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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

CHNG 1:

TONG QUAN VE MANG THE HE MI


---I. MANG VIEN THONG HIEN TAI
1. Khai niem ve mang vien thong Mang vien thong la phng tien truyen a thong tin t au phat ti au thu. Mang co nhiem vu cung cap cac dch vu cho khach hang. Mang vien thong bao gom cac thanh phan chnh: thiet b chuyen mach, thiet b truyen dan, moi trng truyen va thiet b au cuoi.

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Thiet b chuyen mach

Thiet b truyen dan Moi trng truyen dan

Thiet b truyen dan

Thiet b chuyen mach

Hnh 1-1 Cac thanh phan chnh cua mang vien thong Thiet b chuyen mach gom co tong ai noi hat va tong ai qua giang. Cac thue bao c noi vao tong ai noi hat va tong ai noi hat c noi vao tong ai qua giang. Nh cac thiet b chuyen mach ma ng truyen dan c dung chung va mang co the c s dung mot cach kinh te.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Thiet b truyen dan dung e noi thiet b au cuoi vi tong ai, hay gia cac tong ai e thc hien viec truyen a cac tn hieu ien. Thiet b truyen dan chia lam hai loai: thiet b truyen dan pha thue bao va thiet b truyen dan cap quang. Thiet b truyen dan pha thue bao dung moi trng thng la cap kim loai, tuy nhien co mot so trng hp moi trng truyen la cap quang hoac vo tuyen. Moi trng truyen bao gom truyen hu tuyen va vo tuyen. Truyen hu tuyen bao gom cap kim loai, cap quang. Truyen vo tuyen bao gom vi ba, ve tinh. Thiet b au cuoi cho mang thoai truyen thong gom may ien thoai, may Fax, may tnh, tong ai PABX. Mang vien thong cung co the c nh ngha nh sau: Mang vien thong la mot he thong gom cac nut chuyen mach c noi vi nhau bang cac ng truyen dan. Nut c phan thanh nhieu cap va ket hp vi cac ng truyen dan tao thanh cac cap mang khac nhau.

GW
Sub

Sub

Sub

Sub

RLE

HLE

HLE

RLE

TE
Sub
Sub

TE
Sub
Sub

GW : Gateway - Tong ai quoc te TE : Transit Exchange - Tong ai chuyen tiep quoc gia HLE : Host Local Exchange - Tong ai noi hat

RLE : Remote Local Exchange - Tong ai xa ( Tong ai ve tinh) Sub : Subcriber - Thue bao

Hnh 1-2 Cau hnh mang c ban Mang vien thong hien nay c chia thanh nhieu loai. o la mang mac li, mang sao, mang tong hp, mang vong kn va mang thang. Cac loai mang nay co u iem va nhc iem khac nhau e phu hp vi cac ac iem cua tng vung a ly (trung tam, hai ao, bien gii,) hay vung lu lng (lu thoai cao, thap,).
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Mang vien thong hien nay c phan cap nh sau:

Cap 1

Tong ai quoc te

Cap 2

Tong ai chuyen tiep quoc gia

Cap 3

Tong ai tandem noi hat hoac noi tnh

Cap 4

Tong ai noi hat

Cap 5

Tong ai khu vc
Hnh 1-3 Cau truc mang phan cap

Trong mang hien nay gom 5 nut: Nut cap 1: trung tam chuyen mach qua giang quoc te. Nut cap 2: trung tam chuyen mach qua giang ng dai. Nut cap 3: trung tam chuyen mach qua giang noi hat. Nut cap 4: trung tam chuyen mach noi hat. Nut cap 5: trung tam chuyen mach t xa. 2. Cac ac iem cua mang vien thong hien nay Cac mang vien thong hien tai co ac iem chung la ton tai mot cach rieng le, ng vi moi loai dch vu thong tin lai co t nhat mot loai mang vien thong rieng biet e phuc vu dch vu o.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Mang Telex: dung e gi cac bc ien di dang ky t a c ma hoa bang 5 bit (ma Baudot). Toc o truyen rat thap (t 75 ti 300 bit/s) Mang ien thoai cong cong, con goi la mang POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): ay thong tin tieng noi c so hoa va chuyen mach he thong chuyen mach ien thoai cong cong PSTN. Mang truyen so lieu: bao gom cac mang chuyen mach goi e trao oi so lieu gia cac may tnh da tren giao thc cua X.25 va he thong truyen so lieu chuyen mach kenh da tren cac giao thc X.21. Cac tn hieu truyen hnh co the c truyen theo ba cach: truyen bang song vo tuyen, truyen qua he thong mang truyen hnh cap CATV (Community Antenna Television) bang cap ong truc hoac truyen qua he thong ve tinh, hay con goi la truyen hnh trc tiep DBS (Direct Broadcast System). Trong pham vi c quan, so lieu gia cac may tnh c trao oi thong qua mang cuc bo LAN (Local Area Network) ma noi tieng nhat la mang Ethernet, Token Bus va Token Ring. Moi mang c thiet ke cho cac dch vu rieng biet va khong the s dung cho cac muc ch khac. V du ta khong the truyen tieng noi qua mang chuyen mach goi X.25 v tre qua mang nay qua ln. Qua kh la ban ap cua tng lai. Do vay trc khi tm hieu mang vien thong the he mi NGN, chung ta can rut kinh nghiem t lch s phat trien cua cac mang hien tai ma tieu bieu la: Xet ve goc o dch vu th gom cac mang sau: mang ien thoai co nh, mang ien thoai di ong va mang truyen so lieu. Xet ve goc o ky thuat bao gom cac mang chuyen mach, mang truyen dan, mang truy nhap, mang bao hieu va mang ong bo. PSTN (Public Switching Telephone Network) la mang chuyen mach thoai cong cong. PSTN phuc vu thoai va bao gom hai loai tong ai: tong ai noi hat (cap 5), va tong ai tandem (tong ai qua giang noi hat, cap 4). Tong ai tandem c noi vao cac tong ai Toll e giam mc phan cap. Phng phap nang cap cac tandem la bo sung cho moi nut mot ATM core. Cac ATM core se cung cap dch vu bang rong cho thue bao, ong thi hp nhat cac mang so lieu hien nay vao mang chung ISDN. Cac tong ai cap 4 va cap 5

