Está en la página 1de 40

151

Derecho Internacional Privado


El Cdigo de Napolen y su inuencia
en Amrica Latina: Reexiones a propsito
del segundo centenario
Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
I Euforia codicadora del siglo XIX
1. |o uo ooto|oaoo oooto ||st|co |a ooc|o oo Co| o,
oou|va|ooto |asta ootoocos a |a ooc|o ||bo oo |oos
1
, aoou|oo uo ouo-
vo soot|oo coo coouosto oo ooas ootoooc|ootos a uoa |sa
aa oo| Looc|o ooooaoas s|stot|caooto
2
. S| |a ocoo||ac|o oo
os ota cosa ouo uo coo,uoto oo |oos oo v|o, ooo s|o coost|tu| oo s
|sa uo vooaooo cuooo ooat|vo, o| Co| o |o||ca uoa |o ooo-
a| s|stot|ca oo|oa, oooa|ooto, a uoa aa oo| ooooa|ooto ,u-
o|co
3
. Looto oo| ooosa|ooto oo |a ||ustac|o ...uo Co|o os uoa |o oo
cootoo|oo |ooooo oo azo oo |a ato|a, ouo oo oa s|stot|ca
at|cu|aoa, ooosaoa oo uo |ooua,o ooc|so, ou|a tooos |os oob|oas
oo |a ato|a uo|ta|aooto acotaoa
4
. |o oso o| oooo|oaoo ov||oo-
1
|o ostuo|o uooaoota| sobo |a ooc|o ||st|ca oo |a coo|cac|o so oocuoota oo |a ooo-
aa oo . Vaooo||oooo, Le concept de code en Europe occidentale du XIIIme au XIXme si-
cle, 3uo||os, o|t|oos oo ||ost|tut oo soc|o|o|o, +`6, S00 oo.
2
/. C. /oo|osco, La technique lgislative en matire de codication civile: tude de droit compa-
r, |a|s, |. Lo 3occao, +`30, 8S3 oo.
3
Cf. . |. oo |os |ozos, |usoatua||so oaoooct|so oo |as aooos coo|cac|ooos ooooas,
Estudios Jurdicos en homenaje al profesor Ursicino Alvarez Surez, |ao|o, So|oa|o oo Loo-
c|o |oaoo, |acu|tao oo Looc|o (|C|), +`8, oo. 268-26`.
4
Cf. |. Tos Va||ooto, Manual de Historia del Derecho espaol, + oo., |ao|o, Tocoos, +``2, o.
+6S.
[
]

152
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
to coo||caoo va a |ocoooa uoa obsos|o oo |a s|stot|ca ouo oo
s|o va a ooocta oo |a o|v|s|o ooto Looc|o |b||co Looc|o ||va-
oo, s|oo ouo ooo|c|a uoa acaoa osooc|a||zac|o oo |as aas ,uo|cas
osta ouova coocooc|o tooo coosocuooc|as s|o oocooootos
5
. /s||s-
o, o| ov||ooto coo||caoo, ba,o |a |o|uooc|a oo| ooosa|ooto |oo|v|-
oua||sta-||boa|, tooo |a v|tuo oo taosoa o| |oo oo |a ooo|ooao
ouoa| o oo| /ot|uo ||oo oo oas ooooas oo oo|o|o usu-
ucto, auoouo so tao s oo uo s||o oaa oa oa a uo coocooto uo|-
ta|o oo ooo|ooao, v||oo oaa cua|ou|o s|tuac|o oo |a v|oa cot|o|aoa. |o
|uooa so ooouco oo o| s||o | oato oo| , tas |a o|ao||cac|o oo|-
t|ca cu|tua| coosocuooc|a oo |a ||ustac| o
6
, uoa ouo|a coo||caooa coo-
so||ooooso uoa cu|tua basaoa oo o| Co|o, cua cootoo|ac|o ||oa a
saca||zaso (|a o|o aostt|ca, o| altare consolidato ...) coo uo o|o-
ooto |ootaoto oo |a |to|oa ooooa
7
. |a coocooc|o uo cuooo
oo co|os so basaba oo uoa |ooa ovo|uc|ooa|a ouo ootoooa oouc| a
uoa uo|oao ato|a| oa| |a |o|s|ac|o |o||caooo uoa ouooac|o
oo |as o|vosas aas oo| Looc|o
8
.Y, coo os oatua|, ba,o ta| coocooc|o
ooscaosaba |a o oo |a vo|uotao oooa| oooct|ca oo |os ouob|os, uoa
vo|uotao oooos|taoa oo uoa |azo ouo so o|ovaba a |a cooo|c|o oo
uooto coota| oo| Looc|o. a o|oooc|a oo tao|c|ooa| ius comune, osu|ta-
ba s cooat|b|o coo |a aso|ac|o oo |a ouova o|o|ca soc|a|, uo ooo-
oa|ooto ,uo|co s uoc|ooa| s coocoto.
|s ov|oooto ouo o|c|a ouo|a ost o|octaooto cooo|c|ooaoa
oo o| t|oo oo |ooo|oa oooo|oaoto oo |a ooca caacto|zaoa oo o|
||boa||so c|s|co, oo o| ac|ooa||so oo o| oac|ooa||so. || o|oo
o|aotoaba ouo o| |staoo ooba |||taso a aaot|za |as cooo|c|ooos ooco-
sa|as oaa o| ||bo oosoovo|v||ooto oo |os c|uoaoaoos , oo |o taoto, oo
5
/. . /oauo, Pour une pense juridique europenne, |a|s, |||, +``+, o +3S.
6
. Cauooot, Les naissances du droit. Le temps, le pouvoir et la science au service du droit, |as,
|ootc|ost|oo, +``, oo. +`0-22+.
7
Cf. |. Coss|, Assolutismo giuridico e diritto privato, |||o, C|u, +``8, o. +. Vid., as||so, . |.
|avoz oooooz, || |to oo |a coo|cac|o |a ||sto|a oo| Looc|o, Anuario Mexicano
de Historia del Derecho, vo|. V, 2003, oo. +`+-2++.
8
Vid. o| taba,o c|s|co oo |. L|oz-||cazo |ooco oo |oo, Coo| cac|o, ooscoo|cac|o
ocoo|cac|o, ADC, vo|. |V, +``2, oo. +3-+8S

153
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
ooba actua oo |os caoos oo |as autoooas o|vaoas, ooto |as cua|os so
oocootabao |as ocoo|cas |a ||bo |o|c|at|va ooosa|a|
9
, o|c|o oo
otos t|oos, o| |staoo |aba oo abstoooso oo coo|oto oo |a |oto-
vooc|o oo |as act|v|oaoos cooc|a|os, ouooaooo stas ou|aoas oo |a
ost|cta |o oo| ocaoo. || souooo oo oa s|oo uo |otooto oo ac|ooa||-
zac|o oo |a v|oa ,uo|ca a tavs oo uo ootaaoo ooat|vo cua |s|o
coos|sta oo soa|a |a coooucta a obsova, b|oo oo aooa o|octa o b|oo
oo oo|o oo| azooa|ooto |a oooucc|o ||ca. oosu|oooo oo uo su-
ouosto oo |oc|o oooa| abstacto uoa coosocuooc|a ,uo|ca ouo ta-
b|o oosoa uo cacto oooa|
10
, oo oso, ooto a |a acuu|ac|o oo to-
tos s|o uo|oao |otooa aoaoco uo s|stoa oo ooas oao|zaoas coo
ootoos|ooos oo oooa||oao oo o|oo|tuo
11
. || tocoo ta,o coos|o
uoa so|o oo ooosootac|ooos ,uo|cas oac|ooa|os |ocoooas uoas osooc-
to oo |as otas o|oaooo o| ius comune oaoo-caoo|co coo oooo
coo tao|c|ooa|, ta| ooscooo|o so o|o,a oo s|o oo |as |o|s|ac|ooos
ostata|os s|oo tab|o, oo o| s|stoa oo oosoaoza oo| Looc|o oo tooa
|uooa, ouo va a ouooa |||taoo a| ostuo|o oc|us|vo oo |os s|stoas osta-
ta|, ost|o|oooo oo buooa oo|oa |a cootoo|ac|o oo |as ooo|ooc|as
,uo|cas oo |as ooct|oas otao,oas
12
, a o||o oobo aao|so, tab|o
coo acto ouo oo||ca o| oo|ooo, o| oscaso o|vo| oo |otoac|o ocoo-
|ca |otooac|ooa| oo |o cua| |as coo||cac|ooos oac|ooa|os oo ooo|oo-
tabao |o|uooc|as oo |as ou|ac|ooos oa||zaoas oo otos s|stoas ,uo|cos.
2. Losoo uoa oosooct|va otooo||ca, o| ov||ooto coo||caoo,
sobo tooo tas |a oub||cac|o oo| Co|o C|v|| aocs oo +80+, ooou,o
uo coos|ooab|o oosao||o oo| tao|c|ooa| tooo oo |as |osas o oo |a
oos|s. Lo acuooo coo |a oo|oa oosooct|va o| Looc|o os a|o oo-
9
. Va||ot oo Cot|so|o, | ou,o oo |a |ovo|uc|o |aocosa oo o| Looc|o c|v||. Su |oc|oooc|a oo
|a |o|s|ac|o osoao|a, ADC, vo|. |||, +`8`, oo. 26+-3+6.
10
Vid. C. |uootos |ooz, El racionalismo jurdico, ||co, |ost|tuto oo |ovost|ac|ooos uo|cas,
||/|, 2003, oo. 236 ss.
11
Vid. oo tooos C. Tao||o, |o |ooo oo||a coo|caz|ooo, Il diritto privato nella societ moderna,
3o|oo|a, || |u||oo, +`+, oo. 3+ ss.
12
|. |oaoto, Laos |ooo tab|| oa |o Cooo c|v||, La scienza del diritto al tramonto dellillumi-
nismo giuridico, |||o, C|u, 2002, =S20 oo., |. Z|oaoo, Estudios de Derecho privado
europeo (tao. o|oo oo /. Vaouo /|o), |ao|o, C|v|tas, 2000, 32S oo.

154
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
octaooto oaoo, acabaoo oo|o|oo oo o| Co|o, oo taoto, |a uoc|o oo
|a c|ooc|a os ouaooto oot|ca. Looto oo |os oooosoos oo osta
|ootaoto co|ooto otooo||ca, oo|oaoto oo |aoc|a oo 3||ca
|asta |oa|os oo| s||o |, cabo c|ta a oobos coo |.-T. Too|oo, |.
Loo|obo, |. |auoot, C|. /ub o C|. |au tuvo su o|oo, ooc|sa-
ooto, a oat| oo |os cooota|os a| Co|o oo |aoo|oo. Coovot|oa |a
oba oaoo|oo|ca oo uo oocuooto |otocab|o, |os ootas ocooooa-
bao s|ooo vo|vo a | sus o,os oo sa||so oo sus caucos atoo|oooso a
su |ota cuaooo sta os c|aa, o a |os o|oc|o|os oooa|os oo sus |oos, caoa
voz ouo so oosooto uoa s|tuac|o oo vaco o ab|ooao oo sus ooas.
Ta| co|ooto oocoot uoa otaoo|oa|a ooocus|o oo /|ca |at|-
oa
13
, ooo ta| ocooc|o oobo cootoo|aso coo c|ota cauto|a ouos cuao-
oo ||o a| Coot|oooto a |aba |oc|o c|s|s oo |uooa a oao coooc|-
oas otas ooc|ooos otooo||cas.
|o t|oos u oooa|os ouooo a|aso ouo su ouoto oo oa-
t|oa oa o| coooc||ooto oo| Co|o a tavs oo |as |sas oa|abas oo-
oos|c|ooos oo|oaoas oo su ooacc|o a oat| oo tos oo|sas. oo o|o
|ua, tooo o| Looc|o C|v|| so oocuoota oo o| Co|o (os b|oo coooc|oa
|a c|obo aso at|bu|oa a 3uoot. |o cooozco o| Looc|o C|v||, s | o
oosoo o| Co|o oo |aoo|oo), oo souooo |ua, o| coooc||ooto oo|
Looc|o oobo ocao sobo sus atcu|os so|aooto sobo o||os, , oo
|t|o, |a |o oobo |otoootaso aoa||zaooo cu|oaoosaooto |as oa|abas
oo|oaoas oo |a ooacc|o oo |os atcu|os. |||o tooo uoa ov|oooto ooo-
cus|o oo |a oosoaoza oo| Looc|o C|v|| o| |a uoc|o ,uo|c|a|, oo o| soo-
t|oo oo ouo |os ,uocos ooboo |||taso a ao||ca ost|ctaooto o| Co|o
otaoooo oo| tooo ||toa| oo caoa atcu|o so|uc|o aooo|aoa oaa |os
suouostos cootovot|oos. Lo osta suoto oo oscuo|a oo |a oos|s ouo
oo|va oo| Co|o oo |aoo|oo ost caacto|zaoa oo ooo| cu|to a| to-
to |oa|, osootaooo |a vo|uotao oo| |o|s|aoo, ouo so oobo |ovost|a, oo
caso oo ouoa, a oat| oo |as o|scus|ooos oa|aoota|as. so tata oo uo
tooo ouo ostab|oco uotos |||tac|ooos a| ,uoz oo taoto ouo oo oo|-
to su ||bo |otoootac|o s|oo, oc|us|vaooto, |a ao||cac|o oo |os totos
13
/ osta ato|a so ooo|ca otoaooto o| Caotu|o + (|a oscuo|a oo |a oos|s su |ouoo-
c|a oo /|ca |at|oa) oo |a oba oo C. |aos |oz, El Cdigo napolenico y su recepcin
en Amrica Latina, ||a, ||C|, +``, +08 oo.

155
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
a| caso osooc|co
14
. |o oat|cu|a, oo acuooo a osta coocooc|o, |a |abo
|otoootat|va oo |os ,uocos ooba |||taso a oo uoa oa ao||cac|o oo |as
|oos, coov|t|oooo oo oos |ostuootos oo |a |o oouc|oos a| ostab|o-
c||ooto oo |os |oc|os a |a subsuoc|o oo |os |sos ba,o |os t|oos
oo |a |o, osto os, |a ao||cac|o ost|cta oo |a |o. dura lex, sed lex. 3asto atoo-
oo a |a o|souosto oo o| at. + oo| Cooo. Le juge qui refusera de juger, sous
prtexte du silence, de lobscurit ou de linsufsance de la loi, pourra tre
poursuivi comme coupable de dni de justice .
3. |os |o|c|os o| ov||ooto coo||caoo ouoooo oo so a|o,ao, oo
t |oos oooa|os, oo |os Looc|os tao|c|ooa|os bvao, ous|aoo o aus-
t|aco ouo oooucoo |os o|oos Co|os. |as, oo ostos totos ao oo
osto oosootos coo o|t|ooz |as |ooas oo ||botao o| oo|too v|s|uba
uoa |o vo|uotao oo ooa buuosa coo |uoo acootocoa oo |ao-
c|a, basto atoooo a ouo o| |oo|v|ouo oo so oocuoota oo o| cooto |so
oo| o|soo ooat|vo, aotoo|oooso uo boovo|o o| oatooa||so ooo|o
oo| oosoot|so ||ustaoo, ooca|oaoo a ota|oco o| oo|o|o oo| oooo
oo|t|co abso|ut|sta. |o o| coota|o o| oaao|a oo| ouovo s|stoa, o|
Co|o |aoo|oo, os uoa a|ac|o oo| oooo|o|o oo| Looc|o |oo|o
ooto a| Coo oo |a acc|o oo| |staoo soboaoo, ouo oo oo|to ouo
oat|cu|aos ooto|ooo |o ou os ,usto |o ou oo |o os. |||o oo |o||ca
|a oosaoa|c|o oo| Looc|o Coo. aotos a| coota|o, so |otoa oo |a
|o|s|ac|o oac|ooa|. So as|sto, oo osta suoto, a uo ouovo oou|||b|o oo| s|s-
toa ouo ootoooo oo so|aooto to|oa coo |o ouo so coos|ooaba uo
oosoooo ,uo|co |oacootab|o, s|oo ouo so aoovoc|a |a couotua oaa
|otoouc| |ooo||caooto ouovos coocootos ooto |os oostaca |a oostuc-
c|o oo |as basos oo|t|cas ocoo|cas ouo sustootabao a |os ostaoo-
tos o|v||o|aoos |ooooso, oo |o, |a ||botao ouo |aba coosou|oo |a
buuosa tas o| t|uoo ovo|uc|ooa|o
15
.
14
Vid. . 3oooocaso, Lcole de lxgese en droit civil, 2 oo., |a|s, |. oo 3occao, +`2+.
15
Vid. |a oba c|s|ca oo . |. L. 3ooao|, De lorigine et des progrs de la lgislation franaise, ou
Histoire du droit public et priv de la France, depuis la fondation de la monarchie justes et com-
pris la Rvolution, |a|s, 3oc|ot, +8+6.

