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12-1 ircular Post, in Compression da “, R= 3R= 4800Re— R= léoolb. da" 1.2 in. der 24in, Norma! in Part At a . Oa Ra” Faaet AIS psi e— 8) for Eqval Stresses -BrR _. oke & Ou Re = EGany = Onn I415 psi Solve for R: P, =4800b <— Alternate Selution Ph _ fiche Ooe= “he ¥ de A ae ne Gee Gu dy BeBe on RRL YI dee 12-2 Long Steel Red tm Tensions Ps900N Ls 30m oe L d= 6mm Weight. Density: ¥= 77.0" W: Weight of Rod = ¥ CYolume) 2 AL P+900N rsa, we Pee Xe z = Cte (Som) + gos = 2.3 Mee + BO MR CO F= Compressive force in Piston Red de Diemeter of Picton Rod = 022m. Equililorive ats Brake Pedal EM,= 0 F(2.0in.)- PCO.) =O Got) (Be )= 55 tb Compressive Strees_in Pitton Rod | F 55h 7 . G2 =Founpy 7 1450 pi -— | [1.2-4 ] Aluminum Tube in Compressio t Strain age © Tas 9.679 Tee = 12.334 F . TTensile_stresgeg in the wives Crs® HE = 19,700 pet — Ee S40 «10% Cie TE & 26,100 pie L= 500 mm d,= 60mm d,s SOmm Shortenin: the bar $= EL.= (640 *10%)(600mm) = 0.270 mast — (b) Compressive. Load P S240 MPa As F Laid] =F lGom* (Somes?) = 863.9 mm? P= oA =(40 MPa) (863.9 mm™) =34.6 kN +—— Use the following areas > A. outer rectangle. = (1.2m) (9m) 1.08 ma? Aut As= quarter - cirelar spandrel Appendix D, Case 12) Wires ala Free “body Diagram of Reint B AazAs = U-%) 7? = 0.019314 mt Tia Tec 235° fx 50" of Pier A=AAs-As LO414 mi? GiAverage compressive _ stress ak =aiRR = 7.20 MPae— Q)loordinaies of Centroid C From tymmetry, Y= 4 (0.9m) = 0ASm<—— 6 d= 25 wile =0.025 in. a An EE 24909 x10 mt Y x WeISh Equations of Eqpilibrivm ZFe=O ~The cos + Toe Cos 20 L£Fy20 Thu smXK +TacinB-W =O Substitute. numerical valves: ~The (0.8108) + Tic (0642.79) =O TBs @-57358) + Tee (0.76604) = [5 fo BEAL (See Chapter: 12, Sechion 12.2) for Area L: X= (2m) = 0.6m [CONT. | 12-6 CONT. For Arca 2 or 3: Ko %s= 0.9m + zeny Car_on inclined track Fige ~ body diagram of car Ww = 0.9m + 0.23299 m WeWeight ef car = 1.13294 m TaTenle fore m X= E1TKA— 22,Ag] T eksAngle: of Metine. 1 = pana LO-e-NCL0nm*) As Effective avea % 1.132% mX(0.01934 m)] of cable 0.580m <—— B,,R.=Wheel ‘ (ne Friction force between Wheels and. rails) vilibrium in the inclined direction FeO Gh ye T-Weint=0 T= Wenn Tensile. In the cable al = Num ena a Substitvre_numerical valves? WHO KN = K=Z2° AW 480 mnt 6 = Sug enGsin 2°) Gn 29) = 21 Mm Equilibrium in the inclined divection Ho—e BF A..F Misinetno Retuining wall braced by wood shores wel raced By weed Sores T= Wein Tensile stress in the cable Avorea of one Or = La Wand A=(6.0m)(6.0 im.) a = 36 nz Substitvtc numerical values: Wel@k A&=30° Asx 0471 int Or ENE) = 1a est a Cus Coss Cra lsinee Equilibrivm ZMi20 OO FSF) © Cvi2F4) +Cn 5H) =O G5 KMS fe) + Cin 30°12 f+) + Coss fr) =O 2. C2 30.83K Compressive. stress in shore. 30.83K _ J EASE 20.856 si crane with girder and cable HeLém L,=3.0m As Sa mom c u te Tron Free -body ara of girder T e- Tetensile force A A ar =I " ¢ im cable t Bom Sm P32 [Cont + 12-10 CONT] 4 ents) Cashorizontal component of C | “Tensile foree tn cable ~™*¥ e c Cer vertical component of C | Ts FRESE = GomroGemF = loz" (Average Strain in cable. LatlSm Aveffective area af} s c of Cable a: . q 12 4 Equilibrivn 2M,=0 DO Fy (B-Om) = (32 KN)A.S mm) = O a 48kN br. 3.0m 0m 6 Tas HUHP) 1 tensile Strece_in Cable. 102 KN nate ae oly ee T. oats Le length of cable LVR*=LF = 34m §astvetch of cable $= 5.1 mm $, Blmm = 1500 «107° en » << Gs? aa crane With girder and cable H=9f L=12F Lartfe An effective: aven pes moat nd +4000 Ib Free ~body diagram of due sable Pa Te tensile ' eb” Jeaocots Eqpilibrivm EMA20 PD > TiCirte) C000 te) C16 fe) =O Ty 12,000 b eb pt sh G) =(2,000 8) (3) = le,000% “Tensile force. tn Cable, Ts [TESTE « [Cems Cz conye = 20,0006 Average Tensile stress_in. cable. 200 le © 42,500 pci — aT. Bocow TK? Canine in in Le of cole LVHF4LE = ISS $+ stretch of cable §+0.382 In. eed = = 2120%10°%. 0.202 Ws) orked ¥ Le ve of st side of nite br a slale Y= Weight densi ot reinforced cb We weight of slab atte Dale = LVz Dimensions of - AB. eh chedy diagram of heok at point A Wi Tatensile force ina cable. u te of diagonal of slale ae cable. = eee od TTT Coble AB wT gh) (DD 12-12 CONT! eats, 2 Fur =O fo | WAT =O Tw (ea.2) + Combine Eqs. () & (2) 7 ae) ey ER 2 Tensile. Stress na calole ‘Aa effective ores-cecttmal area of a cable. T Oa = Ne <-— Subetivie numerical valves and cbtwin Oe! L=25m b8225 wm As190 mm* He LG o Se 24 et We YLAE = (24 HYfnd) (2.5 o)® (225 mam) =33.75 kh Or Paws = 66.2 MPa tating Bar = Avaply, speed Oo kB Azcrms~ aves! e © Xe weight density 3s Liamass density i We wish 4p find the axial force Fic bathe bar at Section D, distance % from the midpoint C. Teoh uals the inertia farce. of OTe voting Vor from Din ©. die wet CONT. erties an element of mass dM at $ from the midpoint C. The var ranges | from X to L- dM-ZA aS Tlensik tests of three materials AF «Inertia force Ceonerifogat force) of element of mass dF= Cam) (g10%) =F Auras fre {ars fF “Eawrsas =¥A iaet (-x2) Tensile stress tm bar at wpe x Orne we x4) <— (6) Maxt mum setae stress wrt — 24 Percent Le = 50mm Forcent elongation = (1) (100) €a.1) where Li is in millimeters. —_—- ou = Apcb= (00) = (-I )loo Rercent reduction in rea = Asa G00) d= Final diameter ol Hanging _wive of length L_ W= fotal weight oe mnestmadd copper wire. = wig! she ‘tes of copper X20 Ope = a 580 Uf, Bue weight density of sea water =63-BhLS rf A> cross-sectional area of wire] @) Wire hanging in air We¥eAL, Sux = ao Lowe Seat = ZEPer (144 8p,2) =6470 fr <— b) Wive hanging In sea water Fetensile force at top of wire, Fe (8-8 AL Free =F (be SL Ou we 28 a a = cig, ne) Lane = 2 =7310 f& <— do initial diamebor de = 12mm H=(4 (Ay Percent reduction in area = LI~(4)*]&100) where. dy is in mii meters (2.2) ee Dectile. Strength = to -weight ratio vitimate stress OF for each material The is obtained from, Table H-3, Appendix H, ged He weght deity 8 is ah seed From Table The strength -4o - weight ratio (feet) Ie Reses = PURE (lo! Ma Cine) =F (en10®) $= elongation of bar CD J=L3-L, =0.0653L Strain bar cd = 2 by From the ctress- Strain diagram of Fig. iz: CRA) kei on B40 MR <— Titaniom has a high Strength -te-welght Symmetrical framevorle ratio, which is why i 1S Used In space vehicles and high-performance. alrplanes. Aluminum alloy Aluminum Is much higher than order ange Steel which wukes it desirable for Eg? 0.0713 commercial aiveraft. Nylon and some P words have a higher vatto than Use, streas- strain diagram of Figure I-13 4 5 2 YY Ir length of bar BD * Lye distance BC ordinary sheet SL eoth«L (cot48") =0.4004L. Latlength of bar cd sLcecot= L (ese 46") =1L.3456! aptnin diaara Fiver 1912. mn of bar BD =Egnl CS Lelength of bar BD Ly distance BC - Leotec cL (etSo'yeossqu| bsX/Li +O eal) = (foro E rome Lye length of bare 313994 L aL ceete LleaS0") 1.50641. 1 f= clongation of barr CD e mn of bar BD= Ego §+L,-L, = 0.0538L Ew L * 0.0839L Strain in bac = & =22522L. ao.0400 Ly=distonce CE ner Ly ~ hacer Le=JT} + @ ent} = eam ot Graceny] From the sheas- strain diagram of Figure 1-13: *1.3707 L. On 32ksi <+— “Tensile tect of a plastic poten stress-strain daha given th the. iy Statement, plot thevstress ~éhain jo.00010 Jo.o0020 Stress y Jo.00100 Brita) . lc. 00166 00196 fo.00215 0.00235 lo-00270 0-c0a1s 0.00480 e005 10 00660 o-ct5> loose loo2s35 [0.05640 Strain, Oe ere Tortora leat Ort 24 IMR i lus of elasticity (slope) 22 4GRer] cn OF = yield sete ot 0.2% offset (rs) Oy = 53M% <— Material is brittle, because the Stain after the proportional limit Yexceated is nasa Srnall, <— or test of high-strength steel d,=0.505 In. Lo=Z.00 in. 