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

la cac tong ai loai ln. Cac tong ai nay co kien truc tap trung, cau truc phan mem va phan cng oc quyen. ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network) la mang so tch hp dch vu. ISDN cung cap nhieu loai ng dung thoai va phi thoai trong cung mot mang va xay dng giao tiep ngi s dung mang a dch vu bang mot so gii han cac ket noi ISDN cung cap nhieu ng dung khac nhau bao gom cac ket noi chuyen mach va khong chuyen mach. Cac ket noi chuyen mach cua ISDN bao gom nhieu chuyen mach thc, chuyen mach goi va s ket hp cua chung. Cac dch vu mi phai tng hp vi cac ket noi chuyen mach so 64 kbit/s. ISDN phai cha s thong minh e cung cap cho cac dch vu, bao dng va cac chc nang quan ly mang, tuy nhien tnh thong minh nay co the khong u e cho mot vai dch vu mi va can c tang cng t mang hoac t s thong minh thch ng trong cac thiet b au cuoi cua ngi s dung. S dung kien truc phan lp lam ac trng cua truy xuat ISDN. Truy xuat cua ngi s dung en nguon ISDN co the khac nhau tuy thuoc vao dch vu yeu cau va tnh trang ISDN cua tng quoc gia. Can thay rang ISDN c s dung vi nhieu cau hnh khac nhau tuy theo hien trang mang vien thong cua tng quoc gia. PSDN (Public Switching Data Network) la mang chuyen mach so lieu cong cong. PSDN chu yeu cung cap cac dch vu so lieu. Mang PSDN bao gom cac PoP (Point of Presence) va cac thiet b truy nhap t xa. Hien nay PSDN ang phat trien vi toc o rat nhanh do s bung no cua dch vu Internet va cac mang rieng ao (Virtual Private Network). Mang di ong GSM (Global System for Mobile Telecom) la mang cung cap dch vu thoai tng t nh PSTN nhng qua ng truy nhap vo tuyen. Mang nay chuyen mach da tren cong nghe ghep kenh phan thi gian va cong nghe ghep kenh phan tan so. Cac thanh phan c ban cua mang nay la: BSC (Base Station Controller), BTS (Base Transfer Station), HLR (Home Location Register), VLR ( Visitor Location Register) va MS ( Mobile Subscriber). Hien nay cac nha cung cap dch vu thu c li nhuan phan ln t cac dch vu nh leased line, Frame Relay, ATM, va cac dch vu ket noi c ban. Tuy nhien xu hng giam li nhuan t cac dch vu nay bat buoc cac nha khai thac phai tm dch vu mi da tren IP e am bao li nhuan lau dai. VPN la mot hng i cua cac nha khai thac. Cac dch vu da tren nen IP cung cap ket noi gia mot nhom cac user xuyen qua mang ha tang cong
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

