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MC LC
THUT NG VIT TT ..............................................................................................i Li ni u..................................................................................................................1 Chng 1. TNG QUAN V MNG TH H SAU NGN ......................................3
1.1. S RA I V CC NG LC THC Y S PHT TRIN CA NGN ....... 3

1.1.1. S ra i ca mng th h sau NGN ............................................................3 1.1.2. Cc ng lc thc y s pht trin ca mng NGN ...................................4
1.2. KHI NIM V CC C IM CA NGN ........................................................... 5

1.2.1. Khi nim......................................................................................................5 1.2.2. Cc c im ca mng NGN ......................................................................7


1.3. KIN TRC MNG NGN ............................................................................................ 8

1.3.1. Kin trc chc nng ca mng NGN ............................................................8 1.3.2. Cu trc vt l .............................................................................................11
1.4. CC PHN T TRONG MNG NGN ...................................................................... 12

1.4.1. Media Gateway (MG) .................................................................................12 1.4.2. Media Gateway Controller (MGC) .............................................................13 1.4.3. Signalling Gateway (SG) ............................................................................15 1.4.4. H thng thit b truyn ti ........................................................................15 1.4.5. H thng thit b truy nhp .........................................................................15
1.5. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN TRONG MNG NGN ............... 16

Chng 2. TNG QUAN V H THNG BO HIU S 7 ................................18


2.1. VAI TR CA H THNG BO HIU S 7 (CCS7) ............................................. 18 2.2. CC KHI NIM C BN CA H THNG CCS7 ............................................... 18 2.3. CC KHI CHC NNG CHNH CA CCS7 ......................................................... 19

2.3.1. S khi chc nng .................................................................................19 2.3.2. Mi tng quan gia CCS7 v m hnh OSI .............................................20
2.4. PHN CHUYN GIAO BN TIN MTP.................................................................. 21

2.4.1. MTP mc 1 (ng s liu bo hiu) .........................................................21 2.4.2. MTP mc 2 (chc nng ng bo hiu) ...................................................22 2.4.3. MTP mc 3 (chc nng mng bo hiu) ....................................................22
2.5. PHN IU KHIN U NI BO HIU SCCP ................................................ 23

2.5.1. Cc dch v ca SCCP ................................................................................23 2.5.2. Cu trc chc nng ca SCCP ....................................................................24 2.5.3. Cc th tc bo hiu ...................................................................................24
2.6. PHN NG DNG KH NNG GIAO DCH TCAP ........................................... 26

2.6.1. Cu trc ca TCAP .....................................................................................26


Phm V Huy, 2001VT http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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2.6.2. Cc hot ng ca TCAP ...........................................................................28 Chng 3. TRUYN TI BO HIU S 7 QUA MNG IP SIGTRAN ..........29
3.1. GII THIU CHUNG .................................................................................................. 29 3.2. GII THIU V SIGTRAN ........................................................................................ 31 3.3. NG LC PHT TRIN GIAO THC TRUYN TI MI ................................. 32 3.4. GIAO THC IU KHIN LUNG TRUYN TI SCTP ................................... 32

3.4.1. Tng quan v kin trc ca SCTP ..............................................................32 3.4.2. Tng quan v chc nng ca SCTP ............................................................33 3.4.3. Khun dng tiu chung ca SCTP .........................................................34
3.5. M2PA ............................................................................................................................ 35 3.6. M2UA ........................................................................................................................... 36 3.7. SO SNH M2PA V M2UA ....................................................................................... 37 3.8. M3UA ........................................................................................................................... 37 3.9. SUA .............................................................................................................................. 39 3.10. SO SNH M3UA V SUA ....................................................................................... 41

Chng 4. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN NGANG HNG .42


4.1. GIAO THC KHI TO PHIN SIP......................................................................... 42

4.1.1. Cc c im v chc nng ca SIP ...........................................................42 4.1.2. Cc khi nim v cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP ...................................44 4.1.3. Khi qut v hot ng ca SIP ..................................................................49 4.1.4. Cc loi bn tin SIP ....................................................................................53 4.1.5. nh gi SIP ...............................................................................................56
4.2. H.323............................................................................................................................. 57

4.2.1. Tng quan v H.323 ...................................................................................57 4.2.2. Kin trc mng v cc thnh phn ca H.323 ............................................58 4.2.3. Chng giao thc s dng trong H.323........................................................64 4.2.4. Thit lp v gii phng cuc gi H.323 trong trng hp n gin nht ..68 4.2.5. So snh SIP v H.323 .................................................................................69
4.3. GIAO THC IU KHIN C LP KNH MANG BICC................................ 71

Chng 5. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN CH T .............73


5.1. GIAO THC IU KHIN CNG PHNG TIN MGCP ................................. 73

5.1.1. Kin trc v cc thnh phn........................................................................73 5.1.2. Thit lp cuc gi thng qua MGCP ..........................................................75 5.1.3. So snh gia MGCP, SIP v H.323 ............................................................76 5.1.4. nh gi giao thc MGCP .........................................................................77
5.2. MEGACO/H.248 .......................................................................................................... 77

5.2.1. Tng quan v giao thc MEGACO/H.248 .................................................77


Phm V Huy, 2001VT http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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5.2.2. V tr ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 trong m hnh OSI .........................78 5.2.3. Cc chc nng ca MEGACO/H.248 .........................................................78 5.2.4. Cc khi nim trong giao thc MEGACO/H.248 ......................................79 5.2.5. Truyn dn cc bn tin ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 ............................82 5.2.6. Cc lnh c nh ngha bi giao thc MEGACO/H.248........................82 5.2.7. Cu trc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 .............................................................86 5.2.8. Hot ng ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 ................................................86 5.2.9. Cc u im ca MEGACO/H.248 so vi cc giao thc iu khin cng phng tin khc...................................................................................................87 KT LUN ..................................................................................................................89 PH LC .....................................................................................................................90 TI LIU THAM KHO...........................................................................................92

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG VIT TT
AAL AD ADSL AG AS AS-F ASP ATM BCF BER BICC BIWF BRN CA CA-F CAS CC CCS7 CDR CIC CMN CPL CPU CR CSF CSL DER DNS DPC DSP DTMF DUP DWDM FR GK GPRS GSN GW HLR HTML HTTP ATM Adaptation Layer Analog to Digital Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line Access Gateway Application Server Application Server Function Application Server Process Asynchronous Transfer Mode Bearer Control Function Basic Encoding Rule Bearer Independent Call Control Bearer Interworking Function Bearer Relay Node Call Agent CA Function Chanel Associated Signalling Connection Confirm Common Chanel Signalling N0 7 Call Detail Record Curcuit Identification Code Call Mediation Node Call Processing Language Central Processing Unit Connection Request Call Serving Function Component Sublayer Distinguished Encoding Rule Domain Name System Destination Point Code Digital Signal Processor Dual Tone MultiFrequancy Data User Part Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Frame Relay Gatekeeper General Packet Radio Service Gateway Serving Node Gateway Home Location Registration Hyper Text Markup Language HyperText Transfer Protocol Lp thch ng ATM Bin i tng t sang s ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Cng truy nhp My ch ng dng Chc nng my ch ng dng X l my ch ng dng Ch truyn ti khng ng b Chc nng iu khin knh mang Quy tc m ha cn bn Giao thc iu khin c lp knh mang Chc nng tng tc knh mang Nt chuyn tip knh mang Tc nhn cuc gi Chc nng CA Bo hiu knh kt hp Xc nhn kt ni Bo hiu knh chung s 7 Bn ghi chi tit cuc gi M nhn dng knh Nt dn xp cuc gi Ngn ng x l cuc gi n v x l trung tm Yu cu kt ni Chc nng dch v cuc gi Phn lp thnh phn Quy tc m ha phc tp H thng tn min M im ch B x l tn hiu s Tn hiu a tn kp Phn ngi s dng s liu Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng cht Chuyn tip kiu khung Gim st cng phng tin Dch v v tuyn gi chung Nt dch v cng Cng phng tin Trm ng k thng tr Ngn ng nh dng siu vn bn Giao thc truyn ti siu vn bn
i

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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Thut ng vit tt

I/O IN IP ISDN ISN ISP ISUP ITU T IVR IW-F LAN M2PA M2UA M3UA MC MCF MCU MEGACO MG MGC MGC-F MGCP MG-F MMSF MP MPLS MSF MTP MTU MTUP NAS NGN NSP OLO OSI PLMN PNO PSTN QoS

u vo/ u ra Mng thng minh Giao thc Internet Mng s tch hp a dch v Nt dch v giao din Nh cung cp dch v Internet Phn ngi s dng ISDN Lin minh vin thng th gii v thoi Phc p thoi tng tc Chc nng hot ng tng tc Mng cc b Thch ng MTP mc 2 ngang hng Thch ng ngi s dng MTP MTP 2 User Adaptation mc 2 Thch ng ngi s dng MTP MTP 3 User Adaptation mc 3 Multipoint Controller B iu khin a im Media Control Function Chc nng iu khin phng tin Multipoint Control Unit n v iu khin a im Giao thc iu khin cng phng Media Gateway Control tin Media Gateway Cng phng tin Media Gateway Controller B iu khin cng phng tin MGC Function Chc nng MGC Giao thc iu khin cng phng Media Gateway Control Protocol tin MG Function Chc nng MG Media Mapping and Switching Chc nng chuyn mch v ghp Function ni phng tin Multipoint Processor B x l a im Multiprotocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc Media Server Function Chc nng my ch phng tin Message Transfer Part Phn chuyn giao bn tin Maximum Transfer Unit n v chuyn giao cc i Phn ngi s dng in thoi di Mobile Telephone User Part ng Network Access Server My ch truy nhp mng Next Generation Network Mng th h sau Network Service Point im dch v mng Nh vn hnh mng bn quyn Other Lisenced Operator khc Open Systems Interconnection Cc lin kt h thng m Mng thng tin di ng cng cng Public Land Mobile Network mt t Public Network Operator Nh vn hnh mng cng cng Public Switched Telephone Network Mng in thoi cng cng Quality of Service Cht lng dch v

Input/Output Intellingent Network Internet Protocol Integrated Service Digital Network Interface Serving Node Internet Service Provider ISDN User Part International Telecommunication Union Telephone Interactive Voice Response Interworking Function Local Area Network MTP 2 Peer to Peer Adaptation

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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RF RANAP RFC RG RLC RSVP RTCP RTP SCCP SCLC SCM SCN SCOC SCR SCTP SDH SDP SDSL SG-F SIGTRAN SIP SIP CGI SMS SMTP SN SONET SP SPC SPS F SS7 SSN STC STP SUA TCAP TCP TDM TGW TSL TSN TSN

Routing Function Radio Access Network Application Part Request For Comments Residential Gateway Release Complete Resource Reservation Protocol Real Time Transport Control Protocol Real Time Transport Protocol Signalling Connection Control Part SCCP Connectionless Control SCCP Management Switched Circuit Network SCCP Connection Oriented Control SCCP Routing Stream Control Transport Protocol Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Session Description Protocol Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line SG Function Signalling Transport Session Initiation Protocol SIP Common Gateway Interface Short Message Service Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Serving Node Synchronous Optical Network Signalling Point Store Program Control SIP Proxy Server Function Signalling System N0 7 Subsystems Number Signalling Transport Converter Signalling Transfer Point SCCP User Adaptation Transaction Capabilities Application Part Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Trunk Gateway Transaction Sublayer Transmission Sequence Number Transit Serving Node

Chc nng nh tuyn Phn ng dng mng truy nhp v tuyn Khuyn ngh chung Gateway thng tr Gii phng hon ton Giao thc ginh trc ti nguyn Giao thc iu khin truyn ti thi gian thc Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc Phn iu khin kt ni bo hiu iu khin phi kt ni Qun l SCCP Mng chuyn mch knh iu khin hng kt ni nh tuyn SCCP Giao thc iu khin truyn ti lung H thng phn cp s ng b Giao thc m t phin ng dy thu bao s i xng Chc nng SG Giao thc truyn ti bo hiu Giao thc khi to phin Giao din cng phng tin chung Dch v bn tin ngn Giao thc truyn th n gin Nt dch v Mng quang ng b im bo hiu Tng i iu khin bng chng trnh lu tr Chc nng SIP Proxy Server H thng bo hiu s 7 Ch s phn h B chuyn i truyn ti bo hiu im truyn ti bo hiu Thch ng ngi s dng SCCP ng dng kh nng giao dch Giao thc truyn ti Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Cng trung k Phn lp giao dch Ch s tun t truyn dn Nt dch v chuyn tip

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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TUP UA UAC UAS UDP UMTS UP VoDSL VoIP WAN WDM XML

Telephone User Part User Agent UA Client UA Server User Datagam Protocol Universal Mobile Telecommunication System User Part Voice Digital Subscriber Line Voice over IP Wide Area Network Wavelength Division Multiplexing Extensible Markup Language

Phn ngi s dng in thoi Tc nhn ngi s dng UA khch UA ch Giao thc gi tin ngi dng H thng thng tin di ng ton cu Phn ngi s dng ng dy thu bao s Thoi trn nn IP Mng din rng Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Ngn ng nh dng m rng

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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Li ni u

Li ni u
Trong nhng nm gn y, khi m i sng x hi ngy cng pht trin th nhu cu trao i thng tin ca con ngi cng tng ln rt nhiu c v mc phong ph ln cht lng ca ca loi hnh dch v. Hin nay, nhng nhu cu khng ch cn tp trung vo loi hnh dch v thoi truyn thng nh trc y na m cn c cc dch v thoi c hnh nh, hi ngh a phng, cu truyn thng, khng th p ng c trn c s h tng ca mng vin thng trc y. Thc t ny t cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng trc mt thch thc rt ln l lm sao c th p ng c nhu cu ca cc v khch hng kh tnh vi chi ph u t thp nht. Bn cnh l s ra i ca cc cng ngh, k thut mi, s bng n ca Internet tr thnh ng lc thc y s ra i ca mt mng vin thng th h mi Next Generation Network (NGN). NGN khng phi l mt mng c c s h tng c xy dng hon ton mi m n c hnh thnh v pht trin trn nn tng ca cc mng th h trc kt hp vi k thut chuyn mch gi theo giao thc IP. Nh c xy dng v pht trin trn c s h tng ca cc mng th h trc m cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng khng cn phi b vn u t ban u nhiu m vn c kh nng thu li li nhun cao. Nh k thut chuyn mch gi m NGN l mt mng c kh nng cung cp khng ch cc dch v thoi thng thng m cn c kh nng cung cp c cc dch v s liu, thoi v s liu tch hp, mt cch mm do v linh hot. NGN c s thay i hon ton v mt kin trc, kin trc phn tn c xy dng thay cho kin trc tp trung nh trong mng chuyn mch knh trc y. Trong kin trc mi ny, kh nng thng minh (Intelligent) khng phi c tp trung m c phn tn cho cc thit b nm ri rc trong ton kin trc mng. Kin trc phn tn v s kt hp gia mng th h c v mng th h mi t ra cho cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin mt vai tr ht sc quan trng trong vic phi hp hot gia cc thit b trong mng th h mi v gia cc thit b trong mng th h c vi cc thit b trong mng th h mi. y cng chnh l l do em la chn ti TNG QUAN V CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN TRONG MNG NGN, ni dung ca ti ny gm cc phn sau: Chng 1. Tng quan v mng th h sau NGN. Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng bo hiu s 7. Chng 3. Truyn ti bo hiu s 7 qua mng IP SIGTRAN. Chng 4. Cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin ngang hng. Chng 5. Cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin ch t.

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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Li ni u

Do cn rt nhiu hn ch v trnh v thi gian nn ti ny s khng trnh khi cc sai st. Em rt mong nhn c s ch bo v gp ca cc thy c v cc bn. Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c trong khoa Vin thng 1 to mi iu kin tt nht cho em trong qu trnh thc hin n. Trong , c bit l c V Thy H tn tnh ch bo, hng dn, gip v ng vin em v mi mt em hon thnh n ny.

H Ni, thng 9/2005 Sinh vin: Phm V Huy

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Chng 1. TNG QUAN V MNG TH H SAU NGN


1.1. S RA I V CC NG LC THC Y S PHT TRIN CA NGN 1.1.1. S ra i ca mng th h sau NGN C mt iu r rng l th trng thng tin ang thay i mt cch nhanh chng. S thay i ny khng ch lin quan n cc nh sn xut, cc nh nghin cu th trng vin thng m cn ti nhiu i tng trong cc lnh vc khc nhau ca x hi. Phng thc m con ngi trao i thng tin, giao tip vi nhau, kinh doanh vi nhau ang dn dn c thay i cng vi nhng thay i ca nn cng nghip vin thng. Cc ng dy in thoi khng ch cn mang thng tin thoi m cn truyn c s liu v video. Thng tin thoi, s liu, fax, video v cc dch v khc ang c cung cp ti cc u cui l my in thoi, thit b di ng, my tnh c nhn, cc my mc t ngvi cc yu cu v cht lng dch v t pha ngi s dng ngy cng cao. Lu lng thng tin s liu vt xa lu lng thng tin thoi v vn tng khng ngng vi tc gp 10 ln tc tng ca lu lng thng tin thoi. Chuyn mch knh, vn l c trng ca mng PSTN truyn thng trong sut th k qua ang nhng bc cho chuyn mch gi trong mng th h sau v khng cn thch hp na v t ra c nhiu nhc im i vi cc dch v phi thoi: S dng bng tn khng linh hot. Lng ph ti nguyn h thng. Khng c c ch pht hin v sa li. Hiu nng s dng khng cao... tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng, ng ngha vi vic gia tng li nhun, cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng yu cu nhng gii php cng ngh mi thay th (hoc b sung) cho mng PSTN. Cng vi s gia tng nhu cu ca khch hng, cng ngh chuyn mch gi cng gp phn a ngnh cng nghip vin thng chuyn sang mt thi k mi. Cng ngh chuyn mch gi a ra cc gii php chuyn giao thng tin di dng cc gi tin theo phng thc hng kt ni hay phi kt ni trn cc knh o. Mng chuyn mch gi c th c xy dng theo cc giao thc khc nhau: X25, IP,...trong giao thc IP l giao thc ang c quan tm nhiu nht. Mng chuyn

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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n tt nghip i hc

Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

mch gi da trn giao thc IP c coi l gii php cng ngh p ng c s gia tng nhu cu ca khch hng. Vi kh nng ca mnh, cc dng lu lng khc nhau c x l hon ton trong sut trong mng IP, iu ny cho php mng IP c kh nng cung cp cc loi dch v phong ph v a dng, bao gm c cc dch v a phng tin ch khng ring g cc dch v thoi. Nh vy, dp ng cc yu cu t ra, cc nh qun tr mng c 2 s la chn, hoc l xy dng mt c s h tng hon ton mi cho mng IP hoc l xy dng mt mng c kh nng cung cp cc dch v IP bng cch nng cp trn h tng mng PSTN hin c. H tng mng ca th k 20 khng th c thay th ch trong mt sm, mt chiu v v th phng n th hai l s la chn ng n l mng th h sau NGN Next Generation Network. Nh vy mng th h sau (NGN: Next Generation Network) c hnh thnh, khng phi l mt cuc cch mng m l mt bc pht trin. 1.1.2. Cc ng lc thc y s pht trin ca mng NGN Yu t hng u l tc pht trin theo hm s m ca nhu cu truyn dn d liu v cc dch v d liu l kt qu ca tng trng Internet mnh m. Cc h thng mng cng cng hin nay ch yu c xy dng nhm truyn dn lu lng thoi, truyn d liu thng tin v video c vn chuyn trn cc mng chng ln, tch ri c trin khai p ng nhng yu cu ca chng. Do vy, mt s chuyn i sang h thng mng chuyn mch gi tp trung l khng th trnh khi khi m d liu thay th v tr ca thoi v tr thnh ngun to ra li nhun chnh. Cng vi s bng n Internet trn ton cu, rt nhiu kh nng mng th h mi s da trn giao thc IP. Tuy nhin, thoi vn l mt dch v quan trng v do , nhng thay i ny dn ti yu cu truyn thoi cht lng cao qua IP. Ngoi nhng ng lc v mt k thut th trong kha cnh kinh doanh cng c cc ng lc dn ti s ra i ca mng NGN: a. Ci thin chi ph u t Cng ngh cn bn lin quan n chuyn mch knh truyn thng c ci tin chm tr v chm trin khai kt hp vi nn cng nghip my tnh. Cc chuyn mch knh ny hin ang chim phn ln trong c s h tng PSTN. Tuy nhin chng cha tht s ti u cho mng truyn s liu. Kt qu l ngy cng c nhiu dng lu lng s liu trn mng PSTN n mng Internet v s xut hin mt gii php vi nh hng s liu lm trng tm thit k mng chuyn mch tng lai, nn tng da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi cho c thoi v d liu.
Phm V Huy, 2001VT http://www.ebook.edu.vn 4

n tt nghip i hc

Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Cc giao din m ti tng lp mng cho php nh khai thc la chn nh cung cp c hiu qu nht cho tng lp mng ca h. Truyn ti da trn gi cho php phn b bng tn linh hot, loi b nhu cu nhm trung k kch thc c nh cho thoi, nh gip cc nh khai thc qun l mng d dng hn, nng cp mt cch hiu qu phn mm trong cc nt iu khin mng, gim chi ph khai thc h thng. b. Xu th i mi vin thng Khc vi kha cnh k thut, qu trnh gii th ang nh hng mnh m n cch thc hot ng ca cc nh khai thc vin thng ln trn th gii. Xuyn sut qu trnh c gi l mch vng ni ht khng trn gi, cc lut l ca chnh ph trn ton th gii p buc cc nh khai thc ln phi m ca cc cng ty mi tham gia th trng cnh tranh. Trn quan im chuyn mch, cc nh cung cp thay th phi c kh nng ginh c khch hng a phng nh u t trc tip vo nhng dm cui cng ca ng cp ng. iu ny dn n vic gia tng cnh tranh. Cc mng NGN thc s ph hp h tr kin trc mng v cc m hnh c lut php cho php khai thc. c. Cc ngun doanh thu mi D bo hin nay cho thy mc suy gim trm trng ca doanh thu thoi v xut hin mc tng doanh thu t bin do cc dch v gi tr gia tng mang li. Kt qu l phn ln cc nh khai thc truyn thng s phi ti nh mc m hnh kinh doanh ca h di nh sng ca cc d bo ny. Cng lc , cc nh khai thc mi s tm kim m hnh kinh doanh mi cho php h nm ly th phn, mang li li nhun cao hn trn th trng vin thng. Cc c hi kinh doanh mi bao gm cc ng dng a dng tch hp vi cc dch v ca mng vin thng hin ti, s liu Internet, cc ng dng video. 1.2. KHI NIM V CC C IM CA NGN 1.2.1. Khi nim Mng vin thng th h mi c nhiu tn gi khc nhau, chng hn nh: Mng a dch v : cung cp nhiu dch v khc nhau. Mng hi t : h tr dch v thoi v d liu, cu trc mng hi t. Mng phn phi : phn phi tnh thng minh cho mi phn t trong mng. Mng nhiu lp : t chc nhiu lp mng c chc nng c lp nhng h tr nhau.
Phm V Huy, 2001VT http://www.ebook.edu.vn 5

n tt nghip i hc

Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Cho ti hin nay, mc d cc t chc vin thng quc t v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii u rt quan tm v nghin cu v chin lc pht trin NGN. Song vn cha c mt nh ngha c th no chnh xc cho mng NGN. Do , nh ngha mng NGN nu ra y khng th bao hm ht ngha ca mng th h mi nhng l khi nim chung nht khi cp n NGN. Bt ngun t s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin, cng ngh chuyn mch gi v cng ngh truyn dn bng rng, mng NGN ra i l mng c c s h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, p ng s hi t gia thoi v s liu, c nh v di ng.

Hnh 1.1. Mng hp nht Nh vy, c th xem NGN l s tch hp mng PSTN da trn k thut TDM v mng chuyn mch gi da trn k thut IP/ATM. N c th truyn ti tt c cc dch v vn c ca PSTN ng thi c th cung cp cho mng IP mt lng lu lng d liu ln, nh gim ti cho mng PSTN. Tuy nhin, NGN khng ch n thun l s hi t gia thoi v d liu m cn l s hi t gia truyn dn quang v cng ngh gi, gia mng c nh v di ng. Vn ct li y l lm sao c th tn dng ht li th em n t qu trnh hi t ny. Mt vn quan trng khc l s bng n nhu cu ca ngi s dng cho mt khi lng ln dch v v ng dng phc tp bao gm c a phng tin, phn ln trong s khng c d tnh khi xy dng cc h thng mng hin nay.

Phm V Huy, 2001VT

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

1.2.2. Cc c im ca mng NGN Mng NGN c bn c im chnh: Nn tng l h thng mng m. Mng NGN l do mng dch v thc y, nhng dch v phi thc hin c lp vi mng li. Mng NGN l mng chuyn mch gi, da trn mt giao thc thng nht. L mng c dung lng ngy cng tng, c tnh thch ng cng ngy cng tng, c dung lng p ng nhu cu. Trc ht, do p dng c cu m m: Cc khi chc nng ca tng i truyn thng chia thnh cc phn t mng c lp, cc phn t c phn theo chc nng tng ng v pht trin mt cch c lp. Giao din v giao thc gia cc b phn phi da trn cc tiu chun tng ng. Vic phn tch lm cho mng vin thng vn c dn dn i theo hng mi, nh kinh doanh c th cn c vo nhu cu dch v t t hp cc phn t khi t chc mng li. Vic tiu chun ha giao thc gia cc phn t c th thc hin ni thng gia cc mng c cu hnh khc nhau. Tip n, mng NGN l mng dch v thc y, vi c im ca: Chia tch dch v vi iu khin cuc gi. Chia tch cuc gi vi truyn ti. Mc tiu chnh ca chia tch l lm cho dch v thc s c lp vi mng, thc hin mt cch linh hot v c hiu qu vic cung cp dch v. Thu bao c th t b tr v xc nh c trng dch v ca mnh, khng quan tm n mng truyn ti dch v v loi hnh u cui. iu lm cho vic cung cp dch v v ng dng c tnh linh hot cao. Th ba, NGN l mng chuyn mch gi, giao thc thng nht. Mng thng tin hin nay, d l mng vin thng, mng my tnh hay mng truyn hnh cp, u khng th ly mt trong cc mng lm nn tng xy dng c s h tng thng tin. Nhng my nm gn y, cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh IP, ngi ta mi nhn thy r rng l mng vin thng, mng my tnh v mng truyn hnh cp cui cng ri cng tch hp trong mt mng IP thng nht, l xu th ln m ngi ta thng gi l dung hp ba mng. Giao thc IP lm cho cc dch v ly IP lm c s u c th thc hin ni thng cc mng khc nhau; con ngi ln u tin c c giao thc
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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

thng nht m ba mng ln u c th chp nhn c; t c s vng chc v mt k thut cho h tng c s thng tin quc gia. Giao thc IP thc t tr thnh giao thc ng dng vn nng v bt u c s dng lm c s cho cc mng a dch v, mc d hin ti vn cn th bt li so vi cc chuyn mch knh v mt kh nng h tr lu lng thoi v cung cp cht lng dch v m bo cho s liu. Tc i mi nhanh chng trong th gii Internet, m n c to iu kin bi s pht trin ca cc tiu chun m s sm khc phc nhng thiu st ny. 1.3. KIN TRC MNG NGN 1.3.1. Kin trc chc nng ca mng NGN Hin nay cha c mt khuyn ngh chnh thc no ca ITU-T v kin trc NGN. Nhiu hng vin thng ln a ra m hnh kin trc NGN nh Alcatel, Siemens, NEC, Lucent, Ericsson,v km theo l cc gii php mng cng cc sn phm thit b mi. T cc m hnh ny, kin trc NGN c c im chung l bao gm cc lp chc nng sau: Lp kt ni (truy nhp, truyn ti/li). Lp trung gian (truyn thng). Lp iu khin. Lp qun l. Trong cc lp trn, lp iu khin l phc tp nht vi nhiu loi giao thc, kh nng tng thch gia cc thit b ca hng l vn ang c cc nh khai thc quan tm. M hnh phn lp chc nng ca mng NGN:

Hnh 1.2. Cu trc mng NGN (gc mng)


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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Xem xt t gc kinh doanh v cung cp dch v, m hnh cu trc NGN cn c thm lp ng dng/dch v. Trong mi trng pht trin cnh tranh s c rt nhiu thnh phn tham gia kinh doanh trong lp ng dng/dch v.

Hnh 1.3. Cu trc mng v dch v NGN (gc dch v) Phn tch: Kin trc mng NGN s dng chuyn mch gi cho thoi v d liu. Cc khi trong tng i hin nay c phn chia thnh cc lp mng ring l, cc lp ny lin kt vi nhau qua cc giao din m tiu chun. S thng minh ca x l cuc gi c bn trong chuyn mch PSTN thc cht c tch ra t phn cng ca ma trn chuyn mch. S thng minh nm trong mt thit b tch ri gi l chuyn mch mm (softswitch) hay b iu khin cng phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller) hay tc nhn cuc gi (Call Agent), ng vai tr phn t iu khin trong kin trc mng mi. Cc giao din m hng ti cc ng dng mng thng minh (IN Intelligent Network) v cc my ch ng dng (Aplication Server) mi to iu kin d dng cho vic cung cp dch v v m bo a ra th trng trong thi gian ngn. Ti lp trung gian (truyn thng), cc cng phng tin (MG) c a vo s dng thch ng thoi v cc phng tin khc vi mng chuyn mch gi. Cc MG ny c s dng phi ghp hoc vi thit b u cui ca khch hng (RG Residential Gateway), hoc vi cc mng truy nhp (AG Access Gateway), hoc vi mng PSTN (TGW Trunk Gateway). Cc my ch phng tin c bit thc hin nhiu chc nng khc nhau, chng hn nh cung cp cc m quay s hoc bn tin thng bo. Ngoi ra, chng cn c cc chc nng tin tin hn nh: tr li bng ting ni tng tc v bin i vn bn sang ting ni hoc ngc li.
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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Hnh 1.4. Cu trc chc nng ca NGN Cc giao din m ca kin trc cho php cc dch v mi c trin khai nhanh chng. ng thi to thun li cho vic trin khai cc phng thc kinh doanh mi bng cch chia tch chui gi tr truyn thng hin ti thnh nhiu dch v c th do cc hng khc nhau cung cp.

Hnh 1.5. Cu trc h thng chuyn mch a dch v


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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

H thng chuyn mch NGN c phn thnh bn lp ring bit thay v tch hp thnh mt h thng nh cng ngh chuyn mch knh hin nay, l: lp ng dng, lp iu khin, lp truyn thng, lp truy nhp v truyn ti. Cc giao din m c s tch bit gia dch v v truyn dn cho php cc dch v mi c a vo nhanh chng, d dng. ng thi nh khai thc c th chn la nh cung cp thit b tt nht cho tng lp trong m hnh mng NGN. 1.3.2. Cu trc vt l

Hnh 1.6. Cu trc vt l ca NGN NGN cn c hiu r l mng th h sau hay mng th h k tip m khng phi l mng hon ton mi, nn khi xy dng v pht trin mng theo xu hng NGN, ngi ta ch n vn kt ni mng th h sau vi mng hin hnh v tn dng cc thit b vin thng hin c trn mng nhm t c hiu qu khai thc ti a.

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

1.4. CC PHN T TRONG MNG NGN Xt cu trc tng th cho mng NGN theo MSF:

Hnh 1.7. Kin trc tng th cho mng NGN 1.4.1. Media Gateway (MG) MG cung cp phng tin truyn ti thng tin thoi, d liu, fax v video gia mng gi IP v mng PSTN. Trong mng PSTN, d liu thoi c mang trn knh DS0. truyn d liu ny vo mng gi, mu thoi cn c nn li v ng gi. c bit y ngi ta s dng mt b x l tn hiu s DSP (Digital Signal Processor) thc hin cc chc nng: chuyn i AD (Analog to Digital), nn m thoi/ audio, trit ting di, b khong lng, m ha, ti to tn hiu thoi, truyn cc tn hiu DTMF, MG c cc chc nng sau: Truyn d liu thoi s dng giao thc thi gian thc (RTP Real Time Protocol). Cung cp khe thi gian T1 hay ti nguyn x l tn hiu s (DSP) di s iu khin ca MGC. ng thi qun l ti nguyn DSP cho dch v ny. H tr cc giao thc c nh loop start, ground start, E&M, CAS, QSIG v ISDN qua T1. Qun l ti nguyn v kt ni T1. Cung cp kh nng thay nng cc card T1 hay DSP.

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

C phn mm MG d phng. Cho php kh nng m rng MG v: cng (port), cards, cc nt, m khng lm thay i cc thnh phn khc.

Hnh 1.8. Cu trc ca MG 1.4.2. Media Gateway Controller (MGC) MGC l n v chc nng c bn ca chuyn mch mm, v cng thng c gi l Call Agent hay B iu khin cng (Gateway Controller), hay chuyn mch mm. Hnh 1.9 trnh by kt ni ca MGC vi cc thnh phn khc ca mng NGN. MGC iu khin x l cuc gi, cn MG v SG s thc hin truyn thng. MGC iu khin SG thit lp v kt thc cuc gi. Ngoi ra cn giao tip vi h thng OSS v BSS. MGC chnh l chic cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc nhau nh PSTN, SS7, mng IP. N chu trch nhim qun l lu lng thoi v d liu qua cc mng khc nhau. Mt MGC kt hp vi MG, SG to thnh cu hnh ti thiu cho chuyn mch mm.

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

a. Cc chc nng ca MGC (Hnh 1.9) iu khin cuc gi, duy tr trng thi ca mi cuc gi trn mt MG. iu khin v h tr hot ng ca MG, SG. Trao i cc bn tin c bn gia 2 MG-F. X l bn tin bo hiu SS7 (khi s dng SIGTRAN). X l cc bn tin lin quan QoS nh RTCP. Thc hin nh tuyn cuc gi (bao gm bng nh tuyn v bin dch). Ghi li cc thng tin chi tit ca cuc gi tnh cc (CDR- Call Detail Record) iu khin qun l bng thng.

Hnh 1.9. Cc chc nng ca MGC b. Cc giao thc MGC c th s dng Giao thc thit lp cuc gi: H.323, SIP. Giao thc iu khin MG: MGCP, MEGACO/H.248. Giao thc iu khin SG: SIGTRAN (SS7). Giao thc truyn thng tin: RTP, RCTP.

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Hnh 1.10. V d s dng MGC 1.4.3. Signalling Gateway (SG) SG thc hin chc nng cu ni gia mng bo hiu SS7 v cc nt c qun l bi chuyn mch mm trong mng IP. SG lm cho chuyn mch mm ging nh mt nt SS7 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Nhim v ca SG l x l thng tin bo hiu. SG c cc chc nng sau: Cung cp mt kt ni vt l n mng bo hiu. Truyn thng tin bo hiu gia MGC v SG thng qua mng IP. Cung cp ng thoi, d liu v cc dng thng tin khc. 1.4.4. H thng thit b truyn ti Nt chuyn mch IP ATM tc cao lp trn (ATM Switch, IP Switch,). Thit b nh tuyn li, bin (Router, LSR,). Thit b truyn dn quang dung lng ln lp di (SDH, DWDM, SONET). 1.4.5. H thng thit b truy nhp H tr ton b cc giao din truy nhp pha xa nh VoDSL, ADSL/SDSL, ISDN BA,.v.vv tch ring cc ng dng thoi v truyn s liu a vo cc mng ng trc ring bit (mng TDM v mng li NGN).

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Cung cp cc loi cng truy nhp khc nhau nh: POTS, VoIP, IP, FR, X.25, ATM, xDSL, di ng, 1.5. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN TRONG MNG NGN Kin trc ca mng NGN l kin trc phn tn v th m cc chc nng bo hiu v x l bo hiu, chuyn mch, iu khin cuc gi,c thc hin bi cc thit b nm phn tn trong cu hnh mng. c th to ra cc kt ni gia cc u cui nhm cung cp dch v, cc thit b ny phi trao i cc thng tin bo hiu v diu khin c vi nhau. Cch thc trao i cc thng tin bo hiu v iu khin c quy nh trong cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c s dng trong mng. V c bn, trong mng NGN c cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin sau: H.323 SIP BICC SIGTRAN MGCP, MEGACO/H.248 Cc giao thc ny c th phn thnh 2 loi: cc giao thc ngang hng (H.323, SIP, BICC) v cc giao thc ch t (MGCP, MEGACO/H.248) nh trong hnh 1.11. S khc nhau c bn gia hai cch tip cn ny l ch kh nng thng minh (intelligent) c phn b nh th no gia cc thit b bin ca mng v cc server. S la chn cch no l ph thuc vo chi ph h thng, trin khai dch v, kh thi. Mt gii php tng th s dng u im ca c hai cch tip cn nn c xem xt. S so snh gia hai cch tip cn ny c trnh by trong bng 1.1. Trong cc chng sau s trnh by mt cch chi tit v cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin ny. Lu tin trnh cuc gi trong NGN s c trnh by trong phn ph lc.