156
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
4. |o ouoo oouc|oo o| ov||ooto coo||caoo a |os oasos oo
Looc|o osc|to. Loso|o tab|o uoa uoto osooaoc|a oo uo oas oo|
common law coo |os || ||. |o vaoo oo +8++, o| ||soo |o|s oo
3oot|a (++8-+832), osc|b| a| oos|oooto aos |ao|soo uoa cata oo
|a ouo, a |a voz ouo atacaba |a |ocot|oubo oo| common law
16
, ooca sus
sov|c|os oaa ||ova a cabo |a coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o ootoao|caoo.
|ao|soo ooc||o |a oota, ooo aos oosous, oo o| ooo|o oas su|a |a
|ooa oo o|aboa uo Co|o. |o +836, o| |a|aooto oo |assac|usotts oo-
s|o uoa Co|s|o coo oso ooos|to, oo o||a oabao oato oaoa
ooos ouo uoo oo |os ,u|stas as b|||aotos oo |a ||sto|a ootoao|ca-
oa, osoo| Sto. |sto ov||ooto taooco tuvo |to. |ooo, |a causa
coo||caooa uo otoaoa oo |uova Yo' oo o| tooaz aboaoo Lav|o
Luo|o ||o|o, cuo Co|o C|v|| (+8S8-+86S) oc|azaoo oo osto |staoo
oosous oo uo |ao oobato, uo, oo obstaoto, aco|oo oo La'ota (+86S),
Ca||oo|a (+82), |oa|o (+88) |ootaoa (+8`S). || ob,ot|vo oo osto au-
to coos|sta oo cooooosa o| common law oo u|as s|stot|cas acco-
s|b|os, o|||oaooo aoacoo|sos aoaotaoo a |as cooo|c|ooos oo |a ooca.
|o os casua| taooco ouo |ub|oa too|oo |to oo |os |staoos s ,vo-
oos oo| Costo, ooos ataoos a |as u|as ||st|cas oo| common law,
|ootas ouo oo |uova Yo', uo |staoo oo v|o,o o|oo co|oo|a| v|ocu|a-
oo s ostoc|aooto a |a tao|c|o |o|osa, tuvo uoa oa os|stooc|a oo
|os aboaoos oct|cos. |o tooo o||o, || || oo ostuvo a| aoo oo| oo-
coso coo||caoo. Y o||o ooouo tuvo, coo |oos v|sto, oo|so|cos |otoo-
tos oo coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o ||vaoo ooouo +8 o|abo uoa
Coost|tuc|o osc|ta, aoatoooso oo oso soot|oo oo |a oostua otoooa
oo| common law ouo |o |aba o||oo uoa Coost|tuc|o basaoa oo |a ta-
o|c|o oo |as costubos , oo toco |ua, ooouo oo su ooo|o to|to-
|o subs|stao o|ooos ouo ootooocao a| s|stoa oao|sta, coo |a o
co|oo|a aocosa oo |ous|aoa, ooooo so o|ct uo Co|o C|v|| oo +808, a
tao so|o c|oco aos oo |a voota oo| |oooso to|to|o oo |uova C|oaos
a avo oo |os || ||
17
.
16
|. Luoot, De lorganisation judiciaire et de la codication: extraits de divers ouvrages de Jrmie
Bentham (taouc|oo coo obsovac|ooos oo |. |oss|), |a|s, 3ossaoo, +828, +83 oo.
17
|| o|o Co|o C|v|| o|t|oo oo /|ca uo o| oo |a |u|s|aoa, oosoo +803 ootoooc|ooto a
|| || oo cos|o oo |a |aoc|a oaoo|oo|ca. |||o ocu| oo +808, o| cuooo |oa| ootoo-
cos oou|aoo o||b| o| oobo oo Digeste de la loi civile. |a o|oc|oa| caactost|ca oo osta

157
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
II El Cdigo Cvil de los franceses de 1804.
Cdigo de Napolen y su expansin
Un Cdigo sinnimo de certeza y plenitud
5. |o uoa oc|a ouo |o os uo ||to oo |a ||sto|a cootoooooa, o|
2+ oo azo oo +80+, o| o|o cosu| 3ooaoato oou| o| Co|o
C|v|| oo |os aocosos. |o Co|o ouo oosoo sus oooos ouso oo o||ovo
su cacto oc|ct|co oo ex novo. oo uoa oato, sus ooactoos ooctua-
oo uoa |ovost|ac|o sobo |as costubos oo |aoc|a , oo ota, soo-
t|ooo ostas costubos a| oaoo oo |a azo a |a |oooc|a oo |a |ovo-
|uc|o. |s obv|o ouo o| oooo|o|o oo |a azo as ootooo|oa cooou,oso a
|os ooooos oo |os s||os V| a V||| a oouo|a coo cacto oooa| |a
a|ta oo s|stoat|c|oao ouo oosco||aba oo |a v|oa soc|a|. |o oo vaoo o|
ac|ooa||so oc|a oo t|oa |a auto|oao oo |a costubo. |os ataouos
oo T. obbos
18
, |.|./. Vo|ta|o . 3oot|a, oo tos oootos o|st|otos
c|avos oo| ooosa|ooto ooooo, ov|oooc|aoo o|ocuootoooto o| ooosa-
|ooto ||u|o|sta, ouo oaba oo sootaoa |a saac|oao oo| ooc|oo coo
|o|s|aoo ouo |os|sta oo o| cacto oo|co, uo|oo ov|oootoooto
ac|ooa| oo |a |o|s|ac|o.Y os ootoocos cuaooo so ooouco uoo oo |os a-
oos |tos oo |a ||ustac|o. ooto a |a |oooto|oac|o oooaoa oo |a
o|ua||oao oo ooas o|stootos, |os ||u|o|stas oosootao o| Co|o coo
s|oo|o oo cotoza o|oo|tuo, oou|s|tos ostos a |os ouo, c|otaooto,
oba oa uo aouoc|o oo |a ouo |aba oo oos|st| oo |as sucos|vas coo|cac|ooos |ou|saoas
oo o| coot|oooto ouaoto uoos cuaoota aos, a sabo, |a cas| oc|us|va |ouooc|a oo| Code
Napolon oo o||a. || Digeste de la loi civile, oo oocto, so bas oooooooaotoooto oo oso
co|o , |o ouo osu|ta u cu|oso, tab|o oo o| ouo uo su ooocto oosootaoo oo +800
oo |a c|obo co|s|o ouo oos|o| |ota||s. |aa a|uoos ostuo|osos, |oc|uso uo ao |a
| ouooc|a oo oso ooocto oo o| Digeste ouo |a oo| co|o |so. Vid. 3. Sc|.atz, The Code
Napoleon and the Common Law World: the Sesquicentennial Lectures Delivered at the Center of
the Law Center of New York University, |uova Yo', |o|vos|t |oss, +`S6.
18
|aa T. obbos |a tao|c|o ,uo|ca ao|osa,ooa basaoa oo |a ,u|souoooc|a (costubo oo |os
t|buoa|os), coost|tuo, a| |ua| ouo oaa . 3oot|a, uo caso ato|co. /s, oo o,oo|o, a a
oo o| Leviatn ouo |a sootooc|a oo uo ,uoz oo |o ob||a a oa a | o a oto ,uoz oosto|ooo-
to |a |sa sootooc|a oo casos ao|oos (caotu|o 26).

158
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oobo at|bu|so o| co|oozo oo |a aotuoaoa s|o|aoua oo| as||so
oooo|oaoo Master system. |a o|at|vaooto o|oa acootac|o oo| |so,
|oc|uso ouaoto o| s||o V|||, ooooooo oo ooto|oaoas c|cuostaoc|as oo-
sootos a oo |a ooca ouo so ao|ostaoo o ooosaoo a tavs oo soo-
oos o|oc|o|os a ootoocos v|ootos, o| ostata||sta o| aaot|sta
19
.
6. |o Vo|ta|o, o| oc|azo oo |a costubo so uooaootaba oo su
ooos|c|o oota| a| oat|cu|a|so ,uo|co. |a o||ca vo|to|aoa |aoota
ouo, |oaoa |a uo|oao oo|t|ca oo |aoc|a ocoo oo buooa oato a |a too-
oooc|a coota||sta ooso|oaoa oo |a ooaoua abso|uta, |a uo|oao ,uo|ca
tooava oaoca u |o,aoa tooa voz ouo oo |aoc|a so aotooa uoa a-
caoa o|v|s|o ooto o|ooos oo droit crit oo droit coutumier. uo o|ua||s-
o ,uo|co |osoootab|o oaa o| ||u|o|so ouo ooba caacto|za |a oba
oo| |o|s|aoo ost|o|oooo |a |abo oo |otoootac|o ,uo|ca oo oato oo|
,uoz
20
.
|s c|oto ouo 3oot|a oo ooscoooca |tos a |a costubo,
ao|t|oooo ouo sus acos oouooas |a |ovostao oo c|ota auto|oao, oo
obstaoto o|scooaba coo |a |ooa oo oosova|a coo ta|, s|o uoa oov|a
|oo|oac|o |o|s|at|va. / su ,u|c|o, o| Looc|o o|a, oo oo|o oo uo
Co|o, |a oa oo uo cuooo |o|s|at|vo ouo, ooooo caoa oato so |oto-
aso a |as otas coooo a |os c|to|os oo |a a|tt|ca oo |a ooo-
ta. |o ta| coostucc|o |a costubo tooa uo |ua o|ovaoto s|ooo ouo
uoa absob|oa tota|ooto oo |a |o , oo taoto osta c|cuostaoc|a oo tu-
v|oso |ua ooba coos|ooaso a sta coo uoa o|a |ocoovoo|ooto o ||o-
t|a, oo |a cua| oocao obooaso s|o |os ao|a|os. uoa uooto
osoootooa, oat|cu|a, soootaoa |oca||sta ouo, oo su oo|o|o, ooba ouo
so coos|ooaoa coo |oo|oooc|a oo ou|oo oocuaba |o|aota oo o| o|a-
oo ,uo|co o| |oo|o oo |a |azo. |a costubo ooba ootoocos so coo|-
|caoa tooa voz ouo o| Looc|o oouoa, oo oo|o oo| Co|o, |a oa
19
Vid. C. |vaoz /|ooso, |a |o|t|ac|o oo| s|stoa. |o|s|aooos, ,uocos ,u|stas oo |soaa
(+8+0-+80 c. a.), Historia Contempornea, | +, ,uo|o 2003. |tto.//|.c.oo||s.os/cuato/at|-
cu|os.
20
|||o |aa ooc|aa a Vo|ta|o. ||stoo oo |aoc|a c|ooto cuaoota costubos ouo t|oooo
uoza oo |o, tooas o||as o|oootos. |oa oosooa ouo v|a,o oo osto oas cab|a oo |o coo
|a |sa ocuooc|a ouo su caba||o cab|a oo |ua. Voz Coutuos, oo |a oo|c|o aocosa
oo| Dictionnaire Philosophique, vo|. V, |as, +833, o. 2+8.

159
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
oo uo cuooo |o|s|at|vo ouo, ooooo caoa oato so |otoaso a |as otas
coooo a |os c|to|os oo |a a|tt|ca oo |a ooota. |sto o|aotoa-
|ooto oobo s|tuaso, s|o obao, oo uo coototo soc|o-||st|co uo
ooc|so. |o |a |o|atoa oo |a ovo|uc|o |ooust|a|, ooooo osc|bo 3oot|a,
|a |ooooos|o oa |a oota oo|oaoto o|caooto o| |oo|o oo |a |o
osc|ta oooa oota oo sou|oao ,uo|ca a uo c|uoaoaoo ouo caoca oo
o||a cuaooo oo tooa oto |ostuooto ouo |a costubo oo |a oso|uc|o
oo coo||ctos. |s ooc|saooto oo o| ootooo |o|s ooooo 3oot|a oos-
tu|a su |s|o coo||caooa ouosto ouo |a costubo oo sootaba o|ouoa
ooo|cc|o |o acoca oo cua| |ba a so |a oacc|o oo| Looc|o aoto uoa
|oacc|o o aoto uo coo||cto oo |otoosos o, |oc|uso, sobo cua|os oao |os
suouostos ,uo|cos oov|stos oo o| Looc|o. |a costubo s|o Looc|o
osc|to ob||co s|o booo|c|aba a ,uocos aboaoos, o|cos caoacos oo
oscuta o| |oov|s|b|o cootoo|oo oo| Looc|o, oo,uo|caba a| c|uoaoa-
oo ouo costoaba oocosos |oto|oab|os |ato oosos. Cuaoto s so
o||ataa o| oocoso s booo|c|os obtooa uo ,uoz s|o sa|a|o |,o ouo
cobaba soo |os |oooa|os oo| caso.
Un Cdigo tributario de la razn universal
llamado a aplicarse a todos los pueblos
a) Fundamentos polticos
7. || Co|o |aoo|oo|co os ooos|o oo uo oooto ooto|-
oaoo oo |a ||sto|a, o,o ao. o| coo|a|o, v|ooo a so a|o as coo |a
coosuac|o oo |a |ovo|uc|o |aocosa
21
. |o o||o, t|buta|o oo |a az o
uo|vosa|, oaa sus ooactoos o| Co|o C|v|| ostaba ||aaoo a ao||caso
a tooos |os ouob|os. Coovot|oo oo uo o|caz |ostuooto oo taosoa-
c|o oo |a soc|ooao aocosa oo su ooca, |o sat|saco |os |otoosos oo
|a buuosa. oo uo |aoo, coo|uaooo uo coototo soc|a| ooc||vo a o|||-
oa |as oos|ua|oaoos |otoc|as|stas, oo oto ostab|oc|oooo uo s|stoa ab|o-
21
Vid. coo cacto oooa| |a oba co|oct|va oo C. |u|z Saoz otos, La codicacin: races y pros-
pectiva. El Cdigo Napolen, 3uooos /|os, |ouca, Co|occ|o |uooot|a |u|s, 2003, 23 oo.

160
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
to a |a ||bo c|cu|ac|o oo b|ooos, oo oo vaoo o| Code |a s|oo coos|ooa-
oo coo |a ooos|o oo| oooo oo| ocaoo
22
.
S|o obao, ooso a |a oovooao ouo s|o||c oaa |aoc|a, o| Code
oo ooou,o uoa uotua ao|ca| coo o| oasaoo s|oo ouo uo s b|oo uoa
oba oooaoa aoataoa oo ao oo|oa oo| ooosa|ooto ,acob|oo. So
tata, oo oocto oo uo Co|o ouo oo so o|ct o| a| co|oozo o| a |a |tao
oo |a |ovo|uc|o
23
, s| oo cuaooo sta a |aba |oa||zaoo, oo suoto ouo oo
uo, coo |a Loc|aac|o oo |os Looc|os oo| obo oo| C|uoaoaoo
oo o,oo|o, uo |ostuooto abso|utaooto oooct|co o ao|ca|. Coos-
t|tuo s b|oo |a ooos|o |o|s|at|va oo uoa buuosa a t|uoaoto, ouo
|a |oaoo |a toa oo| oooo oo |o ouo soa uo oo coos|ooa ouo a|
Co|o |aoo|oo|co coo uo Co|o ao|ca|
24
. 3asto atoooo a ouo |os
|otootos ouo so oa||zaoo ouaoto |a |ovo|uc|o |aocosa oaa o|aboa-
|o acasaoo.
8. So o|co ouo |os Co|os t|oooo ouo so oba oo ,u|stas, oo oo
|oo|oos o| oo ||soos, coo |oooooooooc|a oo ouo aou||os |ocooooo
su ooo|a |ooo|oa. /| aoo oo |a boooao oo osta a|ac|o os ov|ooo-
to ouo |os uc|os ,u|stas coovocaoos oo |aoo|oo oaa |a ooacc|o
oo| Co|o |abao oaoo oato oo| aot|uo |oo o, |oc|uso, a|uoos
oo o||os |abao s|oo uoc|ooa|os, uoo oo o||os |aba s|oo aboaoo oo |u|s
V|. |as o| Co|o C|v|| aocs uo aoto tooo |a ooos|o oo |a vo|uotao
oo|t|ca |oa||b|o oo 3ooaoato, ouo suoo oooaso oo o|oootos ,u|stas
oocooootos oo |as s o|vosas a|||as oo| Looc|o oo |a oo|t|ca.Too-
c|ot, |ota||s, 3|ot oo |aooou |a|ov|||o
25
. Lo |a o|cac|a oo ostos
22
. |at|o, |oooooots oo||t|ouos ou Cooo |aoo|oo, Rev. trim. dr. civ., +02, o 2, 2003, oo.
2+-26+ , id., Mythologie du Code Napolon, 3ouo, Lo|o|ouo |ato |o|o, 2003, S+0 oo.
23
|as o|st|otas tootat|vas coo|caooas ||ovaoas a cabo ouaoto |a |ovo|uc|o |ao s|oo ostuo|a-
oas oo . -|. a|o|o, Limpossible Code civil, |a|s, |||, +``2, 30` oo.
24
. |ato oosc|bo a| Co|o |aoo|oo coo o|oooto oo co|os|o sbo|o oo| s||o oo
|as |ucos a |a voz, cootoo|ooo|o coo uo |otooto oo oooo oooo a |a otaoa oosovo|u-
c|ooa|a. Human Nature and The French Revolution, From the Enlightenment to the Napoleonic
Code, Coo-|uova Yo', 3o|ao 3oo', 2003, 302 oo.
25
|os o|o|oos uooo. |aoco|s Loo|so Tooc|ot. |os|oooto oo| T|buoa| oo Casac|o, aboaoo
oo o| |a|aooto oo |as o|outaoo oo o| toco ostaoo, ooooso oo |u|s V| oo o| ,u|c|o
ouo to|o coo su coooooa a uoto, oa oooto oo o| Looc|o oo| cooto ooto oo|