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 A= age = 0.200 in? Strain Conventional stress and sivain Enlargement of part of the stress-strain Curve: o-k 6a be 100, 14-1 CONT. Renmanent Sob = Enl =-(0.0021) (60m) ON Proportional mit 265,000 psi @—— Final length 15 O.13 w. longer than Modulus of elasticity (slope) ~30 «10° pei the original length. —<—— Yield stvess at 01% offset 2 69,000p wm) 21.5 mm Firal les is 15 mm longer than the orlginal levgth. -—— bar in tension Le loin d= 0.70 mn. Pai2.5 k See Fie. 1-13 for street ‘vain dlagrane Slope from O te A Is 10x 108 pai. Sivecs aad strain ot point & sl2Sk . nf Koray: 732-5 ks From Fig 13? Eg 30.05 Elastic recovery Ga = IS EE ea 2 = 0.003, Bee 25 Rectiwal strain Cx x *Ep- €x# 005 0.00825 = 0.047 hte eecreey BE ete ) Pernmnent sot = Ea» (0.047}lein) 0,75 in. tte Q)Proportional timit when reladed =m Og 732.5 kei e— L= 150 mm From 0'-€ diagram’ Ab point At (Jn), <88 MP €x= 0.002. = Gen = BBM Slepe =“ Ea"= "9.002. Stress and strain ot point B Sant = Frome = O00 From o°-€ diagram Oe" (Om) ,=1CO Mm =44 Gm 6x = Ey ~ Gg =0.006- 0.00364 =0.00236 QPermanent sof = gl = (0.00286) 750mm) £L77 am <——— QPreportional lawit when reloaded = (On)2. =160 4 ——

i decrease in | ) (Mins means (anys, means decrease. tn i fon ‘ Cio pane - cae neh ot Assume Hooke’s law ren for the ny Axial stress Axial Sess, | T= EC = “5G ‘GaEe= - Ad Gis means, crapennive cea) pa . tne mene compressive hece) nie force, p= lola EAM Po BEd, Bde Substitvte: numerical valves? Pa Ri4so kiN TS in NCO. in) 74. 3k. (0.30)¢2.25 ms.) ao Wie Note: oa £ = 4.1 ksi, wie Senor Note: ons E =43k6i , which is less tan the Alow inv = in tension Vie sivecs fr high Strength cteel. | L*3.0m dado ss E134" De = $= 1.0mm GOGI-TS ateral hain 6'a -VE= re Table H-2: E*70GR 1=0.33 = 0.007778 Table H-3: O%= 270 MPa Gsinos means shortening ) Strain 6/2 ab Ad _=0-012m™ «9 py 100 tai Lateral Strain Pas One ened = (p.000rr1s}(eomm) 30,0233 mm (170.3 MPa) (A) (30mm) =I20kKK —— Bar of ronel metal in tension d=0.30in. P= 2500 bb. VY =0.32 La15m. E= 25,000 kei Axial Sivess O=Re Fac GrWis sirece ic lees than the yield stress, so Heoke’s law ts applicable.) e+ Fn 2H ano0105 25,000 | $= €L= (0.001415 )CI5 in.) =0.02IZin=e—|] Ex lb,000Ki- e's ve = (0.82 \(0.001415) Ad =|é'ld = (00004528) (0-80 m) 000 136 in. Decrease in Crocs - Sectional area Original aren A= Ra* Final fovea Aas E(d-ad)"= Bf d*2dad Oh] Decrease In avea =AA= AAs, = Blad)(2d- Ad) Recent decrease in aren $4. oo) = Ba Ge-A4) Goo) = (0.000126 in) (0.5999 in.) {0-30 in.) (loo) 50.00 —— 25001635370 psi High-Strength Steel wive in torsion] d= 3mm $= 3T.tmm Late PaZ.SkN Ad=0.0022. mm Qi Modulus of elasticity 7 an ee = 495.2 MA Assume this stress ts below th yrtronal, limit te Phat Hocke’s as 1 Yaka SSL eof = a 0.002478 < Az EE = Sea 1) Poisson's ratio Lateral Strain? 6's-DE pares ein Ad =\e'|d= ved ey = -0.002:2.mm @.002473 KB mom) = 200 GR ——— =0.30—— Pa a5k Ad, = 0.0047 im. Cincronse in dlameter) tg Ada 9.0007 Late) stain, 6'a ao OT. = TA0.7 *10~* (Increase) Increase in_w abrete = (07 Axial Stress OT = g om BRK re = BT. teat (compression) Kieren that this stress (s lees than the eld. stress br the bronze So that Hooke's law ts valid.) Axial strain G=-2=SLI4 ksi = 2321 Jo-* pxial strain, €~E Piao ig 22 IO 196.7 10% ee — asm vio = OA Brace connected to column S bolts im single shear Pacompressive load in brace 5 ke diameter of belts Gq Shenin nF 2% mn. oe te thickness of plates =m. 1a) Slope of diagonal line OA Elongation in ¥ direction = AL Shortening in y divection = Ab ALT exL> Ch Ab= Véxb= 2ZE b-Ab . b(E-vor) Slope = PoRh = Teas (Note that the slope decreases) lg) Average shear shess_in bolts TCaven? £, PAS. Av= area ef three bolts =3(B)dg =0.9204 m2 Cones Est 15980 pc 1b) Bearing tiveee betcen plates and belts Ib) Increase. in area © vont face on ela = Initial area = bl eG, Avs Bdat=0.4680 Final area = (b-Ab)(L+AL) Ope Sk = . fo = SSE =1I,180 pei Ib) Horizontal displacement 8 =Ynese t= (0.201) (12mm) = 3.61 mame e-12, CONT. Sao oe Tee ak : Bcnly deren Loney ee pe Tetensile force in chain (Width of keyway = b/2) dy= diameter of pin EMe=O@ DS PL-F(d ek) =o =O Fe 4PL ws we “of boy thy? wam of bo fe fax! woyant force of water presse tale the weight of th Free-bedy diagram of clamp “GiYpiacea co wos | Free-body diagram of clams V= volume of buoy te h=10.0 in. C= 4.0 in |r Pn 05.45 Yu V= 4,180 ao t 1 ai 1 l Eqvilibriom Ta Fe-W = 230 Ib Ay ¢ shear Stress ih Ap =avea of pin = Ar= Bde = 0.196 ume Te =6060 pei <— Bearing stress between pin and shackle A =2d,t = 0.2500 in* = = 9520 ci ak 1) Downward dicplacement § S=chear strain at distance x P = ve Eee Seaton Ag dwt exiundma ti Bediaestar JEP Tauoms As = Cason (Td) iy? lacement = (2AM Pa) Cr) (22 mm) (10mm) as = Xdr =e = 145, N oc te fi-Se = a bre Sane | = zangth ae R= 2(451N)=2900N based bearing pressure = 38M Bearing area Ay = 3 (dade) Be AL =U.emrallS fea)? (on)*] 1337 N = 2.(1337N) @267ON | Atlowable_load Bearing pressure. governs. L=15.0 430.25 b ei P< & Ba cnetot ps a Gramm =13,000 p85 Some =0.03 be BFwena =O Ru =Tegl5* = 0.9597 BFvege 20 Rye T-Tsintst= 0.74127 V= shear force in pin Va JR eR = 12175 T te based open shear 1 tn the ping V= Casson Arras = (4000931) (E)(0.60 tm )}*= ZOU tb VeLastT 9 Tapia = lesz Total_allowable load =4T=6608 b ow b allowable tens Shafis with flanges To =torque transmitted by bolts y= bolt diameter = 0.75 in, dsdiameter of bolt arcle =bin Truss = Hs Fachear force in one bolt Tea4r (4)= 2rd Allowable shear in one bolt Fm Tamone Avoer = (14 Ksi)($) (0.75 in.)? = O.185k Mast in les | Maxinwm forge, a Tea ZFd =2(6.188)(o Im) = 74.2 Kim Total allowable, load= 4 Tums =Xi800%) = 72o0k ia the pins Total allowable load = 6608 tb Haximum load that thovld be carried = = 6608 * - 15008 = 5100 b <-—— [u7=6 T Wire hanging from a. balleon_ d=2.0 am L=75— LL oy= 350 MR Maryn of safety #15 mae safety = nn 2. Chasen = = 140 MPa a density of steel? X=77.0 "Mle? Weigt of wire = W, =¥AL=¥ (EE) CL) = (17.0 Yat) (BY 2-0mm) US) =181N Total load = Wage *We ‘Aluminum tube tn Compression da * inner diameter = 20mm Aske = E(at-d2)=116. Tam? a y= 270 Mea, Os =21OMPA F8.= 4 FS=5 Gay = 270 MP Cisurws = 310. MPR 4 5 = 67.5 MPa = 62 MPa The ultimate, Stress governs. Allowable compressive force Paasowe = Onzanme Arvne = (62 Mi) (76.7 one) =1.0 KN —<<— Lifeboat supported bby cables, Woe *Wo = OisumeA = Chiene(EES) Free ~bedy diagram of pdley enue Cum CEE") Wh vee Pin diameter d=0.00 im) UO Say ye Pin T Te tentile force Mone = (140 mea) (37) (2.0 me)* = 181 NE eon = 439.88 - IBA Ris = 1800 b y ta = 4000 pei "1 | Tes wht of ‘lifeboat = 15 Mus = 4220 <— 20 ‘Cast iron piers tm Compression Four Oe =50ksi ned Onsoes = 12.8 ksi d=4.5in. +20 dos 3-7in. = E(d-42) = F450) 3.70?) SZ n> Ri= Allowalole lead on one pier = Orsons A = (12-5 tet (5.152 in?) s6440 kK Total load = 4P, = 4{64.40k) = 258k <— agram of one arm C=damping force R= reaction at pin 2290 mm ¢ b= AD mm d =diametor of pin Fomm fin, EM sO FO ch-Pa=o cn BF war =O fr{- Pre-R=O Re Pre =P(Ir$) = CCR) V=R= shear force in pin Maximuin possible clamping force Come Une = 320 MPa Vour = Cour Aeve = (32000) (H) (6 ml* me [Maximum allowable load Prams 9.048 “jeter 7 2-784 nr 2.784 eat o FS Note: An applied force P=ZOK\ produces a clamping force C=45N. ra awP'S 6: 27P Spar d= 3.125 in 4, =2.750 tm. Aalom 20.5 in. = 15N <— Sea Pim? Plates: joad P based upon comy jon im the Spar = 1.0 wa Acs RUE) = E[(s.1asiy* (2.760017) 1.7303 in? P= Oe de = Lit.o uci yl 7308 a>) = 19,03 Alto wehbe P based upon shear in the pi double shear” Fran = 7-0 esi Ase 2.32) = Bronte ts 708 mt P= Tasos Ae (720 kes!)