THE NIGHAIVTU

AND

THE OLDEST INDIAN TREATISE

ON ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMENTICS
CRITICALLY

EDITED FROM ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS AND TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME INTO ENGLISH, WITH INTRODUCTION, EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL NOTES, THREE INDEXES AND EIGHT APPENDICES

BY

LAKSHMAN SARUP,

M.A.

(PANJ.), D. PHIL. (OxoN.)

LATE PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PANJAB, LAHORE

TEXT
(

Pages

1

to

298

)

INTRODUCTION, ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND NOTES
(

Pages

1

to

260

)

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS
DELHI
::

VARANASI

::

PATNA

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS
BUNGALOW ROAD, JAWAHARNAGAR, DELHI-7
NEPALI KHAPRA, VARANASI (u.P.) BANKIPORE, PATNA (BIHAR)

Pk
-^
,

Second Reprint 1967
Price Rs, 40.00

PRINTED IN INDIA BY SHANTILAL JAIN, AT SHRI JAINENDRA PRESS, BUNGALOW ROAD, JAWAHARNAOAR, DELHI-7 AND PUBLISHED BY SUNDARLAL JAIN, MOTILAL BANARSIDASS, BUNGALOW ROAD, JAWAHARNAOAR, DELHI-7

THE NIQHANTU
AND

THE NIRUKTA
THE OLDEST INDIAN TREATISE ON ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
CRITICALLY EDITED .FROM ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS AND

TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME INTO ENGLISH, WITH
INTRODUCTION, EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL NOTES,

THREE INDEXES AND EIGHT APPENDICES

BY

LAKSHMAN SARUP,

M.

A, (PANJ,), D. PHIL. (OxoN.)

(Of Balliol College Oxford)

PROFESSOR of SANSKRIT, ORIENTAL COLLEGE, LAHORE

SANSKRIT TEXT, WITH AN APPENDIX SHOWING THE

RELATION OF THE NlRUKTA WITH OTHER
SANSKRIT WORKS.

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS
DELHI
::

VARANASI

::

PATNA

Sundar Lai Jam Motilal Ilium rNhlusft, u _ Bungalow Road,
, I

Lai am >hanti T";,.

f Buncalow ^ ^^

lirl

J*c

******

Road, Jawahar

Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6

Copies available at
i.

:

a.

-6 Motilal Banawldass, Bungalow Road, Jawaharnagar, Delhi Varanasi. Motilal Banarsidass, Nepali Khapra,

3.

Motilal Banaraidass. Bankipur, Patna.

II

%ft:

n

H.

PREFACE.
a systematic and exhaustive search for the hitherto unutilised mss. of the Nirukta was made. I myself undertook an extensive tour in Rajputana, Baroda, Tihri-Garhwal and Cashmere and examined the state collections of Sanskrit mss. I also visited Benares, Patna, Madras, Madura, and I wrote to scholars, and librarians in charge of Sanskrit Tanjore. mss. throughout the country. I was therefore able to secure the
return
to India,

On my

home

use of several mss. hitherto not utilised

for the

constitution

of

the text.
1

These mss. are as follows

:

This ms. belongs to the state Library, Bikaner. The Bk. loan was secured for the University of the Panjab through the courtesy of Maharaja S'ri Sir Bhairon Singhji, K. C. I. E., VicePresident, Council, Bikaner.

The Nirukta of Yaska in the shorter recension containing the two parts i. e. the piirvdrdha and the uttardrdha
Contents.
in in leaves.

It

is

a badly preserved ms. and
Material: Paper.

full of

mistakes.
in

Size:

9J"x4|"

No.

of leaves:

No. of

lines per folio: 8.

Characters: Devanagarl.
ft

Date
i

:

on

f.

inr.

(

sic. )

OTntTsrH*?^
i.

II

*N^

*i*rrftj*r?5*Trif

I

sre^ri fovprft

%

feftkii <ra*
sic.

e.

I7o5 Vik.=l67i)

A. D.

The colophon ends thus

:

(

)

BK. 8
The
r.
IIIH.
f.

Contents the
:

S'-iksd

is

injured in

many

Cat'iiMaya written without a break. Niyhantu is given from f. 9 places.

to

18r.
:

Size

Og* x

4f

.

Material

:

Paper. No. of leaves

:

18.
f,

No. of
MIC:
*ft

linos:

8.
||

Charaetern: Devaniigarl.
o

Dato: cm

18 P:

$*?

VH9It
i

^^
on

^rj^

1*\^ qi

W^A ^

1
11

i^f'HnT fef^^f

*?t iTiinfvrn^ %ft si^jiftrf

& fonwA

u ftr^ir^i

K.

1

A

am.

written

paper

in

Uevauaguil eharucU

obtained through the courtesy of the Curator, Central Baroda. The contents are the 1st half of the Nirukta. of mistakes and belongs to the longer recension.
Size
:

Library,
It
is full

8

^ x 3".
of lines:
^r%
11

Number
9.

of leaves

:

69.

Number
Date:
pJi u

sic.

n ^
u

u

<tqift
:

%%*K^fi

Scribe

sic.

w^Hflw^TO

x

****

*

*rnr

a

u

Peculiarities:

The colophon
ll

at the end of the 1st chapter runs

thus
sic.

:

ll

^%

%?5% ^^wtrnr:

u

^r 5*^fc u
1

i^%

u

at the end of the 3rd chapter thus ; M ?i% in \ n ^^ u ?jrforhan*T: ^n^rr ^r u VL u
;

&

i4wwftiuwwi<
Evidently
as the 5th

n

nTi5^[^te*^i
:

ftn

^jttr'rlftr

HIT?:

u

;

at the end

of the 4th chapter thus

u

^fa

%^ i^r^ ^mTni:

w\i\ft*i

?&fo *n

\\

ayam

refers to the

chapter is does not seem to be correct in this case.

4th chapter and not to the Nirukta immediately continued. But the use of vd
:

The visarga is retained but at the same time euphonically combined i. e. a double process is introduced, The avagraha is not e. g. f. lv: 5^n^n?r^r:^8rT ...... *wiwn:& etc.
Sandhi and
spelling

marked,
nasal
is

e.

g.

f.

2r.

sn^fa
=50iifiio
:

f.

lv.

3ST<nT5*nftft

etc.

The

dental
e. g. f.

avoided in conjunction, being reduced to unusvdra,

lv. Pkn*iiil*t<6<i

^JS

F. 2r.

f%nftu

f.

Gv.

R. neat, well-written, woll-[>roscrvcd and complete ms. of the Nirukta in Devanagarl characters.
leaves: 69 + ?7 + Three leaves 75-77 are wrongly numbered a 85-87.

a

A

Sixe:

/;

8i x4J".
of linew
i
:

N urn ber of

i

blank=147.

-Number

9.

No
The
ins.

date
lookn

given.
alxjut

The name of
year.s
old.

the

scribe

i

not known.

200

recciiHion

and doe not give any new
It
contaiiiH

It belongs to the longer variants.

B*.

the 2nd half of the

Nirukta, written on

paper

in

Devanagari character*.

Size:

8"x3|-".

Number
31%

of leaves

:

83 + i blank.

Number

of lines: 9.

Date

:

sic.

i

^

i

I

The owner seems

to be one
:

Ramakrsna.
i

He

is

saluted like a
nr.
I

sft *m$wnTrfe<snr god which is rather unusual word Mcilika does not refer to the owner of the ms.

Or the

but to God,

who

is the

master of

all.

The ms. belongs
very thus
I

to

the longer recension.

It represents

a

late stage of textual expansion.
s[Kf
i^Tf>

The colophon at the end runs
the Nirukta, written in

>3THM^j

^8*n^lT

I

.

R*.

A fragment

of the 1st half of

Devanagarl characters on paper. It looks old. It is illegible in many places. Ink is bleached by age. It belongs to the shorter recension.
Size
:

9" x 3J". Number of lines

:

7.

Number

of leaves

:

61-

Eight

leaves are supplied in a different handwriting.

palm leaf ms. written ia old Canarese characters, to the Panjab University Library, Lahore. It belongs presented to the shorter recension and sometimes gives important readings.
Size:

Kn.

A

lU"xiy. Number
is

of leaves:

94+i blank.

Number

of lines

:

7.

it

written in old Canarese characters, must bo at least ;500 years old, and might bo older.
it is

No
6

date

given, but as

K
Tho

.

The
is

text of the Nirukta

is

made up by 2
9.

different inss.

1st half
Size:

given in

GO+i blank leaves.

i)i"x3.y'.

Number

of

lines:

Date

is

not

givoii.

Tho name of the

surilx) is also

unknown.
u

The colophon ends
u

thus:

n

wrft
i

sr^

i^%?fn|owrg

i

The ms.

belongs to the longer reeeiisiun. o o

Tho
Si/e:

tind halt'
<J"

is

given in

+

C5 leaves.
lines: 9.

x il".

Nuinhor

-)f

Colophon ends thus:
<rtonra*ta; u

( sic. )

u

u

V

u wj u ** u

v

u

^

n

$wm*nw

*ro:

s

*rr^<*u

m

\\

The
8

text belongs to the longer recension,
in full.

both the parisl^tas

being given

K.

1st leaf

is

incomplete ms. of the 1st half of the Nirukta. The missing. It looks old and has preserved the old spelling.
belongs to the shorter recension.

An

The

text

In many parts

it is

illegible.

Sie

:

9" x 4".

Number
8.

of leaves
:

:

78.
:

Number of lines:
The
The
R. T
text
is

Characters Devanagarl. Material paper.
to the

given

up

34th section of the 6th chapter.

last leaf is missing.

A fragment of an old ms. gives the text of
:

the Nirukta

in tne shorter recension from the words srorw^f trranrer ^nrroir ...... of

the 4th section of the 5th chapter up to a^faf *ff xrf^ir sfowrr of the 9th section of the 8th chapter. The 7th ch. begins thus ( sic. )
:
:

Size:

9"x4".
lines
:

Number
etc
:

of leaves:... 54-97... missing.
:

Nupaper.

mber of
Spelling
:

9.

Characters

Devanagarl.

Material

:

old.

Date

unknown.
arc tho

R

8
.

A ms,,
:

the contents of which

2nd half of the

Nirukta.
Size 9" x 4".

Number

of leaves: 62.

Number
paper.

of lines per page: 9. Characters : Dovanagarl, Material:

Date;

sic.

uwfort vnftat i<nnfi feftwfe^ u v^ u

^?

*?^3 u

are given together as one chapter, being from the 12th ch. of tho Nirukta. bodily separated
Parift'iijtas

The

There is no Spelling is old. The paper is very much worn. to suHpect the date. Tho external appearance, tho state ground
of the paper, which unmistakably bears the stamp of old ago, auc|

the internal evidence of old spelling support the above mentioned The following case of It belongs to the shorter recension. date. accidental omission is to be noted.

F. 29r.

1.

6

from top:

The eye
similar

of the scribe wandered
in

from the 1st

line

to the

words

the 3rd line with the result that the intervening

passage nr^HTT...^5n7: was omitted.

D.
B.
A..

A ins.
It
is

brought for me by

my

a neatly written, well preserved ms., and belongs

friend P. Bhagavaddatta. to

the longer recension.
Size: Number of leaves: 112+128+i+21=261. 6j"x2j". There are 3 parts. The 1st two parts contain the 1st and the 2nd half of the Nirukta respectively. The contents of the last

21 leaves are the Nighantu. Devanagarl. Material paper.
:

Number
sr%

of lines:

7.

Characters:

Date on

f.

112r.

(sic.)

Scribe:

(sic.)
(

^im<S*t><
):

^3^^^
*n%

*?$WT&T feftiH u
i

Date on

f.

128r.

= 240

(sic.) u

w <Mhmr*ift
fefe^i
I

^nh
Colophon

Scribe i

>sn*r&T^T ^^nTPSf r
:

^wi^^Twrs^T^VT^

ends with the usual statement

*m(
sic. u

5^1% ijr
sr

etc.

Date on

f.

21r

(

=261r

)

:

Scribe

:

^fr^

a good ms. of the Jfiruktq in the library of H. H. the Maharaja of Alwar. All my efforts to secure a loan of this ms. were fruitless, as the authorities refused to lend the ms. to the

There

is

Panjab University on any terms. Even a copy of the ms. could not be obtained. But H. H. the Maharaja was kind enough to let me see the ms. On examining a few test passages, I found that no new
variants were forthcoming.
Its collation

was therefore unnecessary.

Besides,

six

ms..

of

the

Rnghunatha Temple

Jammu

were collated by Principal Raghubar Dayal M. A;

M. O.

Library, L.

of the S. D. College,

of the Nirukta.
collation at

He WMS good enough
disposal.

as far as the 12th section of the 1st chapter to place the result of this

my

On

carefully

examining the

critical notes

supplied by Principal Raghubar Dayal, I did not find any new variants. I did not therefore feel justified in collating the mss.
afresh\

Th& evidence supplied by the Indian mss.- further supports the conclusion, deduced from the collation of European mss.
European mss. was discussed at length Nirnkta, published by the Oxford Press in 1920. The Introduction was sold out within University a few years of its publication and is now out of print. New reade.rs of the Nirukta will require information with regard to the
Thfc evidence of the
in

my

Introduction to

the

For their benefit, principles of the constitution of the text. relevant part of the Introduction is reproduced.
The Relationship of the MSS.
:

the

two recensions.

two groups, and for the sake of and B- A representing convenience and brevity, may be called the longer and B the shorter recension. None of the manuscripts grouped in these two families is earlier than A. D. 1479. Although they have been copied form earlier manuscripts often with great labour and trouble as some of the scribes remark neither of them transmits the text of the Nirukta in an uninterpolated state. Both recensions add the paris'ista which can be proved to be an as an integral part interpolation by independent testimony of the text, and cannot, be the faithful repretherefore, sentatives of the archetype. Moreover, both have besides the
foil into

The manuscripts*

A

paris'ista,

on to them.

an entire section or the equivalent of a section added These additions are meaningless. The commentary

on the Vedic stanzas quoted therein is very poor, and written in a style quite different from that of Yaska. For instance, there can hardly be any doubt as to the interpolated character of ix. 2, which is given as a constituent part of the text by the manuscripts of both recensions. Further, the commentary on the

Vedic stanza

in xi. 7 is meaningless

and written

in a different style.

The Vedic

stanza,

being quite easy,

requires

no explanation.

Yaska generally does not comment on easy Vedic
remarking:
iti

stanzas, simply

is explained In all such cases, this note of Yaska comes the mere reading'. by It would thus be intelligible, if it after easy Vedic stanzas only.
9

sd niyada-vy.(lkhydtd

l

i.

e.

'this

stanza

had followed immediately the Vedic stanzas
text

in xi. 7.

But

as the

now
:

in xi. 8.

stands, placed just after a very difficult Vedic stanza This is contrary to Yaska's method. It is clear that the
it is

words

iti

sd niyada-vydL'hydtd were originally placed immediately
in xi.
7.

after the

Vedic stanzas

The intervening passage

is

an

This

and rather a clumsy one, for it can be easily detected. proved by the fact that Durga, who repeats every word of Yaska in. his commentary, ignores them. How these
interpolation,
is

further

additions

gradually found their

way
i?
:

into the text

is

illustrated
in xii. 2,

the following example. There as usual, simply adds Yaska,
interpolators

an easy quotation
iti

by and

have Thus some manuscripts IICTO subjoin comment. remark: ^rr%g ^r ^r<ft srerrrRT "a^ff 3*??% ...... g*i<n?h
fluous, are omitted
in

Some diyada-vydJchydtd. a short endeavoured to add after these words
sd
lliu
n

following

Further, each recension contains passages, which, being superby the other, or are amplified versions of those the other. For example, B adds, between vii. 19 and 20, one

entire section, which is omitted by A. It is clearly an interpolation as the commentary on the Vedic stanzas is identical with that of
xiv.

33 with slight alterations.

Again,

in

B

the commentary on the Vedic stanza quoted in
fj^Kc^r

v. 27, reads as follows:

s^niTRt TO
ti

<re

^

13$

*

n

A's version of this

is

greatly amplified:

TO
I

contains a long passage in Further, omitted by B.
:

A

6. 5:

*0miss,io

ex homoeoteleuto' in Sanskrit Manuscripts.

It

is clear,

therefore, that both the recensions cannot faithfully

1 Cf.

N.

x, IS. 24; xi. 3, 45; xii. 31,

represent

Hence the question arises which of the archetype. them adheres more closely to the original ? Koth adopted the text as given by the longer recension in his edition, without,
however, assigning adequate reasons for his preference. The same This text is also adopted by most of the editors of the Nirukta.
text,

been shown above, does not represent the original. It is true that often the longer recension preserves the better text, The eye of the for sometimes passages are omitted by accident.
as has scribe

wanders from a particular word to the same or to a similar word, occurring further on in the text, with the result that the This phenomenon known as intervening words are omitted.
is

omissio ex homoeoteleuto

universal

and of very frequent occurrence.

The following example illustrates this kind of omission. In copying the lines: 'The book, which is rather scarce, was till very lately
of absolute necessity for the Student of the Christian Hynmology, 1 above all for the Student of Adam of St. Victor's hymns', the eye of the copyist wandered from the student of the first to the

same word
the*

in the second line
left out.

and the words

'of the Christian... for

were

The same thing happened
:

to the scribe of ms.
I

C

3.

In copying the sentence

*?fifaH*{*H SKfjTTOt ^jp&Wi

swftg-

wandered from the word in the first line to the same word in the second line, with the result that the words 3*?mi T^r srcfaug were left out.
his eye
I

Again,,in copying N.

vi.

22:

^

?re:
i

smni

$3f*ff $foftg

I

RV.

the eye of the scribe VIII. 4. 19. r<p: snrrfaKnrraV srsi^nrft wandered from the **jr of the first line to the similar word **p: in

the second

line,

consequently the intervening words

<rrr:

9RTW...

were omitted in ms.

C
:

3.

Further in N;
is

ii.

26

:

the

first

pdda

of the second

hemistich of the stanza of

RV.
pdda

III. 33. 6.
?rar

^
I

sm%

finishing the first
<nf&T:

Unconsciously the scribe remembered the second *rnr ssff: and wrote it down immediately after pdda with the result that the intervening words
are missing in ms.
is

<TOfT^...^3rqi?cf

C

4.

It cannot

therefore be concluded that the shorter recension
for sometimes omissions are accidental.
1.

always the best,

Clark, Descent of Manuscripts, p.

1.

Dittography in Sanskrit Manuscripts.

the other hand, there is also the phenomenon called dittography, i. e. the repetition or addition of a few words or
sentences.

On

An

excellent example of dittography
9,

is

furnished by

The Globe on July

1915.

The Echo departs publishes a message from Cettinje announcing the message form Cettinje announcing the appointment as Governor 1 of Scutari of Bojo Petrovitch.' The part of the second line is a
verbatim repetition of a part of the
first line.

In N.

ii.

28,

^srwft

ffcqfa

gr^ffa

rftaror

^

arft ......

the eye of the scribe
3<T *r in

wandered by chance after *% to the Vedic stanza, and he mechanically copies the whole of the first line except
ms.

C

5.

Again, in

N.

vi.

8,

the scribe of the ms.

Mi. repeats

Further there are some passages whose omission by B Yaska explains every word occurring absolutely unjustifiable.

is

in

the fourth chapter of the Nighantii. The omission of the passages containing the explanation of any of these words is therefore

Examples of such omissions are the following. Yaska explains ftsprr: ( Ngh. 4. 3. 12. ) in N. vi. 3, but the passage ferersn ftsrTfrftoi: is omitted by B. Again, Yaska explains sffow ( Ngh. 4. 3. 28 ) in N. vi. 6 as sfrro sraror, which is omitted by B. This omission makes the following Vedic quotation
inconsistent
:

with Yaska's plan.

meaningless.

FurtKer, in commenting upon a Vedic stanza, Yaska always starts from the very beginning of the stanza. To leave out the first few words and to begin from somewhere in the middle of the stanza
altogether foreign to his practice, yet if the text of B be followed. the omission of the passage: qrafcR f^onfoft Rcj^r ( N. vi. 26 ) would involve Yaska in an inconsistency. All this shows that
is

B is not absolutely
1

reliable.

Cl*rk, op.

cit.,

p.

6.

Now
lias

let

us examine

A.

A belong to a period later than those of B.
this peculiarity,
i.

The majority

of the manuscripts of Thus not one of them

preserved the old spelleing, while most of the
e.

B

mss. retain

of writing

15

as

I

/

as ^rt

for

^

I

/'I

it

$

for

MSS. divide the paris'ista into the Again, some of the so-called thirteenth and the fourteenth chapters, while those of B
put the whole of the paris'ista into one chapter only, which
is

A

numbered the

thirteenth.

It has already been pointed out that
in

A contains

an obvious

interpolation in N. vi. 5, and an amplified version of B's comment N. v. 27. Besides these there are shorter passages scattered

throughout the book which are omitted by B and are suspected to be interpolations. Ona very fertile and insidious source of interpolations is supplied by. Yaska's own method of giving etymological
explanation.

He

does not content himself with one derivation, but

goes on adding derivation after derivation of a single word till the whole list of probable, possible, and even fanciful etymologies is

In many cases, interpolators found add new derivations and attribute them to Yaska.
exhausted.
considerable

it

A

quite easy to contains a

number of such

additions, while
:

B

has only two.

The following are a few samples

N.

ii.

6.

A reads
B

:

%$ft

Jwmj

1

t*9TT

frf

ftre^tft 3T

I

qn fy^foi-

reads:

The two
N.
ii.

derivations are omitted.

It).

A

reads:

B
N.
ii.

reads:

13.

A B

reads:
reads
:

N.
N.

ii.

20.

A reads
B
reads

:

:

ii.

22.

A reads:
B
reads
:

srw

^fa g&rara

N.

iii.

8.

A reads
B
reads

:

:

N.

iii.

10.

A reads:
B
reads:
^t ^t

N.

iii.

15.

A reads:

3F&&

I

Breads: ^t

wt

?r^

fr>gfcr

^j;

i

In this particular case

it is

obvious that the

an interpolation, passage ^rc: ^^TT^, &c., for as the words stand in the first line,
is

Yaska would naturally give the etymological first and then of ^r, not explanation of

&w

vice versa.

As

a matter of fact he does so
ftrvrer
:

;

he says This would have been absurd
after explaining

if

of

A represents the original.
ii

the reading

N.

iii.

16.

A reads
B reads

:

-sun
*r

u

^ l^r 0fa i^
I

ll

:

sro^n

er

^55T

%fir u i $ u
I

N. N.

iii.

19.

A reads:
B reads:

fofifens^nihr...^
ft

iWfir

^wr^

i

iv.

2.

A reads:
B
reads
:

JT^^T...^!^

I

^pn^r

4fiUi<&<kfr

I

N.

iv.

10.

A reads
A

:

B reads:
N.
iv. 13.

reads:

B

reads

:

N.

iv. 15.

A reads
B
reads

:

:

Erqr

^wftar ?ra%
s*
i

i

tfesf

^r^fcr 31

i

N.

iv. 19.

A reads: 3^
3^%

3^
i

I

^for 571*353^

I

B
N.
N.
v.
3.

reads

:

sr^i 5? <r^s%
<TRftfrT
7i%ftfflr

<)ti

A reads
B reads
B
reads

:

:

v. 12.

A reads:
:

N.

v. 26.

A reads:
B reads
:

N.
N. N.
N.

vi.

8.

A reads A reads
B
reads

:

B reads:
vi. 16.
: :

vi.

33.

A reads
B
reads

:

?ft^
?ft?T%

$&
ft%

i

:

i

vi. 32.

A reads
B
reads

:

f^ 5$&rf<r fe^

1

srr

f*??^

^rr

:

N.

vi. 33.

A reads:
B reads
:

*R

^r^sfiifftni

'Wf^nfiRf

rr

Instances might be multiplied, but the above examples suffice has been much more tampered with than B. to show that

A

Fortunately, as has been said above,

word of the Nlrukta
Nirukta in
toto

in his

commentary,

Durga repeats every so that the text of the

can be reproduced from his commentary alone.

This commentary therefore serves the purpose of a manuscript of the Nirukta and supplies valuable information about the condition
of the text in
its

author's

time.

Durga

does not recognize the

paris'ista as an integral part of the Nirukta, as in fact he is even unaware of its existence. Thus his commentary preserves the text of the Nirukta as current before the addition of the paris'ista.

w
derives great value from the fact that Durga displays critical judgment in the adoption of readings in the text, while

Further,

it

giving variants and adding critical notes on them. For example, in N. i. 2, he reads STJJITT^ but gives ^TT^ as a variant, adding
:

Again, in N.
a variant, adding

i.

12,

he reads

tfte^Mift

but gives qfcflRift as

scorer tffti*?Rriv|f
iii.

Again,
T

in

N.

15, he

remarks

:

srfari *r

%&**

Again,

in

N.
:

iii.

21, he reads

3iMifcr but gives

rfe^Rf as a

variant, adding

Again, in N.
1

iv. 19,

he reads *g: but gives
i

RT^ as a variant,

adding

:

^TT^sf^ ^ftc^f TTS:
in

sr^rf^^^f MHI^^I^:
:

i

Again,

N.
N.

vi. 2,

he remarks

fr%

*TT

Again,

in

vi. 4,

he reads sRsrnrr^ but gives

3H3inq and

as variants.

Again, in N.

vi. 6,

he reads
I

adding

:

$ftop$r3r^%

w**

but gives ifam as a variant, acg^^qq^^ g^^)fft fe *TPST
snrorer
I

Again, in N.

vi.

21, he remarks:

5^^%:

sremCT^tri

i

Again, on N.
This shows
readings

vi. 33,

he remarks:

Durga took and has handed down a
that
it

pains to ascertain the correct sort of critical edition of the

Nirukta, as

existed in his time.

Three stages of interpolations.

We

have thus manuscript materials which belong to three
the commentary of Durga, written before the

distinct periods.
(1)

D,

i.

e.

addition of the paris'istas and embodying the whole text of the Nirukta, represents the earliest period, i. e. about the thirteenth

century A. D.

(2) B, i. e. the manuscripts of the shorter recension, represents a period later than D, when the paris'istas were added, but not

divided as yet into different chapters, and

when the old orthography

was

still

prevalent.

a

still

(3) A, i. e. the manuscripts of the longer recension, represents later period when the paris'istas had been divided into

chapters and the old orthography had gone out of use.

A collation of these

three different recensions indicates that

three distinct stages of interpolations in the Nirukta can be clearly For example, let us take a passage in N. i. 4. On traced. has been collating D, B, and A, we find that the reading of

D

expanded

in

B, and that of

B

in

A.
^rfefa

N.

i.

4.

Dreads:

arrarifaii^

B reads

:

iHN!(M3ft

rc%H n^f*"

I

WT

I

A reads

:

sr

i

^Mimifiv^i^^lcud

i

Another example
as follows:

for these three stages is supplied

by N.

ix. 2,

D reads
B reads
>(
:

:

arer

gr^iq;

i

<refar *rar% u ^ u

r4t

S^R^M:
te^r

i

3^Nr ^r%

u

?

u

wit

g^ ...... v^i%<^

'ift

^RT u

^ ^^f

t

U
*rr 'rt

film

A reads
g><
I

:

r^

S^T^T
"ift

^Rl

II

I

^l*<l<d ^T
4i<JHin:
I

I

W^

^HT

*T^l?r

U ^ U

It has been

shown above that
text of

the

as one passes from the

B

of etymologies increases to that of A. In the same
list

manner the list of etymologies increases The following are some examples.
N.
i.

in

B
3
I

as compared with D.

4.

D reads:
B
reads
:

fgHiqlfoTO&HfEafr
^cr+imifar^i^'^q^foM^

I

f^r4t...

^C^IM::

$%$

tft^cf

I

J

T> reads

:

TOT; ^THST %%:
TOT:

I

B
N.
i.

reads

:

7.

N.

ii.

22.

D reads B reads D reads: B reads:
:

i^ <&$& & %&
SFTT^T

\

ts fa^r
*mV **&:
\

:

if?%TT ^%

%^^

I

N.

ii.

26.

D reads
B

:

:

n

reads:

:

u

N.

iii.

18.

D reads
B
reads

:

rer^:

^rr

:

wrf

:

N. N.

v.

4.

D reads
B
reads

:

wfi

:

v. 23.

D reads: ^^n
B
reads
:

oft

iV

u

^

ii

MS. C
is

1

agrees with

B

except that the last line *ro

omitted.
vi.
3.

N.

Dreads:

B

reads:

N.
N.

vi.

8.

D reads
B
reads

:

%$t ^n?w<iMi

fjqr

^f^rMi
i

u ^ u u

:

^t

^i*ii<HTtt{i

^TT

f^n $?te^ +^3ffi

*

II

vi. 24.

D reads A reads
D reads
B
reads

:

:

B omits it altogether.
N.
vi. 28.
:

;

srwrr

fa...

...

Parallel instance of Servius,

commentator of

Virgil.

traced.

Thus the stages of interpolation at different periods can be The principle of the ' best mauuscript is obviously inappli'

cable in this case, for none of the manuscripts can be called the best. All that is available is the best manuscript of each family, and the
best plan, under the circumstances, would three families side by side. Fortunately it
for the

be to place
is

all

the
so,

possible

to

do

successive

interpolations from one family to another are

invariably the amplifications of the text of a shorter recension, and are thrust between sentences wherever the text could be so

enlarged

with impunity, as, for instance, in multiplying the of etymologies and attributing them all to Yaska. I number have, however, distinguished the evidence of Durga's commentary

from that of the manuscripts of the Nirukto, although Durga's commentary is very important for supplying such valuable evidence
for the

history

of the

text

of the Nirulcta,

it

speaking, be called a manuscript of the NiruJcta. of the shorter to the longer recension is shown
of square brackets,

cannot, strictly The relation

by the use

which

contain

the longer recension, while the to the text preserved by Durga

additional passages of relation of the shorter recension

the

is

indicated

,

by

foot-notes.

An

analogous example

is

furnished by Latin literature.

The

text of

Servius, commentator of Virgil, shows a similar threefold amplification ; the three stages of interpolations being pointed out by Thilo I think the text of the Nirukta reproduced from in his edition.

Durga represents

the archetype as closely as

it is

possible to restore

it with the help of the present materials. I have collated thirtyseven manuscripts myself, and in addition have taken into account the evidence of fourteen manuscripts collated by Roth, eight by

the

editor

of the Nirukta in Bib.
as stated above.

Ind.,

and

six

by Principal

Raghubar Dayal

Thus, directly and indirectly,

the evidence of sixty five manuscripts is available for this edition. I doubt if any useful, hitherto unutilised ms. of the Nirukta
will

now

be forthcoming.
less settled.

The

text

may,

therefore, be regarded

as

more or

The present

text is in the

main

identical with the text,

which I

constituted at Oxford, and which served as the basis of my English But as a result of the collation of Indian mss., translation.
this text
is

somewhat further developed than that used
There are certain variations
in detail, see for

for the

translation.
line 3

example,

on page 35.

Thus the present

text differs from the basis of

my

translation

may I may

although the difference is not considerable. This serve to show the existence of the differnce until such time as
be able to publish a revised edition of the translation based
final text.

on the

The text is followed by Appendix I. Parallel passages from the Sarhhitds, the Brdhmanas, the Prdtis'dkhyas, the Brhaddevatd, the Astddhydyl, the Mahdbhdsya, the Arthas'dstra of Kautalya
and other works of Vedic and Classical Sanskrit are compared with the text of the Nirukta. The Appendix I will be useful
history of the Nirukta. One could see at a glance the which Yaska is indebted to his predecessors and the It will also be influence, exercised by him, on his successors.
for

the

extent to

useful

in

enabling

one to estimate

the originality

of

Yaska's

contribution.

was formerly proposed to add Appendix II, containing the hitherto unknown and unpublished commentary of Mahes'vara on But as the text of the Nirukta is already very much the Nirukta. delayed and the addition of Appendix II would require considerIt

able time, the publication of the the present.

commentary

is

being withheld for

Commentators of Yaska.

Although, from an early period, Yaska's work has been recognized as one of the most important veddngas by the orthodox

tradition of literary

India, he, unlike

Panini, has not had

many

commentators.

This does not mean that he had few followers or

that his speculations did not dominate the thought of succeeding On the contrary, he has been acknowledged to be generations. the pre-eminent authority on etymology. Hence, at first sight,
it

seems rather inexplicable that his work should have been commented upon by so few people. One reason of this paucity is that Yaska's work itself is a commentary and not an independent
hence
it is
it

treatise,

did

not stand in need of

much

elucidation.

written in classical Sanskrit prose, and, notwithstandSecondly, ing its somewhat archaic 'and terse style, is easily intelligible to

the reader as compared, for instance, with the aphorisms of Panini consequently there was not much demand for further comment.

;

Yet four commentators, at Yaska's work.

least,

are

known

to have elucidated

(1) Ugra is mentioned as a commentator on the Nirukta by 1 Aufrecht in his Catalogus Catalogorum. But no other information, about his personality, the character of his work, and the time when he lived, is available. No reference is made to him by any of the other writers in the same field.

A

ins.

in

the

entitled 'Ugra's

Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal is It is, however, not commentary on the Nirukta
'.

the letter

Ugra's but Durga's commentary. In writing the name of Durga, was accidentally omitted by the scribe, i. e. Bhagvad-

D

durga was written Bhagvad-urga.
metathesis.

This

Urga became Ugra by
commentary. He would not

The cataloguer never looked
read other
colophons,

at the

did not even

otherwise he

have committed such a blunder. This misspelt name of Durga appears as Ugra. I suppose it was this ins., which served as the
source of Aufrechts' information.
(2)

Another commentator
in his

Devarajayajvan

Skaridasvamin, mentioned by commentary on the Nighanlu
is
:

i

tt
|

.

^^TTmrr ^ WHWdl

J...

1

Vol.

i,

p.

297.

It

is

clear

that

commentary of Skandasvamin

Devaraja was well acquainted with .the on the NiruJcta, and utilised the

same in writing his own commentary on the Nighanfa.. No ms. of Skanda's commentary on i<he Nirukta, has yet come to light.

He

is

anterior to Devaraja.

Date of Devaraja.
(a)

Devaraja quotes Bhoja frequpqtly, see pp. 20, 21, 29, 85,

37,43,55,69,77,93,117, 130, 145, ftf, 173, 175, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 193, 197, 198 etc. of the first volume of the
Bib.Ind.
edition

of the Nirukta.

than Bhoja.
(6)

Devaraja 'is therefore later *

Devaraja quotes the Daiva, a work on grammar by This occurs in Deva:(sic.) gft: $nref*?r OTSWT &^t $ni^ ^r

%^

i

the Daiva

9

as

follows:^: 5^n7%

quotation the faulty reading of the passage, the quotation does not
the date of
(c)

is

almost identical.

The 136. OTTOT Sr^ ^T^i^% The difference may be attributed to the mss. But even accepting the identity of
I

lead to

any

definite result foiS

Deva
is

is still

subject to controversy.

Devaraja

twice quotes

a passage from a Dhdtuvrtti.
$n^ sWf
{

The passage
irf&ftsft

the following:

(sic.)

srft
I

syran^
I

5% wrf^s

H ^rr^f ig<flafir<ft1i ft trol qug<k3
TlT

^ q^*
$rr
I

The same quotation
sfcnft
.

occurs a second time as follows:

(sic.)

%lild[c<i

HMn
is it

The only extant Dhdtuvrtti
passage is not found therein. Dhdtuvrtti because Devaraja is

that of Sayanacarya and the Nor likely to occur in Sayana's anterior to Sayana as the latter quotes
is

the former, the quotation being the following:
1.

See Bib. Ind.
See, op.
cit. p.

ed., vol.

i,

pp. 2-4.
I. 7.

2.
3.

43.

commentary on $pn ^gh.
1. p.

Trivandrum Sanskrit Series No.
The Nirukta, Bib. Ind. ed. voL
Op.
oit. vol. I. p.

95,

4.
5.

I. p. 43.

109.

4

Ngh.
I

II. 11.

Devaraja's comment on the word < the -following: Samas'ramfs edition of the commentary of Devaraja
i

1

is

Max Muller's ms. of Devaraja's capable of improvements. reads 3^rr for 3^r of Samas'rami. It is clear however commentary
is

posterior to Devaraja, who therefore could not have quoted from the Dhdtuvrtti of the former,

that Sayanaearya

is

in the

The above mentioned quotation of the Dhdtuvrtti also occurs Purusakdra, a commentary on the Daiva by Krsnalllddukaqfa qn*3mi>
\

muni, as follows:
on verse
very

snr sR$r
I

I

This comment
It

is
is

written

136 of the Daiva, quoted by Devaraja.

therefore

probable that Devaraja's borrowed from the Purmakdra.

quotation of the Dhdtuvrtti is Devaraja will therefore be later

than the author of the Purusakdra. The lower limit of the Purusakdra can be easily fixed for Hemacandra is quoted three times
:

(1)
(2)

(3)

The upper

limit of

the Purusakdra can also be fixed with

certainty for it is
(1) (2)
(3)

quoted by Sayanacarya in his Dhdtuvrtti:

The second
follows:
^3T ^rf%

quotation

is

found in the published text as

^4^

I

1.

Sayana's commentary on

RV.
I.

I.

62.

3.

Also, see,

Max

Muller's

2nd

edition,

IV,

CXXXIII.
230.
I. p.

2.

The Nirukta, Bib. Ind. ed.

3

t

Trivandrum Sanskrit

Series No.

95.

4.

Trivandrum Sanskrit Series No.
Op.
Op.
oit. I. 24.

I. p. 22.

5. 6. 7. 8.

cit. I. 37.
cit, p.

Quoted by Ganapatis'aatri in op.
Op.
cit. p.

III.

61.

Devaraja quotes the (d) on the word ^^nwr 1 (sic),

Padamanjarl

in his

commentary

8 Haradatta, the author of the Padamanjarl is also mentioned Haradatta was the son of Padmakumara, a younger brother of
.

Agnikumara, and a pupil of Aparajita. The Padamanjarl is a commentary on the well-known Kds'ikd and later than the Mahdbhasyapradlpa of kaiyyata, who is mentioned by the author of the Sarvadars'anasamgraha. The Padamanjarl is assigned to c. 1100 A. D. by Prof. Belvalkar in his Systems of Sanskrit Grammar. Devaraja therefore must be later than the llth century A. D.
(e)

Devaraja

also

quotes Bharatasvamin:

#-C[|JIMJ

In his introductory remarks, Devaraja mentions a Bharatasvamin as a commentator of the Veda. The quotation shows that Bharatasvamin belonged to the Samaveda and must have therefore
written a

commentary on that Veda.
is

A ms.
.

of the commentary

of Bharatasvamin on the Samaveda
Sanskrit mss*
in
the

mentioned by Burnell in his

5 Palace at Tanjore Bharata was written in the reign of king

The commentary of

Rama

of the Hosala

dynasty.

King Rama

reigned
is

at

Devagiri from 1272,3

1310

A. D.

The commentary

the 13th century.

therefore to be assigned to the end of Devaraja is therefore later than the 13th

century. But as he is quoted by Sayanacarya, he is earlier than the middle of the 14th century A. D. He may therefore be

assigned to the beginning of the 14th century.
8 Devaraja also quotes one Durga not the commentator of Yaska but
.

This Durga however is a commentator of the

Kdtantrasutrapatha, the standard work of the Katantra School of grammar. This Durga is quoted by Hemacandra and is assigned
to the 8th century
1.
2.

A.

D

T
.

Ngh.
Op.

I.

14.
I.

The Nirukta, Bib. Ind. ed.
cit. pp. i. 174,

147.

3.
4.

240, 245, 246 etc.
ed. I. 95.
I. p.

The Nirukta, Bib. Ind.
Vedic

5. 6.
7.

The

Literature, Part Nirukta, Bib. Ind. ed. p. i. 112.

and Technical

11, ed. 1879.

Belvalkar, Systems of Sanskrit

Grammar,

p, 87.

(3)

He seems

But the most important of all these commentators is Durga. to be later than Devarajayajvan who is familiar with the

then extant commentaries on the Vedas, the Nighantu, and the Nirukta, and who does not mention Durga in the long list of tha authorities used by him for the purpose of his own work. Although a conclusion based on the argument of silence is not cogent, yet in this particular case, it is justified to assume that Durga is not referred to because he was posterior to, or a contemporary of, Devaraja.

The

latter

made an exhaustive study

of the commentaries on the

Nighantu aud the Nirukta and could not have ignored the very important work of the former. Durga would also be later than Skandasvamin. Durga's commentary is published, and has superseded the works of his predecessors. His work is important for two reasons: (1) he is a later commentator, and therefore represents
a fuller development of the traditional interpretation of the Nirukta; (2) the very fact that it has survived at the cost of We shall therefore earlier commentaries indicates its importance.

examine his work somewhat

in detail.

Date of Durga.
It has already been pointed out that in all probability Durga posterior to, or a contemporary of, Devarajayajvan, and therefore

is

later

than the beginning of the 14th century A. D. However, Durga's upper limit can be determined almost with certainty.

A manuscript
dated 1387
Professor

*

of his

commentary

The date is A. D. A. B. Keith. 2 The manuscript was copied at Bhrguketra in the reign of Maharana Durgasirhhavijaya. Thus he could not be later tHan 1387 A. D. It is not definitely known as to which particular site was represented by Bhrguksetra but probably
it is

the Bodleian Library is genuine and is accepted as such by
in

As Durga wrote to be identified with the present Broach. his commentary in a hermitage near Jammu, a place not easily accessible in the absence of modern. means of communications,
the migration of
1. 2.
ii,

3

the ms. of
475.

his

commentary to Bhrguksetra

MS. Wilson

See Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Toi

p. 108.
3.

See,

The Imperial Gazatteer of India

Vol.,

IX.

p. 16.

of half a century at least in order to account presupposes the lapse his fame as a commentator from the isolated for the spreading of It will riot be of Jammu to the plains of Bhrguksetra.
heights
far

from the truth,

of the fourteenth century

therefore, to place A. D.

Durga about the beginning

not speak of any predecessors by name nor does he leave any clue as to the sources of his own commentary. Unlike Devarajayajvan, he does not give the slightest informatioa about himself or the general state of the Nirukta during his time.

Durga does

That he wrote

his

commentary
1

proved by the colophon on f. as follows chapter of the Nirukta, which runs

hermitage near Jammu is 132 v. at the end of the eleventh
in a
:

This shows that the full name of the commentator was Durgasimha. The fact that he lived in a hermitage and was addressed as lhagavat indicates that he was .an ascetic and belonged to some
particular order of SannySsa.
31

the family of the Vasisthas. III. 53. 23, quoted by Yaska to illustrate the meaning of the word lodham, because the stanza implies hostility to Vasis. tha. He says:

Further, he was a descendant of He does not explain the stanza RV.

'The stanza, in which this word (lodham) occurs is hostile And I am a descendant of Vasis. tha, belonging to to Vasistha. 8 the Kapisthala branch, hence I do not explain the stanza.'
I

Say ana has the following note on

it:

3*1

'There was formerly a royal sage named Sudas, a disciple of Vigvamitra. Somehow, he became an object of Vasistha's hatred.

