u
i j k u
ds x y z
| |
| | | | | |
= + +
| | | |

\ \
\
\
( )
1 1 1
3 3 3
i j k i j k
| |
= + + +
|
\
=
1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3
| |
+ =
|
\
.
V d 3. u = xyz, tnh o hm ti P(5 ; 1 ; 2) theo hng PQ

, Q = (7 ; 1 ; 3).
u
yz
x

,
u
xz
y

,
u
xy
z


2, 10, 5
P P
P
u u u
x y z
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |

\ \ \

( ) 2; 2 ; 1 PQ=

, 3 PQ =

,
2 2 1
; ;
3 3 3
u
| |
=
|
\

2 2 1
3 3 3
P P P
du u u u
i j k i j k
ds x y z
| |
| | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | | |
\
\ \
\
\

( )
2 2 1
2 10 5
3 3 3
i j k i j k
| |
= + + +
|
\
=
4 20 5 11
3 3 3 3
+ = .
Ch
o hm theo hng ca hm nhiu bin khng ch ph thuc vo im P m
cn ph thuc vo hng u
o hm theo hng ca hm nhiu bin l mt s
nh l. Hm u(x, y, z) kh vi ti P
0
(x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) th ti n c o hm theo mi
hng ti P
0

3. Gradient
a) nh ngha. Cho hm w = f(x, y, z) khi gradient ca hm f c nh ngha
nh sau: grad
f f f
f i j k
x y z

= + +


Ch
gradf l vc t
( ) grad
df
f u
ds
=
grad cos
df
f
ds
= , l gc gia gradf v u.

Hnh 19.11
3
b) Cc tnh cht
1. ( ) grad
df
f u
ds
= (xem hnh 19.11)
2. Hng ca vc t gradf l hng m hm f tng nhanh nht.
3. di ca vc t gradf l tc tng ln nht ca f.
V d 4. Cho f(x, y, z) = x
2
y + z
2
, tm o hm theo hng
df
ds
ti im P(1 ; 2 ; 1)
theo hng ca vc t 4i 2j + 4k.
gradf = 2xi j + 2zk
gradf(P) = 2i j + 2k
( )
1
4 2 4
16 4 16
u i j k = +
+ +
=
2 1 2
3 3 3
i j k +
( )
( ) grad
P
df
f P u
ds
= =( )
2 1 2
2 2
3 3 3
i j k i j k
| |
+ +
|
\
=
4 1 4
3
3 3 3
+ + = .
V d 5. Nhit ca khng kh ti cc im trong khng gian c xc nh bi
hm f(x, y, z) = x
2
y + z
2
. Mt con mui u ti im P(1 ; 2 ; 1), c mt
nhanh nht, n phi bay theo hng no?
Theo v d 4, c gradf(P) = 2i j + 2k.
T tnh cht 2 c hng ca gradf l hng m theo nhit tng nhanh nht.
c mt nhanh nht, con mui nn bay ngc hng vi gradf(P) tc l bay
theo hng: gradf(P) = 2i + j 2k.
4. gradf(P
0
) l php tuyn ca mt mc ca hm f ti im P
0
.
Ch
Vc t php tuyn ca mt phng tip xc ti P
0
l
0 0
0
0
grad ( )
P P P
f f f
N f P i j k
x y z
| | | | | |
= = + +
| | |

\ \
\

Nu N 0 th phng trnh tip din ca mt mc ti P
0
l
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
0
0 0 0
0
P P P
f f f
x x y y z z
x y z
| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |

\ \
\

Phng trnh mt phng tip xc trong mc 19.3 ch l trng hp ring, khi
f(x, y, z) = g(x, y) z.
V d 6. Tm phng trnh tip din ca mt xy
2
z
3
= 12 ti im P(3 ; 2 ; 1).
im P(3 ; 2 ; 1) thuc mt cong cho.
gradf = y
2
z
3
i + 2xyz
3
j + 3xy
2
z
2
k
gradf(P) = 4i 12j + 36k
Hm u = xy
2
z
3
kh vi ti P(3 ; 2 ; 1).
Phng trnh tip din l
4
4(x 3) 12(y + 2) + 36(z 1) = 0
x 3 3(y + 2) + 9(z 1) = 0.
Ch
o hm theo hng v gradient c s dng ch yu trong hnh hc v vt
l trong khng gian ba chiu. Tng t cng nhn c cc kt qu ny trong
khng gian hai chiu.
C th vit gradient ca hm f di dng ton t
gradf i j k f f
x y z
| |
= + + =
|