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Chng 1. Tng quan v mng NGN

Bng 1.1. So snh 2 giao thc ch/t v ngang hng

Hnh 1.11. Cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin trong mng NGN

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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

Chng 2. TNG QUAN V H THNG BO HIU S 7


2.1. VAI TR CA H THNG BO HIU S 7 (CCS7) H thng bo hiu knh chung s 6 (CCS6) c hn ch so vi CCS7 l: cc trung k lm vic vi tc thp (2,4 kb/s). di ca cc bn tin b hn ch v khng c cu trc phn mc m c cu trc n nn h thng ny khng p ng c vi s pht trin ca mng li. H thng CCS7 c thit k ti u cho mng quc gia v quc t s dng trung k s. Tc t 64 kb/s, c cu trc phn lp. H thng bo hiu s 7 cng c th s dng trn cc ng dy tng t (analog). H thng CCS7 c thit k khng ch cho iu khin thit lp, gim st cc cuc gi in thoi m cho c cc dch v phi thoi. SS7 l h thng bo hiu knh chung ti u iu hnh trong mng vin thng s, n c s phi hp vi cc tng i SPC. SS7 c th tho mn cc yu cu hin ti v trong tng lai cho cc hot ng giao dch gia cc b vi x l trong mng vin thng bo hiu iu khin cuc gi, iu khin t xa, bo hiu qun l v bo dng. SS7 cung cp cc phng tin tin cy truyn thng tin theo trnh t chnh xc, khng b mt hoc lp li thng tin. Hin nay v trong tng lai, CCS7 s ng vai tr rt quan trng i vi cc dch v trong cc mng nh: Mng in thoi cng cng PSTN. Mng s tch hp a dch v ISDN. Mng thng minh IN. Mng thng tin di ng mt t PLMN. 2.2. CC KHI NIM C BN CA H THNG CCS7 Mng bo hiu CCS7 c cc khi nim c bn sau: im bo hiu (SP: Signalling Point): l mt nt chuyn mch hoc nt x l trong mng bo hiu c ci t chc nng bo hiu s 7 ca CCITT. Mt

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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

tng i in thoi hot ng nh mt im bo hiu phi l tng i c iu khin bng chng trnh lu tr SPC v bo hiu s 7 l dng thng tin s gia cc b vi x l. SP c th l im kt cui bo hiu khi n c kh nng x l cc bn tin bo hiu c lin quan. im chuyn tip bo hiu (STP: Signalling Transfer Point): l cc im bo hiu c kh nng nh tuyn cho cc bn tin, chuyn cc bn tin CCS7 ti cc tuyn bo hiu mt cch chnh xc da trn cc thng tin cha trong trng a ch ca bn tin . Knh bo hiu/chm knh bo hiu: Knh bo hiu l mt ng truyn dn 64 kb/s kt ni gia cc im bo hiu chuyn ti cc thng tin bo hiu. Chm knh bo hiu l mt tp gm mt s knh bo hiu (ti a 16 knh) hot ng chia s ti cho nhau nng cao an ton cho h thng. Bn tin bo hiu: l mt tp hp cc thng tin thuc v mt cuc gi, c nh ngha ti lp 3 hay lp 4, sau c chuyn nh mt thc th bi chc nng chuyn tip bn tin. Tuyn bo hiu/nhm tuyn bo hiu: Tuyn bo hiu l mt ng c xc nh trc bn tin i qua mng bo hiu t im bo hiu ngun n im bo hiu ch. N gm mt chui cc SP/STP c u ni vi nhau bng cc knh bo hiu. Nhm tuyn bo hiu l tt c cc tuyn bo hiu m thng tin bo hiu c th s dng i qua mng bo hiu. M im bo hiu: l mt m nh phn c gn cho mi mt SP hoc STP. 2.3. CC KHI CHC NNG CHNH CA CCS7 2.3.1. S khi chc nng H thng CCS7 c chia thnh mt s khi chc nng chnh sau (Hnh 2.1):

Hnh 2.1. Cu trc c bn ca h thng CCS7 Phn truyn bn tin (MTP: Message Transfer Part): y l h thng vn chuyn chung truyn cc bn tin bo hiu gia hai SP. MTP truyn cc bn tin bo hiu gia cc UP khc nhau v hon ton c lp vi ni dung cc bn tin c truyn. MTP chu trch nhim chuyn chnh xc bn tin t mt UP
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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

ny ti mt UP khc. iu ny c ngha l bn tin bo hiu c chuyn s c kim tra chnh xc trc khi chuyn cho UP. Phn ngi s dng (UP: User Part): y thc cht l mt s nh ngha phn ngi s dng khc nhau tu thuc vo kiu s dng ca h thng bo hiu. UP l phn to ra v phn tch bn tin bo hiu. Chng s dng MTP chuyn thng tin bo hiu n mt UP khc cng loi. Hin ang tn ti mt s UP trn mng li: TUP (Telephone User Part): phn ngi s dng cho mng thoi. DUP (Data User Part): phn ngi s dng cho mng s liu. ISUP (ISDN User Part): phn ngi s dng cho mng ISDN. MTUP (Mobile Telephone User Part): Phn ngi s dng cho mng in thoi di ng. 2.3.2. Mi tng quan gia CCS7 v m hnh OSI H thng CCS7 l mt kiu thng tin s liu chuyn mch gi, n c cu trc theo kiu module, rt ging vi m hnh OSI nhng n ch c 4 mc. Trong 3 mc thp nht hp thnh phn chuyn bn tin (MTP), mc th t gm cc phn ng dng (Hnh 2.2).

Hnh 2.2. Mi tng quan gia CCS7 v m hnh OSI


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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

2.4. PHN CHUYN GIAO BN TIN MTP MTP l phn chung cho tt c cc UP khc nhau. N bao gm ng s liu bo hiu (MTP mc 1), u ni gia 2 tng i v h thng bo hiu bn tin. H thng iu khin chuyn bn tin c chia lm 2 phn: Chc nng ng bo hiu (MTP mc 2) v chc nng mng bo hiu (MTP mc 3).

Hnh 2.3. Cu trc chung ca MTP Chc nng ng bo hiu: chc nng ny thc hin gim st ng bo hiu nh pht hin cc bn tin li, iu khin vic gi v nhn cc bn tin mt cch tun t, khng mt hoc lp bn tin. Chc nng mng bo hiu: bao gm cc chc nng x l bn tin bo hiu v qun l mng bo hiu. X l bn tin bo hiu: bao gm cc chc nng to tuyn cho cc bn tin v phn phi chnh xc cc bn tin nhn c cho cc UP. Qun l mng bo hiu: chc nng ny c kh nng cu hnh li v hot ha ng bo hiu duy tr cc dch v trong cc trng hp c s c. 2.4.1. MTP mc 1 (ng s liu bo hiu)

Hnh 2.4. Cu trc MTP 1


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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

ng s liu bo hiu l mt ng truyn dn s liu hai chiu. N bao gm 2 knh s liu hot ng ng thi trn hai hng ngc nhau vi cng mt tc (Hnh 2.4). ng s liu bo hiu c th l ng tn hiu s hoc tng t. ng s liu bo hiu c xy dng trn knh truyn dn s (64 kb/s) v tng i chuyn mch s. ng s liu bo hiu tng t c xy dng trn knh truyn dn tng t tn s thoi (4 kHz) v Modem. 2.4.2. MTP mc 2 (chc nng ng bo hiu) MTP mc 2 cng vi MTP mc 1 cung cp 1 ng s liu cho chuyn giao tin cy cc bn tin bo hiu gia 2 im bo hiu c u ni trc tip. Chc nng ng bo hiu bao gm: Chc nng iu khin ng bo hiu. Cc trng iu khin c x l trong mc 2 chuyn chnh xc cc bn tin. S phn nh ranh gii cc n v bo hiu. Pht hin li. Sa sai. ng chnh ban u. X l ngng hot ng. iu khin lu lng mc 2. Ch th hin tng tc nghn ln mc 3. Gim st li ng bo hiu. 2.4.3. MTP mc 3 (chc nng mng bo hiu) Cc chc nng ca MTP mc 3 c phn chia thnh 2 loi c bn l cc chc nng x l bn tin bo hiu v cc chc nng qun tr mng bo hiu (Hnh 2.5). a. X l bn tin bo hiu Mc ch ca chc nng x l bn tin bo hiu l m bo cho cc bn tin bo hiu bt ngun t mt UP ti mt im bo hiu pht c chuyn n UP ti im bo hiu thu. Chc nng ny gm: nh tuyn bn tin bo hiu.

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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

Phn bit bn tin bo hiu. Phn phi bn tin bo hiu. b. Qun tr mng bo hiu Mc ch ca cc chc nng qun tr mng bo hiu l hot ha cc ng bo hiu mi, duy tr cc dch v bo hiu, iu khin lu lng khi xy ra tc nghn v cu hnh li mng bo hiu nu c s c. Trong trng hp ng bo hiu b h hng, lu lng s c chuyn n cc ng khc trong cng mt nhm knh bo hiu vi ng hng. Cc chc nng ny gm: Qun tr mng bo hiu. Qun tr tuyn bo hiu. Qun tr lu lng bo hiu.

Hnh 2.5. Cc chc nng mng bo hiu 2.5. PHN IU KHIN U NI BO HIU SCCP 2.5.1. Cc dch v ca SCCP Phin dch, nh a ch ca SCCP. Dch v phi kt ni. Dch v hng kt ni.

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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

2.5.2. Cu trc chc nng ca SCCP Chc nng SCCP bao gm 4 chc nng chnh (Hnh 2.6): iu khin hng kt ni SCCP (SCOC): cung cp cc th tc cho thit lp, chuyn giao v gii phng 1 u ni bo hiu tm thi. N cng iu khin cng vic truyn s liu trn cc u ni ny. iu khin phi kt ni SCCP (SCLC): cung cp cc th tc chuyn giao s liu phi kt ni gia cc ngi dng; phn phi v tip nhn cc bn tin qun tr. nh tuyn SCCP (SCR): l chc nng da vo MTP to tuyn vt l t im bo hiu ny n im bo hiu khc. Qun tr SCCP (SCM): cung cp cc th tc m bo duy tr s hot ng ca mng bng phng php nh tuyn d phng hoc iu chnh li lu lng nu xy ra s c, tc nghn,

Hnh 2.6. Cu trc chc nng ca SCCP 2.5.3. Cc th tc bo hiu a. Cc th tc hng kt ni Giao thc mc 2 v 3 Cc th tc hng kt ni bao gm cc pha: thit lp kt ni, truyn s liu v gii phng u ni (Hnh 2.7).

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Chng 2. Tng quan v h thng CCS7

Thit lp kt ni: bao gm cc chc nng yu cu thit lp kt ni bo hiu tm thi gia 2 ngi s dng SCCP. Th tc ny c ngi s dng SCCP khi to bng cch a ra yu cu kt ni (N CONNECT REQUEST). Trc tin, SCCP gc pht i bn tin CR yu cu kt ni. Bn tin ny cha mt con s th t (do SCCP gc chn), mc giao thc v a ch ca SCCP nhn. Bn tin CR c th cha nhng thng tin a ch ca SCCP pht v d liu ca ngi s dng. Khi nhn c bn tin CR, SCCP nhn tr li bng mt bn tin xc nhn CC. Bn tin ny mang con s th t c chn bi SCCP pht, mt con s th t khc v mc giao thc c chn bi SCCP nhn. Khi SCCP pht nhn c bn tin CC, ng kt ni bo hiu c thit lp. Truyn s liu: s liu c chuyn i trong cc bn tin s liu DT1 hoc DT2. Gii phng kt ni: ng kt ni bo hiu c gii phng bng cc bn tin gii phng RLSD v gii phng hon ton RLC. b. Cc th tc phi kt ni Giao thc mc 0 v 1

Hnh 2.7. Th tc hng kt ni SCCP

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Cc th tc phi kt ni cho php ngi s dng SCCP yu cu truyn dn s liu m khng cn thit lp ng u ni. Yu cu N UNIT DATA c ngi s dng SCCP a ra yu cu thc hin chc nng truyn s liu. Yu cu ny cng c SCCP thu s dng phn pht cc bn tin s liu ti nhng ngi s dng cui cng. S liu c truyn i trong cc bn tin UDT. 2.6. PHN NG DNG KH NNG GIAO DCH TCAP CCITT nh ngha khi nim kh nng giao dch, vit tt l TC cung cp mt s lng ln cc dch v khc nhau m trong cc ng dng khng b rng buc ln nhau. TCAP l th tc ng dng ca h thng bo hiu s 7. TCAP cung cp kh nng chuyn giao thng tin khng lin quan n knh trung k v cc dch v ca lp ng dng. Cc dch v ca TCAP da trn nn dch v khng u ni. Hin nay lp phin, lp trnh by, lp vn chuyn cha cung cp mt dch v no.TCAP giao tip trc tip vi SCCP to kh nng s dng dch v khng u ni ca SCCP chuyn thng tin gia cc TCAP (Hnh 2.8).

Hnh 2.8. V tr ca TCAP trong h thng bo hiu s 7 2.6.1. Cu trc ca TCAP TCAP c chia thnh 2 phn lp: Phn lp giao dch v phn lp thnh phn (Hnh 2.9). Phn lp thnh phn c nhim v nhn cc thnh phn t cc ngi s dng TC v phn chia cc thnh phn ny n cc ngi s dng TC pha i phng. Phn lp giao dch c nhim v qun tr s trao i cc bn tin gm cc thnh phn gia cc thc th ca 2 TCAP. S trao i ny ca cc phn t thc hin mt ng dng c gi l hi thoi.
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Hnh 2.9. Cu trc ca TCAP a. Phn lp thnh phn (Component Sublayer CSL) Phn lp thnh phn cung cp cho TC user kh nng gi cc yu cu thc hin cho pha i phng v nhn tr li. Phn lp thnh phn li c chia thnh 2 chc nng nh l: Chc nng x l hi thoi (DHA) v chc nng x l thnh phn (CHA). Hai chc nng ny lin lc vi TC user bng cch gi v nhn cc bn tin, c gi l cc thnh phn v hi thoi nguyn thy.

Hnh 2.10. Cc phn lp ca TCAP b. Phn lp giao dch (Transaction Sublayer TSL)

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Phn lp giao dch cung cp kh nng gi cc bn tin gia cc TCAP. Cc bn tin ny c th cha cc thnh phn t phn lp thnh phn. Phn lp ny s dng cc dch v phi kt ni c cung cp bi NSP. TSL x l mt phn ca bn tin TCAP c gi l phn giao dch (TP). Khi pht hin ra li trong thnh phn, bn tin s b loi b v nu gp qu nhiu li th qu trnh giao dch s b loi b. 2.6.2. Cc hot ng ca TCAP Hot ng ca TCAP l s trao i thng tin gia cc thc th trong lp TCAP ny hoc l phc v s trao i thng tin ca lp trn nhm cung cp cc dch v thng minh. Qu trnh trao i thng tin c khi u khi mt qu trnh ng dng gi n TCAP mt hm nguyn thy (primitive) v n kt thc do mt qu trnh ng dng gi n TCAP mt hm nguyn thy khc. Trong mt qu trnh trao i c th c nhiu hn mt hot ng xy ra. Trong mi hot ng c th c mt hoc nhiu thnh phn. Cc thnh phn l: yu cu, bo co kt qu, bo li v hy b. Mt s qu trnh trao i c th c mt hoc nhiu bn tin phc v cho n. Bn tin y l n v chuyn giao ca lp di. Cc bn tin trong cng mt qu trnh trao i c cng tham s ID trao i (Transaction ID). Tham s ny phn bit vi cc bn tin ca qu trnh trao i khc ang ng thi hot ng. C 2 phng thc trao i thng tin: phng thc 1 chiu v phng thc 2 chiu. Vic la chn phng thc trao i thng tin no l do qu trnh ng dng la chn khi n khi u mt qu trnh trao i.

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Chng 3. Truyn ti bo hiu s 7 qua IP

Chng 3. TRUYN TI BO HIU S 7 QUA MNG IP SIGTRAN


3.1. GII THIU CHUNG Cng nghip truyn thng ang tri qua mt giai on bng n theo hng hi t ca cc dch v. D liu tr nn c ngha hn trong ton b lu lng truyn ti trn mng so vi lu lng thoi. Cc nh khai thc ang tm cch kt hp gia lu lng thoi v lu lng d liu, gia cc mng li v cc dch v. Trong s cc gii php cng ngh c la chn, cng ngh IP hin ang c quan tm vi t cch l gii php ha hn cho h tr a phng tin xy dng cc dch v tch hp mi. Hin nay ang din ra s tch hp gia mng chuyn mch knh truyn thng vi mng IP mi. Cc nh khai thc ang thay th cc mng in thoi c nh v di ng theo kin trc ton IP v c c h tr giao thc bo hiu s 7. Cng nh IP cho php cc nh khai thc mng c th m rng mng v xy dng cc dch v mi mt cch c hiu qu. Thnh phn cc dch v b sung thng dng nh SMS, gp phn vo s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc mng bo hiu.

Hnh 3.1 Truyn ti bo hiu n gin qua mi trng IP Mng IP c cc u im ni bt so vi mng trn c s TDM nh sau: D trin khai: Vi vic s dng gateway bo hiu s khng cn g b mng SS7 hin c v cc tnh nng nng cao trong tng lai l trong sut.

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Gi thnh thit b thp hn: Khng cn u t nhiu i vi cc phn t bo hiu hin c. Hiu qu tt hn: S dng SIGTRAN qua IP khng yu cu cc lung vt l E1/T1 qua mng truyn ti SDH. S dng cng ngh truyn ti IP qua SDH, IP qua cp quang, c th t thng lng cao hn nhiu. Bng thng cao hn: Thng tin SIGTRAN qua IP khng buc phi c lin kt nh trong SS7 v mng IP linh ng hn rt nhiu so vi mng TDM. Cc dch v nng cao: Trin khai mng li IP to iu kin d dng cho s pht trin hng lot cc gii php mi v cc dch v gi tr gia tng phong ph. Cc nh khai thc mng ang mun chuyn dn mng vin thng tin n kin trc mng IP. Trong khi cha th chuyn ngay ln kin trc mng ton IP th c mng IP v cc mng chuyn mch knh truyn thng u song song tn ti v cn phi c kt hp li vo c s h tng mng thng nht. Chc chn rng mch chuyn mch knh s cn tn ti trong nhiu nm na cng vi cc dch v IP. Kin trc kt hp c th l gii php tt nht cho hu ht cc nh khai thc v n m bo mc ri ro thp trong qu trnh pht trin mng hin ti trong khi vn cho php p ng c cc dch v mi. y l mc ch ca nhiu nhm nghin cu chun ha m SIGTRAN ca IETF l mt trong s . SIGTRAN a ra m hnh kin trc cho php mng pht trin tin n mng ton IP. M hnh kin trc ny gm hai thnh phn mi: SCTP v mt s cc giao thc tng thch ng ngi s dng (nh M2UA, M2PA, M3UA, SUA) cho php p ng cc phng thc yu cu hi t hai mng ny.

Hnh 3.2. Kin trc mng s dng SIGTRAN

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3.2. GII THIU V SIGTRAN Sigtran l mt nhm cng tc thuc t chc chun ha quc t cho lnh vc Internet IETF. Mc ch chnh ca nhm l a ra gii php truyn ti bo hiu dng gi trn mng PSTN qua mng IP, m bo c cc yu cu v chc nng v hiu nng ca bo hiu PSTN. Nhm phi hp c vi PSTN, cc mng IP cn truyn ti cc bn tin bo hiu nh bo hiu ng ISDN (Q.931) hay SS7 (nh ISUP, SCCP, ) gia cc nt IP nh gateway bo hiu (SG), b iu khin cng phng tin (MGC) v cng phng tin (MG) hoc c s d liu IP. Nhm cng tc Sigtran xc nh mc tiu l: Cc yu cu v chc nng v hiu nng: Nhm a ra mt s cc lun im (trong cc RFC) xc nh cc yu cu tnh nng v hiu nng h tr bo hiu qua cc mng IP. Cc bn tin bo hiu (nht l SS7) c yu cu v tr v mt gi rt cao phi c m bo nh trong mng in thoi hin ti. Cc vn v truyn ti: Nhm cng tc a ra RFC nh ngha cc giao thc truyn ti bo hiu c s dng v nh ngha mi cc giao thc truyn ti trn c s cc yu cu xc nh trn.