Then, VisVamitra, in order to protect his disciple, reviled Vasistha with these stanzas. These are the imprecatory stanzas. The
Vasisthas do not pay any attention (lit. listen ) to them.' 4 This corroborates Yaska's statement that there are stanzas which contain
asseveration and imprecation only.
1.
5

2.
3.

MS. Wilson 475. The Nirukta, ir. 14.
Durga's Commentary on the N.
iv.

^4.
ii,

4.

Sayana on BY.

Ill, 53. Of. Bib. Ind. edition of the Nirukta, rol.

p. 416. 5.

N.

vii.

3.

Durga's commentary is important for it repeats every word of Y&ska, thus the text of the Nirukta in toto could be reproduced from Durga's work alone. As none of the manuscripts collated by me is older than the fifteenth century, Durga supplies therefore
evidence of a very valuable character for the textual criticism of the Nirukta. The number of variants attributed by Durga to his
predecessors and his frequent remarks that the text is corrupt and that the right reading is to be discovered, all such cases I have pointed out in my notes, indicate that there has been no unbroken
tradition

with regard to the handing down of the text of the

Nirukta.

Further there seems to have been some sort of a revival of the study of the Nirukta in the neighbourhood of Jammu in Durga 's time, for it seems difficult to imagine that in an isolated place like

Jammu, Durga
love of writing a

sat clown to write his
It
is

commentary simply

for the

more reasonable to suppose commentary. that Durga accomplished this task in order to meet the demand for a good text, elucidation of obscure passages, and amplification of Yaska's arguments, a demand which a revival of the study of the Nirukta had called forth. The examination of the manuscript of Durga's commentary, mentioned above, leads one to the conclusion that Durga did not live to complete his work and that he himself wrote his commentary up to the end of the llth
chapter only. This is indicated by a comparison of colophons in the manuscript which, at the end of the 7th-12th chapters, numbered as 12-17 by Durga consecutively from the five chapters
of the Niyhantu, are as follows
(1)
(2)
:

At

the end of the 7th chap, on
,,

f.

50

r. u

8th chap. onf. 70

v. u

(3)
(4)
(5)

9th chap, on
10th chap, on
1 1th

f.
f.

86

v. u

112
132v.
u

chap, on

f.

A comparison of these five colophons shows that the first four do not contain any reference to Durga by name nor to his honorific titles, which fact implies that they were written by Durga himself,

llth chapter was added by some as an deary a and addresses him as disciple, who speaks of Durga could not have appropriated these titles himself bhagavat. Durga
while that at the

end of the

unless he

was very

vain".

Another point

in

favour of the

fifth

colophon being written by a person other than Durga is that while the first four colophons say that such and such a chapter has come to an end, the fifth remarks that such a pdda of that chapter has

The colophon at the end of the llth chapter is the and as such should have been placed Li the end of the 12th chapter, where no such description is found; the colophon This leads one to there, on f. 150 r., being n srs^srer **&*: "TT^:
come to an end.
final inscription
II

the conclusion that

Durga

himself wrote his commentary

up

to the

end of the llth chapter, whose colophon was added by a disciple who also wrote the commentary on the 12th chapter, and faithfully
refrained himself from adding the name of Durga in the colophon at the end of the 12th chapter. MS. Mill 142, dated A. D. 1839,

Catalogues of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the 1 Bodleian Library by Keita, also preserves the final inscription at the end of the llth chapter, while on f. 123 v., at the end of the
in

and described

the

It is also to be 12th chapter it simply says n m^wa =3gr: qr^: the word adliydya only noticed that in this manuscript as well, is used in the earlier colophons while pdda makes its appearance
II

end of the llth and the 12th chapters. Another point of minor importance may also be adduced in this connection, i. e. the manuscripts have the following s'loka at the end of the
in those at the

12th chapter.

As Durga
will

is

shown

to be a hermit, to

ascribe these

verses to

him

be highly inappropriate.

Durga and

the paris'ista.

Both the published editions of Durga's commentary regard the commentary on the portions of the 13th chapter as an integral dated 1387 A. D., part of Durga's work. But the ms. Wilson 475,
and ms. Mill 142, dated 1839 A. D., do not contain the commentary on the 13th chapter. In both these manuscripts the commentary
1.

Vol.

ii,

p.

108..

is

completed at the end of the 12th chapter and the ms. Mill u smrgV I^T: 142, expressly says that the work is finished,
II

Moreover, the 13th chapter was not added to the Nirukta by Durga's time, as is proved by his remark in the introductory part of his commentary
:

is its (the Nighanfvfs ) amplified of twelve chapters whose first sentence iar commentary consisting "a list has been handed down by tradition".' Hence the commen-

'And

this (the

Nirukta)

tary on the 13th chapter was written at a later period and attributed to Durga by some disciple or follower of his.

Barbarasvamin is mentioned as an old commentator of the (4) Nirukta by Mahes'vara. Aufrecht is not aware of his existence. All the mss. of Mahes'vara's commentary, discovered up till now, have the reading Barbara, but I doubt the genuineness of this
reading.

I think Barbarasvamin stands for Skandasvamin. however a Varavara mentioned as a commentator of This information is contained in the following passage Oltd. This commenwas entitled Bdldbodhinl as well as Gltdrthasamgrahadipikd. tary

There

is

:

I

The author Varavara was a pupil
Rarnanuja, and lived series, no. 25., Kanchi
(5)
in
A. D.

1370.

of S'ailanatha, a follower of See the S'dstramuktdvall

edition, 1906.
is

Mahes'vara, a ms/ of whose commentary I discovered at the Government Library of Sanskrit MSS. at Madras. complete Palm leaf ms. of Mahes'vara's

Another commentator

A

in Malyalam characters exists in the commentary, Lalchand Library, attached to the D. A. V. College, Lahore. The Baroda Central Library too contains a fragment of the commentary. This fragment comes up to the end of the 1st chapter of the Nirukta only. I have collated all the three mss. for my

written

forthcoming edition of the commentary.

MahesVara is unknown to Aufrecht, as his name is not mentioned as a commentator of the Nirukta in the Catalogus Catcdogorum. He, however, appears to be later than Durga. An examination of Mahes'vara's commentary shows that the explanation

is

much more amplified than
The

later stage of
text.

It represents a still traditional interpretation of the development internal evidence indicates a date posterior to that of

that of Durga.

in the

Durga.

Besides,

Durga
fo^sr

is

mentioned by name.

The passage
i

is

the following:

*rsr

<rariT3T

*ftart ^OT^ffr i?ta**r:

for

*

Mahes'vara

is

certainly later

than the 13th century A. D.

The following two stanzas occur
fWfcr *r<R

in the

Baroda ms

:

(Mr * urn*

*

^^
*prm%

i

11

i

n

JTOT

^vrTOt *

<*

wgr

H ^ u

These two stanzas are not found in the Madras and the Lahore mss. They seem to be spurious. Had they been genuine, Mahes'vara could not be assigned to a period earlier than the
15th century D. On other grounds too, Mahes'vara could have lived before the 15th or the 16th century. He calls hardly
Durga. a Purvatikdkdra,
could
i.

A

e.

'an

ancient

hardly have called Durga 'an separated from the latter by several centuries. To call Tennyson an ancient poet, at present, would be atrocious although Shakespeare

commentator He ancient', had he not been
7

.

The idea that a person is ancient, is associated with the lapse of a few centuries. It will generally not, in opinion, be far from truth to assign Mahes'vara to the

may

be so described.

my

16th century A. D.

oidho ^ibsktoobnif Acknowledgment of help. [ )n6 ov if (faum veiiT
It is my most pleasant duty to thank my former teacher, Mr. A. C. Woollier M. A. (Oxon.); C. I. E., Principal of the Oriental College, Lahore University Professor of Sanskrit Dean
; ;

ew

of University Instruction etc. etc. for many valuable suggestions. He has been kind enough to include the present volume in the Panjab University Oriental Series. I have also to thank my
friend P.

Bhagavad Datta B. A. Superintendent Department of the D. A. V. College, Lahore,

of the Research
for

drawing

my

attention to the Balakrldd, the commentary of VisVarupacarya, who attributes a hitherto untraced quotation of the Nirukta

6

(p. 61. line 18.) to the S'ruti of the Bhallavis and for partly thanks are also due correcting the proofs of several chapters.

My

to the

Manager of the Nirnaya-sagara Press, Bombay.
I undertook the present task, I had no idea of the Nor will the general reader have any involved in it.

When
labour

adequate notion of the time and labour spent in producing the The word to word collation of thirty seven mss. present volume.
can be appreciated by such persons only as have done some critical Apart from mechanical labour, it will not be editing themselves.
generally realised how much hard thinking is often necessary for Several sentences are the proper punctuation of the text.
unintelligible simply for

want of proper punctuation.

A judicious

employment of a comma or a full stop removes the difficulty and makes the sense quite clear. To put a comma or full stop may look But it is not so. It often means like a trivial matter in itself.
very hard thinking. Division of several knotty sentences, e. g. lines 1-2 on p. 28 has cost me hours of concentrated thought. But
I do not grudge the time and labour.
necessary.
edition has

I would do

it

over again,

if

And my

ample reward

will be to

know that the present
easier even

made the study of the Nirukta

to a small

extent.

The
edition.

result of ten year's constant

work

is

embodied
is

in this

It

is

yet

far

from
It

perfect.
is

No

one

more conscious

capable of further improvements. All genuine criticism will, therefore, be most welcome. But there are undoubtedly critics, whose vocation is to find faults only.
its

of

defects than myself.

They must

live

and be true to

their nature, as the poet says

:

*rf$pranrfn^r: u

ORIENTAL COLLEGE, 1 LAHORE. I 12-11-1926.

Lakshman

Sarup,

ftl

I.

II.

IV

III.
1*1

u

II.

*1
...

lo

...

lo
lo
11
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... ...

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1*

m.

****

lfl

......
...
...
--

^ fji

^^

_..-,-.-.

RV
^\

...

M*SI.

^TUTFfFS i

II,
; :

:^

---^.

-..

...

;.ii^
...

;

w
<T

piiMNi*fi4*i*

...

HI
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^1f*;...

^
Ht
^e

r<Traft

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tg^n^Wi^^n
Wl
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...

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*

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P

^

HI

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^\

...

H
^

HI.

t^TI^T^fT^

H^

^o^,
II.

^

...

--.%

V

lfl

*<

^

*
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jnp*
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wroiTO*wr-

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-

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-,:'

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IV.
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-

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--i ^
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...

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pnfrff&rpii* rr

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VII.

3TiuW

X.
)

^<wit

...

vm.

1>

XI.

IX.

:

m

XII.

ft*
30$

3lo Appendix I 313
31*
lo
.,

:

I

3U
33o
331

XIII.

33^

3*3

wnmtn
'

,-.

.

-

i

-

.1

UJ
!!

^
'.'

$3

W

3

rt

i

SRT

i

*f

l

^
:
i

i

fan
[
'

ftikfe:

3&ffi ?f^n:
'

*it^[^5rft:
-r
:

ii

>jn
'
,

-

-

-

[
ft:

]

11

^

11

C
.

1,

C
.

2,

C

3,

C4,
r

S,

W

4;

M 2, M
S;

3,

W W W
1,

2,

3;

3>. ^T.

*; A.

f^T^IP

f.

$ui<Ji:

D ev.

$noft is also

given as a different

reading by

.M2, M3, BK2.
.

W1,W2,W3;
:
-

.

*

-

Deva:

V. SSJT

M2,M3,W1, W2, W3;
:

BK2. BK2.
Comes p
ftsfeft:

i>

given as a

different

reading by

Dev
l

;

^RT^tl^KT^t

immediately
2,

after
2,
:

l

......

in

M

MS,

W W
1,

W3;BK2.
is

II

.

M 2, M 3, W W W 3;
1, 2,
r

the text of
2,

M 2, M 3,
BK
2.

W
M

1,

T.

BK2.

W W 3,
within
[ ]

n,
is

The
by

text
4,

"jffPv.Ai

L31^,.,5fT-

given

R
I

M
] n
:
I

ft:

5ft

i^srewft

n

iii*
.
\

l

srrat:

I

^<m:

i

srrgr:

I

ft 4
]
i

[

?f^r
i

^et fepnft
i

11

^ n
i

'^rift

shir:

i

I

<r4:
i

I

^4:
1

I

^^
i

g^ft

^tert
I

I

feKft

i

^^f
i

gfaft

^4t
]

i

7*n
vs

i

fpir

i

n

n
ft
i

nflf

fw^r

i

i

n

i

BK
v.

W W
2,

TTO^ M
3;
^r,
2,

2,
2.

M

3,

w

i,

BK

2.
i.

w
.

iftair.

X,

BK

^.

Long vowels
3.

i. e.

^,

^
I

and

gjf

W.

are
2.

shortened in
I

jfaft

^>j:

and

fn ia the Ms.
^.
;

Y.
etc.
:
I

Roth
it is

attributes

BK.

2.

to

Devaraja

not found

ft].
3.
:
I

in his commentary, published in Bib. Ind. The editor says in a
note,
2.

that he found this read-

BK

ing in

two

of his Mss.
2.

S3

IV.

im* X;
p. 6
)

(Roth's edition. note under ( 7. 1 ), and also

See

M
innft
]

;

[

under (7.2).

Y.

1

p
I

l

*?T3:
I

I

q
1

I

sfa:

I

fetf

fi^rfift

l

[

n ^ n
I

*Rt

l

s

l

a:

I

sref:

l

I

Sft:

:

yn
? o

I

] n

n

WT
^Rcft
I

I

*:

I

*
1

I

:

l

wm: BK 2. ^ rfr: ^i ^ ev 5:
1.
-

r:
'

is

lo given
;

ia

a l fio given

by

by Devaraja, as another reading

Devaraja as a

different

reading

BK

2.

r:

X, BK,

2.

V.
.

BK
:

2.

ft] Y.
,.

:M2,M3, Wl,
3;

W

2,

W3;
V.

arsr:

M.

*m:

BK
3;

*T.

^;

BK
3,

2;

sfT^.

2.

M W
3,

2,

W
2.

2,
1.

BK

2,

:

M

2,

M

W W W 3;
1,
2,

IT;

BK
BK

2.

M.

ftPr:<M2
IT,

f

M3 Wl, W
f

2,

W3;

2.

:

C

4, S,

W

M

3,

1,

W

M

4,
2.

C

1,

2,

C

im:
3,

M

2, 2.

M

3,

W W
1, 1,

2,

W 3;

JT^BK

K

2.

JWf^M

2,

M 3, W

W W3
2,

BK

2.

d:

i

r

i

k*\

i

i

ia

I

sn:
i

.

*

:

[

^ wtft ]
I

II

J

l

3$:

-fllfrl

!

sjrfir^H^

i

ls

?g;fa[

i

irSr
:

I I

1.

lloth gives

jff as the reading or but it is sot found in Devaraja^ the published text of his com-

,

W2,

W

3,

i

j

9

mentary in Bib. lud.
[.

Dev.

srq-f

is

also

:

BK

2,

given
is

by

Devaraja

as

a

different

given by Devaraja as another
.

reading.
*.

reading.

TO:
**'.

M
'

2,
'

M
'Yy'

3,

W
.

1,

W
n

2,

W3
.-.

.

-

;

;

he also gives

CT

ttS

another reading.
.,
i-,
-.,;
'

.-.,;:;-

.

.

ti
iff

'

jg.

1

.

jy-Tj.
\

Ay

"W^

9
3.
:

BK
M2,
9

2.

BK
r :

2,

M
2,

2,

M! 3

?T.J ?f55^r;

W^

M

M

TTW
Y.
:

W
M
2,

3, 3.

W

1,

W 2; ^
'f

^

;

jj;

BK

2,

Devaj&ja

gives

SJtt*

as another reading.

BK

2,

2,

M
3
5

3,

W W
i,
1,

**'

^
is
1,

.M2,M3, W1,W2, W3,

2,

'id. jr?f:
j's.

^ITTP Dev.

^

&

;K7Tftfb

fc

*

M

M

W

W

o

"RTT 9 TvTqt JDJV ^i.
-^_^^

2,

W3; ^.ir.^^,BK2.

^.

T:

W W W
2,

omitted by- M'?8f
3;

M

3,

BK
1,

2.

.^l..H9:.BE2.
2.
.

?n^:

M

2}
9

M

3,

W

W W 3;
2,

;;

**r

M

2,

M

3,

w

i,

w

T^TC

3,

n;

.andn.

i

i^

i

*

r

1,

M

2,

M

3,

W
\

1,

BK

2,

M

2,

M 3,

W W W
1, 2,
3,

3,

given

by

Dcvariaja

as

another

n, ^m^.^ is giveo by Devaraja as another reading for *f**^.
^.

reading.

;^ifW;-^-;2,

W

Tf^ M 3, BK
2,

2, 2.

M
3,

W

1,

W

2,

U.

3, BK 2. W^: M2,M3,

W

M

3,

W
1,

I,

W

2,

W

W W
2,

3,

i.*M
BK2.

M
2.

Wl, W2,W3,

given by Devaraja, as another reading of ctzf: on the
is

^H^:

authority of ^TVTW,
I

He
does

^t
says that

Skaucia

Svanii

not

state

the words

"

BK
is

2.

omitted by

M

2,

M

3,

2.
:

Wl, W2,

W3,TT.
2,

M
is

M

3,

W

1,

W

2,

W

M
M
;

2,

M
2..

3,

W
:

1,

W

2,

3, jj.
:

BK
2,

BK 2 ^9T:
added
3,

after
1,

M

2,

M

W W W
2,

mfc by

BK 2,

W W M W ^^ given
3,
;

1,

3,

2

is

by Devaraja, ay another reading
of

3, fr,

.

1

I

ina^:

I

to

[

TO

h

I

M:
I

l-apff
I

I

**ft

I

aft:

:

qfcr:

I

mi

I

I

iuvlfli
[

2(^K4

]

:

II

^
BK

II

Y.
2.

Y.

BK
:

Skanda SvamI
2.

and <.
Ti
as

Devaraja

gives

.

Omitted by X.
2,
;

i

a different reading;
as

and

?fs^3

a

reading

of
3,

Madhava.

BK
BK

jrf^c^: 2; 4<Ujcj; Roth.

M

2,

M
2,

.. 5TO^T M W 3, BK 2
is

M

3,

W
'^r';

1,

W
as

2,

55Rm

55RRilr
a

given

by

Devaraja

s?rW:
2.

M

2,

M W W W
3,
1,

different reading.
3,
.

tfr?r*
is

3?^^

I

Deva. and

gp.

given as a variant for

t

M

2,

M 3, W W 2, W
1,

by Devaraja.
3,

BK2.

is

omitted by X.

ft.

fffi:

^frttft

]

]

M M
l,

4,

C

l,

C

2,

II

I

i

:

i

^3:
] n

i

^

i

3T

^ n
2,

M3,Wl,W2,W3;ji.
He
to

and
f:

:

is

given by Deraraja, as a
attributes

is

also

as a

different

given by Devaraja reading, on the

different reading.

the reading -cfi<m

Madhava

authority of Skanda Svaml.

X
r.

M

2,

M

3,

W W
1,

2,

W

3,

BK

2.

M
^,

2,

M
2.
2,

3,

W

1,

W W3
2,

;

BK

M

3,

W

1,

W W
2,
.^jjj:

3,

W
Vi.

4
3.

BK

2,

M

2,

M

3,

W W
1,

2,

BK

2;

it is

placed after

by

BK

2.

Devaraja.

M

2,

M

3,

W

1,

W W
2,

3,

.H.

]
?

\

^J

1

%fT:

I

1.

^5^rr:
1,

I

ru:

I

rr:

J

M

2,

M3 M

?

:

W W W
-2,

BK 2, M
3,

2,

M

3,

3,

BK
3.

2.

W3 ;lpt:^.
2,

W W
1,

2,

^.

^n:
1,
:

is

W W 2 and W
M 2, M
3,

omitted by

M
1,

3,

IV

wS: M
?T.

M
is

3,

W W W
1, 2,

3,

9T*r^ar:

given by Devaraja,

W W W
2,
:

as
3;

another

yd

1- ?t%r:
>*

is

added after

g-fcf:

by

n

.

x
]

;

[

Y.

f

-

^
vj.

?TTf

M2,M3,

W1;M

1,

W

4.

:

is

^f^r.

M
i3

3.

W W W
1,

omitted by
3.

M

2,

M

3,

2,

g^en by
a-

Ddvaraja, as
*

;g$^rT:

and

^^r;
added

are give a by

another readinsr-fgni <*~VY M * Q *H*
*-

Devaraja, as different readings;

W

1.

si^3T-%

is

after

uyM2, M3, Wl,

W

&&ffa
2,

W

:5,

BK
-

2,

Khy
'JT'.
I

^ylfrf

.

f^^rr; is added/after 3fd5q;
f%?r; If^ry:

is given by another reading.
.

Devaraja

as

1.

Dev,

1^.

K

and

.

.

]

at
I

gw*:
$
ii
1

i

i

:

ll

3pi1

fob
I

I

<r4:

l

M:
I

I

|<r:

1
^*<

1

%ft:
I

^
i

I

sat

I

&b
I

H^
I

;pj:
I

[

^[^r^

ll

va

11

ll

<:

ll

:

I

^H:

I

sri*

I

^:

I

wf:

I

1

Yrg
11.

is

added af tcr

M
S?4:
qj.

2,

M

3,

BK

2.

^;
M.3,

is

omitted

by

M

2,

is

^.

Wl, W2, W3. TO^M2,M3, Wl, W2,
BK2.
BK.2.

W

3,

^ BK
2.

omitted
:

is

l>y Devaraja and added after qp|: in

V.

^R^M2,M3,W1, W2,W3,
Omitted by 2, AV3. <n3T: is added after

^M
5T3T:

^nr:

^r. 2,

M

3,

BK

2.

^.

M

M

3,

W W
1,

M

2.

2,

^.

gfnr:

by

M

2,

>E3,W1,W2,W3,BK2.
.

SRT:

is

omitted
2,

W W W
1,

by

M

2,

M

3,

3.

spy:

is given by Devaraja, as another reading, on the authority of Skanda SvamI ; y&: is omitted

fwfif
I

BK

2.
I
I

by M

2,

M

3,

W W
1,

2,

W

Wf fa ^H^T WTr:
Y.

BK

2.

3,

BK2.
4.

Devaraja
: f:

reads

^q-;

and
;

gives

as

another anotiier
3,

2,

M

W

reacting reading
1,

W

2,

W^
3

;

I

BK2.

Devaraja. q^ is given by him as another reading on the authority of Skanda Swaml.
:
:

%* X BK
>

2

,

M3, Wl, W2,

.

BK

2.

AV1,W2,AV3.

\\

:

I

wfih:

mi
:

vrer

It

?o

(I

n

?

?n
i

toft

i

Sfir
ii

U

n

n
X,

BK 2. BK 2.
T.

i fc;

^. and Devaraja

V.

X;

OT is

added
1,

after
2,

M

3,

W W W
2, 3,

q^: by
3; JT.

M

2,

.

is is

^. It is placed after jj^:
<;.

^ M M W W
1,

by X, BK2.
2,

W

.

3. omitted by omitted by X.

M

3,

.

BK2.
1,

^;for:

Dev. Skanda Svami reads
is

W
M

2, BK

2,

W M
3,

^f;, which
2,
.

doubted by Deva-

raja.

M3.
11.

EnruM 2, 3, BK 2 Devaraja
;

w w w
i,

TC

M

2,

M

3,

W

1,

W

2,

W

3.

2,

3,

BK?

does not accept

i

i

%3fa
I

I

*nfi

I

I

sr4ft

i

i

ftefrft

I

JR^
ssiflf

I

I

i

*nft

i

ariflr

i

ftUft

i

i

fonft

I

?T

I

i

an

I

tfr

I

i

r

i

1

5fi{f|

i

i

ank

I

:

n

?

n
is

1.

Not explained by Devaraja.
is

repeated by
is

M

1.

^ and Devaraja. given as a variant by Dev.
.

^f

given by Dev., as an.

M
T.

L
C.

other reading.

D
by

F.

Roth.
before

p^ced

after as well as
1.

$5%

M

w

a,

.

*!*%

T. C. D. F.

.

Devaraja gives 5^1% as another the authority of reading, on

Skanda Bvami.
is

give by

Devaraja, as

is

another reading:

also giren

by Devaraja as another reading*

See. 14 according to the shorter recension is as follows:

i

wft
l

i

*?!%
I

i

anfif
i

i

vraft
i

i

*3ifir

i

I

fWtft

^rfir

farft

%ftft

%ftft

i

i

1

?fr

i

i

IHT
aft
i

i

'Fft'i^
aift
I

i

i

a^ftI

1

g*ft

I

qft

I

lift

iftft

1

3HR[
1

1

i

nft

l

f^nnft

I

331%
:

n

?

ii

.

iRffiT

W

2;

OT% W
I

1.
:

1o. 11.

5*qfa

I

Bhad.

KM.
^TTf^TtS
V.
Itotli
3,

&

JDiiuu.
L>,

5KiTT%

W
BK

1,

W

M
M

M,

3,

BK

2,

Iloth

& Bhad.
Roth & Bhad.
I

*J.

is

omitted by

2.

Roth

Bhad
I

Bhad.

M

2.

.

]

[

3

I

5S

I

P^ sn^
I

^
I

I

T:
I

1

I

I

srf^
:
I

2I3:
I

I

arm:

3 SITS sHra
I

i

sn

ii

^

ii

|^t
:

I

553:

I

ift

I

'S'

I

I

2n:
I

I

^: g:
I
I

I

~"

i

I

1
I

^>f
I

^f?^
I

5^?^
I

*ri?

I

55^
I

I

I

t

I

I

Sin^T

IHI^T

3T3fHT^Hf

^ft%

r:

M
4).

2,

M

3,

VV

1,

W W
2,
_

3,

TVI/"

**^w

X,

BK

2.

\. V.

3*3

BK 2.
2,

afr^M
V,

M

3,

W W
1,

2,

W

3,

n. W.
;

BK

2.

i.
:

is

omitted by

M

2,

M

3,

RK
.

'

mM
W

2,

M
1,

3,

W W W
1,
L>,

3,

:

X;

BK

2.

W sng^ W
2;
2,

3, x,iv 2, 3.
2,

I

^^. is

W W
2,

omitted by .M
3,
1,

2,

M

3,

W

1,

B

K

2.

r:

M
2. 2, 2.

M3 W
3,

1,

W

^.
sv..

^% M
^T%

3,

BK
c
.

M

M
!

W W

1,
-

W
"W

^

and

2,
|

^3$,

M M 3, W
2,

1,

W
M

2,

W W

3.

3,

BK

^ /iva
<J33TFf;

BK2.
2,
i

2

3,

1,

^.
^\.
'

is

W3.
BK<2.

W W
2,

omitted by
3,

M
2.

2,

3,

1,

BK
1,

5PW

is

M

2,

M W
3,

added before

W W
2,

3,

BK 2.

?irg%

i

^ W
i

i

*nf
II

i

^ifeR^R^THT^ ]
i

?V9

II

^ft

1

3fn*r*r:

i

smfc

i

Sra!

i

aqqprt

i

IT%

[

^
i

]

sqiforoior: n ?<s n

i

rtfir

^fftr
!

i

frf%
i

i

^
i

^ifo
i

s<pnf<t
i

%?4^[
i

ftcfanj
I

i

sr^Tf^
i

firife:

snfil^

i

fanffl

^^rf^
1u

i

55rri^
!

I

^9rff
^R^ft^:

i

i

f^^^
n

1

'ft4tRI

^rftfit

[

:

]

^

n

ft
I

]

II

^
^T%

II

5MTVW
2,

,
ft

.

fV^V 1,

&

r:

M
2.

M

3,

W W W
2,
1,

3,

W W
2,

I

f^T% M 3, BK 2.
I

2,

M

3,

W
I

1,

BK

M2,M3,W
*T,

W2, W3,

"RTT ^ *& 9
2,

V.

M W arc: M
3,

1,

W

2,

W
M

m% ft w w BK2. omitted by M M W W W BK
M 2, M 3,
2,

M

2)

2,

3,

3,

1,

2,

3,

2.

3,

BK
1.
3,

2.

STRtt comes before 3TOr

ia
2.

2.

^ft is added after fjpftft by M 2, M 3 W W 2, W 3, BK 2.
1,
:

M W
^T^T
J

1,

W W
2,
1,

3,

BK

$. is
vs.

omitted by X.
R

] y-

BK
srsjf^f
3,

2C

added after
3,
2,

M

2,

M

W W W
2.

by

BK 2.

X,

BK
3,

.

TOft.

M

W W
1,

BK

2; srsfft M

2,

W
2

W
3,
IT;

;

|

M
2.

2,

M 3, W

1,

W

2,

3,

BK

?r: Devaraja.
:

2.
2,

M

3,

W W W
1,

BK

2.

2,

3,

BK

X;

I

sp:
3

I

I

r?r

H

^

ii

Y

adds the following

:

^sqpj

sn^pqsJfSft

srfr^f:

11

]

11

?

n
r:
I

^R
l

I

<%^:

!

HT?:

I

fgi

I

I

^:
.

l

u ^ n
?T,

BK

2.

lo. ft

BK
is

2;

9..

omitted by X.

^.

T%:
^9v.

is

given as a Variant by

^ ^^.
BK
2,
ff:
1

^ f^.
2;

^.
after
3,

a dded

v.

^r ^T...^T^T X; [%* ^..,5imrand qftro are
plained by Devaraja.

^^

f^ by W ^^. M 2, M
EK^

M

M
3,

1,

W w w
2.
i,

W3

fa^
jj.

:

by and

2,

w

3;

not ex,

^M
^d
by

M
BK
2.

w IW2W 3
M
2,

Roth.
I

BK

2.

.

omifc

M W
3,

1,

W2.W3.

.

x. ]

:

I

3PR[:
I

I

?pr:
Inf^r:

I

I

nflr:

I

%:

I

:

I

n 3 n

*
I I

:

I

]

II

II

i

i

[

^r

]

:

n

\
AV

n

1.
^.

\.
.

BK 2. i&: BK 2. ?%: X; BK 2.
*f: X,

m.

^M
BK
2.
is

2,

M
2,

3,

W
3,

1,

W
1,

2,

3,

M

W W W
2,

3;

M M W W W BK
2,

rf^:

I

r^: come
3,
1,

after
2,

3%^
3,

in
2.

j

added after
1S

3T^ w B K

2

-

!

BK 2.
:
I

omitted by

M

2,

M

3.

AV

2,

W

^Tf^r:
3,

I

M
2.

2,

M

3,

AY

1,

BK

^
n. sr# X,

BK 2
X:

2,X.

11. 3T3T3:

BK

2;

X,

H2,

M
3,

3,

W
1,

1,

AY

2,

W
X:

3,

BK

2.

Srefa

M

2,

M

W

AV

2,

AV

.'!,

BK
It. ipfr:

2.

Ml.

^5f

is

omitted by X.

-

]

I

T

I

i

i

i

I

?fir:

I

^:

I

k&

I

guffi:

I

and:

I

%:

I

:

\

M2, M3,W1, W2,.W3;
X;
,

[

f

BK2.

:

M
ia

2,

M

3,

W W W
1,

2,

BK

3;

2,

and

S'iva,

Sama.

?jf

BK
1,

2,

X.
omitted by
3
;

w^gf^

is

W W W
2,

M
2.
1,

2,

M

W
3, 3,

1,

W
M

omitted by
2,

W

M
2
1,

2,
;

3,

BK

M 3^:
3,

BK

S'iva,

Sama.
2,

5Ti*n*M

2,

M

3,

W W W
2,

srfSm:

M W
3,
I

W W
2,

BK

3,

2,

BK
Y.

2.

ai^f^rf^:
1,

gfij:

is

M

3,

W W W
1,

added after
2,

gtj:
3,

by
2.

M

2,

BK
C
3,

W W W M W ^^ W
2,
r:

snjcrer:
3,

I

M
2.

2,

M

3,

BK
2,

3,

AV 3;

2,

1.

...o^
3, 4,
1,

t^ M
S,

1,

M

X;

4,

C

1,

C
2,

2,

W4; 5^: M

M

W

W2, W3;BK2.
omitted by

X;BK

2.

Y.

3

n ?o n
i

^

i

ft

41

i

i:
?R

n ??

si

]

II

II

:

n ?^

I!

ft?
l

l

i

iprra

I

7
I

I

II

?tf

II

According to the other recension th e
is

list

of words from

onward

the following:

x,

BK
^T

2.
^

^s'fw
2.

i

\

W W W3
1,

^T

I

T$r&
;

I

M

2,

M

3,
.

X;BK2.
qorerflr.x
;

23%
1,

i

2,

BK

2.

BK

V. is

omitted by X.
omitted by
3,

.

TTRff M
Roth.

2,

M 3, W
I

W W
2, 1,

3,

is
1,

W W W
2,
:
l

M

2,

M

3,

BK
3,

BK
"

TT^rfft
2.

2.

M
2.

2,

M
rfaT

W

1,

W

W
2,

omitted by
2.

W
:?,

W
W

2,

3,

BK
I

\V

3,

BK

X;

W W
2,
:

3,

?^T% M BK 2.
J

M

3,

1,

:

M

3. 2.

n. C. D. F.

BK

.

?vs>.

]

M2,

M3

W W W
1,

2,

3.

fob
:
i

i

fol:
I

I

:

I

*frb
*RTF
I

I

l^r:

I

t^rn
I

I

*4:
i

I

ft:

I

frn

M:

n ?K n
I

$re:

I

I

^:

I

?TR[:

I

55?:

'ft:

n ?^ n
1

:

I

Roth

-

:

IT.

BK
^3:

2

-

BK

2

-

:

M
*T.

1.

^M BK2.
:

2,

M

3,

W W W
1,

2,

3,
.

:

C. D. F.

Words within

brackets aro

the

Bib. Ind.

text of the shorter recension.

W W W
1,

:

is-

omitted
2, 3,

by

M

2,

M

3.

1. ^r:

!

fevmTT and f^j

omitted by
:

X,
: I

BK 2. BK 2.
I

M3,

W ],W

^T?fV

I

arecnr:
2,

I

f^^:

I

M

2,

W3, BK2.

,

Wl, W2.W3;

%fTO X, BK

2. 2,

n

M 1; RKW BK

X;

]

II

?<

II

ft$f|

I

frfrfe

I

%fNr
n

I

i^r

i

3
^R
I

[

n:

J

n

R? n
n
I

n
I

i:

I

:

I

p: ^R:
I

w:

grpt

1

]

II

33

II

:

5P.

and Devaraja.

is

r:

is

by

M
2.

2,

M

placed
3,

after
1,

W W
1,
2,

omitted by
2,

BK

2,

W

M
3.

2,

M

3,

W

W

W

3,

^5T

is

omitted by X,

BK

X;
.

:

omitted by X.
^sr:

crsr:

V.

^T.

M 1; M
i.

^ffcr

M

2,

M

3,

W

W

M2, M3,
1
;

W W
2,

3;

BK
by

^
M

:

2.

1,

after
2,

WS^fr* W2.
BK2.

W W
1,

^j
3,

M
2.
I

^&:
2,

ia
3,

placed

M
I

W

1,

BK
:

q^f M BK2.

2,

M

3,

W W W
1,
2,

3

;

omitted by X.
2f

W W W BK M W W fef^ M 2; W 3 ^q: placed after %f^ in M W W W after %fe.
2,

snre:

M

2,

3,

^
2,

3,

2.

3,

1,

2,

;

is

3,

1,

2,

3,

BK2.

M3, W1,W2, W3,

BK
2,

2.

!^% added after ^ori% by M M W W W BK
is
3,
1,

W

:

M

M

^T^ M
3,

3.
1,

W

W

2,

3.

2,

3,

2.

K

2.

:

I

for

i

ftwrf

I

RS:
I

I

ftd
I

I

ft? kr:

i

qg: 1$

i

ps*3p?:
]
it

3T9W:

I

jfit

ft

^

it

i

Ir:

i

*r:

i

it

^

ii

]

II

^V9

II

i

^
^

i

]

ii

I

ra:

I

g:
\

^
\

w

\

n

^
2,

11

:

M
I

31

3,

W
I

1,

W W
2,
I I

3,

BK2.
8:3:
2,

^f^T
3,

I

M

W W W
1, 2,

?J^^T

ft^T ftfT
3,

BK

2.

Y.
V. *ra:
<1.

:

BK 2. BK 2.
2,

BK

2.

M3, Wl, W2,W3,

t^

is

omitted by X.

BK2.

.

?. ]

*nWh
i

yaAft

1

ip*
I

!

?4ft
i

I

^

i

i

i

f^ft
t

arffcft

jfir

[

1

iu<> n

ffrf

M

1,
:

M

4,

1,

U

il,

C

3,

C

3,

S,

W 4 added the following

summary

Jfft^T

f f?i

1.

*re.

M

2,

M

3,

W W W
1,

2,

3.

"?

^>3{ft is

added
1,

M

2,

M

3,

W W W
2,

after

^t^^fy by
3, 2,

BK 2.

is
1,

W W
2,

omitted by
3,

M
2.

M

3,

BK
,.

M
Ms.

3,

W
has

L

W
tf
1,

2,

W
2,

IW?hM2,
3;

r:

M
X

2,

M

3,

W
2
'

1,

W2,

W

3,

BK
n*

2.

BK

2.

IT

jt^|r,

lftl I*ft

M

2,
'

M

3,

W W W
TV
-

*

i

etc.

!

3. -

^
^

&

Y BK
>

oth

-

lva an
*^ ie

feama
^

"
-

f he

,

^

^

^ 3Sl

^ ot ^

authority recensions

^.

Los been discarded for this particular word because Yaska, & much

X

older authority than all the Mss. put together, reads

Jf.

!

ar^wsr

i

fsrtfft

i

pi:

1

jfTfor:

i

anip:

I

i

rg:

I

f*r4:

i

finr

i

d%
?
r:
!

i

[IcSfofftft: ^rft] n
l

li

wng:

!

:

i

airft?r:

wijt SFT:
^g
\V
is 2,

[
I

]

II

^

II

M
3.

3.

W
:

omitted by
3,

M

2,

M

3,

W

1,

M

BK
2.

2.

BK

a variant given
2.

by yaska.

BK

W
<:.

1.
:

M M
is

2, 3,

W W

1,

W
1,

2,

BK

2.

3.

2.

stT^T W

I:

omitted by Roth.
2,

3.

M W
3,

W W
2,

,

^ W W
:

is

omitted by
3,

M

2,

M

3,

W

BK
1,

3,

2.

M

1,

2,

BK

W ^q^ BK
1
;

2.

2.

3.

w

!

s.

2,

M

3,

W

1,

W W 3;
2,

v. 3.]

:

I

3jntrrrt
ftfefc

I

$r&:

I

lori^

1

^rarp:

i

l

i

iwr&nsrf
f|?Tift
l

i

?if

I

sforel
I

i

*$
3ml
i

i

<n4:

i

grot:
l

I

sn*fer:

srrah
i

1

5^ pi^n
l I l

fTT s

l

^31^15:
i

tak:
i

I

fi^i^f ^r:
l I

aT^rq;

sr^fT
I

i

|f|^
I

Mrf
I

i

w^:

ft^ri^:
f

p;^:
I

5%^:
81
i I

3
l

I

3f4

l

:

f?^T

i

^
snrk

i

Q

i^:
>.

^
i

i

tg
!

i

%TT:
J

i

i

i

iit
i

v
i

fffo: ^^q; l^J T|I^:
i i

i

:

i

^1
i I

iHt4
l

i

i

i

l

g

l

32

^Nfir

anfo:
I

I

^I^J

^t
M

I

!

"

*

BK
.

The third
after
2,

section comes to
in
2,

an end

1.

.

W
.

.

1.
.

W W nfeir: w

^ro^R:
3.

M

3,

W

1,

i.

omitted by

C

3

&

S.

i

STJT:

BK

2,

M

2,

M

3,

W W3
2,

;

I

3^
:

|

BK

2.

BK

2.
2.

BK
is
1,

omitted by
3,

M

2,

M

3,

W W W
2,

BK

2.

I

at

I

n

I

n | n

ffrf

M M
1,

4,

C

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

4,

S,

W4

add the following

summnary'.

ffa

<r?rft] n
:
I

?

n

pr:
!

I

ttaki

I

f|
II

i

?re

I

3
I

II

gift:
I

I

ff^t:
I

H
I

^
1

:

W
I

I

5'^:

p^r:
l

ftg:
i

I

?T

I

^M
2,

sr^i

1.

is

added before
omitted by
3,

:

I

?^it?T:
T.

Wl, W2,

etc, M WVBK2,

2,

M

3,

W W W
1,

:

is

M

M

3,

.

2,

BK

^r: ^. ^.
:

BK
II

2.

2.

H ^

M
4,

2,

M
1,

3,

W
C

1,

W2, WSj
v.

SRRRT:
Y.
S,

W

M
I

1,

M

C

C

2,

4,

4.

C3,S.
Sama.

Roth. Bhad;
sssjsre

gsr

i

r.K

2.

M
II

2,
tf

M

3,

W

1,
II

W W 3 have
2,
3, II
i

IT.

^.
i

^qisft
a.

^

2,

M

3.

n instead of

Wt M

4

Jrwfaflpft

I

ft

u 3 u
:
I

5:
:
I

I

!

a

I

1

<rc:
:
I

5? 3'
I

I

5*K
I

1

?r:

i?r:

p^:

I

f^:
I

3[T:

I

^r4:
I

I

^w: 1
l

f^H::

I

^rf^t
I

^wt
^ft
I
l

H^ft
I I

1: ^
I
i l

i!

.11

I

srrai
I

I

whfrr:

srs^:
1

I

I^
|

f|H

l%*f

jfrfir
I

I

aiPitl

Slt

1%:

NT:

^
I

F?!
I

^

l

^^ft

[

:

I

^
I

I

:

t

I

%^
I I

I

src$:

I

*faf

^:
I

m
M M
1,

vsk:

4,

f frr C 1, C

^^
2,

]

II

^

II

q^r^s^rra:

i

C

3,

C

4,

S,

W

4

add the following

summary'.

f frr

w w M M W W f^TT^^^r W
M
2,

M

3,

l,

2,

BK2.

3,

BK

2.

BK
2,

2.

2,

3,

1,

W3, BK
*
9
II

2.

[-] is
II

omitted by X,

BK 2
2.

;

|U

II

X.

Y.

3**5TT
II

IH
is

II

X BK
j

^^T
Y.

I

3?^
:

I

II

Y.
:

u

i

is

x

^3:
;

I

I>ev.

added after 35?^: by X,

:

I

n

W
Both was rather hasty
in

1.

Thej

word
i

^^|^|(^|:

means
of.

'a list,'

other.

or
viii.

a traditional
:

list';

VPB.

doing BO and later on he rectified this mistake. All the Mss. that
I

n*

have collated and Durga read

TP

LI. i.

I.