161
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
|obos oac| uo coo,uoto ,uo|co co|oooto, c|ao, accos|b|o oaa tooos,
oo o| ouo so ooctu |a sotos|s oo| aot|uo Looc|o oo |as cooou|stas
ovo|uc|ooa|as. ||ouoo oo |os ,u|stas ouo ||zo o| Code oooa ooc|so
ouo oa c|aaooto ,acob|oo ooc|saooto |aoo|oo tuvo |a saac|oao
(Ta||oaoo v. |ouc|) oo o|o||os coo |a |oa||oao oo ooacta uo Co|o
ouo tuv|oa uoa oatua|oza |asta c|oto ouoto oc|ct|ca. ocoo c|otas
cooou|stas oo |a |ovo|uc|o (||botao o |ua|oao aoto |a |o), aotoo|oooo
uo ouovo oooo soc|a| ouo oo so a|o,aso oo uc|os o|oootos coosustao-
c|a|os a| aot|uo |oo. |o oso oooto oo |a |to|oa |o|oooto a| Co|-
o oo |aoo|oo so suo|o |os|st| oo sus acotas coosovaooas. |o tooo
caso, |a ooooa ||sto|oaa coocooo uo oaoo| o|ovaoto a| oo ootoo-
cos ||o Cosu| oo |a ooacc|o oo| Co|o ouo ||ova su oobo ouo
a |aba s|oo ouosto oo o||ovo oo |oo Savat|o oo uoo oo sus o|oos
osc|tos
26
, sobo tooo oo |o ouo so o|oo a| Looc|o oo |a oosooa.
|aoo|oo ouoca o|v|o su coocooc|o oo tooo a |a uo|oao ,uo|ca oo |a
a|||a ouos oa ooc|o|oo oat|oa|o oo uoa a|||a uoto soot|oa a |a
auto|oao oo| oaoo oo v|o|za |a |ost|tuc|o at|oo|a| ostab|oc|oooo
taat|vaooto ouo |os osoosos so ob||ao utuaooto a couo|oao oo
oas o| Looc|o coo |o cuoo |a osooosab|||oao oo oos|o| |a Co|s|o. oao |t|oooo
|a|o |ota||s, Co|sa|o oo| Cooso,o oo |osas, aboaoo oo toooooc|a oooaoa, oob| o|-
|aso ooto +` +800 oo oocootaso v|ocu|aoo coo |os o|aoos oo|t|cos, a su oo-
so uo oobaoo sooaoo |o|sto ouaoto o| Coosu|aoo o| |oo|o, oa aboaoo oo| oa-
|aooto oo /| coooca b|oo |a costubo oo| |sto, uo auoo ct|co oo |a ooca oo| too
oo so |ooot|caba coo |as |ooas ovo|uc|ooa|as o| coo o| ac|ooa||so, a| ouo |outaba |a
oostucc|o oo |a tao|c|o. |o|| u||oo oao 3|ot oo |oaoooau, Co|sa|o oo| Cob|ooo
aoto o| T|buoa| oo Casac|o, aboaoo oo o| oooataooto oo |oooos osooc|a||sta oo |a cos-
tubo oo| Costo. acouos oo |a|ov|||o, /boaoo oo o| oa|aooto oo 3uooos, |oto o| T|-
buoa| oo Casac|o coo Socota|o coooca |a costubo oo| suooosto, oub||c oo +80S
uoa oba ooooo aoa||zaba |a o|scus|o oo| Co|o aoto o| Cooso,o oo |staoo.
26
Vid. o| ooscu|o oo |. Savat|o, LArt de faire les lois. Bonaparte et le Code Civil, |a|s, La||oz,
+`2, + oo. || auto oosc|bo, oo s|o c|oto aoas|ooa|ooto, a ouosto oosooa,o. Le Premier
Consul tait alors maigre, ple, passionn, avec des yeux brillants. Il habillait ses trente ans dun
habit vert qui nengonait rien, ne vieillissait pas en lui le jeune homme, ne transformait pas en civil
le soldat et ne dteignait nullement sur la couleur peu parlementaire de son loquence. Il tait le
plus naturel, le seul fantaisiste, le seul spontan de lAssemble, le seul, propos du mariage,
parler des brunes et des blondes, des yeux noirs et des yeux bleus, et se permettre de croire

162
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
v|oa (at. 2+S). Coo os ov|oooto, oo |os oob|oas oo ooscoooooc|a
ouo |o ob||aoo a oouo|a a oso|oa a su oosa, tab|o ostaba |oc||oaoo
a ooza |a aoooc|o. Y auoouo oo aouo||os oootos coooooaba sus
ovootua|os ocosos, oo so ooooa a| aotoo||ooto oo |a ooa||oao oo
o|voc|o oo coosoot||ooto utuo |ostauaoo oo |a |ovo|uc|o
27
.
|ocoooa o| Code civil sobo tooo uoa coocooc|o oo| Looc|o
ooaooa oo |a soc|ooao, uo||caooa oo |a oac|o o |ostuooto oo
|ua|oao. So coo|ua oo ta| soot|oo coo uo oto oo oooo|zac|o oo
|a soc|ooao c|v|| oaa asoua |a oooaac|o oo |as |ooas oo |as |ucos oo
|a |ovo|uc|o. / oat| oo su ootaoa oo v|o tooos |os |oo|v|ouos ozao
oo oooc|os ooboo acata |as |sas o|as, sooaaoas oo |as oosc|o-
c|ooos o|||osas. |as oosooas so oocuootao, a oat| oo oso oooto,
su,otas oosoo su oac||ooto |asta su uoto a uo |staoo c|v|| |a|co s|bo-
||zaoo oo o| at|oo|o c|v||. |sta |a|c|oao os oatooto a| suo||so cua|-
ou|o ooooc|a a |a o|v|o|oao, oo o|v|ooos ouo |aoo|oo coo| c|o-
tos cab|os oa||zaoos oo |a |ovo|uc|o a| oooo ouoto |oa| a |a sooaa-
c|o ooto |as ||os|as o| |staoo, ostab|oc|oooo uo o|o uba| oo
|a|c|zac|o. Lo osta suoto, ooso a |os booo|c|os oaa |a ||os|a oo|vaoos
oo| Coocooato oo +80+
28
, o| |staoo t|ooo uo uooaooto |a|co, o| Co|-
o C|v|| oo |os aocosos oo |oc|uo oosc|oc|o o|||osa a|uoa. So |a|c|za
o| ostaoo c|v||, o| at|oo|o c|v|| coost|tuo uo oou|s|to oov|o ob||a-
to|o oo cua|ou|o coooo|a oo at|oo|o o|||oso (||bo acu|tat|vo).
que ces dtails puissent avoir leur importance. Lui seul plaisantait dans cette assemble de gens
graves... Mais, en Bonaparte, ce ntait pas seulement le sducteur qui faisait la conqute, ctait
aussi le matre. Cela se sent la lecture. Lloquence de Bonaparte, ce sont des phrases nettes,
coupantes, qui font image, qui parlent, qui vivent, qui marchent, des traits de feu dit Taine, dards
par son esprit... Enn, lautorit se runissant la sduction et lintelligence, quelque chose de si
saisissant mane de la parole de ce jeune homme passionn et imprieux quau coin de la table
un conseiller dEtat, Thibaudeau, ne se tient pas de noter au vif les incartades de cette parole.
27
Tas |a |ostauac|o bobo|ca |a |ost|tuc|o oo| o|voc|o uo suo||oa oo uoa |o oo 8 oo
ao oo +8+6 so|o uo o|ostauaoa oo |a |o |aouot oo 2 oo ,u||o oo +88+. Ta| suoo-
s|o o|o o|oo a c|obos suouostos oo |a ,u|souoooc|a aocosa oo o| b|to oo| Looc|o
|otooac|ooa| o|vaoo, coo o| c|obo asuoto 3oauooot. || o|voc|o oo utuo coosoo-
t||ooto |ubo oo osooa a |a |o | S-6+, oo ++ oo ,u||o oo +`S.
28
|o o|c|o |ostuooto |o V|| ocoooc| a|uoas ooas ovo|uc|ooa|as cootoo|oas oo |a
Coost|tuc|o C|v|| oo| C|oo, ta|os coo |a ||botao oo cu|tos, |a oac|ooa||zac|o oo |os b|ooos
oc|os|st|cos |a o|s|ouc|o oo| ooo oo o|cos|s. |as |aoo|oo so coooot| a sos-

163
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
|| osu|taoo oo osto oocoso coo||caoo, |a o|oaoc|a |a c|a|oao
oo su ost||o ooo, sobo tooo, |a oooo|oao oo| oso|tu, o| oou|||b|o ouo
o| Co|o aot|ooo ooto oooc|os ob||ac|ooos, |os va|oos oo |os cua-
|os so uooaoota (||botao, |ua|oao tab|o vo|uotao osooosab|||oao)
oo||cao su asobosa |ooov|oao oo |aoc|a su |to |otooac|ooa|
29
.
b) Rasgos esenciales del contenido del Code
9. Lo| cootoo|oo oo| Code cabo oostaca a|uoos asooctos tascoo-
oootos oaa |os utuos oosao||os oo| Looc|o too|oooo oo cuoota |a
|o|uooc|a ouo o|st oo tooos aouo||os oasos ouoooos |uoo ao|-
caoos ouo aoootaoo |a coo||cac|o coo oa oo ooooa sus ooo|os
s|stoas ubooat|vos.
|| ||bo o|oo ooo|caoo a |as oosooas coot|ooo bs|caooto |a
ou|ac|o oo |a caoac|oao oco oo |os oooc|os c|v||os oaa cua|ou|o
c|uoaoaoo aocs, auo cuaooo ost|oo o| o|o o| oooc|o oo |as u-
,oos, oo oocto, a| oaoo oo a|||a a| osooso so |o at|buo uo |ua oo-
oooooaoto oaa aaot|za o| oooo oo o| sooo oo |a a|||a. So|o o| oaoo
t|ooo o| Looc|o oo |otostao ouo|oooo |ooo| o| at|oo|o |asta |os
2S aos oo |os ||,os vaooos |asta |os 2+ oo |as u,oos, auo cuaooo tu-
v|oao auto|zac|o oo |a aoo. || a|oo t|ooo o| oobo oo aotooo a
|a u,o ouo so ocuoa oo| |oa, oo ouo|oooo osta |t|a cootata o| o|s-
oooo oo |os b|ooos s|o coosoot||ooto oo| couo, o| oosootaso a ,u|-
c|o coo ooaooaoto s|o su auto|zac|o. |c|uo |a |otovooc|o oo|
|staoo oo |as o|ac|ooos a|||aos, coaooo uo Cooso,o oo a|||a coost|-
tu|oo oo oa|ootos |||taba |a ||botao oo o|soooo oo tostaooto so-
o |a caot|oao oo ||,os ouo so tuv|oa. |o o| Code so o|aoota, as||s-
o, |a o|stooc|a oo| o|sto oo| ostaoo c|v||, socu|a|zaooo |as o|ac|ooos
a|||aos, |o cua| |aba s|oo uoa oo |as ooas oo |a ovo|uc|o. |a a|-
||a oat|aca| oo o|oo oaoo uooaoa oo |a oat|a ootostao os ooo|a-
tooo o| cu|to cat||co ,a suo|oo a |os sacoootos, osovoooso o| oooc|o oo ooba
ob|soos ouo |o oobao oosta ,uaooto oo oo||oao, oo obstaoto |o cua| |a |ovost|oua |a
otoaba o| |ootco, coo |o cua| ouooaba ostab|oc|oo oo |oc|o uoa suoto oo oatooato a
avo oo| obooaoto.
29
L. 3ot||au, |o cooo oou |too|t:, Revue dHistoire du Droit franais et tranger, 2003-2,
oo. +`S226

164
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
zaoa oo |a buuosa, ooooo aouo||a cosa coo |a aoa oo ooao (2+
aos), o|||oaooo cua|ou|o vocu|o ouoa| o o|a| coo o| |staoo
30
. Coo
|oos too|oo ocas|o oo aouota, socu|a|za o| at|oo|o, otaooo|o
oo |a coootooc|a oo |a ||os|a taosoooo|o oo uo cootato c|v||.
Coosova o| o|voc|o-saoc|o oo aou|to|o, cuo|oao o |o,u|a avo
aot|ooo o| ouo so vo||caba oo utuo acuooo
31
.
|v|oootoooto, o| Co|o os t|buta|o oo osto b|to oo |as aot|-
uas |oos ouoa|os ooooo |as u,oos caocao oo caoac|oao ocoo|ca
o|ooa, osto uo c|oto osooc|a|ooto oaa |as u,oos casaoas ou|ooos
ostabao tota|ooto soot|oas a |a tuto|a oo sus a|oos. |o oso os o-
cuooto |a a|ac|o oo ouo o| Co|o coosa |a uoto c|v|| oo|t|ca
oo |a u,o, ooc|aooo|a |ocaoaz |oa| soot|ooo|a, soo |os casos, a
|a auto|oao oo| oaoo, oo| |oaoo o oo| a|oo. |o os oo otaa ouos,
ouo ooto |as o|v|oo|cac|ooos o|oc|oa|os oo |as o|oas o|o|stas ostu-
v|oa o| oooc|o a o|soooo ||boooto oo sus b|ooos, oo| ooo|o sa|a|o,
oo o,oo|o. o|caooto oo o| s||o so coosou| oo ostos oasos
ooo |a |o|s|ac|o o|sc||oato|a.
10. |o cuaoto a |os ||bos ostaotos, so aov|oto |a taosoac|o oo
|a ostuctua oo |a soc|ooao c|v||, a tavs oo| Looc|o oo |oo|ooao |a
ou|ac|o oo |os cootatos. |o|bo |os |oo|co|sos, o|||oa |os aoaz-
os s|oota o| o|oc|o|o oo |a |ua|oao oo |os |ooooos, coo |o cua| avo-
oco |a aootac|o oo |as ooo|ooaoos otoa oo aoos oc|us|va oo |a
oob|oza. |stab|oco o| o|oc|o|o oo |a ||bo o|soos|c|o oo |os b|ooos o|
Looc|o oo |oo|ooao abso|uto oaa oza o|soooo oo |os b|ooos, sa|-
vo o| uso coota|o a |a oa| buooas costubos, acootoc|oooo |o oo-
o|o coo |a autoooa oo ato|a cootactua|. Cuaooo o| Co|o oo |aoo-
|oo oo sus ats. S++ S+S ooc|aa ouo |a ooo|ooao os o| oooc|o oo
oza o|soooo oo uoa cosa oo| ooo s abso|uto s|o otas |||tac|o-
oos ouo |as |oa|os, ouo oao|o ouooo so o|vaoo oo su ooo|ooao s
ouo oo oooo|ac|o, uooaoa oo causa ,ust||caoa oo ut|||oao ob||ca
oov|a |a coosoooo|ooto |oooo|zac|o, oo oa||oao |o ouo |aco os aco-
30
. |at|o, tout o: Su |a ouo ou oouvo| oos oos oaos |o Cooo |aoo|oo, Revue
dhistoire des facults de droit et de la science juridique, | +3, +``2, oo. 2230+
31
Vid. . 3oooocaso, La philosophie du Code Napolon au droit de la famille, |a|s, 3occao, +`28,
oo. 22 ss.

165
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
o|ta uoo oo |os osu|taoos oo |a |ovo|uc|o oo +8` ouo |uaa oo |a
ooc|aac|o oo Looc|os oo| |obo ouo |o|c| |a Coost|tuc|o oo +`3.
|otoouco o| oosao||o oo |a tooa oo |a osooosab|||oao oo oaos, |oc|u-
oooo |a ob,ot|va oo cu|oa oocabozaooo o| ooosa|ooto utuo oo |a
oooo|oaoa oscuo|a sub,ot|v|sta o c|s|ca oo |a osooosab|||oao, oo|oao-
to oo |os Co|os C|v||os ooc|ooo|cos ouo coosooooa a uoa ocooo-
a oooo|oaotoooto aco|a, coooo a ta| coocooc|o, os |a actua-
c|o cu|oab|o o oo|osa oo ou|oo oa||za o| acto |a ouo ,ust||ca su ob||ac|o
oo osac| oo,u|c|os, oo obstaoto, ou|oo |ocuo|o uoa ob||ac|o o causa
uo oao oo caso otu|to oo ouooa ob||aoo a |oooo|za oo,u|c|os. a
|o |oos|b|o, oao|o ost ob||aoo, oo osta suoto |a cu|oa oo ato|a oo
osooosab|||oao otacootactua| so coo|ua coo uo o|oooto |oo|s-
ooosab|o oo |a osooosab|||oao oo at|bu| a| acto |a oota oo |||c|tuo ouo
oa oac||ooto a| oobo oo osac|.
|| ||bo |oa| tata oo |as sucos|ooos, oo |as ob||ac|ooos |os coo-
tatos oo oooa| oo oat|cu|a oo a|uoos oooc|os oa|os
32
. Cooco-
taooto oo ato|a |ooo|ta|a saoc|ooa o| oocoo||ooto oo |a sucos|o
oaoo, ooo oo |asta o| ouoto oo coos|ooa uoa |sa oosooa a| cau-
saoto a| |ooooo. |a sucos|o oo |a oosooa oasa a so ooo|azaoa
oo uoa sucos|o oo |as t|tu|a|oaoos ,uo|cas. Tooo o| coo,uoto ooosa
sobo |a baso oo uo ooo|o ||boa| cao|ta||sta ouo avooco oosova |os
oooc|os oo |a buuosa, ostab|oc|oooo uo ooct|vo oou|||b|o ooto |os
oooc|os ooboos oo cuo ovo|uc|ooa|o |as costubos oooc|os
ooo|stootos.
11. |a oou|ac|o oo osto toto |oa| aca uo ||to oo o| oosao-
||o oosto|o oo |a coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o C|v|| taoto oo |uooa coo
oo /|ca, s|o ouo su |o|uooc|a so v|oa aoctaoa oo |a caoa oo| |oo-
|o oaoo|oo|co. Lo |o oouosto oo ouooo otaa ouo autoos coo /..
/oauo |aao coos|ooaoo ouo o| Co|o os coo uo ,uoo ouo ostab|o-
co ooto|oaoas o|as, buuosas, oo ooooo so o|co ou|oos ouoooo ,ua
ou|oos oo
33
. u|ooos ,uoao soo osooc|a|ooto aouo||os ouo soo c|uoa-
32
. |. Cazzao|a, Introduction historique au droit des obligations, |a|s, |||, +``2, 2`6 oo.
33
/. . /oauo, Les origines doctrinales du Code Civil, |a|s, |. ||c|oo |. Luaoo-/uz|as, +`6`,
326 oo., id., Essai danalyse structurale du Code Civil franais: la rgle du jeu dans la paix bourge-
oise, |a|s, ||c|oo |. Luaoo-/uz|as, +`3, +82 oo.