Hnh 3.3. M hnh chng giao thc SIGTRAN SIGTRAN l mt tp cc tiu chun mi do IETF a ra nhm cung cp mt m hnh kin trc truyn ti bo hiu s 7 qua mng IP. Kin trc giao thc SIGTRAN c nh ngha gm ba thnh phn chnh (Hnh 3.3): Chun IP. Giao thc truyn ti bo hiu chung SCTP: Giao thc h tr mt tp chung cc tnh nng truyn ti tin cy cho vic truyn ti bo hiu. c bit, SCTP l mt giao thc truyn ti mi do IETF a ra.
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Cc phn lp thch ng: H tr cc hm nguyn thy xc nh c yu cu bi mt giao thc ng dng bo hiu ring. Mt vi giao thc phn lp thch ng mi c nh ngha bi IETF nh: M2UA, M2PA, M3UA, SUA. 3.3. NG LC PHT TRIN GIAO THC TRUYN TI MI Nh chng ta bit, giao thc truyn ti d liu tin cy chnh i km giao thc IP thng l TCP. Tuy nhin, do TCP ra i kh lu v c thit k theo kiu giao thc hng gi nn TCP cng gp mt s hn ch khi s dng cho nhng ng dng mi. Vi s lng ng dng mi ang tng ln ngy cng nhiu hin nay cho thy TCP c qu nhiu hn ch. Cc vn gii hn ca TCP th hin gm: C ch tin cy: TCP cung cp c hai kiu chuyn giao d liu l c ch hi p v c ch tun t. Mt vi ng dng yu cu chuyn giao thng tin tin cy m khng cn duy tr th t gi tin, trong khi mt s khc li yu cu p ng c v th t ca gi d liu. i vi TCP, c hai trng hp ny u gp phi hin tng nghn u dng gy nn cc tr khng cn thit. Vn thi gian thc: C ch hi p trong TCP yu cu c mt tr xc nhn gi tin, iu ny lm cho TCP khng p ng c cc ng dng thi gian thc. Cc vn bo mt: TCP rt d b tn cng do c ch bo mt trong TCP khng cao. Nhng gii hn cp trn y ca TCP l rt ng phi quan tm khi mun truyn bo hiu s 7 qua mng IP v do , y l mt ng lc trc tip cho s ra i ca giao thc SCTP mt giao thc truyn ti mi ca SIGTRAN. SCTP khng ch gii quyt c vn truyn ti bo hiu trong SIGTRAN m cn c kh nng p ng cho nhiu ng dng khc. 3.4. GIAO THC IU KHIN LUNG TRUYN TI SCTP SCTP l mt giao thc truyn ti qua IP mi, tn ti ng mc vi TCP v UDP. SCTP hin cung cp cc chc nng tng truyn ti cho nhiu ng dng trn c s Internet. SCTP c IETF a ra v c t trong RFC 2960. 3.4.1. Tng quan v kin trc ca SCTP V kin trc, SCTP nm gia tng tng thch ngi dng SCTP v tng mng chuyn gi phi kt ni nh IP, Dch v c bn ca SCTP l chuyn giao tin cy cc bn tin ca ngi dng gia cc ngi dng SCTP ng mc. SCTP l giao thc

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hng kt ni v vy, SCTP thit lp kt ni gia hai im u cui (gi l lin h trong phin SCTP) trc khi truyn d liu ngi dng ca n. 3.4.2. Tng quan v chc nng ca SCTP Dch v truyn ti SCTP c th c phn thnh mt s chc nng. Cc chc nng ny c m t nh sau (Hnh 3.5): Thit lp v hy b lin kt: Mt lin h c to ra bi mt yu cu t ngi dng SCTP. C ch cookie c dng trong qu trnh khi to cung cp s h tr bo v chng li s tn cng. Phn phi tun t theo cc lung: Ngi dng SCTP c th xc nh s lng cc lung c h tr trong lin h ti thi im thit lp lin h . Phn mnh d liu ngi dng: SCTP h tr phn mnh v ti hp cc bn tin d liu ngi dng m bo cho cc gi tin SCTP truyn xung cc tng thp hn ph hp vi MTU. Pht hin v trnh tc nghn: SCTP gn cho mi bn tin d liu ngi dng (c phn mnh hoc khng) mt s tun t truyn dn (TSN). u cui thu s xc nhn ton b cc TSN v ngt on (nu c) thu c. Chunk bundling: Gi tin SCTP c phn phi n tng thp hn bao gm hai thnh phn l tiu chung v theo sau l mt hoc nhiu chunk. Hnh v sau y m t kin trc chung ca mt gi SCTP:

Hnh 3.4. Cu trc gi SCTP Hp thc ha gi tin: Trng Tag l bt buc v 32 bit ca trng CheckSum nm trong tiu ca SCTP. Qun l tuyn: Chc nng qun l tuyn SCTP chn a ch truyn ti ch cho mi gi tin SCTP u ra trn c s ch dn ca ngi dng SCTP v trng thi hin thi ca cc a ch ch hin ti.

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Hnh 3.5. Cc chc nng SCTP 3.4.3. Khun dng tiu chung ca SCTP Hnh v sau y m t khun dng chung ca tiu gi tin SCTP:

Hnh 3.6. Khun dng tiu SCTP Trng s th t cng ngun/ch: 16 bt. Ch th s th t cng ca SCTP gi/nhn. Trng Tag: 32 bt. Pha thu s dng trng ny xc nhn vi pha gi v gi tin SCTP ny. Trng CheckSum: 32 bit. Cha tng kim tra ca gi tin SCTP. SCTP s dng thut ton Adler-32 tnh ton tng kim tra.

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3.5. M2PA M2PA nh ngha giao thc h tr truyn ti cc bn tin MTP3 ca SS7 qua IP s dng cc dch v ca SCTP. M2PA cho php qun l cc bn tin MTP3 v kh nng qun l mng gia hai nt SS7 bt k truyn thng vi nhau thng qua mng IP. M2PA h tr: Hot ng ca cc thc th giao thc MTP3 ng mc qua kt ni mng IP. Ranh gii giao tip MTP2/MTP3, qun l cc lin h truyn ti SCTP v lu lng lin kt MTP2. Thng bo khng ng b qun l s thay i trng thi. c t MTP yu cu mi nt c tng MTP3 phi c mt m im SS7. V vy, mi im bo hiu IP cng cn phi c m im SS7 ca n.

Hnh 3.7. Vai tr v v tr ca M2PA

Hnh 3.8. Vai tr v v tr M2PA trong mng ton IP


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Hnh 3.7 m t mt im bo hiu SS7 kt ni thng qua mt SG, c trang b h tr cho c mng SS7 v IP, kt ni n mt im bo hiu IP. Hnh 3.8 l mt v d khc, trong MTP3 c thch ng vi lp SCTP nh s dng M2PA trong kin trc ton IP. y, cc im bo hiu IP MTP3 s dng lp M2PA bn di n thay cho MTP2. Giao tip gia hai lp MTP3 hoc M2PA c nh ngha bi cng cc hm nguyn thu nh trong giao tip MTP3/MTP2. M2PA thc hin cc chc nng tng t nh MTP2. 3.6. M2UA M2UA nh ngha mt giao thc truyn ti cc bn tin bo hiu ca ng dng MTP2 SS7 (v d MTP3) qua IP s dng SCTP. Ch c ng dng ca MTP2 l MTP3. M2UA cung cp s h tr cho: Ranh gii giao tip gia MTP2/MTP3. Truyn thng gia cc modul qun l tng. H tr cho qun l cc association tch cc.

Hnh 3.9. Vai tr v v tr ca M2UA SG mong mun nhn c bo hiu SS7 qua mt thit b kt cui mng SS7 chun, s dng MTP SS7 cung cp truyn ti cc bn tin bo hiu SS7 n v t mt im du cui bo hiu SS7. Sau , SG cung cp s phi hp hot ng gia cc chc nng truyn ti vi IP SIGTRAN nhm truyn ti cc bn tin bo hiu MTP3 n im bo hiu IP ca MTP3 s dng MTP2 ca SG vi t cch l tng thp hn ca

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n s dng cc hm nguyn thy tng ng c nh ngha gia cc tng. Truyn thng MTP3/MTP2 c nh ngha l cc bn tin M2UA v gi qua kt ni IP. 3.7. SO SNH M2PA V M2UA Hnh 3.7 v 3.9 minh ha mt kin trc m t s khc nhau gia hai giao thc. Bng 2.1. So snh M2PA v M2UA
c im so snh Bn tin d liu MTP3 Giao tip vi MTP3 M2PA M2UA Truyn ti bn tin MTP3 a ra giao din pha trn vi MTP3

im bo hiu IP truyn ti cc im bo hiu IP x l cc hm nguyn thy MTP3 n Cc hm nguyn thy hm nguyn thy MTP3 MTP2 n SG ca MTP2 x n MTP2 l (thng qua chc nng phi hp hot ng) Kt ni im bo hiu IP v SG Kt ni im bo hiu IP khng phi l kt ni bo hiu s vi SG l lin kt bo hiu 7. N l m rng ca MTP2 n SS7 mt node t xa. SG l mt node SS7 v c SG khng phi l mt node SS7 m im v khng c m im SG c cc tng SS7 cao hn SG khng c tng SS7 cao hn v nh SCCP, n khng c MTP3 Cc th tc qun l da vo S dng cc th tc qun l ca MTP3 M2UA

Kiu lin kt

M im

Cc tng cao hn

Qun l

3.8. M3UA M3UA nh ngha giao thc h tr truyn ti bo hiu ngi dng MTP3 (v d nh cc bn tin ISUP/SCCP,) qua IP s dng cc dch v ca SCTP. Giao thc ny thng c dng gia mt SG v mt MGC hoc c s d liu thng tr IP. M3UA thch hp vi vic chuyn giao cc bn tin ca bt k phn ngi dng MTP3 no. Danh sch cc giao thc ny l khng gii hn v bao gm ISUP, SCCP v TUP. Ch rng cc bn tin ca giao thc TCAP v RANAP c M3UA truyn ti trong sut di dng ti SCCP bi v l cc giao thc ngi dng ca SCCP.

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Tng M3UA cung cp mt tp cc hm nguyn thy tng ng ti tng trn ca n n cc ngi dng MTP3 ging nh MTP3 cung cp cho cc ngi dng ca n ti cc u cui bo hiu s 7. Theo cch ny, tng ISUP v/hoc SCCP khng bit c rng cc dch v MTP3 yu cu c cung cp t xa bi tng MTP3 SG hay l bi chnh tng MTP3 di n. Tng MTP3 ti mt SG cng c th khng bit c rng ngi dng ca n thc ra l ngi dng trn n hay l thnh phn ngi dng t xa qua M3UA. Thc t th M3UA m rng truy nhp n cc dch v MTP3 thnh ng dng trn c s IP t xa.

Hnh 3.10. Vai tr v v tr ca M3UA ASP MGC, IP SCP hay IP HLR V d, hnh 3.10 m t mt SG cha mt thc th ca tng giao thc SS7 SCCP thc hin chc nng bin dch tiu ton cc SCCP (GTT) i vi cc bn tin nh a ch n SG SCCP. Nu kt qu ca GTT cho mt m im SS7 ch (DPC) hoc DPC/a ch s phn h (SSN) ca mt SCCP ng mc t trong min IP, kt qu l yu cu gi n M3UA nh tuyn ra ngoi n IP ch s dng cc dch v ca tng SCTP/IP. Hnh 3.11 l v d trong mng ton IP, cc bn tin SCCP c trao i trc tip gia hai im bo hiu IP bng cc thc th giao thc ngi dng SCCP nh RANAP hoc TCAP. y khng c kt ni vi mng SS7 do khng quan tm n thng tin qun l trng thi mng MTP3 cho SCCP v cc giao thc ngi dng SCCP.

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Hnh 3.11. Vai tr v v tr ca M3UA trong kin trc ton IP 3.9. SUA

Hnh 3.12. Vai tr v v tr ca SUA SUA nh ngha giao thc truyn ti bo hiu ngi dng SCCP SS7 (v d nh RANAP, TCAP,) qua mng IP s dng cc dch v ca SCTP. Giao thc ny c thit k dng modul ha v i xng nn cho php lm vic c trong cc kin trc khc nhau nh kin trc mt SG n im bo hiu IP cng nh kin trc im u cui bo hiu IP ng mc. SUA h tr cc chc nng sau: Chuyn giao cc bn tin phn ngi dng SCCP (TCAP, RANAP,). Dch v phi kt ni SCCP. Dch v hng kt ni SCCP.

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Qun l cc lin h truyn ti SCTP gia cc SG v mt hay nhiu nt bo hiu IP. Cc nt bo hiu IP phn tn. Thng bo khng ng b qun l s thay i trng thi. ASP-MGC, IP SCP hoc IP HLR Trong kin trc ny, cc tng SUA v SCCP giao tip trong SG. Nhu cu ca chng l phi hp gia cc tng SCCP v SUA cung cp ranh gii chuyn giao cc bn tin ngi dng v bn tin qun l. i vi bn tin n ASP, c hai trng hp: SG l im u cui: Trong trng hp ny, cc bn tin SCCP phi kt ni c nh tuyn theo m im v SSN. Phn h xc nh bi SSN v pha ngoi mng SS7 c xem nh thuc SG. iu ny ngha l nhn t im SS7, ngi dng SCCP c t ti SG. SG l im chuyn tip: Mt GTT phi c thc hin ti SG trc khi c th xc nh c ch ca bn tin. V tr thc t ca ngi dng SCCP khng lin quan n mng SS7. Trong kin trc ton IP c th dng cho mt giao thc s dng cc dch v truyn ti ca SCCP trong mt mng ton IP. iu ny cho php cc mng pht trin linh ng hn, c bit l khi khng cn tng tc gia cc bo hiu hin thi. Hnh 3.13 m t trng hp ny.

Hnh 3.13. Vai tr v v tr ca SUA trong kin trc ton IP

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3.10. SO SNH M3UA V SUA Nhn chung, chng giao thc s dng SUA l khng phc tp v hiu qu hn so vi chng giao thc s dng SCCP v M3UA. Bi vy, SUA c th nng cao hiu qu ca mng li v c th cung cp cc phng tin trin khai d dng hn. Bng 2.2. So snh gia M3UA v SUA
M3UA SUA

SCCP

Yu cu im bo hiu h tr cho cc ng dng khc nhau ca Vn l khng c h tr khi SCCP khi phi phi hp vi cc dng SUA. h thng quc gia khc nhau. t nht c mt giao thc tng trn. Gim phc tp ca nt mng (trong trin khai cng nh trong qun l), do , gim chi ph.

phc tp trong trin khai

M3UA cn cc dch v SCCP.

V mt nh tuyn

Trong M3UA, cc bn tin c SUA cho php mng IP nh iu khin t m im n m tuyn bn tin theo thng tin im. trng tiu ton cc. s dng M3UA, mi nt IP S dng SUA, mi nt IP khng cn c gn c m im v a cn c m im. ch IP. C h tr. Khng th h tr c.

V mt a ch

Cc dch v ISUP

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

Chng 4. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN NGANG HNG


4.1. GIAO THC KHI TO PHIN SIP 4.1.1. Cc c im v chc nng ca SIP 4.1.1.1. Cc c im Theo nh ngha ca IETF, Giao thc khi to phin SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) l giao thc bo hiu lp ng dng m t vic khi to, thay i v gii phng cc phin kt ni tng tc a phng tin gia nhng ngi s dng. SIP c th s dng cho rt nhiu dch v khc nhau trong mng IP nh dch v thng ip thoi, hi ngh thoi, E-mail, dy hc t xa, qung b (MPEG, MP3...), truy nhp HTML, XML, hi ngh video... SIP da trn tng v cu trc ca HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) - giao thc trao i thng tin ca World Wide Web. N c nh ngha nh mt giao thc Client-Server, trong cc yu cu c ch gi (Client) a ra v bn b gi (Server) tr li. SIP s dng mt s kiu bn tin v cc trng mo u ca HTTP, xc nh ni dung lung thng tin theo mo u thc th (m t ni dung - kiu loi) v cho php xc nhn cc phng php s dng ging nhau c s dng trn Web. Kinh nghim trong s dng cc giao thc Internet mail (SMTP) cung cp rt nhiu cho vic pht trin SIP, trong tp trung vo kh nng thch ng ca bo hiu trong tng lai. SIP nh ngha cc bn tin INVITE v ACK ging nh bn tin Setup v Connect trong H.225, trong c hai u nh ngha qu trnh m mt knh ng tin cy m thng qua cuc gi c th i qua. Tuy nhin khc vi H.225, tin cy ca knh ny khng ph thuc vo TCP. Vic tch hp tin cy vo lp ng dng ny cho php kt hp mt cch cht ch cc gi tr iu chnh ng dng, c th ti u ho VoIP. Cui cng, SIP da vo giao thc m t phin SDP, mt tiu chun khc ca IETF, thc hin s sp xp tng t theo c cu chuyn i dung lng ca H.245. SDP c dng nhn dng m tng i trong nhng cuc gi s dng mt m t nguyn bn n. SDP cng c s dng chuyn cc phn t thng tin ca giao thc bo hiu thi gian thc RTSP sp xp cc tham s hi ngh a im v nh ngha khun dng chung cho nhiu loi thng tin khi c chuyn trong SIP.

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

Giao thc SIP c thit k vi nhng tiu ch h tr ti a cho cc giao thc khc ra i trc . Giao thc SIP n c tch hp vi cc giao thc c ca t chc IETF, n c kh nng m rng, h tr u cui v vi SIP th vic cung cp dch v mi tr nn d dng v nhanh chng khi trin khai. SIP c 5 tnh nng sau: Tch hp vi cc giao thc c ca IETF. n gin v c kh nng m rng. H tr ti a s di ng ca u cui. D dng to tnh nng mi cho dch v v dch v mi.

Kh nng lin kt hot ng vi mng in thoi hin ti.


4.1.1.2. Cc chc nng SIP l mt giao thc iu khin lp ng dng m n c th thit lp, sa i v kt thc cc phin truyn thng a phng tin (cc hi ngh) hay cc cuc gi in thoi qua Internet. SIP c th mi cc thnh vin tham gia vo cc phin truyn thng n hng hoc a hng; bn khi to phin khng nht thit phi l thnh vin ca phin . Phng tin v cc thnh vin c th c b sung vo mt phin ang tn ti. SIP h tr vic nh x tn v cc dch v chuyn tip mt cch trong sut, v th n cho php thc hin cc dch v thu bao in thoi ca mng thng minh v mng ISDN. Nhng tin ch ny cng cho php thc hin cc dch v ca cc thu bao di ng. SIP h tr 5 kha cnh ca vic thit lp v kt thc cc truyn thng a phng tin sau: nh v ngi dng (User location): xc nh h thng u cui c s dng trong truyn thng. Cc kh nng ngi dng (User capabilities): xc nh phng tin v cc thng s phng tin c s dng. Tnh kh dng ngi dng (User Availability): xc nh s sn sng ca bn c gi tin hnh truyn thng. Thit lp cuc gi (Call setup): chung, thit lp cc thng s ca cuc gi ti c hai pha b gi v ch gi.

X l cuc gi (Call handling): bao gm chuyn ti v kt thc cuc gi.

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

4.1.2. Cc khi nim v cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP 4.1.2.1. Cc khi nim Phn ny a ra mt s thut ng lin quan n cc quy tc c s dng bi cc thnh vin trong cc truyn thng SIP: Call: Mt cuc gi bao gm tt c cc thnh vin s dng mt ti nguyn chung trong mt hi ngh. Mt cuc gi SIP c nhn dng bi mt nhn dng cuc gi (call ID) duy nht. Do , mt v d l nu mt ngi s dng c mi vo phin truyn thng a hng bi ng thi mt vi ngi, th mi mt li mi ny s l mt cuc gi duy nht. Call leg: Mt call leg c nhn dng bng s kt hp ca trng mo u Call ID v a ch xc nh, th ca cc trng mo u To v From. Client: l mt chng trnh ng dng gi cc yu cu SIP. Cc Client c th hoc khng th tng tc mt cch trc tip vi mt ngi s dng. Cc User agent (UA) v cc Proxy cha cc client (v cc Server). Conference (hi ngh): l mt phin truyn thng a phng tin c nhn bit bi mt s m t phin chung. Mt hi ngh c th khng c hoc c nhiu thnh vin v bao gm nhng trng hp ca mt hi ngh a phng, hi ngh nhiu mt li (full mesh) v mt cuc gi in thoi hai bn, cng nh cc hn hp ca cc trng hp ny. Bao nhiu cuc gi cng c th c s dng to ra mt hi ngh. Downstream (lung xung): gm cc yu cu c gi trc tip t pha ch gi n pha b gi (ngha l t UA Client n UA Server). Final response (phc p cui cng): l mt phc p kt thc mt phin giao dch SIP, tri li mt phc p tm thi khng kt thc mt phin giao dch SIP. Tt c cc phc p: 2xx, 3xx, 4xx, 5xx v 6xx u l cc phc p cui cng. Initiator, calling party, caller (Bn khi to, bn ang gi, ngi gi): L bn khi to mt li mi phin. Ch rng bn ang gi khng phi l bn to ra hi ngh. Invitation (li mi): L mt yu cu c gi n mt ngi s dng (hay mt dch v) yu cu tham gia vo mt phin. Mt li mi SIP thnh cng gm 2 giao dch: mt yu cu INVITE c theo sau bi mt yu cu ACK. Invitee, invited user, called party, callee (bn c mi, ngi b gi): L ngi hay dch v m bn ang gi ang mi tham gia vo mt hi ngh.