$
6:

f*T

BK
-

1.

BK1
Durga:
.

cf.

BPll.
f rHi

12. 5:691)

^^ i.^ *|^ 1^4 rf
i.

cf.
cf.

also flrnc3TCfr
Int.

on TPB.

i.

1.

APR.

lr

{.

Sa.yai.ia,

toRV.p.21:

V?B.
ft-

8.

52
i *

:

MUwM* Wf^^^t^H*
KAS.'

II.

10: 23. p. 72:

\J

urga explains the term in

llio

following way:

TMbh.
DS.
l\

p.

HO?

Loth adopted the valiant Oi/i the principle lectio diflicUior
1
l><

\

<tior

66t.

iwiiopted
si

on

reading was the evidence of a

This

nglo

Ms. unsupported

by any

strict

VPR.

8.

54-55

:

II

Say ana,

Int.

to

RV.

p.

21:

BD.
KAS'.

ii.

121

:

II. 10: 28. p.

72

l

of.

Dionysius of

HalicarnasCh. Hi,

sus: Literary Composition.

JPM

:

2. 1. 1

:

Robert's ed. p. 71.
is ...... a

"Composition

certain arrangement of

the parts of speech... These were reckoned as three only by Theodects

SDS
cf.

p 144;

and Aristotle and the philoso-

Plato, the Gratylus

.,

Jowett
:

:

phers of those times,

who regarded
Their

nouns, verbs, connectives as the

Dialogues of Plato p. i. 3l;8-9 'Name is not a musical
pictorial

or
is

primary parts of speech.

imitation ...... bit

it

successors, particularly the leaders of the stoic school, raised the

expression of the essence
cf.

of each

thing in letters and syllab les'.
Aristptle,
Poetics
5,0.
'

number
article
'

to four,

separating the
Poetics 20.
p. 57:
is

1456

from the connectives",
1456
of
ed.

cf.

Aristotle,
as a

610 Byvoater*, ed. p. 58:* A noun or name is a composite sig nifioant
sound not involving the idea of with parts which 1 lave no significance by themselves in it....
time,

6

By water* s

'Diction

viewed
the
(

whole

made up

following parts: the letter or the ultimate element ) the

A verb
ficance

is

a composite sig aificant

icle,

the conjunction, the artthe noun, the veil/, the case, and the speech.
syllable,
of.

saund involving the idea c>f time, with parts which have no signiby
tlie

themselves

in

it.

Whereas

wo* u

"'man' or 'white'

RPR. 12.5: 700-1,707:

does not imply when, 'wal ks f and iias walked' involve in addition
k

we
.

to the idea of walking <;hu,t' of time present or time past'.

is cited by on the APR, in thejBOtnmentator /. the*beginning of the 4lh ch.

The following stanza

BK
The
1st

1.

A.O.N.

Vol. 7, p. 51)1;

section eonfos

to

an onl

in Mas. of tho .shorter recoiisioii.
^f^f
is

omitted by G,

i

I

ar

ITT

1. f^T?T is

omitted in
gives
rr

BK.
as a variant.

of.

BD.
8.

ii.

122.
cf.

^.

Durga

nn*%
VP.
p.

G.

RP.
i.

12. 6:

702;
28.
ii.

54-55; KAS'.

II. 10:

BK.
A.

72;
p.

PMbh.
3G5.

3.

l..p.

256;

1. 1.
.cf.

RP.

12. 5: 707.
ii.

cf.
:.

BD.

91.

Here ends the 4th

Here ends the

second

section

section in
3TT 3TT

BK.

inBK.
'*.

BK.

^ft
p.
i.

is

omitted in BK.
ii.

ftOmfWfftft
i.

M

1,

2,

C
i.

3,

C

6.

lo. cf.

BD.
258.

121; PMbh.

3.

1.

cf.

SRY.

I.

124. 11. p.

560:

13. snarrcro

BK.

cf.

SUV.

I.

123.

7. p.

i.

55D

:

ft
)*.

s
\

s. 3
ift
sfflT ti<5

I

ft

I

t

i

I

[

.

The sentence
omitted by Durga.

is

11. cf.

SUV.

I. 8.

5; 124.

4,

.

Here ends the 5th
pada in

Here ends the the 2nd pada in BK.
563.
see. of the 1st

pp. i. 61, 1st sec. o!

BK.
I.

1^.

Omitted in BK,
3,

C

M R R
i,

4,

6,

W W W
1, 2,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

.

cf.

8RV.

124. 12. p.

i.

566:

and Durga.
1^. of.

PMbh.

i.

1. 3. p.

38:

V. cf.

BD.

ii.

89; EP. 12. 8; 707;

.

The whole sentence from
cfT is

YP.

8. 55,
31.

omitted by Durga.
I.

1. ^reraftfa

VRf?cf

is

omitted by

.

cf .

SRV.

169.

3.

p.

i.

737

:

C

2,

G,

S.

cf.

BD.

ii.

1)1:

.

RV. X.84. UV. X.
of.

2; 106.3.
.

.

84. 5; 166. 2; 173. 2.
ii.

Quoted by SRV.
i.

I.

129,

10.

p.

588.

.

Bt>.

92.
.

t^K-li: BK.

.

RV. X.
BY,

86.

1.
.

The sentence f5*Tnn:
is

.

VITI.

2.

12.

omitted by Durga.

H. ]

n

y

11

:

M M
i,

3,

BK.
I.

0.
i.

RV- VIII.
is

G2. 11.

The

ar

of

Quoted by SR.V.
i

SI. 3. p.

403

:

elided

Mss. of
: t

^sr^RT^ by the the longer recension. The
affcor

Hero ends the 2nd
the 2nd pada in

section of

BK.
3.

accented in the Mss. but as I have separated ifc from the Vedic quotation, I leave it unaccented.
first i of iti is

V
.

HV.
ted

VI. 21.

3.

The passage
by SHY.

cRr:...*raf?cT is quoI. 59. 1. ia

1.
^.
i.

Quoted by SRV. RV. X. 1C. 11.
of.

I.

48. 1C. p.

i.

24G.

p.

i.

201.

BD.

i.

5G

:

snTT^?%7 5?cTTS

etc.

^.

srrarW
Durga.

^i^f^T

omitted

RV. X.

119.9.

by
t.

TS. 1. 7. T: 2; Krf. 13. 14. Hero ends tlie 3rd &octioii of the 2nd
pfidain BK-.
firf^TJT^T^f^ 'M
l

i3

omitted by Durga.
i. !.

^

-

3,

C G,
2,

BIC.

BK.
.

:.

^^ M
5
o
r>,

is

omitted

2,

M

l>y

Roth.
1,

3,

W

\V

04.

%W W M
I,

2,

i,

BK.

UK.

im

i

^srr
I

i

54U'flhftw<|?r

:

I

m ^fffi^r
*
i

1.

BV. IV.
IIV.
I.

51.1.

RV.

I.

170,

1.

3.

62. G.
is

\,

Tho passage ^n^qr'"^
by SRV.
I.

quoted
of.

is

170,

l.p.

i.

739;

BD.
V.

iv.

48-50.

BK, C

R

C,

W W ^
1,

4,

C

5,

K^, M
3,

omitted by
3,

M R
i,

4,

2,

and Durga.
the

Here ends the 4th see. of the 2nd puda. BK. of. 13D. IV. CO-51.

Here ends the
pada,

Dtttlsec. of

2nd

BK.

vs.]

*n

TFf:
I

I

i

f^g-^ir
I

^ %^%

i

*r*ft vrlr^:
TT
I

i

^T.^T: ^rMIWTcnil

ftrt

fir

tffas:

f
11

?r

n

^

11

I.

V.
cf.

II. 11.

21
10. 21. p.
iii.

T
290

2,

C
6,

6,

M
3,

SUV. VIII.

U
:

2,

U

5,

S

M

W

1,

M
3.

4,

R

1,

T ^TT if SfftT

etc.

The passage

^t(V-..^T

SRV. X.
1.

C
(.

10. 2. p.
ii.

.").

II. 11. 21. p.

is quoted by IV. 21. cf. also 32:

cf,

PMbli. VI,
I.

l.p. 16:
1.

$
1. p. i.

^ta^m
L'Si
V.
.
:

cf

-

8HV.

57.

10. 11V. II. 28. 4. 11.

AV.
VS.

4. 1.

1;

5. 6.

1;

8V.

1.

321;

13. 3.

cf.

SUV.
also

VI.

;iO.

*J.

p. ii:

770:

cf.

SRV. IX.

7

(

.>.

4.

l.Mi,
p.
iii.
.

C
J.

1,

BK.
p.
i.

cf.

Hll\r

.

I.

113.

498:

7'J'J:

.

Hero ends the Oth
2nd puda in 13K.

soc.

of

tho

:

is

omitted by Durga.

*TRT%

et

^
M
i
I

t
T

ft

f*mm

rt Tcrr^r

tor
:
i

gr^f>r

i

sT?Tf

!

^4f^?r:

i

TO iftf^oi^f
:
i

sr^rt

??%

i

[

^T^TPTJ ]

I

3T%

^HJ:

I

1.

KV.X.
cf.

71. 11.
71.
11. p.

.

cf.

BD.

ii.

114.
cf.

^.

SRV. X.

IV. 223:
. .

11 V.

X. 71. 5;

N.
N.

1.
1.

20.
10.

UV. X.
UV. X.

71, 4; cf.

\. cf.

V.

KB. 23. 2;cf. AD. 5.7. 3. The passage ?T^^V...^% is quoted .y SRV. I. 102. 5, G85. p.
i.

71. 7.

Omitted by UK,

C
C,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

Vlfil*:C2, CO,
It 2, ^.

M

n
U

5, S,

M

:*,

W
W

1,

M4,

11 1,

M
cf.

3,

Mi,

11 4, S.

R

W
p.

1,

W

2,

3.

qftf*C2, CO,
It 2,
&',

M
3,

W 3 and
Ml,
111,
1. p. ii.

1,

S,

M

3,

SUV. X.

71.

7.

IV. 222:

":.

Quoted by SUV.
41
i

IT.

T4.
ii.

cf.

also II.

1. 2. p.

$.

V1.

The quotation

i.s

u nt raced.

s

srSrar

^7

lr

I

.

S'ivadatfea's
i.

edition,
:

of.

11 6,

W

BK, C
3.

4,

M

3,

R
i.

4,

PMbh.

1. 4.

p.

i.

61

^.

Quoted by SRV.
of. also
I.

I. 9. 2. p.

64;
i.

HO. 1; 123.

11; pp.
9:

561; cf. UP. BD, ii. 90-91.
248,

12.

708;
of.

Tha Mss.
Shorter
read

the longer and the recension except Kn.
of

0.

The quotation

is

untraoed.
p.

SRV. V.

83.

10.

the

passage
I
v

as

follows:

Ms. 9>fa$R faftR SftSRTCT Kn. cites the pratikas only bub
I

^

ii.

678:

I

have
the

adopted

the
.

gives this quotation in full.

variant oa
.text in*i

single Ms. loecauso

authority of a it makes the

.

RV. I. 9. 2; AV. 20. 71. 8, sec. SRV. loo. cit. RV. VIII. 92. 21 ; IX. 61. 14. RV. I. SO. 4; AV. 20. 45. 1;
SV.
1.

183; 2.949.

*fr

'

<.s

.

RVKH.
BD.
i.

10. 106.

1.

V. of.

23-24, 20-27, 30-31
^.
cf.

SRV.

I. 1.

1..

p.

i.

25.

With

regard to the punctuation at thhi
place see

my English Translation i oftheNirukta note on pp. 212, 2 13*,.
1
1,

*.

6, tffr 01, 02, 03, M2, R 1, R'2, B5, S; Kn.

.

Gune

proposes

to

add a

c.

vuse

Sit JTT^f^T^^ see ray note
.

affcer

But ^TRfn^. Translation of the

212, 213.

4.

Durga
variant.

gives

<*>.

^ Kn.

cf.

PMbh.

iii,

3, 1. p.

138.

4d*hKlq[

g

37

%

1.

gto

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

M

1,

,

iff:

C

4,

C

5,
is

M 3, Mi, W
omitted by

2.

M2,R

1,R2, B5,S; Kn.
>.

C C

2,

ti,

C
6

5,

Kn.

Omitted by BK,
j

C

4,

5,

?.

snro

M

1,

M
4,

3,

Mi,
;

W
M

1,

W
2.

2,

C
i.

2,

C

3,
2,

C
3,

5nr M
6, 1,

W
.

R^

3.

*RK> C

C

C

M

2,

M

:5 -

^V.

Quoted by 811V.

p.

i.

L'l.

I

^
103.

I

cfir

II

?H

II

1.

VS. 1.22; TS.
7.

i.

,1.

8.

1; VI.
i.

2.

UV. X.
SV.
T3,
2.

1;

AV.

19.

13.2;

3;

KS. 1.8; 31.7; Ms.
2.

L

9.

*. cf.

VS.
i.

15: jfteffa.

1199; VS. 17. 3. VI, 3. 7. 1; Ms. 1. 4.^11;
;

TB.

III. 3. 7. 1
I.

S'B.

ii,

5. 2. 9.

V

TS.

2. 1.

1; 3.5, 1; VI. 3/3. 2;
9.

RV.

89. 10.
4. 23.

KS. ii. 1; Ms, i. 2, 1; iii, cf, VS. 4.1; 5.42; d. 15:
CT*rcr ;
cf.

3;

SeeN.

^t^
i.

S'B.
5.

iii. i. 2. r.

V..VS.
.1.
ii.

4.

1;
3.

42;
2.'

6.

15; TS.
3.
iii.

2.

Occurs once only in RV. 1. 169. 3. Occurs once only in RV. V. 44. 8. Occurs once only in RV. VI.
12. 4.

1;

5.

1; VI.
i.

3.
9.
;

2; KS.
3;
of. 8. 2. 12.
j

1; Ms. S'B. iii. 1.
cf.

1;
6. 4.

Occurs once only in
77. 4.

RV. VIII.

2.

7

;

10

<i.

TS.

i.

8. G. 1.
ii,

t.

VS. SV.

16.

54; Ms.

9.9.
20,

All the 4 words are written, in the MSB. I have collated, without the accent. But as they are -he
(
.

*.

BV. X.

133. 2; 2. 1152.

AV.

95. 3;

words

cf

the Rgveda,

I have

restored the accent.

?v$.

]

3

V

[

i

fo<nyft

:

|

3T?ffiNft I^TT

I

Hi,

.

GB.II.
13;

2.

6;

cf.

AB.

1.

4.

9;

1.

16; 17 etc. The quotation ia AB. is found without
3.

\.

RV. X. 85. 42; AV. cf. Manu Y. 39; 44:

14. 1. 22.

:

of.

also II. 123-125.

M
C 5; ^r^t Mi. Manu II. 130, 122:

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, 3, Mi, R 4, R G, 1, 2,

W

W

W3.
.

of,

RV. X.

169.

1.

at

I

rflr

fNfiwr:

n

l^

11

II V. I. 104. 1.

See Sayana's com-

mentary on the same.

C
cf.

4,

M 3,

Mi.

^T^I:^ c 5. cf. SRV. VII. 28. 4. p. iii. 62'. RV. X. 165. 1; AV. 6. 27.' 1. RV. X. 164. 1 AV. 20. 96. 23.
;

BD.

ii,

119.
3.

cf. S.

U. B.

Comm. and
2:

S'ankh.

B.
cf.

XIV.
PMbh.
i.

1. 1. p. i.

cf.
i.

Panini.
i.

i.

4.

109;

cf.

PMbb.

4. 4. p.

354.

RP.
?f%
cf.

2. 1

:

105.
cfc

C

13.

tra

BD.

ii.

39,

109 B,

HOB.
4.

Sayana's comm. on the ManBrahma^a:
u

RV. VI.

4.

7; VS. 33. 13.
31. 2;
of.

The whole passage
JT5RTT ...... 5pf|f^f

:

RV.X.
N.
1. 4.

84.2; AV.

is

quoted by

SRV.

p.

i.

15.

fRT
I

3Tq^rT 5TFJT

I

^TlTf JHTT

^l^fl

I

J

]

i

563*1^3

?f?r

TT

i

s

1.

of.
ii.

SRV.

II. 39. 1
:

;

V. 43.

1

;

pp.
I

6.

Quoted by SRV.

p.

i.

17.

117, 587

STsnS^ffffcT

^n^Jt

^.

\

cf.

EV. X. 71. 4; tff! N. 1. 8. SRV. X. 71. 4. p. IV. 221:

o^C
cf.

4,

C

5.
i.

C
1.

1,

C
2,

2,

C
5,

3,

C

6,

M

1,

PM bh.
Mi,

1. p.

i.

4.
1,

M
C
5,

2,

R

1,

R
is

R

8,

M

Omitted by BK, C
3,

W 3 and Dnrga.
p.
i.

R

4,

R

6,

W W
1,

ICn,
2,

i

.

The

M'hole

passage

$n$n^...

Suyana reads STsJ^^T

5T5T^I

See
j

quoted by Helaraja iu Lis commentary on the rAv/aBen. S. S. j.>ad~iya.ot Bharti'hari
;

^T^rOf

^

SRV.
6

10.

Vol. II.

I, p.

30.

(

1905).

Pt^cflci

^

:

I

:

I

ff?r
i

RtRyi

ftr

f fk srwt
'T?[TTr

Helaraja, op.

cit.

o
op.

c

Helaraja.

^
Harivrsabha in
his

RV. RV.
i.

I.

27. 1

;

SV.

1.

17;

2.

984.

commentary

vs.

I.

154.

on the VdJfyapad~tya of Bhartrhari Ben. S. S. >*os. 11, 19, 24. (1887)
p.
3.

2;X. 180.2.
I.

*.

Quoted .by SRV.
645.
I.

145.

5.,p.

remarks:
<^.

Quoted by SRV.
cf.

55.

1. p.

i.

278.

*.

C 2, C M2, R 1,R2, R5,
1,

3,

C

6,

M

0.
1,

BD.

i.

33:

S.

^1.

cf.

BD.

i.

18,

19:

Quoted by SRV. I. 145. 2. p. i. cf. also I. 51.5; V, 56.4; VIII. 63. 12.
662.

.

See N. 7-12.

first

Small figure on this page represents the corresponding chapter of the Nirukta.

otion of the

:

i

r:

i

sipsr:

i

*irar:

i

i

C

1,
1,

M2, R
*.
cf.

C 2, C 3, C 6, M 1, R2, R5, S; Durga;

the

Nirukta

is

raised

to

the

dignity of a S'ruti.
-v ii__. JcJ ^"cf<?TT

Roth's and S'ivadatta's edition.

p-i ^

ri
)

^

o
J

p
J

Pfi
>

N.

I. 14.
I. 1. 1. p.

M R
2,
i.

1,

R

2,

R

5,

S;
1.

M

MM
1

3,

Mi.
17;

^. cf.

SRV.

25.
Vrtti

cf.

PMbh. VI.

1.

p. iii.

V.

Quoted in the Mdthara
the

on
ed.
5.
cf. cf.

Sdnkhyakarika XXII.

by Sahityacarya.
p.

Benares 1922,

37:

BD.

ii.

116.
i.

PMbh.
I

1.

2.
I

p.

i.

31|

I

.

It should be noted

fSri3>: ^ft: fat<iii cf. also Vol. ii. p. -87.

that

the

intervening
is

sentence

feq^R^

||

una. Su.

1.

17.

Au-

olnitted

and

freeht's edition p. 7.

.

*.]

[

RT

ffilT

n

^

u

f f^T

I

5[rcft%

cf.

PMbh.

i.

1, 1. p.

i.

9;

M

Omitted by BK, C
3,

4,

Mi,
;

R

4,

R

6,

W

C

5,
1,

W
M

Kn,
2,

AV
is quoted by Kslrasvamin in his commentary on the Amarakosa II. 9. 107. Poona ed.

3

and Durga.
ii.

cf.

BD.
2,

106.
1,

T^o. C

C
2,

2,

C

3,

C c
p.

6,

1,

M
M

R

(1913)
cf.

pi

157.
i.

PMbh.

^% c R R
2,
1,

1,

R
i,

R
2,

5, S.

c
2,

c

3,

6,

M:

i,

R

5, S. 4.
i.

1.

1. p.

i.

9;
cf.

SRV.

I.

126.

571:

V.

^T^o. C

1,

M2 R
Mi,

W W2
1,

1,

C 2, 03, 06, Ml, R2, R5, S; C 4, C 5,
;

C

2,

C
1,

3,

C
2.

4,

C
4,

5,

C

6,

M 3,
TA.

Mi, AV
10. 10;

\V

Roth's edition.

3: Mu, 10.

TOT

f f^T T'TO:

I

4Wtlfi
:

I

^ftt

:

i

i

^. cf.

II. 8
*.
*.

Manu II. 114; Su. III. Vas. i VisnuXXIX. 9. sr^'^flro. C 5. cf. Manu II.. 144; Vas. II. 10;
;

cf.

SRV.
S'B,

I.

158.

2.

p.

i.

672:

cf.

VI.

1. 2.

34.

Weber's ed.

P-

505:

%
40. 4.
94. 9.

ijtaT ^r^ftr

f%

^

Visnvu
V. of.

XXX.

47

;

Ap.

I. 1. 14.

Visnu
<4.

Manu II. XXIX.
B.
3.
(

115;
10.

Vas.

II.

9;

RV. IX.
RV. X.

All the 4 verses
STJ.

are found in
).

Burnell. pp. 29-32
p.
i.

Quoted by SRV. IX.
14; pp.
iii.

89. 6; 97.

Quoted by SRV.

22.

759, 780.

i

arorfo

srrar

^ %**rr

MTTIH

I

c)nunivHvi!

I

1.

EV. VI.
of.

47, 26;

AV.

G.

125.

1;

cf.

BD.

ii.

111.

N.

9. 12,

RV. VI.
11;

56. 3.

*.

RV. VI.
of.

75.

VS.

29.

48;

VS.

18.
etc.

10; S'B.

IX

4. 1.

N.

9;

cf.

9. 12.

V
*.

RV. X.

27. 22.

g^T; RV. I.

TS. 111.

4. 7. 1.

84. 15;

AV.

20.

41.
4.

3;

Omitted by BK, M3, Mi, R 4, R

C
6,

4,

C
1,

W

5,

W

Kn,
2,

SV. The
15;

1.

147:

2.

265;

cf.

N.

2;V

passage:
is

aTm<*rlNjfr...lftT-

W3.
<.

*F*cT%
75. 11. p.
p.
i.

quoted by

SRV.

I.

S4.

Quoted by SRV. VI.
ii,

379.

890.

N.

4. 25.

V]
r

TO

[

^jfc?HT
i

]

^nirT^cf
J
I

J

TOT

J

I

crf?T-

r

I

fl^frT
:

II

V9

f fER

f 5?g
n

3

i

i

ft

ftth
\.

n
9. 10. 10,

RV.

I.

154.

6. 4,

RV.

I.

164. 32;

AV.
I,

M

Omitted by BK, C
3,

W3.

Mi,

E

4.

R

6,

W

C

5,
1,

W
M
3.

Kn,
2,

.

Quoted by SRV.
674.

160.

2.

.p.

i,

^^r
3

BK, C

4,

C

Mi R4, R6,

Wl,

Kn, W.2,
5,

W

3, 2,
1,

C

1,

C

2,

C

3,

G

6,

M

1,

M R R

2,

R

5, S.

:

I

of.

PMbb.

i.

2.

3.
.

p. 1.

247:

TO%: <JT:

RV.

I.

164.29;

AV.

9. 10. 7.

i

*TT

TT*T

I

II

.

II

%r^ H in ^
i

^TT

I

1.

Omitted by BK, C

4,

M
3.

W
p.

3, 3.

Mi,

R

4,

11 6,

W

5,
15

W

Kn,
2,

The passage
Tftfcf

3T
i.

I

is

quoted by
cf.
i.

SRV
I.
ii.

I.

30.

18.

p.

156;
3; pp.

also

1GO. 4,

Quoted by SRV.
ii.

III. 54. 11.
ii.

VI. 72.
cf.

309;

of.

also VI. 72. 3. p.

675;

884.

882.
\.

BD. VII.
5.

155.

M
V.

Omitted by BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, 1, 2, 3, Mi, R 4, R 6, 3; and Durga. The whole passage: f^u

W

W W

t&fon^ C
cf.

BD. VII. 156; VIII.
BD. VIII.
BD. VIII.
2.

1.

cf.

:

is

quoted by SRV.

I.
cf.

22. 5. p.
<.
*.

i.

115.

4-5.

4te*r

c

5,

Mi.

cf.

SRV. X.

98. 1. p.
,.

IV. 324.

W

M

o^SRfrfa
3, 3.

BK, C
4,

4,

C
1,

Mi,

R

R

6,

W

5,

W

Kn,
2;

RV. X.
cf.

98. 5,

SRV, X.

98. 5. p. IV.- 325.

7

Xo.
ft '4 -UJI &\
I
'

\

u

|

r--|

|

\

SRI

f

^

T

!

sT'Trs'^r:
II

i

5 ?
. .

II

11

^TT

I

] ^rf

J

i

'A

II

[ 3i

l

n

?

JP^ J

ftll

1. of,

SRV.
i.

I.

68.

10; 40.

2; cf.

125. 3;

Quoted by SRV.
cf.

I.
'

1. 1. p.

i,

24.

pp.

329,

212, 568.

Manu.
iii.

BD. VIII.
3,

6.

IX. 138.
3.

Quoted by SRV. IX.
770.

96. 6. p.

M

Omitted by BK, 04,

C

W

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

5,

1,

W

Kn,
2,

3.

^.

Omittad by BK, C

M 3,

4,

W3.
.

Mi,
v
9.

R

1,

R

6,

W W
1,
i.

C

5,

Kn,
2,

cf.

BD. VIII. S B.
12. 8-22.

See N.

TA.

ii.

The

words within the
I.

RV. X.

88. 11; cf.

N.

7. 29.
4,

brackets are not omitted in TA.
<<.

Omitted by BK, C

Quoted by SRV,

70. 6. p.

333.

M

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W
1,

05, Kn,
2,

K.

RV/X.98,

7,

W3,

i

ST^SHM

^t^w

% li
:
\

i

I

^r
I

*nr
I
i

5 s^^
^TT
I

1

^

3

frnT:

J

^"5? ^it^TR^TrTT

I

cTT

3T?I

?:

I

[
I

^rr

^TRT^ ]

rrsrfff'Pi

:

I

i

r

VTrf?t

I

[

fT ]

I

1.

RV.
262.

I.

136.3;

II. 41.

6;

SV

i>,

M
<^.

3, Mi, II 4, R AV 3 ; and Durga.

6,

W

1,

W

2,

*.
^.

RV.
RV.

III. 59. 2.
I.

The quotation

is
i.

untraced. Cf.
569.

SRV.
24. 15;

I.

VS. 12.12.
I*.

125. 5. p.
1,

ga and Bib. Ind.

TO*^ C

M

2,

R

1,

02, 03, 06, Ml, R 2, R 5, S; and

Rotb, edition.

and Bib. Ind.
.

11.

Cf.

SRV.

I.
i.

112. 5; 148. 1; VII.

^^.

10. 2. pp.
.

488; 650;
83. 3. p.

iii.

25.

ftcVPC3;famo.Wl. Omitted by BK, C 4 % C 5, Kn, M 3, Mi, R 4, R 6, W 1, W 2,

W
1*.

3,

and Durga.

Cf.

SRV. IX.

iii.

734

SW*: BK, 04, 05, Kn,
Mi,

.

Omitted by BK, 04, C

5,

KD,

R

4,

R

6,

\V

1,

W Wa
2,

M 3,

T

?

i

3?ftr

^rgt

[

JTW

]

^rfir

I

^rgr

npm

II

V*.

II

[

f^n^r ]

:

I

]

3TTT

i.

M

Omitted by BK, C
3,

4,

C

Mi,

E

4,

11 6,

W

5,
1,

W

Kn,
2,

Mi,
Q..
I.
i

E

4,

E

K, C 1, C G, AV 1,

W W
2,
is

5,

Ku,

M
3.

J,

omitted

Cf.
0.

ailV. VIII. 80. 8; X.
iii.

103.
|

J>y

BK, C 4,^C

pp.

529; IV. 340.
I. 37. 10. p.
i.

II 4,

E

6,

W

5,

1,

W
i.

"'Kn,
2,

M

W

3,
3,

Mi,

and

V. Cf.

SRV.
I.

202.

Durga.

The

passage
is

3Tf^nj?<fr-

M. *.

HV.

32. 10.
4,

smT-'-^rfafiffr^r:

quoted by

SRV.

I.

32. 10. p.

170.
4,

M 3,

Omitted by BK, C

W3

Mi,

E

4,

E

6,

W

C

5,

1,

W

Kn,
2,

JT^T^u^T BK, C

O
VV

j,
1,

M

3,

Mi,

E

4,

II 6,

W

Kn,
2,

W3.

I

X3-

[

TTTi

n

i

3T?n

rr.

!

sgrwr^
I

I

f^ifecfV^i:
I

I

1

^^T

3TTT:
i

u fin ^3 JTR:

I

^rfoT^fonvT^TPT

^ra
i

fir^ vrr

i^4 1*4 "-43^ ^ (
;

!

:

i

n

n

1.

RV.

I.

32. 11.

3.

5T^?T%

^TU^T

is

quoted by
219.

*. Cf.

BD. V.
4,

166.
1,

SRV.

III. 34.

4, p. ii.

*.
V.

3T C
Ci

Mi, AV
4.

W

2.
2.
>.
J,

TS. 11.
i

12.

C5.
8.

wffntac ff^jfii f^^T l^ccf^
I

J.

Cf.BD. Cf. BD.

III. 9.
iii.

Dawn
SV.

is

a ka>a

i. *.

M.

All the three quotations are un-. traced. The passage: ^j^q^f...
f^3TT*Tf ia quoted by SRV. I. 32. 11. p. L 170; Cf. also I. 124. 10.
p.
i.

16th portion of night.
*. (.

RV.
The
this

I.

113. 1;

2.

1099.

text

seeins

to

be

corrupt.

I propose to read
will

^j:

make
is
i.

for ^ffe: the line in-

566.

*

oftsirfir

BK, C 1 C
6.
1
5

Mi.

R 4, R

W W W3
2,

5,

Kn,

M

telligible.

3,

*.

SRV.

^

%f^--'^T5T^
I.

quoted
496.

H3.

l.p.

TSOT

v-jhft

5?n*ip[T?*j

grar
I

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S'ivadatta's edition.

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also I.

R

1,

R 2, R

51.

13. p.

260.

Cf.

PMbh.

and Roth.
Vol.
II. 14. 11.
I. p.

V.
i.

RV.
VS.

245, 246.
I.

11.
29. 1.
45. 20,
13.

Quoted by
i.

SRV/

51.

13.

p.

260.
I. 15. 3. p.
i.

V
vt.
.

RV, VIII.
Cf.

SRV. VIII.
9.

45. 20. p.
3.

iii.

432,
2.
|

Quoted by SRV. U. RV. V. 31. 2.
IV.

93.

KS.
6. 2.

7;

cf.

VS.

61.; S'B.

MS.
iii.

1. 9. 4:

134. 8;

KS.

9. 9.

7; TS. 1.8.6.2.

1^. Cf.
I.

^

Cf.

SRV.

1.51,

13;

1$1. 4;

!

Il3. 4; X. 95. 829; IV. 310.

SRV. IX.

4. pp.

:

I

ft

RV. X. 85. RV. X. 95. RV. IV. 4.
RV. VII.
VS.
15. 32.

37;
5.

cf.

AV.

14. 2. 38.

^o. Cf. ^1.

SRV. VIII,

5. 2.

p. iii,

255.

^lf^T. Roth's

edition.

Durga

15.

gives f^^r^T as a Variant.

16. 1;

SV.

1.

45; 2. 99;

.

^^frT C1.C2, C3,G6, Ml,

M

2,

R

1,

R

2,

R

5, S;

& Roth.
cf.

RV. X.
ftreffc

85. 27; of.

AV.
C
1,

14. 1. 21.

Cf.

SRV. VIII.
SRV.
i.

1. 1.

p. iii. 6;

BK, C
4,11
6,

Mi,
Cf.

R

W W W
2,

4,

5,

Kn,
8.

M
3.

also I. 35. 1;89.
3,

6.

IV
i.

Cf.

I.

SRV. L
I. 18. 2;
1, 9;

18. 2;

38.

pp.

159, 390;
12. 1;

31. 3; 87. 3; II. 12. 1; ii. 32.

pp.

104, 205.

i*.

RV II.

AV.

20. 34. 1.

RV,

VS. 3.29.
3. 24.

11.

RV. VI.

66. 9.

RV. I. 10

VS.

Roth's edition.

1.

RV.I.
Small

185.
T,

1.

represents
1.

the

corresponding

*. Cf.

SRV.

185.

p.i. 772,

section of

the third chapter of

V

figure

within

brackets

e Nirukta,

.

3

]

n
f f^T
I

[

[

^^^TTJ

]

^

I

*&

^To
^. \.

M
R

3.

RV. VIII.
3,

45. 37.

a.
4,
1
,

Cf.

SKY.

I.
1

164. 14. p.
3:>
f

i.

701,

Omitted by BK,
Mi,

C

C

R

4,

6,

W

W W
2,

5,

Kn,

U
3;

^

Cf SPxV

J2
*
1
'

5

195

V.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
in. 435. cf. 13D.
ii.

^
1.

45.

37. p.

H<agment
Cf
-

**>
1C
l
-

^'
1-

109,
1,

SRV
C

-

l
5.

>

1- P-

G9tf.

1.

RV, X,

73, 11;

SV.

319,'

11. xfrfc:

*TR*T

err

i

[

f^f^

]

r ^rr
:

i

%

I

srftr

^rr

a

11

ftwt

^

[

*fc ]

Cf.

BD.

ii,

114.

would have used Ihe words, as he
usually does:, instead of

M

2.

1.

T Q 1 C 4, C 5, M 3, Mi, C 3, C 5, M 3, 2. TT^:

5

are generally used with
quotations.
522.

Erahmana

W

RV. V.
3

30. 1:

SV.
3

1.

345;
5,

2.

Omitted by,
5

BK C 4, C
R6,
1,

Mi,

R

4,

W W2 W
3

Kn,

M
3.
ii.

!

Mi,

R

4,

R
I.

6,

W W W
1,

MS,
3. 4. pp.

2,

Quoted by SRV. V.
573.

39.

1.

p.

W.
\

Cf.
i.

SRV.
ii.

123. 3;

VI. 71.

558,

883.
I.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
iii.

4.

21. p.
j i

W.

Cf.

SRV.
ii.

60. 4;

IV.

11. 5; pp.

i.

254.
is

295:

381.

V-.

^TT
I.

omitted by
i.

C

1. cf.

SRV.

129. 10. p.

588.

\ 4. 5;

AV.

7. 73. 9.

RV. X. 94. 9. It looks as if Yaska did not think it to be a Vedic quotation otherwise he

:.

Omitted by BK, C
3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,
2,

M
3.

II

[

fir^

Bra

1

srfrirr4t

srft

it

n in
ii

I

\s

ii

is ,
*.

added

Cf. Cf.

SRV.

I.

105. S. p.
33. 3; p.
4,

i.

464.

after
Cf.

^ by Durga & S'ivadatta.
III. 25. 5. p.
1,
ii.

SRV. X.

IV. 99.

SRV.

200.

C

4, 2,

5,

M

3.

Omitted by BK,
1,

1,

03,

M

M

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

C

5,

Kn, M.
3.

2,

2,

R
3,
\.

1,

R

2,

R

5, S.

BK, 04, 05, Kn,
Mi,

R

4,
I.

R

6,

W W W
1,
2,

M
3.

Cf. SRV. X. 1. 3. p. IV, 2. cites the following passage:
?TcT

Dnrga

Cf.

SRV,
I.

105. 8.

p.

i.

464.

>.

RV.
VII.

105. 8;

X.

32. 2; of.

BD.

U. RV. VIII. W.
Cf.
Cf,

48. T.

34.

SRV.
SRV.

I.
I.

128.

T>.

p.

i.

581.
i.

C

3,

4,

C

5,

M

3.

1<1.

112. 17.

p.

492.

ffar
/VJ

tf

T^TSf

^T5^
[

W*

n*Ff(i ]

\

Pfa

II

^

II

II

r

i

[

^^^fi^i
i

]

i

MM$ui;

^^"

rt

5.

RV.

III. 47. 1;

VS.

7. 38.

is

added, after

by

*.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn,
3,

Mi,
is

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

M
3.
.

ll

2,

Omitted by BK, C

4,

C

^.
V.

m

added after srqn^ by
Ill, 47,

C
1.

M
.

3,

3.
ii.

vy

o

Mi,

R
R

4,

R
4,

6,

W
2,

5,
1,

W
M
3,

Kn,
2,

Quoted by SRV.

p.

^s^H^T BK, C
Mi,

R

4,

6,

W W W
1,

C

5,

Kn,

8,

<*.

Quoted by SRV, X.
220.

71. 2.

p.

iv.

\.
*.

RV. X. cf^; C
jfR^rf:

71. 2.
4,

Cf. PMbh. i. 1. 1. p. i, 4. W. See N. 6. 17. V1. RV. I. 115. 4; AV. 20.
.

123.

1;

M

VS.
3.

33. 37.

<.
..

W

H.
4,

2.

Omitted by BK, C
3,

C

Mi, 114,

RC,

W

5,

Kn,

M
i*.

11% R SRV. I.
wwrfrft

^

BK, C
6,

W
2.

4,

C
1,

5,

W

Kn,
2,

M

W

3,

Mi,
of.

3;

115.4.

1,

W2, W3.

w

srftr

f^rrft

r

tf

ft

^

i

i

w&t.
I

RT

rafs

i

^3lU|R?
ST^TT:
i

[

P

] 2^5::

S^^
i

:

i

3T9IT

I^TT

[ Srfit^r
:
I

:

II

I

5RT

?T%

3TfT

.

I.

115.

4. p.

i.

511.

is

added often
III. p. 21,

3, \.

11V. II. 38.

4.

P.Mbh. Vol.
20. 40.
1; 70. 3;

RV,
SV.

I. 6.

7;

AY.

2. 200.

Omitted by BK, C
52; of.

V. Of.
ii.

SUV.
141.
I.

I. 6. 7. p. i.

BD.

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W Kn, W
4, 5,
1,

C

M
3.

2,

4.

RV.
3,

163. 10;

VS.

21).

21.
5,

$.

Omitted by BK, C
Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1, 2,

4,

C

Kn,

M
3.

^rj: SRV. I. 163. 10. p. i. 694. Of. SRV. loo. cit. RV. I. 163. 2; VS. 29. 13. RV. III. 9. 2, SV. 1. 53. Of. SRV. III. 9. 2. p. ii. 160

.

]

ftrftr

^r

n

w

f%

CT ]

1.

RV.
120.

III. 53. 23; cf.

BD. IV. 117j

it.

Cf.

BD. IV.

44.

Durga

Remarks:
tr

C

4,

C

5,

C

6,

M
3,

3,

W

2.

C
r:

5.
4,

C

C

5,

M

Mi,

W

2.

*.

RV.

III.

9.

8;

VIII. 43.

31;

H.
U-

Cf.

BD. IV.
is

144.

102. 11.
\. Cf.

SRV.

W%m

omitted by
19. 37.

M 3, W

2.

VIII. 102.

11.

p.

iii.

**.

RV. VIII.

596.
V.
<*.

RV. IV.
Cf.SRV.

32. 23.
I.

m. RV. VII. 58. 5. 1*. snret C *, C 5, M
i.

3,

W W
1,

2.

123. 10. p.
4,
1,

560.

T*.

TO<T BK,

S.

Omitted bylBK, C
3* Mi,

5,

Kn,
2,

M
3.

R

6,

W W W
1,

C

4,

C

5,

Kn,
3.

M

3,

R

4,

2,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W

It. See.

N.

7. 17.

JI^T

f:
?;fct

^r

\

.

.

Cf.

.

RV. IX. 75. 5. SRV. IX. 75. RV. I. 124. 4.
1,

5. p. iii.

723.

M

1,

M

i,
2,

c

2, 2,

c

3,
5,

o

6,

R
I.

1,

R

R

S &

Roth.

SRV.
87.
6.

124. 4~the entire

V.

Hf^SwC
1,

C
2,

2,

C
5,

3,

C

6,

M
11.
.

passage being quoted.

M

2,

H
1,

1,

R
2,

R
3,

8;

RV.I.

C^jni
.

S'i vadatta.

RV.

III. 53. 3.
5.

r
2,

C

C

C

C

6,

M

1,

M

R

1,

R

2,

R

tt.

5, S.

.

Cf.

SRV.

I. 61.

U.

p,

i.

302.
1,

C

1,

C C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

M
R

5.

M
R

2,

R

1,

R 2, R 5,
4,

S & Durga.

W W W SRV. W. ^fcf C M W Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, M R W W VV SeeN. 11.25. Mi, R
1, 2,

M

1,02, 03,06,

M
of.

R

1,

R

2,

R

oSHTT^r
6,

BK, C
1,
4,

5,

Kn, Mi;
3.

5,

S;

4,

2,

I.

124. 4.

3,

2.

3,

4,

6,

1,

2,

3.

11

*r

fr:

i

ff

snraR ^?^r2

?rt

^ff

:

i

^crnr^t:

i

JTT

1.

TS.

i.

2.

10.2;

*.

KS.

19. 3;

m

KS.

2. 8.

1.

43; cf.
^.

VS.
2.

111. 5. 13. 1; 28. 16.

N.

9.

.

Cf.

,

SRV. I. 136. RV. VI. 30. 3.

p.

i.

612.

RV.
1.

I. 84. 7;

AV,

20. 63. 4;

SV.

.
.

389;

691.
6. 5.

nfrwwCM, M3, W2.

V.

RV. VI.

.

1. ^.

EV.TIL

34. 1;

AV.

20. 11.

1.
.
'

HV. I 96. 7. RV, V. 39. 2;SV. 2. 523. Quoted by SRV. X. 109.
IV. 3G4. cf. PiMbh. Vol.
II. p.

1.

p,

^01,02,03, M13R1.R2, R 5, S.
Quotation
is

<.

98.

v>.

explains the remarks:

untreced. Durga 4th pada only fe

n. ^^u: c i. T$. RV. V. 2. 9.

v.

n.]

II

\<

ii

TO

*Tlj<FRT

^.

Of.

SBV.-V.

2. 9. p. ii.

502.

Quoted by SRV. VI.
ii.

62.

2.

p.

^. Of.
i.

SRV.I.
3. 7.

35.

10;

129.

11; pp.

859.

190, 588.

Cf.

SRV. SRV.

I.
i.

^.

RV. X.
VS.

39. 7. pp.

161.1; 164. 14; 676,701; ii. 119.
33.

II.

V.

28. 5.
4,

Cf.

I.

7; 35. 2; 50. 7;

c

5,

M

3,

w

2.