(1.5708 int) =11.00 le uF load P_based loearin: = N.0 ket Aga2 dt = 2U.06)(0.5 x) =1.0 at Py= OF Ay= (017-0 kat)(0in7) #1 00% Shear im the pin governs. Prstons = 1.0 Keg A =P (24m) + (Rel (0.9) =0 @a = $P Fea = Compressive. force in Strut, Fea = (Won E) = (R)(EP) = SP Shear in bolt (dosble shear) =n Av = [Allowable load P Patoet * 35 (Fen)aty * E5 Cotmd® ——— Substitute nwmerical values: Cate = 90 MPa d= lomm Ultimate load based upon tension Im the bars Grose -Sectiomal area of bars: Rx One A® One bt =(60tu0i-)(0.875ia}H0.37Sin.) 219.69 s shear in the vivets dediemeter of rivets 20.5 in. Ar = avea of one rivet = WE 20.103 nt Pa 2 Tae Ar= 2 (30ksi) (0.1963 m2) =11.78 ke Ultimate. bas. Au= bearing avea =dt Pye Oy Ag = (Bo ket).5 tn.)(0.876 in.) = 15-00 ke Uitimate load Shear goverss food Dovble thear Pot = N7BK ise Pappliea force (constant) C= compressive fore in Connecting vod. Rp= resultant of reaction forces between Cylinder and piston Cre friction) 2 Finn, 20 GP tS PCr =0 P=Cosx loximum Compressive Cin connecting ved Coma = OE Haximom allowable force P P= Conn Coser SOA ose moxie allowable force P occurs when cos x hac Hs smallest value, which means that o has it largest valve. pyogst_valve. fh Ase The a aloe of = n Faint B is the farthest B from line AC. The distance 1s the vadive R of the crank aym. Therefore , ha aE ose EE = Ey Je) Maximom olewable force P Ram = A JI= (8)? —— Ib Substitute vwmerical valves : = I50MPo A> 63.62 mm® R=0.28L Pew = 9.16 kN Bar with a hole, NT-\4 CONT. Cross section of bow Length of String ACB. From Case 15, Appendix Ds | b= “det Bk = ARP Aslera- ~ ah) Zh-b=L, sine ref asd From Eayations (2) and (3)? ba [rt =a dns Ltan® =Ls Sine on Lal cos® dle a zarccos 418, cos EE (?) earecos (Ye) Angle 8 (Draw @ ric An2(4)* Levees § - GGE)) triangle) Ls ws = (i* t sin LE = E(erccost - HE) = 0.52804" Es 1) Allowable load in tension =F RF 8) Ramu * Chang A = 0.53804" Org, <—~ | SES From Ea. (i) r P*ZT sind a Ib) Subsite numerical vaves Pearl t-(Ey Ce) Cine = Omi d= 1Sin. Allowable. tensile force T in the string Paw 12.4 <—— S= breaking strength of stri ne “fae satety o Tetone =$- (F) Allowable “toad Pp From Eq. (6)? Pa2tji-(e) 2 Patton = 2 Teens rE =28 7G) — Free-body diagram of potut C ‘Substitute numerical valves = vr Ik tensile Force in string | S=20ON n=3 “eat SFr = 0 3] Letom P Lg=h-25e0 P22T sme) | Pare =BON Tobular Compression member Paagk ab ta04m. Cites 291500 pei A= BL? 4-2e]= Baeyd-t) By = Tt (d-t) L=heot ® #(h-b)cok® AZh—b) cot O | P= Crum A = wees +t) Cattose LZh-b =Ltand (B) Solve. for dt d= fe ar +t 15-9 | Bolted connection Substitvte numerical valves: or dase = loa yTEe AT * OF m = 4.105 in. + 0.4 in. al =4.50_ <+— PB=2 Vertical pipe with a brace Pais h=hom jakon drdincter ral ee cs th Free-bedy diagram of column OD PEIN. tensile force inAB t= length of AB ay smo DO atl fh Tah) -P(Zh) =O Single belt in dovble. hear P= 1800 tb Tetons = 12, 000 psi O; = 20,000 psi t = Fie in Find minimom diameter of bolt: Based upon shear in the bolt =f wat Ave DL Ctews LT atow a a? 25 =, 2P te a Tpoo pay 70.309 im. eased upon bearing between plate and belt afl af. a de « The2P = 301s 8 55 i 1 L [Minimum diameter of belt t af Le JBFRT =34— [Shear goers — min =0-30% in, —<— roe FE-E T(E) -ComGss) =e T Tetensle force in cable Weweight of steeltube. Shear in the bolt at support A d= diameter of pin Show force aT aot we bys inner dimension of tube wuble shear = 210 mm Ara = Fa* byzovter dimension of tub] 250 mm Dro Catone =T Lelength of tube 2 =6.0 m 2.(BE) (55 ea) = 34 kAL NS Lae come d*= 393,55 mnt Om IOMPa min = 19. mo <— fs it density of steel 277.0 Wud Azarea of tube BbE-b* = 16,400 mme 24 We YeAL=(77.0 "Hfs) (18,400 002} (6.0m) | stant Soe oct cover plate from =8.50) KH Diameter of pin based upon shear Fep (GP) Dovble shear, .2 Tam Apm =W. Number of bolts 2leomea)(E)4* = 8.501 tal A*=90.20mm* | Pa tensile force in one belt 4AAiten | pa Fe BED Diaweter of pin based vpen beavis Gelby-b)d = aw denen one bolt =F de (90 MAA (40mn)d =B.SOl Kent d= 2. Sham | B= Hensile stress in a bolt =f wee" 2 nk = 32° (eg) - BE Minimom diameter of pin Shear gverns. — dain = 9-50 mm —M— |p? Svepender He on a suspension brtge | « Piers - wmerical valves? f Fetensile incable | P=I9OOKR D=Z50—mm dp =l2mm above tie O Petensite in cable t = tensile force im oa :8 oe Manin 12. belts an = allowable tensile in the tie —_— 3, =ovter diameter dy = inner diameter diagram of Wulf the tie. += wall thickness ier ria 4 small ore of the cable. =0.5 in, diagram T= tensile force in a cable fe athe force in the tie, vee triangle K Pp cok O= ~ ‘= e To Pete IG)Substitvte viomerical valves? |Equate areas and Solve: for dat P=30K G2 75° Cts 12,000 psi ate. . Te (d,-t) Awin= 0.670 in? —<-— Pressurized cylinder ss [Substitute numerical valves? ey deseo (admin $6.38 in, <— Caro = 10 MPa N= number of belts oF <8] Bar with a hole 18-9 CONT. J Geome a cable ite = 28 wm Paiz5e 8 = 250 MPa c17 engine HF he20 h he height Caton = 12.5 MPR A hea fe) + (6 fe) (14 f* die Goth bande [force ina cable ppendi Ta force in one. cable Gases ea T Tye vertical component of T a= die /2, = 14 wen Snares $ sarceon Mp arcen A © Each cable carvies the same Gdewillimeters) KR Ty as lego. b= 2 Tool, bafyt-at =[G)h ie ok Anaente£) y=4t =k ay =2(8)*Lancos F - qVF] ToT Ty = 3150 A= di arccos 2p ~ 28 G =m CD vived_avea of cable [Requived area Aca qa Bek = 0.13] int ge ALE ML 1 000 wn (HE) 24,000 ate (1) and (212 farce 28 - 2B](GP- 196 = 1000 wa™ the yaction > dPoreess - 28 fae- Ter -200 =O Bar with pin connection Grmilimeters) Width of bart b= 60mm Wve for the minimum diameter A ty p t=lomm danin = 56-6 0 mm rae Fito = 40 MPa, side Cali = 80 M4, d= diameter of pin be load based, ion F, = Cita Anet = Gets (b-d)t = (140 Mfa) (COmm—d) lOmm)= 400(60-d) RieNewtons d=nillamcters Cage hoisted by a crane 8 Dimensions of cage: Bf 12 Fr Length of a cade a Car= 84 ks = 84000 - Hood (™) Factor of safety “#25 —— [attwuable los based upon shear tn pin Citen = Fist = Shes = 24,000 pei Double shea ®, po Tan (ist )= Cao (HE) =o aye) d* Frrnewtons deatllimeters| =40nd* (2) 26 1) Maximom load eccvrs when =P 2 94,000 - 400d = 40 nd? Solve quadratic eqpatton: d=20,88 mm due 20.9 me << 1G) Maxiwiom load Paax= 84000 - ood = 40nd * = 54,900N «54.6ki =) [Shear on planes eb and fe = Ty C2) Ge) (heh) =G BMP) (2) (Emm) (25mm +4) Cho) =0.2580(S0+d) (9) Graph of Eqs. ), (2),and (3) Cin.) Also plot lines for 4 12.10.68. Note that the largest d eceore with 4: 12, 2 Use $12. Substitute 4-12, or t= 45 , into Ey.) and solve. for a dts Be d?