\
,
ton t delta (c l "del")
i j k
x y z
| |
= + +
|

\

3. Cc dng ton c bn
1. Tnh gradient
1(tr. 82). Tnh gradient ca hm f ti P.
a) f(x, y, z) = xy + xz + yz, P (1, 3, 5).
+) grad

f = (y + z)i + (x + z)j + (x + y)k
+) (gradf)(P) = 8i + 4j + 2k
c) f(x, y, z) = ln(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
), P = (1 ; 2 ; 2)
+)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2x 2 2z
grad
x x
y
f i j k
y z x y z y z
= + +
+ + + + + +

+) (gradf)(P) =
2 4 4
9 9 9
i j k +
2. o hm theo hng
2(tr. 82). Tm o hm theo hng ca f ti P theo hng vect a ra.
a) f(x, y, z) = xy
2
+ x
2
z + yz, P = (1 ; 1 ; 2), theo hng i + 2j k
+)
( )
( )
( )
2
2
grad .
1 2 1
df i j k
P f P
ds
+
=
+ +

+) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2 2 .
6
P
i j k
y xz i xy z j x y k
+
(
+ + + + +


+) ( )
2
5 4 2 .
6
i j k
i j k
+
= + +
+)
5 8 2 11
6 6
+
= =
d) f(x, y, z) = xye
z
+ yze
x
, P = (1 ; 0 ; 0), theo hng P n Q(2 ; 2 ; 1)
5
+) Vect ( ) 1; 2 ; 1 PQ =


+)
( ) ( )
2
2
grad .
1 2 1
df i j k
P f P
ds
+ +
=
+ +

+) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
.
6
z x z x z x
i j k
ye yze i xe ze j xye ye k P
+ +
(
= + + + + +


+)
2 2
.
6 6
i j k
j
+ +
= =
3(tr. 83). Tnh gi tr ln nht ca o hm theo hng ca f ti P v hng m
o hm theo hng i gi tr ln nht.
a) f(x, y, z) = sinxy + cosyz, P = (3 ; 0 ; 7)
+) gradf = i(y

cosxy) + j(x

cosxy z

sinyz) k.y

sinyz
+) gradf(P) = 3j
+) GTLN ca
( )
df
P
ds
= |gradf(P)| = 3.
+) Hng ca
df
ds
t GTLN l j
3. Dng hn hp
5(tr. 83). Tm vect n v php tuyn ca mt xyz = 4 ti im P(2 ; 2 ; 1)
+) L mt mc ca hm f(x, y, z) = xyz
+) gradf = yz.i + xz.j + xy.k
+) N = gradf(P) = 2i 2j 4k.
+) Vect php tuyn n v ti P l
2 2 4
24
i j k
hay
2
6
i j k

7(tr. 83). Gi s nhit T ti im P(x, y, z) c xc nh bi T = 2x
2
y
2
+ 4z
2
.
Tm tc bin thin ca T ti (1 ; 2 ; 1) theo hng ca vect 4i j + 2k. Theo
hng no T tng nhanh nht ti im ny? Tc tng ln nht l bao nhiu?
+) gradT = 4x.i 2y.j + 8z.k
+) (gradT)(P) = 4i + 4j + 8k
+) vect n v:
4 2
21
i j k
u
+
=
+) Tc bin thin ca T ti P theo hng 4i j + 2k l
( )
( )
( )
16 4 16 28
grad .
21 21
df
P T P u
ds
+
= = =
+) Hng tng nhanh nht ti P trng vi hng ca gradT l i + j + 2k
+) Tc tng ln nht l |gradT(P)| =
2 2 2
4 4 8 4 6 + + =
6
9(tr. 83). Chng minh rng tip din ca mt bc hai ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
= d ti P
0
(x
0
;
y
0
; z
0
) c phng trnh l ax
0
x + by
0
y + cz
0
z = d
+) Mt bc hai l mt mc ca hm f(x, y, z) = ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2

+) gradf = 2ax.i + 2by.j + 2cz.k
+) gradf(P) = 2ax
0
.i + 2by
0
.j + 2cz
0
.k
+) Vect php tuyn ti P
0
l N = 2ax
0
i + 2by
0
j + 2cz
0
k
+) Phng trnh tip din ti P
0
l
2ax
0
(x x
0
) + 2by
0
(y y
0
) + 2cz
0
(z z
0
) = 0 ax
0
x + by
0
y + cz
0
z = d