90. 7; 110. 6;

VI. 70. 5; X. 129,

u
.

RV.
aro?^

I.

89.

1;VS.

25. 14.

1; pp.
ii.

is

given as a variant
attributes

by
it

Durga who however

i. 176, 186, 250, 401, 482; 879; IV. 423. cf. 'SB. VI, 3. 1.18. ;*%*fcT?*n>fel

to the carelessness of the Scribes'-

Cf.

SRV.

I.

124. 5. p.

entire passage:
:.

^ T^ 3^
i.

i.

664.

The

RV. X.
gcri

39. 4.
1.

*.

M

quoted SRV. I. RV. V. 63. 5.

19. 3. p.

107.

M
I.

Omitted by BK,
3,

C
6,

4,

Quoted by SRV. X.
IV. 117,

39.

4.

p.

W 3; and Durga.

Mi

1,

R

4,

R

W

C

5,
1,

W

KD,
2,

It

is

sthiok out

inCl.

v.

n.

i

]

TT

I

^TT

1.

Cf.

SRV. X.
3,

*.

M
^.
V.

**T

^^ BK, R R
Mi,
4,

87. 25. p. IV. 278.

C

6,

W W W
1,

4,

05, Kn,
2,

M

Omitted by BK,
3,

C

Mi,

R 4, R6, W
is

4,
1,

C

W

5,
2,

Kn,
\V
3.

3.

The quotation
Cf.

un traced.

RV.X.87. 25;SV,

1.95.
4,

RV.

I.

134.

2.

W
M.

M 3,

Omitted by BK,
Mi,

C
6,

R

4,

R

W

C
1,

5,

W

Kn,
2,

Of.

SRV.

I. 134. 2. p.i.

605: jpum:

3,

and Durga. The
struck out in

line sn*ffr...

RV. X.
WTftrftfrT

101. 10

^<ff^| is

C

1.

^
,

*.

RV. V. 19. 2. RV. VI. 1. 4. RV. III. 41. 3 AV, 20. 23. RV. 1.153. 4;AV. 7. 73. 5.
5
,

C 4, C 5, RV. VII. 21. 5..

M

3,

Mi,

W
19.

2.

Quoted by SRV. X.
3.

27.

p.

IV. 79.
Cf.
i.

SRV.

I.

2.

8; VII. 22.

5.

pp,

III. 31, 11. p. 231.

33;

Hi. 50.

it

STTSRT:

II

TOT

^T

mTcTr
i

^r

ttxi

I

^N^TJTT

nf5r* *r

t

i

snrT

1. 11 V.

X.

10. 10;
.

AV.
AV.

18. 1. 11.

lo.
II.

3.

Durga.
;

RV. X.
18.
1.

15. 4;

VS.

19.

55; Cf.

AV.

^.
V.

KV.

I.

164. 33

9. 10. 12.

15.
I.

Omitted by 'Durga.

K.

Cf.

SRV.
i.

157. 4; VIII. 67. 21;
iii.

pp.
Cf. TS. VI.
1. 7. 2.
1
J-

670; VITt 95<

493;

Cf.

BD.

M
.4.1

JL

J

AT 9 W X*Jl.
s
d,

6>
**>

*TT^T

^

(*\

-\/f *l "*

n

<

^^RfRt C
/
1

-

i

I, 2,

n o n 02, C

n

b.

M
vr

i

Quoted

1,

M
*.

2,

R

1,

R

R
6,

5, S.
4,
1,

Omitted by BK, C

C

5,

M

3,

Mi, R 4. B

W W

2,

Ku, AV '6.

H. TS"

'

ii,

10. 2

;

8'B.

i.

9. }

.

26.

V. VA, ]
ii

[*rh

^

ii

* fan

?
srftr

^rgft

q 554

s

n

^Nr

I.

Cf.

BD.
I.

ii.

46.

I

RV.

89.

10;

AV.

7. G. 1

;

VS.

^. Cf.

SRV.
Mi.

I,

132.

1. p. i.

598.

25. 23,

1.
11.

fofsfrT

*WrM3;'^C3.
45. 1;

V.

RV.

H. RV. X.
I.

VS.

12. 18.
i.

143.

4.

4.
$.

RV. IV.

38. 5.
5. p. ii.

n. Quoted by SRV. I. 101. 1. p. IV. RV. I. 101. 1;SV. 1.380.
14,

446.

Quoted by SRV. IV. 38
454.

Sea N.

2. 5.

1*.
:

RV.
1.

I.

M

84, 15;

AV.

20. 41.

3;SV.

3,

H7;

2.265.

ift:

*<T

i

]

f ?*TT5

ft

^.

Omitted by C

3.
is

.

BV.
^ff
:

I.
is

9.

2.

*.

lRf^rH

is

Omitted by C 3

.

;

omitted by
190. 5.
I.

C

5.

preceded by srtfqr^ ia

C

1,

C

6,

.

BV.

I.

M
V

1,

M

2.

.

Quoted by SBV.
tfgfcf:

190.

5. p.

i.

788.

SHfidffcfH BK,

C

4,

C

5,
1,

M3,

Mi,

B4, B6,

W

Kn,

.

C
2,

1,

C
3.
5,

2,

C

3,

C

5,

C

7,

W

2,

Mi,

W W

W3.
V. See N.
4.
4. 21.

M

3,

Mi,

W2

;

4.

RV. IV.

51. 1.
4,

.

BV.

III. 54. 7.
3. 19.

t.

Omitted by BK, C

C

5, 1,

Kn,

.

See N.

M
.

3,

Mi,

B

4,

B

:

6,

W

W

2,

.

Quoted by SBV. IX. 64.
iii.

30. p.

W3.
BV. X.
138.
1.
>.

683.
8. 20.

VS.

i

BT*TT
I

srrero TTfler
1

i

sr

3T^nrr ?nrr

i

ijpssr
i

w

qfinff^g

srat

BK, C

4, 1,

C

5,

Kn,

<.

RV. X.

85. 39

;

AV.

14. 2, 2,

M

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R 6, W

W'2,

W
4,

3.

v ^f^n M 3.

3.

Quoted by SRV. VII.

34.

p.

Ry L
.

164 r

.

AV

Q g

L

Cf.

BD. IV.

33.

-

<i.

Omitted by BK, C

4,

C

,,.Cf.SRV.I.9.4.p.i.65
5,
1,

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

W

2,

"
,

DttP 6 a

w
.

3
I.

Quoted by BBV.
618.
5.

138.

4. p. i.

^^

......

%

^^

,

5^jR'T
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i

3T5WT frsrr
I

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sr

i

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i

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i

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i

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i

i

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i

i

I

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I

Sffa: .ST%?ft

R

^f
?.

^f STT^T^T
1.

HV.
3, 6.

]ij.

;!;

AY.
I.

(

J.

9.

2;

i:J.

.',',.

of^f^q^^ 1>K, C M 3, Mi, U II \V
-J,

1,

0,

1,

W W
2,

C

5,

Kn,
3.

^.

(Rioted
GOT.

by

SUV.
101.

IGi.

L'.

p.

i.

'j^.
r 4

11Y. i>y.

J.
T.

1G4. 12;
101.

^

^. Cf.

SRV. X.
c
is 3.

7. p.

IV. oM.
, |

W.
vi.

II Y. I.

1G1.

V. Cf. G13. I. 5. 5.

<Moted by
i.

AY. 9. 9. 12. AY. 9. 9. 3. 11; J8; AY. 10. 8. 4/ RV. I. IGi. 48.

p.

ri,s.

omitted by
3.

C

3.

^ ^^. M
Vd>

3>
.

,..

RY.

I.

164. 13;

AY.
AY

9. 9. 11.

^

KVt i 1G4< 4 8 CL GD> L 5j 5.
rrfgsj
'-''

A y.

10. 8. 4.

^r^ f ^ ^^
I
.

..

o^

T?TT:

C

4, ]\I 3,

2.

o. Cf. AJJ.i. 1. 14:

^T^Trr^T:^??^
^*TT&5f

^^T^n^rrnn^r Cf. AB. ^- 2: ^TW ^ 3T ^TrfT^T ^ft
I

^^cTf^rf^^:
cfR.'lCf. S'B.
2. 1
:

frnrrw3.
i

^^R^T^rw
5fifa^%
STfa

Cf S'B. XII.
"* 2

3. 2. 3.

i.

T.

2.8; XII.
2. 1 1
;

5T?TT

Tund B, XVIII.

4.

11.

Cf

-

KB

'

'

12

fifcrfite

II

R^

n

%i\ft Mr^rr
J

II

]

1.

KV.

I.

164

11;AV.
5
;

9. 9, 13.

.

Small

figure

within

brackets

represents
^. Cf.

the

GB.

I. 5.

AB,

corresponding

II. 17. 4

;

S'B.
'

section of the fourth chapter of

XII. 3,2. 4;

AA,

III. 2.1.

the Nirukta,

ftftat

m in

RV. X, 139. 6. RV. VIII. 26. 16.
Quoted by SRV.
i.

5,
.

I.

149.

2.

p.

^.

RV, VIII. 25. RV.II. 14. 1.
Mi,

13.

652.
4. 2.

^o. JT?HF>9r:

BK, C

RV. X.

R

4,

R

6,

W W W3
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M 3,
bj

2,

M

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn,
3,

Mi,

R 4, R
5. 5.

6,

W W W
1, 2,

3.

11. srtfifrCM, 05, SRV. II. 14. 1. p.
.

M3. Quoted
ii.

41.
i.

RV. X.

Quoted by SRV,

I.

62. 5. p.

307.

i

*

'TT

s?f^nftor;

i

3.

B.V.

I.

164. 16;
70. 2.

AV.

9. 9. 15.

3.

RV. VI.
ii.

^.

Quoted by 8RV. VI,
880.
I.

70.

2.

p.

S.

Quoted by SRV.
10.

73. 9;

121.

pp.

i.

347,
;

547.
40. 7.

<i.

*.

RV. I. 132. 1 VIII. RV. VII. 82. 1.
?fTp^
ia

RV. VII. 48. 2. RV. III. 3. 4. 10. RV. IX. 86. 41. 11. RV. X. 10. 8; AV. 18. 1. 9, 13. odrerwro. C 3. IV *TT: C 5, M 3. 1. RV. I. 179. 4; Of. BD. i. 53: Macdonell i^TT: ^IH^-W JTT
t.
*,.
I

* qm^rN'r
Durga.

omitted

by

translates

^^

'as of
1.

the reed'.
4. p.
i.

m. Quoted by SRV,

179.

758.

3.]

<U-

:

fa
i

3?F

11 V.

X.

59. 0.

.

RV. X.

79. 3.
4,

RV. IX. 107. 0;SV. 2.318. KV. X. 28. -i; Omitted by Durga, RV. X. 88. 4. Quoted by SRV. X. 88. 4. p. IV.
279.

.

**TH CK C

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

Mi,

R
.

4,

R

G,

W W
1,
i

2,

W

Cf.

SRV. VIII.
:

72. 4. p.

iii

509:

RV. VIIL
1121.

G8. 1;

SV

1.354;

2.

See N.

9. 39.

.

RV.

III. 17. D.
3,

M

RV. X. 99. 12. Omitted by Bk, C
3,

.

4,

C

W

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

5,
1,

W

Kn,
2,
.

fH C
ii.

M

3.

Quoted by SRV. IH.
184.

17. 5. p.

3,

and Durga.

v.

MlrM'l* star:

II

3

II

arf3*Irf
i

I

^fqr ftmft
1

^frr q-^rft
I

1

f^mt
1.

RV. VIII.

2.6.
is

.

RV.
RV.
Cf.
i.

I.

88. 5.

3.

The quotation inserted after

untraced. It

is
<s.

I. 3. 8.

down by C

1,

C
1,

M
^.

1,

M
I.

2,

R

C 3, C G, M 1, R2, R5, S; Cf.
2,
i.

ir^n^
299.

further<*.

SRV.
iii.

I. 3.

9

;

VIII. 88.

1

;

pp.

39;

543.
4.

SRV.

61.7.

p.

10.
7.

RV.

I.

61.7; AV.20. 35.
77. 10.

M
11.
i.

Omitted by BK, C
3,

V.
H. $.

RV. VIII. RV. X.

W

Mi,

R

4,

R
1.

6,

W

C
1,

5,

W

Ku,
2,

3,

and Durga.
148.
2,
4. p. i.651.

67. 7.

AV.
I.

20. 91. 7.

Quoted by SRV.
110. 5;

Quoted by SRV.

88. 5. p.

394.

^. RV, IX.

SV.

857.

Quoted by SRV.
Sayana reads

I.
:

10.

1.

p.
:

i.

68.

:

I

^^
SV.

for

^^
;

qRr:
|

i

RV.

I. 10. 1

;

I.

342
3,

See N.
604.

4.

16.

2.

V. 5TT3Tm:

C
1,

1,

C
2,

M

2,

C

C

6,

M
i.

1,

2,

R

R
I.

R

5, S,

& Roth.
68.

Quoted by SRV. I. 95. 10. p. i, RV. X. 187. 2; AV. 6. 34. 3.
Quoted by SRV.
I.

Quoted by SRV.
Cf.
I.

I. 10. 1. p.

61. 4. p, i.29?.

SRV.

RV.
Vl. See.

III. 62. 1.

138. 3; V. 62. 2; also
i.

88. 2. pp.

620 ;ii. 642;

i.

393.

N.

3.

16.
I.

RV. V.

52. 9.
4,

Quoted by SRV.
1.

7.2;

34.

U;

wrg: Aocording to Durga, the quotation is from Some Brahmana, the
passage in full being

C

C

5,

M

3,

Mi,

W

pp.

i.

55, 185, of

Fragment
35. 1.
3.

RV.

II. 31. 1

;

VIII,

:

i

rr

?;RT

q

3^5

^

fti*t

?.

See N.

1. 4.

brackets
53.

it

is:

11 V.

IX.

8<>.

34.

3.
i(.

VS.

4. 1'J; 12.
1. 4.

S'lvitd.xtta gives 2 quotations, 0110

from
i

\'S. 7.

Seo N.

1,

the othor form

RV.

K.. c<j.

34.

V.

Fragment
This
is

of

RV.
2,

and reads: c^rfa ^tTTTf
i'>K,
1,

V. 48.

1.

1.

tho text of
1,

C

1,

C
2,

C
$.
.

6,

M

M

2,

o,
5,
,S,

R

1,

R

R
i.

Omitted by

C

M

3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

G,

AV

1,

W W
2,

5,

Ku,
3.

and Roth.
Quoted by SRV.
I. 37. 4. p.

RV. VII.
200.
25. 3.

47. 3.
5,

W
in

1.
is

RV. VII.
iii.

^q^f
*.

omitted here

Quoted by SRV. VII.
57.
2,

25.

3. p.

but

tho beginning of the following section in C 1
is

added

<*>

SV.

652.
1.

rihnCl, C2,C3, CG,M1,MJ,

*o.

Fragment
ther Nvith

of VS.

7. 1.

Head

toge^.

R

1,

R

2,

R. 5; Mi.
is

what follows in square

Tho quotation

not traced.

X.

<:.

J

qft*

*

w W3

i

n

pTRt
i

I

ITT

.

Omitted by U
IIV.
I.

3.

S ivadutta.
1.

.

150.

1;

8V.
4,

07,

.

oJT^cf BK, C
Mi,

C
1,

R

4,

R

C,

W W W
2,

5,

Kn,

M
3.
1.

evidently a mistake. The editor seems to have iguored the
It
is

3,

reading of Durga whose commentary he has edited with the
text of the Nirukta.

.

Quoted
i.

by SUV.

I.

150.

p.

653.
37.
1.
G.

spt

^%.-^^:

is

P^ced
pada
3.

at
of

the

.

UV. V.

beginning of the 2nd
following stanza by

the

C

.

UV. VII.
f^oft:
G. p. iii.

100.

The
VII. 100.
100.

passage: fafrftHt fa^ftfa--is

.

H^f?f?H:

quoted by
208.

SRV. VIL

208.

6. p. iii.

13

TT

I

:

i

l

I

W5f^T

^fJr^r

rfct

^T

I

J

I

I.

RV. VII.

100. 5.
[:

<*.

RV. VII.

1. 1;

SV.
1. 1;

1.

72; 2. 723.
4.

is

omitted by

C

3.

lo. Cf.
.

SRV.

VII.

VIII, 77.

S'ivadatta.
V.

RV. VI.
BD.
is

55.
iii.

1.

11 V.

VIII. 77.
Kunaaria,
ed.

4.

4. Cf.

95 B,

96 B,

1^. Cf.

Tantra
p.

Vartika,
I.

explained by
49.
2.'

%.

Benares

66 or

2.

49,

v.

4. Cf.

RV. III. SRV.

Ill, 49. 2. p.

ii.

263

u]

.

3mwm
'
I

i

i

srftr

SN

s

-:

I

%rftfrT
*i

^Ffl[?n?T

I

I

STJTsnf

I

M

t

i

m li^Mn

d^,\niMHHluirf

According

to

Durga, some read
1.

11. UV. I. 61. 1; AV. K. Quoted by SRV.

20. 35. 1.
I.

61. 2;

62. 1;

VS.

5. 7; cf

AV.

81. 6;

TS.

ii.

4.

pp.

i.

297, 304.

14. 1.

oq^TT^^f^ M3.
VS.
5. 7.

1,

C

4,

M M
1,

2.

n. RV. I. 105. 19. 1. Quoted by SRV.
468.

I.

105. 19.

p.

i.

ST^TRT^To BK, C
3,

Mi,
5.

R

4, Pv 6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

m. RV. X. 89. 5. ^. Omitted by BK, C
2,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

5,

Kn,

M
3.

2,

2,

is

omitted by

C

5C
AB.

ii.

7. 11.

quoted by
778.
I. 61.-1. p.
i.

by Durga. IS is SRV. IX. 97.

and however
3.
8. p.
iii.

RV.

III. 21. 4.

Quoted by SRV.

296.

RV. V. 40

4;

AV.

20. 13. 7.

oo

fwrit '+ra%

i

^TI

R
i

mft"

^t^rf-?T
:iT
i

i

^
TT?T
^TT
I

STWrT

ct 3TT

I

^TT^

3T

I

3RTT
^ft
i

cr^rqr?rf^rfrr

^TT

i

^T^
n

T
\\
\\

The quotation
.

is

untruced.

50. Cf.
11.

BD.

ii.

59.
4.
G. p. iii.

C

4, 3^[ 3,

W

2.

Quoted by SRV, VII.
14.

The passage srnnfow^J 5. p. is quoted by SUV. X. 89. IV. 284 where the lines fnffor... l?f%3H} do not occur.

1^.

KS. IX.
20. 17.

4. MS. I. 10. 2. Cf. VS. According to Durga, the
is

quotation

the following.

C
RV. X.
Cf.

4,

M
1;

3,

W
1.

1.

105.

SV.

228.

BD. VII.

153.

VS.

20. 17 is the following:

is ^^m^S'ivadatta. 33 evidently

a mistake for gj^. 33; ocouring in

Durga's commentary is correctly printed in the same edition.

Quoted by SRV. IV.
353.

2. 18.

p. ii.

.

VS.
Cf.

14. 4.

.

BD. V.

149,

'
I

S^TTTT ST^T^
VTcTrar

iTTOvnnJT:
I

I

3r<*r

I

^pfrrT
I

?T^
I

T^TTJ JJ^^hi.

^4:

^F:

TTT^^

i

i

'

--M

ftcNU
I

|

^

I

^:

^rf^T5Tf

I

3TT

.

RV. VII.
2.

33. 11.
1,

0.
.

^3

S'ivadatta.
is

.

^fCl, 02. C3,C4, C6, M M
Durga.

efr^fq^

omitted by

C

5.

.

RV. IX.
RV. IX.

98. 12;

SV.

2.

1030.

.

n^fffc^rnro

Mi.

.

98. 12;

SV.
I.

2.

1030.
p.
i.

V. Cf. 1.

BD. V.
5,

155.

qfafa C

M

3,

W W
1,

.

Quoted by SRV.
572.

12C. 6.

2.

5.
is.

g^i^
^j
1,
is

S'ivadatta.

.

RV. IV.
Cf.

16. 11.
16. 11. p.
ii.

added
3,

after

.

SRV. IV.

391.

C

M

1.
.

Cf.
i.

SRV.
ii.

I.

I2G. 6; IV. 38. 4; pp.

t.
i.

=qun Durga.
RV. VI.
21. 3.

572;

454.

RV. L

126. C.

<

1

yrtq ^ 'TT'T*

I

^ff

1.

RV. VIII.

3. 21.
is

.

Cf.

SRV.

I.

54.

5, p.

i.

2

3.

The quotation
Rotb,
p. 65.

untraoed.

See

*.
.

RV. IV.

4. 14.

W. Fragment of RV. II. 24. 3. W. Cf. SRV. II. 24. 3. p. ii. 70.
U.
IV.

RV. VIII.
RV.
I.

25. 23.

f^qift

<!.

101. 4.
33. 5. p.
iii.

W W wr: M Mi; w: C W W It omitted altogether in
C
6,

M

3,

Mi,

1,

2.

3,

4,

1;

2.

is

*. Cf.
v>.

SRV. VIII.
I.

302.

C5.

RV.

54.

5.

N. ^^f:

M

3,

Mi,

^f

5j ;

ifafo :

W2.
C
6,

4.

Omitted by BE,
3,

Mi,

R

4,

R
C

W W W
1,

4,

5,

Kn,

M
3.

K.
.

Cf.

SRV. IX.
I.

97. 37. p.

iii.

786.

2,

*,

Omitted by

3.

RV.

104. 5.

3W?r:

SRV. I. 104. 5. p. i, 459. BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, M 3, Mi,

s

quoted by
1,

SRV.

I.

84. 8.

R
iii.

4,

R

6,

W

1,

W

2,

W

3; *.

p.

i.

376.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
387.
32. 4.

32. 4. p.

M
<*>.

fatf*iforaiC
1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

M

2,

R

1,

RV. VIII.

The

passage:

R 2, R 5, S. 3?^...^^
22. p.
iii.

is

RV.
Mi,
3,

I.

84. 8.

omitted by Durga.

3n*3*fa BK, C
11
4,

R

6,

W
W

4,

5,
1,

W
W

Kn,

M

o. Cf.

2,

W

3,

.

SRV. VIII. 93. RV. VJIt. 93. 22.
VS.
Cf.
3.

563.

and Durga,
4,

^%RBK, C R W
4,

C 5, Kn,
2,

M

3, 3,

6,

1,

Mi, and

.

48; 8. 27; 20. 18.
I.

.

SRV.
I.

125.
2.

2. p.

i,

568.

Durga,

RV.

125.

:>

f

<

.

]

o

v?.

[

'<<w

I

^r^cr:
i

i

T

T?^r

5^5

i^

m
its^r

[

VT^RT] ^?
ifcr

I

3Pofr

J^Tf nftit:

I

1.

JT^ST^ C

1,

C
3,

2,

C
6,

3,

C

6,

M
2.

1,

:.

Cf.

I.

SRV.
I-

I.

M

105. 13. p.

i.

463.

2,

111, 112,1:5,8.

C
^.
tt.

1,

C

C

M W
2,

t.

RV.

117. 16.

RV. X,
JTT

>.

27. 24.
is

STlT^Tr^

BK, C

i,

C
1,

Mi,

R
R

4,

R
R

6,

AV

W
C
5,

5,

Kn,
2,

M
3.

3,

AV

sr^

attributed to a different

recension by Durga

who
ii.

para-

Jxpj:

>K,
6,

C
AV

4,
1,

Kn,
-,\

M
3.

o,

phrases as follows: 37f>r fj\
M.

^3T
112.

I

Mi,
!.

4,

AV

AV

RV.

I.

105. 18;
ii.

cf.

BD,

Quoted by SUV.

I.

117.

16. p.

i.

*. Cf.
.

BD.

112.

Omitted by BK,
3 Mi,

C

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

,

BY. VIIT.
SV.
2.

66. 8;

AV.

20.

97. 2,

2,

1042.

li

^?

II

f f%
i

^ kf^r
ft

i

wft

4:

?.

RV.

I.

116. 16.

i.

8. 0. 2.

Omitted by Durga and

3.

M
^.

Omitted by Blv, C
3,

V.

S. I.

RV. Cf. SRV. VI. 59. 4. p. ii. 849. RV. VIII. 90. 6 SV. 2. 762. *refft*n^K, C 4, C 5, Kn, M
;

Mi, 4, R VI. 59. 4.

R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,
3.

C
^.

2,

C

3,

C

6,

M

1,

M

2,

11 2,

R

2,

R

1,

5, S.

VS.

16. 51.

C
i

5,

Kn,

M 3,

W2, W3;
lo. Cf.
3,
!

Omitted by BK, Mi, R 4, R 6, C 1, and Roth,
p. iii.

W

C

4,
1,

Mi,
.

R

4,

R

6,

\V

1,

W W
2,
ii.

11.

3.

Cf.

SRV. VIII.
9. 7; Cf.

SRV. VIII. 45. 38. RV. X. 43. 5 AV. 20. RV. X.42. 9; AV. 7.
;

435.
Cf.

17. 5;

50.

6;20.

90. 6. p.

iii.

549.
.

89.9.

*.

KS.
etc.

fo^Rn C 3,
\V2.

C

4,

C

5,

Mi,

W

1,

VS.

3.

61; S'B.

6. 2.

17

;

.

RV. VIII.

75. 9.

14

off

'^j

1

3?'4rftr

ft4r
rfT

fi?t fi?

MM:

n

i

f^qfir ^ftftfit

II

V4

II

i

STSFRT

I

3Rnfr

Of.

SRV. VIII.

75. 9. p.

iii.

519.

RV.

I.

40.

i.

KV. VIII.
RV. V.

21. 8.

Tal
3.

C

3.

24. 3;

VS.

20.
2,

5.

M

<KFT<ft
1,

M

**IWT C
ii,

1,

C
2,

C
5,

3,

C

6,

Cf.
Cf.

SRV.

I. 4G. 4. p.

i.

232.

R

1,

R

R
58.

S and
8;
19.

SRV. X.

Roth. Cf.
15; 119.
G.

SRV.
39.

42. 7. p.

IV. 127.

I.

RV. X. RV. X.

42. 7;

AV.

20. 89. 7.

RV. VIII.

110. The

passage

44. 6;

AV.
2,

20. 94. 6.

is

omitted by Durga; is omitted by C 1.

t^BIC, 04, C5, Kn, MS, Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

3.

H.

T

lift

i

i

>**r

i

I

II

^

^

5:

vnrftr

I

n

i

t^r

fnjTPT
r

yprr
i

I

nn
J I

[

t'=h4'J|J ]

RN(V

I

cs

H

1. Cf.

SRV. X.

40. G. p.

IV. 132,

3.

RV. X.
RV, X.

50. 6,

Omitted by BK, C 4, 3, Mi, R 4, R G, AV3.

C

M

W

5,

Kn,

1,

W

2,

*.

101. 7.
3.

<T^: C
vfif:

1,

C

3.

C

3.

err

BK, C
4,

R

R

6,

W W W
1, 2,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

Mi,

Omitted by

C
1,

M

1,

M

1,

C
2,

2,

C

3,

C

6,

2,

R
i.

R

R
i.

5, S.

fef

M
.

BK, C

4,
6,

C

3,

Mi,

R
i.

4,

R

W
4.

5,
1,

W

Kn,
2,

Cf.

RV. VIII. PMbh.
is

69. 12;

AV.

20. 92. 9.

1. 1. p.

4.

W3.
Cf,

This

the text of

BK, 04, 05,
6,

Kn, M3, R4,
1, 1. p.
i.

R

W

1,

W

2,

PMbh,

W3.

sftaffir

i

I!

W

'

II

]

This

is

the text of
1,

C

1,

C

2,

C

3,

|

*.

gjT

C

1,

C
;

6,

M

3.

C

6,

M

M2, R

1,R2,

R

5,

S.

The

entire passage is added the shorter version in Mi.

after

*

VS. 12.68; S'B.

-Small
figure

RV.

VII. 39. 2; VS. 33. 44.

within
fifth

brackets

wnsurar:

C

1,

C

2,

C 3, C

M

6,

M

i,

2,

R

1,

R

2,

R

5, S.

See N.

1, 7.

represents section of

the
iho

corresponding
chapter of

See N.

4. 25.

the Nirukta.

:

II

RV.
Of.

II. 1.

1;VS.

11. 27.

<*>.

Cf.

S'abara on

Mlmansa

sutra

Cf.SRV.

II. 1.1. p. ii. 1.

IX.
o.
.

1. 9.

SRV. IV.
II.

58. 7. p. ii.493.

rT^M3.
RV.
57. 10.
41.

RV. III. 30. ^ft% BK, C

8; VS. 18. 69.

12;

AV. 20.20.7
.

R

4,

R

6,

W
5,

4,

C

5,
1,

Kn,

W

M 3,
2,

Mi,

W, 3;

SRV.

III. 30. 8. p.

ii.

220.

SRV. III. 30. 5. p.ii. 219. RV. III. 30. 5. SRV. I. 38. 11. p. 206.
i.

1*.

^>C1,C3,M2.
3,

1. S^fcf C
11.

C

M

1,

M

2.

RV.

III. 30. 10.

I

SHU

2nra^rfir

ft

1

1 1

I

y^mu

^TJ

I

J

I

.

is

omitted

by
2.

M M
V.

01, 02, C
2,

3,

C

6,

M

Durga.
1,

B, 1,

R

2,

R

5,

S; Roth

5,

M
;

and

5

S'iva.

^^ C
4,
G, 1,

3,

Mi,

W W
1, G.

2,

R

1,

2,03,06^], R 2, R 5, S Roth and
1,0
;

BK, C
Mi,
.

C

R

4,

R

W W W
2,

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

S'iva; Of.

SRV.
30.

III. 30. 10.
.

SRV.

III.
i.

10; Cf.

I.

33. 9;

.

51. 5, pp.
<l.

177. 255.

.

M
*.

*<J]ft
3,

01, 03, 05, Ml, M2,
Mi,

.

W

2.

.

RV.

Ill, 30. 17.

.

SRV. III. 30. 17. p. ii. 224. RV. V. 32. 6. RV. VI. 7. 6. RV. X. 97. 3; VS. 12.77. RV. VI. 22. 2; AV. 20. 36. SRV. VI. 67. 11. p. ii. 874. RV. VI. 22. 3 AV. 20. 36.
;

2.

3.

f

<

.

;

]'

11

\

sffi:

II

T^rf^cT

I

1.

C

6.

^.

See N.

6. 33.

^.

M
*.
V.
<*.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Ku, 3. 1, 2, 3, Mi, R 4, R 6,

W W W

So.

RV.

I.

179.

Of.
I

Kalidasa

:

Kumara-

$.

RV. VI. 55. 6. SRV. VIII. 32. 10. p. iii. 388. RV. VIII. 32. 10; SV. 1. 217. Of. SRV. II. 33. 5. p. ii. 98. c 2, c 3, c ft c
-i.

Sambhava. IV;
.

.

.

6,

?.

M

1,

M R R R
2,
1,

2,

5,

S; Rotb,

.

RV. X. 79. 1. RV. V. 54. 6. SRV. I. 44. 3. p. i. 224, RV. X. 12. 2; AV. 18. 1.30. C 1. Quoted by SRV. I. f^Tf5T
6. p.
i.

32,

S'iva

.

168.
32. G.

RV. VIII.

48. 10.

RV.

I.

r

<

UI

i

kl

T%flT

s$R
i *<

shift

I

**ift ftmft

^^i *n*i M
i

i

vdn^

srf%nnf^r

TT^T

nr fa sfti
Heft
err

n
i

ftrgrr

^rr

i

TTr

^

5^n

BK, 04, 05, Kn,
Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

1,

W

2,

W3
i.

M 3,
;

<*>.

passage brackets is oinitted by

The

within

square

C
3.

Quoted by SRV.

I.

129.

8. p.

587.
lo.
AA 1.

W W
2,
* C^

5,

Kn,

M

BK, C
6,

3,

Mi,

R 4, R

W

4,
1,

3.

^.
V.

RV. I. 129. 8. RV. VII. 69. 4.
CTT

RV. IX.
JTTT

112. 3.

U

O *

1.
*.

M

3,

W Mi, W
1,

2.
5,

1^,The passage ^if^Mf^Mt-'-^4

"

SKRhn* BK, C
Mi,
rga gives
as variants.

R 4, R 6, W 1, W 2,

4,

C

W 3; Du-

Kn,

M

cited
3,

SRV, IX.
of

113. 3. p.

iii.

829.

The story

Indra and the seers
quotation

not occur in this

.

.

Sayanaadds ^fa after osrfeofV. See SRV. IX. 113. 3. p. iii. 829. The quotation is not traced, Cf.

RV X
'

-

27< 13 '
18. 15.

.

RV. VII.
829.

.

Quoted by SRV. VI.

50. 5. p.

ii.

BD. VI. 137138.

i

fsrffr

fonft wfir]

11

%

H

?.

*.

RV. VI. 50 RV. VI. 19.
^ftuW
Durga.
ia

5.

.

RV.

III. 36. 10.
47. 13.
19.

10.

RV. VI.
a variant by

^.

given as

RV. RV.
ia

III. 30.

The reference

o!

III. 30. 19. is

wrongly given

V.

Quoted by SEV.
525.

I. 117.

8.

p.

i

VC.
8.

as IV. 30. 19.
18.
I.

VS.
I.

f.

BV.

117. 8.

SRV.

113.

8;

151

5.

pp.

i,

^Omitted by BK, 01, 05, Kn,

499, 663.

M

3,

Mi,
22.

R

4,

R

6,

W

1,

W

2,

RV. VII.
VC.
63.5.
is

63.

W3.
;

5;

its

reference in

wrongly

given as

IX

vs.

4
I.
1.

<:.

^

RV. RV.

118. 11.

165. 7.

RV. VII. 34. 10. RV. X. 70. 10.

15

f4

*tf|<5!

I

^iftr f^nft
rT:
'<?:
I

fowl

3^T

315

MH

I

[

]

1.

Quoted by SRV. VI.
882.

72'. 2.

p.

ii.

TS.

iii. 2. 7. 2.

11 V. I. 1G3. 7;

X.

7. 2;

VS.

29. 18.

*.

RV. VI.
9.

71. 2.
13. 4;

^
V.

Quoted by SRV. V,
pp.
ii.

VI.

68.

529, 876.
13. 4;

Mi,
2.

R

BK, C
4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

2,

KV. V. RV, RV.
SV.

SV.

757.

Quoted by SEV. VI. 65.
867.

1. p. ii.

M.
$.

III. 27. 7;

SV.
3;

2.

827.
20. 58. 1;

VIII. 99.
1.

AV.

267;

2.

669; VS. 33. 41.
99. 3. p.

M

Omitted by
3,

BFM C
4,

4,

Mi,

R

R

6,

W W
t,

C

5,

Kn,
2,

AV

.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
Hi. 585.

and Durga. it is added however on the marginal sp. <e,
3,

probably by a later scrib*
69. 6;
2.

ir (J 4.

*.

RV. VIII.
92. 3;

AV.

20. 22. 6;

^5T%^?T^ ^T
Cf.

is

5

repe-.tc'

in Mi.
35.

SV.

841.

SRV. X,

29. l.r,

V

i

&t

3

^i

I

[

I

II

f

fl

Ta
IT

I

sir

^.

^.

RV. X. 4. 4. Cf. SRV. I. 68.
JTS^n* 01, C

BK, C
8. p.
2,
i.

329.

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,
2,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

*.

C
5,

3,

C

6,

M

1,

11.

M

2,

R

1,

R

2,

R

S;

Roth and

3HW1HHL BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, Mi, R4, R6, Wl, W2,

W

M 3,
3.

S'iva.
:

is

the proposed emen-

V. Cf.
M.

SRV.
I.

I.

141. 10. p.

i.

633.

dation by S'ivadatta.
:

RV.

151. 7.

C

5,

M

3.

$.

RV.
1.

I.

127. 1;
2.

AV.

20.

67. 3;

SV.

IV.

SJRfifc is

omitted by Durga.
1.

465;

1163; VS. 15. 47.
35<TefaT
is

srm?r:

?ren^f SRV.

109. 2.

.

FIT

$3fpteft

added by

C

5,

M

3.
I

Durga

reads:
1.

%m
i.

Omitted by BK, C 4, Mi, R 4, R 6, 1,
Cf.

W W W
2,

C 5, Kn, M 3,
3.

^foKTCT
573.
$.

Cf.

SRV.
5,

127. 1. p.

SRV.

loc. cit.

Omitted by

C

M

3,

and Durga.
.

See N. 12. 40.

C
%.

1 strikes it out.
1.

RV.
SV.

I.

18. 1;

VS.

3.

28; Cf.

RV.

109. 2.

1.

139;

2.

813.

I

3TST ^"J <tfTri n 'S'rmTH'Tt VT^% ^r%fr ^^K'^I^TTTFT: sr^rfk^ [ ^n^^^g^Jt ^^MI^ ] ^jsm^^ [ srfr^r$j% ] ^T'^TT'TPT wz n ^r^n ^ii^r-4*ii^iR <4^l r ^^^^ Pfrf^ ^ FM^firRt n nk4iR*) ftRi^i*nRjfit ^r^
I
I
I

I

I

I

i

i

1

i

1

i

I

i

'

x

1

i

i

i

:

5rf^f

;

i

trap;
<

I

^H^ ^T TT%
I

I

5

4)^1 In

I

mHnii

I

i.

^mw Roth.
SBV.
I.

BK, C
i.

^. Cf.

51. 13. p.

260.
103.

R
Also
.

4, 11 G,

W W W
1,

i,

C

5,

Kn,

M 3, Mi,
3.

2,

^. Cf.

SRV.

I. 18. 1. p.

i.

TOTTO* BK, C
Mi,

Cf.
V.

PMbh. Vol. III. p. 33. RV. VII. 104. 2; AV. 8. 4.
Omitted by BK, Mi, R 4, R 6,
1,

R

4,

R

6,

W W WX
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M

3,

2,

2.

1.

W W W
2, 4,

C 4, C 5, Kn, M 3,
3.

K. SRV. X. 87. 15. p. IV. n. ^riwm SRV. iv. 4. i.
cit.

275.

loc.

C
3,
.

C

5, M

3.

C5,M3.
87. 24. p.

Quoted by SRV. X.
277.

IV.

RV. IV.

4. 1;

VS,

13. 9.

It SRV. loc. cit. 1$. RV. X. 162. 2; AV. 20. 96. *. &fon C 4, C 5, M 3, Mi. K. Cf. AV. 12. 2. 28.

12.

rtftri

?^

[

flfRft

1

3?rg

?

a

T^T
i

I

^Tcf:

^FnWTITRR.
i

I

T3TT&

I

g

^TTH

I

fi^ii^ siTO^iifew^Hw

I

M^Ta *%<$ m ^-H "i

-

\

J

I

1.

Fragment

of

RV. X.
7.

103.
9.

12;
33;

.

Of.

SRV. VIII.

5.

23; 42. 4; also

AV.
Of.
*.

3. 2.
2.

5

;

VS.

44; N.

1.3.3; 34.7.

SV.
7.

1211.
:

C

AV.
4. 25.

14.2; SV.

The word

464; VS. occurs in arcrf^:
1.

4,

W

2. Of.

SUV.
9. C.

I. 5.
i.

3;

116. 7; 134. 3; VII.

pp.

46,

RV.

1. 64. 9; 73. 2.

but Yaska has

515, 605;iii. 24.
t.

not quoted from the
^.

RV.

Omitted by Bk, C 4, 1, Mi, R 4, R 6,

W W W
2,
I.

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

<*..

3,

30.

RV. V. 85. G. RV. V. 1. 2;SV. 2. RV. VIII. 27. 10.
reads

1097.

W. Durga

^nr^rfaf: & 8 ives
1.

;

Quoted by SRV.
68.
1.

67.

2; VI.

un as a variant.

pp.

i.

326

;

ii.

874.

Quoted by SRV.
719.

164. 49. p.

i,

jf

RV. VII,

39. 4.

^ sift

u

w

n

t

I

:

I

I

[

'
I

]

1.

EV.

VII. 34. 22; VS.
15.

2.

24;

8. 14.

*.

EV. X.
iii.

^.

9;AV, 18. 3.48. Quoted by SEV. VIII. 12. 11.
297.
45. 1;

Mo,
p.

Mi,

E 4, E 6, W 1, W 2, W 3.

:

BK, C

4,

05. Kn,

^.

^01, 02, 03,06,

M

1,M2,

E
.

1,

E
I.

2,

E

5, S.

V.

EV. VIII.
688; VS.

SV. 1.133;
I.

2,

EV.

169. 3.
44. 8; Of.

7. 32.

1*.

EV. V.

N. 1.15.

<*.

Quoted by SEV.

56. 3. p.

i.

283.

IV.

*.
v>.

.

<*.

EV. I. 56. 3. SEV. I. 62. 1. p. i. 304. EV.VIII. 89. 7; SV. 2. 781. EV. X. 82.4 :VS. 17. 28.

EV. V. 12. 4. y. EV. IV. 34. 3.
:

M

2. 4,

Omitted by BK, JJ.
6,

M 3,Mi, E 4, E W W 2, W
1,

5,

Kn,
3.

]

m.

i

RT

dftr

:

I

s

i

ry^f
'Iff:

ftrot

r

i

I

^ftr

ftroft

:

I

11

1^

11

RV. X.
MS. IV.

116.8.
ia. 9.

^.

7. 3'J;Cf.

Fragment of RV. VI. N. 6. 17.

19.

1; VS.

Cf.
^.

VS. 21. 60; 28. 23, 46.

Quoted SRV. V.

52. 6. p.

ii.

813

C

4,

C

5,

M

^o.
3.

RV. V.

52. 6.
I. 7. 6. p. i.

11.
.

Quoted SRV.

56.

RV.
2.

I. 7.

6;

AV.

20. 17. 12;

SV,

K V.

III. 28. 2.

971.
I.

KV.IV.

U
23.

8;Cf.N.10.41.
IV.

5TT^T?T^T^: C 3. Quoted SRV. 123. 10; 124. 6. pp. i. 560, 564.

RV.

I.

33.

r

V
*flMu

:

i

I

wRr ft***
RV.VI.
6. 1C.

itsiMi

1.

BV. VIII.
32. 10. pp.

32. 10

;SV. 1.217.
18.

<*.

19. 1;

VS.

7.

39; Cf. K.

*.

Quoted SRV.
ii.

III.

5; VIII.
*o.

186

; iii.

388.

RV.
9.

III. 1. 12.

^.
V.

RV. VIII.
30. 3. pp.

21. 8.
I. 9.

11.

Quoted SRV.
pp.
ii.

Ill, 19. 2;

IX. 109.

187

Quoted SRV.
i.

; iii.

822.

3; 29. 2; III.
ii.

65,

150 ;

218.

<l.

RV.

H. RV. IV. 7. 8. n. Quoted SRV. VII.
1<.

5,2.

p. iii.

16.

1.