cong. VPN co the ap ng cac nhu cau cua khach hang bang cac ket noi dang any-to-any, cac lp a dch vu, cac dch vu gia thanh quan ly thap, rieng t, tch hp xuyen suot cung vi cac mang Intranet/Extranet. Mot nhom cac user trong Intranet va Extranet co the hoat ong thong qua mang co nh tuyen IP. Cac mang rieng ao co chi ph van hanh thap hn han so vi mang rieng tren phng tien quan ly, bang thong va dung lng. Hieu mot cach n gian, VPN la mot mang m rong t quan nh mot s la chon c s ha tang cua mang WAN. VPN co the lien ket cac user thuoc mot nhom kn hay gia cac nhom khac nhau. VPN c nh ngha bang mot che o quan ly. Cac thue bao VPN co the di chuyen en mot ket noi mem deo trai dai t mang cuc bo en mang hoan chnh. Cac thue bao nay co the dung trong cung (Intranet) hoac khac (Extranet) to chc. Tuy nhien can lu y rang hien nay mang PSTN/ISDN van ang la mang cung cap cac dch vu d lieu. 3. S lc mang vien thong Viet Nam Cau truc mang e phuc vu cho cac dch vu thong tin nh thoai, so lieu, fax, telex va cac dch vu khac nh ien thoai di ong , nhan tin, nen nc ta hien nay ngoai mang chuyen mach cong cong con co cac mang cua mot so dch vu khac. Rieng mang Telex khong ket noi vi mang thoai cua VNPT, con cac mang khac eu c ket noi vao mang cua VNPT thong qua cac kenh trung ke hoac cac bo MSU (Main Switch Unit), mot so khac lai truy nhap vao mang PSTN qua cac kenh thue bao bnh thng, s dung ky thuat DLC (Digital Loop Carrier), ky thuat truy nhap vo tuyen, Ve cau truc mang, mang vien thong cua VNPT hien nay chia thanh 3 cap: cap quoc te, cap quoc gia, cap noi tnh/thanh pho. Xet ve kha canh cac chc nang cua cac he thong thiet b tren mang th mang vien thong bao gom: mang chuyen mach, mang truy nhap, mang truyen dan va cac mang chc nang. Mang chuyen mach Mang chuyen mach co 4 cap (da tren cac cap tong ai chuyen mach): qua giang quoc te, qua giang ng dai, noi tnh va noi hat. Rieng tai thanh pho Ho Ch Minh co them cap qua giang noi hat. Hien nay mang VNPT a co cac trung tam chuyen mach quoc te va chuyen mach quoc gia Ha Noi, a Nang, Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh. Mach
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

cua cac bu ien tnh cung ang phat trien m rong. Nhieu tnh, thanh pho xuat hien cac cau truc mang vi nhieu tong ai Host, cac thanh pho ln nh Ha Noi, Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh a va ang trien khai cac Tandem noi hat. Mang vien thong cua VNPT hien tai c chia lam 5 cap, trong tng lai se c giam t 5 cap xuong 4 cap. Mang nay do cac thanh vien cua VNPT ieu hanh: o la VTI, VTN va cac bu ien tnh. VTI quan ly cac tong ai chuyen mach qua giang quoc te, VTN quan ly cac tong ai chuyen mach qua giang ng dai tai 3 trung tam Ha Noi, a Nang va TpHCM. Phan con lai do cac bu ien tnh quan ly. Cac loai tong ai co tren mang vien thong Viet Nam: A1000E cua Alcatel, NEAX61 cua NEC, AXE10 cua Ericsson, EWSD cua Siemens. Cac cong nghe chuyen mach c s dung: chuyen mach kenh (PSTN), X.25 relay, ATM (so lieu). Nhn chung mang chuyen mach tai Viet Nam con nhieu cap va viec ieu khien b phan tan trong mang (ieu khien nam tai cac tong ai). Mang truy nhap Vi tng mang cung cap dch vu khac nhau ma co mang truy nhap tng ng. Viec tm hieu mang truy nhap cua cac mang hien co tren mang la phan SV t nghien cu. Mang truyen dan Cac he thong thiet b truyen dan tren mang vien thong VNPT hien nay chu yeu s dung hai loai cong nghe la: cap quang SDH va vi ba PDH. Cap quang SDH: Thiet b nay do nhieu hang khac nhau cung cap la: Northern Telecom, Siemens, Fujitsu, Alcatel, Lucent, NEC, Nortel. Cac thiet b co dung lng 155Mb/s, 622 Mb/s, 2.5 Gb/s. Vi ba PDH: Thiet b nay cung co nguon goc t nhieu hang cung cap khac nhau nh Siemens, Alcatel, Fujitsu, SIS, SAT, NOKIA, AWA. Dung lng 140 Mb/s, 34 Mb/s va n*2 Mb/s. Cong nghe vi ba SDH c s dung han che vi so lng t. Mang truyen dan co 2 cap: mang truyen dan lien tnh va mang truyen dan noi tnh. * Mang truyen dan lien tnh Bao gom cac he thong truyen dan bang cap quang, bang vo tuyen.
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Mang truyen dan lien tnh bang cap quang: Mang truyen dan ng truc quoc gia noi gia Ha Noi va TpHCM dai 4000km, s dung STM-16/2F-BSHR, c chia thanh 4 vong ring tai Ha Tnh, a Nang, Qui Nhn va TpHCM. Vong 1: Ha Noi Ha Tnh (884km) Vong 2: Ha Tnh a Nang (834km) Vong 3: a Nang Qui Nhn (817km) Vong 4: Qui Nhn TpHCM (1424km) Cac ng truyen dan khac: Ha Noi Hai Phong, Ha Noi Hoa Bnh, TpHCM Vung Tau, Ha Noi Phu Ly Nam nh, a Nang Tam Ky. Cac tuyen truyen dan lien tnh nay dung STM-4. Rieng tuyen Ha Noi Nam nh, a Nang Tam Ky van con s dung PDH, trong tng lai se thay the bang SDH. Mang truyen dan lien tnh bang vo tuyen: Dung he thong vi ba SDH (STM-1, dung lng 155Mbps), PDH (dung lng 4Mbps, 6Mbps, 140Mbps). Ch co tuyen Bai Chay Hon Gai dung SDH, cac tuyen khac dung PDH. * Mang truyen dan noi tnh Khoang 88% cac tuyen truyen dan noi tnh s dung he thong vi ba. Trong tng lai khi nhu cau tai tang th cac tuyen nay se c thay the bi he thong truyen dan quang. Mang bao hieu Hien nay tren mang vien thong Viet Nam s dung ca hai loai bao hieu R2 va SS7. Mang bao hieu so 7 (SS7) c a vao khai thac tai Viet Nam theo chien lc trien khai t tren xuong di theo tieu chuan cua ITU (khai thac th nghiem t nam 1995 tai VTN va VTI). Cho en nay, mang bao hieu so 7 a hnh thanh vi mot cap STP (iem chuyen mach bao hieu) tai 3 trung tam (Ha Noi, a Nang, Ho Ch Minh) cua 3 khu vc (Bac, Trung, Nam) va a phuc vu kha hieu qua. Bao hieu cho PSTN ta co R2 va SS7, oi vi mang truyen so lieu qua IP co H.323, oi vi ISDN co bao hieu kenh D, Q.931,