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Yu cu hay phc p ng hnh: Hai yu cu hoc hai phc p c nh ngha l ng hnh theo cc ca ti liu ny nu chng c cng cc gi tr trong cc trng mo u ca Call ID, To, From v Cseq. Thm vo , cc yu cu ng hnh phi c cng Request URI v cng thng s nhnh trong trng mo u Via ca chng. Location server (my ch nh v): chi tit phn dch v nh v. Location service (dch v nh v): Mt dch v nh v c s dng bi mt SIP redirect hay proxy server c c thng tin v cc v tr c th c ca ngi b gi. Cc v d v cc ti nguyn ca thng tin nh v gm cc ng k SIP, cc c s d liu hay cc giao thc ng k di ng. Cc dch v nh v c a ra bi cc my ch nh v. Cc my ch nh v c th l mt phn ca mt my ch SIP, nhng cch thc m mt my ch SIP yu cu cc dch v nh v nm ngoi phm vi ca ti liu ny. Outbound proxy: L mt proxy nm gn ni to ra cc yu cu. N nhn tt c cc yu cu i ra t mt UAC c th, cc Request URL ca cc yu cu ny nhn dng mt host khng phi l outbound proxy. Sau bt k mt x l cc b no, outbound proxy s gi nhng yu cu ny n cc a ch c ch ra trong Request URL. (Tt c cc proxy server khc u c xem xt mt cch n gin nh l cc proxy, ch khng phi l cc inbound proxy). Parallel search (tm kim song song): Trong mt tm kim song song, mt proxy a ra mt vi yu cu n cc v tr c th c ca ngi s dng trong khi nhn mt yu cu u vo. Hn l a ra mt yu cu v sau i cho n khi nhn c phc p cui cng trc khi a ra mt yu cu k tip nh trong mt tm kim tun t, mt tm kim song song a ra cc yu cu m khng cn i kt qu ca cc yu cu trc . Provisional response (phc p tm thi): L mt phc p c s dng bi my ch ch th tin trnh nhng n khng kt thc mt giao dch SIP. Phc p 1xx l phc p tm thi, cc phc p khc l cc phc p cui cng. Proxy, proxy server: L mt chng trnh trung gian hot ng c nh l mt my ch v mt my khch cho mc ch to ra cc yu cu vi t cch ca cc my khch khc. Cc yu cu c cung cp mt cch ni b hoc a chng qua cc my ch khc sau nhng bin dch cn thit. Mt proxy bin dch v nu cn thit n ghi li mt bn tin yu cu trc khi chuyn tip bn tin . V d, cc proxy

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server c s dng nh tuyn cc yu cu, thc thi cc chnh sch, iu khin cc tng la. Redirect server: Mt redirect server l mt my ch m n nhn mt yu cu SIP, nh x a ch hin c thnh mt s a ch mi v gi tr li cc a ch ny cho my khch. Khng ging nh mt proxy server, n khng khai bo yu cu SIP ca bn thn n. Khng ging nh mt UA Server, n khng chp nhn cc cuc gi. Registrar (trm ng k): Mt trm ng k l mt my ch m n nhn cc yu cu REGISTER. Mt trm ng k c nh v chung vi mt proxy hoc redirect server v c th to ra sn sng thng tin ca n thng qua my ch nh v (location server). Ringback (hi m chung): Hi m chung l chung bo hiu c to ra bi ng dng ca my khch pha gi ch ra rng bn b gi ang c thng bo ( chung). Server (my ch): Mt my ch l mt chng trnh ng dng m n nhn cc yu cu x l v gi tr li cc p ng cho nhng yu cu . Cc my ch l cc proxy, redirect, UAS hoc registrar. Session (phin): T nh ngha SDP: Mt phin truyn thng a phng tin l mt tp cc pha gi v nhn a phng tin v cc lung d liu t pha gi n pha nhn. Mt hi ngh a phng tin l mt v d ca mt phin truyn thng a phng tin. Nh c nh ngha, mt bn b gi c th c mi tham gia cng 1 phin mt vi ln bi cc cuc gi khc nhau. Nu SDP c s dng, mt phin c nh ngha bng s ghp ni ca cc phn t: tn ngi dng, ID ca phin, kiu mng, kiu a ch v a ch trong cc trng gc. (SIP) transaction (giao dch SIP): Mt giao dch SIP xut hin gia mt my khch v mt my ch v bao gm tt c cc bn tin t yu cu u tin c gi t my khch n my ch cho n phc p cui cng c gi t my ch v my khch. Mt giao dch c nhn bit bi chui s Cseq trong mt call leg n l. Yu cu ACK c cng chui s Cseq vi yu cu INVITE tng ng, nhng bao gm mt giao dch ca ring n. Stateless Proxy (proxy phi trng thi): L mt thc th logic m n khng duy tr trng thi ca mt phin giao dch SIP. Mt proxy phi trng thi chuyn tip tt c cc yu cu n nhn ng xung v tt c cc phc p n nhn ng ln.
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Stateful Proxy (proxy trng thi): L mt thc th logic duy tr thng tin trng thi ca t nht mt giao dch SIP. Upstream (ng ln): Cc phc p c gi trc tip t my ch UA n my khch UA. URL encoded (m URL): L mt chui k t c m ho theo RFC 1738. User agent client (UAC): Mt UAC l mt ng dng khch khi u mt yu cu SIP User agent server (UAS): Mt UAS l mt ng dng ch m n giao tip vi ngi s dng khi mt yu cu SIP c nhn v n gi tr li mt phc p cho ngi s dng . Phc p chp nhn, t chi hoc chuyn tip yu cu . User agent (UA): Mt ng dng hot ng c nh UAC v UAS. Cc Proxy, Redirect, Location v Registrar Server c nh ngha trn l cc thc th logic; cc s thc thi c th kt hp chng thnh mt chng trnh ng dng n nht. Cc thuc tnh ca cc kiu my ch SIP khc nhau c cho trong bng 4.1. Bng 4.1. Cc thuc tnh ca cc kiu my ch SIP khc nhau

4.1.2.2. Cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP Xt trn quan im Client / Server, cc thnh phn chnh ca mt h thng SIP bao gm (Hnh 4.1): u cui SIP (UAC/UAS). Proxy server. Location server. Redirect server. Registrar server.
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Hnh 4.1. Cu trc ca h thng SIP User Agent l thit b u cui trong mng SIP, n c th l mt my in thoi SIP hay mt my tnh chy phn mm u cui SIP. UA c th khi to, thay i hay gii phng cuc gi. Trong phn bit hai loi UA: UAC (User Agent Client) v UAS (User Agent Server). UAC l mt thc th thc hin vic khi to mt cuc gi cn UAS l mt thc th thc hin vic nhn cuc gi. Nhng c UAC v UAS u c th gii phng cuc gi. Proxy Server l phn mm trung gian hot ng c nh Server v c nh Client thc hin cc yu cu thay th cho cc u cui khc. Tt c cc yu cu c x l ti ch bi Proxy Server (nu c th) hoc n chuyn n cho cc my ch khc. Trong trng hp Proxy Server khng trc tip p ng cc yu cu ny th Proxy Server s thc hin khu chuyn i hoc dch sang khun dng thch hp trc khi chuyn i. Location Server l phn mm nh v thu bao, cung cp thng tin v nhng v tr c th ca pha b gi cho cc phn mm Proxy Server v Redirect Server. Redirect Server l phn mm nhn yu cu SIP v chuyn i a ch SIP sang mt s a ch khc v gi li nhng a ch ny cho u cui. Khng ging nh Proxy Server, Redirect Server khng bao gi hot ng nh mt u cui, tc l khng gi i bt c mt yu cu no. Redirect Server cng khng thc hin vic chp nhn hay hu cuc gi. Registrar Server l phn mm nhn cc yu cu ng k Register. Trong nhiu trng hp Registrar Server m nhim lun mt s chc nng an ninh nh xc nhn ngi s dng. Thng thng Registrar Server c ci t cng vi Proxy hoc
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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

Redirect Server hoc cung cp dch v nh v thu bao. Mi ln u cui c bt ln (th d my in thoi hoc phn mm SIP) th u cui li ng k vi Server. Nu u cui cn thng bo vi Server v a im ca mnh th bn tin Register c gi i. Ni chung cc u cui u thc hin vic ng k li mt cch nh k. 4.1.3. Khi qut v hot ng ca SIP Trong hi thoi SIP, mi bn tham gia (bn ch gi v bn b gi) c gn mt a ch SIP hay cn gi l SIP URL. Ngi s dng phi ng k v tr ca h vi SIP Server. to mt cuc gi SIP, pha ch gi nh v ti my phc v thch ng v sau gi mt yu cu SIP. Hot ng SIP thng xuyn nht l li mi cc thnh vin tham gia hi thoi. Thnh phn Register ng vai tr tip nhn cc yu cu ng k t UA v lu tr cc thng tin ny ti mt dch v phi SIP (Non-SIP). 4.1.3.1. a ch SIP Cc i tng c nh a ch bi SIP l cc ngi s dng ti cc trm, nhng ngi s dng ny dc nh danh bng mt SIP URL. SIP URL c dng user@host. Phn user l mt tn ca ngi s dng hay tn ca mt my in thoi. Phn host c th l mt tn min hoc mt a ch mng. SIP URL c dng trong cc bn tin SIP thng bo v ni gi (From), ch hin thi (Request URI) v ni nhn cui cng (To) ca mt yu cu SIP v ch r a ch gin tip. Mt SIP URL c th gn vo mt trang Web hoc nhng siu lin kt (Hyperlink) khc thng bo rng ngi dng hoc dch v c th gi thng qua SIP. Mt a ch SIP URL c th ch r mt c nhn (c th c nh v ti mt trong cc h thng u cui), ngi kh dng u tin t mt nhm cc c nhn hoc ton b mt nhm. V d, khun dng a ch: sip: sales@example.com ni chung l khng quyt nh mc ch ca ngi gi. 4.1.3.2. Qu trnh nh v ti my ch SIP Khi mt Client mun gi i mt yu cu, Client s gi bn tin yu cu ti SIP Proxy Server (nh trong HTTP), hoc ti a ch IP v cng tng ng trong a ch ca yu cu SIP (Request-URI). Trng hp u, yu cu c gi ti SIP Proxy Server khng ph thuc vo a ch ca yu cu l nh th no. Vi trng hp sau, Client phi xc nh giao thc, cng v a ch IP ca Server m yu cu c gi n. Mt Client thc hin cc bc tip theo c c nhng thng tin ny. Ti mi bc, tr cc trng thi khc, Client c gng lin lc vi Server theo s cng c ch
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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

ra trong a ch yu cu SIP (Request-URI). Nu khng c s cng no ch ra trong Request-URI, Client s s dng a ch cng mc nh l 5060. Nu Request-URI ch r l s dng giao thc TCP hay UDP, Client s lm vic vi Server theo giao thc . Nu khng c giao thc no c ch ra th Client c gng dng giao thc UDP (nu khng h tr TCP) hoc s dng giao thc TCP cho hot ng ca mnh (ch c h tr TCP m khng c h tr UDP). Client c gng tm mt hay nhiu a ch cho SIP Server bng vic truy vn DNS (Domain Name System) theo cc th tc sau: 1) Nu a ch Host trong a ch Request-URI l mt a ch IP th Client lm vic vi Server bng a ch c a ra. Nu khng phi l mt a ch IP, Client thc hin bc tip theo. 2) Client a ra cu hi ti DNS Server v bn ghi a ch cho a ch Host trong a ch Request-URI. DSN s tr v mt bn ghi danh sch cc a ch. Lc vic la chn mt trong cc a ch ny l ty . Cn nu DNS Server khng a ra bn ghi a ch, Client s kt thc hot ng, c ngha n khng thc hin c vic nh v my ch. Nh bn ghi a ch, s la chn tip theo cho giao thc mng ca Client c nhiu kh nng thnh cng hn. Mt qu trnh thc hin thnh cng l qu trnh c mt bn ghi cha trong phn tr li v Server lm vic mt trong nhng a ch cha trong tr li . 4.1.3.3. Giao dch SIP Khi c a ch IP ca SIP Server th yu cu s c gi i theo tng vn chuyn giao thc TDP hay UDP. Client gi mt hoc nhiu yu cu SIP n my ch v nhn li mt hoc nhiu cc phc p t my ch. Mt yu cu cng vi cc phc p c to ra bi yu cu to thnh mt giao dch SIP. Tt c cc phc p cho mt yu cu mang cng cc gi tr trong cc trng: Call ID, Cseq, To, v From. Yu cu ACK xc nh s nhn mt phc p INVITE khng l mt phn ca giao dch v n c th di chuyn gia mt tp cc host khc nhau. Mi cuc gi trong SIP c nh danh bi mt trng nh danh cuc gi (Call-ID). Mt yu cu phi cn c thng tin gi i t u (From) v ti u (To). Trng From v To u c cu trc theo khun dng SIP-URL. Trng CSeq lu tr thng tin v phng thc s dng trong phin, trng CSeq c dng:
CSeq = CSeq: DIGIT Method

Trong DIGIT l s nguyn khng du 32 bit.

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

Nu mt giao thc iu khin lung tin cy c s dng, yu cu v cc phc p trong mt giao dch n l c mang trn cng kt ni. Mt vi yu cu SIP t cng my khch n cng my ch c th s dng cng kt ni hoc c th s dng mt kt ni mi cho mi yu cu. Nu mt client gi yu cu thng qua mt giao thc datagram n hng nh UDP th cc UA thu s nh hng phc p theo thng tin cha trong cc trng mo u Via. Mi proxy server trong tuyn chuyn tip ca yu cu chuyn tip phc p s dng cc trng mo u Via ny. 4.1.3.4. Li mi SIP Mt li mi SIP thnh cng gm hai yu cu INVITE v ACK. Yu cu INVITE thc hin li mi mt thnh vin tham gia hi thoi. Khi pha b gi ng tham gia, pha ch gi xc nhn nhn mt bn tin p ng bng cch gi i mt yu cu ACK. Nu pha ch gi khng mun mi thnh vin tham gia cuc gi na n s gi yu cu BYE thay cho ACK. Thng ip INVITE cha thnh phn m t phin (SDP) v phng thc tin hnh trao i ng vi phin . Vi cc phin a hng, phn m t phin lit k kiu v khun dng ca cc phng tin (Media) phn phi cho phin hi thoi. Vi mt phin n hng, phn m t phin lit k kiu v khun dng ca cc phng tin m pha ch gi mun s dng v ni nhng d liu mun gi i. Trng hp my phc v y quyn (Proxy Server): Proxy Server (PS) tip nhn li mi INVITE. PS tra cu thng tin dch v nh v ngoi SIP. PS nhn thng tin to ra a ch chnh xc. PS to li INVITE trong trng Request URI v chuyn tip. UAS thng bo b gi. PS nhn p ng chp nhn 200 OK t UAS. PS tr v kt qu thnh cng cho ch gi. Ch gi gi thng bo xc nhn ACK. Yu cu xc nhn c chuyn tip qua PS. Ch : Mt ACK c th c gi trc tip n User c gi qua Proxy. Tt c cc yu cu v p ng phi c cng Call-ID.
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Trng hp my phc v gin tip (Redirect Server): PS tip nhn li mi INVITE. Lin lc vi dch v nh v. Tr li a ch ch gi. Ch gi gi thng bo xc nhn ACK n PS. Ch gi to mt yu cu mi cng mt Call-ID nhng c CSeq cao hn ti a ch tr li bi Server u tin. B gi gi p ng chp nhn 200 OK.

Ch gi gi thng bo xc nhn ACK.


4.1.3.5. nh v ngi dng Mt i tng b gi c th di chuyn gia mt s cc h thng u cui khc nhau theo thi gian. Mt my ch nh v cng c th s dng mt hay nhiu giao thc khc nhau xc nh h thng u cui m ti mt ngi s dng c th lin lc. Mt my ch nh v c th a ra mt vi v tr v ngi s dng c ng nhp vo ti mt vi host ng thi hoc bi v my ch nh v li. My ch SIP kt hp cc kt qu a ra mt danh sch cc v tr. i vi tng kiu SIP Server th hot ng sau khi nhn c danh sch cc v tr khc nhau l khc nhau. Mt SIP Redirect Server s tr li danh sch a ch cho Client vi cc mo u Contact. Mt SIP proxy server c th th ln lt hoc song song cc a ch cho n khi cuc gi thnh cng (phc p 2xx) hoc bn b gi t chi cuc gi (phc p 6xx). Nu mt proxy server chuyn tip mt yu cu SIP, n phi b sung a ch ca n vo v tr bt u ca danh sch cc trm chuyn tip c ghi trong cc mo u Via. Du vt Via m bo rng cc tr li c th i theo cng tuyn theo hng ngc li, vic m bo hot ng chnh xc nh tun theo cc tng la v trnh lp li yu cu. hng phc p, mi host phi xo b Via ca n, do thng tin nh tuyn ni b c che khut i vi pha b gi v cc mng bn ngoi. 4.1.3.6. Thay i mt phin hin ti Trong mt vi trng hp, cn phi thay i cc thng s ca phin hi thoi hin ti. Vic c thc hin bi vic pht li cc yu cu INVITE. Cc yu cu INVITE c cng trng Call-ID nhng c trng mo u v trng bn tin khc

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

vi yu cu ban u mang thng tin mi. Cc bn tin INVITE phi c ch s CSeq cao hn cc yu cu trc. V d: c hai thnh vin ang hi thoi v mun c thm mt ngi th ba tham gia. Mt trong hai thnh vin s mi thnh vin th ba tham gia vi mt a ch a hng (Multicast) mi v ng thi gi mt bn tin INVITE n thnh vin th hai vi trng miu t phin a hng nhng c trng Call-ID c. 4.1.4. Cc loi bn tin SIP SIP l giao thc dng Text s dng b k t ISO 10646 trong m ho UTF-8 (RFC 2279). iu ny to cho SIP tnh linh hot, m rng v d thc thi cc ngn ng lp trnh cp cao nh Java, Tol, Perl. C php ca SIP gn ging vi giao thc HTTP, n cho php dng li m v n gin ha s lin kt ca cc my phc v SIP vi cc my phc v Web. Tuy nhin, SIP khng phi l mt dng m rng ca HTTP. Khc vi HTTP, SIP c th s dng giao thc UDP. Bn tin SIP c chia lm hai loi: Bn tin yu cu t Client ti Server v bn tin p ng t Server tr li cho Client: SIP-message = Request/ Response 4.1.4.1. Bn tin yu cu (Request) Bn tin Request c khun dng gm hai phn c bn: Request-line v phn mo u-header (vi 3 loi header): Request=Request-line*(General-header/Request-header/ Entity-header) CLRF [message-body] Trong thnh phn Request-line cha tn phng thc, mt Request URI v s phin bn ca giao thc. Cc thnh phn c ngn cch vi nhau bng mt khong trng (SP). Cng nh cc dng khc, dng khi u c kt thc bng mt k t xung dng (CRLF). Request-line = Method SP Request-URI SP SIP-Version Trong : Method (Phng thc SIP): SIP nh ngha 6 phng thc c bn nh trong bng 4.2. Request-URI: Trng Request-URI c khun dng theo SIP URL. N thng bo cho User hoc dch v v a ch hin ti. Khc vi trng To,

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Request-URI c th c ghi li bi Proxy (trng hp my phc v y quyn). SIP Version: Phin bn SIP l cc bn SIP c a ra cc ln khc nhau. C hai bn tin Request v Response u cha phin bn ca SIP c s dng SIP Version. Hin ti phin bn SIP l 2.0. Bng 4.2. Cc phng thc SIP
INVITE ACK OPTIONS BYE CANCEL Mi thnh vin tham gia hi thoi. Yu cu xc nhn nhn c p ng chp nhn (OK) cho yu cu INVITE. Hi kh nng ca my phc v SIP. Yu cu gii phng cuc gi Hy b yu cu sp c thc hin vi cng gi tr trong cc trng Call_ID, From, To, Cseq ca yu cu bng cch ngng qu trnh tm kim bo hiu. ng k danh sch a ch lin h ca ngi dng vi my phc v.