=20.835 im? dens 4.56 in FO Gb wa 8 Diameter d Gam) @) Maximom P when 0.6120 (50-d) = 0.2580 (50 rd) Solving , d= 22.26 mae du 222.3 ue —<—— Kb) Load Paax. Substitute dx into Bq (1) on (3)> t= =0.3804 Az weld-t) = 5.000 n> Conscie) om & = 8, air ksi Coneeny Bar with a pin connection te ban Pane 718-6 KM <——— Pp hE sprees ie CTS Ti ts cing Sad ha ZS mm ON Mm — Z Ts tensile force tn each Saeeesteste © bee =0 ag ep Tt Zim CE BE ale te bed ae eh and along phnes men) Units used in the following calculations + Pis in KN Tarde are in Nim (same as MPa) +,bh, and d aye in mm Tension ih bay ReO;% (b-d) =(t2 Mik} Comm) 50 me-d) Cra55-) =0.6720(50-4) — (&) bt density of material = Let bees ne Foe We 2¥Alac =2¥(52 aap )(-stoe) Ww —3Pk ea. ZOatms Sind 58 Co) YiPiL and Cann are constants Wraries only with @ Let k=ZEE— Cu has units of force) x or 0 6 when 0 = 45° <— W is minimom on. 1 4()= (sine) (eos) (0) - 1(-xin"® + cos*@) ale Tne SS =0 Sin28 = cos?@ Sin8 > cos 6245" —— [we bars sveperting, two loads Yeweight density o| btm atest st ie G,=Allowable stress F—eP T= tensile fre m the 2 bar Al in Lelength of bar AB 2F “steel “Fase wn of Faint B Fas = 02 “Tees +C.cos® -2P =0 Eb Faonce = 0% “Bind +C os +P=O 2 we Solve the eqpations :T=£ (ake + [Cross ~ se. \ area of bar AB Awe sts (tw + dee) Volume of bar AB Awl = aot (ans oy = et 2 W"= cine coee * Coste Graph of W* versus © Onin = 291° <¢—— Weight of bar AB Gubstihte Onin =291 in (8) > Went at ewe? a PHY Wha = Ww" (SE) toa (Eas) Hemabe_Solv ti wv Ovi Dekermine winimum valve of @ by dif ferentstion From Eq, (8) Lwit— (sind cos B)(oh ~1(-sin® Sin® +2050 coe) 140 (sind cosoy* $+ Gces © eweo)feoste Combine terms and arrange > JaWY _ (250 ~2c0s88 +4-sin?0 ie os*8 Sin’ See yal tp tere: Cos O~2cos*O + 4cin® «oO Find the rook of this equstiont Snin= 24104" SAY, Cain = 29.1" <— — END OF CHAPTER 1= ) Factor of safer) Por = 51,900 b (from Table 2-1) Frax = 10 tons = 20,000 Wb = Pu. Si900l = ne ido =~ 2-60 — T= tension in 20) \28#+ Vs verti eTeRe VO octet 207 We 321 =Z400 Pa compressive force in pole. V = 9600 lo f= shortening of pole ePh - (ooo te)(20 #002 /e,) “ER” * (0,000 ksi (18.0 in) = 0.0128 i». <—— Steel _wive and topper wire of cable. at ZL t f(Wda) + £(nde) corrsr, Equal lengths Sleek: Exe 2066 600 mn + 21,000mm + 236mm + 236 mon = 26,072 mm + Be= 5 GR . en * Elongation of cable : ¥ SEL WL __@zhi)(26,072 wm) _ Sheet ER “ZEA ~“Gilio,too es) — lp Use £9.23): |e ER AE eB =n (b)Ratio of diameters (equal elongotions ) S85 ER sEay Rohe = EAs Be(H)d2 = Es (Pdr ofp 4 wf ere 4 [Esa dadiameter of discharge hol RIL papresure intank * 4 ‘Pnea™ Pressvre when valve SPSS L= natural length Spring yh) “s k= stiffness of spring [Force in compressed Spring Fak(L-h) (From Ey. 2-la) A= 0.268 in? (from Table 2-1) W= 7 tons = 14,000 b E = 20x 10° psi L340 ft = 460 in. @)Stretch of cable §sPi = 0. EA ~ (20%10%pxi)(0.268in>) =125 in serfs Po Pana (SE) as and solve fo FeP K(L-A) = Hee ha L-B ead - 30 Pointer supported by @ spring = body diagram of pointer aE ae Eileen rt b fates 6 b= 200 mm $= ee of prin Fe force in =k$ or S=fe let a=argle of votation on pointer ABC ~h 2 ake ane Kee SF tans Two bars connected by Springs k= sti | a §2 dlaphcnen ot int Ce A= -tensile force in eee ‘Spring a ee a: + Be 4S aptiatt 2M, 50 £40 =0 2bP- 2b +b =0 “bh + 2bR=0 SeWings po AE. ue oe Displacement diagrams 8 ne hf ea ‘Second ‘Sanghinn of First on [Z.2-7 CONT. Aas Sertgning of seam spring oe Also, A\= a. a" oy Solve the equctions Aza, %- 38 = 42 "ae fe ‘ Beawse bars AD and DC are in Jpint C disphces to the right. (a) ag of ADC. = a Pu & 4EAR gubetiote. numerical Valves? P2120 kN att = Gem .ond® AEAW ~ 4(200GFa)(3000 mm") U.S) =120 0m Cb) Maximum permissible load Prose (SeYeeage = 2-0 moe 229 Wt [Z2:2-9 J Steel rai in tension P 4 B, d=0.375 in, Ce E= 30x 10b pci Lr oe Aye +H, shel, +P b-—A pe st00w Solve for x2 Anat =m eo EUK) ap heh - ts easing] X= FEES Lebarh le Ue, rye Ls 20mm, wbstiwte numerical valves intn 4. (9) ¢ X= 120mm —t— Z-2-11 | Copper bar in tension post i, be=25 f+ =300in. ar Ace 1.5 in? E x15H10%psi Lg =42in. Egedortotpsi AE Ag= 7.0 ind (one bar) Substiite. From Eqs. (5) and &) > te Pk im) =0.0208 EA (20% 10% psi) (0.1045. in.*) 002 Lina =L* 8 = 2.0.02 in. Seen (Ser ~ See) = gto8 es ~—— = O.0M48 in] =0,02010 in. bs = Ser HP See ~ Se) =0.0280 in, <-— (dowmuoard) “Tuo wives Supporting & load b= 1.0m @=55° P=225N EA=165 kN ie Lec = © hz 8 tanO = 14.074 mom Lee => b> + 81.723 be & = 500mm 5 137.337N Elongaction of wive 8C $= be = Pb “ER = FeAcind eb Displacement diagrana Be Lye bget Sgc= 812-449 mmm Trias Ne pes ‘Cc: (hes + (EF = LY (hess a ~ (EP =SU eT mom heh = TH4.%0 mm Ss 7H Abo mm = TA.NED vee ~ 114. 074 wom L= 0.886 mm $= 0.886 mun (cree) —k— [23-17 Bor with a slot Z5-ST Steet colwmns in a building R= 100K Lele ith of each colomn ° = 12h, = 44 in, P F exsorior pai ua | tte _[e pi[Bqteoe — Ang= 17.1 in? Arec= 6.1 int eee (EN $= 3,85 P(/4) , Pitz) , P() ER ~E(bt) * Elepe) ” Elbe) (A) Downward displace wert int C =. = & Niki TS Nash Nis Blatt t= = |e SER ERE ERE l(b) Substitute numerical valves? = {280 bd 1144 in) ¢ MOK N44 in.) O= Stress in middle part of bar Oro palent in)” Gorto® pei)(ot ins) = 24,000 psi 07860 in. +0.07864m. = 0.15724 ne L=30in, © E= 30x 108 psi e=ittet on Ns Gten of waddle part! of Bar J) Additional load fat pointe (Se)max = 0.2 in. $,= additional atsplacement of point C dve to} load Pe S.= (Sedwme - Se = OL. 0.15724 in. F00A27 im agMili s = Son 2B tee Teh = olla ind Pelle) GoxtopsiNiTi nA) * Goriorpsiler "| 23-2.) Bar with tapered ends Mil A § £ D Min 0.04274 im. =P (0.2807 40° 1*-/1y) + Po (078689 *10°* in-/ pm) =f, (oom nic fo =40, O10 Ib Gn.) on =40.0k — (An additional, ‘tad = 40.0% will by ‘dovinwiard sep of point C to ey 500 mm, 250mm = SOOmm dy=dp =12mm lds=de = 24mm End seqment 4pL From Example 2-42 *Tedde = AU4 kN) YO var = §*rizo anja Catmny TOS Middle. seam a Pl = UFO me) SER = aban OE) G4 end 0.3224 mm ni ys Elon. of bar i 2848, (0.2579 mm) + (0.3224 mm) =0.838am Pk setter bts ) Substitute numerical valves t b= 100m by = 150mm t= LS mw Ps 125 A $= 0.304 um — 724m E,=l006 — Ay= dg = 4905 mac core (a) Decrease in length ($20:1% of L=0.350 mm) ves as) ‘of Example 2-5. He oes ah Pa (enAateau)(E) Substitvte numerical valves > En An + Ex Ay =(12.GPR)(165. Simm} +1006) (A404 mm) =S5as5 na 4 tno mae 4,=0.25 m, E,= 15 10° psi d,=0,28%m, Ey = 30% 108 psi ds = 0.35 in, Ag= § (ddd?) = 0.03440 L = 4.0in, Ay= Ed? =0,049 in? @) Decrease in length ($= 0.003 im) Use Eq, (2-13) of Example 2-5. = EERE oF Paes rer auld) Substitute mwmerical valves > EAs t EyAy =(30%10% pai) (0.00464 in? P= (\ot. sano (eizeas) = NOLL b) Allowable toad K=BOHPa — O,=1Z0 MPa Use. Eqs. (2-12a and b) of Example 2-5. For aluminum? Pa=(Endn+ udu) (FA) En = PEA ___ EAA EAL V+ (= (104.23 Muy (SBE) = ts. BRN 5x04.) (0 o490ring)] (ieee 21-176 *10% For brass ¢ L Pa Cir 7esio* i) (2003) 13301b (cach cable) ta th e Eauation of equilbeive Equation of equilibrium First loading ‘ R= CORN (Each cable carries S:Fauz =O RatRo=P Ut) or 20kN) [Equation of compatibility § (@) ed sia Sa * ue Sen = © = : Sis an algebraic great (A positive valve means elongation.) R= 40KN (additional load) Force ~ Se eqvations RARER, — Equation of equilibriom ZFrac =O 2ForRe-R=0 (Tl) Sae= Safle = Gea) (55%) Expation of compat’ Hy Rell: ) a '9)] Sco= ~ElveAd e Force -displacement relations Solution of equations ete fot (Sa) [Substitute EG), rand (5) inte Eq.