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

STP

STP

Gateway
STP

STP

STP quoc gia


SP STP STP

STP

STP

SP

Mat A Mat B

STP STP

SP

SP

STP

STP

STP

Khu vc cac tnh pha Bac

Khu vc Ha Noi

Khu vc cac tnh mien Trung

Khu vc Thanh pho Ch Minh

Khu vc cac tnh pha Nam

Hnh 1-4 Mang bao hieu Viet Nam Mang ong bo Mang ong bo cua VNPT a thc hien xay dng giai oan 1 va giai oan 2 vi ba ong ho chu PRC tai Ha Noi, a Nang, TP Ho Ch Minh va mot so ong ho th cap SSU. Mang ong bo Viet Nam hoat ong theo nguyen tac chu t co d phong, bao gom 4 cap, hai loai giao dien chuyen giao tn hieu ong bo chu yeu la 2 MHz va 2 Mb/s. Pha 3 cua qua trnh phat trien mang ong bo ang c trien khai nham nang cao hn na chat lng mang va chat lng dch vu. Cac cap cua mang ong bo c phan thanh 4 cap nh sau: 1. Cap 0: cap ong ho chu. 2. Cap 1: cap nut quoc te va nut quoc gia. 3. Cap 2: cap nut noi hat. 4. Cap 3: cap nut noi hat. Mang c phan thanh 3 vung oc lap, moi vung co 2 ong ho mau, mot ong ho chnh (Cesium) va mot ong ho d phong (GSP). Cac ong ho nay c at tai trung tam cua 3 vung va c ieu chnh theo phng thc can ong bo. Cac tong ai quoc te va Toll trong vung c ieu khien bi ong ho chu theo phng phap chu t.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Cac tong ai Tandem va Host tai cac tnh hoat ong bam theo cac tong ai Toll theo phng phap chu t. Cac tong ai huyen (RSS) cung hoat ong bam theo cac Host theo phng phap chu t. Mang quan ly D an xay dng trung tam quan ly mang vien thong quoc gia ang trong qua trnh chuan b e tien ti trien khai. Cac nha cung cap dch vu Tai nc ta co 2 dang nha cung cap dch vu: o la cac nha cung cap dch vu truyen thong (chu yeu la thoai) va nha cung cap dch vu mi (cac dch vu so lieu, Internet, ). Cac nha khai thac dch vu truyen thong bao gom tong cong ty bu chnh vien thong Viet Nam (VNPT), cong ty vien thong quan oi (Vietel), cong ty co phan vien thong Sai Gon (SPT), cong ty vien thong ien lc (ETC). Cac nha khai thac dch vu mi bao gom FPT, SPT, Netnam, 4. Nhng han che cua mang Vien thong hien tai Nh a phan tch tren, hien nay co rat nhieu loai mang khac nhau cung song song ton tai. Moi mang lai yeu cau phng phap thiet ke, san xuat, van hanh, bao dng khac nhau. Nh vay he thong mang vien thong hien tai co rat nhieu nhc iem ma quan trong nhat la: Ch truyen c cac dch vu oc lap tng ng vi tng mang. Thieu mem deo: S ra i cua cac cong nghe mi anh hng manh me ti toc o truyen tn hieu. Ngoai ra, se xuat hien nhieu dch vu truyen thong trong tng lai ma hien nay cha d oan c, moi loai dch vu se co toc o truyen khac nhau. Ta de dang nhan thay mang hien tai se rat kho thch nghi vi nhng oi hoi nay. Kem hieu qua trong viec bao dng, van hanh cung nh s dung tai nguyen. Tai nguyen san co trong mot mang khong the chia se cho cac mang khac cung s dung. Mat khac, mang vien thong hien nay c thiet ke nham muc ch khai thac dch vu thoai la chu yeu. Do o, ng goc o nay, mang a phat trien ti mot mc gan nh gii han ve s cong kenh va mang ton tai mot so khuyet iem can khac phuc.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Kien truc tong ai oc quyen lam cho cac nha khai thac gan nh phu thuoc hoan toan vao cac nha cung cap tong ai. ieu nay khong nhng lam giam sc canh tranh cho cac nha khai thac, ac biet la nhng nha khai thac nho, ma con ton nhieu thi gian va tien bac khi muon nang cap va ng dung cac phan mem mi. Cac tong ai chuyen mach kenh a khai thac het nang lc va tr nen lac hau oi vi nhu cau cua khach hang. Cac chuyen mach Class5 ang ton tai lam han che kha nang sang tao va trien khai cac dch vu mi, t o dan en viec lam giam li nhuan cua cac nha khai thac. S bung no lu lng thong tin a kham pha s kem hieu qua cua chuyen mach kenh TDM. Chuyen mach kenh truyen thong ch dung e truyen cac lu lng thoai co the d oan trc, va no khong ho tr lu lng d lieu tang ot bien mot cach hieu qua. Khi lng d lieu tang vt lu lng thoai, ac biet oi vi dch vu truy cap Internet quay so trc tiep, thng xay ra nghen mach do nguon tai nguyen han hep. Trong khi o, chuyen mach kenh lam lang ph bang thong khi cac mach eu roi trong mot khoang thi gian ma khong co tn hieu nao c truyen i. ng trc tnh hnh phat trien cua mang vien thong hien nay, cac nha khai thac nhan thay rang s hoi tu gia mang PSTN va mang PSDN la chac chan xay ra. Ho can co mot c s ha tang duy nhat cung cap cho moi dch vu (tng t - so, bang hep - bang rong, c ban - a phng tien,) e viec quan ly tap trung, giam chi ph bao dng va van hanh, ong thi ho tr cac dch vu cua mang hien nay.