101. 10.
is

* Wftfrg Durga.
.

added after

73 by

RV. VI.
Mi,

44. 21.
:

BK, C
6,

RV. IL

4. 6.

R

4,

R

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

2,

^.

Quoted SRV.

VIL

8. 6. p. iii. 23.

.

^r

is

added by RotL.

faqr

:

I

y^rfn

OT

IT

TT

I

EV. X.
Cf.

69. 4.
5. 7. p. ii.

s

omitted by

SRV. IV.

367:

Durga.

RV.
;gSt

I. 7.

7;AV.

20. 70. 13.
I. 7. 7. p.

C

6.

Quoted SRV.

RV.IV.5.7.

i.

57.
54. 3.

KV.
RV.

VII.
I.

RV.I.
9. 6.

RV. V.
32. 5.
3.

34. 3.

3

W W
1,

;

S3fj

oi^(^ C
Kn,

5,

2.

C

B 4, R
16

6,

W 4W W
1
2,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

Mi,

^W% f
Mi
l

BK, C
l

4,

C

5,

R4 R6 Wl,W2,
f

W

M
3.

3,

f^f

fo

firt

I

'ftfer

Tcn

5ft

ft
:
i

<|jmftr

i

ilRMH^Nt:

I

raft

1.

Scrfal BK, 04, 05, Kn, 1, 6, 2, Mi, R 4,

R

W W W
12. p.
i.

M
3.

3,

BK, 04, 05, KD,
Mi,

R
I.

4,

R

6,

W W W
1, 2,

M
3.

3,

*.
^.

RV.
RV.

I.

33. 12.
I. 33.

RV. VII.
178.

60.

7.

Quoted SRV.
I. 61.

RV.
VS.

142.

10;

AV.
I.

5.27. 10;

V.

12;

AV.

20. 35. 12.
i.

27. 20.

^.

Quoted SRV.

I. 61. 6. p.
i.

299.

Fragment

of

RV.
6.
i.

22. 4.
2;

$. Of.

SRV.
:

I.

61. 12. p.

302. Sayana

reads
.

Quoted SRV. I. IV. 21. 5; pp.
ii.

9; 37. 3; 54.
53,

200,

273;

RV.

I. 31. 10.

411,

n

^?

ii

:

II

*

I

]

IIV.

G. 1.

<?,.

Omitted by

C
1,

1,

C
2,

2,

C C

3,

C

6,

Omitted by BK, C 4, 05, Kn, 3, Mi, II 4, R 6, \V 1, 2, The commentator 3, and Durga, says Yaska did not cite any quota-

M
?o.

1,

M

2,

R
R

R
R

R 5,
4,

S.
5,

M

W W
of

Omitted by BK,

C
C,

M

.,,

Mi,

4,

W

1,

W

Kn,
2,

W3.
11.

tion to illustrate the

meaning

RV.

I. 33. 3.

\.
S.
<l.

RV.

I.

90.

1;SV.
13. 27.

1.

218.
.

RV. VIII. RV. X.

Quoted SRV. VIII.
270.

7.

41. p.

iii.

30. 11.
3,

^. *R5TT?T

C 4, Mi & Roth;
30. 11. p.
3,
1,

.

RV. VI.

47. 16.
2.

S'ivadatta.
.

Of.

SRV. X.
5,

IV. 90.
2.

.

M

W W

Quoted SRV.
162. 7. pp,
i,

I.

100. 1C; 156.

2;

444, 6G7, C85.

wsft
j

^TT^
I

I

1.

RV.

I.

162. 7; VS. 25. 30.

r:

is
;

omitted by
cf.

3.

RV.
300.

I.

3.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn,

164. 51

N.

7. 23.
i.

M3,

Mi,

R4, R6,

W

1,

W

2,

Quoted SRV.

I. 61. 9. p.

W3.
RV.
cf.

.

VIII.

4.

19;

cf.

VIII. 24. 29;

BD. VI.

44.
4,
1,

RV. III. 36. 4. RV. RV. X. 22. 2. Quoted SRV. I. 61. 1. BK C 4 C 5 erffeirgt
Mi,

p.

i.

296.
>

**

^m^itSH* BK,
Mi,

*.
.

Rl, R C 5, I*iFt
See.

6,

W W W
2,

5,

Kn,

M
3.

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

Kn

M3
3.

>

2,

3,

j

Cf.

SRV. VIII.

99. 4. p.

lii.

586.

W

RV. VIII.

99. 4;

AV.

20. 58.

2;

1.

N.

5. 1.

RV.

I.

190.

1

;

Of.

BD. IV.

63.

[*<! IcT

if? $
|

?
f5TR

11

qr
I

]

j

i

i

ii

1.

Cf.

SRV.

I.

190.
3,

1. p.

i.

787.

M 3, Mi, R R 6, W W W3.
4,
1,

2,

3.

Omitted by M
541.

W

1

is

2.

omitted by Durga.

^.

Quoted by SRV. V.

25. 2. p.

ii.

srr srr f

RV.
61. 11.

I. 15.

1>;

VIII. 92. 22.

.

KV.
1,

I. 39. 10.
i;

RV. VIII.
4,

W

fo&t C
211.
1.

C

3,

Quoted SRV. VIlL
474.

61. 17.

p.

iii.

2,
i.

and Sayana on
20; SV.
4,

39. 10. p.
*.

RV.
1. 5,

I.

117. 21.

RV. VIII.

307

'Hi^ltr BK, C
Mi,
e.

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

C

kn,
5,

M3
3.

S

2,

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, M3,Mi, R4,R6, Wl, W2, W3. Quoted SRV. VIII. 22. 6. p. iii.
344,

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

Kn,

[8RT:

srai

I

^

J

I

1.
.

The passage is omitted by Durga.

RV. I. 105. 17. RV. X. 5. C;AV. 5. Wl^i: C 1, C

1. G.

^N
M
and

2,

03, C
5,

6,

C
Mi,
H.
S.

R
.

4,

R
R

6,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M
3,

1,

M

2,

R

1,

R

2,

R

S; Roth

3,

S'iva.
,

2,

RAr
Mi,

VIII. 66. 10. Omitted by BK, C 4,

R

4,

C,

W W W
1,
2,

C' 5,

Kn,

M
3,

31%T^C BK C 4, C 5, Kn, M Mi, R 4, R 6, W 1, W 2, W 3.
3,

3,

.

<:.

^.

sfte^for c 5, RV. 'VIII. 07. 5. 3TSSTTOT BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, Mi, R4, RC, 1, AV2,

C 4, C 5, M 3, Quoted by SUV. X. 5. G.
ii:

W
p.

1.

IV

11.

The word $nT3n

is

missing

W
2,

J,

M

M W3;
3,

in the

passage cited by Sayana, consequently the number of bois

undaries

only six.

sfalftf

^

ifa

*f^T

t^

fifan-

!

crier

n

I

i

%frf

r:

*<flft

f^ron
is

11

1.

UV. X.
Mi,

10 13

;

AV.
1,

18.
1

1.

15.

added after

c!>BK,C4,C5 KD,

R

4,

R

6,
1,

W W W
2,
2,

M
3.

3,

by Durga.

H.

STWS
Mi,

BK,
4, 1,

4,
4

f9RH^: C

C

C

M

3,

06, Ml,
.

R

R6

W

C

5,

Kn,

M

3,

1,

2,

R

1,

R
4,

2,

R
5,

5,

S; Roth and

C

6,

M

M

W2, W3;

2.

S'iva.

srerem c

c

M

3,

Mi,

w

i.

The passage fe
is

RV. IX. 3. 5 SV. 2. 609. RV. VI. 63. 8. H. W. Quoted by SRV. VI. 63.
;

8. p. ii.

864.
1<.

omitted by Durga.
35. 5.

$.
.

RV. IX.
RV. X.
Cf.

RV. X.

26. 4.

29. 1;
ii.

AV.

20. 76. 1.

M
Mi,
.

BK, C
3,

4,

C

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

5,

1,

W

Kn,
2,

<s.

BD.

114.
4,
1,

W3.
C

Quoted by SRV. X.

84. 5.

*.

R 4, R 6, W

^rfmBK, C

W W
2,

5,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

p.

IV. 252.

RV. X,84,5i AV. 4.31,5*

>

?? 9raffSrcrf5frsn

%

I

?

I

I

fitft
\

1^5

1

ipr.

rft^ fq%

i

[

*
I

[

]

II

^o

II

n

RV. X.
3>nyr

155.

1.

t.
<^.

KV.

VII.

18. 21.

Roth.
i

Omitted by BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, 3, Mi, R 4, R C, AV 1, AV 2,

RV, VII. 104. 1. UV. I. 166. G.

21

;

AV.

8. 4. 21.

M

W3.

^. Omitted by BK, 04, C

M

3,
3,

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

5,

1,

W

Kn,
2,

M

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, 3, Mi, R 4, R 6, 1, AV 2,

AV
.

W

and Durga.

W3.
is
.

RV. IV. 30. 24. ^. Quoted by SRV. IV. 3024; VI.
71.

omitted by

C
1,

M

1,

M R R R
2, 2,
f:

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C C

6. 6,

4; VII.
;

18.

1.

pp.

ii.

434,

883
**. Of.

iii.

36.

5, S.

BD. IV. 139

B.

1

and Durga.

W.

Cf.

KB. VI.

13,

S'B. I.

7.

^

6.

for

U

ur* *i.siH*<*4n

^1^

IRT

[

^

]

i

jfe

i

^TT

X
*
I

1.

RV.
748.

I.

174. 2.
I.

Omitted by BK,
174.
'J.

^.

Quoted by SRV.

p.

i.
]

Mi,
Cf.

R

4,

R

6,

W W W
1,

C 4,C 5, Kn, M 3,
2,
3.
ii.

SRV.

III. 53. 14. p.

303

*.

RV. X.
BD.
i.

86. 9

;

AV.

20. 126. U

;

Cf.

53.

Maodonell translates

snfcr as 'without a husband'.
V.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
iii.

92. 30. p.

Omitted by C 5, Wf tflTSKftfa BK, 3, Mi, R 4, R

M

3,

Mi.

C
6,

M
260.

W

W

4,

C
1,

5,

W
3.

Kn,
2,

3.
:

557.

W
4,

1.

.

Cf.

SRV.
I.

I.

51.

14,

p.

i.

^.
vs.

RV.

51. 14.

M

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R 4, R

C
6,

W

4,

C

5,
1,

W

Kn,
2,

W W W Mi, ^ BK, C C Kn, M ^ R R W W W Mi, 3;
R R
6,
1,

K, C

4,

C

5,

Kn,

M

3,

2,

4,

5,

3,

4,

6,

1,

2,

Sng*$ Roth,

S'ivadatta.

W3.
*. Cf.
*.

H:
R
4,

BK, C

4,

SRV. L 51. 14. RV. in. 53. 14.
SRV.

p. i.

260.

R

6,

W

C

5,

1,

W W
2,
ii.

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,
Cf.

3.

SRV.
302,

III. 53. 14. p.

302.

lo. Cf.

Ill, 53. 14.

p.

ii.

The passage virtn?n^...^T?TJT% is omitfced by Durga. Quoted by

SRV.
17

loo. oit.

.

[
II

Br^f 4r

i

]

^

II

SIT

n
\

!.

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
iii.

45. 4. p.

<*..

Quoted by SRV. VIII.
iii.

77.

ii.

p.

430.

525.

!.

W
{.

M

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, 3, Mi, R 4, R 6, 1, 2,

3;

& Durga. C
BK,

3

W reads 3^ m.
6,

W

o

RV. VIII.
refarsra

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn, 3, 1, 3, Mi, R 4, R 6, and Durga, who remarks

M

W
I

W

:

77. 11.

V.

Mi,
*" ^

R

4,

R

6,

W

4, 1,

W

Kn,
2,

W

M

3,

Omitted

3;

also by iii. 525.
11.

SRV.

VIII. 77. 11. p.

Roth and
Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R 4, K

S'ivadatta.

RV.

VIII. 77.
52. 3.

6.

M

04, 05, Kn,
6,

W

1,

W W

13.

RV. X.

2,

W3.
Of.

1^.
6. 4.

N.

M

M

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn,
3,
3,

W
IS.

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R 4, R
3.

4,
6,

W

5,
1,

W

Kn,
2,

W

Mi,

R

4,

R

6,

W

1,

2,

is

omitted

and Durga.

by 03.

n

II

^

II

!TTC?TT Jf

n
1.

RV. X.

51.

1.

Cf.

BD. VII.
ii.

80.

V.

Small

figure

within

brackets

3.

RV.
516,

I.

116. 8. Cf.

BD.
I.

110.
p.
i,

represents
section
of

the

corresponding

\.

Quoted by SRV.

11G, 6,

tho sixth chapter of

the

3

sr
i

aridef

The
6. 9. p,
.

passage:
is
i.

quoted by

SBV.

L

53.

BV. X.
BV.
47.
146.
I.

89. 10.
1. 1-

6.

C
V.
<H.

1,

C

2,

C

6,

fr& C
Cf.

1,

C
6

2,

C

6,

M M M M
1,

*..

AV.

20.

38. 4;
1.

20

3.

4;

20.

70. 7;

SV.

198; 2.

1,

3.

BD.

i.

;

JBrhatsarvdnukrama

50. 11.

9 iH,p.

1.

-*- *-

BV. VII. 18. 15. BV. VIII. 98. 1; AV.
SV.
1.

20, 62. 5;

388;

2.

375.

1^.

!*.

BV. IX. 68. 6; SV. 2. 720. BV. I. 32. 1; Cf. AV. 2. 5.
The quotation
Cf.
is

5.

C. BD.

i,

34

:

IV.

untraoed.

1%

BD.

i.

H.

ft
iH

4

Sfcr

Ri+iRF(
R

J

I

I)

II

53
T

M

5T

I

^
?.

^ff:

I

EV. X.
1.

153. 2;

AV.
4;
8.

20. 93. 5;

SV.

*.

120.

S.

*.

RV. X.
SV.
2.

152.

AV.
44;

1.

21.2;

?o.

RV. X. 4849. RV. X. 119. RV. X. 125.
BD. i. RV. I. 32.
Cf.
35.
1;
cf.

1218; VS.
1.
1.

18. 70.

11. Cf.
1*.

*.
V.

M ft^o
RV.
RV. RV.
I.

AV.
su.
6. 7.

2. 5. 5.

VIII.

SV. 1.242;
<1.

2.

1; AV. 20. 85. 1; 710.

IV

Paraskara

gr.

II

6.

19;

As'va. gr. su. III.

37. 1.
cf.

*.
(9.

III. 53. 11;

BD. IV.
Mi,

115.

The second

section ends here in
5,

W W
2,

BK, C

4,

C
3,

Kn,

M
8.

3,

W

1. RV. VII. 104. 15; AV. 8. 4. 15. m. RV. VII. 104. 15; AV. 8. 4. 15. U. Cf. BD. i. 36. 1. RV. X. 129. 2; of. BD. i. 58: ^
I

1,

R 7, R

RV, X,

129. 3.

V.

II

3.

II

:

i

srr

rr

xrt*ft%rcfif

n

i

i

*TTT W^TTT
i

3rftr

Cf.

BD.

i.

35. 95. 14. Cf.
|

1,

C

2,

C

6,

M

1.

RV. X.

BD.

i.

53:

Cf.

BD.

i.

20.
16,

^^
RV.
cf.

example
I,

^f|f ^ j^rj of desire.

Quoted as an

wrfaC2;cf. BD. VII.
Cf.

BD. VII.

17.

164.
i.

37;
f

AV.

9.

10, 15;

The 4th

section

ends here in

BD.

56

:

ft

vrrT*ni5T

WK:
^ft%'

C

4,

C

quoted
tion.

as

an example of agitaajsjrfqr
^s

R
V.

8, 3.

W W
1,

5,

C

7,

Kn,
2,

W

M 3,
3.

BK,

Mi,

R

7,

See Ngh,

The passage:
ifc^f^r
i.

122.
is

^n
I.

c

^ e ^ ^y SRV,

omitted
3.

by
;

164. 37. p.

713.

Cf.

BD.

i.

35.
ii.

Durga. See Ngh. V. N. 9, 3543.
8, 8,

2936

RV. X. 117. 6; TB. Manu. III. 118.

3;

of.

Cf.

BD. IV.

143.

RV. X.
RV. X.
Cf,

107, 10,
34.
i.

Lahore edition of Rajaraina.
Cf.

BP.

3.

BD,

i.

71,

:

I

:

I

I

3Tftr

srftr

m
I

3T W*TFl*tt?\r^

I

Ftgr

^:

i

5:5

:

i

*T2TT

ftc

3TT

If"

i

.

Cf.

BD.

i.

74

:

<*.

Cf.

BD.

i.

7071.
c, J\L i.

^.
i

TV"'

^T^TT^[>T^[

^

H3

:

1^.

=3

is

added

after

in
Cf.

^fvir ft H:

II

Bib. Ind.

ed. of

N.

KB.

1. 1

:

1,

C
:

6,

Roth.

V. Cf.

BD.

i.

73
II

*.

t^T
C
4, 8,

R

^T C^ 5Tm: M W W W
II

TT^:

BK,

C

5,

7,

3,

Mi,

R

7,

1,

2,

3.

.

RV. VI. RV.

47. 8;

of.

AV.

19. 15. 4.

^. Cf.

AB.

ii.

17. 17

;

V. 32.
3. 1.

1

;

KB.
.

VIII. 8;S'B. XI.2.
9. Cf.
1
;

III. 30. 5.
II. 18. 4.

AB. V. 32. BD. i. 69.

1

;

S'B XI.

2. 3.

t.
.

RV. RV.

Ill, 53. 6.

I

[

? for

srftr

3

^

i

srftr
*

u vs H

:

I

n
1.

*.

BV.X. 116. 7. EV. t 10. 9.
I-

C
8.
lasfc

1,

C

2,

C

6,

M M
1,

4,

The

section ends
2,

C

1,

C

C

6,

M

f^ir
lo.

C

2,

1,

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

M4,
V.

S.

Kn,
94. 2.

4.
*;
.

KV. X. RV. X. KV. X.

W W
2,

M

3,
3.

Mi,

E7,
of.

B

8,

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7,
1,

75. 9.
94. 2.

Hdhwc Both;
120,

BD.

i.

119,

Cf.AB,ii. 32.1; iii. 13. IjIV. 29. 1 ; VIII. 12. 4; KB, VIII. 9;

WTST

Mi.
i.

Cf.BD.

XII. 4; XIV.

1,

3,

5;

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117119,
1,

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GB,I.
12,

1. 17,

29;

2.24;

II. 3. 10,

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1,

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16;BD.i.

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iii.

41.

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^

H

11

1

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1.

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Kn,

17.

3;AV.

18,2.54.

V>. siflRT

C

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C

2;

C

6,

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1,

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*.

Omitted by BK, 04,

W
V.

M

3,

R

7,

R

8,

W W
1,

G

5,

C

B.
7, 2,
.

&

Roth.

The

cor (responding
I.

passage in BI>. reads srrgjfr
Cf.

3.

BD.

ii.

4t

5, 13, 14.

^, Cf.BD,

ii.

13

14.
1
;

^gfN! C

W W
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4,

C

7,

M 3, Mi,

W
;

2,

IV

Of.
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1,

II. 32.

III. 13. 1

;

V.
9; 5;

4.
i.

1; VIII.
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BD.

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32.
1
;

XIV.
GB.I.
iii.

XVI.
29;

1

;

KB. VIII. XXII. 3,
3.

2.

24; II.

10;

AB.
1;

ii.

13. 1

IV.

4.

18.

31.

VIII. 12.4;

9;

XIV. 1, 3, 5; 2;GB. I. 1.17, 18, 29;
4. 4.
5,

KB. VIII. XVI. 1 XXII.
;

2.

24;

II.

S ; Roth.
V*. *fiprfa*r

2.10, 12; II.
.

omitted by

ft^BK, 04, C
Mi,

R

7,

R

8,

W W W
1,

7,

Kn,

M
3.

3,

Durga*

2,

n.

^04,
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05,07, M3,Mi,R7,
1,
2, 3.

4.

Cf.BD.
Cf.

i.

87;ii.

6.

W W R^8, W
ii.

^

BD.

ii.

23.

1*. C!.

1516.

18

SK^TT

i

tr:
f^STsfJ
I

^T

i

^T

3

I

TOT

I

t3f^

i

rf^r

mF^TfjTT^^a

i

.

-Of.

AB. V. 4. 1 VIII. xxii. 0; BD. i. 116.
;

12. 4;

KB.

Devtadhyuya Br. The passage: {3
Al O j

III. 3.

Cf. AB. V. 6.1; VIII. 12. 8; KB. XXIII. 3; BD. i. 130131 SUV. p. i. 2.
;

omitted by Durga.
eJJ-jja^NjjO
j

who
I

places

^^r^

after
III.
1. 3,

Cf.

AB. V.
ii.

12. 1

VIII

12. 4-

Daivata Brahrnana
Cf.

BD.
V. Cf.

1314.
I. 4. 2.

AB. V.
2
;

19. 6;
;

Chha. up.

XL
i

XII. 2
10;

KB. XIX. 4,

4;

7

;

GB.

I. 3. 8,

4. 24.

^ret^r^i SF?^*^
V?.

Cf.

Daivata Brahma >a III.

Omitted by BK, 04,

C
8,

W W 3;andDurga.
2,

Kn,

M

5,

C

3,

Mi,

B

7,

B

W

7,
1,

sraw*rfcf: Mi, attributes the
?Tfa: to

W

i

t

^

";

Roth

variant

the shorter recension,
i.

$.
.

Quoted by SRV.

p.

i,

2.

Cf.

BD.

17; VXII. 129.

Devtadhyaya Br.

III. 2.

MS.

II. 2. 11.

'<iT=rRt

H

\\

sr^nr

VT^rftfrT

^IT^T^tRr
J
I

I

T jf

^Tf

I

II

^

II

Omitted by Bk, 04, 05, 07,

Of. also

Kn,

W W
2,

M

3,

Mi.

E

7,

R

8,

W

RV. VI.

16. 48.

1,

3.
t,.

Of.

BD.

i.

91.
I.
1.
i.

MS.
Of.
Of.

II. 2. 10.
ii.

$. Of.
.

BD.

71.

SRV. RV. I. 1.
2. 12.

1.

p.

i.

24.

BD.

ii.

24;
i.

Of.
2.

S'ankara on
7.

A. N.
^, Of.

Vedantasutra

28: N.
3. 19.

sf^r
i.

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M

3.

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SRV.
Of. S'B. II. 2. 4.
2.

I. 1. 1. p.

24.
is

Jo. *ft

%^: *N ^rerr

omitted

by

Durga.

W. Quoted by SRV.
Of. also S'B.

I.

127.

1.

p.

i.

VI.

1. 1.

11.

573.

K. Quoted by SRV, RV. I. 1. 2. I

I. 1. 1. p.

i.

24.

I

v:

IKT
cTf

I

h*n

n
[

^]

1.

Omitted by Bk,

C

Kn,

W W
2,

M

4,

C

5,

3,

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R

7,

R

8,

W

C

7,
1,

3.

AB. II. 3. Taitt. B. I. 4. 4. 10. AB. I. 1. 4; Tand. B. II. 1. 12; GB. II. 1. 12; Sad. B. III. 7; S'B.
Cf.
I. 6.

*.

RV.IV.58.8; VS.

2.

17. 96.

8; MS.'l.
after
siffr:

4.

14.

%

is

added

in all these

passages.

RV.
Cf.

I,

164. 46;

AV.
1,

9. 10. 2tt.

SRV.
i.

I. 57. 2. p.

i.

285;

I. 62.

M
1.
is

Omitted by
1,

C

C

M

2,

C
3,

3,

C
5,

6,

4,

R

2,

R

R
i.

S;

2. p.

311.

of.

SRV. L

164.

46. p.

718;

V. fttffoftfa is
<*.

omitted by Durga.
17.

RV. IV. 58.1; VS.
KB, XXV.
1.

89;

of.

c
SRV.

i.

omitted by Durga.
loo,

11. Cf.

oik

1

t

r:

I

:

I

'Hf^l H ^M

^^1 <l cT

1. Cf.

BD.
BD.

i.

78:

MS.
IX.

I. 8. 2.
5. 1.

Cf.

AB.

III.

36. S'B.

68:

.

Cf.

i,

67:
.

MS.
Cf,

I. 8. 2.

<:.

SRV.
1. p. i.

I.

44.

1.

p.

i.

223;

I.

127.
<*..

573.
1.

RV.
The

I.

99.

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II.

BD.
39.

ii.

30:

etc.

AB.
<jo.

section

within

brackets
2,

is 6,

I
i.

omitted by

C
2,

1,

C
3,

C

3,

C

M
V. -Of.

1,

M

4,

R

R
cf.

R

5, S;

and
8?.

BD.

92:
31.

q%& ft
C
4,

5TT3: etc.
11.

Durga. Cf. N.

14. S3.
;

Cf. also
<l.

ii.

EV. X.
ofto C

188.
4,

1

BD. VIII.
7,

Omitted by BK,

C
8,

5,

C

W W
2,

Kn,

M

3,
3.

Mi,

R 7, K

W

7,
1,

.

C

W VW
Roth.

5,

C

M

3,

Mi,

m
5TT

i

srftr

cT^T

55^1

T

fe

5

?.

RV. X.

188.
4,

.

Cf.

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on

Vedantasutra

*.

STRfN^T C
1,
2,

C
3.

W W W
\.

5,

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M

I. 2. 28.

3,

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i.

90, 97.

V.
*i.

RV. IV.
N.
7. 17.

58, 8.

.

Cf.SRV.
5. 4.

I.
i.

60. 6; III. 2. 1;
ii.

VII.

^.

RV.
47.
41,

I. 50.

1;

AV.
1.

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16; 20.
7. 41; 8.

pp.

293;

133

-iii. 16.

13;

SV.

31;

VS.

13. *3^fT 1^.

Roth.
98. 1
i.
;

.

N.
Cf.
Cf,

12i 15.

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.

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BD.
ii.

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11.

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i

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59. 6,

:

I

OT

<4tal*fi

I

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srorftr

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2.

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SRV.

I.

60.

6. p.

i.

293.
13. 2. p.
ii.

MS.

II.
2:

1.

2.

Cf.

KB. IV.

3;

Quoted by SRV. HI.
171.

XIX.

S'S'. 8.

22. 1.

V.

Quoted by SEV.

I.

60. 6. p.

i.

293.
25.

M. Of.

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i.

67. S'B.

IX.

3.

1.

VS.

33. 92.
88.
ii.

RV. X.
^.
vj.

RV. VI.
Cf.
etc.

89.
3.

Cf.
Cf.

BD.
GB.

1617.
20.
4,

BD. i. 102: Cf. AB. XII. BD.

I. 2.

M
KB. IV.
VI.
3; cf.

fesmTO^raf Trft C
3,

Mi,

W W W
1,

C
3.

5,

7,

2,

.

Cf.
Cf.

i.

103.
9. 1;

Cf.

BD.

i.

101.

.

AB. VII.
ii.

BD.

1G

17. S'B.

6. 1. 5:

E

?^n^BK, C
7,

R

8,

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

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3,

3,

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2,

.

]

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TO

^r srfH

m
MI win

$H |l~n Pi
1

WT

R

rr [

^^ar^o^rrf^ *n ]

^5

II

^

II

it

K

7,

B

9,

W W W
1,

4,

05, 07,
2,

M 3, Mi,
3.

[.

Omitted by BK, 04,

05, 07,
8,

7,

M

Kn, M3, Mi, R7, R 3, and Durga. 2,

W W
>.

W

1,

3,

Mi.

RV.
22.

I.

98. 1;

VS.

26. 7.

See N,

7.

M

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R 7,

C

4,

C 5, C

R

8,

W

7,

1,

W

Kn,
2,

W3.
mi 01, C
2,

C

6,

M
pi

1,

^f tftfa

is

added

after

^r<ft%

M4,
Quoted by SRV. 437; cf. also IV. 5.
I.

byM3.
98,

^
1.
i.

RV. RV.

I.

164. 51.

7. p. ii.

366.

.

1.

164.

47LAV.

6..22. 1,

i

\

\

yw^Sf^il'
[

[

^s

^

]

95 1

]

/Hffir

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Quoted by SRV.
718,

I.

164. 47. p,

i.

pp,

1722-3,

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MS.

II.

4.

8?

*. Of.

BD.

ii.

89,
C
1,

*.

^m^f^
M4,
8.

C
C

2,

C
5,

6,

M

last quotation
1,

is

cited

by PMbh.

vol.

i.

p. 256.
3.

V.

M
^.

Omitted by BK,
3,

4, 8,

C

Mi,

E

7,

B

W W
1,

C 7, KD,
2,

M
Durga,

1.

W3,

*T3Tf?cT

The passage vrf^hR is bv jomitted

5^

C

1,

02, C

6,

M

1,

M

4,

S;

Cf. S'B. XIII. 3. 8. 3,

Koth.

*.Cf. KS. xi.

i

lo. S'B.

V.

2. 5. 1.5;

VI.

6. 1. 5,

11. Of. Taitt. Br.III. 7. 3. 2.
!

Sohroeder's edition vol.

i.

p.

157.
.

S'S'. 8. 22.

L

Cf.

KB. V.
07,

8.

Of.

TS.

II.

4.

10.
.

^T% 04, 05, W W W
1,
2,

M 3, Mi,

3,

.

ar<Dfo*

M 3,

.

YS.

33, 92.

19

wrfir

N

ifl'TT

ilraftvt

:

N

:

I

&5T

n

5&

n

II

1. As'v. S'raut.

VIII.

3.
1,

Cf.
2;

SRV. X,

88, 1. p.

IV. 278.

^.

%?Tf3>

C

4,

*.
.

C 5, M 3, KV. X. 88.
afT^f
1,

W

W Mi, W
3.

BV. VI.

8. 4.

1.

Omitted by BK,
5, 3.

C

4,

W W W
2,
r:

C

4,

C

C

7,

M

Kn,
3,

Mi,

W W
2,

M

05, C

3,

Mi,

R 7, R 8,

W

7, 1,

3.

Cf.

AB.

II. 38:
3. 4:

Mi.

^3f*?T:

is

however
Cf. also S'B. VI. 4.

added on the margin at bottom, obviously a different and probably some later scribe.

3f4 %

W W
2,

4,
3.

C

5,

M 3, Mi, W

Quoted SRV. III.
1,

6. 9, p. ii.

145.

RV. X.

88. 6.

i

H^I^I

<4^*^M(*

II

RVS

II

[

$T

]

^"i*<

I

4.

<*>.

Omitted by BK,

C
7,

4,

C
8,

^.

Quoted by SRV,

I.

59. 2. p.

i.

291.

Kn,
So.

*.

B
.

*X^
7,

C
8,

R

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M
3.

W W
2,

M

5,

3,
3.

Mi,

R
is

R

W

C

7,
1,

3,

Mi,

The quotation

untraced.

2,

11. Cf.

SRV.

loo. cit.

Quoted by SRV. X.
279.

88. 6, p.

IV.

W.
1^.

'arft'rcj

M 3.
88. 11.
5,

^.
*.

RV. X.

RV. X.
Kn,

88. 10.
IV.

q%Cl, C2,C3, R 2, R 3, R 5, S.
^T^t
Of.

06,

M],M4,
S.
!<!.

Omitted by BK, 04,

W W
2,

M

3,

Mi,

R

7,

R 8,
88.

W

7,
1,

3.

.

1, C 2, C 6, M 1, M 4, SRV. X. 88. 10. p. IV. 280.

Quoted by SRV. X. IV. 281.
88. 17.

II.

p.

W. RV. X.

ti+uii<?<4i*u

^
:
i

iraftr:

I

$^
H PT
3

1

i

?T^IT

i

I

c^T

TT

ffn

.

The whole

passage:
is

q
SRV.

4,

C
3.

5,

C

7,

M

3,

W W W
1, 2,

Mi,

quoted by

X

88^ 19. p. IV. 283.
88.
17.
p.

Quoted by SRV. X. IV. 282.

t.

This
AS'.

is 1.

the quotation of reoitfttion

S.aSjS'S', 1.6.2.
3.

EV. X.
Of.

88. 19.
I.

*..

VRS

M

SRV.
i.

57.3; 88.6; VI.

4.

^o. Of.

BD.

i.

67.

3; pp.

285, 394 ;ii. 697.
4,

C

5,

M 3, Mi, W

11.
I.

MSS.

of

both

the

recensions

repeat ??%% but not Both.

vs.

ftr^

II

Small figure on this page represeaU the corresponding section o
eventh chapter of the tfirukta.

t

t

I

TOT

W
jf

2,

W W
ii.

1,

C 2, C ^
is

3,

M M
1,

4,

,

C6.
6.

3;

crossed

and

added on the margin in C 5 ; ^ added on the margin is corrected
to
?r in 1.

C
t. Of.
<*>.

7.

BD.

iii.

61.

.

Of.

BD.

25. Of. S'B.

VI.

3. 3. 13.

BV. X.
RV.

73. 10.

*o.

II. 12. 3;

AV.

20. 34. 3,
i.

^.
V.

Quoted by SRV.

I. 15. 7. p.

i.

11. 1^.

Quoted by SRV.

I. 15. 7. p.

95.

RV,

I, 15. 7.

RV.

II. 37. 4.

I

raft

ft*ro>

:

I

raft

^T: ft^rg

j

n

J

i

BRUIT

c

ft^
*.

I

M
^. Of.
^.

3-

RV. V. RV.

60. 8.

BD.

iii.

65.

.

II. 37. 3.

EV,

I. 96.
iii.

1-7.
62.

.

*m: 01,03,11 4, a
f^wnft

V. Cf.

BD.
BD.

.

fawft

Roth.

M. Cf.
*.

iii.

U.
.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

5,

Quoted by SRV.
113.

II.

37. 4. p. ii.

W W
2,
.

Kc, M3, Mi, R7,
3.

R 8,

W

7,

lt

.

AV.

4.

39. 9;
iii.

VS.

5. 4.

Cf.

BD.

iii.

26.

4. Cf.

BD.

63-64.

2'

M 1.M3.M4, W2,

]
i

i

fct

'sr

^r:

?

J

I

]

\

I

t^rer 3T
I

STFT*

I

5RTT

3Tfcfft%
I

ftn:
I.

Cf. Taitb. B. II. 2.
I

8. 6:

.

Cf.
.

BD.
.

ii,

27.

^ ^ * a^f^t^a p
rv ii. 4. 1.

7
5,

^.

KB. X.
BD.

3;
ii.

AB,
158.

^.

W
1*.
5.
12. 1;

^T%?TT G
2.

M

3,

Mi,

W
12.

1,

^. Of.

RV. X.
VS.
vrofar:
Cf.

110.

V.RV. X.
VS,
S.

2;

AV.

5.

2;

110.

1)

AV.

29. 26.
7,

29. 25.

11.

M
j

3.

Omitted by BK,

C

W W
2,

Kn,

M

4,

C

5,

C

3, 3.

Mi,

B7,

B

8,

W

7,
1,

AB.
BD.

II.

24:

Cf.

il 28
2.

iii.

2-3.
29. 27.

RV.VIII.

2; VS.

%cTTTfrr

fo5 f|:

:

i

il

vs n

? t^fr SR

i

arrarofr

[

f^^rt

]

;

i

*9
1.

i

srfirfHrf

H.

Quoted by SRV. VII. Cf BD. iii. 4.
.

2. 1. p. iii, 8.

Quoted by SEV. VII.
iii.

17.

2.

p.

35.

V
.

BV. X.
VS.
^TRrr

110.

3j

AV.

5.

12.3;
51
is

M
RV. X.
VS.

3.

29. 28.

07,

M

3,

added
4. Of. *.

just above
iii. 5.

^

2; a in Mi.

W

BD.

110. 5;

AV.

5.

12. 5;

BV. X.
VS.

110.

4;

AV.

29. 30.
4,

5.

12.

4;

29. 29.

**3W>
1,

W W W
2,

C

5,

7,

M

3,

Mi,

3.

Omitted by BK,

C
7,

4,

Kn,

W W
2,

M

5,
8,

3,

'Mi,

R

R

W

7,
1,

3.

Cf.

BD.

iii.

6.

20

srnSr

3TT

^rr

i

*rf

^q^T?
i

-

*NUV
snl

i

r^n

JTC^TT

i

5^*

^^

sfterrcr

i

sr

*nsEr!r:

\\

ft

J

\

II

U

I)

Cf. S'B. VI. 7. 2, 3.

M
AV
^.

3,

Mi,

R

7,

R

8,

W

1,

W

2,

3.

*.

N.

2. 18.
iii.

RV. X.
29. 33.

110. 8;

AV.

5. 12.

8; VS.

^
V.

Cf.BD.

9.

Jo.

Quoted by SRV.
i.

I.

22.

10.

RV. X.

110. 6;

AV.
I.

p.

5. 12. 6; 27.

117.

8; VS. 29.31.
I*.
<j.

SRV.
i.

I.

Quoted by SRV.

142. 11. p.

49. 2. p.

i.

247.

637.
4,

$. Cf.
<s.

BD.

iii.

11.
;

RV. X,
29. 32.

110. 7

AV. C
4,

5.

12. 7

;

VS.
.

W W W
1, 2,
!

C

5, 3.

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

Quoted by SRV.
iii.

loo. cit.; of.

BD.

<.

Omitted by BK,

C

5,

C

7,

Ku,

1C.

n

j

i

n

^

n

n
^|<

I

n

1.

EV. X.
29. 34.

110. 9;

AV.

5. 12.

9; VS.

.

SRV.
N.
8.

loo. cit.

^. Of.

BD.
I.

%.
iii.

*
110. 10;

15, 25.
.

\.

RV.

95. 5.
6,
I.

RV. X.
VS.

AV.

5. 12.

10;

v.

3*-*;dfc*ft*nif?rCi, c 2, c M 1, M 4, S & Roth cf. SRV.
;

29. 35.

cin^r
2,

C

95. 5. p.
.

i.

429.

W W
:

4, 3.

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

W

1,

fa*...*?rfrr is omitted by Durga.

.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

Kn,

W W
2,
i.

M

3, 3.

Mi,

R 7,

R

8,

W

07,
1,

11.
.

C

7,

M 3.
According
to

Of.

BD. iii. 28. BD. IV. 100. the

?%^rfq%%Jr9I%SRV.
p,

I.

95. 5.

^^

RV.

III. 8.

stanza 3r$rfcf 1. is addressed

429.

to qtj, the sacrificial post.

^ftstff

4

% 51^
5T

T^r

^1%:

II

r

]
J

c[rg4cfiR
i

i

^T%!

i

^rr

^tTTr
n

^r

i

Ro

1.

EV.
1,

III. 8, 1.
4,

W
C
5,

3

;

it is

added on the margin by

*.

^TWf^ C

W W W
2,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

a different probably later soribe

3.

inC7.
III. 8.1.
p.
ii,
.

X.

Quoted by
155.

SRV.

According to
is

Durga ^T WHITf

a quotation from some Brah-

V.

KS. XVIII. 21; MS.
208. 10 %

4.

13.

7:

mana.

He
:

remarks:
I

,

adding the
I

<*.

.(^r

M 3.
;

quotation

%
i

rf 35TT

^T-

*r^ ^rr^r^TT'w
1.

V
5

KS. XVIII. 21
209. i ;
of,

MS.

4. 13.

7:

I

Cf.

KS, VI.

MS.

I, 8, 1.

EV. x.

70. 10.

(...Or^rr)

Cf.
.

BD.

Hi 29.
110. 11;

Omitted by BK, ~v R.7 H

C
6,

4,

W

05, Kn,
1,

KV. X.
VS.

W

AV.

5. 12.

11;

2,

29, 36,

ftrfJr*ffar

1

3rg*rnnfe[

^rf:

II

I sRn

1.

M

W
V
.

Omibted by BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, 3, Mi, K 7, R 8, 1, 2, 3; is added on the margin in

W

W

*>.

4,
1,

C

5, 3.

C

7,

M
i.

3,

W W W
2,
i

Mi,

07.
3. Cf.

lo. Cf.

KB.
i.

Ill, 4.

S'B.

3. 2.
I

8

;

SRV. 1. 188. RV. X. 51. 8. RV. X. 51. 9.
The quotation
Durga.
is

1. p. i.

782,

MS,
11. Cf.

4.

12:^4t%snn5rT:
III.
4.

KB.

Omitted by BK,
untraoed.
is

C
7,

4,

C

5,

C

7,
1,

<l.

Kn,
by
2,

M

3, 3.

Mi,

R
C

R
C

8,

W
C

*.

CT&*n...?raR'Jn*

omitted

W W
3TTRT

<*.

Durga does not comment on the
following passages remarking
:

M
Cf.

3,

W W Mi, W
1,

3f3<TRrr:

4, 2,

5,

7,

3.

3?*?

AB.

i.

11. 3; 17. 14;

KB. VII.
KS.
Schro-

I;X.
.

3; S'B. XI. 2.7. 27. Cf.
9
:

Cf.

S'B.

i.

3.

2.

9

:

XXVI.

srruK
ii,

%

Jrqisn:

I

eder's ed, vol

p, 133,

^! ^

SRTT^T e?rrJTT ^T 3?plT*ft:

3

gT'*
erf

I

?r?r^T ^

II

3.^

li

:

i

j

11

]

II

Mi,
*. Of.
9.

W W W
1,
2,

.

4,

C
3.

5,

07,

M

3,

GB.

II. 3. 4

:

TS. VI.

1. 5.

4

;

cf.

KS. XXIII.
<<.
I

smm %
BD. AB.
iii.
iii.

Cf.

BD.

ii.

154157.
within
brackets

5T*rnrr:

srarr^rnn:
ii. p.

Sohroeder's ed. vol.
^. Cf.

85.

^.

Small

figure

29.
8. 1
:

.

represents
section of

the

corresponding

V. Cf.

the eighth chapter of

the tfirukto.

n

ir

yrq-

5%^
i

^%
TTft

[
|

w

^fte^T ]*
STT

i

[

y (^d
I

?TT

i

$11 Ji^y rft Id
5ft

STT^^T%

]

H
^rr
srr
i

I.

SeeN.

2.

27;

of. 1. 12.

S.

RV.

I.

162. 2.

*.

W W
2,

Kn,

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R

C
7,

4,

5,

M

R

8,

W

C

7,
1,

The second section is omitted by Durga and given in a foot-note by Roth. But it is found in the MSS. of both recensions and is
also

3.

at the

enumerated in the summary end of the chapter in the
of longer recensions.
162. 1;
I.

V.

The

passage: gfr *nfa

^lrnT-

MSS.

seems to have
been written by a different scribe
in

RV.

VS.

25. 24.

C
is

1.

C2

.

f.

10 r

.

The

letters

are

omitted by

M 3; partially

larger,

crooked, and stand in marked contrast to the rest
lines

obliterated with yellow pigment in 1 ; added on the margin in

W

of the page.

W2,C7.

t

I

JTT

II

II

t

I

"2^ f Rt

\\

X

II

1.

RV.