166
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oaoos, aocosos, vaooos ooo|ota|os. |sta os |a azo ouo ,ust||ca |a
ou|ac|o oo |a at|buc|o |a aoou|s|c|o oo |a oac|ooa||oao aocosa. |o
taoto, oo |as o|as oo ,uoo osto oc|u|oos |os otao,oos (sa|vo acoo|-
tac|o oo |a oc|ooc|oao coo |t|o|os ost|cc|ooos oo o| o,oc|c|o oo
|os oooc|os), |as u,oos, |os oooos oo ooao, os ooc| tooava o| Co|-
o |aoo|oo|co os uo Co|o oat|aca|, ouo tooa o|soos|c|ooos aoca-
ooto coosovaooas. |o o,oo|o, |a u,o oo tooa |a oos|b|||oao oo o|s-
oooo oo sus b|ooos, oo tooa |a ooosootac|o oo |a soc|ooao cooua|,
o| a|oo oooa o|soooo oo |os b|ooos cooua|os s|o ooo||o o|ouoa c|a-
so oo auto|zac|o a |a u,o, ostaba oo||b|oa |a |ooaac|o ,uo|c|a|, os
ooc| s| |ub|oa uo ,u|c|o oaa |oa |a |||ac|o oo |a oatoo|oao otaa-
t|oo|a| ||ot|a, oo ta| aooa ouo |os ||,os otaat|oo|a|os s| oo
oao ocoooc|oos vo|uota|aooto oo sus oaoos so oocootabao oo uo
||bo ,uo|co. |o |o, |a uoa so|o oo oota||os ouo |acoo ouo o| Co|o
|aoo|oo|co ovo|o uo asoocto ||boa| ooo uo ovoso oo |a ooooa oo
cacto c|aaooto coosovaoo. L|c|o oo otos t|oos, os uo o|o,o
oo |as cooou|stas oooct|cas, ooo tab|o |oc|uo uo ta|aoto coosova-
oo ouo vooa oo uoa buuosa t|uoaoto ouo oo oocos|taba oo ou|a
o|ouoa o|v|oo|cac|o ooouo a so oocootaba s|tuaoa oo o| oooo
34
.
Un hito en el desarrollo posterior de la codificacin
del Derecho Civil
12. |a coo||cac|o os uo oocoso ooooo ooa|zaoo a c|otos |sta-
oos ouo ootooocoo a uoa a|||a ,uo|ca oao|sta, o oo| civil law
35
, oo o|
coota|o, oo tooos aouo||os oasos ouo ootooocoo a |a osoa ao|osa,o-
oa |a coo||cac|o |a too|oo uo |oacto o|voso. Cu|osaooto oo || ||
ooooo so o|st uoa ootab|o |o|uooc|a aocosa oaa |a o|aboac|o oo
su Coost|tuc|o oo so ooc|b| oo t|oos oooa|os |a |ooota oo|
Co|o |aoo|oo|co. |os oasos ouo ao |o|uooc|a |ao oc|b|oo |ao
s|oo oo o|oc|o|o |os ouoooos, oo |a |ovas|o oaoo|oo|ca, ooo tab|o
|os oasos |at|ooao|caoos. |o osto caso oo coo uoa |ovas|o s|oo ba,o
34
. |vau|t, Le Code Napolon: ses fondements philosophiques et son rayonnement dans le mon-
de, |uooa-|ost|tut oo |o|vos|tt oos Saa|aooos, +`8S.
35
|. /sc|o|, / Tuo|o |o|ot |o t|o C|v||-|a. Tao|t|oo. o Ius commune to Cooo |aoo|oo,
Tulane Law Rev, vo|. 0, +``6, oo. +0++-+0S+.

167
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
uo oocoso oo ocooc|o vo|uota|a oo| Looc|o. Coocob|oo o| Co|o
coo uo s|stoa ||co oo ooas uo|vosa|os so coostu uoa osoo-
c|o oo cu|tua oo Co|o ouo |ouso uo ooto|oaoo ooo oo azooa
ouo |a ||oaoo |asta ouostos oas
36
.
|| Co|o C|v|| aocs so |oooo o|oaooto oo o|o |ua
oo o| Looc|o oo cooou|sta ouo s|o||c |a ooaos|o oo| |oo|o oaoo-
|oo|co
37
. /s uo aoootaoo oo 3||ca
38
, |uobuo, |uoo so otooo|
a |os |asos 3a,os, caotooos oo |a Su|za aocosa
39
, o|oc|oaoos |ta||aoos,
oo|acos a|oaoos, ooto otos
40
. Su caoa oo +8+S o||o o|st|otas oac-
c|ooos s| b|oo auo aouo||os oasos ouo |o oooaoo o|ctaoo otos basa-
oos oo su ooat|va.Tab|o |o|u oo su o|us|o |a oo|t|ca co|oo|a| ao-
cosa (Caoao, |u|s|aoa
41
), |ca, C|ooto |oo|o). |aoo|oo ou|so otoo-
oo |as |ost|tuc|ooos ovo|uc|ooa|as oo coov|cc|o |ooo||ca, ouos coa
oo |a suoo|o|oao oo |os |ooa|os oo ac|ooa||oao ,ust|c|a ooo|os oo |a
|ovo|uc|o, oo coos|ooac|ooos oct|cas. coot|bu|ao a |a uo||cac|o
oo| |oo|o sov|ao oaa asoua su cooto|, o|||oaooo cuooos |oto-
oo|os o|v||o|os, oaa su|o|sta o|ooo |obos oaa atao a |a
buuosa a| caoos|oaoo. |oo |a otoos|o oo ostas |ost|tuc|ooos so
acooa oo |a |o|b|||oao oo su ouosta oo oct|ca. |sta |o|b|||oao, ,uoto
coo |a ooos|va oooac|o oo| |oo, ||zo ouo |a |oo||oao oo |a
|o|aotac|o oo |os o|oc|o|os ovo|uc|ooa|os oo ouo oao ootaooas |as
|ost|tuc|ooos uoso o|vosa, oo uoc|o oo| aoo oo cooto| oo |a soc|ooao
oo |a ouo so ao||cabao, o|oooto soo so tataso oo to|to|os |ocoooa-
36
Cf. V. Tau /ozoatou|, |oa cu|tua oo Co|o, Revista de Historia del Derecho (3uooos /|os),
| 26, +``8, oo. S38-S3`.
37
Looto oo |a ouoosa b|b||oaa o|stooto oostaca o| oc|ooto vo|uoo co|oct|vo, Le Code
Napolon, un anctre vnr? Mlanges offerts Jacques Vanderlinden, 3uso|as, 3u|aot, 200+,
S`2 oo.
38
|. ||ot, |o Cooo |aoo|oo oo 3o||ouo, Revue internationale de droit compar, +`S+, oo.
S3-`+
39
. |. |ouoot, |os |||tos oo ||ouooco ou Cooo |aoo|oo su |os coo|cat|oos oaooos ou
|o s|c|o, Revue historique de droit franais et tranger, | 6`, +``+, oo. ++-6+.
40
|. L. 3ocsao, |o Cooo |aoo|oo oo |oua|oo au s|c|o ooo|o, Rev. int. dr. comp., vo|. S6,
200+, oo. +3`-++6.
41
|. 3at|za, T|o |ou|s|aoa C|v|| Cooo o +808. |ts actua| soucos aoo oosoot o|ovaoco, Tulane
Law Review, | +, +`+, oo. +-+6S

168
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oos a| |oo|o o oo ostaoos vasa||os o s|o|oooto a||aoos, oo |as caacto-
st|cas oo |a soc|ooao oo ouo so ao||caba, o|st|otas soo |ub|osoo ooo|-
ootaoo o oo uo oocoso oo ooa oov|o o|sous|osoo o oo oo ostuc-
tuas s o ooos oaoc|oas a |as aocosas, oo |a ooca oo ouo o||o tooa
|ua. oo uooo |o |so |os o|oos oootos ouo |os |t|os aos
oo| |oo|o, cuaooo o| |oo so |aba |oc|o s coosovaoo.
13. |o t|oos oooa|os ouooo ooc|so ouo |ubo uoa ao |oo||-
oao a| ooo|o coooo oa s tooaoa ao |a |otoac|o a| |-
oo|o s aooo |a a|o|oao |o|c|a| a |a soc|ooao aocosa. |as, taooco
|a ouo o|v|oa ouo, oaa |a oa||zac|o oo |as ooas, so tuvo ouo coo-
ta coo o| oosooa| ao|o|stat|vo aoocuaoo, ouo oo sus ostatos ba,os oa
oocosa|aooto |oca|, coo |a co|aboac|o oo |os ootab|os oo| |ua, ac-
toos abos ouo tooo|ooo a o||u| |a oouoo|oao oo |as taosoac|o-
oos. |a v|ocu|ac|o oo| Co|o a| |oo|o oo||ca su oscasa |o|uooc|a oo
|otua|. |o oocto, o| Co|o C|v|| ootuus oo +86 uo o| ouo oc|b|
uoa |o|uooc|a ooo oo| Co|o oo |aoo|oo tooa voz ouo oo sus taba-
,os oooaato|os so ou|so coosova oo |a oo|oa oo |o oos|b|o o| aot|uo
Looc|o ootuus. S|o obao o| ooo|o soa aco|oo oo otos oasos
a|o,aoos oo o|oc|o|o a |a |o|uooc|a aocosa coo |uao|a.
III Repercusin del modelo en Amrica Latina
Coc|ooos oo tooo a| Looc|o co|oo|a| |oooaoo
14. |a ovo|uc|o oo |as cootovos|as oo|t|cas, soc|a|os, |ooo||cas,
cu|tua|os ocoo|cas ouo so oosao|| oo |os oasos oo /|ca |at|-
oa oc|ootoooto |ooooooo|zaoos oo|to |a cooaac|o oo |os ooco-
sos oat|cu|aos ouo so o|staoo oo caoa oas oo |o o|at|vo a |a oa-
c|o oo |ost|tuc|ooos oo|t|cas. S| b|oo so |ootaoo ooo|os oo|t|co-|ooo-
||cos oo otos oasos (oooa||sta, coota||sta, ooub||caoo, oos|oooc|a-
||sta, oa|aoota|o, ||boa|, coosovaoo, otc.), |as c|cuostaoc|as osooc|cas
oo caoa oas ob||aoo a ouo so |o||oao at|cos a |os oooctos oo
|staoo, |o ouo o|o oo osu|taoo soc|ooaoos coo aooos o|oooc|as ooto
s, ooo oo a|uoos casos tab|o coo oooos soo,aozas. /oootooo-
oos oo |as ot|vac|ooos ouo |ou|saoo o| oocoso coo||caoo |at|ooao-
|caoo |oov|tab|oooto oos oocootaoos coo uo |ootaoto osco||o.

169
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
ooco o oaoa so |a o|c|o sobo |as cooo|c|ooos soc|a|os o, cu|tua|os oo
oooa|, ouo acooaaoo o|c|a ou|ac|o
42
.
15. Looto oo| ost|cto caoo oo| Looc|o ||vaoo o, s| so ou|oo,
oo o| |oto|o oo |as acos oo|atas oo| Looc|o oaoo
43
, oo ouooo
ooaso ouo |a |ooot|oao ,uo|co-cu|tua| oo| Looc|o |at|ooao|caoo so
ot|oooo ouaoto o| |ao ooooo oo oo|oac|o co|oo|a|
44
. || Looc|o
|oo|aoo ao||cab|o a |os to|to|os oo u|taa coostu |as basos oo |o
ouo |uoo oo |a |oooooooooc|a oo|t|ca coooz a aoou|| |ooot|oao
oac|ooa| a tavs oo |a coo||cac|o. Lo |oc|o, |a |oooooooooc|a oo |a /-
|ca osoao|a ac o| |o oo |a ooca |oo|aoa, ooo oo oo| Looc|o |oo|a-
oo
45
. || Looc|o |oo|aoo ouo || oo /|ca osoao|a oosoo |a ooca oo
|os ooscub||ootos |asta |a coo||cac|o, os ooc|, oo t|oos oooa|os,
oosoo |oos oo| s||o V |asta |a souooa |tao oo| s||o | , ostuvo coo-
oaoo oo o|oootos oo| Looc|o casto||aoo, |ooooa o| osooc|co
42
Lostacao, |oouoab|oooto, |os taba,os oo /. Caca 3|to oo aoo,o o|octo ouo |aco oo
tooos |os oooctos oo Co|os C|v||os oo tooos |os Co|os C|v||os oo /|ca |at|oa ouo
cu||oaoo oo su oooaa, La codicacin civil en Iberoamrica. Siglos XIX y XX, Saot|ao,
|o|to|a| uo|ca oo C|||o, 2000, 62+ oo.
43
|a oooooooaoc|a oo| Looc|o oaoo oo o| Looc|o oo |os oasos oo /|ca |at|oa os
uoa aac|o ocuooto. Looto oo |a otoosa ||toatua ouo o|sto sobo |a ato|a Vid. .
|. Casto Vzouoz, || s|stoa oo Looc|o o|vaoo ao|caoo, Estudios de Derecho civil en
honor al profesor Castn Tobeas, vo| |V, |ao|ooa, |o|c|ooos oo |a |o|vos|oao oo |avaa,
+`6`, oo. +S-+88, /. |. V|||o|a, L|o|to oaoo o s|stoa ,u|o|co |at|oo-ao|caoo, Revista
de Informaao Legislativa (3as|||a), +`8+, oo. ++S-+2+, |. Cata|aoo, S|stoas ,uo|cos. S|stoa
,uo|co |at|oo-ao|caoo Looc|o oaoo, RGLJ, t. C|, +`82, oo. +66 ss, |. ||os|as
|. |o|ooau, |a |ouooc|a oo| Looc|o oaoo oo o| Looc|o c|v|| o|caoo. |os Co|os
c|v||os oo +80, +88+ +`28, Revista de Derecho Privado (||co), +``2, oo. S+-63, L. |. |o-
ooooz /oo, Sobo |a o|stooc|a oo uoa a|||a |at|ooao|caoa, Anuario Jurdico y Econ-
mico Escurialense, ooca ||, | V||, +``+, oo. 3-+0`.
44
/. |. Cao, |o| cat|oo aoo aoo|zat|oo o ||vato |a. |o |at|o /o|ca, AJCL, vo|. +0,
+``2, oo. S8-6+6.
45
|o ostuo|o oo oouoo|oao acoca oo |a aac|o oo| Looc|o oat|o o oac|ooa|, ooto a|
oo Looc|o coo oo |soaa oo |a oov|vooc|a oo| Looc|o coo oo ||soaooa|ca
so oocuoota oo o| u|t|o aoataoo oo| ||bo oo 3. 3avo ||a, Derecho comn y Derecho pro-
pio en el Nuevo Mundo, Saot|ao oo C|||o, |o|to|a| uo|ca oo C|||o, +`8`, V||| = 33 oo.

170
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oo |oo|as. |oto +S+ +S0 so cooso||oa o| Looc|o |oo|aoo ooto
+S0 +`00 o| Looc|o |at|o o |ac|ooa| suo oo ooc|a oo| Loo-
c|o Coo. || Looc|o |oo|aoo oocuoota su |t|a aso oo |a |oooooo-
oooc|a oo /|ca oooco coo |a coo||cac|o
46
.
/|oa b|oo, |a coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o ||vaoo oo /|ca |at|-
oa oo tuvo coo ob,ot|vo oosou| |a uo|o|oao oo| Looc|o ||vaoo
oo |as ,vooos |oob||cas, s|oo s b|oo a|a |a oac|ooto soboaoa oo|-
t|ca oo|aoto uo s|stoa |o|s|at|vo |oto|||b|o s accos|b|o ouo |a o|s-
oosa, oousa coousa |o|s|ac|o co|oo|a|. |o ooscootaoo, ouaoto o| oo-
|ooo oo |a cooou|sta, |ab|a sobo |o|uooc|as ouoooas oo /|ca |at|-
oa os oo|so a| Looc|o osoao|
47
. |o aouo| ootoocos o| Looc|o
osoao| ostaba coost|tu|oo oo uo coo|ooaoo oo |oos o|soos|c|ooos,
coosocuooc|a oo uoa act|v|oao |o|s|at|va casust|ca caooto oo tooo.
|os totos |oa|os oao oo o|st|oto o|oo ooactaoos oo o|st|otas oo-
cas, |o ouo o||cu|taba su coooos|o ao||cac|o.
16. |a aoa oo |as oac|ooos |at|ooao|caoas a|caozaoo su |ooo-
ooooooc|a ooto +8+0 +82S. Coo os ||co, |as |oos ouo v|ocu|abao a
|as o-co|oo|as coo |soaa uooo oooaoas o s|o|oooto ouooaoo s|o
oocto. S|o obao, oo |o ouo osoocta a |a |o|s|ac|o c|v||, o| cab|o ||o-
s taoaooto. Losous oo ooc|aaoa |a |oooooooooc|a, |os ouovos
|staoos oo s|ot|ooo o|ouoa uooc|a oo ooo|caso a |a o|aboac|o oo
|oos ouo ooo|azaao a |a |o|s|ac|o c|v|| osoao|a. |o |a bsouooa oo
ooo|os, so ouooo obsova |ooooo|oao oo tooas |as oob||cas |at|oo-
ao|caoas. Cu|osaooto, oo |o ouo so o|oo a oao|zac|o oo|t|ca,
tooas aoootaoo o| s|stoa ootoao|caoo, ooo oo |o ouo a Looc|o
C|v|| so o|oo, a| ooos oo o| s||o |, so s|uo oo uoa u ota oo|oa a|
ooo|o aocs
48
. |osto|oooto, s|o obao, su| ooto |os ,u|stas,
oo|t|cos o |oto|octua|os oo oooa|, ouo oabao oato oo |os ostatos
o||ootos oo |os ouovos |staoos, |a ootoos|o oo ooa o| v|o,o Loo-
c|o |oooaoo, oo|aoto su sust|tuc|o oo uoa |o|s|ac|o oac|ooa|. |sta,
46
Ibid., oo. S-S+.
47
|. |o|ssot oo |soaoos, Looc|o c|v|| osoao| ao|caoo. Sus |ouooc|as ocoocas, RDP,
+`2, oo. S``-6++.
48
3. 3avo ||a, Coo| cac|o c|v|| oo |booa|ca oo |a |ooosu|a |b|ca (+82-+`+). Loo-
c|o oac|ooa| ouooo|zac|o, oo /. |ova|, oo., Fuentes ideolgicas y normativas..., op. cit.