REGISTER

4.1.4.2. Bn tin phc p (Response) Sau khi nhn v thng dch mt bn tin yu cu, pha nhn thc hin tr li bng mt bn tin phc p. Khun dng bn tin cng gm hai phn c bn: Status-line v phn mo u header (vi 3 loi header): Response = Status-line *(General-header/ Response-header/ Entity-header) CLRF [message-body] Trong thnh phn Status-line c cu trc sau: (SP l k t phn cch): Status-line = SIP-Version SP status-code SP Reason-phrase SIP Version: Cng ging nh trong bn tin Request. Status-code v Reason-phrase: Status-code l mt m kt qu nguyn gm 3 digit, ch ra kt qu ca vic c gng thc hin v mc tha mn yu cu. Reason-Phrase th dng a ra mt li gii thch ngn cho Status-code. Status-code mc ch l s dng cho Server cn Reason-phrase l dng cho User. Client khng th yu cu hin th hay kim tra Reason-phrase.

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Status-code gm 3 digit. Digit u tin nh ngha loi p ng, hai digit sau khng c vai tr phn loi. SIP 2.0 nh ngha 6 gi tr ca digit u tin nh sau: Bng 4.3. Cc m trng thi SIP
1xx 2xx 3xx 4xx 5xx 6xx Tm kim, bo hiu, sp hng i Thnh cng Chuyn tip yu cu Li pha ngi dng Li pha Server Li chung: ng dy ang bn, t chi,.

M p ng SIP c th m rng c. Cc ng dng SIP khng yu cu phi hiu r v ngha ca tt c m p ng c ng k m ch cn hiu cc loi m p ng, ngha ca digit u tin. 4.1.4.3. Cu trc bn tin SIP C hai loi bn tin trn u s dng chung mt nh dng c bn c quy nh trong RFC 2822 vi cu trc gm mt dng khi u (start line), mt s trng tiu v mt phn thn bn tin tu chn (hnh 4.2). Cu trc ny c tm tt nh sau:
generic-message = start-line *message-header CRLF [ message-body ]

V i
start-line = Request-Line / Status-Line

Hnh 4.2. Cu trc bn tin SIP Trong , dng bt u, cc dng tiu hay cc dng trng phi c kt thc bng mt k t xung dng (CRLF) v phi lu rng dng trng vn phi c ngn cch phn tiu v phn thn ca bn tin ngay c khi phn thn bn tin l rng. Start line: Mi bn tin SIP c bt u vi mt Start Line, Start Line vn chuyn loi bn tin (phng thc trong cc Request, v m p ng trong cc

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bn tin p ng) v phin bn ca giao thc. Start line c th l Request-Line (trong cc request) hoc l Status-Line (trong cc response).

Headers: Cc trng Hearder ca SIP c s dng vn chuyn cc thuc tnh ca bn tin v thay i ngha ca bn tin. Chng tng t nh cc trng tiu ca bn tin HTTP theo c c php v ng ngha (thc t c mt vi tiu c mn t HTTP) cho nn chng lun c khun dng nh sau:
<Name>:< Value>.

Th t cc trng tiu khc tn l khng quan trng (nhng cc tiu m c s dng nh tuyn bi cc proxy s c t trc). Th t cc tiu c cng tn l quan trng. Tiu bn tin bao gm bn loi: Tiu chung. Tiu Request. Tiu Response. Tiu thc th. Body: Thn bn tin c s dng m t phin c khi to (v d: trong mt phin multimedia phn ny s mang loi m ha audio v video, tc ly mu ), hoc n c th c s dng mang d liu di dng text hoc nh phn (khng c dch) m lin quan n phin . Phn thn bn tin c th xut hin trong c bn tin yu cu v p ng. Cc loi Body bao gm: SDP: Session Description Protcol. MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extentions.

Cc phn khc: c nh ngha trong IETF.


4.1.5. nh gi SIP SIP l giao thc c c t chc IETF a ra. N ra i vi mc ch n gin ho c ch bo hiu v iu khin cuc gi cho VoIP. SIP l giao thc dng text, cc lnh SIP c cu trc n gin cc thit b u cui d dng phn tch v sa i. Cc u im ni bt ca SIP l:

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- Tnh m rng mt cch t nhin ca giao thc cho php d dng nh ngha v thi hnh trong tng lai. - Cho php to cc thit b u cui mt cch n gin v d dng m vn m bo chi ph thp. Tuy nhin SIP vn cn c cc nhc im: - SIP l giao thc rt mi, cn c tip tc hon thin. - N ch cp ti mt phm vi hp trong ton b phin truyn thng nn cn phi c kt hp vi cc giao thc khc trong qu trnh xy dng mt h thng hon chnh. - Kh nng giao tip vi mng chuyn mch knh km. 4.2. H.323 4.2.1. Tng quan v H.323 Khuyn ngh H.323 u tin (phin bn 1) c ra i vo thng 5/1996, do T chc Vin Thng Quc T ITU (International Telecommunication Union) ph chun. H.323 nh ngha cch thc truyn m thanh, d liu v hnh nh thi gian thc qua cc mng LAN, WAN. Vi s pht trin mnh m ca thoi gi v thoi IP, phin bn 2 ca H.323 ra i, n b sung s m t cc thnh phn cu thnh h thng, cc thng bo, th tc cho cc cuc gi a phng thc thi gian thc c thit lp gia hai hoc nhiu hn cc thc th giao tip trn mng gi. Khuyn ngh H.323 v mt h thng truyn thng a phng tin trn nn IP mang tnh cht ton din, linh hot. N h tr vic s dng cc chun truyn thng c sn nh cc chun nn, Q931.V vy ta c th xy dng cc ng dng a phng thc, km c d liu v thoi. Cc ng dng H.323 c th trng ho do nhng nguyn nhn sau: H.323 thit lp cc chun truyn thng da trn nn sn c l mng IP. N cng c thit k b c tr trn mng LAN, cho php ngi s dng cc ng dng a phng thc m khng cn thay i nn mng trc . rng di thng mng LAN nh Ethernet ngy cng tng, t 10 n 100 Mbps ti tn Gbps v tc my tnh c nhn hin thi cng t ti tc x l GHz.
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Bng vic cung cp tnh tng tc gia thit b ti thit b, ng dng ti ng dng, i l ti i l, H.323 cho php tng thch gia cc sn phm khc nhau. H.323 cung cp chun giao tip c gia cc mng LAN v cc mng khc. Vi H.323, nh qun l mng c th tit kim c gii thng trn mng m cn thit cho truyn thng. Vic h tr a pht p trong hi thoi vi s thnh vin nh cng gim bt c yu cu gii thng. H.323 c chp nhn bi rt nhiu cc cng ty my tnh, t chc vin thng hng u nh ITU, Intel, Microsoft, Cisco, IBM thng nht v mt chun chung. Khuyn ngh H.323 bao gm c cc yu cu v dch v giao tip thoi v hnh nh trong mng LAN m khng c c ch m bo v cht lng dch v (QoS). N cng kt hp cht ch vi chun T.120 ch nh d liu cho cuc hi thoi. 4.2.2. Kin trc mng v cc thnh phn ca H.323

Hnh 4.3. Kin trc mng v cc thnh phn H.323 H.323 nh ngha 4 thnh phn chnh ca h thng giao tip: 4.2.2.1. u cui H.323 L cc im u cui trong mng LAN. Terminal n thun l my tnh c nhn hoc mt thit b c lp no h tr giao tip hai chiu thi gian thc vi cc my trm khc qua thoi v d liu. Mi Terminal phi m bo tnh tng thch vi cc

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loi mng khc nhau. Cc thnh phn bt buc v tu chn ca n c m t trn hnh 4.4. Cc u cui H.323 phi h tr cc giao thc sau: H.245 cho vic chuyn i dung lng ca u cui v cho vic to lp mt knh truyn thng. H.225 cho vic bo hiu v thit lp cuc gi. RAS cho vic khai bo v cc iu khin cho php khc vi mt Gatekeeper. RTP/RTCP cho vic sp xp thnh dy cc gi tin thoi v hnh nh. Cc u cui H.323 cng phi h tr G.711 v kt ni c bn ti thiu ca H.323 l thoi. Cc thnh phn tu chn trong mt u cui H.323 l cc Codec cho hnh nh, giao thc T-120 cho hi ngh d liu, v MCU cho kh nng hi ngh a im.

Hnh 4.4. u cui H.323

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4.2.2.2. Cng phng tin (GW)

Hnh 4.5. Cu to GW Mt GW cung cp kh nng kt ni gia mt mng H.323 vi cc mng khc. V d nh: mt GW c th kt ni lin lc gia mt u cui H.323 vi cc mng SCN (SCN bao gm tt c cc mng chuyn mch thoi nh kiu PSTN). Kh nng kt ni cc mng khc nhau ny c thc hin bi vic phin dch giao thc cho vic thit lp v gii phng cuc gi, bng vic chuyn i cc nh dng truyn thng gia cc mng khc nhau, v bng vic trao i thng tin gia cc mng m kt ni bi GW. Tuy nhin vic kt ni gia cc u cui H.323 s khng i hi s c mt ca mt GW (Hnh 4.5). 4.2.2.3. Gim st cng truyn thng (GK) Mt vng H.323 (zone) trn c s mng IP l tp hp ca tt c cc u cui. Trong , mi u cui c gn vi mt b danh. Mi min c qun tr bi mt GK duy nht, l trung tm u no, ng vai tr gim st mi hot ng trong min . y l thnh phn tu chn trong h thng VoIP theo chun H.323. Tuy nhin nu c mt GK trong mng th cc u cui H.323 v cc GW phi hot ng theo cc dch v ca GK . Mi thng tin trao i ca GK u c nh ngha trong RAS. Mi ngi dng ti u cui c GK gn cho mt mc u tin duy nht. Mc u tin ny rt cn thit cho c ch bo hiu cuc gi m cng mt lc nhiu ngi s dng. H.323 nh ngha c nhng tnh cht bt buc ti thiu phi c cho GK v cc nhng c tnh tu chn . Cc chc nng bt buc ti thiu ca mt GK gm: Phin dch a ch, iu khin cho php truy nhp, iu khin di thng, qun l vng. Cc chc nng tu chn ca GK gm c: Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi, cp php cho cuc gi, qun l cuc gi

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Cc thnh phn chnh ca mt GK c m t trn hnh 4.6. Vai tr v tr ca GK nh hnh 4.7. GK hot ng hai ch : Ch trc tip: GK ch c nhim v cung cp a ch ch m khng tham gia vo cc hot ng kt ni khc. Ch chn ng: GK l thnh phn trung gian, chuyn tip mi thng tin trao i gia cc bn.

Hnh 4.6. Cu trc GK

Hnh 4.7. Vai tr v v tr ca GK Cc chc nng ca Gatekeeper c trnh by trong bng di y:

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Bng 4.4. Cc chc nng Gatekeeper


Chc nng Bin dch a ch (Address Translation) nh ngha Ngi gi thng khng bit a ch IP ti u cui ca ngi nghe m ch bit b danh ca ngi . thit lp cuc gi th Gatekeeper phi dch b danh ny sang a ch IP Vi mt ti nguyn mng c th, ngi qun tr mng t ra mt ngng ch s hi thoi cng lc cho php trn mng . Gatekeeper c nhim v t chi kt ni mi mi khi t ti ngng. N iu khin quyn truy nhp mng ca ngi dng theo mc u tin gn trc. Gim st v iu khin vic s dng di thng mng. ng thi Gatekeeper cng phi m bo lu lng thng tin truyn khng c vt qu ti ca mng do nh qun tr mng t ra. Ty chn Gatekeeper cung cp a ch ch cho ngi gi theo hai ch trc tip v chn ng. Ti ch trc tip, sau khi cung cp a ch ch th Gatekeeper ngng tham gia hot ng bt tay gia cc bn. Ti ch chn ng, a ch ch l a ch ca Gatekeeper nn n ng vai tr trung gian chuyn tip mi thng tin trao i trong qu trnh bt tay gia cc bn. Gatekeeper x l cc thng tin bo hiu Q.931 trao i gia cc bn. Ty chn Gatekeeper gii hn s cuc gi cng lc trong min ca n trong phin Q.931. Ty chn Gatekeeper lu tr mt danh sch cc cuc gi hin thi cp thng tin cho vic qun l gii thng v xc nh u cui no ang bn.

iu khin quyn truy nhp (Admission Control)

iu khin bng thng (Bandwidth Control)

Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi (Call Control Signaling)

Qun l bng thng (Bandwidth Management) Dch v qun l cuc gi (Call Management Service)

Dch v xc nhn cuc gi Gatekeeper loi b cuc gi khi qu trnh xc nhn (Call Authrization l sai ngay c khi cha ti ngng. Service) Dch v ch dn (nin gim) (Directory Service) C s d liu ca Gatekeeper cha thng tin v ngi s dng phc v qu trnh tm kim ngi dng.

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4.2.2.4. n v iu khin a im (MCU) Cung cp chc nng hi thoi vi s bn tham gia ln hn 3. N phi hp cc phng thc giao tip ca cc bn tham gia v cung cp cc c trng trn m thanh v hnh nh (nu cn) cho cc Terminal. MCU bao gm hai thnh phn: B iu khin a im (MC) c nhim v thit lp v qun l hi thoi nhiu bn qua H.245. MC c th c t trong GK, GW, u cui hoc MCU. B x l a im (MP): ng vai tr trn tn hiu, phn knh v lu chuyn dng bit qu trnh giao tip gia cc bn tham gia hi thoi. i vi MCU tp trung th c y MC v MP. i vi MCU phn quyn th ch cn chc nng ca MC. S khc bit l ch trong hi thoi phn quyn cc bn trao i trc tip vi nhau m khng cn phi thng qua MCU. Ngoi ra, c th kt hp gia hai loi ny to thnh MCU lai ghp.

Hnh 4.8. Cu to ca MCU Vng hot ng

Hnh 4.9. Mt vng hot ng n gin

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Mt vng hot ng H.323 l mt tp hp tt c cc u cui, cc GW v cc MCU chu s qun l ca duy nht mt GK. Vng hot ng ny c lp vi topo ca mng thc t v c th bao gm nhiu phn on (segment) mng ni vi nhau qua router hay cc thit b khc. M hnh v mt on mng n gin c minh ha trong hnh sau: 4.2.3. Chng giao thc s dng trong H.323 Chng cc giao thc trong H.323 v v tr ca chng theo m hnh OSI c m t trong hnh 4.10. Bao gm: Cc chun m ho v gii m thoi (Audio CODECs): G711, G722, G728, G729, G723.1. Cc chun m ho v gii m hnh nh (Video CODECs): H261, H263. Bn tin H.225 khai bo, cho php v qun l trng thi RAS (Registration, Admision, and Status). Bn tin H.225 cho bo hiu cuc gi. Bn tin H.245 iu khin cuc gi. Giao thc iu khin thi gian thc (RTCP) Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc (RTP).

Hnh 4.10. Chng giao thc H.323

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4.2.3.1. Bn tin bo hiu cuc gi H.225 a. Bn tin H.225 RAS Bng 4.5. Cc thng bo ca H.225 RAS
Tn thng bo Yu cu quyn truy nhp (Admission Request- ARQ) Chc nng Mt u cui gi yu cu ti Gatekeeper, xin php c truy nhp vo mng chuyn mch gi. Gatekeeper c th chp nhn (ACF) hay loi b (ARJ). u cui gi yu cu thay i bng thng, Gatekeeper c th chp nhn (BCF) hoc loi b (BRJ). Gatekeeper cng c th hi li c ch truyn bng thng thp hay cao. u cui gi thng bo ti Gatekeeper lin kt ang b loi b, hoc Gatekeeper gi thng bo bt buc kt thc cuc gi (bn nhn phi gi DCF). Bn nhn c th chp nhn (DCF) hoc t chi (DRJ), Gatekeeper c th t chi (DRJ) nu u cui cha ng k vi n. Gatekeeper gi yu cu ti Terminal ly thng tin trng thi. Terminal tr li qua IRR. p ng yu cu ca IRQ. Yu cu Gatekeeper cung cp a ch dch. Gatekeeper c th phc p (LCF) v khi trong li p c cha a ch ch, hoc c th loi b (LRJ). u cui gi p ng khi khng hiu thng bo m n nhn c. Terminal gi yu cu, xin ng k vi Gatekeeper. Gatekeeper c th ng (RCF) hoc loi b (RRJ). a ra nhn thi gian tr mc nh cho cc p ng tr li cc yu cu v s ln pht li nu cha nhn c p ng.

Yu cu bng thng (Bandwidth Request- BRQ)

Yu cu gii phng cuc gi (Disengage Request- DRQ)

Yu cu thng tin trng thi (InfoRequest- IRQ) Phc p yu cu thng tin (InfoRequest Response- IRR) Yu cu cc b (Location Request- LRQ) Bn tin khng hiu c (Message not understood) Yu cu ng k (Regisration Request- RRQ) Bm gi truy nhp t xa v yu cu trong tin trnh (RAS timer and Request in Progress - RIP)

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Khi h thng c s tham gia ca GK, cc u cui tin hnh bt tay vi nhau thng qua GK l thnh phn trung gian bng c ch hi/p. GK cn c vo tnh trng ca mng t chi hoc cho php yu cu c thc hin. N c cc chnh sch c th nh cho php ti a bao nhiu cuc gi din ra ng thi trong min m n qun l, m bo mng hot ng tt. Cc thng tin trao i nh ngha trong RAS c trnh by trong bng 4.5. b. Q.931 Bng 4.6. Cc thng bo ca Q.931
Tn thng bo Thng bo (Alerting) Tin hnh cuc gi (Call Proceeding) Kt ni (Connect) Thng tin (Information) Qu trnh cuc gi (Progress) Chc nng Ngi c gi gi thng bo nhn c mt yu cu kt ni t pha ngi gi. Ngi c gi gi thng bo yu cu thit lp cuc gi ca ngi gi c khi to v n khng chp nhn mt yu cu kt ni no khc. Ngi c gi gi thng bo chp nhn kt ni t pha ngi gi. Cung cp thm cc thng tin trong qu trnh thit lp cuc gi hoc cc thng tin thm v cuc gi. c gi t Gateway ti SCN, a ra tin trnh cuc gi trong qu trnh trao i.