II. 42. 1; of.
:

BD. IV.
II.

94.

is

omitted by

M

3.

Durgci.
42.
1.

^.

Quoted by SRV.
ii.

p.

I*. Cf.

SRV. VII.

103.

1.

p.

iii.

125.

211.
Cf.

<i.

BD. IV.

IV.
93.

RV. VII. 103. 1; AV. cf BD. VI. 27.
.

4. 15.

13

;

Roth.
>.

RVKH.

2. 43. 1.
r;

C

4,

C

5,

C

7,

Kn,
4.

M
2.

W
3,

3.

C
U Quoted by
iii.

SRV. VII.
ii.

p.

3, 3 is partially 7, Mi, obliterated with red ink and an

W

13.
31

added on the margin in

W

2

;
-

.

SRV.
Cf.

II. 20. 8. p.

57;

cf.

BD.

STWTTrf'T

^

3.

Cf.

K.umarila

IV. 78.
I.

Unadi sutra IV.

42.

Bhatta, Tantra Vartika, Benares ed. p. 200 or 1.3. 18: ...j

*T>? ft

$ IT

IT
II

ITT

i

[
.
i

4 q^i

:

II

i.

Quoted by SRV. VII.
iii.

103.

1. p.

j

W W3 W
2,
;

1

agrees with the

211.
4,

reading of the longer recension.
5,
*T

*.
v

aC

C
/""I

C

7,

M

1,

M

4.

Omitted by BK, C 4, C 5, Kn, 3, Mi, R 7, R 8,

i.

.

AV. 4. 15. 14. RV. X. 34. 1
JRfcfT:
;

W W
2,

M

W

C

7,
1,

3.

;

cf.

BD. VII.

36.

3; Sayana also

reads

\.

C

1,
;

S & Roth

C 2, C 6, M 1, M 4, ^ is partially obliteand
in

See

SRV. X.

34. 1. p.

IV. 101.
11.

rated with red ink

on the margin

W2

$t
;

added

Quoted by SRV.
198.
Cf.

III. 24. 3. p.

ii.

Durga
as

i. e. gives both well as sre^iTT: I. IS I

sr^jfan:

SRV. X.
is

34. 1. p.

IV. 101.

Sayana reads

The

passage:

W W W
x

3 4,

5,

C

7,

M

omitted by Durga.

3,

Mi,
IV.
ia

agrees with the reading of the longer recension.
2,

3;

1

omitted by S'ivadatta

although given by Durga.
!,.

*.

fom%: C

4,

C

5,

07,

M 3,

Mi,

RV. X.

94. 1.

21

STT

I

1

sra-rer^

^t

5f

:

II

!

'T^T

f^TT

^fr

i

^^n

[

^r

]

i

\\

\\

it

n

i

STT^TRTT
omitted by Durga.
SfT
*s

:

C
2,

W

1,

W
......

4,

W

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

f:

is

3;

Durga,

&
.

?*nTT"Tt

omitted

by

S'ivadatta.
3. 55fop:

Durga.

^T^[:
cf.

is

omitted

by

Cf.

PMbh.

vol. I. p.

327. line 15.

Durga.

V K V.
.

I.

126. 1
4,

;

BD.
7,

III. 155.

is
is

omitted

TO*!* C
1,

W W W
2,

05, C
3.

M

omitted

3,

Mi,

BK, C

4,
8,

C
3.

R
.

7,

R

W W W
1, 2,

5,

C

7,

Kn,

M 3,
3.

by by
Mi,

V.

The passage
omitted by Durga. Etymological explanation of a word which occurs neither in the text of the RV. nor in that of Yaska is
f: is

RV. VI.
VS.

47.

26;

AV.

G,

125. 1

;

29. 52.

.

S*hl> Cl, 02, 06,

MU.S- &

irrelavont

and

suspicious.

Roth &

S'ivadatta.

n

I

cf 3TCT

51 RT ftar 55^r
*pff:
:

u

II

ly

II

Irlr
:

II

?

i

n

V\

n

:

n

V

3, *TT$wfrFi: C 4, C 5, C 7, 3 and Sayana; 2, Mi, 1, see SRV. VI. 47. 29. p. ii. 815.

W W W
47. 20;

M

"
T

M

3.

*.

EV. VI.
RV. VI.

AV.

6. 126. 1.
ii.

*.
V. 1.

Quoted SRV. VI.
75. 5;

75. 5. p,
29. 42.

888.

RV. VI. 75. 14; VS. Cf. PMbh. vol. II.

29. 51.
p. 340.
1.

16.

VS.

is crossed Roth & S'ivadatta and 5- added on the margin in
;

5^01,02,06, M1,M4,

U;
^o.

^

C7.
*.

891;
4<

Quoted SRV. VI. of. also VII. 6.
3. 9.

75, Ii, p. il
1,

**wa jfo ?n ^ftznrm: C C7,M3,W1, W2;

C

5,

11.

N.

H. RV, VI.

75. 6;

VS.

29, 43.

I

3T*fT3i*TT

i

S
1

t

37

VT^fcT

II

ntft:
II

^.
1;

Omitted by BK,

C
7,

4,

C
8,

5,

O

5,

C

7,

M

^r^Rr: 3, Mi,
cf.

C

W

4;
2,

W

Kn,
3;

W W
2,

M 3,

Mi,
888.

R

R

W

C

7,
1,

3;
ii.

quoted by SRV. VI.

and Sayana,
p. ii. 889.

SRV. VI.

75, 6.

75. 3. p.
So. {gftfft:
.

Roth.

and Sayana
agree with recension.
V.

loc.

cit.

W

1,

C

7

W
>.

Omitted by 04, 07,
1,

W

M 3, Mi,
C
5;

3;

is

underlined in

the text of the longer

Quoted SRV.

loc. cit.

2. on the margin in RV. VI. 75, 11; VS. 29.

W

48,

^.
*.
.

RV. VI. 75. 2; VS. 29. 39. Quoted SRV. VI. 75. 2, p. ii. RV. VI. 75. 3; VS. 29. 40.
Omitted by BK, C 4, Kn, 3, Mi, R 7.

..

N,
Cf.

2. 5.

888,

.

SRV. VI. 75.11.

p.

ii.

890

4.

C

W W
2,

M

5,

R

8,

W

07,
1,

1M. ?^?T?n

M

3,
e

but a

just above

^ is added on the margin in

3,

M3.

3TT

f RT

srr

it

if^r

^r

i

[srf^r :]

^.

RV. VI.75.

13.

I

Of. SJiV.

*.

W W
2,

WfT% C4, 05, 07, Mi,
3;

M

Wl,
^.

I.

28. 5. p.

i.

148.

3.

The
in

seotioa comes to

an end here
It
is

V
V.
1.

^qf^T M 3; Of. SEV. I. 28.

S'ivadatta's

edition.

2. p.

i.

147.

however against the evidence of
the MS3. of both recensions,
jo. 11.

W W3
2,

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, E Kn,

4,

05, 07.

M

7,

E 8,
13.

W

1,

EV.

I.

28. 5; of.

BD.

Hi. 101.

EV. X.
Kn, \V3.

102.

5. 4,
5,

*.

Quoted SEV. VI. 75.
891.

p. it

.

Omitted by BK,

.

****
4,

M
5,

3,

W W W
1,

M

3,

Mi,

E

7,

E

8,

W W
1,

7,
2,

2,

3;

Mi; grfe

^>*^
1.

Eot.

U. *rtfo?f^rt

6. Of.

S'B.

VII.

5.

22:

is omitted by Durga, underlined by Eoth; Sayana reada
,

I, 56, 1;

143,

w:
*raf

55^?*

i

vrf^Hi^i
^rr
i

i

[%r]

i

?r^ Pr

3*:
i

I

'TT

I

I

cf^f^fl

*T^T

II

*#

II

,

t

^r

]

*

i

li

VA

II

n
SRV.
265,
.

I,

52.

9.

p.

i.

M
.

W

3,

Mi,

R 7, R 8,

W

1,

W

2,

3.

Quoted SRV.

ioc. cit.

Cf. S'B. I. 9. 2. 20.

AB.

I. 13.

V. Cf.
p.

BD.

viii.

12;

SRV. X.

102. 1.

L
>.

B V.

I.

187, 1

;

VS.

34. 7.

IV.

338. 102. U; cf,

<.

RV. X.

BD. VIII.

11.

^

!J*WT33f ^f^f V2, 3;

W

C

4,

C

'

5*

C

7,

M

W W
2,
.

Omitted by BK, En, M3, Mi, R
3*

C

:,

5,

:

8,

W

7,
1,

3,

N.

2.

24.

.

Omitted by BK,

C 4,

5,

7,

KB,

I.

RV.X.75.5,

I

3TT?J
I

]

^Tcr7TTm ?ft'

^TW?f^=2^r;imni

I

I

PTT^T^rT^T
I

I

TSTnTTT^T

I

"TT^TT

3T^r

'

I

?T^Trf5TT^%
i

?T?T:

gi

H

w

ii

3 5
1. Cf.

SRY. X.

75. 5. p. TV. 232.

Roth.
T^cT:
1,
I

Cf,

Durga:
I

3.

W W

Omitted by
3;

C

4,

M

3,

Mi,

W

?T^TT^ SfVRirr

the reading of C 5, C 7, 2 is that of the longer recen-

ofrn^^
Cf.

Ml,
1.

M

3.

SRV.

I.

135. 4. p.

i.

5CO.

sion.

Cf. S'B. VI.

1.9.

*. ffifS*

M 3.
4,

M
3,

8,

Mi,
3.

W W
1,
!

also
3.

Unadi sutra

II. 58.

M
:

W
4

11.

R V.

X.

9. 1

;

AV.

I.

5. 1

;

SV.

2.

C

M

M3

Mi

1187; VS.
'

11.

50; 36.

14.

W 1,"W
.

1^.

3.

C 2, C 3, HF.^5TWT C l t Ml, M4. R2, R3, R 5,

C
S;

6,
<fc

Omitted by BK,C 4, C 3, Mi, R 7, R 8, \V3.

M

W W
1,

5,

C 7, Kn,
2,

H. RV. X.

97. 1;

VS. 12.75.

I

3TRT

*rTH
i

^

[ IfrT ]

1

an

g:
i

n

^J
VT^cfH^T ^TT
I

t

I

aw
T

n

II

07, M
of.

wire!
3,

c
Mi,
97.
1.

4,

c

5,

margin although no attempt

is
!

Wl, W2, W3;
p.

made
Cf.

to obliterate 5|?inf?T in 97. 1. p.

W

SEV. X.

IV. 319:

SRV. X,

IV, 319:

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, Kn,

C

4, 7,

05, 07,

Cf. also S'B, VII. 2. 4. 26.

W W
2,

M

E

E 8,
is

W

1,

N.

2. 18.

3.

i,

M
C

3,

Mi ;

corrected
is

AV. 19.47. 1; VS. EV. X. 146, 1.
Cf.
i

34. 32.

in

7;

gpmfa

par-

SRV. X.

147.

1. p.

IV. 462.

tially obliterated

with black ink
is

& ^TRlOf added on
in

W 2;

^RTfa

the margin added on the

W
Jo.

M 3.
151,
1.

j

'

EV. X.

mil

g:

sjil

5V:

II

II

^^

II

^TT

i

[

r

i

]

N.

1.

13, 14.
I. 22.

a.
;

N.

6. 12.

RV.

15

cf.

AV.

18. 2. 19:

t.
<^.

Durga reads

RV. X.
17. 44;
viii.

103. 12
of.

;SV.
3.

2.

1211; VS.
cf.

AV.

2. 5;

BD.

Cf.

VS.

35. 21:

13B.

10.

M
Cf.

Omitted by BK, 04, C
3,

Mi,

R

7,

R 8,

W W
1,

5,

Kn,
2,

SRV.

I. 41. 4. p.

i.

215.

W3.
3,

W W W
1,

*3cRR> C

4,

C
3.

5,

07,

M

Mi,

11.

RV.

I. 22. 12.

2,

13.

Omitted by BK,

M

Omitted by
1,

1,

C
3,

2,

C.3,
S.

C

6,

Kn,
N.

M R
4,

2,

R

R 5,
i.

W W
2,

M

C '4, 05, 07,
7,

3,
3.

Mi,

R

R

8,

\V

1,

Cf.

SRV.

I. 22. 15. p.

118.

1^.

9. 20.

3

v]
n

n

n ^\s

ii

II

n

\t

n

n

.

RV.

I.

28. 7.

<^.

N.

2.

24; 9. 26.
III. 33.
1.

C
is

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi;

10.

RV.
Kn,

corrected to spsrifa in

11.

W3.
^.

Omitted by BK,

C
7,

4,

Quoted by SRV.
148.

I. 28.

7.

p.

i.

W W
2, 2,

M

05, 07,
8,

3,
3.

Mi,

R

R

W

1,

.

wrmfr c

V.
1.

BV.
Kn,

II. 41. 21.
5,
8,

W
E
7,

W

4,

05, 07, M3, Mi,
n?rfr is

3;

corrected to

Omitted by BK, 04,

W W
2,

M

3,

Mi,

R

W

7,
1,
2,

Wl.

3. 3. 22.

W W
ft fT6t ia

C4, 05, 07,
3;

M3,

Mi,

$.
.

N.

1.

13^14;

W

HftstfT
1.

is

corrected to

RV.

II. 41. 20.

.

ufTTsjfli^

M 3;

M
Of.

1,

M 4, S; W 2; Roth.
III. 33.

01, C

2,

C

3,

06,

W3.

SRT.

1. p. ii.

242.

?vs^.

3T&3TT 3T
II

I

STcWt ^f
II

I

3^

w

n

iw

^rf|f^

5

ft

kfa

['

I

rr

T

i

s
n

n

i
1.

u

RV. VI.
Mi,

75. 4;

VS.

29. 41.

.

KS.

19. 13;

MS.

4. 13. 8:
4,

210.
5,

1.

W
1

2,

W

.

3;

the figures of *

Omitted by BK, C

C

Kn, M3, Mi,R7, R8,

and
Cf.

are plaoed respectively on

W 1,TV

07,
2,

W3.

.

.

*.

SRV. VI. 75. 4. p. ii. 888. Cf. SRV. IV. .57. 5, p. ii. 490; BD. V. 8. RV. IV. 57. 5.
3,

M
cf.
.

3.

?B^^?T;

M

3.

^. KS.
7.

19. 13;

MS.

4. .13. 8:

210. 4,

*

II

y^

11

ffrr

:

II

:

II

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07,

Kn,

W2,

W

M

3,
3.

Mi,

R
7,

7,

R

8,

W

*Rrfar

^S^:

is

given only once in

1,

Roth.

W2.
1,

^^f^

4,

M

3,

Mi;

r^r
3,

Small

figure within brackets re-

presents the corresponding section
4,

^T^rftm C

W W 2,W3.

5,

7,

M

Mi,

of

the

ninth

chapter

of

the

Nirukta*

*TT^TRT
:

srammnfr

:

I

:

]

i

ft*

ii

.

R V.I.
Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R KD,
4,

11 V.
5,
1,

VI. 37.
3.
I.

3.

.

M

8,

W
30.

W

07,
2,

$.

M STHT
6. p. ii.

i. Cf.

SRV.

11.7; 49. 2; 91.17;
407; also III. 11.

W3.
SU Of.
V.

pp.i. 78, 247,
167.
ii.

SRV.

I. 2. 1. p.

i,

snw* 04, 05, 07, M W], W2, W3.

<S.

Cf.

BD.

33.

3,

Mi,
*.

RV. V.

80. 3.

3TT

I

T

II

^

II

:

It

1.

Quoted by SRV. V.
680.

85. 3. p.

ii.

,^. SRV. VIII.
p, iii.

41. 2.

416.

C
Mi,
1,

W W W
2,
1,

4,

G
3.

5,

7,

M

3,

q,.

iii.

Quoted by SRV. VIII. 41. 2. p. 416. The passage ^ ft fgr*jf?cT
<Tro*NOT:
omitted

by

W W W
2,
?.

Durga.
3.

1o.

Omitted but added on the margin
in

Quoted by SRV.
671.

I.

158.

1. p.

i.

M

3.

11. Of.

KS.
i.

XXV.

1.

W W W
1,

04, C
2,

5,

7,

M
C

1*. TS.
3,

5. 1. 1; of.

S'B. IX.

1, 1. 6;

Mi,

^

B D.

ii.

34.

3.

RV. VII.
5,
7,

46.

1.

Mi,

W W W
1,

04, C
2, 3,

M

3,

01, 02,06, M4,Sand
Roth,

*r*

SRTrT

II

^

II

*&:C4, 05, C7 MS,

W

}

Mi,
to

W

1,

!

2;

gp%:

is

corrected

^%:

in

and also S'B. V.

3.

.1.

10:

W3.
:

is

VII.

18.

18. p.

iii.

quoted by SRV, 41; is omitted

<*.

RV.
171,

I.

27. 10;

SV.

1.

15; 2. 1013.
59. 2. p.

10.

Quoted by SRV. X.

IV.

by Durga.
is

omitted

by

11.

Quoted by SRV.
558;

I.

123. 5.

p.

i,

Durga.
V.
<*.

cf. also I. 38. 5.

RV. VII.
Omifeted

46. 3.

IS.

Quoted by SRV.

I. 27. 10.

p.

i.

H5.
Kn,

c

M

by BK, C
3,

4,

Mi,

R
C
.W

8,

W

C

5,

1,

W
M

7,
2,

.IV Cf. BD; ii.36;
5. p.
i.

of.

SRV.

I.

156.

W3.
^.^m'Wfer C
Mi,

668.

W.
3,

W W
1,

4, 2,

5,.
3.

07,

^nTCRffrfo *T

SRV. SRV.

I. 3. 5. p. i.

36.

i^. >srrcqRft%

m

loo. oit. of. also

IX.
3.

1*.
.

Of. S'B.

V,

2. 4.

13

:

^W
Mi,

5. 7. p. iii.

609.
4,

M 3; 3^ ^fa
1,

W W
2,

C

5,

7,

3.

<H?

ft 15:

^t ft

n

r

M'Hn

^

:

H

1.

W W W
1,

H^tT C
7.

4,-

C

5,

07,
cf.

M

3,

Mi,

is

quoted

by

2,

3;

SRV. below
.

SRV.

I. 3. 4. p.

i.

36.

note
3.

RV.

V. 32. 1;SV. 1.315.

The quotation
Cf. S'B. VI.

is
1.

untraced.

1.2:

.

Omitted by BK, C 4, 3, Mi, R 8, Kn,

W

M

W

C

5,
1,

W

C

7,
2,

3; also

by Sayana,
559.

see,

SRV.
Mi,

V\ 32.
.

1. p. ii.

Cf.

SRV. IX.

5. 7. p.

iii.

609:
11.
.

^RnTT^C4, 05, C7, M3,

W W W
1,

2,

3.

SRV.
The passage
3TCO

loo. cit.

quoted by SRV.
\.

loc. cit.

ST^itf 01; C

2,

C

3,

C C

6,

M
C
3.

1,

V. Cf.
<*.

SRV.

I.

156. 5. p.

i.

668.
4. p.
i.
.

M

4,

R

2,

R

3,

R

5, S.

^S\*lt Roth; SRV.
36.

I. 3.

Omitted by BK, 3, R 8, Kn,

M

W W W
1,

C

4,

5,

7,

2,

*. Cf.

SRV. X.
entire

48.

6. p.

IV. 146:

.

RV.

II. 12. 1;

AV.
2,

20. 34.

1.

*.
.

The

passage

^73*

M

3TTTOR: 01, C
4,

C

3,

C

6,

M

1,

R

2,

R

3,

R

5, S.

I

^T

3RTO

^

TTrT

I

^rr

ererrr

wftfit
t^T*

f^rarftr
T
f

Hi<<n

55
I.

q
S'ivadatta.
|

II

The entire passage
II. 12. 1. p.
ii.

zft

...

332.

The

^;
SRV. V.
83.
1

is

omitted by Durga.

*.

irft is

omitted by

The passage f^f f?ct
is

^T^
loc. cit.

p.

ii.

676.

quoted by
etc.

SRV,

^.

The passage
is

quoted by
ii.

SRV.

loc. cit.

C. BD.
V.
<i.

3738.

Of.

BD.

ii.

39.

EV. V.

83. 2.

RV. X.
before
ii,

68. 8;
ii.

AV.

20. 16. 8.

Sayana adds see SRV, V.

q^ft

Cf.

BD.

40.

83. 2. p.

676.

RV.II.

24. 4.

23

[

%

H

w

ii

II

^

II

? wig

.

Quoted by SRV.
71.

II. 24.

4. p.

ii.

C

W

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

W

1,

W
p.
I

2,
iv.

3;

cf.

W W W
1, 2,

f:

C

4,

C

5,
3.

07,

M 3,

193:

Mi,
w.

oSf
SRV. X.
57. 2.
4,

64. 1.

q>T5''

RV. IV.

^. Cf.
V.

BD.

ii.

41.

Mi,

R

8,

W W W
1,

C

5,

C
3.

7,

M 3,

2,

RV. IV.

57. 1.
.

The passage
is

H.

Quoted by SRV. IV.
489.

57. 1. p.

ii.

omitted by Durga.

^o.
11.

RV.

II. 35. 10.

RV, X.

166. 5.

*HWS

I

i

I

TOT

<w

4r

II

J

i

n

^

n

1.

^5WTO^: C C W W
Mi,
1,

5,

C

7,

M

3,

.

AV.
N.

1. 1. 2.

2,

3.

<. ^.

8. 5.

*. Cf.

BD.

ii.

44.
1.

RV. X.
KD,

30. 4;

AV.

14.

1.

37.
5,

t BV.
.

10.

VII. 55.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

C

Cf.

SRV. VII.

56. 1.

p. iii^

114:

W
M
^.

M
C
S;

3,

Mi,

R 8,
2,

W
C

1,

W

7,

2,

3.
1,

11. frsrfr
4,

C
48.

C

3,

6,

Ml,

Durga &
ii.

S'ivadatta.

.

EV.
Cf.

III. 53. 8.
ii.

Cf.

BD.

.

BD.

45.

U. RV. X.14. l;cf.AV.

18.

1.49.

\

s

en

I

\\

C
Mi, W
*.
1,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

W2, W3.
So.
11.

W W
2,

C
3.

4,

C

5,

M

3,

Mi.

C 5TOT* TOtfiroft C 1, C 2, 3, C 6, M 1, M 4, R 2, R 3, R 5, S.
RV.
I. I.

The quotation

is

untraoed.

^.
V.
.

66. 7.

RV.

66.

8.

f RV.
^.

I.

66. 9.
I.

RV. VI. 59. 2. !*. RV. X.85. 40; AV. 14. 2.3. n. Of. SRV. I. 66. 8. p. i. 325. IV. The passage ^sra^r mnTO
is

Quoted by SRV.
is

66. 8. p.

i.

325.

quoted by
.

SRV.

I.

66. lO^p,

i.

326.

omitted by Roth.

^. snfa&: 04, C

BK, C

R

8,

W W W
1,

4,

^T:5T^T is omitted by C 5, C 7, Kn, M 3, Mi,
2, 3,

W
p.

1,
i.

W

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

3.

Of.

SRV.

I. 15>, 1.

667.

&

Durga.

M 3.

.

n

:

t

iK R f*i

n
*TT

^TT

i

RV.

III. 59.

1.

*.

Cf.

BD.

ii.

47.

SRV.
ii.

.

RV. X.
N.

III. 59.

1. p.

121. 1;

AV.
10.
ii.

4. 2.

7; VS.

328.
.

13. 4; 23.
2. 23.

1;25.
Cf.

BD.

51.

M

3Wi: 01, OS, 03, 06, Ml,
4,

R

2,

R

3,

R

.

5, S.

^^;CJ

1,0

2,06^1^4,8,
5.

Durga &
by
by
.

S'iradatta.
96.

is

omitted

RV. VII.
Cf.

Durga.

The

entire passage
.

BD.

ii.

50.

3RT^ ...... ^RStfri SRV. III. 59. 1. p.

quoted
ii,

328.

.

RV.X.

82. 2;

VS. 17.26.

?^^ Pt
i

i

43nlui
i

cf3fi*iri

R^ ^sraftr
R^
II

\

;

gtaif?
II

SRRT

5T5TT

11

^

11

II

-t*

C. SRV. X,

82. 2. p.

IV. 247

:

^.

RV. X.
17. 22.

81. 6;

SV.

2.

939; VS.

.

W W
2,

Quoted by IV. 246. N.
Cf.
8. 13.

SRV. X.

81.

6.

p.

3.
.c.

A.

M M
1,

cn^RT^ C
4, S.

1

,

C 2, C

3,

C

6,

C

7,

^
lo.

BD.

ii.

58.
1

V.

The passage
244.

flwp??f-....W5rfer
81. 1. p.

is

RV. X.
SV.
1.

178.

;

AV.

VII. 85.

1;

quoted by SRV. X.

IV.
1.

332.
178.
1. p.

Of. S'B. XIII. 7, 1.
81.

SRV. X.
is

IV. 503:

<.

RV. X.

1;VS.

17. 17.

omitted by Sayana.

n

^

n

wrfsra: sresr

<rarf

$r

n

:

I

Irt

I

1.

W* C W W
1,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,
$.

3.

Quoted by SRV.
83.

II.
ii.

24. 2;

X,

1;87. 13; pp.

70; IV. 249.

*.

KV. X.

275.

178. 3.
vs.

JT??j?9lo

Iloth.
is

\.

Quoted by SRV. X,
504.
Cf.

178. 3. p. IV.
<z.

^s^r^j^rf^f^;
Durga.

omitted

by

.

BD.

ii.

53.
<*.

RV. X.

84. 1;

AV.

4. 31. 1.

H.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07,

Kn,

M 3,

Mi,

E

8,

W

1,

W

10. Cf.
11.

SRV. X.
2.

84. 1. p.

IV. 251,

2,

W3.

N,

27,

SRHT
\\

5TcT^TT

I

l

I

1.

EV.
Kn,

IV. 38.

10.
4,

*.

Omitted by BK, C

C

5,

C

7,
2,

C

M
BD.

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

1,

W

W Mi, W
1,

4,

C

5,

M 3,

3.

W3.
^. Of.
ii.

Of KB. vii.
62.

6.

Of. S'B.

I.

1.2. 17.

W W3
2,

4,
;

C
is

5,

M 3, Mi, W
^

1,

ff

corrected to

ia

V.
4.

KV. X.
1,

149.

1.

07.
5,

o*n?r?r c
2,

W W W

4,

c
3.

c

7,

M

3,

Mi,

RV. X.
1.

149.

5.

$.

Quoted by SRV. X. 149. IV, 467,

p.

Quoted by SRV. X.
468.

150. 5. p, IV.

J

I

fflMl
SHIT:
II

II

^

II

g
:
I

cf^'TT

C^T

II

V*.

3TT

1. ^.
^.

N.

8. 13.

*.

KV.
107.

I. 19. 1;

SV.

1.

16.
19.
1.

V.

W W W qififcO*, 05, W W W
1,

19;AV. 18.1.5. oJr^^C4, 05,07, M3, Mi,
III. 55.
2,

RV.

*.

Quoted by SRV.

I.

p.

i.

3.

10.

07,
SV.

M
1.

3,

Mi,
11.

W W W
1,

anw*
RV.

4,

5, 3.

C

7,

M 3,
7;

Mi;

2,

1,

2,

3.

Of.

BD.

iii.

76.

M.

EV. X.
1190.

186.

1;

184;

2.

I. 19. 9;

VIII.
256;
2.

3.

AV.

20.

99. 1;
4,
5,
7,

SV.

1.

923.
73. 2; 97. 22;

*.

SR*T ft C
N.
7. 14.

M

3,

Mi,

^. Quoted by SRV. IX.
X.64.
Of.
2.

Wl, W2,W3.
.

pp.
ii.

iii.

717, 782; IV. 193;

BD.

52.

24

ftd^r
i

11

STPT

rrf^rft

II

^

II

n

'O1^

m ^'

:

II

H

l n

^.

RV. X.
Omitted

123. 1
l)y
3,

;

VS.

7. 16.
4,

vs.

RV. X.
N.
2.

123.
3.

5;AV.
4;

5. 3. 7.

3.

BK, C
11 8,

W
^.

Kn,
3.

M
4,

Mi,

W

C

5,
1,

W

07,
2,

*.

25;

4. 9; 6.

22.

^.

^teT

Roth,
23. 8.
5,

?

W W
2,

%C

C
3.

5,

7,

M

3,

Mi,

W

1,

o.

RV. IV.

.

Omitted by BK, 04, C

C

7,
2,

S, Cf. ^.
f[.

BD.
cit.

ii.

54.

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

1,

W

Op.

VII. 93.
59. 5.

W3.
2.

RV. X.

j

i

[

T3"^5%<i:

i

]

I

i

?r:

I

sr^rn
TT

i

^RCT:
i

i

^5:

i

u*\\*i\ TTCTT

MtoiMdr ^r

TOr^nr *Trf^r

11

y^

11

it

11

^

n

it

9.

RV.
KD,

I.

129. 6.

i.

RV. Vlt
1,

34. 16
4,

*.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07,

.

W
^. V.

M3,
;

Mi,

R8,

W

1,

W

^prifo C

2,
.

W W Mi, W
2,

C

5,

C

7,

MS,
Kn,
3.

3. 4,

3
;

added on the margin in
.

Omitted byBK,

explained by Durga. Cf. BD. i. 17; VIII. 129.

7

M

3,

Mi,

B 8,

W W W
1,

C

05. C
2,

7,

RV. X.

121. 10;

AV. 7.
4,

80. 3;

VS.

10. 20; 23. 65.
M. qft

arfa *nj*r
1, 2. 17.
7.

Mi,
*.

W W W
2,
3,

c

c
3.

5,

c

7,

M

3,

W W
2,

5,

C

7,

omitted by 3, Mi, Kn,

BK, 04,

M

R

8,

W

1,

3.

Cf.

SRV. VII.

34.

16. p.

iii.

80:

N.

i;

W2;

cf.

also

VII.

6. 7. p. iii. 19.

7;

'

sr

ssn

i

11

w*

n

if

fft

qn

ft

JTT

\\

^
II

^ ft M^H (^
5TTcfT
T
I

i

*T ^J TTTcTT

:

u
I

1

5HT

TT

3TTMT
I

[ ^SflJj-TT* ]

^'

3.

C
166.
.

1,

C
&
ii.

2,

C

6,

M 4, R

2,

R

3,

Cf.

BD. V.

S; Roth
Cf.

S'ivadatta.
59.

BD.

RV. VII.
N.

34. 17; of.

V. 41. 16.

*.
<*.

RV. X.

95. 7.
4,

4. 3; 7. 24.

RV. X.

114, 4,

W3.

Omitted by BK, C Kn, M3,Mi, R 8,

07, W05, W
1, 2,

*

t

g

STT

^1

srfer

*

II

II

li

Small figure

on this page represents the

corresponding section of the

tenth chapter of the ffirukta.

\\

% n

I

^
I i

^^FC

I

STJ

^ ^5
snrj

I

I

<T^^^T ^fforo^u:
3T

^

nrtiqr^Tn^a
^ft?T^T

^%nn

^ frr
i

^rr

i

rr

?[%

rmt

wnt

II

i

^Jto

N.

4. 24.

^.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07,

KV. IV.

26. 7.
2.

:

Both.
.

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,
2.
;

B

8,

W

1,

W

2,

W3.
Omitted by
<s.

:

M

BV. IX.
VS.

1. 1

3.

SVt
AV.
1

1.

468; 2. 39;

26. 25. 85. 3;
.

M

3,

W

2.

*.

BV. X.

1. 3.

\

gr^s
<r

err

i

OSTSI

m

11

II

^T

3fr

frKN

an

^{q

4:

i

i

^

*HcTr

i

:

i

^rrsrsrei vr^%
II

i

^r^

3

i

^H

^Hfoiff: n
I

.

RV. X.
Of.

85. 5; of.

AV.

14. 1.14.

.

BD. VII.

144.
3
,

W
<*..

1,

W

c

4,

c

5,

c

7,

M
M

3,

Mi,

3;

^rsrffl

is

corrected to
3.

M

on the
;

W
V.

0,507,

Mi,

Wl,

Cf.

BD. VII. 129
85.
ii.
'

3.

Cf.BD. VII. 129B.

1.

W

^ ^: W
C
1,

RV. X. H. Cf. BD.
jo.

marin in B ). ( cf. AV. 19;

7. 81. 2.

GO.
4,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

K. Omitted by BK, C
Kn, MS, Mi, R8,

AV

2,

3.

W

C
1,

5,

W

C

7,
2,

$.

Quoted by SRV. VI.
86.

65.

2. p.

ii.

W3.
^. RV. X.
18. 1;

AV.

12. 2. 21;

VS.

w.

M

3.

35. 7.

n

*

i

n

t

\\

:

n

35

n

n

.

Omitted by BK,

C
8,

2.

Kn,

M

4,

3,

Mi,

R

W

05, C
1,

W

7,
2,

W3.
text
*f><?*rR[q-

RV.

I.

155. 2.
!

The
is

^TffHTil

is

omitted by

regarded as spu
It
is

Durga.
.

rious by Both.

given howthe recen-

JRW

S'ivadatta.

ever by
sions

MSS.
is

of both

sr^8ir^
o.

M

3.

but

ignored

by

the

RV. VII.

76. 1.

commentator Durga. N. 7. 21.

C4, C

5,

M

3,

Mi,

Wl, W2, W3.
.

BV. X.

50. 1;

VS.

33. 23.

Cf.

BD.

ii.

57.

f

>jfl

Ri

n
i

^^: wrt
il

i

:

I

fir-lUflTT^T:

?R

I!

^
c|T
I

^T^f^f

1

?T^^t
II

^m^TTT

^RffrT

^

II

:

n

J

I

1.

W W W
1,

**Tf$fn*C
2,

4,

C
3.

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

,

05, 07, Mi,

Wl,

^. Of.

AV.

7. 17. 2:

.

.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07,

Kn, MS, Mi, E8,

W

W

1,

W

2,

3.

.

3f8rrTCT&0iV is

given as a variant

:

u
i,

by Durga.
:

c

W
V.

4,

c

5,

M
C

3,

Mi,

w
C

is

given as a variant

3.

by Durga.

M

3,

Mi,

W W W
1,

T:

4,

C
3.

5,

7,
.

2,

C

4,

C

5.

1,

W

* 04, 05, M3, Mi,
3.
.

RV.
392.
.

I. 88. 1.

is

omitted by
3.

W

Quoted by SBV.

I.

88.

1.

p.

i.

2.

BV. 25

X 167.

N.

10. 5.

%
s
I

srfl
^TJTst

35
I

n
q*

rarclW

^

^rmfit
i

^JTSTT 3T

n
1.

EV. V.

57.
1.

1.

<s.

M
s
OL.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, Kn,
3,

Mi,

R
I.

8,

W W W
1,

2,

3.

Of.
of.

BD.

iii.

83

;

omitted by Durga.
V.

SRV.
3D.

110.

2,

4. pp.

i.

480-1.

Quotted by
110.

SR V.

I.

20. 4. p.

i.

10. Cf.
of.

iii.

89 B;
111.
4. p. I.
i.

SRV.

I.

485.
11. p.
i.

<<.

RV.
S

I.

110. 4.
1,

11.
2, 3, 6,

Quoted by SRV.
682.

161,

C

M

4,

;

Both b

S'ivadatta.
Ill, 60,
4. p. ii.

13.

RV.

I.

161. 11.

.

Quoted by SRV.
332.

U. N. 3. 17. 1V. RV. X, 62,

5,

sir

i

oj
*IWIUU5
I

fl^frlT

I)

^3

II

fta
I

5^'t H
*
I

4d
:
i

'

I

^

i

^
i

o4Ti3i:
i

i

t

i

rTfsrfit^j

5

I

N.

4. 21.

.

N.
N.

4. 21. 3. 17.

RV. X.
19. 49.

15. 1

;

AV.

18. 1.

44; VS.

.

Roth.
75.
10. p.
.

Quoted by SBV. VI.
ii.

RV. X.

14. 6

;

AV.

18.
I.

1.

68.
4.

890.
4,

mui5^: C

C

5,

C

7,

M

.

3,

Quoted by SRV.
306.
is

62.

p.

i.

Mi.Wl, W2,W3.
4,C5, C7,M3, Mi,
3.
1,

placed between
4,

W W W
2,

W W W
1,

C
3.

5,

C

7,

M 3, Mi,

^

and

2,

,Cf.

BD. VI.

155:
1,

*M -H^M+iT

W W W
2,

4,

C
3.

5,

07, M3,Mi,

N,

3, 17.

RV, VII.

33. 8.

I

*T

I

3.N4HI

eft

I

:

I

dl'UUlf^ft:

cf^TT

i

w in

I

3.

RV. X.

120. 6;

AV.

20. 107.

i).

1,

02, 03,

3.

Quoted by SRV. X. 120.
399.

8. p.

IV.
<<.

06,

M

1,M

4,8; Roth.

RV.
23.

I. 12.

9;

SV.

2.

I9G

;

VS.

6.

^.
v.
i.

N.

4. 22, 23. 7.

gTOft

:

2.

RV. X.

64. 5.
I.

The
Durga

quotation
attributes
i.

is
it

untraoed.

*.

Wfor

W

pr^r

C
2,

4,

1,

\V

W

C

5,
3.

C 7, M 3, Mi, & SRV. X. 64.

to the devatti'

stalvavidah

e.

persons

who

5. p.

IV.. 194.
loo. cit.
t.

know the

reality of deity.

.

Quoted SRV.

RV. X.

72. 4.

1

fe (d

^^

rfr

I

II

p.3

II

I

<%<
I

\

I

3TT*T

[

vft%

]

I

cT^TT

II

H'4

II

wrolf arar:

II

FT
I

fT^T

ffrt

11

R^

n

1.

Quoted by SRV. X.
225.

72. 4. p.

IV.

*.

RV. X.
SWT5 C
1,

108.
4

1.

.

*.

Cf.BD. IV.

18.

W W W3
2,

>

C

5

>

;

c 7 M 3 Mi, SRV. X, 108. 1.
>

^. 11 V. I. 94, 15.

p.

IV. 361.
I.

V. <rer*Tt
1,

C

W W W
2,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

.

Quoted by SUV.
312.

03.

4.

p.

i.

3.

5.

^ ^ 3TTT?Tfecj^ ^ ^> Mi, AV 1, AV 2, AV 3.
g$*w5"ft vrq^
Lhirga.
is

7,

M

3,
.

Quoted by SRV.
519.

I.

11G. 15.

p.

i.

i.

omitted

by
j

.

.

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07, 2, 1, 3, Mi, R 8, Kn, AV 3.

Quoted by SRV. I. 112. 12. p. i. 490; of. also. V. 53. 9. p. ii. 618.

M

W

W

.

Durga adds the following:

:.

Of.

Quoted by SRV.

I.

62. 3. p.

i.

305.

.

RS-

3

[

srr*.

5f5

I

3^T

cf

ii

I

TOTT

II

R^

II

T 3T3T

%

T^fff^T

I

J

I

cff

5.

RV.
84.

I. 3.

10; SV.

I.

189; VS. 20.

Kn, M3, Mi, R8,

W

1,

W

2,

W3.
I. 3.

*.

Quoted by SRV.

10. p.

i.

39.

Quoted by SRV. VIII. 100.
p.
iii.

10.

^.
.

EV.

1.3. 12; VS. 20 86.

589.
100. 11.
-

^cfTWTfao
Mi,

C

W

4,

C

5,

C

7,

M
i.

3,

1,

W2, W3.
I. 3.

RV. VIII.
:

<*.

Quoted by SRV.

SRV vni
4,

10

-

12. p.

40.
iii.

!! P-

590.

*.

N.

2.

23.

.

RV. VIII.

100. 10.

W W
1,

C
3.

05, 07,

M 3,

Mi,

t.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

07,

Quoted by SRV.

loc, cib,

m:
i

m^r

sr *rar

i

il

^

II

5

I

II

T
J

nr
i

i

^^

^TT

Roth
^.

f
;

C.7.

AB. VII.
XII. 8: q\
%qiTTTT
vol.
i.

11. 2

GB.

IT.

1. 1.

10

;

.

RV.

II. 32.

4;
11.

AV. 7.48.1.
3;
cf.

Sad. B. IV. 6;

cf.

KB.

III.

KS.

<5.

AB. VII.
XII.
vol.
8:

GB.

II. 1.
1.

10;

rgfi

<?T<foTT*ft
I

*TT

^T^T

^fTgJf Schroeder's ed.

Sad. B. IV. 6;

KB.

III.

KS.

p.

170.
:

:

I

Schroeder's ed.

^
V.

Durga
VS.

reads

^
AV.
7.20.2:

i.

p.

170.

34. 8;cf.

W W W
1,

^ C

5
3.

C

7>

M

^ Mi
J; VS.

2,

,

W W
2,

07,

M

3,

Mi,

Wl,

.

RV.

II. 32, 6;

AV.

7. 46.

3,

34. 10.

??.
'j^sra

3 oo

.

i

i

^3^1:
i

^^TTJ

^TETRTJ
i

I

I

*n

r^r
I

^TRTOfSr ^nsr
srsrf

^

^r^rr ?j ST^TT
i

n

i

^ ^tfif

fr^t

?r:

07TT VTcTTrT

II

^

II

?TT

?r

r

f

ti

^^

u

5Rf

f^^

I

II

\%

11

n

n

1.

^g^: ^^mgr: Durga.

is

omitted

by
by Durga.

omitted

gf^ C

M

3,

Mi,

W W W3
1,

S ; Roth
;

2,

t

^

^

C 2, C 3, C 6, M 1, M4, & S'ivadatta. MS. IV. 12. 6. Of. AV. 7. 47. 1
1,
\

Roth.
T

is

omitted by
r

Durga.
V.

oTHC
W W
2,
3.

4,

5,

M

3,

Mi,

\1,

N.

10. 19. 10. 14; cf.

RV. X.

AV.
S'iva.

18. 1. 16.

4,C5,C7 M3,Mi,Wl,
N.
5. 13.

:

stltff

I

^5TTcf: ^fSTT^f^*

I

S^T^TTcTT

I

cT^IT

I

cf^TT

I)

^

II

:

f4

*.

RV. X.

95. 10.

$.

RV. X.
srrot

86. 11;
3,

AV.

20. 126. 11.

.

M

W

2.

*.
V.
<* e

N.I. 13,

14.
1.

RV. V.
Kn,

84.

RV. X.
Omitted by BK, 04, 06, 07,

86. 12;
is

AV.

20. 126. 12.

M

3,

Mi,

R 8,

W

1,

W

2,

fcq^afd
Durga.

given as a variant by

W3.
26

i

sr*Tcft
*?:.

^?ft
i

i

srs

s

^33:1

SIN
\\

-

^rg^rr

I

C^T:

I

cT^TT Q^TT VT^

H

U\

II

?

?H

f<Rf

1

fis
IT?

^

"Rlfif J

II

.

RV.

I.

164

41;

cf.