7. Quy tc dy chuyn. o hm di du tch phn
Quy tc dy chuyn (mc 19.6)
o hm di du tch phn (mc C. 16)
Dng ton c bn

1. Quy tc dy chuyn i vi o hm ring. Quy tc dy chuyn i vi hm
mt bin s chnh l o hm ca hm hp: w = f(x), x = g(t) khi .
dw df dx
dt dx dt
=
a) Quy tc dy chuyn ca hm hai bin w = f(x, y), x = g(t), y = h(t), w c cc o
hm ring cp mt lin tc, cc hm x, y kh vi lin tc.
. .
dw w dx w dy
dt x dt y dt

= +


V d 1. w = 3x
2
+ 2xy y
2
, x = cost, y = sint, tm
dw
dt
.
6 2 , 2 2
w w
x y x y
x y

= + =

; sin , cos
dx dy
t t
dt dt
= =
( )
( )
( ) 6 2 sin 2 2 cos
dw
x y t x y t
dt
= + +
= (6cost + 2sint)( sint) + (2cost 2sint)cost
= 2cos
2
t 2sin
2
t 8sintcost = 2cos2t 4sin2t
C th thay x = cost, y = sint vo w ri tnh o hm.
Ch
C th m rng kt qu trn khi w = f(x, y, z), x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t), ta c
. . .
dw f dx f dy f dz
dt x dt y dt z dt

= + +

, w c cc o hm ring lin tc, cc hm x,
y, z kh vi lin tc.
7
w = f(x, y), y = y(x), khi
dw f f dy
dx x y dx

= +

, w c cc o hm ring lin
tc, hm y kh vi lin tc.
w = f(x, y), x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), khi . .
w w x w y
u x u y u

= +


. .
w w x w y
v x v y v

= +

, w c cc o hm ring lin tc, cc hm x, y
kh vi lin tc.
b) Quy tc dy chuyn ca hm ba bin
w = f(x, y, z), x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v), cc hm w, x, y c cc o hm
ring lin tc, c
. . .
w f x f y f z
u x u y u z u

= + +

; . . .
w f x f y f z
v x v y v z v

= + +


V d 2. z = e
u
sinv, u = xy, v = x + y. Tnh ,
z z
x y



sin , cos
u u
z z
e v e v
u v

= =

; ,
u u
y x
x y

= =

;
1
v v
x y

= =


sin . cos
u u
z
e v y e v
x

= +

= e
xy
[ysin(x + y) + cos(x + y)]
z
y

= e
u
sinv. x + e
u
cosv = e
xy
[xsin(x + y) + cos(x + y)]
nh ngha.
w w w
dw dx dy dz
x y z

= + +

l vi phn ca hm w = f(x, y, z)
nh ngha. Hm w = f(x, y) c gi l hm thun nht cp n khi v ch khi
f(tx, ty) = t
n
f(x, y), t > 0.
V d 3. Chng minh rng hm u = f(x, y) thun nht cp n th tho mn ng thc
sau: . ( , )
f f
x y n f x y
x y

+ =

(nh l Euler).
t u = tx, v = ty c f(u, v) = t
n
f(x, y)
1
( , ),
n
df
nt f x y
dt

=
. .
df f du f dv
dt u dt v dt

= +

=
f f
x y
u v

+


Ly t = 1 c u = x, v = y, nhn c
8
( , )
f f
x y nf x y
x y

+ =


Ch . Khi n = 1, ta c ( , )
f f
f x y x y
x y

= +

, f(x, y) l sn lng o bng la, x
l n v ca vn, y l n v ca lao ng, ,
f f
x y


ln lt l sn phm vn cn
bin v sn phm lao ng cn bin. Ta c nh l trong kinh t: "Tng gi tr sn
lng bng chi ph vn cng vi chi ph lao ng nu nh mi chi ph c tr theo
sn phm cn bin ca n". Trong trng hp ny khng c doanh thu thng d
V d 4. Gii phng trnh o hm ring: Tm hm w = f(x, y) tho mn
w w
a
x y

=

.
t u = x + ay, v = x ay.
w = F(u, v)
. .
w w u w v w w
x u x v x u v

= + = +


. .
w w u w v w w
a a
y u y v y u v

= + =


Thay vo phng trnh ban u, ta c: 2 0
w
a
v

; 0
w
v


w = g(u), g l hm kh vi lin tc tu ca u
w = g(x + ay)
Ch . trnh nhm ln, khi cn thit ta dng k hiu sau:
y
w
x

| |
|

\
thay cho
w
x


i vi hm w = f(x, y), chng hn trong trng hp i vi hm sau:
w = f(x, y), y = g(x, t), nu dng cc k hiu quen thuc s tr nn kh hiu:
.
w w w y
x x y x