II. MANG VIEN THONG THE HE MI (Next Generation Network)


1. nh ngha Mang vien thong the he mi co nhieu ten goi khac nhau, chang han nh: Mang a dch vu (cung cap nhieu loai dch vu khac nhau) Mang hoi tu (ho tr cho ca lu lng thoai va d lieu, cau truc mang hoi tu) Mang phan phoi (phan phoi tnh thong minh cho moi phan t trong mang)
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Mang nhieu lp (mang c phan phoi ra nhieu lp mang co chc nang oc lap nhng ho tr nhau thay v mot khoi thong nhat nh trong mang TDM). Cho ti hien nay, mac du cac to chc vien thong quoc te va cung cac nha cung cap thiet b vien thong tren the gii eu rat quan tam va nghien cu ve chien lc phat trien NGN nhng van cha co mot nh ngha cu the va chnh xac nao cho mang NGN. Do o nh ngha mang NGN neu ra ay khong the bao ham het moi chi tiet ve mang the he mi, nhng no co the tng oi la khai niem chung nhat khi e cap en NGN. Bat nguon t s phat trien cua cong nghe thong tin, cong nghe chuyen mach goi va cong nghe truyen dan bang rong, mang thong tin the he mi (NGN) ra i la mang co c s ha tang thong tin duy nhat da tren cong nghe chuyen mach goi, trien khai cac dch vu mot cach a dang va nhanh chong, ap ng s hoi tu gia thoai va so lieu, gia co nh va di ong. Nh vay, co the xem mang thong tin the he mi la s tch hp mang thoai PSTN, chu yeu da tren ky thuat TDM, vi mang chuyen mach goi, da tren ky thuat IP/ATM. No co the truyen tai tat ca cac dch vu von co cua PSTN ong thi cung co the nhap mot lng d lieu rat ln vao mang IP, nh o co the giam nhe ganh nang cua PSTN. Tuy nhien, NGN khong ch n thuan la s hoi tu gia thoai va d lieu ma con la s hoi tu gia truyen dan quang va cong nghe goi, gia mang co nh va di ong. Van e chu ao ay la lam sao co the tan dung het li the em en t qua trnh hoi tu nay. Mot van e quan trong khac la s bung no nhu cau cua ngi s dung cho mot khoi lng ln dch vu va ng dung phc tap bao gom ca a phng tien, phan ln trong o la khong c tru lieu khi xay dng cac he thong mang hien nay. 2. ac iem cua mang NGN Mang NGN co bon ac iem chnh: 1. Nen tang la he thong mang m. 2. Mang NGN la do mang dch vu thuc ay, nhng dch vu phai thc hien oc lap vi mang li. 3. Mang NGN la mang chuyen mach goi, da tren mot giao thc thong nhat.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

4. La mang co dung lng ngay cang tang, co tnh thch ng cung ngay cang tang, co u dung lng e ap ng nhu cau. Trc het, do ap dung c cau m ma : Cac khoi chc nang cua tong ai truyen thong chia thanh cac phan t mang oc lap, cac phan t c phan theo chc nang tng ng, va phat trien mot cach oc lap. Giao dien va giao thc gia cac bo phan phai da tren cac tieu chuan tng ng.