AV,

9. 10.

21.

M.

Quoted by SRV.
716.

I.

164.

42, p.

i.

1.164, 41.
715.

p.

i.

$.
.

N.

2. 5. I.

RV.

164. 28; of.

AV.

9.

10, 6.

^.
V.

Quoted by SRV.

loc. cit.

AV

2.

EV.I. 164.42;AV.
i.

9. 10.

22; 13.

Off^T^To C 1, 02,03, 06, Ml, M4,S; 04,
2; 5,

W

42.

W W
1,

3,

and Roth.

^TT
:
i

IT
ft Tig

?H%T

^g

l5*itof n

^TT
i

HT

1.

RV.

I.

164. 26;

AV.

7. 73. 7;

9.

Quoted by SRV.
27;

loc. cit.

10.4.

AV.

7.

73, 8;

9.

'1,

W W
2,

04, 05, 07,
3.

M3,

fc; 4|

(.

RV.

1.164. 40;

AV.

Quoted by SRV. X. 59.
7,

7.

73. 11; 9.

p. iy,

10.20.

RV. X.
715;
dc

G3. 16.

Roth.

N.

2. 18.

3RNT
ft TOff
I

"

STRTT

i

[

t

I

]

n

^
3;

n

1.

RV. IV.
is

30. 10.

Kn,
is

M

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

1,

W
7.

2,

*.

The passage SR:
omitted by Durga.

added on the margin in

C

*. V.

BV.
N.

IV. 30. 11.

*.

^Nn C 7.
Quoted by SRV. X.
195.
64. 10. p. iv,

8. 7.

^o.

S'ivadatta.
:

C

7,

M
19.

11. Cf.
3.
*.

SRV. V.

41. 19. p.

ii.

582.

it.

RV.V.41.

Omitted by BK, C 4, 05, 07, Kn, M3, Mi, R 8, 1, W2,

W

c.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

07,

W3.

53

t

II

1.

RV. V.

56.

8.

V.

Small

figure within brackets re-

*.

Omitted by BK, C

M

3,

Mi,

E
2,

8,
4,

W W W
1, 2,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

Kn,
3.

presents the corresponding section
of

\.

W W W
1,

rnpmr: o

o
3.

5;

07,

M

3,

Mi,

the eleventh chapter of the

fMi

^T^T:

I

I)

^

i!

1. Cf.

S'B, IV.

1. 5.

16.

S'ivadatta

adds

the

following

passage after oMK^rfll as the text
in some of the MSS., which have however not been specified.

3. Cf.

BD. VII.
I.

126;
1;
5.

Quoted by
1;
i.

SRV.
184. 3;

92.

112.

181. 4;

X. 106.

pp.

416, 486,

764, 771; IV. 354.
\.

Quoted by SRV.
396.

I.

89. 3. p.

i.

^5*^ "I

M 3.
.

cGZiszi Roth.
is

The quotation

not traced.

RV.

I.

181. 4.

f^f

f^f

^1:

f:

"

J

I

;

<4>jiHiti

^Tu <4 r-< i

I

[

f^&

]

[

j

II

^

II

SRV.

I.

181. 4. p.
loc, cit.

i.

764.

.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

07,

RV.
^.

Xn W
,

3,

Mi,

R8, Wl, W2,

W3.
Quoted by SRV.
loo.
rife.
<:.

V.

RV.

I. 22. 1.

Omitted by BK,

C

4,

C

5,

C

7,

Kn,
<t

3VI 3,

RV. V. RV,
I.

77. 2.

W

Mi,

R 8,

W W
1,

2,
i.

3;

and SRV. 1.92.

13. p.

415.
*.

92.

13;

SV.

2.

1081; VS.
*>.

34, 33.

Quoted by SRV,

loc. cit,

SIT

sn

d
untt:
\\

:

t

li

vs

II

3TT

I

cf^IT

II

^

II

^.

EV.

I. 92. 1;

SV.

2.

1105.
III. 58.

RV. X.
Kn,

86. 13;

AV.

20.
4,

126. 13.
5,
1,

^.

Quoted by SRV.
9. pp.
i.

I. 2. 6;

Omitted by BK, C

32;

ii.

328.

^.
.

RV. X.
410.

34. 5.
I.

W

M

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

C

W

07,
2,

3.

& SRV. X.

86. 13. p.

IV.

Quoted by SRV.

92.

1.

p.

i.

269.

The
85. 20;
cf.

H.
*.
.

RV. X.
*Tfc3
Of.

AV.

entire passage
loc. is quoted by The intervening

14. 1. 61.

M

3.

SRV.
7. 1; cf.

cit.

AB. IV.

KB. XVIII.

words

^STO-.^Sin^*^ Wf are

L

omitted.

11

^

11

srr
:

i

*nr

]'

n

U

n

1.

RV. X.

17. 2,

^.

RV. X.
53.

17. 1;

AV.

3. 31. 5; 18. 1.

^. ajc^]tfj

C

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

Ml,
30.

M
V
Cf.

4, S;

Roth &
7.

S'ivadatta.

Omitted by BK, C 4, 05, 07, Kn, M3, Mi, R 8, 1, 2,

W

W

BD. VII.

W3.
11.
.

V. Cf. op. cit.

VI. 162, 163.

N.

10. 31.

M. Cf. op. cit. *. Cf. op. cit.
19.

VII. VII.

1.
3, 4.

RV. V.

81. 2;

VS. 12.3.

2.

Cf. op. cit. VII. 6.

4. Cf. op. cit.

VII.

2.

C

7,

Mi,

W Wog^ W
3;
1,

C
3.

4,

05,

2,

27

w

I

cTOT

i

*i I

r^

I

i

n

[ err ]

^.
:>.

TS. V.

5. 22. 1.

3.

YS.

24.

140.
Dh. Sut. XVIII.
17,

N.

3.

16.

Of. Vasistha
18;

RV. AV.

VIII. 41.
3. 16. 2.

2;

VS.

34.

35; cf.

Roth.
Cf.

KB. VI.
cf.

13:
i

Cf. also
su. I. 4:

Karka on Paraskara grbya
S'B.
^T:

I. 7.

4.

6:

-?TOT

Cf. Vis'varupacarya in

his BalaI.

kridd

on
r

Yajfiavalkya
TTJTT

56:

Cf.

GB. n.
I

i.

2:

^JTf^r
7:

Cf.

KS. XXII.
24. 35; TS. 24.

Omitted by BE, C

Kn,
VS. VS.
V.
5. 18. 1.

M

4,

C

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

5,

1,

W

7,

2,

W3.
Omitted by Roth.

140.

n

w

H

ftohr g

n

.^

H

=<

I

J

II

^

II

n

1.

Cf.

PMbh.

vol.

II.

p.

8G:

.

Kn,

W

Omitted by BK, 3, Mi, R

C
8,

4,

C

M

W

5,
1,

W

C

7, 2,

3.

*. Cf.

BD. VII.
I.

128.

(B).
13. 2. 16; 20.
7.

.

RV.

I.

115. 1;

AV.

13.

2.

35; 20.

^.

RV.

50.

1;
1.

AV.
31;

137. 14.

47. 13; 33. 31.
V. Cf.

SV.

VS.

41;

8.

41;

.

Omitted by BK, C 3, Mi, R 8, Kn,

4,

C
1,

M

W

5,

C

W

7,
2,

SRV.

I. 50. 1. p.

i.

248:
.

W3.
Cf.

BD.

ii.

63.

;.

RV,VI,

58.

1;SV.1.73.

:

<?K<n3r

i

^r

ft

VU ft

i

[

i

]

[

qr^ ]
r ^sprar

qtg^ f^ q^
T
I

^r
II

i

W*4r SFreftfa 4!

^

ql^r^; qr|: ^r?cr
II

^
II

^r

I

q^TTJ

II

^

>.

Omitted by SRV.

loo. cit.

For

KV. VI.

49. 8;

VS.
l>

34. 42.

M

STTO^T^^ C
4,

C

2>

3>

C

6

the reading of the longer recension, see note <:.

S;

Roth &
ii.

S'ivadatta.

SRV.
r:

loc. cit.
4,

Cf.

BD.

69.

C
2,

C
3.

BV,
Kn,

I. 22.

17;

AV.

7. 26. 4.

W W W
1,

5,

C

7,

M

3,

Mi,

Omitted by BK, C

M

4,

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

C

5,
1,

W
M

C

7,

^.

The

passage:
is

f^rcujflf ^r^ cir

2,

SR^ffrfa WT
loc. cit.

quoted by

SRV.

W3.
Cf.

BD.

ii.

64.
1,

*.

N.

7. 21.

C

C
I.

2,

C

3,

C

6,
i.

4,

<.

RV.

VIII. 68. Roth.

4;

SV.

1.

364

SRV.

22.

17. p.

120.

^ V.

]
:
I

i

sr^rfr

wr

rr^

n

R^

n

fai
n

1.

N.

10. 3.
I. 50. 6;

*.

BV.

AV.

13. 2.

21

;

20.
."

47. 18;

VS.

33, 32.

RV.
RV.

I. 50. 6.

M
V.

3.

<.

I.

50. 7;

AV.

13.

2.

22; 20.

47. 19.

^T
&

01, C2,C3, C6,M4,S;
^.

S'ivadatta.

The passage
qj^ft is

W W
2,

%fa C

4.

C
3.

5,

C 7,

M

3,

Mi,

W

1,

omitted in

W

2;

but added

lo.

RV.
RV.

I.

50.

6.

on the margin.
.

I.

50. 5;

AV.

13. 2.

20; 20,

Cf.

SBV.

I.

50.

6. p.

i.

250:

47. 17,

II

?&

II

m vw
.0
II

II

]*

^

11

fihrf

3T

\vm
Durga.

sim
{

=32

II

JTr*
is

omit ted by

.

Kii,

W
omitted by

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07, M3, Mi, R8, 1, 2,

W

W

3.
.

BK,

C

W W W
1,

4,

C

5,

C

7,

Kn,
3.

M
.

3,

Mi,

R

8,

RV. X.
^.

136.1.

2,

Omitted by BK, 04,

C
1,

5,

C

7,
2,

M
V.

Omitted by C
1,

1,

M

02, 03,06,
3,

4,

R

2,

R

R

Kn,

M
BD.

3,

Mi,

R

8,

W

W

5, S.

W3.
jo. Cf.
i.

fto

W
I.

2.

94;

ii,

65.

^.

RV.
Cf.

50. 6,
11.

aroWcJl, C2,C3, Co, Ml,

$

c

BD.

ii.

65:

M
.

4,

R2, R
I.

LJ

R

5, S.

ftw f^^^r ^ftnf ^j:

RV.

164. 44;

AV.

9. 10.

26.

:

<jp:r=f

:

II

%$ ^r-

qr?

n

R^

n

3.

The whole passage
is
i.

5fq-:

The passage gsr^nf^--.^^
164. 44. p.
is

<J5f:

quoted by
716.

SRV.

I.

quoted by
10. 19.

SRV.

loo. cit.

^.

Cf.

BD.

N.
ii.

67.
-

V
.

*^N| Roth
RV. X.
86. 21;

RV. X.

135.

1.

AV.
2.

20. 126. 21.
is

<*.

Omitted by
p.iv. 271.

W

M
AV.
11. 4. 21.

3;

*.

fT^T% Roth & SRV. X

omitted by Durga.

86. 21.

fpt

w

fttepr:
5 4VPt:
n

sterar

eflf?:fli

i

i

sr
i

i

J

i

n

^o

11

qr^rert

:

ftrlr^f

1.

KV. X.

65. 13.
65.
13. p.
iv.

.

N.

2.

10,

*. Cf.

SRV. X.

201:
.

RV. IX.
srr^nrasT:

1
73.
3.

.

C

7.

M

3.

.

RV. X.

60.

3.

Durgca remarks:

.

Omitted by BK, 04,

W
V.

Kn, M3, Mi,
3.

R

8,

W

C
1,

5,

C

7, 2,

,W

^
N.

is

omitted

& added between
:

.

and
1. 13,

in

M

Qmitted by Rotb.
2.

3.

14; cf. 9.

31; 11. 36.

RV.

1.

108. 10.

^

i

T^RfT

^mfir

i
1

13
:

n

:

i

[

:

i

N.

12. 29. 12. 30.

3-

N.

C
05, 07, M3, Mi,

loo. oit.

W

4, 2,

1,

W

RV. VI.

50.

H; VS. 34.53.
C
4,

W3.

C
3.

Mi,

W W
1
5

5,

C

7,

M

.

N.

2. 13.

3,
.

2,

AV

11 V. II. 27. 1;

VS.

34. 54.

N. 11. 18.

.

osnarrfapq:

C

6,

C

7; S'ivadatta,

M H?ITT^
Of.

3.
.

BD.

iii.

121.

Kn,

Omitted by BK, 04, 05, 07, 3, Mi, R 8, 1, 2,

M

W

W

EV. QQ

I. 80. 16.

W3.

l^fr

11

R

TT^cf

I

rT

:

11

I

?.

N.

10, 26.

*.

OT^T ^ |A
VS.
34. 55.
4,

Roth.
.

M
3,

4. S;

02, 03, 06, l, Roth & S'ivadatta.

Ml,

^.
V.

W^qnOl,

C
<fe

2,

** C
2,

W W
Cf.

C
3.

5,

7,

M

Mi,

W

M

03, 06, Ml,

4, S;

Roth
4, 2,

S'ivadatta.
5,
7,

1,
<:.

aiteftfa
1,

The accent of <*. this stanza marked by Roth and S'iya10. 8. 9.

AV.

W W
N.
7. 15.
I,

M

3,

Mi,

AV

3.

*..

datta differs from that of the

AY.

0.

RV.

89, 2;

VS.

25, 15.

H

^^

H

SIT *fa
:

I

n

:

i

H y<> n

:

II

I

n*ji*i*a

i

ffrT

.

Omittad by BK, 04, 05, 07,

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,

R 8,

W

1,

W
p.

2,

W3.
Quoted by SBV. 1.89.
395.
V.
<.
2.
i.

Mi, 1, omitted by Durga.
3,

M

nfw^%^ia C

W

W

4, 2,

05, .07,

W

3;

is

^r?T:
X. 106.
Of.
I. 3. 7;

^nf^TT:

is

*^B seer of

RV.

^.

BD. VIII.

18;

of.

Sarvanu.

KV.

VS.
>

7. 33; 33. 47.
I

W W
2,

*fN C4,5 C7
3.

M3

>

MS
-

>

W1

>

.

RV.
RV.
5. 1;

III. 38.
1. 164.. 50;

^. Of.
.

BD.

ii.

128, 132, 133.
is

X.

90. 16;

AV.

J.

The term f^rfeifH BD. iii. 43.

used in

VS.

31. 16.
I.

t. Of.

SRV.

.

I, 3. 7. p.

i.

38.

Quoted by SRV.
719.

164. 50. p.

i.

^

KV. VIII.

29.
,

Of.

AB. L

16. 36, 38-40;
t

TS. V.

7.

V. W>...3tfe3fT:

is

placed

after

26. i: s

ii

y^

11

H

y^

u

C
Mi,

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

M

3,

R

2,

R 3, R

5, S.

Roth.
arspK

Durga &

S'ivadatta.

.

^j

Roth.
39, 3.

.

RV. VII.

Of. TS.

i.

4.

44. 2; cf.

AV.

7. 97. 4:

is omitted in 3, but is added on the margin; also omitted

H

by Durga.
:
I

S.

*M
N.

3,

}o.

2. 28.

Cf.VS,8.

18:

11.

RV. VII.

38. 7;

VS.

9.

16; 21. 10.

5ft

:

I

37:

3T

jn*

II

n

1.

W W W
1,

os^r^ 04, 05, 07,
2, 3.

M

3,

Mi,

Kn,

M

3,

Mi,

R 8,

W

1,

W

2,

W3.

.

M

M 3.
3.
.

RV. V.

46. 8.

RV. V.

46. 7;

AV.

7. 49. 1.
.

Quoted by SRV. V. 46. 8.p.u.
602.

Omitted by BE,

C

4,

5,

7,

5TnfrT!|

^

I)

J

ffo

cCTrT

M^gTiTT^r

^ HTTH^

II

9.

Small figure within brackets represents the corresponding section of

the twelfth chapter of the Nirukta.

SfsfaTT 31 frT4;rJfT*T

srftr 3rr

ST

vidi<4i

i

'Eusfinfa'

n

^4| 113^^
f^

?

ft

^
*>.

r>

MS. Wilson 475 dated Samvat 1443 (=1387 A. D.), which gives
fiirukta,

the

part; the

13th oh, from the previous numbering of the leaves
is

Durga's cornm. on oh. 7-12 of the does not contain the

which contain the 13th
the beginning of the shorter recension,

from

MS3.

of the

paria'ista.

Another

MS.

(

Mill.

142.) of Durga's comm. on both parts of the Nirukta ends \vith

W 2 and Mi, write the
isth

M

3,

C

5,

13th

ch.

which is finished on f. The colophon is as 123. (355). follows: sic. ^fffT3iT?'4: This MS.
ch. 12th
is

at the continuously, with sft or C 4 separates the beginning.

^

&

begins ^?nft

separates
:

dated

1839 A. D. 4 does not

II;

W3

&

begins:
separates
II.

ft

&

begins;

contain the paris'isfa.

The 13th

ch. is written continu-

Mi; Roth.
V.

ously: || ?ft ^ |1 in 1; with simply

M

&
6

& in M
and
S.

g^in

etc.
<*.

4, 1

C
is

2;

with

IK

||

in

C

C

*.
.

incomplete; and C

3 separates

EV. II. 1. 1. RV. II. 28. 6. RV. VIII. 59. C 3.
.

5.

\

HJ

:

it

ft
t
I

5^3

^3

i

:

n

y

II

II

sroft

i,

C

3,

C

4.

3.
i

RV. X.

86. 22,

J

omitted by

C

4.

Identical

with the explanation
1. 20.

30.
11.

Omitted by Durga.

given :n N.

RV. X.
SRV.

106. 6.
6. p. iv.

Quoted SRV. X, 8G. 22.
271.

p. iv.

1*.

X 106.
*r
t

354.

M

3,

Mi,

2,

RV. X.

86. 1.

M

3,

Mi,

W

2,

C

4,

C

5.

Quoted in N.

1.

4.

to illustrate
.

the use of the particle na.
.

M

1.

M

05;

This entire section together with 8th is omitted by the attributed to

6th 7th and

Commentary

3.

Durga.

II

^

I!

I
Sft

tff<f

gjrewhft S
ii

TT^T

der

I

firrr

STF
i

ftfif

n
noun, verb, preposition
3
*
<fc

1.
.

\.
V.

RV. IX. 58. 1. SRV. IX. 58. 1. p. iii. 664. RV. IV. 58. 3. q$. C 3. of. SRV. IV.
p. ii. 492.

particle;

feet

are

the

3

tenses;

seven

hands are the seven
3.

oases

and

58.

so on.

*1.

Vlfa.
Cf.
It

3.

on MimaMsa, I. 2, 46* Kumarila in his Tantra,' vdrlika on the same sutra.
Cf. S'abara
Cf. also

.

Gopatha

Brah.
is

I.

2.

16.

;.

AV.

4.

14. 4;

VS.

17. 68.

appears the Nirukta
of the

that

the passage in

F* 1SP3
a

W

2,

C

5;

C

4 reads

an
^

adaptation
the

$f

being

added

on

Brahmana.
is

quoted by Patailjali in the introductory part of the Mahabfidsya and is interpreted

The stanza

The

comment

attributed
fche

to

Du
from
11,

u
I.

regumed Qn
e'to,

with reference to grammar

i.

e. 4,

horns Are the four parts of speech,

RV,

164.

29

fffr

ell

ugrnH;

i

Cf. S'B.

IV.
3,

1. 3. 15,

16.

3Tfafr<w C

3.

W

2,

Mi,

C

4.

KB.

6. 12.

M3.
r:

Mi,
3,

>f

3,

03;

Mi,

04; ^Rfefnre

02, 05, C6, B, B. and Gune
comin. vol. p. 50.
Cf.
Cf.

W

M

1,

1,

W2,

W 3;

M

^ M
4,

W W

2,

C
4,

4,

C
5.

5,

2,

C

C
2,

MS, Mi,

W

04, 05.

in the

Bhand.

M3,AV2,C3,C4, C5;
p.
i.

PMbh.

i. 1. 1.

3.

^f^'JTR'to

Mi;

MS. I. 11. 5. Alsocf.KS. XIV. 5, wherQ also this quotation
ocoo
,s

Ml;
:

with small variants,
in
.

is

another variant given

BV.

1. 164. 30.

\

f

3

I^T 555

:

i

s

CO,
^.

W
C

1,

C3; mrtK4,.C.S,
Roth.

I

Vi.

SRV.X.

71..8. p. iv. 222.

1,

W3;

tn^TTSrt

M 3,
3.

Mi,

W

K.
2,

C

4,

C

'

5.

lloth does not repeat which should ba done as the

e.vi-

\. trffeft
V. Cf.
^. Cf.

deuoe
2, 4.

of

Mss. shows.

Mss. of

N.

both recensions
1.

20;

without any ex-

BD. VIII.
|

129.
Cf.

srsrciQFRT

also

^S33 on

ception repeat anubhavati which is a sure indication that the

chapter

is

concluded.
:

.

N.

1. 1C.

t\. 4, has the colophon sio. || $H^ the colophon: ^^ ini: II; C

M

2^3

.

:

II

^

II

C.

Cf.

Kumar ila

Bhatta,
p.

Tantra132. or

S
sic.

<fc

C

6,

^^T *Rf3 II have the Colophon

:

varlika.
I. 3. 7.

Benares ed.

II

%fo Or^fe

^rf^^

*3*t-

Mss. of the shorter ret^TTT: II; cension have the following colo3 ; C 5, phon : 1^ jj qT ^

W W 3; ^
2,
||

|

|

w:
4,

||

^:

II

C

^ W
:
|

M

1

sic.

5TTH:

TF^.'

II

EV.X.71,

8.
is

missing in

M

In the introduction to his commentary on the Rgve'da, Sayana
1,

describes the Nirukta as

foil

ws

:

added on the margin in a
rent handwriting.

diffe-

begins with

^, and
3fr.

every oh.

is

This

shows that by the
as

commenced with
not written

The

text is

time of Sayana, the 13th section

was

regarded

an

integral

continuously but is from the previous part separated
in
|

part of the Nirukta.

That this

C

6.

Sayana's genuine belief is further supported by his frequent
quotations from these sections. Madhusudaua SarasvatI ( C.

was

See N. 7-12. chapters. See N. 13. 1-13.

Fragment
qjSsfT IV. 368.
Cf.

of
3,

RY.

I.

115.

1.

M

C

5,

Seo.

Bib. lad.

1560 A. D.) writes in his com. on the Mahimnastotra, s'loka 7 WiR'cTT

N.

7. 18.

Bib. Ind.

M
A
summary
is

1,

M

4,

C

2,

C

3,

6,

of

the
*

thirteen
follows:
o,.

SjE.

B. Bib. Ind.
I.

sections

added

as

RV.

164. 46.

lo.
.

.

tf^r C 3. RV. III. 26. 7. ARS. 1. 9;TB.
10.

2. 8. 8.

1;

TA.
2,

9.

M

4,

C

2,

C

6,

S.

02
that

include
of

6;
II

TU.
3

3. 10.

6;Nrp. U. 2.4.
||

this

summary

in

the

M.

\\

IS
1
||

IIM
4,

1;

following 37 sections given at the end of the last section of the

II

M
||

W

M
(I

C
^
||

C

3;

C

6,

S;

of the

second pada

next chapter.

Although accord-

W

3;

W

M
2

3,

04, C
the

5,

W

1,

places

figure

ing to the colophon 'of 13th oh. conies to an end,

C

2 the

II

W
1
1I

summany

of its

yet no contents is made.

JT*W
I1

although the words ^ft are written after the *T!^:

13th section.
IV
M.

Mi

has the figure

This shows that, in reality, the 13th ch. is not ended.

This will indicate the

M

1

begins with

^ but

it

does

not begin every ch, with

&.

Mi

method used by various Mss. in numbering the following sections. B. See Bib, Ind. IV. 368.

:*

n

fin
5

n

i%

n

J

1

fir^rr

1. sni^r:

M

1,

M

4,

C

2,

C

6,

W

1,

Rofch.

see

Bib.

Ind.
Bib.

S. cf.
^.

SV.

See. Bib. Ind. loc. oit.

IV. 370.
f%nciT3f^ Ind. loc. cit.

^TOWTMl, M4,
Both, B;
Ind.

^qmT^
TB.
3. 10. 6;

02, 06,8. C 3, see Bib,

M
C

1,

Roth, see

loc. cit.
I. 9;
2. 8. 8. 1;

1UII

M
3;

4,

^.

ARS.
10. 6;

TU.
L.

TA. 9. Nrp. U. 2. 4.

second pada, 3; IU II 1*

W
C

M

6, 3,

S;

||

^|| of the

C

4,
j|

C

v. ssrnr

nr^m

etc,

B.

2,

C

W

II

Mi;

K

5,
\\

W

M

1, 1,

2.

Cf.

Manu.

I.

75.

^.

I)

^ n

M
||

Cf. Bh, Glta.
4,

VIII. 1C-19.

C
||

second pada

M

6,

S;
3,

U ^
4,
||

I)

of
5,

C

C

W

the
1,
1,

.

C EV.I.
2,

W3;
C

^

3;

W

^HllMi,
2.

^^||
3.

M

Omitted by 1. Cf. Bh. Gila. VIII, i. 73;cf. BD. VIII.
||

M
C

17; of.
98.
||

Manu
of the

164. 31;

X. 177.

v

II

M
C
3;

4,

^.

Missing in the text but added on the margin in a different

second pada

handwriting in

M

W
C

M

6,
3,
II

S;

||

C

4,

C

5,

W
M

1,

3;
2,

||*|i !*

1.

W

Mi;

2.

i

^nzr 5n?T

TO
gnn? cnn^
I

I

I

WJTT

:<r^r:
I

^r^r
srrar

i

I

^Rfr^n^J

^TJ

i

^rrs^T
J

1

1

i

cTr^r^t
TJ
i

vreflr

i

^=gr~r^rT

'

n

sns fq

^f'

W W
2,
. .

M
3,

3,

C

4,

C

5,

W

l,

Mi

Cf. the Garbhopanisat. 4.

See Bib, Ind. IV. 372.
|| ^ || 4, C 6, S; || ^ || of the second pada 1, 3, 4, C 5, 3- || <* || ^H II Mi; II 1M || 1,

M

W
C

M
2.

W
M

Untraced.

^^^T.
S,

M
is

1.

M

4,

C

2,

C

3,

C

6,

2,

C

3;

W

R. B.
passage:

Bib. Ind.
3,

loc. cit.

The

Mi,
5.
iii,

W1,-W2,
3.

almost identical with

C

4;

^. Of.

o^renjH^ C AB. ii. 5. 5;
1,

the Garbhopanisat. 2-4.
13.

see

Bib. Iiid. IV. 373.
..

IPR^^ M
C
G, S,

M

4,

G

2,

C

3,
.

W
C

|| ^ (l 4, second pada 3; || * ||

M

C

6,
3,

S;

||

*

||

of the

M
2.

C

4,
il

C

5,
II

W

1,
1,

R. see Bib, lad. IV. 373,

2,

C

3;

W

n Mi,

n M

*raurrat
i

s^TT^TT^fr

fit^r

1

T*
sr?rf

rf

r

frn*T?R'vr^a'

i

m^rr^

i

srr

sr^rc

M

1,

C

2,

C

3,

C

G.

o. rf^r

M3,
H
3,

Mi,

04,

C5.W1,
C C
5,

W1,W2W3C4C5.
M
4,

^T^r

is

omitted by

M

3,

Mi,

W
C
*V

Mi,

C

4,

W
C
"\V

C

6,

of

the
1,

1,

second pada

M
2.

3,

C

4,

2; see

Bib.

Iiul.

IV. 375.
4,
2, 3,

W3; immilMi;
C
||

v. ocfrfr^vrT^T
6,
r-

^Il>

M
Af

2,
o.
||

G

3;

W

C 5, IRHI
^
||

W
M

1,

S; I.
_.___....
'1

M

4,

C

6,

S;

||

of tha

second pada
1 II

M
1.

3,
||

C

4,
II

C

5,
1,

W
C

AfJ

W W
2,
||

^ ^

II

3,
4,

C

4,

C

5,

C
||

3;

q.

||

M
||

C
Ro
2,

6,

S:

o, I)

of the
5,
u

II

II

W The ^ W
2.
II

^

II

Mi;

^

M

3;
2,

^ft
VS.
18. 1;

fgrrfcr:

g^:
TS.

second pada

M 3,
||

C

4,
II

C
Ro

W
M

1,
j

r,Y. X. 82.
4. 6. 2.

7;

17.

31;
2.

W
C

3;

vs

I)

2,

3;

W

Mi;

1,

2;
1.

Ks,

Ms.

10

3;

135.

I

f fir:

I

^/S:

I

ftg:

i

?g:

I

^^:

I

Ah
i.
3,

Mi,

c

4,

c

5,

w

i,

.

Synonym
Synonym
3;

of water,

Ngh.

I. 12.

W3.
.

of

water,

of atmosphere, Ngh. I. I terrestrial 12;
3.

:

C

5,

C

4,

W

2;

3^: M
S;

deities,
1,
.

V.

M4, C2, C
:

3,

06,

R. ree

Synonym
Synonym
3; of

of

water,

Ngh.

I.

12;

Bib. Ind. IV. 380.

of great, III. 3.
.

M'3.
ft

of

atmosphere, Ngh.
I. 6;

I.

quarter,

of water,

1. 12.

^.

I)

^o

||

M

.

4,

C

Synonym
Synpnym

of water,

Ngh. I

12; of

6, 3,

S;

II

1*

li

of the

second pada
II

M
Mi;

C

4,
||

C

5,

W

food, II. 7; of wealth II. 10.
S.

3;
2,

*o
3;

||

C

^ W

II

II

^

Ml, C

of water,

Ngh.

I,

12;

2--|| 3

||

of the third

pada
.

of happiness, III. 6,

Wl.
v. Cf.

Synonym
Synonym

of water,

Ngh.

I.

12; of

Ngh. synonym of day. synonym of sacrifice III. 17.

I. 9;
.

battle, II. 17; of house, III. 4.

of wealth,

Ngh.

II. 10;

.

Ngh.

III. 17.
.

of truth, III. 10.

^.

Synonym of wise, Ngh. III. synonym of sacrifice, Ngh. III.

Synonym

of

water,
4.

Ngh.

I.

12;

15;
17.
.

of house, III.

1o.

Synonym

of wise,
of earth,

See note 1^. Omitted by

Ngb.
Ngh.

III. 15.
I. 1.
.

C

5,

W W W
1,

M3
I.

S

C

4,

2,

3.

W. Synonym
.

Ngh. V.

5.

Synonym of water, Ngh. wealth, II. 10.

12; of

.

vi=*v. **. J
:
'

font* ft*
i

i

if
I

:

i

$
I

i

twf
I

i

$Mi

:

i

i

i

ifar:

I

fa^:
1

I

ante;

8

4SJ :
1

ferf:

3^
i

I

^

I

ftn*
i

I

*W

I

5fcfar

9rkrffca

vOM^r

M^ 4

i

I

^4%

I

n
of water,
12.

3.

Synonym

Ngh.

I.

V.

1;

atmospheric

deity T.

4$

*.
^.

H^B.

seel.
of atmosphere,

celestial deity

V.

5.

Synonym

Ngh. 1. 3;
I. 12;

Synonym
.

of earth,
I. 3.

Ngh.
see

I. 1;

of

of water, 1. 12; terrestrial diety, V.2.
.

atmosphere,
B.

Synonym

of

water Ngb,

and Bib. Ind.

of

action, II. 1.
^j.

W
Ngh.
I.

M 3,
o

C

4,

C

5,

W W
1,
I. 17.

M.

2,

3, see 11.

Synonym of water, of pure, IV. 2.
water,
I.

12;

4 % Synonym of gold, Ngh. 1.2; of
12. of
\.

Synonym Synonym
water,
Of.
I.

flame,

Ngh. Ngh.

of flame, 12.

1.

17; of

Synonym
deity,

water,
17;

Ngh.

I.

12;

of sacrifice. III,

atmospheric

V.

4.

Ngh. I. 13. Omitted by =g. 9. -3. Mss., see IV. 381. $v$; R. Bib. Ind. synonym of night, Ngh. I. 7.

Synonym of water, Ngh. I. 12; of celestial deity, V. 5. ^. Synonym of water, Ngh. I. 12; of
<.

Synonym
.

of

water, Ngh.

1.

12jof

food, II. 7; of wealth, II. 10.

Bib. Ind.

strength, II. 9. 10. Synonym of atmosphere, Ngh. 3; of near, II. 16.
11.

I.

M
Bib. Ind, IV. 381.
||

3,
2,

4,

5;

Synonym
1.3.

of

atmosphere, Ngh.

Mi;
II

see

W. Synonym
I.

atmosphere, Ngh.

I. 3;

11

||

M 4,

6,

of quarter,
13.

1.6; of water, Ngh.
I. 12.

H. Synonym
IV. Of.

of water,
I. Ij

Ngh.

second pada 3; 3, 04, C 6, || 3V II 1, C 2, II 11 II II Mi; 2; || 3 H of the third pad* 3;

M

S; H 11

of tho

W

W W

M

Ngh.

synonym

of

at-

Wl.
BV. IX,
96. 6.

mosphere,

I. 2;

terrestrial deity,

30

II

V^

It

i

orr

i

ftsrntr

sI^TT

This

is

the reading of the Mss.
those of

||

^^ U

M

4,

C

6,

S;

||

||

of the

of the shorter recension;

second pada
II

M

3,

C

4,

05,

W
C

3;
2,

the longer recension read the text
as follows:

C

3;

^ W
U

II

Mi; |R1

M

M

1,

2;

||

^ U of the third pada

Wl.
KV. IX.
10.4.
V.

96. 6;

VS.

37. 7.

TA.

10.

Bib.
Ind. IV. 383.

rftfcram

til.
ro loo. cit.

.

Bib. Ind. IV. 334; B.

l

*

%!%. Bib.

lad.

loft,

oil

i

]

?Jh

^
llii^lTTfTS 5JTJT*nTTTT

:

f=pr:

1.

5% is omitted

by Roth.
6,

.

RV. IX.
*RTT**P IV. 386.

97. 35.
3f.
?T.
.

^. H

H M
||

4,

C

S

;

||

2nd pad*

M
II

^
C

||

of the

3,

C

4,

5,

W3

.

*e

Bib, Iiid.

-

llUlimi Mi; u^llMl,C2,
C
3;

W

2

;

V

II

of the 3rd pada

omitted by

M

3,

Wl,
^.
V.

C

4,

C

5.

RV. IX.
fliqfa
is

97. 34.

Mi,
.

W W W
1,
2,
||

omiited

M
3.
;

W W
2, 3,

3, 3,

04, C

5,

W

1,

Mi; Bib, Ind.

04, 05,
IV
of the
11.

H i

2nd pada.
||

M 4, C M
Ris
||

6, 3,

S

||

II

II

04, 05,
||

W
1,

1MIIM4, 06,

iv
3,

C

W

||

2;

Mi; || ^ ||

^ M
||

3;
2,

2nd pada.
II

M

S;

3,

11
3,
1.

1|

of the 3rd pada.

C

Wl.

W

^ W

HIM of 04, 06,
II

W

the
3;

||

2;

Mi; || *< || 1, 2, H * || of the 3rd pada.

M

tv]

II

I

IT:

u

i

^ra

*<

i

u

%

tt

1.

EV. IX.

97. 40.

*. ?Ttf*ffrft. Bib. Ind.
^.
||

C
;

3,

W

Mi;
2;

||

^o

||

M

1,

C

2,

|U

II

of the 3rd pftd*

u M
II

4,

C

6, 3,
;
II

S
II

2nd p&da
II

M
||

tt
3,

C
V.

^ W2
II

II

Ml
o

u H ol the C W3; ^ M
||

Wl.
.

4,

5,

BV. X.

55. 5;

AV.
3,
3.

9. 27, 9. 4,

li

1,

2,

;

of the

3rd pada.

Wl.
BV. IX.
97. 41.
;

W W W
1,

M
C

C

C
||

5,

Mi;

2,

^
*. 9. n. See

||

)t || 2nd pada.
?<
3,
11

M

4,

M 3;

6, S;

U te
4,

of the

C

05,

W

^Q Both
Bib. Ind. IV. 387.
U V
II

II

W
I.

*? U Mi; tt^l || 1, 2, 2; || ^ || of the 3rd p&da

M

3,

M 4j C

6,

B

;

U

*

||

of the

Wl.
lo.

2ndpd. M3, 04, C

5,

W3;

BV.

164. 15;

AV.

9. 36. 16.

f^r: p:
TOFT

^T

Im

II

II

\\*

II

1.

See Roth's edition,

p. 195.

,

the
10.

C
^f.

3,

C

6,

S;

B;

M 1, M 4, C S, ** t*ftrf**fr
in Mas.
of

whole passage
26.
^.
||

is

taken from

^.

3T.

(see Bib. Ind. IV. 392 ); Bib. Ind. & Bompreserved
is

K M
||

4,

06, S

;

II

3, 04; || 1^ || of f^ftf : <U<?: the 2nd pada. 05, 3; ||n II II 3* II Mi ; || V* II 1, C 2, C 3,

M
||

n

The
II

text

^fa

both recensions

corrupt.

The

W

W

M

correct reading can however be for the commentary restored,
relating
to soul
i, e,

the passage

2

;

(Mo

of

the 3rd pada.

Wl.
V.

following gWTVnmi% supplies evidence for the text proceeding

BV.
S; B.

I.

164. 16;

AV.

9.

25. 16.

the same.

A comparison

of these

<*.&& 3T:M1,M4,C2,C3,-C6,
<*.

two parts shows that the same
words are repeated, except that
%fij?qifif corresponds actions, ou&n to the

3.

5f.

See Bib. Ind. IV.

991.
r.

to rays

&

Bib. Ind. IV. 391.

is

sun and used in the latter whereformer*
is

T.

loo. cit.

:.

|Ro||
r__r
.

M4, 06,

8;
"j

3rd pada
_
l^^tl*|.

M

m
II

II

of the
ii

3f3^ is usetl in the From this comparison, it
that
i

on

clear

Ml"'

p v

4; 3, K TXT o. *v
^i

C

^o
X

the passage should be

?n^-

H a_
II

ii

H

aa

^f^
i, II

K"\

Mi;

HUH
I.

Ml, 02, 03, W2;
AV,
9, 28. 7.

I have adopted tue cH'&QflBfe! of the Mss, of the shorter reading

U

BV.

164, 36;

recension, because it is closer to the suggested restoration than the other.

JR^TT

MIMCI

f*r"n

wvrt
ft

f^r^pn^

11

i

.

I.I

3;

M
C
6,

1,

M

4,

C

2;

5.

S; R; L.

II

^1 II 4, C 3rd pada 3, 3rd pada, C 5,

M

6,

S;
4,

U *

II

of the

M

W3
AV.

C

IM
;
II

II

of the
||

ft:

s^J

rft*^T^Ir.

C

4;
4,

^1

Mi;
||

||

)

||

tyHi Ml, 02, of the 4 th pada,
164. 37;
9.

W

C

3,
1.*.

W

^v U
2;

^:

qft%^n^
S,

M

1,

M

C
L.

2,

06,

R; Bib. Ind; Bom;

RV.

I.

28. 5.

The

II

^|| M4, 06,

S;
4;
3;

IU
||

||

of the

Mss. of the longer recension except 1 and C 6, add the second

M

3rd pada 3rd pada

M

3,

C

05,

W

^

li

of the

hemistich of the stanza

H^tt^l

also,

i. c.

Mi;
first

II

^|| Ml, 01, C3.W2;

I

Even the

U ^

||

of the 4th pada
I.

W

1.

hemistich

is

C
V.

6,

which

not fully -writes only

given in
r fir 3fT-

RV.

164. 38;

AV.

9.

28. 6.

then adds:

The

corrupt. I have again adopted the text of the shorter recension for it alone has text
is

jpfHT Bib. Ind. IV. 395, which is obviously a mistake.

THm

be associated with BfRtn only as is done in the explanation, relat-

any pretension of being a comment on the vedic quotation. The
passage:
recension.

The

ing to soul, and not with the sun. editor adopts the same read-

q

fsnTRTfa...'Wfw
all

"

omitted by

Mss, of the longer

ing in both the parts of the oomm. which are intended to contrast

each other.

wit

<{ifH-Wi

rr

I

^TT

Tf

I

1.

HUH

M4, 06,

*S;

||

VII of the

M
^. ^.
i

1,

M 4,

2,

3rd pada 3, 04; II ^ II of the 3rd pada 05, II II 3; II || 1, C 3, 2; 1, Mi; || 1. II * || of the 4th pada

M

6, 4;

R,

W

^T.

see op. oit. 398.
3;

u

M

W
5,

U H W
W

^3^r M
oit.

^g^ M
^r.

i,

M

4,

j

02, C6, S; B,

^. ^. see

loc.

3.

BV. X.

120.

1.

*. ftftirTft

W W
2,
II

M
4,

3,
1,

W

1,

W W
2,

3,

4,

Mi,

3,

4,

3; Bib. Ind.
6,
3,

5,

Mi; Bib. Ind.

V.

3? II 3rd pada
Mi;
II

M

M
||

S;

||

<<

II

of the

MS, Wl,
4,

W
; ||
||

2,

W3,
the

3rd pada
||

5,
1,

W

04;
3;
1,

II

V

II

of the
II

5,

Mi; Bib. Ind.

II

^V
3,
1.

^ M
84. 16.
.

*
VV

II

.

II

^11 M4, O6, S; lUHof

V

||

of the
I,

4th pada

W
ff.

2;

3rd pada
3rd pada

M 3,

4.

BV.

4th
II

\

*^pT^fW^ft
lad. IV. 397.

^C

T.

sco Bib.
1*.

V M
II

05, pada W.I;
1, 1,

W

4
3;
||

4

II

of the of the
||

<< ||
||

3,

^ \* W
2.

Mi

;

BV.

1.84. 17.

[8T

ft

s ftfotfo:

?n

stftfo

:

1 1

y
si

11

n
'

1.

||

H M
II

4,

C
3,

6,

S;

||

it ||
II

of the

is

3rd pads 3rd pada
4fch
II
||

W3 ^ H ^ pada Wl; ^ M C C W
C
5,
;
||

M

repeated in
3,

C

5.

04; IU
II
II

of the
of the
II

It

Mi;

W

fe^ M
3,

w W
i,

2,

Mi,

C

4

;

1,

1,

3,

2.

C5.
II

*.

RV.

I.

84. 18.

W
V.

M
3,

3,

4,

C

5,

W W
1,

:

M M

4,

3,

2,

Mi.

pada 05, 1; pada

W
C

W
II

C 6, S; IK C 4; |U
II

II

of

the 3rd

3;
II

||

4
2.