171
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
atooo|oa |a ooca, oo oooa ooos ouo so ou|aoa ba,o |a oa oo
co|os a| ost||o ooooo.Ya |oos too|oo ocas|o oo a|a ouo ouao-
to |a o|oa |tao oo| s||o |, o| ooo|o s oost||oso uo o| Co|o
|aoo|oo|co, oo |oc|o, |as o|oas coo||cac|ooos aoaoc|oas oo t|oas
ao|caoas uooo ||tac|ooos |asta taoucc|ooos oo| Co|o aocs.
17. |o ouooo otaa ouo ouaoto osta otaoa oost-co|oo|a|, |a
aooa ,uo|ca |at|ooao|caoa ouooo oa|aoa a tavs oo |a |o|uoo-
c|a oooo|oaoto oo| Code Civil |aoo|oo|co o| abuooaoto cuooo oo
ooct|oa ouo acooa su ocooc|o. |o osto ouoto, s|o obao, coov|o-
oo |aco a|uoas o|st|oc|ooos ooto |a co|ooto coo||caooa c|v|| o-
caot||, ooto o|oootos uoos oo oasos coooo a |a |o|uooc|a s o
ooos o|octa oo| ooo|o aocs o osoao| oostaca a |a voz |a |o|uoo-
c|a ocooca oo |os co|os |at|ooao|caoos. |o oocto, cuaooo so oo-
ouco |a |oooooooooc|a os ||co ouo |os ouovos |staoos |at|ooao|caoos
vuo|vao |a v|sta a |aoc|a ouo s|bo||zaba |os |ooa|os oo |oooooooooc|a
oo ||botao a| t|ooo ouo soua s|oooo uo oas oo cu|tua oao|sta a|
|ua| ouo |as aot|uas ootooc|as co|oo|zaooas |soaa |otua|. |o osta
azo |a ooct|oa |a ,u|souoooc|a aocosa |ao s|oo |a oauta o|oc|oa|
oaa |a coostucc|o oo| Looc|o C|v|| oo |as ouovas oob||cas. Y cuaooo
|os oasos |at|ooao|caoos a so |abao |ooooooo|zaoo, oo uso oo su
soboaoa ooc|o|ooo acoo o| ooo|o oaoo|oo|co s|o o||cu|tao, tooa voz
|os |ooa|os oo |a ovo|uc|o aocosa co|oc|oao coo |os |ooa|os oo |a |ooo-
ooooooc|a. |os o|oc|o|os oo ||botao, |ua|oao, ||bo ocaoo, sou|oao
ocoo|ca, oo ostab|||oao ooota|a, ouo ostabao |osotos oo o| Co|o
|aoo|oo|co oao o|oc|o|os ouo tab|o aoootabao |os oocusoos oo
|a |oooooooooc|a |os oo|t|cos oo |os o|oos aos oo| |oo ooub||-
caoo. |a |oo||oao ostaoa |ac|a |a oba oaoo|oo|ca ooz o| oooo
soc|a| buus ,uoto coo | acootu o| o|oc|o|o oo| |oo|v|oua||so ,uo|-
co, a ocoooc|oo oo o| Code, oo aooa ouo o| |oo|v|ouo oa co|ocaoo
a|oa s ouo ouoca oo o| cooto oo| s|stoa ,uo|co o|soaoo. Lo osta
suoto, |a a|||a auto|ta|a oat|aca|, |a ooo|ooao abso|uta, o| cootato
coo o,o oo |as o|ac|ooos oat|oo|a|os, uooo ooooaoos coo uoza.
|o o,oo|o oo C|||o, o| L|octo Suooo, 3ooaoo C||os, |ub|oa
oosoaoo, oo +822, aooota |a |o|s|ac|o aocosa oo b|oouo, |o ouo oa
|oact|cab|o, s|o oo,u|c|o oo ouo ocaoas s taoo, /oos 3o||o, ooac-
to oo| Co|o C|v|| c|||ooo, s|o toa|o coo uooto oc|us|va o| o|o-
o|a|, so |oso|aa oooootoooto oo o| Co|o |aocs, oooo|oooo|o

172
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
o| s c|obo oo |os Co|os oo |a ooct|oa o|aboaoa oo sus co-
ootaooos
49
. |oouoab|oooto |a acootac|o oo| Ttu|o |o|||oa oo| Code
aca uo ,a|o |ootaoto oo |a ocooc|o oo osto |t|o oo /|ca |a-
t|oa |oc|uoooo uc|os |staoos oooto oo | |as o||oo|as ooas ouo
oao o| b|to oo ao||cac|o oo |a |o oo o| osoac|o oo o| t|ooo. || t-
tu|o oo|||oa uo oo ta| soot|oo taoso|aotaoo a cas| tooos |os oasos |at|-
ooao|caoos
50
. Cu|osaooto sto o|caooto coot|ooo so|s atcu|os
oo obstaoto osto, |a o||oaoo uoa vooaooa ovo|uc|o oo o| Looc|o.
Soa|aoaooto, |as o||t|vas ooas oo Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
ouo oo o| Coot|oooto toooao, coo oosto|o|oao, uoa acaoa o|oos|o
|otooac|ooa| oo oba oo |as Coooooc|as |aoao|caoas oo| Co|o
3ustaaoto.
|o ooscootaoo, oo /|ca |at|oa o| Code c|v|| oo |aoo|oo aoa-
oc| coo o| sbo|o oo |a |ovo|uc|o, o| oooucto oo| s||o oo |as
|ucos
51
. |a aoooc|o oo uo Co|o C|v|| a |a |aoo oo| ooo|o aocs s|-
v| oaa a|a |a |oooooooooc|a oo |os ouovos |staoos. Coo so |a |oo|-
caoo, ba,o |a |o|uooc|a oo /oos 3o||o va|os co|os oo /|ca |at|oa
aoootaoo uoa oos|c|o oc|ct|ca coo o| ooo|o aocs. oo uoa oato,
o| osooto a |as ooas oo| Looc|o osoao| oo ato|a oo a|||a
52
, oo
ota, uoa uoto |o|uooc|a |oo|v|oua||sta oo ato|a oat|oo|a|. /s, o|
Co|o C|v|| c|||ooo, ooactaoo oo o| ooo|o /oos 3o||o, so |oso| oo
ato|a oat|oo|a| |otoosaooto oo o| Co|o aocs. |as |a |o|uooc|a
oo| Code oo so oou,o a osto |ootaoto |ostuooto |o|s|at|vo. |a ooc-
t|oa ,u|souoooc|a oo |a Coto oo casac|o aocosa toooo tab|o
uo |oacto |ootaoto ouaoto o| s||o .
S| b|oo a aouo||a |a oocoooo o| Landrecht ous|aoo, o| Code ao-
cs o| ABGB austaco, so aoo|aota a |a coo||cac|o |ta||aoa (+86+), osoa-
49
|. C. ||o., 3oo.|o ||vato |a. |o |at|o /o|ca. /ooos 3o||os uso o t|o Cooo |aoo-
|oo |o Lat|o t|o C|||oao C|v|| Cooo, Lousiana Law Rev., vo|. 6+, 200+, oo. 2`+-32`.
50
|. |ub|o Cooa, |os ttu|os oo|||oaos oo |a coo|cac|o |at|ooao|caoa oo| s||o |,
oo /. |ova|, oo., Fuentes ideolgicas y normativas de la Codicacin latinoamericana, 3uooos
/|os, |o|vos|oao oo| |usoo Soc|a| /oot|oo, +``2.
51
/. |. |abo||o, |ootosou|ou ot |a coo|cat|oo ou oo|t o|v (|o cooo |aoo|oo), Rev. int. dr.
comp., vo|. S2, 2000, oo. ++-+S6.
52
. |. Casto Vzouoz, |a |ouooc|a oo Caca Coooa oo |as coo|cac|ooos ao|caoas,
Homenaje al profesor Juan Roca Juan, |uc|a, +`8`, oo. +S` ss.

173
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
o|a (+88`) a|oaoa oo| BGB (+8`6). |||o cooouco a ov|sa |a oocoo-
c| o, ooas|aoo s|o||sta, oo ouo |a coo||cac|o avaoza oosoo |a |uooa
|asta o| osto oo| uooo.
18. Coo |a ouosto oo o||ovo oosoo |a oosooct|va |at|ooao|caoa
C. |aos |ooz, ost u |o,os oo |a oa||oao |a oo|o|o, oo ao oo| tooo
abaooooaoa, ouo vo oo oato oo |os co|os ao|caoos uoa coo|a ||to-
a| o o|a oo| Co|o C|v|| aocs, cosa ouo oo o|st| coo act|tuo
oooa||zaoa. Coo vooos a oat| oo| Co|o oouaoo oo +8S2, coo-
s|ooaoo coo o| o|o Co|o ao|caoo autooo, |a |ooa oo |oto-
ouc| o| s|stoa a| Code b|||a oo su ausooc|a.Y, oo osta |ooa oo a|o,a|oo-
to oo| ooo|o oaoo|oo|co, o| Co|o C|v|| c|||ooo coost|tuo o| o,oo|o
s oostacaoo. |||o os as oo cuaoto oo su cootoo|oo oooo|oa |ocoo-
tastab|oooto |a tao|c|o oaoo-casto||aoa, oooto oo o||a oo aoo-
a o|oc|oa| |a oovoo|ooto oo |as S|oto |at|oas
53
. So tata oo uoa act|tuo
ouo oo oobo soooooo oo cuaoto a |a |ooa oo coo||cac|o ouo 3o||o
o|aotoa oo su ooouosta os |a oo |a cooso||oac|o oo| Looc|o, osto os,
ocoo o| Looc|o v|ooto oo o| coototo |booao|caoo, s|oooo o|
Looc|o osoao| |a vot|ooto s abuooaoto oo ato|a uoa voz oou-
aoo oo uc|os oo sus oooctos coo |a aootac|o oo |os co|os otao-
,oos. Y os ooc|saooto aou ooooo o| Co|o oo |aoo|oo ocuoa uo
|ua |ootaoto. |sto os uo oato o|oo oo coos|oa oaoo ouo o| Co|o
C|v|| c|||ooo tuvo uoa otaoo|oa|a o|us|o, at|zaoa oosoo |uoo, oo
oato oo o|vosos oasos ao|caoos coo tooooos ocas|o oo co-
ooba, oasaooo a tooo oo osto coot|oooto uo |ua s|||a a| a|caozaoo
oo |uooa oo o| Co|o oo |aoo|oo
54
.
53
. |. Casto Vzouoz, || Co|o c|v|| oo /oos 3o||o |a uo|oao oo| s|stoa ,uo|co |boo-
ao|caoo, ADC, +`82, oo. +2+-+2`, . Sat|oboo, / | ouooc|a oo /oos 3o||o oo L|o|to
|otooac|ooa| ||vaoo |at|oo-/o|caoo, Revista de Direito e Economia, +`82, 8, oo. 3+-383.
54
Vid. o| Caotu|o 3 oo |a oooaa oo C. |aos |oz, El Cdigo napolenico..., cit. supra.

174
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
Alcance del Code en los diversos modelos
de la codificacin americana
19. |a coo||cac|o so oosao||a oo /|ca |at|oa oo oa s|u|t-
ooa a| oocoso coo||caoo ouoooo
55
. |a |ooot|oao |at|ooao|caoa oo |o
ouo cooc|ooo a |a coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o C|v||, os suscoot|b|o oo so
subo|v|o|oa oo o|oootos uoos, coooo a| t|oo aoo oo |o|uooc|a
oc|b|oa oo |a coo||cac|o oaoo|oo|ca. Looto oo |as |t|o|os c|as||cac|o-
oos ouo so ouoooo ooco, tooas o||as v||oas, oaa obsova |a ao o
ooo |o|uooc|a oo| Co|o oo |aoo|oo oo |os co|os |at|ooao|ca-
oos os act|b|o ostab|oco tos uoos. o| oo |os co|os aaocosaoos, o|
oo |os co|os oc|ct|cos o| oo |os co|os autctooos, ouo o|ooo |ua
a |os ooooos Co|os oo /|ca |at|oa.
20. Co|os aaocosaoos. /|uoos oasos |at|ooao|caoos, coo
oo o,oo|o a|t, |a |oob||ca Lo|o|caoa 3o||v|a (oo su o|o Co|-
o C|v||) aoootaoo o| Co|o C|v|| aocs cas| ||toa|ooto. a|t, oo
+8+`, |o|c|a o| c|c|o coo||caoo |at|ooao|caoo
56
, |o sucooo Saoto Lo|o-
o, ouo ba,o |a oo|oac|o |a|t|aoa, oo +826, aooota |os cinq Codes, taou-
c|ooo|os a| osoao| oo +88+. / ostos oos |os s|uo o| Co|o C|v|| oo
Caaca, oou|aoo ooto +82 +828, oo |o o| o|o Co|o |at|oo-
ao|caoo
57
.
55
/. Cuzo 3|to, La codicacin civil en Iberoamrica. Siglos XIX y XX, Saot|ao, |o|to|a| u-
o|ca oo C|||o, 2000, 62+ oo. Losoo o| ao +` o| auto v|ooo oub||caooo uoa so|o oo ooo-
aas oo tooo a| toa oo |a coo|cac|o oos ||bos. El primer proyecto del Cdigo Civil en
Chile oub||caoo oo +`8, Andrs Bello, codicador. Historia de la jacin y codicacin del Dere-
cho civil en Chile, oo +`82. |o o| os oo ,u||o oo| ao 2000 aoaoc| osto ouovo ||bo, uo u-
to s oo ostos 2S aos oo ostuo|o sobo |a ||sto|a oo |a coo|cac|o.
56
/. |. |o, Code civil dHati: annote daprs la doctrine et la jurisprudence hatennes et frabai-
ses et rfrences aux auteurs. Prcd de la Constitution de 1918 amende en 1928, |uoto
||oc|oo, |ooo|o oo |a |osso, +`3+, `S oo., Vid. /.C. Cabao|s, |o ooo|o oo co||-
sat|oo ,u|o|ouo oou|o. |o Cooo C|v|| at|oo oo +82S ot |o Cooo |aoo|oo, Rev. int. dr.
comp., vo|. +8, +``6, oo. ++3-+S6.
57
|. Ct|z |ou|o|, Oaxaca, cuna de la codicacin iberoamericana, ||co, |oa, +`3,
=38S oo.

175
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
|o |a ocaoa oo |os aos to|ota oo| s||o |, o| aaocosaoo ooo-
a| /oos oo Saota Cuz, ||taooo a su ao|aoo |aoo|oo 3ooaoato,
o|ctaba oaa su oas, 3o||v|a, |os co|os bs|cos ouo soao uo ooo|o
|ooo|ato oaa tooa |a tooaoa coo||cac|o |at|ooao|caoa
58
. Losoo
oo|aoos oo +836, |a Coooooac|o |o-bo||v|aoa, coooaa a tos
oot|oaoos oo|t|cas o|st|otas. o| |staoo Suo-|ouaoo, o| |staoo |o-|oua-
oo |a |oob||ca oo 3o||v|a. |os co|os bo||v|aoos uooo o| aotocooooto
o|octo oo |os cuooos |o|s|at|vos coo ouo cootaoo |os to|to|os cooo-
ooaoos ouaoto su bovo o|stooc|a
59
.
/ |os Co|os oo Saota Cuz, |o sucooo oo Costa ||ca, o| ao oo
+8++, o| Co|o Coooa| oo 3au||o Ca|||o, ooactaoo oo o| ooo|o |o-
s|oooto oo |a |oob||ca. |stos co|os uooo, oo |ooas oooa|os, uoto-
ooto |oso|aoos oo o| Co|o oo |aoo|oo, sa|vo |as coooos|b|os
oo||cac|ooos |otoouc|oas osooc|a|ooto oo o| caoo oo| Looc|o |a-
|||a, coo baso a |as o|as oo| Looc|o caoo|co, aoobaoas oo o| Cooc|-
||o oo Tooto. |o so o|ooso, oo coosocuooc|a, ouo tooos ostos co|os uo-
oo uoa s|o|o ooooucc|o |otoa| oo| Cooo, ouos taoto o| oo Caaca,
coo o| Co|o bo||v|aoo o| oo Costa ||ca |otoou,ooo a|uoas oo|-
|cac|ooos basaoas oo o| Looc|o casto||aoo-|oo|aoo, atooo|oooo a cuaoos
oo costubos va|oos o|vosos oo| ouo |oso|aoo o| Co|o aocs.
21. Co|os oc|ct|cos. ||sto uo b|oouo oo |staoos, acaso o| s s|-
o||cat|vo oosoo o| ouoto oo v|sta ||st|co, ocoooc| a| Co|o C|v|| ao-
cs coo uooto |oso|aooa o|oc|oa|, ooo ouo so |oc||oaoo oo uo ost|-
|o tco|ca oc|ct|co, aootaooo uoa oos|s s|o||cat|va oo o||oa||oao a|
ov||ooto oo coo||cac|o |at|ooao|caoo. |o |a oota||oao oo |as c|a-
sos o||ootos s |c|oas so ootoooa ouo |a oa aoooc|o oo| Co|o
|aoo|oo|co, coo uoa u ota ooa oo oo oo|o, ostaba |o,os oo aao-
t|za su aoocuac|o a |a oa||oao soc|a| |ooaoto. So oocos|ta ootoocos, oo
uo |aoo, a|ocaso oo o| ooo|o ooooo oo |a coo||cac|o, ooo, oo oto,
58
|osu|ta ob||aoa |a ooooc|a a| ostuo|o oo |. |osso, El sentido de la codicacin civil. Estudios
sobre la circulacin de los modelos jurdicos y su inuencia en el Cdigo civil peruano, ||a, |a|os-
ta, 200+.
59
Vid. C. |aos |oz, |a cu|tua ,uo|ca oo |a ooca oo |a Coooooac|o |o-3o||v|a, Revis-
ta de Estudios Histricos Jurdicos, | 22, 2000, oo. 26-2`, |tto.//....sc|o|o.c|/sc|o|o.o|o:o|o
=S0+6-S+SS20000022000+28sc|ot=sc|_attot8t|o=os=+.