(2): Ean ERS we Take 4 CRaCPIL ma fa. Solution of equations EA, © SEA, () Substitute E4-(0) end 64, (A) into compateity (0) React Solve simul Fancoosly, E45: Wand Gt Rae Re sala Solve. Siputtoncoetly Eqs. () and (st ld) Displacements ot points 6 and Cc = Rpts town [SERA a) = aiz018! | fyaag AB = ER cto the right) = Ae J BR Gftranc) oun (zedeme_)= 4.40 tat ke =[Seel= Bob = Bem (te the right) <— Forces in cables ) Displacement diagram Middle cable + Force =20KN+2L20KN=41.20kN) Displacement Outer cable? Fevce = 2018 +9,40}A1= 24,40 KN| Tx, (each cable.) tobal 1 wide, C Per total load = 4120KN roent of total oom (100%) = 42 —— (b) Stresses in cables(o-=P/A) Middle alle? 0,,= 72088. =238MA—— Outer cables: o,= aoe. = 363M <<— Tem Oz alominum pipe Equation of equilibrivm GFa =O RarRe=2P Equation of Compatibility. bre =8re t Seu = 0 o Sis an algebraic quantity. (A positive value. Peas etc’ [Force ~ displacement velations Ek, ben” BRO [Solution of equations Substivte Eqs. (3) and (4) into Ey. (2)2 Ral _ Rs(2L) <9 @) Esky Bala e Solve. sivavltaneousty Eqs.(1) and (5) > fee eRe, a) Axial stresses Hn = BS res Greel? o3=Ra=tEeP ion) (8) eB Eee Geggion) b) Numerical results P=5OKN —An= 6000 mm? Ea=10GF_ E4=200 GR Substitvte into Eqs. (6) and (9) + a= {0.6 Mfa (Compression) —<— IG = 60.6 MPa (Tension) — = N40 MPa \ (120 GF L,= (00am) (Fora (too a) = (900m) (0.8) = 720 mm —<— Bow supported by three springs am fw [TH Rigid bor ABC L=10in, A K= spring stiffness L L = 80 Ib/in, Separate. the loading into 2 parts: Load system has ee Because load system #1 is symmetrical, the rigid bar will displace downward but not rotate. Therefore, we need only +e determine the rotation cavsed by ‘lend system ®2. Free-bedy diagram to be Compressive forces. Lood_ system #2 Eqvations of Eqvilibrium (Sesan*2) EFuet =O Father =P AY 2M, =0 BL +e (2L)=0 (2) Displacement diagram aS Disecacenswrs SARE ASsunED TO POSITIVE WHEN Equation of compatibility "°*N WOE 0 = Sate on %the-Z$s=0 (°S) ba k= Fe) tions Substitute (4), (5), and (6) into Eq (abt K-22 th = (2 Solve simultaneously Eqs.(1), (2), and (1) + RaSh Rad R=n£ tension eC rs Rae Displacements (from Eqs. 4,5 and) BE Sense k= te ene, Cownward) (Upward) Displacement diagram for load system * 2 sche» Bre e[- < OF O=ser eitehse [Substitute numerical values? = 24le is a ” b= Teoma Tom) = 00S red = 0.959 Note: The displacements for load system| *2 ave a follows i= BE = SHED, =0.250 in. (dowrmerd) Sear seb) = 0.100 in. (Downward ) Rabe 0.050 in. (Upward) The downward displacement of the bar cad system *2! under load system #1 is as follows : FF, Fe are assumed —Tht lob +Th_ 24h nr. 4a ok cio eG) 1c downward displacements under the three original loods ave as foltows : (.=0.250 im, + 0.1m. = 0,350 in. $4.7 0.100 in. + Olin. = 0.2.00 in. = =0,050 in.+ Dutin.= 0.050in. [24-14] Bar supported by two wires Solve. oad Eqs. 0) and (5): Tea 35Pe To* feet ee Stresses _m the wives = 2ePh Acta) Substitute numerical yalves * |Alact+d*) = ome o0me)*+ zoo mel] = BLOF * 10% mont _ dP. Oa Koa) | “= 2 (500mm) (ATON) (10D mim) eS Om # IOP mm = 50.0 MPa — fon Capps ma on Seni) = REM) Bhan Substitute. niwerical Yalves 3 = 2 (400 em) (9TON)(1600mm) 2 So" GooamyGLO4 Htmary 820M I> Heserical ‘data = 18.0 in. b= 36.0in. B tul4din. k,=tAblin. K.= 210 lin. Ouae=2°= % radians fee-bosy iets ms and — a Far tr Sy is ilibrivm Faay-Pled +Fo(b) =O CF ili Force -displacement relations Fa =f Soo tions Substitute (3) and (4) into B.(2)* we. aK, ~ “ba, mtn ma) hm SE, Fo aE ee ee o=k=8P eto Ke, Moxie load PeBatkyt le.) Ran S(t, tha) [2445 CONT] : Substitute numerical valves > Onax = vod Pane = M004 116.0 (AB) +o.010F C108 > 144 is. Gob] g = 24en Bla Maximum load P_ Omen (07K, + b?k 2) at! Substitute numerical valves + Pray = CPA) [C250mm) (ISR) MESO mn) 2S Pax 110 Ib <—— Free~body diagram of the bar Re et = mn Hon _of equiibrivrn 4M.70 FO) -F, (0) - lb) +Platb)=0 Fa +b =P(atb) Displacement diagram & Force - displacement relations ott we be Solution of equations Substitute G) and (4) into Eq.(2)* fa ‘ak, ~ bk Solve. simultaneously Eqs .(1) and (5)% fy = SksP lard) = bks Plat) ark Displacements (a4) &-B= eek, = bk Plas) Ok, +b ke a) ‘Fe _ bP Carb) eer of rotection (@ =radions) Prac — Tiieaaiie bar in Compression R= compressive force in steal cove Rez compressive force im brass tube| brass R= Compressive force. im Copper tube| ste Freectety diagram of rigid end plate i vilibriv t LiFet=0 PtP th =P % {gs Exgvations of omy ipatibi ily TH) keh eek ¢ % = = displacement vel Solution of equations Substitute (3), (4jand (5) ixto Ea s-(2) = R= Roe Pea Pe Eke (85) Solve. natant Eqs. (1), (6), and (7)¢ B=Pettinrea. Ro Peat earen (55) | R= Peer | Compressive stresses Let ZEA=EsAstE,Aut Ede (2) oe t= FES One te Oa Substitute numerical valves? Eg =30410"% psi Ey=i5H0"pei E_=18+10* pel Age (04in)? = 0.1257im? Av= % [(ooin}*— (04m) = IST in, * Ac= F[0Gin.)* — lsbin}* J = 0.2199 in. Steel measuring tape. 2000 £iEA=10.086 10% tb Calibration conditions = Bs = 5950 ph a — we A ate Joe |}__a_ __.] Sie Fake 2910 ps d=twe distance between A and & fx fee 2500s = ete es ion _of railroad yails a prevented from expand bone ls z0m becavse of their great length and phe | jexpansion joints, ‘3 fore, each rail is in the same condition as a bar with fixed ends (see Example 2-7). 1 Compressive Ctress in the yails may be calculated from £9,. (2161+ T= EX (AT) = (0x1 psi) (65 410+ /4)(75°F) Le kie length of tape = d+§ = . ‘n= Yeading on tape ab point A (85.49 fe NA to pe Rezveading on tage at end C , Qomers the same as the distance d) a (ntHal Conditions? La=60m Ts A og Bedi g. Lp=@.005m Fe fx Pte deal + P= increase in tensile force = 2olb-lo¥= 10 increase in temperature =lI2F-t6'F= 23% alei'y Kast La A 2310, Oy at2H10 Ye | Tram lala ~ obghis = 659.9 * 1-6 ™/e Final Conditions? we deeLireun+Z] << ‘Aluminum pipe Is er than the steel 1d = (95.4944) ] 1+ (6:5 #10 pe) aa’e) + tO pipe by ft a AL=I5mm [resis pease) ar tore] AT= increase in temperature. d= (95.49 #4)(1.0003654) = 85.524t<— SSA CATILA = (ATL Atom PIPE Initial temperature To = 18°C STEEL PIPE Final temperature T= 120°C AT =7,-To =102°C rT ls E=2006Pa =i2atont/ee Sa-& -(be-Lba) SAL i) Increase in diameter aren way ere apigenle d= ok(5T) d = (i2x10*/e) 02°C) iz0mm) ar = Abe Werke = 0.147 mm ea oasLs Kb) Axial_stvess in pipe i! % Free expansion ? §r Sot (AT) L a iSmm +t Sm ., Restained expansion? {2 =+8_ 659.9 K1O we be The axial force P ‘T=Te rAT= 18°C 130.31°C =48.3°C <+—— P Shortens the pipe by| yout $e -a TIL GAs — EAa (aT) ee ec) Pe P_ Ear) o-f. Bae Bwbstitvte numerical valves? = (4) (200 GPa) 12 * 10° /e¢) (102°C) =122Me —— vn 50} ‘$= Steel We a= Acs Hd*= 0012272 n> iEg = 30%108 pri E,A,= 368,155 te tg = 6,5 KO or ha = 12 41078 ed by three wires Aealuminum S=inerease i levee ofa Steel wire. ds 5 tem imorease AT 4 en ATL Sree ab &= Tperease in length of aluwinom wive doe ma increase AT aan) For vo load in the alusivom wire + Sih, AMATIL + WE = Oe (ATIL TEA =$, on va AT “TE ke ans) Substitute numerical valves 2 ‘= _900 lb BY 268, BSR)(S.5 FIFE TF) Note? Tf the re, Wereane is ‘er than AT, the aluminum wire would be. he tompression, which is wot postible . geet phe Selves < ee “il of the re inerease is less than AT, the alominom wire WA ej in Tencion and ‘cary part of the Patensile force in steel vod due to teyerature drop AT An=cross— cecal areas sheelvod From Eq, (2-1) of Example 2-7 5 P=EAge (At) Bolt is in double shear. ) V= shear force, Section of the IV= Plo. SheMet) T= average Shear Stress on cross Section of