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Advance Placement World History Ch.

31 The Cold War 1945-1975

1. Decolonization was a. the political ideology of the East versus the West. b. largely complete before the onset of World War II. c. often shaped by the need to align with either the United States or the Soviet Union. d. limited to South Africa. e. the root cause of war in El Salvador. 2. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a a. military alliance consisting of the United States and western European countries. b. military alliance consisting of the USSR and eastern European countries. c. military alliance of newly freed African countries. d. military alliance of the recently defeated countries of World War II. e. military compact among the nonaligned states. 3. The Soviet-dominated counterpart to NATO was the a. Warsaw Pact b. Green Revolution c. Helsinki Accords d. Dtente agreements e. Bretton Woods Collective 4. The Marshall Plan a. used currency reserves from member nations to finance temporary trade deficits. b. launched a process of economic cooperation and integration. c. provided 12.5 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly European countries. d. was never enacted due to partisan political feuds in Congress. e. helped to rebuild Japan. 5. The significant failure mechanism within the United Nations was: a. the insistence on members being industrialized. b. domination of the Security Council by the Western nations. c. lack of any military backup to enforce its decrees. d. rivalry among the permanent members in exercising veto actions. e. being tied into the International Monetary Fund. 7. How did the USSR violate the agreement to participate in the World Bank? a. by insisting that Communism would overthrow the propertied classes. b. instituting a closed monetary system for itself and allied communist countries in Eastern Europe. c. Invading Hungary in 1956. d. Refusing to participate in the Marshall Plan. e. By participating in a grain embargo against China. 8. The triumph of the Green Revolution was: a. Construction of the Aswan Dam in Egypt. b. Khrushchev's success in the Virgin Lands Campaign. c. the development of "miracle rice" d. mandating cleanup of toxic waste in third world countries abused by the Industrial Nations e. raising public awareness of ecology and recycling in the 1960s. 9. The United Nations Security Council included all of the following nations as permanent members except a. the United States. b. Britain. c. Sweden. d. France. e. the USSR. 10. In the wake of World War II, the model of economic recovery in the west emphasized a. hoarding of resources from Communist countries. b. a military industrial complex. c. redevelopment of transportation infrastructures in the wake of wartime destruction. d. restructuring of the labor system. e. the production of consumer goods 11. Why did many of the eastern European nations welcome Communism and Soviet influence after WW II? a. The Soviet economy remained strong and productive even during war-time. b. The Soviets were enemies of fascism which had been imposed on them from Hitler. c. There was a linguistic similarity. d. Agreement with the principle of Pan-Slavism. e. The attraction of Stalin's "cult of personality." 12. What factors raised the standards of living in post-war Western Europe? a. increased wages. b. government sponsored health care. c. social welfare programs including pensions and grants to the poor. d. income redistribution. e. all of these. 13. The Korean War was limited to the Korean peninsula because a. the United States feared that attacking China might prompt Soviet retaliation. b. neither side could win a decisive victory. c. military technology had stagnated. d. geographic conditions favored a defensive war. e. of the inaccessibility of its location.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 31 The Cold War 1945-1975