Hon thnh gii phng cuc Terminal a thng bo gii phng cuc gi, thu gi hi li ti nguyn cung cp cho cuc gi. (Release Complete) Thit lp (Setup) Trng thi (Status) Thm tra trng thi (Status Inquiry) Ngi gi gi thng bo yu cu mun c kt ni vi ngi c gi. p ng li thng bo thm tra trng thi hoc mt thng bo khng xc nh c loi thng bo bo hiu cuc gi. Thng bo yu cu cc thng tin trng thi cuc gi.

y l giao thc s c s dng tip theo sau khi qu trnh bt tay thnh cng qua RAS. Nu h thng khng c GK th khng cn n RAS v Q.931 l giao thc s c gi dng u tin thit lp cuc thoi gia cc u cui. Q.931 thc hin vic trao i trc tip cc thng bo gia 2 u cui vi mc ch thit lp cuc gi v

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chm dt cuc gi khi mt trong cc bn kt thc hi thoi. Cc thng tin chnh c nh ngha trong Q.931 c trnh by trong bng 4.6. 4.2.3.2. Bn tin iu khin cuc gi H.245 Khi hai bn ng tham gia cuc thoi sau qu trnh bt tay qua Q.931 th bc tip theo l hai bn thng nht mt cch thc hi thoi ph hp bao gm cc cng vic sau: Tha thun v b CODEC c s dng, m hai cng UDP k nhau cho cc knh logic truyn v iu khin dng thng tin a phng thc, qun l knh logic thng qua vic xc lp my ch/my khch, iu khin tc truyn dng bit Cc thng tin trao i nh ngha trong H.245 c trnh by trong sau di y: Bng 4.7. Cc thng bo ca H.245
Tn thng bo Chc nng Cho php xc nh u l my ch/my khch trnh xung t. Trng thi ny c th thay i bt c lc no trong mt phin hot ng. Cc p ng: ACK (chp nhn), Reject (loi b), Release (trng hp timeout). m bo ch c mt dng thng tin a phng thc c trao i trn knh logic v thut ton iu ch/gii iu ch mi bn c th hiu tn hiu nhn c. Cc p ng: ACK, Reject, Release. M mt knh logic. Cc p ng: ACK, Reject, Confirm (xc nhn). ng knh logic hi thoi gia cc bn.p ng: ACK. Yu cu c a ra ch r ch truyn lung tin a phng thc ting ni, hnh nh hay d liu. Cc p ng: ACK, Reject, Release. Cung cp thng tin v phng thc trao i ca cc Terminal. Trng hp hi thoi th cho bit b CODEC c s dng ti mi bn. Ch th kt thc phin H.245.

S xc nh Ch-khch

Kh nng trao i

M knh logic ng knh Logic Yu cu v phng thc

Thu thp kh nng ca cc u cui Ch th kt thc phin

4.2.3.3. Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc RTP Giao thc ny cung cp cc dch v truyn ti thoi v hnh nh thi gian t u n cui. Trong khi, H.323 c s dng chuyn ti d liu trn nn mng gi, th RTP c bn l c dng chuyn ti d liu thng qua giao thc datagram ca ngi dng (UDP). RTP cng vi UDP cung cp cc chc nng ca mt giao thc
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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

chuyn ti (transport_protocol). RTP cung cp cc dch v sau: nhn dng trng ti, nh s theo dy, m nhp thi gian, v ghi thng bo v tuyn. UDP cung cp cc dch v a thnh phn v tng kim tra. RTP cng c th c s dng cng vi mt giao thc khc. 4.2.3.4. Giao thc iu khin thi gian thc RTCP Giao thc ny cung cp cc dch v iu khin. Chc nng c bn ca RTCP l cung cp s phn hi v cht lng ca vic phn phi d liu. Nhng chc nng khc ca RTCP gm c: thc hin vic nhn bit cp truyn ti cho mt ti nguyn RTP m c gi vi ci tn chnh tc l: ng b ha thoi v hnh nh. 4.2.4. Thit lp v gii phng cuc gi H.323 trong trng hp n gin nht Bo hiu H.323 l mt qu trnh thc s phc tp. Tng tc gia cc phn t trong mng H.323 trong qu trnh bo hiu c m t trong hnh 4.11. Mt cch chi tit th cuc gi gia hai u cui H.323 c thit lp nh sau: Trc ht c 2 phi c ng k ti Gatekeeper. u cui A gi yu cu ti Gatekeeper ngh thit lp cuc gi. Gatekeeper gi cho u cui A thng tin cn thit v u cui B. u cui A gi bn tin SETUP ti u cui B. u cui B tr li bng bn tin Call Proceeding v ng thi lin lc vi Gatekeeper xc nhn quyn thit lp cuc gi. u cui B gi bn tin Alerting v Connect. Hai u cui trao i mt s bn tin H.245 xc nh ch/t, kh nng x l ca u cui v thit lp kt ni RTP.

Hnh 4.11. Bo hiu thit lp cuc gi gia mng chuyn mch gi v PSTN
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Hnh 4.12. Thit lp cuc gi H.323 M t trong hnh 4.12, l trng hp cuc gi im im n gin nht, khi m bo hiu cuc gi khng c nh tuyn ti Gatekeeper. 4.2.5. So snh SIP v H.323 Nhng ngi xut SIP cho rng H.323 ang xut hin trong bo hiu ATM v ISDN l khng thch hp cho iu khin h thng VoIP ni chung v trong thoi Internet ni ring. H.323 c khng nh l rt phc tp, h tr cc chc nng phn ln l khng cn thit cho thoi IP do i hi chi ph cao v khng hiu qu. V d H.323 xc nh 3 phng php khc nhau phi hp hot ng gia H.225 v H.245, vi cc kt ni khc nhau, H.245 ngang qua kt ni H.225, v tin hnh phng php "kt ni nhanh" ca 2 giao thc tch hp. Mc d hu ht cc kh nng thc hin ch h tr cho cc kt ni nhanh, tnh tng thch H.323 lin quan n yu cu h tr ca c 3 phng php. ng thi, h cng cho rng H.323 khng c kh nng m rng yu cu i vi giao thc bo hiu cho cng ngh chng hn nh VoIP, l nhng cng ngh chc chn s pht trin v h tr cc dch v v c tnh mi. Gia H.323 v SIP c nhiu im tng ng. C hai u cho php iu khin, thit lp v hy b cuc gi. C H.323 v SIP u h tr tt c cc dch v cn thit. Tuy nhin c mt s im khc bit gia hai chun ny. l:

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H.323 h tr hi ngh a phng tin rt phc tp. Hi ngh H.323 v nguyn tc c th cho php cc thnh vin s dng nhng dch v nh bng thng bo, trao i d liu, hoc hi ngh Video. SIP h tr SIP-CGI (SIP-Common Gateway Interface) v CPL (Call Processing Language). SIP h tr iu khin cuc gi t mt u cui th 3. Hin nay H.323 ang c nng cp h tr chc nng ny. Bng sau y s th hin c th hn nhng im khc nhau ca H.323 v SIP: Bng 4.8. So snh gia SIP v H.323
c im so snh T chc Quan h kt ni Khi im u cui Cc Server li IETF Ngang cp SIP ITU Ngang cp H.323

Da trn mng Internet v C s l mng thoi. Giao thc Web. C php v bn tin bo hiu tun theo chun ISDN tng t nh HTTP. Q.SIG u cui thng minh SIP u cui thng minh H.323 SIP proxy, redirect, location v registration H.323 Gatekeeper servers Giai on th nghim kh nng cng hot ng ca cc thit b kt thc. SIP c s dng rng ri nhanh chng tr nn ph bin. Text, UTF-8 Nh phn ASN.1 PER

Tnh hnh hin nay

Khun dng bn tin Tr thit lp cuc gi

1.5 RTT (Round-trip time), tc l chu k nhn bn tin 6-7 RTT hoc hn v nhn bn tin tr li hay xc nhn. Phin bn 1 v 2: my ch phi C 2 la chn: ch trong gim st trong sut thi gian thi gian thit lp cuc gi cuc gi v phi gi trng thi hoc sut thi gian cuc kt ni TCP hn ch kh nng gi m rng v gim tin cy.

Gim st trng thi cuc gi

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng Khng h tr.

S dng cc giao thc khc Gatekeeper iu khin bng nh RSVP, OPS, OSP thng. RSVP lu tr ti m bo cht lng dch nguyn mng. v. ng k ti Registrar Ch ng k khi trong mng c Server, c xc nhn u Gatekeeper, xc nhn v m ha cui v m ho. theo chun H.235.

Bo mt

nh v u cui s dng E.164 Dng SIP URL nh a hoc tn o H.323 v phng nh v u cui ch. nh tuyn nh s php nh x a ch nu trong v nh tuyn cuc dng Redirect v Location mng c Gatekeeper. Chc nng gi nh tuyn do Gatekeeper m Server. nhim. Tnh nng thoi H tr cc tnh nng ca H tr cc tnh nng ca cuc cuc gi c bn. gi c bn. c thit k h tr rt nhiu Hi ngh c s, qun l tnh nng hi ngh, hnh nh v phn tn. d liu, qun l tp trung MC c th tc nghn. D dng, s dng SIP-CGI H.405.1. v CPL. Hn ch. Km. Rt tt, h tr click-to-dial.

Hi ngh

To tnh nng v dch v mi Tch hp vi Web

Kh nng m rng D dng.

4.3. GIAO THC IU KHIN C LP KNH MANG BICC Giao thc BICC a ra s tch bit chc nng ca cc giao thc bo hiu phng tin mang v bo hiu cuc gi vi s lin kt thng tin ca c hai giao thc, cho php s thit lp c lp cuc gi v phng tin mang trong mng bng rng. S lin kt thng tin cho php phi hp cc giao thc c lp ny tng quan vi nhau ti cc im u cui. Cc chc nng lin quan n phng tin mang nh chn v iu khin ting vng s c iu khin bi iu khin phng tin mang. Bo hiu ca iu khin ting vng s c thc hin t giao thc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi.

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Chng 4. Cc giao thc ngang hng

BICC a ra c ch h tr cc dch v ISDN bng hp qua mng trc bng rng m khng nh hng ti cc giao din ca mng N ISDN hin c v cc dch v t u cui ti u cui. Giao thc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi BICC da trn bo hiu N ISUP. Giao thc bo hiu iu khin phng tin mang da trn cc giao thc bo hiu iu khin cng ngh phng tin mang khc nhau nh IP, DSS2 Cc phin bn ca BICC: BICC CS1: chuyn ti cuc gi s dng MTP SS7 hoc ATM, h tr cc loi truyn ti AAL1 v AAL2. BICC CS2: m rng BICC ti cc tng i ni ht, h tr phng tin mang IP, h tr truyn ti bo hiu IP, h tr AAL1. BICC CS3: tp trung vo mng truy nhp v lm vic vi SIP.

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Chng 5. CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN CH T


5.1. GIAO THC IU KHIN CNG PHNG TIN MGCP MGCP- Media Gateway Controll Protocol l giao thc iu khin cc cng VoIP t cc thit b iu khin cuc gi nh MGC hay Call Agent. y l nh ngha v MGCP trch t IETF RFC 2705 - Media Gateway Control Protocol. S pht trin ca MGCP c m rng do nh hng ca s xung t gia cc phn kin ngh cho vic tch ri ha kin trc GW. MGCP l s b sung ca c hai giao thc SIP v H.323, c thit k c bit nh mt giao thc bn trong gia cc MG v cc MGC cho vic tch ho kin trc GW. Trong , MGC x l cuc gi bng vic giao tip vi mng IP qua truyn thng vi mt thit b bo hiu a ch ging nh H.323 GK hoc SIP Server v vi mng chuyn mch knh qua mt GW bo hiu tu chn. MGC thc hin y chc nng ca lp bo hiu trong H.323 v nh mt H.323 GK. MG c nhim v chuyn i gia dng tn hiu analog t cc mch in thoi, vi cc gi tin trong mng chuyn mch gi. MGCP hon ton tng thch vi VoIP GW. N cung cp mt gii php m cho truyn thng qua mng v s cng tn ti vi H.323 v SIP. 5.1.1. Kin trc v cc thnh phn MGCP da trn m hnh Client/Server. Ging nh cc giao thc khc, MGCP s dng giao thc SDP m t phng thc truyn thng v s dng RTP/RCTP cho vic vn chuyn v gim st truyn tin. MGCP nh ngha cc thc th im cui (Endpoint-E) v cc kt ni (Connection-C). E l cc ngun d liu c th l vt l hoc logic. Vic to ngun vt l i hi phi thit lp phn cng, chng hn nh giao tip qua mt GW v kt thc mt kt ni ti mng chuyn mch knh PSTN, cn ngun logic to ra t phn mm nh ngun ting ni. Kt ni c th l kt ni im im hoc a im, c th c thit lp qua rt nhiu thnh phn mang trn mng, nh gi tin thoi dng RTP trn mng TCP/UDP, dng AAL2 cho mng ATM. Cc hot ng ca MGCP l cc bo hiu (Signal-S) gi t MGC ti MG v cc kt qu (Event-E) do MG gi ti MGC. Quan h gia MG v MGC (hay CA) c th hin trn hnh 5.1:

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Hnh 5.1. Quan h gia MG v MGC Qu trnh thit lp gia hai u cui ti cc Gateway cng c qun l bi MGC din ra nh sau: Qu trnh thit lp gia hai u cui ti cc Gateway cng c qun l bi MGC din ra nh sau: MGC gi CreatConnection ti GW u tin. GW s nh v cc ti nguyn cn thit v gi tr cc thng tin cn thit cho kt ni nh a ch IP, cng UDP, cc tham s cho qu trnh ng gi. Cc thng tin ny c chuyn tip qua MGC. MGC gi CreatConnection ti GW th hai cha cc thng tin chuyn tip trn. GW ny tr v cc thng tin m t phin ca n. MGC gi lnh ModifyConnection ti u cui th nht. Qu trnh kt ni thnh cng sau khi hon tt cc bc trn. MGCP nh ngha 3 bo hiu: Bng 5.1. Cc bo hiu trong MGCP
Khai bo (Notify) Xo kt ni (DeleteConnection) Khi ng li trong qu trnh ( RestartInProcess ) Cc s kin c quan st trn Gateway Xa mt kt ni, gii phng ti nguyn. Xa mi dch v ti u cui, khi to li tin trnh kt ni.

MGCP cng nh ngha 8 lnh trao i thng tin gia cc MGC vi cc u cui:

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Bng 5.2. Cc lnh trao i thng tin trong MGCP


Cu hnh kt cui (EndpointConfiguration) Yu cu khai bo (NotificationRequest) To kt ni (CreatConnection) Sa i kt ni (ModifyConnection) Xo kt ni (DeleteConnection) MGC cho Gateway bit tn lut m ho tn hiu. Trong trng hp ting ni l lut hoc lut A. Yu cu Gateway gi cc thng bo v cc s kin din ra mt u cui no . M mt kt ni gia hai u cui. Thay i cc tham s trong mt kt ni c m trc . ng mt kt ni. Lnh ny c th c gi bi MGC, Gateway. p ng ca lnh ny tr v cc thng tin tng hp trong sut qu trnh kt ni. MGC tm kim cc thng tin v trng thi ti mt u cui no . MGC gi yu cu tr v cc thng s trong mt kt ni c m. a s kin thng bo.

Kim ton u cui (AuditEndpoint) Kim ton kt ni (AuditConnection) Thng bo thm d(PollNotify)

5.1.2. Thit lp cuc gi thng qua MGCP

Hnh 5.2. Thit lp cuc gi gia A v B Trnh t thit lp cuc gi gia hai my in thoi A in thoi B nh sau: Khi my in thoi A c nhc ln Gateway A gi bn tin cho MGC. Gateway A to m mi quay s v nhn s b gi.
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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

S b gi c gi cho MGC. MGC xc nh nh tuyn cuc gi nh th no: MGC gi lnh cho Gateway B. Gateway B chung my B. MGC gi lnh cho Gateway A v B to phin kt ni RTP/RTCP. 5.1.3. So snh gia MGCP, SIP v H.323 MGCP khc vi SIP v H.323 mt s im nh sau: MGCP l giao thc kiu ch/t, trong khi SIP v H.323 l giao thc ngang cp. MGCP c s dng gia MG v MGC. Bng 5.3. So snh H.323 v MGCP
H.323 1. Thu bao nhc my v quay s MGCP 1. Thu bao nhc my v quay s

2. Gateway phn tch nh tuyn cuc 2. Gateway thng bo cho MGC gi 3. MGC phn tch s, nh tuyn v gi lnh cho Gateway b gi 3. Hai Gateway trao i thng tin chung s my b gi 4. Gateway b gi chung s my b gi 4. MGC gi lnh cho 2 Gateway thit lp phin kt ni RTP/RTCP 5. Hai Gateway thit lp phin kt ni RTP/RTCP

MGCP ra i nhm tch bit cc chc nng bo hiu v thit lp ng truyn. MGC (hay CA, Softswitch...) sau khi nhn c yu cu thit lp cuc gi SIP hoc H.323 s dng giao thc MGCP iu khin Gateway thit lp phin kt ni gia 2 u cui. Trong hnh 5.2 ta thy chc nng bo hiu c tch bit v do MGC m nhim. Chng ta xem xt vic thit lp cuc gi trong hai trng hp: cuc gi trong mng H.323 v trong mng MGCP.

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

5.1.4. nh gi giao thc MGCP Cc u im ca MGCP l: MGCP c bit hu ch i vi cc ng dng trin khai ln, cc h thng phc tp. N cho php tch hp tt vi mng SS7, to s thun tin cho qu trnh iu khin v x l cc cuc gi. MGCP phn tch ring bit hai chc nng chnh l chc nng iu khin lung phng thc v chc nng bo hiu nn vic thi hnh d dng hn. Tuy nhin n vn c nhc im l tr nn qu phc tp i vi cc ng dng nh. Ngoi ra n ch tp trung vo vic chuyn i gia cc lung phng thc. Giao thc ny c hon thin trong chun H.248/ Megaco thng 11/2000 vi s hp tc gia hai t chc ITU v IETF. 5.2. MEGACO/H.248 5.2.1. Tng quan v giao thc MEGACO/H.248

Hnh 5.3. Kin trc iu khin ca MEGACO/H.248 MEGACO/H.248 l giao thc iu khin cng phng tin ni chung, bao gm cng ni ht, trung k trong mng PSTN, giao din ATM, giao in thoi v ng dy analog, in thoi IP, cc loi server,Vi tnh nng h tr rng ri cc ng dng mt cch mm do, n gin v hiu qu mc chi ph hp l, giao thc MEGACO/H.248 s l chun c s dng trong mng th h sau NGN. MEGACO/H.248 khng b rng buc vi bt k mt giao thc iu khin cuc gi ngang hng no (v d: SIP hay H.323) v hon ton ty thuc vo thit k ca ngi

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

qun tr mng. Kin trc ca MEGACO/H.248 da trn 3 lp: lp MGC, lp MG v lp MEGACO (hnh 5.3). Lp MGC cha tt c cc phn mm iu khin, x l cuc gi. Lp ny thc hin cc c im mc cuc gi nh pht hin cuc gi, chuyn cuc gi, hi thoi hay gi cuc gi (hold). Lp MGC cng thc hin giao tip vi cc MGC cng nh cc thc th ngang cp hay cp di khc, MGC qun l mi thuc tnh trong qu trnh giao tip. Lp MG thc hin cc kt ni lu lng i v ti cc mng khc, tng tc vi cc lung lu lng ny qua ng dng bo hiu v s kin. Lp MG cng iu khin cc thuc tnh thit b ca cng phng tin (v d nh giao din ngi dng). Lp ny khng h bit g v vic iu khin cc thuc tnh cuc gi v hot ng theo s iu khin ca lp MGC. Lp MEGACO/H.248 quy nh cch thc m lp MGC iu khin lp MG. 5.2.2. V tr ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 trong m hnh OSI

Hnh 5.4. V tr ca MEGACO/H.248 trong OSI Nh ch ra trong hnh 5.4, giao thc MEGACO/H.248 thc hin cc chc nng ca mnh 3 lp trn cng trong m hnh OSI. 5.2.3. Cc chc nng ca MEGACO/H.248 Giao thc MEGACO/H.248 nh ngha giao din iu khin ca MGC i vi MG. MEGACO/H.248 cung cp cc chc nng sau: iu khin cc loi MG khc nhau (TGW, RGW, AGW, MS,). H tr m phn quyt nh cc thuc tnh cuc gi.
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C kh nng x l cuc gi a ngi dng. H tr QoS v o lng lu lng (cc thng tin thng k sau mi kt ni). Thng bo li giao thc, li mng hay cc thuc tnh cuc gi.