= +

.
Khi ta cn vit l .
t y t
x
w w w y
x x y x
| |
| | | | | |
= +
| | | |

\ \ \
\
.
2. o hm di du tch phn. Cho hm f(x, y) lin tc cng vi o hm ring cp
mt F
x
(x, y) ca n trong trong hnh ch nht ng: x
0
x x
1
, a y b, khi ta c
( , ) ( , )
b b
a a
d d
f x y dy f x y dy
dx dx
| |
=
|
\


V d 5. Tnh
( )
sin xy
d
dy
dx y

2
1
, 1 x 3.
9
( )
( )
sin
,
xy
f x y
y
=
( ) ( )
, cos
x
f x y xy = ,
f(x, y), f
x
(x, y), lin tc trn hnh ch nht ng 1 x 3, 1 y 3.
( ) ( ) sin sin xy xy
d d
dy dy
dx y dx y
| |
=
|
\

2 2
1 1
=
( )
cos y xy dy
y

2
1
1

=
( )
( )
sin
sin sin
y
xy
x x
x x
=
=
2
1
1
2
Ch . Ta c m rng kt qu trn l quy tc Leibnitz: Cho hm f(x, y), fx(x, y) lin
tc trn min sau.
( ) ( )
u y x u y
a y b

1 2

Cc hm u
1
(y), u
2
(y) kh vi lin tc.
Khi ta c
( )
( )
( ) ( , )
u y
u y
y f x y dy =

2
1
kh vi v c
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
, , . ( ( ), )
u y
y
u y
d
f x y dx f u y y u f u y y u
dy

= + +

2
1
2 2 1 1

3. Cc dng ton c bn
1. Quy tc dy chuyn
1(tr. 88). Tnh
dw
dt
theo hai cch,
2 2
x y
w e
+
= , x = cost, y = sint
+)
2 2
2
x y
w
xe
x
+

,
2 2
2
x y
w
ye
y
+


+) sin
dx
t
dt
= , cos
dy
t
dt
=
+)
dw w dx w dy
dt x dt y dt

= +

( )
2 2 2 2
2 sin 2 cos
x y x y
xe t ye t
+ +
= +
2 2 2 2
2 2 0
x y x y
xye xye
+ +
= + =
+) Cch khc: -)
2 2
cos sin t t
w e e
+
= =
-) 0
dw
dt
=
5(tr. 89). Tm
w
t

v
w
u

theo quy tc dy chuyn v bng cch khc,


10
w = x
2
+ y
2
, x = t
2
u
2
, y = 2tu .
+)
w w x w y
t x t y t

= +

= 2x2t + 2y2u = 4xt + 4yu = 4(t
2
u
2
)t + 4.2tu.u = 4t
3
+ 4tu
2

+)
w w x w y
u x u y u

= +

= 2x(2u) + 2y.2t = 4xu + 4yt = 4(t
2
u
2
)u + 4.2tu.t = 4u
3
+ 4t
2
u
+) tnh bng cch khc
( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 w t u t u = + = t
4
+ u
4
+ 2t
2
u
2
=
( )
2
2 2
t u +
Khi
( )
2 2
2 .2
w
t u t
t

= +

= 4t
3
+ 4tu
2

v
3 2
4 4
w
u ut
u

= +


2. Kim tra nghim ca phng trnh o hm ring
7(tr. 89). Cho hm f c cc o hm ring lin tc, chng minh rng w = f(x
2
y
2
)
l mt nghim ca phng trnh o hm ring (gi thit c w
x
, w
y
)
0
w w
y x
x y

+ =


+) t u = x
2
y
2
c w = f(u), u = x
2
y
2

+) 2 .
w dw u dw
x
x du x du

= =


+) 2
w dw u dw
y
y du y du

= =


+) Thay vo c
w w
y x
x y

+

( ) .2 2 0
dw dw
y x x y
du du
= + =
9(tr. 89). Chng minh rng w = f(x
2
y
2
, y
2
x
2
) tho mn phng trnh
0
w w
y x
x y

+ =

(gi thit c w
x
, w
y
)
+) t u = x
2
y
2
, v = y
2
x
2
c w = f(u, v)
+)
w w u w v
x u x v x

= +

.2 .2
w w
x x
u v

=


+)
w w u w v
y u y v y

= +

( ) 2 .2
w w
y y
u v

= +


+) Thay vo c
( ) .2 .2 2 .2 0
w w w w w w
y x y x x x y y
x y u v u v
| | | |
+ = + + =
| |
\ \