Viec phan tach lam cho mang vien thong von co dan dan i theo hng mi, nha kinh doanh co the can c vao nhu cau dch vu e t to hp cac phan t khi to chc mang li. Viec tieu chuan hoa giao thc gia cac phan t co the thc hien noi thong gia cac mang co cau hnh khac nhau. Tiep en, mang NGN la mang dch vu thuc ay, vi ac iem cua: Chia tach dch vu vi ieu khien cuoc goi Chia tach cuoc goi vi truyen tai

Muc tieu chnh cua chia tach la lam cho dch vu thc s oc lap vi mang, thc hien mot cach linh hoat va co hieu qua viec cung cap dch vu. Thue bao co the t bo tr va xac nh ac trng dch vu cua mnh, khong quan tam en mang truyen tai dch vu va loai hnh au cuoi. ieu o lam cho viec cung cap dch vu va ng dung co tnh linh hoat cao. Th ba, NGN la mang chuyen mach goi, giao thc thong nhat. Mang thong tin hien nay, du la mang vien thong, mang may tnh hay mang truyen hnh cap, eu khong the lay mot trong cac mang o lam nen tang e xay dng c s ha tang thong tin. Nhng may nam gan ay, cung vi s phat trien cua cong nghe IP, ngi ta mi nhan thay ro rang la mang vien thong, mang may tnh va mang truyen hnh cap cuoi cung roi cung tch hp trong mot mang IP thong nhat, o la xu the ln ma ngi ta thng goi la dung hp ba mang. Giao thc IP lam cho cac dch vu lay IP lam c s eu co the thc hien noi thong cac mang khac nhau; con ngi lan au tien co c giao thc thong nhat ma ba mang ln eu co the chap nhan c; at c s vng chac ve mat ky thuat cho ha tang c s thong tin quoc gia (NII). Giao thc IP thc te a tr thanh giao thc ng dung van nang va bat au c s dung lam c s cho cac mang a dch vu, mac du hien tai van con the bat li so vi cac chuyen mach kenh ve mat kha nang ho tr lu
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

lng thoai va cung cap chat lng dch vu am bao cho so lieu. Toc o oi mi nhanh chong trong the gii Internet, ma no c tao ieu kien bi s phat trien cua cac tieu chuan m se sm khac phuc nhng thieu sot nay.

Internet Internet services

PSTN
Signaling gateway

GSM

Mobile Client

IP QoS Network

Media gateway

GPRS Resident gateway

Direct Client

3G
Softswich

Application & services

WLAN Bluetooth

Hnh 1-5 Topo mang the he sau 3. ong c xuat hien mang the he mi Yeu to hang au la toc o phat trien theo ham so mu cua nhu cau truyen dan d lieu va cac dch vu d lieu la ket qua cua tang trng Internet manh me. Cac he thong mang cong cong hien nay chu yeu c xay dng nham truyen dan lu lng thoai, truyen d lieu thong tin va video a c van chuyen tren cac mang chong lan, tach ri c trien khai e ap ng nhng yeu cau cua chung. Do vay, mot s chuyen oi sang he thong mang chuyen mach goi tap trung la khong the tranh khoi khi ma d lieu thay the v tr cua thoai va tr thanh nguon tao ra li nhuan chnh. Cung vi s bung no Internet tren toan cau, rat nhieu kha nang mang the he mi se da tren giao thc IP. Tuy nhien, thoai van la mot dch vu quan trong va do o, nhng thay oi nay dan ti yeu cau truyen thoai chat lng cao qua IP. Nhng ly do chnh dan ti s xuat hien cua mang the he mi : Cai thien chi ph au t Cong nghe can ban lien quan en chuyen mach kenh truyen thong c cai tien cham tre va cham trien khai ket hp vi nen cong nghiep may tnh. Cac chuyen mach kenh nay hien ang chiem phan ln trong c s ha tang PSTN. Tuy nhien chung cha that s toi u cho mang truyen so lieu.
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Ket qua la ngay cang co nhieu dong lu lng so lieu tren mang PSTN en mang Internet va se xuat hien mot giai phap vi nh hng so lieu lam trong tam e thiet ke mang chuyen mach tng lai, nen tang da tren cong nghe chuyen mach goi cho ca thoai va d lieu. Cac giao dien m tai tng lp mang cho phep nha khai thac la chon nha cung cap co hieu qua nhat cho tng lp mang cua ho. Truyen tai da tren goi cho phep phan bo bang tan linh hoat, loai bo nhu cau nhom trung ke kch thc co nh cho thoai, nh o giup cac nha khai thac quan ly mang de dang hn, nang cap mot cach hieu qua phan mem trong cac nut ieu khien mang, giam chi ph khai thac he thong. Xu the oi mi vien thong Khac vi kha canh ky thuat, qua trnh giai the ang anh hng manh me en cach thc hoat ong cua cac nha khai thac vien thong ln tren the gii. Xuyen suot qua trnh c goi la mach vong noi hat khong tron goi, cac luat le cua chnh phu tren toan the gii a ep buoc cac nha khai thac ln phai m ca e cac cong ty mi tham gia th trng canh tranh. Tren quan iem chuyen mach, cac nha cung cap thay the phai co kha nang gianh c khach hang a phng nh au t trc tiep vao nhng dam cuoi cung cua ng cap ong. ieu nay dan en viec gia tang canh tranh. Cac NGN thc s phu hp e ho tr kien truc mang va cac mo hnh c luat phap cho phep khai thac.