14. Restrictions on U.S. military operations during the Vietnam War were designed to a. prevent China from entering the war. b. keep the army from winning the war. c. appease American antiwar activists. d. win the sympathy of the North Vietnamese leaders. e. limit civilian casualties. 15. Who were the Viet Cong? a. A North Vietnamese supported communist guerilla movement. b. Chinese military advisors to the North Vietnamese. c. CIA sponsored freedom troops for South Vietnam. d. Neutral Vietnamese who wanted decolonization. e. Westernized, pro-French South Vietnamese middle classes. 15. The discovery by the United States that the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962 sparked a. the blockade of Cuba. b. United States deployment of nuclear missiles in Turkey. c. rebellion in Czechoslovakia. d. the Bay of Pigs invasion. e. the Cuban missile crisis. 16. The Helsinki Accords a. were finalized in 1975. b. were a precursor to human rights dialogue. c. called for government and economic contact across the iron curtain. d. said that no boundaries should be changed by military force. e. All of these 17. President Lyndon Johnson's reform agenda for American reforms was called the: a. New Deal b. Square Deal c. New Frontier d. Great Society e. Peace Corps. 18. Why were Greece and Turkey admitted to NATO? a. They were felt to be capable of participating in the EEC. b. to check Soviet expansion in Europe. c. They were democratic republics with constitutions and met the NATO criteria. d. They provided missile bases to Western military forces. e. To reward their resistance movements against the Axis powers during WW II. 19. What event was the catalyst for the space race? a. The United States landing of a man on the moon b. The successful Soviet flight of a man around the earth c. The Soviet Sputnik satellite launch d. The crash of the Apollo 11 e. The U-2 incident of 1960 20. Which world leader claimed he would "reduce [the opposition] to a smoking, radiating ruin at the end of two hours" in the event of attack? a. Josef Stalin b. Nikita Khrushchev c. Mae Zedong d. Dwight D. Eisenhower. e. John F. Kennedy 21. The first humans to walk on the moon in the 20th century were: a. Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong. b. Chuck Yeager and Sally Ride. c. Michael Collins and James Lovell d. Sergei Korolov and Yuri Gagarin e. Vladimir Komarov and Alexei Leonov 22. Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation from a. Bengali Pakistan. b. Tamir India c. French Indochina d. English Burma e. Sri Lanka 23. In 1947 India and Pakistan went to war over the a. export of Kashmir wool. b. northwestern state of Kashmir. c. assassination of the Hindu leader Indira Gandhi. d. breech of a nuclear weapons pact. e. All of these 24. Ho Chi Minh inspired a. nationalist movements in Vietnam against China. b. the building of the Contra regime in Hanoi. c. a treaty between North and South Korea. d. a nationalist coalition against the French. e. students to go to Europe and study Marxism. 25. Which of the following cannot be said of the FrenchAlgerian War? a. It ended in 1962 with Algerian independence. b. It ended with Algeria becoming officially a part of France. c. It began with a revolt in 1954. d. It produced an Algerian independence movement organized by the Front de Liberation National e. Algerian forces were supported by Egypt and other Arab countries. 26. The first British colony in West Africa to gain independence was a. Ghana. b. Rhodesia. c. Guinea.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 31 The Cold War 1945-1975

d. Nigeria. e. Egypt. 27. Kenya faced a difficult task in winning independence mostly because of a. the influence of coffee planters. b. the lack of a well-educated Kenyan leader. c. the nonviolent nature of Kenyan nationalism. d. its large supplies of oil, which made it a prime target for invasion by other African nations. e. all of these. 28. Independence in French West Africa came slowly because of a. brutal repression by the French military. b. the lack of unity among African leaders. c. French promises of vast improvements for Africans. d. terrible postwar droughts and economic collapse. e. all of these. 29. South African governments used policies of racial segregation called a. blitzkrieg. b. partition. c. secession. d. volkgeist. e. apartheid. 30. Which leader of the African National Congress organized guerrilla resistance in 1960? a. Leopold Senghor b. Kwame Nkrumah c. Jomo Kenyatta d. Nelson Mandela e. Patrice Lamumba. 31. Most of the leaders of African independence movements were: a. pro Communist. b. committed to imparting democracy. c. among the most westernized members of their society. d. oppressed by imperial European governments. e. influenced by the Soviet economic model. 32. Compared to other areas of Africa, independence in the Belgian Congo was: a. peacefully accomplished by negotiations with Belgium. b. not desired by Congolese leaders. c. chaotic and violent. d. forced upon Belgium by the United Nations. e. never achieved. 33. Steve Biko was a. Prime Minister of the apartheid government in South Africa. b. one of the founders of the Black Consciousness Movement. c. radical within the African National Congress d. an Anglican bishop within South Africa who won the Nobel Peace Prize. e. elected as president of the new Republic of Zimbabwe. 34. The United States overthrew the Guatemalan government in 1954 because a. it mistreated agricultural workers. b. it threatened to seize large agricultural estates owned by the United Fruit Company. c. of repeated strikes by trade unionists. d. it failed to pay the army regularly. e. it was harboring kidnappers of American missionaries. 35. In 1956, 25 percent of Cuban national income was derived from a. tin and nickel mining. b. the United Fruit Company. c. sugar manufacture and export. d. United States foreign aid. e. casinos and tourism. 36. Latin America's decolonization was significantly different from that of Africa because a. independence movements had occurred in the nineteenth century but were not followed by industrialization. b. there were fewer nations in Latin America than in Africa. c. Latin America was only controlled by Spain and Portugal, while in Africa there were many more European nations present. d. Latin America had never been part of the slave trade. e. Latin America was predominantly Catholic. 37. The Bay of Pigs invasion a. was a response to the Cuban missile crisis. b. was a United States-sponsored attempt to overthrow Castro. c. led to the overthrow of Batista. d. was Cuban terrorists attacking U.S. military bases in Florida. e. All of these 38. The goal of Castro and his revolution was to a. install a communist government. b. champion human rights. c. end American economic imperialism. d. turn Cuba into a market economy and democracy. e. All of these 39. Third World nations were a. unwilling to flirt with either the US or the USSR. b. ignored by the Soviet Union. c. mostly in Latin America.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 31 The Cold War 1945-1975