Hnh 5.5. V tr v chc nng ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 5.2.4. Cc khi nim trong giao thc MEGACO/H.248 Cc loi gateway: GW c a ch IP v ch s cng UDP mc nh ca MGC qun l n. TGW (Trunking Gateway): l gateway gia cc tng i trung k gia mng PSTN v mng IP. AGW (Access Gateway): l gateway gia mng ISDN, tng i PBX v mng IP. RGW (Residential Gateway): l gateway gia mt nhm cc my in thoi (ni trc tip vo Gateway ny) v mng IP. NAS: Gateway cung cp kh nng truy cp Internet. IVR (Interactive Voice Response): gateway ny c MGC iu khin thu cc digit v gi fax, Mi loi GW c kh nng h tr cc gi tin khc nhau. Termination: MGC coi GW l i din cho mt nhm cc Termination, trong mi Termination chu trch nhim x l cho mt loi lu lng. Mi Termination c GW gn cho mt ID ti thi im n c to ra. C 2 loi Termination l:
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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Termination c nh (cc giao din vt l, knh TDM). i vi loi Termination ny, vic s dng cc lnh Add hay Subtract ch n gin l vic ly chng ra hay thm vo Null context. Termination tm thi hay Termination logic (cng RTP ni GW vi mng, ch tn ti khi s dng). Loi Termination ny c to ra bi lnh Add v b xa i bi lnh Subtract. GW c MGC coi nh Termination gc, iu ny c ngha khi MGC mun lm vic vi chnh GW (v d khi tuyn b GW l in hay out mt dch v no ). Giao thc MEGACO/H.248 c kh nng lm vic vi mt s lng ln cc Termination l do Termination c cc thuc tnh la chn (event, signal, statistic). Cc thuc tnh ny c a vo cc gi v MGC c th ch nh Termination l n ch tip nhn nhng gi no. Ti mi thi im, Termination cng c iu khin mt ch xc nh (ch ch nhn, ch gi hoc va nhn va gi). Termination l ni i v n ca cc lung lu lng hay iu khin. Context: L khi nim mang tnh t ph ca MEGACO/H.248 so vi cc giao thc cng loi trc n. Khi nim ny cho php to ra cc phin lin lc a im. Mi u cui c th tham gia vo nhiu context khc nhau vi cc loi lu lng khc nhau (v d khi u cui tham gia mt phin truyn thng a phng tin). y l mt phin kt ni bao gm nhiu Termination. Mi context c GW to ra ban u ch c mt Termination, cc Termination kt ni vi Termination u tin s ln lt c thm vo context ny. Context s b xa b khi Termination cui cng c gii phng. S lng Termination ti a trong mt context s ph thuc vo kh nng ca GW (nhng GW ch h tr lin lc im im s ch c ti a 2 Termination trong mt context). Context c MG gn mt phn nhn dng ID bao gm 32 bit (ID l duy nht i vi mt MG). Tt c cc Termination khng tham gia vo mt kt ni no s nm trong Null context. Hin nay Context c 3 thuc tnh: topology descriptor (m t topo phi kt ni), Priority flag (c u tin, hng dn GW phn b ti nguyn trong trng hp khan him) v emergency flag (c khn, ch ra context no s c lu li v khi phc trong trng hp c s c). Cc thuc tnh khc ca context c th c b sung trong tng lai. Transaction: l mt chuyn giao, mi transaction gm phn yu cu (request) v phn tr li (reply). Transaction Pending c s dng thng bo rng transaction vn ang c x l (c s dng khi transaction no b timeout). Mi transaction c mt s nhn dng ID. S nhn dng ID c gi tr t 1 n 99999. Thng tin trao i gia MGC v cc GW di dng cc chuyn giao (cha cc lnh v cc bn tin thng
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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

bo s kin, tr li,), cc lnh trong mi chuyn giao s c x l theo th t ch ra. Event: l cc s kin ca u cui (nh onhook, offhook,). Cc s kin ny c MG pht hin v bo co ti MGC. MGC s xem xt ch cc s kin m n quan tm bt k thi im no (c ch ra bi event descriptor). Signal: l bo hiu to ra cc m bo hay hin th hnh nh u cui. Thi gian tn ti ca bo hiu c th do MGC quy nh hoc c th tn ti cho ti khi b loi b. N s b loi b bt c khi no mt s kin c pht hin u cui tr khi c s can thip ca MGC. Termination descriptor: cc thuc tnh ca Termination c nhm li thnh cc descriptor bao gm: Termination state descriptor: cc thuc tnh ca Termination (test, c quyn hay b cm s dng mt dch v,). Media descriptor: bng m t cc lung lu lng (voice, data,). Event descriptor: m t cc s kin c pht hin bi GW v hnh ng li p li s kin . Signal descriptor: m t cc bo hiu c th xy ra Termination. Stream descriptor: bng cc descriptor ca remote, local, local control i vi mt lung lu lng xc nh. Local control descriptor: cha cc thuc tnh cn quan tm gia GW v MGC (ch ca Termination, cc x l ca GW khi nhn c local hay remote descriptor). Local descriptor: cha cc thuc tnh ch ra lung lu lng m GW nhn t thc th u xa. Remote descriptor: cha cc thuc tnh ch ra lung lu lng m GW gi ti thc th u xa. Digitmap descriptor: nh ngha mt dy tp hp cc s kin (v quay s) c th c (theo k hoch nh s). Dy ny c gi ti GW thu cc ch s c quay bi khch hng v gi ti MGC di dng cc gi hon chnh (ton b s b gi). Observed event descriptor: m t cc s kin quan st c (c trong lnh Notify hay AuditValue).
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Package descriptor: trong lnh AuditValue, dng tr li bng cc gi tin gi i t Termination. Service change descriptor: l do a ra lnh Service change. Statistic descriptor: trong lnh Audit hay Subtract, bo co cc thng k Termination. Topology descriptor: ch ra topo ca context. Audit descriptor: trong lnh Audit, xc nhn thng tin yu cu. Error descriptor: cha m li v m li vn bn (ty chn) trong lnh Notify (yu cu v tr li). Event Buffer descriptor: m t s kin va c GW pht hin khi kch hot eventbuffering. 5.2.5. Truyn dn cc bn tin ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 C ch truyn dn c s dng cn phi m bo tnh tin cy, cc lnh ang gi i v ch xc nhn t pha nhn s c lu gi mt cch c lp. Cc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 c th c truyn dn qua lp UDP/IP hoc TCP/IP. Cc GW v cc MGC s c gn cc a ch IP, cc lung lu lng i v n s qua cc cng UDP hay TCP c ch ra. V d nh cng dnh cho lnh Service Change request l 2944 khi s dng m ha vn bn v 2945 khi s dng m ha nh phn (i vi c UDP v TCP), cc cng ny cng c s dng khi khng c cng no c ch ra. Cc Transaction reply s c gi ti cng vi cng m TransactionRequest c gi i. Trong qu trnh truyn dn cc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 cng t ra mt vn v tr ca cc bn tin, dn ti tr ca cc lnh v tnh hp thi ca cc x l ti GW hay MGC. gii quyt vn ny, RFC 3525 cng a ra mt s quy tc trong vic x l cc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 ti MGC (6 quy tc). 5.2.6. Cc lnh c nh ngha bi giao thc MEGACO/H.248 Giao thc MEGACO/H.248 s dng 8 lnh trong giao din iu khin gia MGC v GW bao gm: Add: c s dng thm mt Termination vo context, cng c th to mt context (nu l Termination u tin trong context ny).

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Modify: S dng thay i thuc tnh, s kin hay cc bo hiu mt Termination. Subtract: S dng xa mt Termination khi context, cng c th l xa lun c context (nu l Termination cui cng trong context ny). Move: Chuyn mt Termination t mt context ny sang mt context khc. AuditValue: Tr li trng thi hin ti ca Termination (bo hiu, s kin, thuc tnh, s liu thng k). Audit Capability: Tr li tt c cc gi tr c th c ca Termination (bo hiu, s kin, thuc tnh, s liu thng k). Cc lnh trn c s dng bi MGC. Notify: GW s dng bo co cc s kin m n pht hin c ti MGC. Service Change: Lnh ny c s dng bi: GW, thng bo ti MGC rng mt nhm Termination c nh ri khi hay tham gia mt dch v no . GW, ng k ti MGC khi n khi ng. MGC, tuyn b mt chuyn giao ti GW. MGC, lnh cho mt MG no a mt nhm Termination hay mt Termination tham gia hay ra khi mt dch v. 5.2.6.1. M ho lnh ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 Cc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 c th c m ho bng hai cch: m ho nh phn v m ha vn bn. Trong phng php m ha nh phn, tiu chun ISO/ITU ASN.1 c s dng. ASN.1 l mt ngn ng nh ngha cch gi d liu gia cc h thng khng ging nhau, n nh ngha cc h thng cng mt c php d liu (trong cc giao thc tng ng dng). ASN.1 c vit bng cc ngn ng khc nhau trong tng h thng, ph hp vi tng h thng. Khi mt h thng mun gi d liu, h thng s m ha d liu cn gi theo ASN.1, sau gi i. H thng nhn s tin hnh gii m theo chun nh sn ASN.1. Cc lut m ha theo chun ASN.1 bao gm: BER (Basic Encoding Rule), DER (Distinguished Encoding Rule). Vic s dng cc lut m ha no l ty vo ngi thit k.

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Trong phng php m ha vn bn, chun ABNF c s dng (RFC 2234). C th s dng hai nh dng: rt gn (compact text) v y (Pretty text). Chng c m t nh sau:

C hai nh dng u c u im v nhc im ca n, dng rt gn cho bn tin c kch thc nh hn, thi gian m ha ngn hn nhng c tin cy khng cao bng dng y . 5.2.6.2. C php lnh ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248 tin phn tch ta c th ly mt lnh minh ho, y l lnh t MGC ti GW:
MGC to RGW2: MEGACO/1 [216.33.33.61]: 27000 Transaction = 1240 { Context = 2 { Modify = TermB { Signals {cg/bt} Media { LocalControl { Mode = recvonly} } }, Modify = EphB { Media {

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Lnh trong v d trn bao gm cc phn sau: a ch IP ca ni gi (MGC hay GW): 216.33.33.61 (IPv4). S cng ni gi: 2700. S nh danh transaction: 1240. Context ID. Mi context s c nhiu lnh: Notify, Audit, Modify,Trong mi lnh li gm: - Termination ID: TermB. - Local Termination State. - Cc descriptor. Ta c th thy: mi Transaction gm nhiu action (mi action cho 1 context), mi action li gm nhiu lnh, mi lnh s c cc descriptor.

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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

5.2.7. Cu trc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 Mi bn tin MEGACO/H.248 bao gm nhiu Transaction v mt header. Trong header cha cc thng nhn thc, bo mt. Mi Transaction gm nhiu action (cho mi context) v mt Transaction header (cha Transaction ID). Mi context li gm mt context header, mt context properties v cc lnh. Context header cha contextID, context properties cha cc thng tin v cu hnh context, thuc tnh, mc u tin. Mi lnh gm mt command header v cc descriptor ca lnh .

Hnh 5.6. Cu trc bn tin MEGACO/H.248 5.2.8. Hot ng ca giao thc MEGACO/H.248
SD HEWLETT PACKARD

DLT SureStore Autoloader 718

MEGACO

MGC

MEGACO

RGW

RTP/RTCP

RGW

Anolog phone

Anolog phone

Hnh 5.7. M t cuc gi MEGACO/H.248 Khi mt u cui no nhc my v nh thc hin cuc gi, s kin offhook ny s c pht hin bi MG qun l n. MG s thng bo s kin ny ti MGC trc thuc, MGC s ch nh MG bng mt lnh gi m bo mi quay s ti u cui
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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

, ng thi digitmap cng c MG ny cp nht t MGC, phc v cho vic thu cc ch s v gi ton b s c quay v MGC. Gi s u cui b gi thuc mt MG khc nhng cng c qun l bi MGC trn. Qu trnh thit lp lin kt c tin hnh theo 3 bc c bn sau: MGC yu cu MG th nht thit lp mt kt ni ti im kt cui th nht. MG ny s phn b ti nguyn cho kt ni yu cu v p ng li bng bn tin tr li. Bn tin tr li s cha cc thng tin cn thit MG th hai c th gi cc bn tin mt cch tin cy ti lin kt va thit lp. Cc thng tin ny c th l: a ch IP, tn cng UDP, TCP hay cc thng tin ng gi bn tin. Tng t, MGC cng yu cu MG th hai thit lp mt lin kt im kt cui th hai. MG ny phn b ti nguyn cho kt ni ny trn c s cc thng tin trong bn tin p ng ca MG th nht. Ti lt, MG th hai cng p ng li bng bn tin cha cc thng tin cn thit nhm m bo MG th nht c th gi cc bn tin mt cch tin cy ti lin kt va thit lp bi MG th hai. Cc thng tin trong bn tin p ng ca MG th hai s c gi ti MG th nht. Khi ny lin kt c thit lp, qu trnh truyn thng c th din ra theo hai chiu. Lu lng c chuyn ti nh cc giao thc RTP hay RTCP. Trong trng hp hai MG c qun l bi 2 MGC khc nhau, cc MGC s trao i cc thng tin bo hiu thng qua mt giao thc bo hiu t MGC ti MGC (c th l SIP hoc H.323) m bo vic ng b trong vic thit lp kt ni ti hai im kt cui. Khi ln kt c thit lp, cc tham s ca n c gim st bi MGC v c th c thay i di cc lnh ca MGC (v d nh thm mt kt cui vo lin kt). 5.2.9. Cc u im ca MEGACO/H.248 so vi cc giao thc iu khin cng phng tin khc So vi giao thc MGCP, phin bn MEGACO/H.248 version 1 c cc im ni tri sau: H tr dch v a phng tin, cc dch v hi ngh a im tng cng. Ci tin c php lnh vic x l bn tin hiu qu hn. C kh nng la chn giao thc TCP hay UDP. Chp nhn c vic m ha vn bn hay nh phn.
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Chng 5. Cc giao thc ch t

Cc gi tin ca MEGACO/H.248 chi tit hn MGCP, hn th na cc gi tin mi c th c nh ngha da trn cc gi tin c s ny. a ra khi nim context, khi nim ny h tr cc kt ni a dch v, a im.

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Kt lun

KT LUN
Bo hiu v iu khin c mt vai tr rt quan trng trong cc mng vin thng, y l vn quan tm hng u khi tin hnh xy dng v pht trin cc mng vin thng ni chung cng nh cc mng NGN ni ring. ng thi y cng l mt vn rt kh v phc tp. C rt nhiu cc giao thc khc nhau tham gia vo qu trnh bo hiu v iu khin khi thit lp cc cuc gi, trong mi mt giao thc li c mt vai tr v v tr ring. Trn y l cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c bn c s dng trong mng NGN m em tin hnh tm hiu c trong thi gian thc hin n ny. Trong , SIGTRAN l giao thc truyn ti cc bn tin bo hiu s 7 qua mng gi theo giao thc IP; cc giao thc ngang hng (SIP, H.323) tham gia vo qu trnh thit lp cuc gi; cc giao thc ch t (MGCP, MEGACO/H.248) gi vai tr iu khin cc MG. Hin nay, mng NGN c trin khai trn thc t vi s tham gia ca nhiu hng vin thng khc nhau nh: Simen, Acatel, Nortel,Ty theo loi thit b v gii php c a ra ca mi hng m s la chn cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin cng nh s phi hp ca cc giao thc c s khc nhau. Tuy nhin, do hn ch v trnh cng nh thi gian nn n ny mi ch gii hn tm hiu cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin mt l thuyt. Trong thi gian ti, n ny cn c hon thin hn na c v mt l thuyt v mt xy dng phn mm m phng. Rt mong c s gip v ng gp kin ca cc thy c v cc bn !jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj

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Ph lc

PH LC
LU X L CUC GI TRONG NGN

(1) Khi c mt thu bao nhc my (thuc PSTN) v chun b thc hin cuc gi th tng i ni ht qun l thu bao s nhn bit trng thi nhc my ca thu bao. SG ni vi tng i ny thng qua mng SS7 cng nhn bit c trng thi mi ca thu bao. (2) SG s bo cho MGC trc tip qun l mnh thng qua CA-F, ng thi cung cp tn hiu mi quay s cho thu bao. Ta gi MGC ny l MGC ch gi. (3) MGC ch gi gi yu cu to kt ni n MG ni vi tng i ni ht ban u nh MGC-F. (4) Cc con s quay s ca thu bao s c SG thu v chuyn ti MGC ch gi.

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Ph lc

(5) MGC ch gi s dng nhng s ny quyt nh cng vic tip theo s thc hin. C th: cc s ny s c chuyn ti chc nng R-F, R-F s dng thng tin lu tr ca cc my ch c th nh tuyn cuc gi. Trng hp u cui ch cng loi vi u cui gi i (tc u l thu bao PSTN): - Nu thu bao b gi cng thuc MGC ch gi, tin trnh theo bc (7). - Cn nu thu bao ny thuc s qun l ca mt MGC khc, tin trnh theo bc (6). Trng hp thu bao b gi l mt u cui khc loi th MGC s ng thi kch hot chc nng IW-F khi ng b iu khin tng ng v chuyn cuc gi i. Lc ny thng tin bo hiu s c mt GW khc x l. V qu trnh truyn thng tin s din ra tng t nh kt ni gia 2 thu bao thoi thng thng. (6) MGC ch gi s gi yu cu thit lp cuc gi n mt MGC khc. Nu cha n ng MGC ca thu bao b gi (ta gi l MGC trung gian) th MGC ny s tip tc chuyn yu cu thit lp cuc gi n MGC khc cho n khi n ng MGC b gi. Trong qu trnh ny, cc MGC trung gian lun phn hi li MGC gi yu cu n n. Cc cng vic ny c thc hin bi CA-F. (7) MGC b gi gi yu cu to kt ni vi MG ni vi tng i ni ht ca thu bao b gi (MG trung gian). (8) ng thi MGC b gi gi thng tin n SG trung gian, thng qua mng SS7 xc nh trng thi ca thu bao b gi. (9) Khi SG trung gian nhn c bn tin thng bo trng thi ca thu bao b gi (gi s l ri) th n s gi ngc thng tin ny tr v MGC b gi. (10) V MGC b gi s gi phn hi v MGC ch gi thng bo tin trnh cuc gi. (12) MGC b gi gi thng tin cung cp tn hiu hi m chung cho MGC ch gi, qua SG ch gi n thu bao ch gi. (13) Khi thu bao b gi nhc my th qu trnh thng bo tng t nh cc bc trn: qua nt bo hiu s 7, qua SG trung gian n MGC b gi, ri n MGC ch gi, qua SG ch gi ri n thu bao thc hin cuc gi. (14) Kt ni gia thu bao ch gi v thu bao b gi c hnh thnh thng qua MG ch gi v MG trung gian.. (15) Khi kt thc cuc gi th qu trnh s din ra tng t nh thit lp cuc gi.

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Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. L Ngc Giao & Nguyn Tt c, Nghin cu cc gii php iu khin kt ni v phi hp bo hiu trong mng NGN, m s: 017-2002-TCT-RDP-VT-07, Vin Khoa Hc K Thut Bu in, 2002. 2. Neill Wilkinson, Next Generetion Network Services, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, 2002. 3. The International Engineering Consortium, Next Generation Networks, Web ProForum Tutorials: http://www.iec.org. 4. The International Engineering Consortium, SS7 over IP Signalling Transport & SCTP, Web ProForum Tutorials: http://www.iec.org. 5. Matthew C. Schlesener, Performance Evaluation of Telephony Routing over IP (TRIP), B.S.E.E. Kansas State University, Manhattan KS Fall 1996. 6. Handley, SIP: Session Initiation Protocol, ietf-sip-rfc2543bis-02.ps, Schulzrinne/Schooler/Rosenberg ACIRI/Columbia U./4-2001. 7. Josef Glasmann, Service Architectures In H.323 and SIP: A Comparison, Munich University of Technology (TUM), http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/s

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