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Cac nguon doanh thu mi D bao hien nay cho thay mc suy giam tram trong cua doanh thu thoai va xuat hien mc tang doanh thu ot bien do cac dch vu gia tr gia tang mang lai. Ket qua la phan ln cac nha khai thac truyen thong se phai tai nh mc mo hnh kinh doanh cua ho di anh sang cua cac d bao nay. Cung luc o, cac nha khai thac mi se tm kiem mo hnh kinh doanh mi cho phep ho nam lay th phan, mang lai li nhuan cao hn tren th trng vien thong. Cac c hoi kinh doanh mi bao gom cac ng dung a dang tch hp vi cac dch vu cua mang vien thong hien tai, so lieu Internet, cac ng dung video. 4. Nhng van e can quan tam khi phat trien NGN Trc het cac nha cung cap dch vu chnh thong phai xem xet c s TDM ma ho a lap at va do vay phai oi au vi quyet nh kho khan ve viec nang cap he thong nay, nen au t von cho thiet b chuyen mach kenh va xay dng mot mang NGN xep chong, hay tham ch nen thay the cac tong ai truyen thong bang nhng chuyen mach cong nghe mi sau nay. Ho cung phai xem xet anh hng cua s gia tang lu lng Internet quay so trc tiep vi thi gian gi may ngan hn nhieu. e duy tr canh tranh cac nha khai thac nay can tm ra phng phap cung cap cac dch vu mi cho cac khach hang cua ho trong thi ky qua o trc khi cac mang cua ho tien trien sang NGN mot cach ay u. Van e ln nhat can can nhac khi sap ti can ho tr dch vu thoai qua IP va hang loat cac dch vu gia tr gia tang khac la c che best effort phan phoi cac goi tin khong con u ap ng na. Mot thach thc can ban nay la m rong mang IP theo nhieu hng, kha nang cung cap a dch vu trong khi van gi c u the cua mang IP. e am bao QoS can thiet, cac nha khai thac se phai co kha nang cam ket cung cap cac thoa thuan ve mc dch vu (SLA), cac yeu cau ve bang tan va cac tham so chat lng. Mot kha canh khac bao am chat lng la quy mo mang phai u ln e cung cap cho khach hang nham chong lai hien tng nghen co chai trong lu lng cua mang loi. Mot trong nhng ac trng cua NGN chnh la kha nang tang so lng cua cac giao dien m, nhng ieu o cung ham cha cac nguy c e doa an ninh cua mang. Do o, am bao an toan thong tin tr thanh van e song con cua cac nha khai thac nham bao ve mang chong lai