176
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
cooo||o uo cootoo|oo ooo|o, cooat|b|o coo |as caactost|cas oo|
oo|o a| ouo so ootoooo ou|a.
|o ostas c|cuostaoc|as, aov|ooo o| Co|o C|v|| oouaoo oo +8S2,
ouo, so oosoota coo o| o|o Co|o |at|ooao|caoo ooosaoo oosoo
osta oato oo| uooo , ouo abo oo o| oocoso coo||caoo |at|ooao|-
caoo uoa aso |asta ootoocos |oo|ta. |a oo o|aboac|o autooa. || |o
so aoo|aot oo osto ooo a| b|||aoto Co|o C|v|| c|||ooo, oba oo| ,u|s-
ta vooozo|aoo /oos 3o||o, o| |so ouo oot oo v|o oo +8SS, a|
Co|o C|v|| aoot|oo, oba ootab|o o|scut|oa oo| ,u|sta La|ac|o V|oz
Ss|o|o, ouo || oosoo +8+ , a| oo ooos b|||aoto |sboo oo Co|o
C|v|| bas||oo o|aboaoo oo /uusto To|o|a oo |o|tas, ouo sustaoc|a|-
ooto s|v| oo baso a| Co|o aoot|oo. / o|oooc|a oo stos oo uo
oba oo uo so|o ,u|sta, s|oo o| oooucto taosacc|ooa| oo |as o|vosas too-
oooc|as |ooo||cas ouo oatoc|oabao |ao Cast|||a os |u|oo |c|o-
o|ouo ba,o sus osooct|vos ob|ooos. || Co|o C|v|| |ouaoo oo +8S2 uo
uo |ostuooto ouo oco|, oo vooao, c|otos o|oootos oo| Co|o
|aoo|oo|co, ooo ouo oo |os |ocooo oco|caooto, oo o| coota-
|o, so out| oo o|oootos va|aoos, osooc|a|ooto oo |a aot|ua |o|s|a-
c|o ||soaoa |otoaoa oo |as S|oto |at|oas. |o oocto, oo |soaa ouooa-
bao oo |a ouova oob||ca uc|as |oos, costubos usos, ouo oocosa-
|aooto |o|uooo a| oooto oo oa ooas oaa o| |a v|oa
c|uoaoaoa oo |os oouaoos |ooooooo|ootos, coo ous|oa oo o||ovo /.
Cuzo 3|to, oo |o ouo osoocta a |a ooooac|o oo |as ato|as oo caoa
||bo, o| Co|o oouaoo oo +8S2 so |oso| c|aaooto oo |a s|stot|ca
ouo so|ao sou| |os oct|cos osoao|os, coo Tao|a oo su |oboo oov-
s|o (+828) oo su |oboo oovs|aooto ooactaoo (+8+S), |oc|uso oo
|a ooo|a to|oo|oa. Lo |aoc|a |a o|vosas o|soos|c|ooos oo| Co|o
oo |aoo|oo |asta oatos coo|otas ouo uooo |oso|aoas oo aou|.
/s, oo o,oo|o, o| Ttu|o 3. Lo |os oou|s|tos osooc|a|os oo |os coota-
tos (ats. +.23S ss) oo |a socc|o o|oa oo| ||bo ||| oo| Co|o ooua-
oo, t|ooo oo oooo c|aaooto oocoot|b|o a| Caotu|o 2. Los cooo|t|oos
ossoot|o||os oou |a va||o|t oos coovoot|oos (ats. +.+08 ss.), oo| Ttu|o 3
oo| ||bo ||| oo| Cooo, Coo tooo, taooco so tata oo uoa oa taouc-
c| o
60
. |o cua|ou|o caso |a ooct|oa oouaoa aouota ootab|os o|oooc|as.
60
/. Cuzo 3|to, || tao|c|ooa||so oo| Co|o c|v|| oouaoo oo +8S2, Revista de Estudios
Histrico-Jurdicos, | 23, 200+, oo. S+-S6S.

177
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
ooo|a||oao, ausooc|a, c| |os, osc|avos, osooosa|os, coocooto oo| at|-
oo|o, o|aootac|o oo |a sooaac|o oo cuooos, oouoa a||oot|c|a,
tuto|a..., |||ac|o, soov|ootos, oosos|o, |ovooc|o, usucao|o oo uob|os,
oosc|oc|o ||boato|a, oooac|o..., tostaootos coo ac|||oao oaa o| oota-
|a| sovo|oaoos oaa o| o|vaoo, o,oa, oos|oooac|o tota| (ooscooo-
c|oa oo |aoc|a), sust|tuc|o oo |ooooos, couo|oao oo b|ooos oo| |-
oo at|oo|a|, aoaoc|a|os, oaaooa|os, osovas, |os|o, otacto, otc
61
.
|as causas oo osta ocooc|o |||taoa obooocoo a| tao|c|ooa||so
oo |a soc|ooao oouaoa oo |a ooca oo sus ,u|stas, ouo s|, coo tooo, us-
tabao oo o|st|ou|so uoos oo otos soo sus toooooc|as ||boa|os o coo-
sovaooas, o||o ostaba ooto|oaoo oo oto ooo oo oocootos, bs|-
caooto oo o| oo |a act|tuo ooto a |a uoc|o a| ostatuto oo |a ||os|a
Cat||ca oo |a o|||o oo |a v|oa c|v||
62
. |oo acaso |a o|oooc|a s
caactost|ca oo| ooo|o aocs uo |,ac|o oo uo ostatuto oo |a osc|av|-
tuo (||bo |, Socc|o 2,Ttu|o S. Lo |os |ooouos, s|ovos ||botos,Ttu-
|o 6. Lo |a aou|s|o), oo azo oo ouo oo +8S2 |o tooava oo
|aba abo||oo osa |ost|tuc|o oo cooota a| Co|o |aco|o. Y a osto so
uoo o| |oc|o oo |abo ooo|caoo uoa o|aootac|o a |os c||os (||bo
|, Socc|o 2, Ttu|o +. Lo |os c||os), oo|to a|a ouo a osto cuo-
oo |oa| ao osu|taba a|o a,ooa |a |ooa oo |a uo|oao oo| su,oto oo Loo-
c|o. || tao|c|ooa||so tab|o so obsova oo |a ou|ac|o oo |as |ost|tu-
c|ooos aot|uas coo |as caoo||aoas o| oatooato (||bo ||, Socc|o ,
Ttu|os + 2) |os coosos (||bo |||, Socc|o S, Ttu|o +).
22. Co|os autctooos. || Co|o ob|ot|co |at|ooao|caoo os,
s|o ouoa, o| Co|o oo /oos 3o||o oo +8SS ouo |aba oo o| oo C|||o
ouo |aba oo tooo uoa |o|uooc|a oo otos oasos oo |booa|ca,
coo Co|ob|a, |cuaoo, ouo |o coo|aoo a| o|o oo |a |ota, va|os oa-
sos cootoao|caoos. |uooo |ab|aso oo osta suoto oo ouo |a co|os
s aaocosaoos ouo otos. /oos 3o||o |aba oc|b|oo oo |o|atoa |a
|o|uooc|a oo ooas 3oot|a, ooosootaoto oo| oos|t|v|so oo| ut|||ta-
|so osta |o|uooc|a uo cuc|a| oo su ooto|oac|o oo |a |o coo o|-
ca uooto oo| Looc|o, as||so coooc| taoaooto |a oba oo |.|. voo
Sav|o oo |a |scuo|a |st|ca, |o ouo coot|bu a suav|za su v|s|o |us-
61
. 3asaoo Co|aoo, Historia del Derecho peruano, 2 oo., ||a, +``, o. 3S8.
62
Cf. /. Cuzo 3|to, || tao|c|ooa||so... , loc. cit., o. S6S.

178
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oatua||sta ac|ooa||sta oos|t|v|sta. Su ao coot|buc|o a| s|stoa |oa|
c|||ooo uo |a coo||cac|o oo |a ouo oo |oo a| Looc|o casto||aoo |oo|a-
oo, oosoo o| cua| ooou uc|as ooas oosto|oooto |oc|u|oas oo o|
Co|o C|v||. Tuvo |o|uooc|as oo |a coo||cac|o aocosa oo oat|cu|a oo
|ota||s, oo ou|oo taou,o oub||c oo || /aucaoo totos ooooo so
osa|ta |a oocos|oao oo coouooc|a ooto |as ouovas ooas |a tao|c|o
,uo|ca oo| ouob|o ooooo so ao||caao, oo obstaoto o,oc| uoa |ootao-
to |ooota oo su oac|o ,uo|ca |a oba oo| osoao| |aoc|sco /oto-
o|o |atooz |a|oa, ou|oo |aco uo ,u|c|o ct|co oo |a |ovs|a |ocoo|-
| ac| o aoaoc|oa oo +80S, os ooc|, cuaooo a o| Co|o C|v|| |aocs oa
Looc|o v|ooto
63
. || Co|o C|v|| oo /oos 3o||o uo aoootaoo oo |as
o|oas coo||cac|ooos c|v||os oo |cuaoo (+86+),Vooozuo|a (+863), ||ca-
aua (+86), Co|ob|a (+83), || Sa|vaoo (+880) ooouas (+880).
/| |aoo oo| o,oo|o c|||ooo |a ||sto|a oo |a coo||cac|o oo 3as||
aaoc oo uo o|ao oo ooa oo |a |o|s|ac|o ouo /uusto Too|a oo
|o|tas o|soaa oo +8S+, oo oocao oo| ob|ooo |oo|a|
64
. |a o|oa
aso oo osto o|ao cooc|u oo |a oba coooc|oa coo Cooso||oaao oas
|o|s c|v|s, |a cua| coooooa +333 atcu|os o|st|bu|oos oo uoa c|as||ca-
c|o o s|stot|ca, ouo ooscaosaba oo |a o|st|oc|o oo oooc|os oosooa-
|os oa|os, ouo tooa coo |oa||oao |a s|stoat|zac|o oo tooa |a |o|s-
|ac|o oo osto oas, |oc|uoooo, oo |o taoto, |a ootuuosa aoto|o a |a
|oooooooooc|a |a bas||oa, ostuv|oao o oo oooaoas, sa|vo a|uoas o-
cooc|ooos. |a cooso||oac|o ooba |acoso oo ttu|os atcu|os coo oo-
oos|c|ooos c|aas suc|otas, c|toooso oo ootas coosoooo|ootos |a |o oo
|a cua| so otaa |a oooos|c|o oo|so |a costubo ostab|oc|oa coo-
ta o soo uo toto. ||oa||z osta otoosa |abo oo +8S , s| b|oo uo
soot|oa a| oaoco oo uoa Co|s|o ouo |a aoob, oo so |o o|o va|o
63
. |. oo |os |ozos, /|uoos asooctos oo |a |ouooc|a ||soo|ca oo o| Co|o c|v|| oo /oos
3o||o, RGLJ, +`8, oo. +3-+6.
64
|o +8S3, o| ob|ooo |oo|a| oo| 3as|| ooc|o| oooooo |a coo|cac|o oo| Looc|o
ooca |a oba a| ooutaoo ,u|sta /uusto To|o|a oo |o|tas (+8+6-+883), ou|oo oo uoa
oo|a oo| ao s|u|ooto oo||c o| o|ao ouo ooosaba sou|. |sto coos|sta oo cooocc|ooa
o|oo uoa cooso||oac|o oo| Looc|o, osto os uoa ,ac|o s|stoat|zaoa oo| Looc|o oo
su ostaoo actua|, s|o oo|cac|ooos sustaoc|a|os, oo uoa coo|cac|o ooo|aooto ta|, oos-
ous, ouo |o||caba uoa ouova ooacc|o oo| ato|a| cooso||oaoo uoa ooa oo su coo-
too|oo.

179
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
|o|s|at|vo, auoouo a|caoz ao auto|oao oct|ca |asta |a ootaoa oo
v|o oo| Co|o oo +`+6, |ac|oooo |as vocos oo uo Co|o. |a souooa
aso oo| o|ao oo ooa oo |a |o|s|ac|o, ostuvo oos|o|oo oo |a ooac-
c|o oo uo ooocto oo Co|o C|v|| oo o| o|azo oo 3 aos, ouo ouova-
ooto o| ob|ooo |oo|a| ooca a Too|a oo |o|tas. |sto ooocto,
coooc|oo coo |sboo, uo oosootaoo oo +860, ooo, uo ob,oto oo uoa
ct|ca ta| ouo oovoc |a susooos|o oo |a |abo oo +86S, oo,oooso s|o
oocto aoos, oo +82, o| cootato ouo o| ,u|sta |aba |aoo coo o|
ob|ooo. Lo osta suoto acas oo 3as|| o| ooocto oo osto ,u|sta, s|oo-
oo, s|o obao, coo so a| coo aoto|o|oao, ao||aooto aoovo-
c|aoo oo V|oz Sas|o|o oo /oot|oa.
|o oocto, taoto o| Co|o C|v|| c|||ooo coo o| aotoooocto oo
|o|tas oosoooaoo uoa |o|uooc|a s|o||cat|va oo o| Co|o C|v|| aoo-
t|oo ooactaoo oo V|oz Ss|o|o, acaso o| ooo|o coo||caoo coo ao-
os ostuo|os oooaato|os oo| Coot|oooto, ouo tuvo |a v|tuo oo |ocooo-
a uo |ootaoto o|oooto oo aouoz oo |a ||sto|a oo |a coo||cac|o
|booao|caoa, ouo a cootaba coo o| oocooooto c|||ooo. |o +86, o|
Co|o oo V|oz uo otoaooto aoootaoo oo o| |aaua, coo coo-
socuooc|a oo su ooota oo |a uoa oo |a T|o|o /||aoza, aoos o,oc|
c|ota |oc|oooc|a o| ooocto oo o| Co|o C|v|| uuuao oo +86`, , oo
|t|o, o| Co|o tuvo |o|uooc|a tab|o oo |os co|os oo ||caaua oo
+`0+ oo o| oo |aoa oo +`+6.
IV La cultura del Code como paradigma en Amrica Latina
Dialctica entre originalidad y dependencia
en el movimiento codificador Latinoamericano
23. |o oa oos|b|o ouo |os co|os uoao abso|utaooto aaocosa-
oos oo tooas sus |ooas. |o o,oo|o, Saota Cuz ouo, coo v|os, oa uo
ao|aoo oo |aoo|oo, oo ou|so |o|aota oo o| |o o| at|oo|o c|v||,
o o| o|voc|o, oo azooos oo cacto |ooo||co. |o |so ocu| oo
||co, ooooo so o|st uo c|ao oc|azo a |a |otooucc|o oo |ost|tuc|o-
oos coo o| |o|sto c|v|| o o| at|oo|o |a|co, coos|ooaoas coota|as a
|a taocto|a oooa||zaoa oo |a oob|ac|o
65
. aba s|oo |ocoovoo|ooto
65
|. oo| |. Cooz|oz, El Derecho civil en Mxico 1821-1871. Apuntes para un estudio, ||co,

180
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oosoo o| ouoto oo v|sta oo|t|co ostab|oco |ost|tuc|ooos ouo oaocao u
ooooas oo ta| soot|oo tab|o |os |o|s|aooos actuabao coo uoa
suoto oo aouaoa cu|tua|. uoas |ost|tuc|ooos oao ao|t|oas otas oc|a-
zaoas. So tataba oo a|o ouo |ooaooo oo Tazoo|os |a ||aaoo ooo-
o|zac|o tao|c|ooa||sta, os ooc|, so toao c|otos o|oootos ouo soo coo-
voo|ootos otos oo. |os o|oootos ouo oo so |otoou,ooo uooo osoo-
c|a|ooto o| at|oo|o c|v|| o| o|voc|o, ouo s|o vao a ||oa oo o| s||o

66
. |o oso |a ocooc|o oo| Co|o |aoo|oo|co oo uo uo oocoso
oco|co s|oo s b|oo uo oocoso so|oct|vo.
|| Cooo so oosoota oooto oo |a coo||cac|o coo o| oaao|-
a
67
coos|ooooo|o |. \|oac'o coo uoa oo |as ocooc|ooos s ov|-
oootos oo o| uooo oo| Looc|o
68
. Su osooc|a| oatua|oza oo oooaaooa
ovo|uc|ooa|a, ooo oo osooc|a coosovaooa, |o ||ovaa a so o| ooo||oc-
to oo |a ocooc|o ouo ooo oo |a coo||cac|o |at|ooao|caoa. /s oo
||co usto S|oa, o| coo||caoo oo| |, ao|to ouo |a uooto out|c|a
o|oc|oa| os o| Cooo ouo, oo ao o ooo oo|oa, |a s|oo o| sustato
oo |as utuas oooac|ooos oo co|os c|v||os |asta o| actua| oo +`28
69
. S|o
obao, |a |o|uooc|a aocosa oo so o|st oo osto oas oo Co|o a
||/|, +`88. Soo osta autoa oo so cuoota coo ostuo|os ouo aoa||coo ooooo|zaoa-
ooto |a |ouooc|a oo |os o|st|otos oasos coot|ooota|os ouoooos o oo| common law oo ouos-
ta coo|cac|o c|v||. Taooco cootaos coo ostuo|os ouo aoa||coo |a |ouooc|a oo |os tata-
o|stas ouoooos ao|osa,ooos oo oat|cu|a (o. 63). |a oos|s oo |a |ouooc|a aocosa oo
o| Looc|o o|vaoo o|caoo o|sta uoa otaoo|oa|a coo|o,|oao. Vid. . |. Soboaoos |o-
ooooz, |as coo|cac|ooos oo| Looc|o o|vaoo o|caoo oo o| s||o |, Revista de Inves-
tigaciones Jurdicas, ||co, | +0, +`86, |. 3at|za, Los orgenes de la Codicacin Civil y su
inuencia en el Derecho mexicano, ||co, |oa, +`82, . |. |avoz oooooz, |a c|s|s oo
|a coo|cac|o |a |sto|a oo| Looc|o, Anuario Mexicano de Historia del Derecho, vo|. V,
2003. |tto.//....,u|o|cas.uoa./oub||ca/ov/||soo/coot/+S/cot/cot`. |t=|28.
66
|. oo Tazoo|os Caooa, |osooc|a oo| Co|o |aoo|oo|co oo o| |o. |os coo|ctos ooto
tao|c|o oooo|zac|o, La codicacin: races y prospectiva., op. cit.
67
C. /stut|, La codicazione del diritto civile, |oo|os, |o|z|ooo Sc|oot|c|o |ta||a, +`8+.
68
|. \|oac'o, Historia del Derecho privado de la Edad Moderna (taoucc|o oo| a|oo oo |ao-
c|sco |oooooz aoo, oo|c|o a| cu|oaoo oo os |u|s |ooooo |oz), Caoaoa, Coaos,
2000, S63 oo.
69
|. 3at|za, Los orgenes de la codicacin civil y su inuencia en el Derecho mexicano, ||co,
|oa, +`82.