bolt guer one cross Solve for AT: AT= 2TAs a EARA JAn= Tigi where de> diameter of bolt Ae TES where dgediameter of steel ved ara 2tde 4 Ea de Substitute numerical valves + T=5OMPa° de=\5mm de=20wm Kaleion/ee E=200GPa pcr 2(50MPa)LIS mye s MEARE OS “*/oc )K20mm)* At distance X+ han es sjt-—t5 AT= AT, eS K Consider an element dx at a distance x A. 45 = Elongation of element dx ASS AUT)dx= & (AT) Heldx elongation of bar ‘ fas = fia ara REM = ha OTL compressive force P required te Shorten the barby the amount § To = SEAS (ATH) oacaaiee stress_im the bar Pe. ExGny K 3 + isu) e 6.06% X= ion re hand tone. d= 50mm A= hd? =F (Sommi* = 1963-5 emt Right hand part + = 300mm das 15mm Ae Edi = § (15 mm) 44179) yaa | a |225 | 300 men Te AT=30¢ () Compressive force P Rewole the support at end B. IB f= elongation due to temperature ‘ Bp =KAT(Litl) Ree c 215750 %0m be = Shorten oP “he se EPlebmenetnni = 11,3177 #10 mina) = (20.463 10 Yn) P (P= newtons) Compatibility Sr=Sp te Fi m= (30.4163%10" nie) yr SLekt <— (C1 Displacement of point C $e= Shorkaning of AC Saag A — A (AT)L, =0:9890 mm 0.61500 soak mm <— (Positive means AC shortens and point C displaces te the left.) [2.5-9 [Steel ved with bronze sleeve longation of the ae Rea, (TMU -ba) = (6.5 #10°¢/*F (600° F) (36m. — 12 im.) = 0.09360 in. Elongation of the middle the b. The steel red and bronze ‘ete lengthen the same amount , So they ave in the Same condition at the ‘ard Sleeve of Example 2-B- Thus, de” can Calculate the elongation from Eq. (2-21) §, = Gab sds +o, Ee Ag) (AT) L. Eshs+ EpAy Substitute viwerical valves: X65 KIEL ENKI or Eg= 30x 10% psi Eg = 1510" psi d= Loin, Ag® Ed2= 0.78540 > da = 1-25im. Age E (az-At) =0.44179 in AT= 00°F = L, = 12.0 in. §, = 0.053% in. Total S=S+6, [25-10] = 0.148 in. <-—— Brass sleeve fitted over a Steet bolt Svbseript S means “sleeve™ P Subscript B means peve Dott Use the resolts of Example 2-8. OF = compressive force im sleeve $ wation (2-200) t Oz = Ksr%s) (OTIEsEsAs ai 7 = LsrteATIES ESAS (Compression) Solve for AT: AT = Qa lGshs * Em hy) Gs Ae)EsEs Ag substitute numerical valves Bolt diameter dp= 25mm; Ag= 490.87 mm™ <-_ Sleeve inside diameter d, = Zemm, Ag = 486.95 mm? 0; = 25 MPa (compressive Stress in Skeve) Brass sleeve: Eg=100 GR Ag=20x W* ee [Steel bolt? Ex=200gPa X= BT = 46.75°C Gnerease in temper 0.15038 in? Area of two copper bars Ac=2.0 in Area. of aluminum bar Aa= 2.0 m2 AT-= 100° F Copper E_=18,000ksi Ae =9.541078/°F Lumivwm 3 Ea=10, 000 ksi ha 13x10“ /er Use the results of Example 2-8. Find the forces Fa and P, in the aluminum bar and er bar, respectively from En, (2-19) Replace the subscript “s” in that eyetion Pen Chor alominten) and. replace. the SUbseript “B" by "C" (for copper)e Rak, = (arte (AT) EaAa Eee Ex Ant Ede Note that Pa. isthe. compressive force inthe aluminum bar and fe isthe fombined tensile. force In the. ‘two copper bark, (2-5-1! CONT. ‘Qubsritvbe, numerical value s: mh, = acted eT Boke OU BRS = (3.5 ¥1074/2F)(100°F ) (1.000 eet) Bind) + (BSS) = 4500 tb Free - body diagram of pin V= shear force in pin Refa 22250 lo ~ = avers Shear stress on cross Section of pin =N “=e two cable Free -body diagram of bar ABCD. Te Ale Te=force In cable & “TK force in cable po dg 12 mon de = 20 mm From Table 2-1: Ag = Te.Tmm? Ag =tT3mm> = I210"F/%e, IZ. M,=0 ¥4) (HY Te (2b)*Te(4b)— Pl5b) =O on 2Tet4E=5P (“TY yam Displacement diagy A 2b Gb Lompdtibility: Se=28% (2) Se force — displacement, and temperature. ~ isp mént relations $= BE + aan >) & =) zk L a(ATL i [2-5 -12 CONT. Substitute. 3) and (4) Into BE tans a 2DTeAc-TeAs = -EX(AT)AsAL ubstitute pumerical values inte Te(346)-T. (16.7) = - 1,338,000 in which Tg and Te have units of newtons. Solve simultaneously Eqs. (1) and (6): Te = 0.2494 P - 3,480 T=1.1253 P + 1,740 Ihwhich P hes units of newtms. Solve Eqs. (7) and (8) for the load P+ =4.00%Ts +13,953 : 8881 Te — 1,546 242): Ta dour = 102,000N Creuur = 231,000 Factor of safety =5 (Tease =20400N — (Tr)au=46,200N From Eq.(9)? Py = (4.00%) (20, cota) +13,953.N = 95,100 N, + P= (0.8887) (46,200N1) From Eq. (10)? Pe= (0.8887)(4b200%) = 39,5008 Cable C gpverns. Pastow = 39.5 KN —e— Triangular frome held by two wires Free -bedy diagram of ion iltbrivm by, &Mc=0 oa oy P(2b) ~T, (2b) -Telb) =0. Equation of Compatibility &22he (2) (@) Load Ponty Force ~ displacement relations = oi = Ts BeBe eRe (Le tength of wives at Aand 8.) Substitute (3) and (4) Into Eq. (2): Wa ate Solve simultaneously Eqs. (1) and (5) > Tae (as) Numerical valves? P= S00 lb 400lb Ty= 2001 —t— (b) Load P and temperature increase AT Force - displacement and temperaivee- displacement relations > = BE ae (Sia) fee +e (OTL Substitute (8) and (9) into Eq, (2)? Tak = ZtaL Became = Ae + 2a¢ane jon Ta-2Ts =EA& (AT) Ss simultaneously Eqs. (i) and Cio: = [4P teAa(4T)] cat) = FLP- EAw ard] asia, numerical valves + P=S0olh EAs 120,000lb AT= lec"! 212.5% 10 Shr Ta= $(2000% + 270) =454 <— (Sook -270%) =92b << — ()Wive_B becomes Slack Set Ta =O in Eq. (12)? P=EAa(aT) on, P_ ___500 lo AT = Exe = Wooo te) (12.5 ei-*/*F) = 333.3°F Farther increase in tem re 3333.3F - Ipotr Ser —— [2-S74T Steet wire with initial prestvess Ly " P ‘Substitute numerical valves? a Initial temperate T= 20° | Oz = Septet eet [sewer re )40%01 ) E= 210 GPa 0.008 im. J che lax loner (a) Strecs Om when temperature drops t 0%] bitty AT=20"C Caine ens. de tempersture ) wats the "nit Stress OF foe tee 2, adaitioral stress 07 due to the ‘perature drop. From Eq (2-18)? 03 = Eo (aT) Oe Or, =O, + Ex (aT) AOA + (210.GPa) (14 x lo-t/oc) (20°C) =40 MPa + 58.8MPa = 98.8 MPa — (b) Te wl ss zero) O=0\+ oe =O Or BX(AT)=O aT= & (Minvs means an increase in ‘temper ature) _ __40 MPa 2 wine Goan 4x io Fc) — Bae ees 33.6°C <«<— = 10,900 psi <— Reactions must be equal) find s. Force - displacement relations rerag. Eb) + G(ab) = Plat) thy Qe+T=3P CH) Rn 8 J, Se=80in.~Le=0.02in. Se = B80in—L_=0.05 in, ¥ ‘Ss Elongation of wires > Bese rZs C) has.+8 3 Force ~displacement_velations eweb 2 bee te EA F,8) Solution of equations bine. E48.) and A)? Tale a sg+25 (%) Combine E4s.(Bland (5): Bh se§ (4) Eliminate. & between Eqs. (6) and (7) + Te-2Te = FASn _ ZEAS. (Be) 1 c . Solve. simuttaneously Eqs. (1) and (8) + Tes 2g Toff apie Substitute numerical valves? EA = 2250 /in. Te = $40 lb +45 1b ~225 th = 660 & <— Te= 420 -90b + 450 lb = Te0b<— (Both forces are positive which means tension as requir wires.) P steel sesh Szsine of gap=|Omm L= length of posts= 2.0m A =40,000 yum? Yi = 1B MPO. E=30Gm% Does the gap close ? ‘Stress in the two outer posts when the gap | just closed’: Om Ee = E (})=Goam)(Zoe™) =ISMPa Since this stvess Is legs than the allowable stress , the allowable force Pwill close. the gap. |Eqvilibvivm equation P f 2+, =P (5) tr fr. fr tibilit vation §,=shortening of outer posts 8, =shortening of inner post fests” 2) [Force -displacement relations See OBE (3.3) Solution ions Dbstitute (3) and (4) into Eq. (2)! BeaBt+s oo e-RaSAS (By Solve. simultaneously £95. (1) and (592 P= 3p - EAS , ~ ERs By inspection ,we kuow that R is larger than P,.. Therefore, P, will contvel and = 2160 KN -600 kN = ISCO kN IZ:S—19] Steel bolt and copper tube aus, L=20in. p= ie in. n= %q (See Ey. 2-22) Eq vilibrivm e4vokion R =tensile force in Steel bolt com jive force In — is me ore R& Ul % Compatibility €q,vation 5. = shortening of copper tube 5, = clongation of