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

s tan cong t pha cac tin tac. Cac cong cu an ninh va mat ma hoa phai luon luon san sang. Trong vong hai thap ky va qua, cong nghe quang a chng minh c la mot phng tien truyen tai thong tin hieu qua tren khoang cach ln, va hien nay no la cong nghe chu ao trong truyen dan tren mang loi. Vi cac cai tien hien nay, nh cong nghe ghep kenh phan chia theo mat o bc song DWDM, nang cao ang ke hieu qua kinh te ve truyen tai tren mang cap quang. Ngay nay, IP theo d kien se tr thanh giao dien hoan thien thc s cho cac mang loi NGN. Van e quan trong ay la mang cap quang phai toi u cho ieu khien lu lng IP. Mot giai phap co tnh thuyet phuc hien nay la hoi tu cac lp d lieu va cac lp quang trong mang loi. Viec hoi tu nay mang lai mot so li the nh cung cap cac dch vu toc o cao, bao ve dong thong tin lien tuc cho mang quang vi chuyen mach nhan a giao thc chung MPLS. Mot van e khong kem phan quan trong la van e ve cac giai phap quan ly thch hp cho mang NGN. Trong khi mong muon xay dng mot mang quan ly phai lam viec trong mot moi trng a nha au t, a nha khai thac, a dch vu con mang tnh logic, tuy vay no van boc lo nay la iem rat can lu y. Mac du con phai mat nhieu thi gian va cong sc trc khi he thong quan ly mang c trien khai, nhng muc tieu nay van co gia tr thuyet phuc va se mang lai nhieu li ch nh giam chi ph khai thac, dch vu a dang. Tat ca nhng yeu to tren nay dng nh lam cho NGN mang am s phc tap. Tuy nhien nen nhn mang NGN trong mang thong tin toan cau ngay nay, trong o cac mang chuyen mach kenh truyen thong va chuyen mach goi song song ton tai, cac mang di ong va co nh khong n gian trong viec cung khai thac, va tham ch cac thanh phan mang khac nhau tren mang cung yeu cau phan quan ly rieng biet. Tren quan iem o, NGN hng ve mot cai g o het sc phc tap, nhng se cho phep tiet kiem chi ph khai thac mot cach thch ang. 5. Tm hieu cac cong nghe 5.1. Cong nghe truyen dan Trong cau truc mang the he mi, truyen dan la mot thanh phan cua lp ket noi (bao gom chuyen tai va truy nhap). Cong nghe truyen dan cua mang the he mi la SDH, WDM vi kha nang hoat ong mem deo, linh hoat, thuan tien cho khai thac va ieu hanh quan ly.
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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

Cac tuyen truyen dan SDH hien co va ang c tiep tuc trien khai rong rai tren mang vien thong la s phat trien ung hng theo cau truc mang mi. Can tiep tuc phat trien cac he thong truyen dan cong nghe SDH va WDM, han che s dung cong nghe PDH. Cap quang: Hien nay tren 60% lu lng thong tin c truyen i tren toan the gii c truyen tren mang quang. Cong nghe truyen dan quang SDH cho phep tao tren ng truyen dan toc oc cao (n* 155 Mb/s) vi kha nang bao ve cua cac mach vong a c s dung rong rai nhieu nc va Viet Nam. WDM cho phep s dung o rong bang tan rat ln cua si quang bang cach ket hp mot so tn hieu ghep kenh theo thi gian vi o dai cac bc song khac nhau va ta co the s dung c cac ca so khong gian, thi gian va o dai bc song. Cong nghe WDM cho phep nang toc o truyen dan len 5Gb/s, 10Gb/s va 20Gb/s. Vo tuyen: Vi ba: Cong nghe truyen dan SDH cung phat trien trong lnh vc vi ba, tuy nhien do nhng han che cua moi trng truyen dan song vo tuyen nen toc o va chat lng truyen dan khong cao so vi cong nghe truyen dan quang. Ve tinh: Ve tinh quy ao thap (LEO Low Earth Orbit), ve tinh quy ao trung bnh (MEO Medium Earth Orbit). Th trng thong tin ve tin trong khu vc a co s phat trien manh trong nhng nam gan ay va se con tiep tuc trong nhng nam ti. Cac loai hnh dch vu ve tinh a rat phat trien nh: DTH tng tac, truy nhap Internet, cac dch vu bang rong, HDTV Ngoai cac ng dung pho bien oi vi nhu cau thong tin quang ba, vien thong nong thon, vi s ket hp s dung cac u iem cua cong nghe CDMA, thong tin ve tin ngay cang co xu hng phat trien ac biet trong lnh vc thong tin di ong, thong tin ca nhan,

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BAI GIANG NGN

Chng 1: Tong quan ve NGN

5.2 Cong nghe mang truy nhap Trong xu hng phat trien NGN se duy tr nhieu loai hnh mang truy nhap vao mot moi truyen dan chung nh: Mang truy nhap quang Mang truy nhap vo tuyen Cac phng thc truy nhap cap ong: HDSL, ADSL. Xu hng phat trien mang truy nhap bang rong 5.3. Cong nghe chuyen mach Chuyen mach cung la mot thanh phan trong lp mang chuyen tai cua cau truc NGN nhng co nhng thay oi ln ve mat cong nghe so vi cac thiet b chuyen mach TDM trc ay. Cong nghe chuyen mach cua mang the he mi la IP, ATM, ATM/IP hay MPLS th hien nay van cha xac nh ro, tuy nhien noi chung la da tren cong nghe chuyen mach goi, cho phep hoat ong vi nhieu toc o va dch vu khac nhau. Cong nghe chuyen mach quang: cac ket qua nghien cu mc th nghiem ang hng ti viec che tao cac chuyen mach quang. Trong tng lai se co cac chuyen mach quang phan loai theo nguyen ly sau: chuyen mach quang phan chia theo khong gian, chuyen mach quang phan chia theo thi gian, chuyen mach quang phan chia theo o dai bc song.

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