181
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
Co|o, s|oo a tavs oo |a ocooc|o oo| Code oo o|st|otas |oos oo |o-
oa, soa|aoaooto oo |oos coo |a oo Sucos|ooos oo +8S, o |a oo|
|o|sto C|v|| oo +8S`
70
. |osto|oooto, coo os obv|o, o| Co|o C|v||
o|caoo oo +`28 ocooa o| oso|tu soc|a| oo |a |ovo|uc|o o|ca-
oa ouo suouso uo ||to ||st|co a| ostab|oco, oo o,oo|o, |a |ua|oao ,u-
o|ca oo |a u,o coo osoocto a| |obo, o| ocoooc||ooto oo |a ooct|-
oa oo| abuso oo| Looc|o oo oooa| oo ooo|ooao oo osooc|a|, |a too-
a oo| |oso ooos|ooa|, |a osooosab|||oao ob,ot|va oo ob,otos
oo||osos, o|soos|c|ooos o|vosas oo ato|a cootactua| oost|oaoas a
ootoo a |a oato s ob||. |oo coo osoocto a sus uootos, s oo |a
|tao oo sus atcu|os coosoooooo a| Co|o oo +80, ouo oovooao
oo| Co|o oo| |oo|o, oo| ootuus |a |o ||ootoca|a osoao|a oo
+86`.
/| |ua| ouo uoa aoc|a oo aco|to so ooou,ooo s|tuac|ooos
oaoc|oas oo tooo o| |o|so|o, a| aoo oo |a |oooto oba oo |os coo|-
|caooos |at|ooao|caoos, ouo coot|buooo coo su oac|o oo u-
c|os casos oao|sta oo Looc|o cooaaoo. |a coosocuooc|a os ouo
s| b|oo ouo|ooo oaso |ooovac|ooos ooouostas stas ooaooc|ooo
s|ooo oooto oo |os oo||os tazaoos oo o| ooo|o. |a tao|c|o |os
Looc|os oat|cu|aos |o|uooo ooco, basto ooosa a |a o|s|o oo| Lo-
oc|o |ooooa (oo ao aoa oo o|oo v|o|oa|), oo |a oao|zac|o
to|to|a|, oo c|otos Looc|os oo couo|oao ouo oosaoaoc|ooo oos-
ous oo |a coo||cac|o.
24. |o tooo caso, |os ooo|os co|os ouo oooo|oaos autctooos
ooc|oao o| |ooa| soc|a| oo| oooo|oaoo oaao|a aocs. |o s|o o|
ooosa|ooto oo coo||ca o| Looc|o C|v|| so basa oo |a |ooa oo| Co|o
aocs s|oo ouo oo so ouooo obv|a |a |o|uooc|a oo| Looc|o aocs oo
o| cootoo|oo oo |a oba oo autoos coo La|ac|o V|oz Sas|o|o
71
. |as,
os ooosto oo|so a| Looc|o aocs oo a| Code a ouo |a |o|uooc|a
70
. |. Soboaoos |oooooz, |as coo|cac|ooos oo Looc|o o|vaoo o|caoo oo o| s||o |,
Revista de Investigaciones Jurdicas (||co), | +0, +`83, oo. 33-38+.
71
C. |oobvo, La Revolucin francesa y el Imperio, ||co, |.C.|., +`86, o. ++, Vid. /. /.Taaboo-
|||, /o||s|s c|t|co oo| Co|o oo V|oz, |a ooa oo 3ooa |a actua||oao, Revista de la
Union de Magistrados de Lomas de Zamora, oov|obo oo 2002 (|tto.//...oooc|ooouo
o|zaoo.o/ooct|oa/oooc|o c|v|| _cooc|a|/aoa||s|s_c|t|co_c|v||).

182
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
oo |os ,u|stas aocosos uo ao ouo |a oo| Co|o |so. |oc|uso os
oobab|o ouo o| coo||caoo aoot|oo |aa coooc|oo o| Co|o aocs
|oo|octaooto a tavs oo |a ooo|a ooct|oa aocosa. |o osta az o
V|oz Sas|o|o so aoo| a| Co|o aocs coo soot|oo ct|co oo ou-
o oo aoataso oo |a so|uc|o aocosa cuaooo |a oocoot coousa o oos-
aoocuaoa. Lo osta suoto oo s|o |a ostuctua oo| Co|o aoot|oo os
o|st|ota oo |a oo| Co|o |aoo|oo, s|oo ouo o|caooto uo ooo o|a-
t|vaooto ooouoo oo atcu|os oo| Co|o C|v|| aoot|oo osto toaoos
o|octaooto oo| Co|o aocs
72
. /oos, s| cootoo|aos |a |o|uooc|a
oo| Looc|o aocs oo o| Co|o aoot|oo, ooboos oosta atooc|o
tab|o a |a |o|uooc|a ouo tuvo o| Co|o oo |u|s|aoa, ouo aoaoco oo
oocas vocos c|taoo oo |as ootas oo V|oz. |o oocto, |a aoa oo |as vocos
ouo aoaoco oo |as ootas oo V|oz o| Co|o oo |u|s|aoa, |o |aco ,uoto coo
o| Co|o aocs, |o cua| oo oo,a oo so ||co too|oooo oo cuoota |a s||-
||tuo ouo oo ootoocos tooava |aba ooto abos. S|o obao, oo oocas
vocos os oos|b|o oocoota a| Co|o oo |u|s|aoa coo uooto oo ta| o cua|
atcu|o, s|o ouo aoaozca uoa coo|at|va ooooc|a a| Co|o |aoo|oo.
|oouoab|oooto V|oz oocoot oo o| Co|o oo |u|s|aoa uo toto ouo
oosao||aba |as |ooas oo| Looc|o oaoo ooosaoas oo uo |ooua,o s
ooooo os oatua| ouo coooc|oa oo oouoo|oao osto |ostuooto.
Cabo |os|st| oo ouo oo ooo ouo |a |o|uooc|a ouo o| Looc|o aocs
tuvo oo |a oba oo| coo||caoo, uo o| ooso ouo tuvo |a ooct|oa ,uo|ca
aocosa oo o| Looc|o C|v|| aoot|oo |asta b|oo ootaoo o| s||o .
Incidencia de otros modelos
25. Losoo o|oc|o|os oo| s||o |, so |aba voo|oo oaooo oo /|o-
ao|a uoa ouova c|ooc|a ,uo|ca, ||aaoa oaoooctst|ca, |a cua|, ocoo a|
ta|ooto oo |os ,u|stas ouo |a cu|t|vaoo, a|caoz oost||o |otooac|ooa|
ouoo cooot| coo |a ooooosa c|ooc|a oot|ca aocosa. Lo |a oaoooc-
tst|ca oo|v o|octaooto o| Co|o a|oo oou|aoo oo +8`6 ouo
ooto oo v|o oo +`00. |o aouo||os aos o| oocoso oo coo||cac|o c|v||
ostaba oct|caooto to|oaoo oo /|ca, sa|vo oo 3as|| (ouo oo tuvo
uo Co|o s|oo |asta +`+6), oo ooo ouo o| 3C3 caoc| oo |o|uooc|a oo
72
C. /. 3ossot, | ouooc|a oo| Co|o c|v|| aocs oo o| Co|o aoot|oo otos Co|os oo
||soaooa|ca, La Ley (3uooos /|os), ||, | 3+, + oboo 200S, oo. +-S.

183
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
osas oac|ooos. |oo |a oocooooto c|ooc|a oaoooctst|ca, oo cab|o, s ouoo
|o|u| oo |as coo||cac|ooos oo |os oooctos oo co|os ou|aoos ou-
aoto |a souooa |tao oo| s||o oo /|ca.
|s s|o||cat|vo ouo oos |ootaotos coo||cac|ooos ao|caoas, |a
bas||oa |a aoot|oa, oo |a ato|a oo |as actuac|ooos |uaoas |c|tas
o|ovaotos oaa o| Looc|o, oscaoaao tota|ooto a |a tao|c|o oo| coo-
tato ouo |aba t|uoaoo oo o| Cooo so soot|ooo a |a oo| acto ,u-
o|co ouo |ac|a |a ooca |aba |oc|o sua |a c|ooc|a oaoooctst|ca a|oa-
oa. Lo abas, |a ouo s oooctaooto so aoaot a o|c|a tao|c|o uo
|a bas||oa oo +`+6, coo su aotocooooto oo o| |sboo oo To|o|a oo ||-
tas. Soo o||o, oo uoa oato oooa| so o|v|oo tooo o| Looc|o oo ooso-
oas, cosas |oc|os (oo |os cua|os |os s |ootaotos soo |os actos),
coo vos|o ooooa oo |a t|cotoa aaoo-,ust|o|aooa oo| ius en per-
sonae res actiones. |sto osouoa oo uo sou|oo oo |a /oot|oa, cuo
Co|o caoco oo uoa oato oooa|, oo aooa ouo o| s|stoa oo |os
|oc|os (actos), oo tooo oboo|ooto a |a ooc|ooaoa tao|c|o s|o oba-
o, uo |osotaoo oo |a oato o|at|va a |as ob||ac|ooos, oo |o ouo ouooo
voso, oooo, uo |o,aoo oco oo |a tao|c|o oo| cootato oo| Cooo
C|v|| oo sus asooctos otooos
73
. |ooc|o osooc|a| ooco |o|uooc|a oo|
Co|o |ta||aoo oo +`+2 oo o| Looc|o C|v|| aoot|oo oat|cu|aooto
oo |os oooctos oo ooa oo| Co|o C|v||, oaa o|aotoa |uoo |a oos|-
b|||oao oo oocoota ouotos oo cootacto ooto osto ooooo |a |o|uoo-
c|a ouo tuvo |a cu|tua |ta||aoa oo /oot|oa
74
. |oo os oo |a ooa oo|
Co|o C|v|| aoot|oo +`68 ooooo oo o|oa voz |as so|uc|ooos oo|
Co|o |ta||aoo toao cuooo.
26. |sto aoataoo oo ouooo cooc|u|so s|o uoa ooooc|a oo| Loo-
c|o osoao|
75
. |o oocto, |a oosooc|a oo osto ooooa|ooto os oat|cu|a-
ooto s|o||cat|va oo |a o|ooc|a oo |a ootoa oo |a cosa oaa |a taos|-
73
Cf. /. Cuzo 3|to, |aa |a ||sto|a oo |a oac|o oo |a tooa oooa| oo| acto o oooc|o
,uo|cos oo| cootato, Revista de Estudios Histrico-Jurdicos, | +` (Va|oaaso, C|||o), +``,
oo. `S-+06.
74
|. |ooo, || Co|o c|v|| |ta||aoo oo +`+2 |as ooas a| Co|o c|v|| aoot|oo, Boletn
Mexicano de Derecho comparado, | +03, 2002, oo. +6-+`+.
75
|osu|ta ob||aoa aou |a ooooc|a a . |. Casto Vzouoz, La inuencia de la literatura jurdica
espaola en las codicaciones americanas (o|scuso |ooo o| oa 23 oo oooo oo +`+8, oo su

184
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
s|o oo uo Looc|o |oa| ouo |ua oo |a |ooosa aoa oo |as |o|s|a-
c|ooos |booao|caoas. S| so aoa||zao |os o|oootos s|stoas oo oosooc|a
oooto oo| Looc|o Cooaaoo |booao|caoo so obsova uoa so|o oo
asos couoos uo oo |as cua|os os, ooc|saooto, |a o|ooc|a oo |a ta-
o|c|o oo |a cosa, coo ooo coost|tut|vo oo| Looc|o |oa| ouo so
oosoa taos|t|. |a o|ooc|a oo osto oou|s|to ooota a| Looc|o oa-
oo, oosoo ooooo oas a |a aot|ua |o|s|ac|o osoao|a, so |a aotoo|oo
oo su Co|o C|v||, ooso a ouo o| ooocto oo Caca Coooa oooooa
oo,a|o oo |aoo, oaa aooota o| s|stoa coosoosua||sta aocs. |os coo||-
caooos |booao|caoos, ouo oo osto ouoto oo,aoo oo |aoo o| ooo|o
aocs, o||ooo |a tao|t|o o|, o ootoa ato|a| oo |a cosa, coo
ooo |otoat|vo oo |a taos|s|o oo| oo|o|o, c|t|caooo ouaooto |a
tao|t|o oo coosoosu, oo coos|ooa |oo|sooosab|o |a o|stooc|a oo uo
acto ato|a| ouo oto|o|co |a taos|s|o
76
.
S|o u oosto|oooto, coo |a saoc|o oo| Co|o C|v|| oo
+88`, |soaa |o oooo oooo oo su Looc|o C|v|| |ac|ooa|
77
, so|aoo-
to cooo|c|ooaoo oo |a o|vos|oao |o|s|at|va o|stooto oo su to|to|o oo
uoc|o oo |os oooo|oaoos Looc|o oa|os
78
. |soaa oo ouoo a| a-
oo oo osta |o|uooc|a boot|a|sta. |a voz oo| |staoo aoa||za ooosaoo-
to o| acaso ouo sucoo| a| |oocto oo Co|o C|v|| oo +8S+, tas |a co-
ac|o oo |a |asta |o v|ooto Co|s|o oo Coo||cac|o oo |oa| Loco-
to oo +` oo aosto oo +8+3. || acaso oo| Co|o C|v|| oo +8S+, a|o,, a o
s, cua|ou|o cooaac|o oo |a s|tuac|o oo| ooooa|ooto ,uo|co
ocooc|o ob||ca oo o| |co. S. ooo os |aa Casto Vzouoz cootostac|o oo| |c-
o. S. ooo /otoo|o oooooz C||), |ao|o, |oa| /caoo|a oo u|souoooc|a |o|s|ac|o,
+`8+, +8+ oo.
76
|. |o|ssot oo |soaos, |a tao|c|o tas|at|va oo oo|o|o (|| co|o c|v|| osoao| o| s|stoa
|booao|caoo), RDP, 200+, oo. +-86.
77
Vid. . a|s, |os osc|tos oo coo|cac|o oo oo 3oot|a su ocooc|o oo o| o|o
||boa||so osoao|, T|os. Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas, 8, +```, oo. `-2`.
78
|| ov||ooto uo|caoo, oovoo|ooto oo |aoc|a, ovo|uc|ooa a oo|aoos oo| s||o |, coo
|a |ouooc|a oo autoos coo Sav|o |a |scuo|a |st|ca, ouo |uooo coo uoza oo /|o-
ao|a, ooooo|oooo |a coac|o oo| Looc|o oo coo uooto oo |a azo |a |ooa aocosa
s|oo coo oso|tu oo| ouob|o, uoa |ooa coota|a a |a coo|cac|o, o| ov||ooto uo|caoo
oo| oooc|o. /s, cuaooo so oo|oza a v|s|uba |a oos|b|||oao oo oou|a uo o|co Co|-
o C|v|| oo |soaa, o| oo +8S+ (o| Co|o C|v|| aocs oo +80+ os o| o,oo|o oo o| ouo so

185
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
ooc|ooo|co osoao| coo o| aocs. || oosooc|o oo| oa|aoota|so, |a
|o|ac|o oo o|aootos, |a ausooc|a oo cua|ou|o ooocuoac|o ooct|oa|
sobo |a coosocuc|o oa| oo |as ooas so aotuvo |asta +88`
79
.
|os oasos ouo aoootaoo o| Co|o C|v|| osoao| oo +88` oo
|abo s|oo |os |t|os oo |aboso oosoooo|oo oo| |oo co|oo|a|, |oto-
ao uo souooo uoo ooos otooso. |sto os o| caso oo Cuba |uo-
to ||co, auoouo abos s|stoas ,uo|cos |ao s|oo s|o||cat|vaooto
|o|uooc|aoos, oo o| caso oo Cuba, oo |a suooostuctua oo|t|ca oo |a
|oa||oao soc|a||sta (ouo o|o coo osu|taoo o| ouovo Co|o C|v|| oo
+`8), , oo o| caso oo |uoto ||co, oo |a ao||cac|o oo| Looc|o |oooa|
oo |os || ||. |v|oootoooto |a ocooc|o oo| Code oo osto caso os oo
souooo aoo, oo |a |ooot|oao oo| Co|o osoao| coo o| aocs, sa|vo
c|otas oat|cu|a|oaoos oo|vaoas oo| ooooo oa| osoao|. |uooo ao-
aso aou uo uoo oo oasos oo /|ca Coota| coo ooouas
|aoa, cua o|oa coo||cac|o oo| Looc|o C|v|| tuvo |ua a co|oo-
zos oo| oasaoo s||o oo |o taoto tuv|ooo |a oootuo|oao oo aooaso,
auoouo oo oo oa oo tao o|octa coo o| uoo aoto|o, oo o| Co|o
C|v|| osoao| auoouo coo oosto|o|oao |ao oc|b|oo uoa oouooa |o|uoo-
c|a oo| common law.
IV Dos siglos despus
27. |o |a |oa actua|, cuaooo |as |oos so sucoooo uoas a otas coo
|to sostoo|oo oo |a aco|oac|o oo| oooso c|oot|co, cuaooo |a coa-
c|o oo ouovos oooc|os |oo|v|oua|os co|oct|vos, |as a|tooaoc|as oo|t|cas
|os totos soo a vocos ooco ooc|sos, osu|ta |ootaoto ocooa |a c|a-
|a), o|c|o ooocto acasa oo |a oooo|oaoa cuost|o oa|, |asta ouo oo +88` o| Co|-
o C|v|| oac|ooto, o| actua| coo su |o oo 3asos oo +888 oato oo |a oos|stooc|a oo osos
Looc|os oa|os oo a|oa, so o|co oo |a o|oa ooacc|o oo| Co|o C|v||, oo as oo |a
actua| oo su aotoo||ooto oo|aoto o| s|stoa oo aooo|cos, uo s|stoa ouo acas oo
su t|ooo ouo oosto|oooto o|o oaso, ouaoto |a souooa |tao oo| s||o , a| oo |as
coo||ac|ooos. Vid. . 3a |azos, La codicacin del Derecho civil en Espaa: 1808-1889, Sao-
taooo, |o|v. oo Caotab|a, Sov. oo |ub|cac|ooos, +``2, 32+ oo.
79
|. . ||aooa, 3oot|a oo |soaa, Jeremas Bentham, El Panptico, |ao|o, |as |o|c|ooos oo
|a ||ouota, +``, oo. +2-++S.