steel bolt = Kvicnp ( be me For isplacement relations BL f= Rt Re ESAs Solution of eqvations Substitute (3)and (4) inte Eq, (2)* a Solve. somultaneously Bas. (1) and (S)+ ReR= ‘RpEsAs tac = 24,190 tb L(EeAs + €eAc) Stresses Steel bolt : oz = B = 24,00h As Loin? =24,200pa ; 2. CY 2mm) 200 GPA)(36.0 mm?) (7-56) P” GSomm) EL.S6R)(%0 mm )+ 2 (2006R)(36.0me») = 24.0 MPa Ox =F rE AT) (b) Maximmuen Stress The maximum Shear stress ison a 45° ar stress when temperdied eee ole Ox) ae Cony. = Fk = 10,500 psi — sx_clement at O=A5* 00 «(11500 e=45" Note : All strecses have 10,500 nits of PSi Solve Eq.) for AT: ats Been Tnone™ Tate Svbetitute numerical valves + Av= 60.2°F <— : - AT= 60°C (Increase) ‘Steel bar in tension X= ius eK 10" /e P coe ee E =120GPa, 5 Stress due to temperatore tnereate |@) Maximum normal Stress Ox = EX(AT) Gee Eq. 2-18 of ; = _20KN Section 2.5) % 18.60 MPa = IZeMPa Compression) E (idmm)™ imum Shear Stress Crnoce = 18-6 MPa <— aenper. apres i= (b) Maximum shear Stress The maxim shear stress iS ona 45° plane| Stresses om elements A and B and equals T%/2.. (All stresses have units of MPH) Tray =F = 39.3MPate— fing ) St clemen’ 45° 6 a aut: YRE > weet ia DN ‘ : 63 \ 6 63 a et os Brass wire in tension Tension test d='Ae in Elongation § =0.00140 i Thane! = Gin ge length = 21,000 pst Stress due to initial tension? x= | (2) Maximum normal Stress Stress due +e semperature drop? oi =Eax(ar)) O& iS the masimve vormal stvess (See Eq. 2-18 of Section 2.5) Oman = 2\ ,000 psi <— Total stress > Ox = +E oAT) (6) Maxime stvess The maximum Shear stress ison a 45° pane and equals O/2. =fea i +e teeters] Coase - 10,500 psi«— Substitute numerical valves = All Strecses have mits of pst Solve Eq.) for ATS = ZC man TA = t= ZC omy TA = Tan x Trew Svbetitute numerical values AT= 60.2°F +— 5 . AT= 60°C (Increase) 2.6-6 | Steal toc in tension Pe enio re a P PRZ2OKN E =1206Pa Strecs dve to temperature increase Ox = EX (AT) (See Ey. 2-18 of Ze MA Compression) Section’ 2.6) mom Shear Stre Orume = 78-6 MP — Time = Sa 68 Wik tb) Maxivnum shear Strees maxim shear strets iS ona 45° plane| Stresses on elements A and & The land equals Tx/2. (All stresses have units of MPa) alee Tray, =-SE = 39.3 MPa — Aas © Stress element at 45° ee e=45" Note® 343 Ail shrecses have of MPa. [ZG=1N] Pastic bor between rigid P Ao , X=G0xl0*/r E2450 *10%a) (A) Maximum permissible tempersivre Temperate mereace : Tise AT = 10°F ~68°F =92°F |0,=0xcos*® — -60 HRa = 0% (cos 55°) Ox*-182.4 MPa, Normal stress O% in the bar To ~Ox Sin6 cos® = Se ° ReBAAT) (See Ey.28 Mm 6) [sonma “Tr (Sin S5° Ker 55") “ 2-63.85 MPA O%= - (450 *107 psi (6d * 10"6/*F)(92°F) Shear sshets he Ox= 03.85 MPR 2484 psi (Compression) Due to temperature increase AT: Jasgle 6 top lane pa OG, =-EX(AT) (See Ey 218 in Oe= 0, c0S*@ For plane py? Og >-l700psi Section 2.5) Fore , —'100 pai = (-2A84 pet Xcos*@) 120 GPa) (17 *10°8/%) (AT) (0578 = aeons = 0.6844 AT=3.3°¢ <— |Cos © = 0.8273 0 = 34.18° (a) Shear_stvess on plane 4 | To= ~Ox Sind cosB fies a © Danae Kee we) o3.86HPa)(sin S5*)ces 55°) (b) Stre se ena oriented to plane py B= 34.18 Os=—Moopsi To = 1150 psi e= 34. 18° + 90° = 124.! 18° Oe = Oy Cos*O = (-63.85 MPa) (cos 55*)* =-21,0 MPa (compression) <— = = 184 psi —™ P= 6500 Ib Te= -Ox Sin® cose A= Td* (-2484 psiXsin 124.18) (cos 124.18") &! = Ce psi Ox based upon allowable stresses in ‘ost Ga o=34.18° Tensile stress (8=0")+ Ctew = 13,000 psi Ox =13,000 psi) (all sieries have Shear stress (0=45°)? Teton = 7,000 pst units of psi) Tn = Fe. OG=2 Tatew Oe = 0; cos? 6 o,= Lado =. 000 psi costo soos = 17,310 psi (3) (CONT. ] Shear stress Ce =—Oy Sind cos® =|_% = 3,00 psi te {eat Gin S47 as BF) $6,310 psi Allowable stress. Compare {1 (2), (3), and (4). Shear stress on'the brazed joint governs, x= 6310 pst Diameter of bar ) 030 in iP 10% ee 40° Doe te load Pt 0% = 4.9 MPa (a) Stvesses on joint when &= 20° 6=90°— X= 70° a, Ie = 0% cos*0 =(A9MPa)(cosTo")* PN. ax =0.57 MPa <—— Te = -Ox Sin@ cos® = (74.9 HPA) (sino?) (cos 10°) =-1.50MPa <—— angle & if Tallow =2-25 MPa = 0% Sine ces O The shear stress on the jomt has Negative sign. Its viumerical valve can not exceed Tatom= 2:25 MP. Therefore, -2.25 MPa = — (4.94Pa)(sinb (cos®) or Sind cos @ = 0.4592, From trigonometry * Sind cosO=4 sind Therefore : $inZe = 2 (0.4592) =0.9184 Solving = 20 = G6.69° or 113.31~ 8 = 33.34 or 5¢.66* A=W-O X= 56.66" or 33,34" Since o must be between Io? and 40%, We Select X= 33.3° q— db) La Note + IF & is between lo"and 333°, [tel< 2.25 HP. IF is between 33.3% and 40°, \t| >2.25 Mea. Ie) Whot is K if To=200? Numerical valves only |Tel=oxsind case |oe|=5%c0s2o [Rl-2 OxSinO cos 6 = 20% Cos*O © SimO@=2es6 or tanO@=2 Note: For &=26.6" and @ =63.45 we Find 05 =0.98MPa and To=-L J2000 psi Ns Angle © and Shear Stress To Oy=0, Cos?® Oe = 12,000 pst Ox =. 12,000 psi costo Coste Plane at angle 6 +90° Ooeaor = Ox L008 (0 +90°) J? = 0% [-sino]* = Ox Sin7e Oouzer = 6,000 pst Q) Eqvate (1) and (2)+ 12,000 psi _ _,000psi Ct Han*@=4 tan@ =ye- 0=35.26°<—| From Eq, () or (2) 0% = 18,000 psi Vom - 0 SinBCosO 18, 000psi)(sin 35.26") (cos 35.26") 8,485 psi <—— Minos Sign means that Te acts clock- Wise onthe plane for which O=35, 30° Yor AN stresses have 12,000 AO a a 8 =35.26° units of MPa) as “4 a \ (Alt stresses ae PES aye unit of i 12,000 wifeo - (b) Maxivavin normal and shear stvess Omen = O% = 18,000 psi <— 0; =8220 psi 626, i Oj =0%. 00878, 1) Plane rs: 02=3290psi 6 =6,+ 6 76,+30"| Gy, = O% Cos*(0, #30") @) in onioxial & 0 j= = From (0) and (2)# 0% = 38h = Fea —a@ Cos 8, bo ts @,*307)] ~ B, cos lor 881 = o,_ = [9220 woo") Vaz “V3aa0 = "5°77 =O, SinB C068 -2THR=-OxSnB 50 | owe, by iteration or USE & computer T MPa : Froawe Program’ = 25.02° Eqpate (1) and (2) + Q) or (2)2 0% =16,000 psi BLM _ 27 MPa =0y= ai Bar in fension With qlved joint From (1) or (2) 0% =90.0 MPa (tension) Q 25°<0 <45° Stress element ar 0 =30° Le A= 900 mm™ Je = Oz, COS*0 =(90 MPa) (cos 30°) *=6T.SHPA 7 Mtg = ~0e SMB CoS =(-90.0HPa) (Sin 20% Kies 32) Cats = IS HP Ie glued Cation = IMPA) joint Allowable _stvess O% in tension Op =0%c0s6 Ox = 28. Cos’ cost 6 Vo = -O%Sin® cos® Since the direction of Te is immaterial , =0,Sin cos or Ox= -T= E=ts*tofpsi da l.sin. ‘Graph of Eqs. (1) and (2) ati and (2) y= S(e000 WW)* (24 tr.) oO FW CIS* (OF psi) (1-5 in.) = = 10.2 in-lb <— ‘Three - story column H= 3m E= 2006 i A= 1500 mm? P= 160 kN 2 = B00KN Te find the strain emeray of lH the column, add the Strain energies of the three % NEL Seqnes (see Eq, 2-40). u=BNEL oH st END 15 HP __9HPa, a cam CFO Sat = TesogmlTsce mee) MO teno=a=% = 30%" ENE = Uison)* + (450ki)* # (150 At)™ (2) Determine the maxinum load 9-6 :#108 ME a From Eq. (1 or Bay. (2) HO, No = (Isto? 4) (787.5 4107 N*) Oy = HS MPa = ORF = 204 MPa te mi Cos26 Te asd Prax =O% A = (20,4 MPa) (900 men) (a) Strain energy of the bar Strain energy per unit volume. Bad the Sa ees ES tac) Je L Vole VEAL je 31 v= EME = Pee) trot * ! the nal limit 2 BER Ra EN a ada of vesishance (4.1) “2 oD oO. 2102 Ww ZYME 2veE At the proportional limit + Bo Ay = 2S &4.