d. usually newly independent, poor nations. e. all in the Northern Hemisphere. 40. In 1956, Israel, Great Britain, and France joined together to a. invade Egypt and seize the Suez Canal. b. drive the Palestinians from Jerusalem. c. make a treaty against the dictatorship in Iraq. d. create a demilitarized zone in the Middle East. e. block China's entry as a member of the United Nations Security Council. 41. The Cold War isolated and excluded Japan from world political issues, helping Japan to a. quietly begin to rebuild its military. b. regain control over its wartime territories. c. rebuild and develop its economic strength. d. open its borders to immigrants from nations at war. e. All of these 42. Mao Zedong's 1958 Great Leap Forward was a plan designed to a. build an alliance with the Soviet Union. b. isolate China from foreign influences. c. build modern Western-style factories. d. industrialize using small-scale industries and collectivized agriculture. e. put a man into space. 43. The 1966 Chinese Cultural Revolution was initially intended to a. restrict artistic activity. b. control Chinese intellectual institutions. c. have the army control the Red Guards. d. instill revolutionary fervor in a new generation. e. prepare the nation for war with the Soviet Union. 44. Since World War II, the most important political issue in Arab countries has been the a. struggle with Israel. b. Suez Canal crisis. c. military coup in Iraq. d. independence of OPEC nations. e. decision to join the European Common Market. 45. Which of the following is not true of Israel? a. It was declared an independent Jewish state in 1948. b. It defeated armies sent by Arab countries in 1948. c. It displaced 700,000 Palestinian refugees. d. It lost land to Jordan in 1948. e. It regained Jerusalem in 1967. 46. Which of the following cannot be said of the Six Day War of 1967? a. It was a loss for Israel. b. It resulted in Israel's acquisition of all of Jerusalem and the West Bank. c. It resulted in Israel's acquisition of the Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula. d. It was a victory for Israel. e. It was a preemptive attack by Israel on Egyptian and Syrian airbases. 47. The superpowers didn't view the struggle between Israel and the Arab states as a vital concern until a. Israel developed nuclear capabilities. b. Anwar Sadat was assassinated. c. the Oslo Accords were signed. d. the oil wealth of the Middle East was discovered. e. All of these 48. The Egyptian-Israeli war in 1973 led directly to the a. autonomy of the Palestinian people. b. Arab oil embargo. c. creation of the PLO. d. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. e. United Nations troops being stationed in the Gaza Strip. 49. An example of new awareness of environmental issues in the United States was the a. establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970. b. government takeover of the Chrysler Corporation. c. damming of the Colorado River. d. 1967 law prohibiting strip mining. e. All of these