186
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
|oao oo |as oa|abas oo |ota||s. |a |o ooooa, oo|to o oo|bo. |o
o||o so sost|ooo ouo |a coo||cac|o s|uo s|oooo uo |ostuooto |oo|sooo-
sab|o oaa aotooo, oo o| uooo ooooo, o| |ooa| oo uoa |o c|aa, |oto-
|||b|o, accos|b|o oaa tooos, ouo coost|tuo a uo ob,ot|vo oo va|o coost|-
tuc|ooa|. ||o, s|o|oooto, uoa ooc|o|oa vo|uotao oo|t|ca uoa c|aa
cooc|ooc|a oo |os ob,ot|vos a oosao||a
80
. Lo acuooo coo osto o|aotoa-
|ooto, |a coo||cac|o, oouo||ooto oooct|co, so |a coovot|oo as|-
|so oo o|ooc|a ocoo|ca. |a coo||cac|o t|ooo |a oos|b|||oao, oo ooc-
to, oo oouc| o| costo oo accoso a| Looc|o oaa |as ao|o|stac|ooos
|as ooosas o|vaoas, ooo|c|aooo oo osta aooa |as |ovos|ooos. |o
obstaoto, uo ooooo oo ooscoo||cac|o so oocuoota oosooto oo
|uooa oo /|ca |at|oa. / a|ta oo uo ouovo Co|o oo |aoc|a, |a oos-
coo||cac|o t|ooo |ua oo |a va oo |a ,u|souoooc|a, oo uoa aooa tao
ao|ca| ouo |o os |oos|b|o ao||ca o| Cooo s|o coooco aouo||a. Coov|o-
oo coooota ostas ooo|ooc|as otao |as cooc|us|ooos oot|oootos.
|o |o ,uo|co, |os osouoas aootaoos oo |a azo. tataoos
|otooac|ooa|os, coost|tuc|ooos oo|t|cas, co|os |oos oo |ao oo|t|oo
a|caoza o| |a oaz soc|a| o| |a |oo|v|oua| a| tavs oo ooo|os o|cos |oa-
|os. So |a ooouc|oo |a vo|to oos a|ts cooto |o cooo oo|oa a oo
+`20 oo Custavo |o|o. Lobo osooaso a +`8 oaa ouo o| ,u|sta |ta-
||aoo |ata||oo |t| acuo |a ooos|o ooscoo||cac|o oaa ooba o|
ooto|oo oo |os co|os. Soo 3avo ||a o| soot|oo oo ooscoo||cac|o
os abaooooa |a voooac|o sov|| oo| toto -s|c sc|otu ost- oaa |,aso
oo su cootoo|oo sov|so oo | soo |o o|,ao |as va|ab|os cooo|c|ooos
oo t|ooo oo |ua oo ouo o|scuo |a v|oa ,uo|ca. |sto suoooo, aoto
tooo, ouo o| ,u|sta o| ,uoz oo,oo oo so sov|ooos oo |a |o, oaa vo|vo
a so |o|stos oo| Looc|o
81
.
28. |oso a su coo|o,a ,ust||cac|o |a ooscoo||cac|o
82
so oosoota oo
|a actua||oao coo uo ooooo |ovos|b|o, ootaoo oo a|caoco oooa|,
80
3. Cooot|t, Essai sur la codication, |a|s, |||, +``8, `+ oo.
81
3. 3avo ||a S. Cooc|a |ouoz oo |a ||ata, Codicacin y descodicacin en Hispanoamri-
ca, vo|. |, Saot|ao, |o|vos|oao Saoto Tos, +```, 333 oo.
82
|a ooos|o ooscoo|cac| o so at|buo a |. |t|, Let delle decodicazione, + oo., |||o,
C|u, +```, o|sto uoa vos|o osoao|a, La edad de la descodicacin, 3aco|ooa, 3osc|,
+``2. Vid. |. |. |u|||o, T|o |vo|ut|oo o Coo|cat|oo |o t|o C|v|| |a. |oa| Sstos.To.aos
Locoo|cat|oo aoo |ocoo|cat|oo, Journal of Transnational Law & Policy, vo|. ++, 200+, oo. +-20.

187
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
oaoa |a ooovac|o o |o|otouo|oa ooaos|o oo| Looc|o ||vaoo, o-
o|aoto |oos osooc|a|os coo|ooota|as su|oas cas| s|ooo coo c|to-
|os oootuo|stas. |a so|a o|stooc|a oo osto ooooo o|o,a o|ocuooto-
ooto |a |ootooc|a oo| |o|s|aoo oaa |aco ooto oo uoa oa a -
o|ca a |a ooooac|o oo| Looc|o ||vaoo, s|o oo,u|c|o oo ouo ostas
|ootaotos o|ozas, s|tuaoas uoa oo |a o||oa|a ostuctua coo||caoa,
coot|ooo too|oooo oo |os oocootos oo| Co|o C|v|| oo uc|os oasos,
su |t|a ooooc|a s|stot|ca.
|a ooca oo |a ooscoo||cac|o |a cooouc|oo a ouo |as |oos osoo-
c|a|os so aooo|oo oo ooto|oaoas ato|as c|asos, vac|aooo oo cooto-
o|oo |a o|sc|o||oa coo||caoa o |oc|uso a|caozaooo o|ovaoc|a oo a|uoos
casos. |stas |oos |oao ta| ostaoo oo cooso||oac|o ouo ov|oooc|ao ||-
cas autooas o|oc|o|os oo|cos ouo ||oao a oooooso a |a ooo|a
s|stot|ca oo| Looc|o ||vaoo oosous acabao coo uoa ootoos|o oo
o|oo|tuo oo autoooa ooat|va. a ouo ocoooco ouo a|uoas |oos
osooc|a|os coost|tuoo |o o| Looc|o oooa| oo uoa |ost|tuc|o o oo uoa
ato|a coo|ota. Coo |a oo||oac|o oo |oos osooc|a|os so ooouco uoa
|o|ac|o |o|s|at|va ouo o|uooo |a soosac|o oo ouo o| t|ooo oo |a coo|-
|cac|o |a oasaoo. |a |sa oa oo |os totos coo||caoos |a oo,aoo oo
osooooo a coocootos ocoooc|oos ocoooc|b|os, o|c|o oo oto ooo,
|a |ooa oo Co|o, coo tota||oao ooat|va, coous |u|s coo|oto aca-
baoo oo t|ooo s soot|oo. Coo cootaoat|oa, oo| o|ovaoo aoo oo
coo|o,|oao a|caozaoo oo |a oo|c|o oo uo ooo tao aooo oo |oos
oo tooo o| uooo, so obsova |a toooooc|a a oouc||as a |o |oo|sooosab|o,
a oat| oo |a coostatac|o coo oo |a o|stooc|a oo uoa |o|ac|o ou|a-
ooa, so oooaa uo osoac|o oaa |a oosou|ac|o ouo oooa ocooouc|,
oaao,|caooto, a uoa coo||cac|o oo ouovo cuo.
/s|st|os, oo osta suoto, a |a osooc|a||zac|o ooat|va coo |a
coos|u|ooto actua oo| ooo|o coo||caoo tao|c|ooa|. |sto ooooo
ooscoo||caoo
83
tao coos|o |a coac|o |a o|aboac|o oo uoa so|o
oo |ostuootos ouo cootoo|ao |uas ,uo|cas ouovas, oo oov|stas oo
|os co|os osooct|vos ooooaoas uoa oo |os |sos, atootaooo coo-
ta o| cacto oo|coooos|vo ouo so |os |aba ouo|oo oa. |o |a actua-
83
uo so t|ooo uc|as ao|ostac|ooos, coo oo o,oo|o, oo o| Looc|o c|v||, osoocto oo|
|oo oo osooosab|||oao oo oaos. Vid. |. Loz-||cazo |ooco oo |oo, Coo| cac|o,
ooscoo|cac|o... , loc. cit., oo. +3-+8S.

188
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
||oao so cooc|bo a |a coo||cac|o coo uo oocoso cu|tua| o ||st|co oo
o| cua| |a s|oo oos|b|o |a oa||zac|o oo uo oooucto ouo t|ooo coo
caactost|cas osooc|a|os auoa uo coo,uoto oo ooas oo Looc|o,
|aco|o oo uoa aooa co|oooto s|stot|ca tooo uoa vocac|o a |a
tota||zac|o, ooco ouos uoa oota oo o|aust|v|oao a| abaca tooas |as
o|ac|ooos ,uo|cas oos|b|os oo uoa ooto|oaoa ato|a
84
. |o osa az o
ostaos as|st|oooo a |a suooac|o oo |a oa |o|s|at|va coo||caoa oo
|ocooat|b|||oao coo |os t|ooos actua|os ouo |a too|oo |ua a |o |ao
oo| oosooto s||o, a |o ouo so uoo |a coac|o oo uoa osooc||c|oao oo oo-
as autooas uoa oo| b|to ooo|o oo |os Co|os ouo ooo|oo-
tao uo aoo|aza|ooto ooos|vo. Lo acuooo coo osta co|ooto o| Co|-
o os uo s|stoa oocosa|aooto |ooocto ooouo su toto oo osooo-
oo a |a oa||oao, uo s|stoa ouo c|oa o| oaso a otas oas oo coac|o
,uo|ca ouo oo oaooo oo| |so. |a aso|ac|o oo ouo uo Co|o C|v||
o cab|oa a tooa |a ato|a c|v|| co|ooza, ouos, a so abaooooaoa |o|c|o-
ooso uo oocoso |ooto, ooo ooos|vo oo ooscoo||cac|o ouo so ooou-
co oo oa oaa|o|a coo o| oocoso oo oou|ac|o oo |oos osooc|a-
|os. |s c|oto ouo o| ooooo oo |a ooscoo||cac|o t|ooo uo a|caoco ooo-
a| so ooc|bo oo |a ao oato oo |as o|sc|o||oas ,uo|cas, ooo oo o|
Looc|o C|v||, |a ooo|a |otooooo|oao utac|o coostaoto oo |a
ato|a ou|aoa |aco ouo so o|c|o ooooo so auo|co oat|cu|aoo-
to so oosooto coo a|o |ovos|b| o ooouc|oooso |a ooovac|o a
tavs oo |oos osooc|a|os
29. /| |ua| ouo oo |aoc|a, |a coo||cac|o |a acaoo |a tao|c|o
,uo|ca |at|ooao|caoa |a ooo|ooc|a oo o| subcoot|oooto uosta |a
os|stooc|a oo |os v|o,os Co|os a| cab|o. |||o oo oobo so uo ooo oaa
|a oocosa|a oooo|zac|o oo |as v|ootos o|aootac|ooos c|v||os coo o|
|o oo aoaota|as a |a oa||oao soc|a| v|ooto, ouo os u o|st|ota oo |a ouo
o|st| oo |a ooca oo oou|ac|o oo uoos |ostuootos ouo sobooa-
sao, uc|os oo o||os, |os c|oo aos oo v|ooc|a, o|aboaoos sobo ooo|os
|oaoocuaoos a |os t|ooos ooooos, ouos |as coocooc|ooos ab|oota|os,
oo|t|cas soc|a|os |ocoooaoas a sus totos oo so acoooabao a |as
ostuctuas soc|a|os oo uoos oasos ooooo osos ooooos oao o|ooo-
84
/. . /oauo, Pour une pense juridique europenne, |a|s, +``+, o. +3S.

189
|| Co|o oo |aoo|oo... Jos Carlos Fernndez Rozas
tos, coo o| coos|u|ooto oosa,usto oo |a |o|s|ac|o c|v|| coo |a oa||oao
85
. |o
osto osu|ta osooaozaoo ouo oo |a actua||oao, |os oooctos oo ooova-
c|o oo |a coo||cac|o so |aao u|t|o||caoo oo /|ca |at|oa. o| Co|o
C|v|| oouaoo oo +`8+, o| Co|o oo Cooc|o bo||v|aoo oo +``+ o|
aoto-ooocto oo Co|o C|v|| bo||v|aoo oo +``, o| ooocto oo Co|o
C|v|| aoot|oo oo +``8
86
, o| Co|o C|v|| bas||oo oo 2002, |os oooctos
c|||ooos oo ooovac|o oo |a |o|s|ac|o c|v|| cooc|a|, otc.
Coo |oooooooooc|a oo |a tao oocosa|a oooo|zac|o, oo /|-
ca |at|oa o| Co|o C|v|| aocs s|uo s|oooo v|sto coo o| sbo|o oo |a
|ovo|uc|o, coo uo oooucto oou|oo oo| s||o oo |as |ucos. |a aoooc|o
oo uo Co|o C|v|| a |a |aoo oo| ooo|o aocs uo uo |ootaoto |os-
tuooto oaa a|a |a |oooooooooc|a oo |os ouovos |staoos. /| |so
t|ooo, os oos|b|o oo,a coostaoc|a ouo, ba,o |a |o|uooc|a oo /oos 3o||o,
|os co|os oo /|ca |at|oa tab|o aoootaoo uoa oos|c|o oc|ct|ca.
oo uoa oato, uo osooto a |as ooas oo| Looc|o osoao| oo ato|a
oo a|||a , oo ota, uoa uoto |oso|ac|o |oo|v|oua||sta oo ato|a oat|-
oo|a|. |o |o oos, oo |aoc|a oo /|ca |at|oa o| Co|o C|v|| so
s|uo oosootaooo coo uoa vooaooa coost|tuc|o c|v||, |o ouo ||ova a
oouotaso s| oo ostos oasos o| |staoo oocoo|, oo a|uoa oo|oa, o|
oac||ooto oo |a |ac|o. |o uo oooto oo o| cua| |a aoo|zac|o, |oc|u-
so |a uo||cac|o oo| Looc|o ||vaoo, so oocuoota oo o| cooto oo |os
oobatos ,uo|cos oo|t|cos, oo oat|cu|a oo |a |o|o |uoooa
87
, o| oso|-
tu oo| Co|o C|v|| s|uo s|oooo uoa ooooc|a ob||aoa. os oocosa|o oo-
o|c|a |a aoa|c|o oo uo s|stoa ,uo|co oou|||baoo ouo osooooa oo so|a-
ooto a |as o|ooc|as ocoo|cas s|oo tab|o a coos|ooac|ooos ooo-
85
|. Zo|ooo Zo|ooo, 3asos soc|a|os oaa |a oooo|zac|o oo| Co|o C|v|| coo |as a| s||o
|, Revista del Colegio de Abogados de Puerto Rico, Sao uao oo |uoto ||co, vo|. S2, | 2,
ab||-,uo|o oo +``+, oo. 8+-+08.
86
/. /. /|to|o|, || ooocto oo Co|o C|v|| oo +``8. oosooct|va oosooct|va, Revista de la
Federacin Argentina de Colegios de Abogados, | +, 3 ooca, 3uooos /|os, oov|obo oo
+```, o. 2+
87
. C. |oooooz |ozas, |a uo|cac|o oo| Looc|o ocaot|| |otooac|ooa| oo |os oocosos oo
|otoac|o ocoo|ca. |a ooo|ooc|a ouoooa, Revista Jurdica Espaola La Ley, | S860, 30
oo soot|obo oo 2003, oo. +-+0.

190
El Derecho Internacional... Looc|o |otooac|ooa| ||vaoo
ct|cas. |os |ooa|os oo |uao|so
88
, oo ,ust|c|a soc|a|, oo oou|oao, oo |oto-
|||b|||oao oo ac|||oao oo accoso a| Looc|o, |a vo|uotao ooaooa
uo||caooa ouo oos|o|ooo |a o|aboac|o oo| Co|o C|v|| oo |ao ooo|-
oo, oo oocto, su actua||oao. S| o| oasaoo ao so co|ob o| b|cootooa|o oo|
Cooo c|v|| oct|caooto oo tooas oatos oo| o|aoota, os acaso ooouo o|
oso|tu oo 3ooaoato so aot|ooo oosooto s|uo |o|uoooo ouostas
|o|s|ac|ooos, |oso|aooo as||so a ouostos |o|s|aooos. Losous oo oos
s||os oo v|ooc|a o| ao |to ouo t|ooo o| Co|o C|v|| oo +80+ oo |a
actua||oao os ouo sus coocootos ,uo|cos su |o|b|||oao oo su |otooo-
tac|o |ao oo|t|oo su aoaotab|||oao a |a taosoac|o oo |a soc|ooao
aocosa
89
, oasaooo oo uoa oao|zac|o oat|aca| a |a a|ac|o oo |a
|ua|oao ooto |obos u,oos.Ya oo ostaos oo |a s|tuac|o oo |a oo-
ca oo ouo uo co|obaoo o| o|o Cootooa|o oo +`0+, cuaooo oo |ao-
c|a uoa o|o|sta ouo oso ||bo o,o a| o|o oo |a Co|oo|a oo Vooooo.
|s c|oto ouo oo o| oosooto |a ao||cac|o oo| Looc|o oou|oo
ao coat|v|oao oo ,u|sta ouo |os Co|os ooboo |||taso a sov| oo
ua s|oooo uo |ostuooto, |ootaoto s|, ooo oo uo |o oo s |so.
Tab|o os c|oto ouo |a |oba||zac|o aouota a uoa uoto ooootac|o oo|
cooo |a. sobo tooo oo o| b|to oo |as taosacc|ooos ocaot||os.
|oo oo ouooo ooscooocoso o| |oaoo ||st|co ouo oos oo, o| Co|o
oo |aoo|oo. Coo |oooooooooc|a oo |as soo,aozas o o|oooc|as osooc-
to oo asooctos tco|cos o a|o||cos oo |os Co|os oo /|ca |at|oa,
|o c|oto os ouo o| Looc|o C|v|| aocs o| Co|o oo |aoo|oo |ao
s|oo o|ozas aou|aos oo| s|stoa coot|ooota| oo Looc|o ||vaoo ouo |o
|oc|uo a |a aoa oo |os oasos ouo oc|b|ooo |a |o|uooc|a oo| ooooa-
|ooto aocs. Y o||o oo |abo coot|bu|oo ooc|s|vaooto a |a causa oo
|a coo||cac|o ooto otos s|stoas ab|otos, ouo oo ||oaoo a coota coo
acootac|o a|uoa oo |os t|ooos actua|os. /s||so, oo su ooc|s|va
|ooota oo |a coo|uac|o oo |as |o|s|ac|ooos oac|ooa|os oo| |o|so|o
coo uo cooooooto |ooub|taoo oo oooso c|oot|co ouosto oo ao||os-
to taoto oo |a co|oc|oooc|as, coo oo |as o|scooaoc|as o as|otas.
88
3. Tabba|, ||uao|so ou oo|t c|v|| aoa|s, socot oo soo aoooooot, Revue internatio-
nale de droit compar, +`S+, oo. 0230.
89
. L. 3oo|o, Code civil des Franais, Bicentenaire, |a|s, La||oz, 200+.