(2) Nyg=ZP Ne=-P Ne=P u= 2Aee =o =$B [carts (p+ cert] =o (ib) Substitvte numerical valves + = Gt best)? (1.5m), a Oe Gaoo BPR B62 mad TS Nm =3.715 J «— 21-5] Bar with two loads ES P, FF Te a) Force P acts alone (Q=0) 1@) Strain energy of the bar (Eq. 2-40) Fas = Fac =qhg = displacement ZEA Segment AB? Ug = @ratela) =PEe ZEA 6 SE Fag SiNB + Fee SiMB=O} Fa Fee Fie = Foc BF =O A> += Fag COSB ~ Fae COSB sf =o Ja) Stvain energy of truss (Eq. 2-40) va 2 =2fax CET H> BEER (bo) Hovizey (éqy-2-42) {=3e= 3 (eseb)= 325 PL os EA pan, joint B (ce) Forces Pand Q act simultaneous! Segment BC# Uge= Poca) = Pat 4EA ath "SER Ue Dee Ung = BE a +@e g (Mote that Vis ot equal to U)+U.) a 2.7-8 CONT. A= 2.50in* E= 24 x10 psi bg = (G0 in.) *+ GS in)® = S5in. Forces_in the bars (from equili em B) Rand Al ° +6800Ib [+6800 BC | +1600lb |-G000k |-44001b {a Load R acts alone Ux Peel bac — {leo mh? (75 in.) “LEA ~~ 2(29#10*psi)(2.50 in*) SNL4I in, | 30 in.-lb Uz= eg (Fae) Las + (Fae)*Lae ] = Zig Ltcecomy?(Bs in) +(-eocob)(15in)) = 630.4 FMF Whim 457 info 145 *10® Ib (CrLonds P,and P, dot simultaneously U= eR [Fin *Lae * Fae)* bee] = eg L(c800th)* (65 in.) +(-44008)(75in] = 5382.4 +10* Win, = 37) n-th 145 x10 Ib Pa te Note: Strain energy U is not eqval to U, + U2 S=down ward displacement of rigid bar For a spring: U= KE" eq. (2-386) ferns cnerg Bf al sprigs u=2 GEE) +2 (SER). Bsc jloceme wt by the weight W equals WS yy Of the Springs equals Sks* ergy » = = 5kS* and §= BE w. 8.0 mme— R= Se = 2on<— R= 34 = CoN R= = 4on<— Note? W=2R +2 +, =400N (Check) ‘Tapered bar of reckanqular Cross ‘Section re 5 =b, — (barbs) Xx al phe | be | AGd=t boo = [b,- dacbox) (@)Strain energy of the bar (ey. 2-41) =[° =2 (pe STE bo) 2Eb gba br bE From Appendix. C (SX = 4 In (ati) Apply this integration formula +o Eq,.(02 = — (bb) x7) 4 v Zee Eezorey Pnlbs pry] =P feb -L =Zecliecay ins Geay te ba] 2 PL = (0) Elongation of the bar (Eq.2-42) 220. PL iF = fs oe U= jENgod*ae a ee cord subjected to a load P |Z. Dimensions before the load P ts applied Lo=TeOmm be= 380mm b = 380 mm % C Bungee cord: 2 MON, 2 = TO vine le ACD? T2-b® = 329,09 mm 0) Dimensions after the load P is applied Let X= distance CD = From triangle ACD? 5G =[be | jlibrivm a point C Let Fe tensile force in bungee cord ic “Ere ®) ae, cord = original length aE 7 Eas, o) a 2 heberk. WB + [Orrte Lytle = [Fae Ee ae This equation an be solved for x. Substitute numerical values into &y.(7): Tetra ={\~ AON) Imei Teo = (1 42,282) 44 400 + 2K= Units: X is in_millimeters a Solve for x (Use trial #erver or a compvter] Pregmm) x. 497. 88mm a Uof the bungee Cord u K= 40%m P= BO Te [1+ Bee = 305.81 men From Eq.(5): $= UES (140 Nn) 305-8 wim)? =6.55 Ab woe U=6.553 <— (b) Displacement § of point C a Xd = 497.86mm — 329. es of eae Phe = 4 (CON ILI68-8 mm) = 6.75 T The two quantities, are wot the Same . The Work doné by the load P is NoT eqval to PSe/2 becavse the load-displacement relation (see below) ts non-linear when thd displacements are re eae (the work done} val to the strain Large Displacements ‘Small Digpacementts be lange. W=l00 lb E=30%10° psi h=4.0m. L=6.0fF A=05 in* iS, of Se =e = 0.00048 in. oe Lie (ie) ] 0.0624 in, <<— (t)Maximum tensile stress Eql2-5)? Oras = Eine = 2b,000pei— Ohapnck- factor oe Eq, (2-600? Impact te [2-8-2 J Collar falling onte a. flange g 9.21 ge] (Gl Maximum Shortening of the eet [ba =¥ = 42% = 0,050 in. L} b= 50 mon L=L 2mm A420 num?! pooner tain On Robber ball athached +o a podte 4=7-01 "Ys* E=2.0 MPa L. = 300 mm W115 lb h=20in. L= 1lof+ A=0.55 int E= 28,000 kei we w [+ Co)ownwiord erent Pog = RL Su=Pe= 0.001364 in. veeghictot vat feo ee *] Flange Ea-(2-5a)z Bre = Balto I" ] Suostitute numerical values = =0.235 in. V= 700 mm | CRUE. OMFLERRTD i i TROS mab) (300mm) =4Sksie— |= 13.1% aie ‘on & Wood pole ot =4500b d= 12 in. - L=l8tt =216 in, A= 3S mat = 3.10 in? E= cs *10% pst s ertening oe Beers Tifons =2.500 psi vase = 2 Find Wes a. ple: M = Tistoae = 39-79 rst erimpact factor Haxiwwm heidi hase E-Cre lapeck Facey = Aa = Sbsne YEGACS Orme =Cia (V4 (4 ZH)” ] Sue -\ =(W Ey in. Spare both sides and Sobe for ht Wh hoe = ge (i -2) Substitute wwmerical valves = inetic_ene: Crnan = Optine = 2500 pi we =? =. bre-e Vga eea an _ 3 Artte 0 meme E Vmax = 5.19 VS lover psi gree For 04040, + 6=-— opr & For C20,2 €=6,+ Se= oon: o = Fak 70.0038 (= psi) Tan PAA 0.00287 0.00453 mys 4 Wyse, unre 20S aH war eed Leer - kd aye pa 1 44) era ed on * apouwuayep 2 Aywoygys st aapans —> (puss) viot = 4 wus tt + 3T= Y + POO] MYL JO} aAKOR amin pa RS woua: : wt Ip penare\dsip - PTA) meee Tee es re OS) woes a8 rerpae'esd @abea00—9 avd O78 = ho=0 205 viosa af3, a}a *sseays pth 244 ab assays a4 Spas “egw Fpem sused owt ty ~ plas i 31 pa, 2yS0Id on 4Ou azo SoM ayh UL 9m i es PORRIMT SA SHEE! (5) 20 eb “may ayer ae ee (yea ma} 9 ayer) 4ou si poo) 2uSod oye o5 ‘ssams ppth at fo anon vo mossy -TaPAAR epossays 3 arn wproo ‘pes aysed aH AY, = Meo :aum uw sous MAPAF SE TV PSA) fon bt Sac wale ihe — > viog =44 4 ‘ssaus pith ow a3 Jay poASAAYS 51 AIM vows! yoo] maSed HE +¥] (s) 4B) B-9 1a wey co) (99.950) B= 9 10) 3 way ssvoyabe unAs-seys woas 3 wneag] Key 19 H=sE= 9g _ sam jo wenvhuoya=§ aq, Jo peo oS evar) (zo-w) Gozo) (B) oro (307.030) 9350 wretolp MwayS — S50, d= ems (WOZ) o= Uz wy aiz=azeam ©, Dame ha pareddat seq piiy We 3001 At the plastic. load. all bars are Stressed d= 0.121 in. te the yield stvess. y= 40,000 pst Fig = Cyne Fee = Oy Ave A= MAS oouso int Ra EO th oyAne mS em =* By inspection, collapse occurs when wires Substitute numerical values ? Kavd yield, (Note that the wives, Oy =ZSOMPA Ane = ZOO wm Cannot be th compression, and therefore Ase =400 mm Fo must be zero or positive, bub hot BE C2s0HtM) (200mna) + Bl2s0nAdHOOmA| negptive -) =OkN +160 LN = 220K £Mo=0 © D [212-5] Truss consisting of five bars -Fy(4b) ~ Fe (2b) +P(34) + Wi2b) = 0 saat d=0.40in. P= fa +2 Fe - 2W) Aan Qubsttube FS Fe = OYA: 0.1257 in* P= ® (304A-W) Oy= e000 psi | Verify that Fe is zero or positive + p At the plastic load,all five. | 2 Fraser = Ft +h = Pew bars are shesced +p the Rex Pew -205h Yield stvess a> Ge the load eee Suestitvte numerical valves: B=2F Ge) +2F Ge) tr = GA (siz +48 es)] Fr = 5 GovA-w) = 490 Ie + — 24.2031 yA +— Rigid bar supported by wires Subctitvte numerical valves * R, = (4.2031)(36000 psi) (0.1257 in*? = 19,000% +— Bar held between rigid suj e de 15mm = = Oy=290 MR Initial tensile stress = COMP Ae poivtt Az Gal Pastic load Fe $a GAN ER) = SE ‘The pre! OF the initial tensile sess At port Br does not affect the plastic loud . Both $a=3Sa= 51 2 SE parks of the bar must yield in order to 1 (5) Paste lad FE reach +the plasti ed Seen Anais Ke the pastic load, all wires reach +he yield Bits rk g Paik sree, hteno oe ‘I ¢ Pps 40k Pe=ZoyA = (2)(290 HPA) Sm) *=1D2 EN ts Magee (Winitial tensile stvecs is chamed te MPa) =a F is not changed <— (adVield load Py_ ‘At the plastic load , both wives yield , Te =O = Oe Fe = Fes oqk From 4.3): 2 (yA) + 304A) = 4P Pom =Z0yA <— From 64-0? Sy = Bab oak From Eq.(): 3_= Sp =28_ = 2Trb Ce) Load ~displace ment diagravn tS Sp =2.8y — END oF CHAPTER 2— Eqpili br iviom = BMa=0 DO F(2) + Fe (ab) = PL4b) 2het3R=4P (GD Force - displacem ent velations. =f = Fe (a a ae Fel at ys) y 2 Seb Shel Substivte inte Eq. ()t se = Sot Fo=2fe (6) one £07208 Of Wire Chas the larger sivess, “Therefore, it wil yield first. (adYield load, yOu Se = St (From 7) Fe=OyN Feahoyd From Eq.(3): 2 (404A) +3 (0yA) = 4P Fan SoA. —_— 4) f= Fat 2 Oat From Ea, A> 8 ER Ze From £4, (2: Sy 284 #284 = Gs <— 3 =x tot Lm ttn FE ga t0'= 16nd 006981 rad Vallos = 0-0008 rad FIND dean FROM £@. (2-3)? Yaa = = at 0008 dae - O.0618I rad mac 055in, <— d=TSmm