II

of the 4th

M
||

^
3,

1,

1,

C

W

\rt

II

Mi;

II

VI

II

4.

^ M
||

4,

3rd pada 3rd pada
dth
U Vo
|.

C 6, 3; MS, 04;
5,

II

*
||

II

o! the

10. 11.
13.

RV.

I.

164. 20;

AV.

9. 26. 10.

C
1,

pada
||

W

W

3,
||

II

oil of the of the II
II

Cf.SRV.

I. 164. 20. p.

i.

704.

1

;

M

C

1,

C

3,

^ vo W
||

Mi;

Omitted by MSS. of the shorter
recension

2.

RV.

I.

84. 19.

W

M

3,

Mi,

W

1,

W

2,

3,

04, 05.

[ ftw fibro:

i

^

**&

TT

f

m^if*^

II

]

5

1

[

%^f

]

I

^J ^fr ^M:
1,

I

rfct

I

V\
6,
T.

II

M
C

4,

C C

2,

C

3,

C

M1.M4, C2.C3,
Bib. Ind.

07, S;R.

Bib. Ind.
]\I 4,

C6, C7, S;R;
3,

%$
8;

M

1,

2,

C

6,

C

7,

11.

Bib. Ind.

M4, C2, C3, 06, 07,
Bib. Ind.
7, S;

S;

R;

M
C
||

1,

M4, C2, C3.C6, C
1,

Bib. Ind.

a
IV.

M 4,

C

2,

C

3,

C
C

6,

M 3. tj^ M 1, M
O**R
,

7, S;

R; f^TR^o Bib. Ind.
the 4th pada II Mi.
8.

4, 02, C C7, S;Il;Bib. Ind.

3,

C

6,

1
1

||

of

M

V,.
5;

M
M

4,

3,

02,0

3,

06,07,
c

II

II

W

8;

R;

Bib. Ind.
i,

RVKh.

VII. 55.

n. fw^ftr*

M

4,

c

2,

3,

c

6,

The entire section is omitted by MSS. of the shorter recension:

M

1, etc.

M 3,
C5.

Mi,

W

1,

W

2,

W

.

M

1, eto.

3,

C

4,

Mi,

M 3; M
162.

1 eto.

RV. VIII.

11. 6.

Omitted by

M 3,
5.

Mi,

W W
1,

.

2,
.

34r

M

1 etc.
l..p.

W

3,

G

4,

C

KS.XII,

31

r:

firfirfcnfrftr

*T

i

?

Itaftftr f^fir

I

(

ctlrr )

i

i

[

ii

yy
VS.
of

ii

1. 3.

RV. IV.
g*H3

40. 5;
'

10. 2i; 12. 14.

M
etc.
>

1,

M

4,

^ iss

tho

shorter

recension.
*.

eto>

TRn?: C
nSrfer.

5.

i,

M

4,

M

i, etc,

R.

M
1, etc.
:

1,

M
1,

4, etc.

M4,
9T3RftfiT

etc.

C

2,

C

3,

C C

5;
6,

C

OT^ftT 7, 8; R;

M

1,

M

4,

.

M M 4, etc. M M etc. Omitted by M M 4, etc.
1,
4,
1,

Bib. Ind.
.

%
.

Omitted by
3,

M 3,

W Mi, W
1,

l&fes Mi,

C 1,
,

W W W
1,

2,
.

C

4,,C 5.

M
in

1,

M 4 etc.
comes after
4, etc.

M

1,

M M

2,

3;

1,

M
1,

4, etc.

4, etc.

*. ^fi^ra^^Rr !%:
**.

M M
Mi,

4, etc.

M

1,

M
1,

Omitted by

M 3,
5.
4, etc.
1,

W W
1,

2,

W3, C4,C
^.
2,

H.
n.
IV.

5.

M M 4, etc. M 3, Mi, W W
1,

*R?f

W

V.
3,

M vrftftifrm M
M
1,

M
M

4, etc.

04.
V*.

C
,

5

;

ft*fif ftvm M

1,

M
C

Mi;

4, etc.;

M
S;

1,

M

4,

C

2,

3,

C

6,

C

Mi
7,

R; Bib. Ind.

M

;

M 4, etc. fHTTJTr%. M
1,
efcc.

^9f

1,

4, etc.

Mi;

fttpftTft

M

1, etc.

J,

M 4,

[

*f&
II

]

1

HT

II

<l

ft

ffrT

^f

(

ii

y^

11

it

II

w
3,

n

RV. VII.

59. 12.

M
Mi,

1,

M

4, etc.
T

W C Omitted W C
3,

Omitted by
4,

M
5.

3,

C
by

M
5.

3,

Mi,

W W W W
1,

2,
4,

C
!

ft<jtl(d

M

1,

1,

2,

4,

C

It.
:

M

1,

M M eto. M etc.
1,

4,

9,

Mi.

RV.

I. 99. 1.

3.

M 4, etc.

Mi;

^s^fn^f
4, etc.

M
C

1,

Ml,
C
lo.
6,

M 4,
Mi.

.

M

C

2,

C

1,

M
1,

3,

C

M
6,
.

M

4,

C

2,

3,

7.

Hkii^ii
sfgf

M

^

C7,S;R;Bib.

Ind.

'SfTW

3.

M

1,

M
C

4,

2, etc.

The passage within brackets
omitted by

is
3,

Untraced.
Tlie

M

2,

M

4,

C

2,

C

whole section
Mi,
4,

is

C

omitted by
1,

6,

C

7, S; Tl;
>.

Bib. Ind.
1,

M3,

05,-W

W

2,

M

M

4, etc.

W3.

.

J

ff^nt
SRI
*
i

I

iir cfshrf?<T
'
i

]

S

SRT

II

yvs

11

\\

3 ^T 3TRT
ia

I)

*<

ii

II

1.

BV.X.

161.4;

AV.
2,

3.11.

4; 7.

M

1,

53. 2; 20. 96. 9.
*.

^n M
8;

1,

M 4, C

i:

M 4, etc. M M etc.
1, 4,

C
4,

3,

C

6,

C

7,

B; Bib. lad.

Mi,

%wp45r

M

1,

M

4,

*.

TORfr**

M
1,

1,

M
4,

etc.

C
2,

2,

C C

3,

C
.

6,

C

7, S;

B; Bib. Ind.

MdimM

M M

C

C

BV. X. 129. 1. Htftg C 5, M 1,
sion,

M
C

4, etc.

3,

6,

<f.

C7, S;B;Bib. Ind. The passage within brackets
omitted by

In the MSS. of the longer recen-

is

M

1,

M

4,

2,

C

3,

C

6,

C

7,

W
C

M

3,

Mi,

W W
1,

S, the
2,

line

runs thus:

3,

C

4,

C

5.
efcc

t.
.

BV.

This

I. 84. 20.

wnf; Ml,
7, S;
.

M 4,
1,

is

C
4,

2,

C

3,

C

6,

ignored by Both. The evidence of the MSS. of both the recensions

B; Bib. Ind.

M

M

C

2, etc.

5.

shows that this passage should form an integral part of the last section. The section
should be ended
after

M

1,

M

srvpq

4, etc.

MSS.
recension.

of the

longer

word Tpcftqr, the repetition of this indicates that the section comes
to

an end

W. J^far

M M 4, etc.
1,

here,

but not after

APPENDIX

I

APPENDIX

I

Relation OF THE NIRUKTA TO THE FOLLOWING texts.
(1)
(2)

Taittiriya Samhita.

Maitrayam Samhita. (3) Kathaka Samhita. Brahmana. (4) Aitareya Brahmana. (5) Kausitaki Brahmana. (6) Sadvims'a Brahmana. (7) Taittiriya Brahmana. (8) S'atapatha (9) Mantra Brahmana. Brahmana. (10) Daivata (11) Gopatha Brahmana.
(12) Aitareya Aranyaka.
(13) Taittiriya Aranyaka. (14)

Sarvanukramam and Vedarthadlpika of Sadgurus'isya.

(15) Brhat Sarvanukramanika.
(16) Pgveda,
(17)

Pratis'akhya.

AtharvaVeda

(18) Vajasaneya

(19) Taittiriya
(20) Brhaddevata. (21) Astadhyayi of Pa^ini.

(22) Arthas'astra of Kautalya. (23) Mahabhaya of Patafijali.
(24)

Purva Mima^sa.

(25) Sarvadars'anasamgraha.

THE NIRUKTA.

THE

TAITTIRITA SAMHITA.

1. 15:

** sm*T

l

I. 1. 8. 1
3:

;

I. 2. 12. 2

;

VI.

2. 7-

3$
;

I. 2. 1. 1

I. 3. 5. 1

;

VI.

3. 3. 2:

I. 2. 1. 1

;

I. 3. 5. 1

;

VI.

3. 3. 2:

I

I. 8. G.

l:f^i
7. 1:

VI.

3.

II. 4.

12.2:

4. 17: 4.

5^ *n
STTPfT

nr:

i

I. 2. 10. 2:

sfift
2:

ITT ^rr:

21:

^raj HHT 5CR^T ^IT:

I

VI.

1.

7.

\

II. 6.

10.

2-3:

jM

175
TTJ TITRr TT5
5. 11:
4*<l$l(3Ut&d4:

fW^cT.
i

II. 4. 14. 1:

6. 8:

^ ^T^%5
iT

i

III.

2. 7. 2: sr 5r

7. 24:

cfWr

^t

fft ^nfrwft

^nr^-

II. 4. 10. 2:

srffcfr

*<ft

8. 22:

sTfcm

%
I

srqRr

emm ^

T3-

VI.

1. 5. 4:
>

ffi*rr>

TM:

JMIIgJIMl:

10. 5: <r^0flti^^

Wf

i

ftf

I.

5.

1.

1:

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
3fKT
i

THE

TAITTIRIYA SAMHITA.

III. 3. 11. 4:

12. 18:

aj

V.
V.

5.

22. 1:

5. 18. 1:
7.

12. 41:a?ft:

I

V.

26.1:

THE NIRUKTA.
1.5:
I.

THE MAITRAYAN! SAMHITA
ll.
6.

Vol.

I.

p.

1G8:

1. 15:
1. 15:

I. 1. 9: I. 2. 1
I. 2. 1
;

III.

9.

3

;

III. 9. 3

ftfiri

II. 9. 9:

I. 4. 11:
2. 14:
l

III. 3. 1: ^ I

ft

3. 4:

I

IV.

6. 4: a?'?

i

ijgr

=?r

i

ftri

IV.

7. 9:

3.

20;

I. 11.

9

3. 21:
i

I. 9. 4:
i

1. 10. 4:

4. 6:

IV.

1.

9

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
4. 17:

THE MAITRAYA^I SAMHITA.
I. 2. 7:

gi^

*TT

^T:

i

IV.
4.

13. 8:

21:

IV. 13. 10: d

5. 5:
5.

cT

I. 10.

14:

ct

11:
I

IV.

13. 4:

srfWt

6. 16:

3

SffcT

IV. 13.

9:

<r

7. 13:

\

II. 2. 11:

II. 2. 10:
7. 17: srerft I. 4. 14:

^TT
7. 19:

?lcf

I

-

I. 8. 2:

^

I

7. 23:

II. 1.

2:

II. 1. 2:

II.
7.

1. 2:

24: arfto?

II. 4. 8:

ffoftl

8. 19:

IV. 13.

7:

8.

20:

:

11

32

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
8. 20:
I

THE MAITRAYAN!
I. 8. 1.
cl

SAMHIT/L.

^7 n

8. 22: 9. 42:
"

'1.4.

12: 13. 8. 13. 8.

IV.

9. 43:

IV.

12. 18:

III. 14. 15
I. G. 12:

12. 14:

^

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 5:
srrjprr
i

THE KATHAKA SAMHITA.
XIII. 14: snf* sir VIII. 3:-sr%gft3

1.

lOigftjfri

5 -ft^ll^cl1.

^

J

VI.
:
I

2:
2:

14:

a^RTrn
^5l?T^
I

VIII
I. 8:

1. 15:

1

II. 1: afta^
:

I

II. 1:

2.14: ^

^T

srg

at*

XXI.
\

3. 4:

XXVII.
IX.
9:
7:

9:

3. 21:

IX.
4. 6:

XXXI.
5ft* n
VTI:
i

7:

4. 17:

II. 8: gft* nr

XIX.
5. 5:

13:
8:

XXXVI.
X.
-

prar

7. 13:
7.

9:
1.0:

24:
[

XI.

^3 % ]

sfft

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
8. 4: ensftRrcisauiidia =*

THK KATHAKA SAMHITA.
\

WTH;

XXVI.

9:

%

VF\

8.

W:

8. 20:

VI.

1:

8. 22:

XXVI.
3fR*n

9: simr 9:

I

XXIII.

0n3IT%SRF3r

9. 42:
9.

43:

XIX. XIX.

13.

13.
1

10. 5:

XXV.
XII.
8:

11. 29:

11. 31:

2TT

<

12. 13:

XXII.

7:

arft
i

f|cit4

THE NIRUKTA.
V.

THE AITAREYA BRAHMANA.
7. 3:

qftifisNn?5i5nq&:

q*

1. 16:

I. 4. 9:

2. 24:

:

\

XXIX.
5 1
ft

4. 18:

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
3. 17: sffiftuftir;
i

THE AJTAREYA BRAHMANA.
XIII.
10.
2:

4. 27:

M-eRfa;

<friHK<tfl&

^ tfWi
3^ttK-

I. 1. 14: <F
[:
I

4. 27:

^^

I 3Wr

^

5RTT^t

II. 17.

2:

^r

^ t

^mtft

5.

11:

^rfWt

5i*fh^

^i*0

snft

1

^

!!

7. 11:

7. 5. 8: fiRr

^ ^^fT

1

fl^

w>i:

i

II. 17. 17:

II. 17.

17:

V. 32.

1;
l

7. 8:

e^cil^R^VhlPu 3R OT: 5n^>

II. 32. 1:

III. 13. 1:

IV. 29.

1:

VIII. 12,
7.

4:...

10:

3$dl(U$*Nftft

i

3?^fft^5^

II. 32.

III. 13.

i:

iv.

31. i:

^
4:

I

VIII.

12.

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
7. 11:
3?ttoic^ift>#*reftf5r
i

THE AITAREYA BRAHMANA.
aflJr

3ft-

II. 32. 1:

\

III. 13.

1:

V.

1. 1:

VIII.
V.

12. 4:

H<^i
7. 11: *ntfflfi^b(NT: ^*ft

q?M

i*l"&

4. 1:

VIII. 12.

4:

I

VIII. 12.

4:

*7

11*

f-^Yft^j^'i!

Q I^ij^ji/^-^i

.

j_Tv .TV

^__

"\^

12

1

*

VIII. 12.

4:

7. 12: q'ffo

qg^r

i

V.
vfqr&
i

19. 6: qsrr^r vfa'...

7. 17: 3Nift

^T^T

srfir: gsft

1. 1. 4. arffiS

^rfT:

I

^t
rrfifrn^

7. 23: ^nrf^-

w l^w^l*mft

XII.
VII.

3. 4:

a

7. 23:

1

spnft

l^rft^Jt

9. 1:

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
7. 26: mdRfrii 8.
*rrg:
i

THE AITARBYA BRAHMANA.
X.
6. 7:

4

8. 22:

STO ^

ST??RT: SFTI

m

SI^MI

I. 11. 3s

SIM I

1. 17. 14:

SPfRT
8.

22:

^r^

^rml ^R^ci

5?n^

crt

HIVII.

8. 1:

^

11.

29:

an

^

4)^lrfl
I

^I^T:

I

11. 2

%TTT

m U%& ftwft
*miw
qr

^^^

^

11. 31: qr

{^nm^ qtmr VII.
IV.

11. 3

12.8: ^URTT

^
i

JTR^J^^M
gfi^m^
i

?jt

7. 1: snrreftf

*Ttarc

nit

Jiwm^

^r

?& ^

iiR^i.
I. 16. 36:
I

12. 41: ^fJnif^^^'d

^n:

i

I. 16.

38:

L

16. 39:

I. 16. I. 1C.

12:

40:

THE NIRDKTA.
8: ?r^

THE KAUSITAKI BRAHMANA
d^*'(l"ij

^^iPrt^^^f*^

XXIII.

2:

T^TT

1. 9:

qifm %$

^rf%^
sftftr ^r

i

XVII.

4:
^ftfir

4. 27: qfe*

% I

5Rrr%
I

^^:I

III. 2:

I

6. 31: 3T^RT^:

1

J[ ^ SCTOT

VI.

13:

7. 5. 8: ftB 7. 5:
*r*

t^ ^RTT |& ITOT:

I

VIII.

8:

^

I

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
7. 8: arcRTiwfft^fr
i

KAUSITAKI BRAHMANA.
N: w.-

3*4

VIII.
5fa>
:

9:
...
I

Weft

XII.

4:
1:

XIV.

XIV. XIV.

3: 3ri$nit%
5:
1:

XXII.

writ

w^

i

^^ ^ ^1

......
...*TT33ft

^
tor

q,

II

1

7. 10:

arfen^NnR

i

aRitarafeft

VIII.

9:

XIV.

1:

$f

^I^HTTU

XIV.

3: t

XIV. 5: XXII. 2:

f 5ft-

XVI.

l:
1

^I
^^

^^^nTT^

XXII.
7. 11:

2:

^PqiteR^ift

I

SJ^ 3ft*

VIII.

9:

^>:...

XIV.

1:

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.

KAUSITAKI BRAHMANA.

XVI.

1

;

XXX.
|

^UqMH.

XXII.
7. ll:

3:

<

XXII.
cT

5:

W

3.

^mcff

5RfH! ter

XXII.

9:

-

XXIII.

3:

7. 12: qftR:

qsfTO

XI.
I.

2: 3TT
4.

I q%:

3,

XIII.

2;

XIX.

4. 7:

7. 23: 3|*nfH
7.

s^Rtw g^i^i^irtl
i

VT3T&

I

IV.

3: ^l^lbMlci^^l q 3:

23: 3?^r

qi snfiRitsBSkrsR:

5&

i

IV.

smt I

f^nd

^
I...

7. 24: 7.

3|%

f|

^J

Ifcb'cbMiw:...!

V.

8:

3W q^4
1:

t^TTo5:

17:

ftgii^t*&*T

3%&

I

f& ^

XXV.
X.
3:

8. 4: omftf^TT^'mcf^

1

^ ^PTl
%riq)s^i^i:
I

8. 22:

33qT q

SRfRT

III. 4:

^T^

I

^n:

i

^& VII.
X. 3:

i: 5imr

I

^^n^r arqr^r sr^rsn:

t

SIM I
6:

JPTFSit

10. 32: smfoftsft

gf^s^

I

VII,

3?A I gftm

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
11. 29:
ill.

THE KAUSITAKI BRAHMANA.
1:

<T

Hi u1

11. 31:

37

5R7

12. 8:

TT%

xviii. 1:

12 14:

vi.

13:

THE NIRUKTA.
7. 17:
iii.

THE SADVIMS'A BRAHMANA.
7:

3?f^

^

11. 29:

IV.

6:

11. 31:
^TT

IV.

6:

ff.

1

......

THE NIRUKTA.
1. ISi
1.

THE

TAITTIRIYA BRAHMAXA.

III. 2. 8. 4: 35

15:

III. 3.

7. 1:

3. 8:

<t

II. 3. 8. 2:

II. 3. 8.
<< c

4:
I

n*i'% id
sj

<c

3. 20:

I. 5. 2. 5, 6:

3. 20: Sfcnfr

II. 7. 18. 3:
I

^rrft

33

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.

THE S'ATAPATHA BRAHMANA.

1. 15:

swwfsPNtenj:

i

VI.

1. 3. 7.
i

p. 505:
*

1. 15:

3fa$ srre&TO

I

III.

1. 2.

7:

S# f|#:

I

I3H*

t*R

I

III.

i.

2.

7:

^%
2.

i

The passage
6.
4. 10.

is

repeated
8,

in III.

and III.

12. verbatim reading
3ffe:

*TCg:

and

for g*: respectively.

II. 5. 2. 9:

6:

SW-zHjW

lf^T$P5*T^ yfa 3fcq%

IX.

4.

1.

9:

2. 10:

sg^S^reTT^r:
I

I

S*?fa^-

XIV.
^tS^

2. 2. 2. p.

1035:

aw %

TTN:

^rf

v^cKHl^

ti*jS
'

^if^T vgftfe
3. 4:

^5^5^^

3Tin^ffTcH^%

f^^f^RT^

I

XIV.

9.^4. 8. p. 1106:

%

3. 16: cWt T3: lT^fd:

I

VI.

2. 1. 4:

4.

21:

3?*nftr

^fi^M

^^

I

ft^iJ-

I. 9. i.

2427:

3?r

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.

THE S'ATAPATHA BRAHMANA.
also in

XII.

3. 2. 1.

XII.

3. 2. 3: tffa

^ I

5RTT&

~

XII. 3.2.

4s

9* <T*

375M

.

5: 3Tft:

^ft^TRtsTT^}^ ^tfft^-

XL
H.

2. 3. 1:

<s!%sft

7. 14: 3Tft:

^Wc^

i

3T1?oft

*R&

I

9fR

2.

4.

2:

VI.

1.

1.

11:

I

7. 17: o?*nft ?ii4H *H^f
^SRirs
I

\

sjftr: ^?ft

! 6. 2. 8:
f^RTIi;

<&q
^f ??:
?T

7. 23:

9rai*i)<fiRfcf

|&

^

^Tft^f:

I

IX.
VI.

3. 1. 25:

I^PT

6. 1. 5:

I

7. 24:

g*tRnqi4}f^ %Sf!$|U!l() VRf^tTi

XIII. 3. 8, 3: 5[4(PNt) V. 2. 5. 15; VI. 6. 1.
VI.
VI.
4. 3. 4:
I

5.

7. 26: STRfft^T ^Tg:

I

9?q

T^t"
8. 10: 3^rWTnUT 8.
I

^U^T

I^RI ^T

I

7. 2. 3:

22:

5Jr^t%

^ STM^^t^ra^T^n
5RT5H

I. 3, 2. 9:

I

^^s^rr

fgt

I. 3. 2. 8:

^$reKOT&

i

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
8.

THE S'ATAPATHA BRAHMANA.
3T
Sf'JzjRr

22:

5TTTT

^

SUitai:

EM

XI.
VII.

2. 7. 27: 5JTTT

3

SPITS*!:

9, 20: 33 fr $ff^gf()<i

d&&MMOTfri

5. 1. 22:
[

&
*

9. 24:

ftrgteTBRm
I

I

I. 9. 2. 20:

am
/*

i

9. 26: 3H<T smJtth
i

VI.
_.rvf^
i

1. 1. 9:
i

A IU.

D:

K

^^tjvn^w <jJic<H*lW Smsw**!

_..

j-TtJl

_

j_

rr

,f\.

r\

.-

.

^

i

I

12L.

r

"v

1.

i

!

o:

10. 7: 10. 8:

Qffincft

^ S^
5nt:

I

V.
7

2. 4. 13:
1. 1. 2:

^
I

2j^T

^Vwft ^-

VI.

ff

10. 26:.

&j^r...^t^

srerfa iraift

XIII.

7. I. 1

10. 31: 12. 14:

*rfcrr

^t?i Jrefcn

i

I. i. 2. 17:

sfon I

3T^^T
I

^l^<rf^HT

^^^1
f&
^T

!

7. 4. 6:

THE NIRUKTA.
I.

THE MANTRA BRAHMANA.
I. 6. 5:

15: 9?fa^ 5fR^f*I

I

.

6. 6:

stanzas are quoted by Sayanacarya in the introductory remarks of his commentary on the Mantra Brahmana.

The following 2

Cf.

N.

1. 18.

[APPENDIX!

Daivata Brahmana of the Satnaveda
III.

Khanda

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
7. 12:
:

KHANDA
R^-cWH^
I

in.
1
I

I

TR^ft

\

I

i

^

i

:

nil
1*
3F
i

I

5

n

K

u

1

1^

N.

7

13:
I

I

*\v

i

This passage
in

Gune
p. 51.

is cited by Bhand. Comm. Vol.

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 16:

GOPATHA BRAHMANA
II. 2. 6;
p. 171:

2.

10:
T:
I

:

I

I. 1. 7; p. 7:

4.

27: 533:

I. 5. 5:

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
4.

GOPATBA BKAHMANA.
I. 5. 5; p.

27

I

119:

i

7. 8:

:-

I. 1.

29; p. 21:

ft

^RT*&

I

I. 1. 17;

p. 13:

ci^T

I. 2.

24; p. 62:

^TT

II. 3. 12; p. 199:

IL

3.

10;

p. 196:

II. 3. 16;

p. 202:

7. 10:

I. 1.

29: 2J^rr c|i$4cf*l

I. 1. 18:
1. 1. 17:

TO
*n

.

2. 24:

II. 3. 10:
II.
3.

12:

<t

II. 4.

4:

^

f|

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
7. 11:
.

GOPATHA BRANMANA.
1.

29:
;

^^ u
.

^t gti
<T$T

i.

19:

I.

2.

2

II. 3. 10:

II. 4. 18

7. 12:

I- 3. 8: 3
I. 3. 10:
1. 4.

24:

7. 17:

^r

II

1.

12

7. 23s

ift

:

i

L

2 - 20:

8. 22:

cTT

II. 3. 4:

f

5pn<l

cff

JR^T
11. 29;
^ri

*

II. 1. 10:

u

11. 31:
^ftrTU

12. 14:

II. 1. 2:

I *PT

THE NIRUKTA.
4. 27:

THE AITARBYA ARANYAKA.
III.
2.

SF ^ I

i:

^nr

^

THE NIRUKTA.
2. 11:

THE
II. 9:

TAITTIRIYA ARANYAKA.

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA. N.

SARVANUKEAMANI.
Paribhasa

1. 2:
1.

s&Wq-farait

t^

I

1.

N.
N.

15: ^qrrfteJRT^

1.

20:

N. 2.10,11:

cf.

61. 98:

rs. 2. 11: =tr,R<^ific^

paribhasa

2. 4: 3p?r ^I^W

^ ^ft

:

I

N.

2. 24:

s ftwBN>

^35R

7rrgr

18 3 3:

si

qfcTRi

jN. 5. 13:

vJsj^'-^Ki ..i^T^i <^MrPJJ5fl-

*.

166. p. 12....

N.

7.

!h

cTsnfr

^wrfr 5JTtTRrc<ffaf

paribhasa

2. 5: qr

paribhasa

2. 7:

N.

7. 3:

N.

7. 3: i^FT^r^fi ^ri'i^r^i
i

^

ERlqsuiqr

56. 34:

^
N.

7. 4:

*TT%T*CTJ^iforMT

tr^

sficTT

paribhasa

2. 14:

t^r

^1

^IHk^f

pari

2. 16:

pari 2. 18:
pari 2. 12:

N.

7. 5:

fe^T

^ ^j ^
:
i

% TOT:

,

paribhasa. 2. 8: ft
?cTte

qipssft
:
i

^FcTft^r-

...... srft qn

par i 2.13:

N.

7. 12: s^tffo

g^ro

paribhasa. 2.

6:

[APPENDIX I

THE NlBUKTA.
N.
2. 10. *&riti

DlPlKA.

vxwt

\

Ved.

dip. 2. S; p. 60:

N.

2. 11.

Ved.

di P- 2

-

4 P- G0: 3 ^
>

fr

II

Ved.
Ved.

dip. 1. 1; p. 57:

3^5

^f^RT^

H^|5

I

N. N.

7. 12:

dip. 1. 1; p. 57:

^?F^TOI
9.

32.

SF^E:

^F^T'it

T

Ved,

dip. 1. 2; p. 58:

THE NIBUKTA.
1. 1:
-

R. PUATIS'AKHYA.
12. 5: G99:
ii*fKg<<Ki3<KPft

\

12. 5:

700-701
:

U

12. 8: 707.*

12

*

8:

12. 6:

702-703

1. 4:

n; ftqRfT...TTJJ qni

12. 8: 707:

I

1.

9:.

aw

12.

9:

708:

-

17:

2. 1: 105: ^

34

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 1:

ATHARVA-VEDA PRATIS'AKHYA.
1*

The following verses are cited by the commentator in the
begining of the fourth chapter see J. A. O. S. vol. 7. p. 591 ): (

II. 1:
\

cf.

N.

1. 3.

II.

17*.

tt*i

i

ar^rft^TT q ^Ti^pftR^r:

^c

:

II

*

ii

THE NIRUKTA.
1.1:
8.

THE VAJA. PRATIS'AKHYA.
52:

1. 1:

8.

54-55:

1.

3:
*re

1. 4:

VI. 24:
i

THE NIRUKTA.
1.3:

THE

TAITTIR!YA PRATIS'AKHYA.

1.15: 3?I5IRtTTTf^I^7ftRnM^rf|: U

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
1. 1
:

BRHADDEVATA.
!Brh.

D,

II. 121:
I. 44:

N.

1. 1:

i

Brh. D.

^

N.

1. 2:

Brh. D. II. 121:
q

[

APPENDIX I

THE XIRUKTA.
N.
1. 4:
i

THE BRHADDEVATA.
frr-

3T4

mim

3-^13%^%

Brh. D. II. 89:

N. l.i: ?tam% ^rarrc N.
1. 5:

3TJTr4

H^ft

i

Brh. D. II. 91:

^

*

ftr*

9TO3T rare

SW^

TO**:

Brh. D. IV. 48-50:

*

N.

1.

6:

5T

sFmffc

*

*?:

^^1^ Brh. D. IV. 50-51:
I!

^TO
N.
1. 9:

II

q^OTref

fonsf^mT:

^it-

Brh. D.

II.

90-91
r:
i

^

II

N.

1.

20:

^T^^^^^T^

ft^aiTl

w-

Brh.

I).

I.

18:

N.

2. 2:

3T^ ?Tfeg[?wi%^Tfe

^...

Brh. D.

II. 106:

II

N.

2. 10: %wrfo$TTf^T: 5FrR3j sffefr

Brh. D. VII. 155-157;

VIII.

1:

5T

II

VIII. 2-6:

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIKUKTA.
:

THK BRHADDEVATA.
i

I

IX

N. N.

2. 12: gdfef:

3*

ttf

2.

17:

arftwri^

i

Brh. D. V. 166:

3T

N.
N.

2. 18:

3W

Brh. D. III.

9:

5W

2. 23:

Brh. D.

II.

135-136:
i

N.

2. 24:

Brh. D. IV.

106;

107:

T

ft:

N.

5. 13:

Brh. D. V. 149:
I

II

N. N.

5.

14:

Brh. D. V. 155:
RT% %^T srm^R;
i

6. 5:

5HP2

Brh. D. VI. 138:

N.

6. 31:

F^cfh..3ict.

Brh. D. IV. 139:

^T^rT^:

N.

7. 1:

Brh. D.

I. 6:
i

atf

'.

It

N,

7.

3:

Brh. D.

I.

3:

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
7,
4:

THE BflHADDEVATA.
Brli.

D.

I.

73; 74:

?

N.

7.

4:

Brh. IV. 143:

3rrg'4

^rft

3
N.
7. 5:
-

Brh.

I.

G9:

N.

7.

8:

3?q

$*: SRT-.S^ 3*RU

Brh. D.

I.

115-116: <?t^s4

I.

119-120:
rr^
II

^
I

i

ajrarf
I.

Tft^t 117-118

N.

7. 10:

Brh. D.

I.

130-131:

Shorter

recension

]

II. 6:

Shorter recension
:
II

]

II.

2-5:

n a

i

i

^T

T:

jwrr

^

3:7

u

[APPENDIX I

THE NIROKTA,
N.
7. 11: 3?HT <stR<icffa*T^T

THE BHHADDEVATA.
TO

w&
'

Brh. D. II. 13:

3?4r

atfH *re4

<*fa:

II. 14:

II.

15:

ipr&r
ii

3

f^rer^:
II. 1C:
1.

g^m

11(3:

cf. I.

131.
*^

N.

7.

13:^nTr:...$TfW3:..

,..sis'*n-

Brh. D. 1.17:

3"
N.
7. 14:
srfjf:

^CTRT

i

srjfjfte^f

i

Brh. D. II. 24:
u

r:

N.

7. 18:

qpr

*
:
I

^^

3?9T rtrfS-

Brh. D.

I. 78:

WMM+Hd

3T1T

^^^ ^
Brh. D.

'H
II

1^3^" 5WH

N.

7.

19:

^T3%^T:...5fT3TT^

%^

I

I.

92:

Kl

II.

30:

%Rr^r
II.

n

31:

N.

7v

23:

ifeR5R^Tt5f^*rft'3^n*T3-

Brh. D.

I.

102-103:

[APPENDIX!

THK NIRUKTA.
N.
7. 23:

THE BRHADDEVATA.

wrft wrfWt ai/rret Brh. D. II. 1G-17: sHfrsRt 5*: n sftwrfrJ annft sNtfrt 3% * -

ft

cf.

7.

24.

N.
N.

7. 24:
I

^Hil^KVHST JRrg^s^W:

Brh. D. II. 8-9:...qi&r 3 yam

u

8. l:

sfiroten

^WT^I ^4

f

zfim-

Brh. D.
Sl^

II. 25:

T:

I

guii^ U
II

N.

8. 2: evcd

?ft^:
:

i

^ ^r
r:

sgfj*:

I

Brh. D. III. 61:

I.... ..............
i

3

i^ft^l^t:

3TiW-

Brh. D. III. 65:

:

II

N.

8. 2:

arMiren

^ftsr

H^TRr ^PR^ Brh. D. HI.
II

III. 64

u

Brh. D. III. 63-64:
I

Sfs^f
I

siig^i^

1^

^T^
II

I

XM^T^RT: ^RR

N.

8. 3: TT^

ft

iRRf

gi^rr

^T qi^filRrr

Brh. D. III. 26:

ar4 snrprf ft

<ift:

N,

8. 5:
I

^
N.

^na^pR^urr:

SPTRT

^M*
I

Brh. D. II. 27:
fe& fT^R:
8

8c 6: ^TT?wt 3Rf $

WTR:

^Tf

Brh. D. II. 28:

III. 2-3:

:

U

N.

8.

10: ;r%fr TTfiRW

i

^f^R

^-

Brh. D. III. 9:...5TOnraM
I

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
8. 13:
c?rer

THE BRHAPDKVATA.
?TTO:
i

enforce sfr

Brh. D. III. 16:

X.
X.

8.

14:

^rf^^STTffr^ ^
I

Brh. D.
3tS*n

III. 25:
*T^
I

<BJf^ flfTTflRftsffrftFt STR^^fr:

*H^ft%

8.

22: dl'wHf^faF^rnftti^ift

i

^tar

Brh. D. II. 154-157:
infr n

ar?fa

STOTO

11

:

i

u

N.

0.

23:

H<*t *|t*f ^ft'^H

=*

Brh. D. VIII: 12:

711

X.

9. 40: 3?n^fKt
1

i

ipt

^rrgs
i

1

3 ^RT- Brh. D. V.
fjTrcfKr

8: ^rg:

3^:
i

ft^

1

^(ti

^TTters ^n?1?!^

f^ 3
N. 10. 5: qr^TT?ref ^^ftr^r 'PTSTO
i

^ 1?*^ ^ *FTn
II. 34:

^3^15^

^Pn

_
^IT^^I^r:

U

Brh. D.

X.

10. 8:

CT ^r

OT^f

i

Brh. D. II. 36:
i

U

N.

10. 10:

q^^^RTfrqffcTO

rri-

Brh. D. II. 37-38: ^tori

^i
II

q^

X.

10. 12:

wraftAwr:

qi?TT

i

Brh. D. II. 40:

N.

10. 27:

crr^:...^s^cift^%^i

Brh. D. II. 58:

N.

10.

42:

^cTRT*T*farTr3FJ*r*dl ft

i

Brh. D.

I. 17:
I

U

[APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
10, 44: 4teft:

THE BRHADDEVATA.
vTCRrtor

*

*t

Brh D. V.

166:

N.

11. 5: *RWTn3Ri?flr

i

^d

ITRTT

Brh. D. VII. 129 (B):

^5 wfr

N.

11. 6; jfryfmJlfl
TT
I

*R?t

qa vmi-

Brh. D.
^t^T

II.

60:

TI^TT

N.

11. 16:

^Rfcrr

^rnr

5$

-**R

Brh. D. III. 83:

N.

12. i; ^refaft <iNiftwiiagrtrt
i

Brh. D. VII.

126:

^
i

II

N.

12.

14:

tf:

^M^M^asrfr

Brh. D. VII. 128 (B):

5
N.
12. 16: are q^trrtq

cfcr

Brh. D.

II. 63:
:

I

1

N.

12. 18:

aw

^ftMvr^Vf-

Brh. D. II. 69: iM|
:

n

N.

12.25:^%^Rn%i
12. 27:

Brb. P. II. 65:

N.

w

^m^nr^R%%

Brh. D. II. 67
n

:

:

n

N,

12. 40:

*g ftft^d

cffftfcrrcf

Brh. D. II. 133:

g 35

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
Cf. 1.
3.

PANINI'S ASTADHYAY!.
I. 4.

83-97.

1. 3: an

I. 4. 89:
I. 4.

91:

I, 4. 94:
.1. 4.

:

96:

I. 4.

87:

I. 4. 88:
I. 4.

97:

ar

1. 17: <K' *3Trt:

*ftm

I

I. 4.

109:

THE NIRUKTA.
N.
1. 1:

THE ARTHASISTRA OP KAUTILYA.
II. 10: 28, p. 72:

?T3f

N.I.
N.

3:...

1. 4: ere

ftqrm

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 7:
1.
:
I

THE UNADI SUTRAS
II 50:

13:

:

I

I.
:
i

150:
4:

1. 18: 1. 20: ?fWt
i

II
1.

sffafts^rsn-

147:

2. 2:

i

crar-

I. 29:

t

^rsrarrt

^
2. 5.

III. Ill:
II. 67:

[

APPENDIX I

2. 6:

III. 66:

IV.

67:

2.

27:

I.

151:

3. 5: r 3. 10:

V. 28:
I.

100:

ai

3. 21:

IV. 165:
III. 160.
II. 66:

4. 10:
4. 17:
7.

24:

III. 89:

8. 2:
9. 27:

II. 50:

II. 58:
II. 22:
I. 13:

10. 5:
10." 4:

11. 30:

III. 40:

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 1: 3?ft

THE MAHABHASYA OP PATANJALI.
Vol. III. p. 274:

M^Idlf^t

1-

^^

!

P

3:

-q^ift

V.

3. 2.

Vol. II. p. 418:

The passage
to
I.

* Of. Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute, vol. IV. part 2. pp. 119-120. The reference on p. 119 in lAe Annals is full of inaccuracies.

Unadi I. 156; I. 158; II. 235 is wrong; the correct reference being I. 150; 147; II. 67 respectively The quotation of the sutras is wrong on the same page: srggft etc. should read sr^ijgfr. On. p. 120. ^rcrf^vqf IV. 67.
should read ^^if^rtf^TTl The passages of the Nirukta are also inaccurately Bub the quoted: On p. 119 the derivation of 55$pft: is quoted as g^<^mig| Tne passage in the Nirukta 4. 10. is the following: 53$TW
|

f^

^ftatw
'

I

reference of this passage is wrongly given as 4.9. On p. 120 '<M*fa'<lWfo: (sic.) should read qft: ER^ l-tffof ^TO Similarly N. 3. 5, 3^3 SfrffrM ^f^ ( sic. ) should read sw$ ^T
I

\

(

N.

2.

18).

[

APPENDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.

THE MAHABHASYA
1, 1. 1.

OP PATANJALI.

Vol.

1. p. 1, 5:

*9w
i

1. 4. 4.

Vol.

1. p.

356:

1. 1. 1.

Vol.

1.

p.

C: ft

1

2: ^wnffmr^TTj

3X?&

*tomy s^fK 1.1.
'i

6.

Vol.

1. p.

105:

er

1. 1. 9.

Vol.

1. p.

175:

^^T

1. 2:

q^

^rafsMEKT

*R

;:

cfr& ^T^faftn

I

1. 3. 1

;

Vol.

1. p.

258:

R
i

i

..

3:

T

tfrihfT ^3

i^lf 3T^lf7i<lgRft 5TI^-

1. 3. 1.

Vol.

I. p,

256:
365:

2. 1. 1.

Vol.

I.

p.

2. 2.

1.

Vol.

I. p.

416:

2. 1. 3.
5. 1; 1.
5Tf%

Vol.

I. p.

393:
qft

Vol. 2. p. 343:
I

qc&

1. 3. 1.

Vol.

1. p.

256:

1 4: *TRrf arrert

JHI^

I

1. 1. 3.

Vol.

I.

p. 38:

6: iwriRn^ qfa

\

gtenst

Hm^r^

i

5. 3. l.

Vol.
r:
i

II. p.
etc.

407:

[

APP1NDIX I

THE NIRUKTA.
.

THE MAHABHATA
6. 1. 1.

OF PATANJALI.
J

7.

Vol. III. .p. 16:

$tf
5.

I

1. 2.

Vol. II. p.

356:

I.

9:

Cf. 3. 2. 2. Vol. II. p, 119:

S^lf%
1. 1

I

Vol. III. p. 408: sftssRnft
3.

3.

1.

Vol. II.

p. 138:

1.

15

I. i. 9.

Vol.
$f

I. p.

175:
i

^3.

i

s^r^rs^ *r^rrtM(:
I. p.

1. 1. 9.
i

Vol.

17G:

2.

1.1.

Vol.

I. p.

3G3:

1, 17;

1. 4. 4.
3ft*TT

Vol.
I

I. p.

354: <R:

8.

3.

1.

Vol.

III. p.

430

.

18:
c^||

1. 1. 1.

Vol. I. p.
^T3J%
|

2:

l^l^Hcf

1. 19:

II

1. 1. 1.

Vol

I. p. 4:

[APPENDIX!

THE NIRUKTA.
2.
1:

THE MAHABHASYA

OF PATANJALI.
-

swgqvn^

*refr

3W3^g-

C. 1, 1.

Vol. III. p. 17:

2. 1:

eWMRRrft ?
1
I

*rcfr *Jter

n*:

1. 1. 2.

Vol.

I.

p.
ft^:
I

^>1:

fa$?lW&fr
2. 2:

W&: forai:
i

^:

srefirtfaiw

$ft3t%5r

*TM^

1. 1.

l.

Vol.

I. p. 9:

5115
2. 18:

>

^

TlM

^TTfR^r:

I

Vol. III. p. 3G:

2.

21: ^fti^

S<T: i-...^r^m

3?i^^
^r

Vol.

III.

p.

1C:

m|fcr:

3. 1:

srm

$*TR i...^i^r q^ft^

i

5. l. 2.

Vol. II.
I

p. 356:

3. 9:

*R ^Wc^

I

fofcftfr ^T:

I

5. 1. 2.

Vol.
I

II.

p.

356:

ftffift&TH.

3. 16: enteJtssr
ft?IT
I

STTX

^3^^

i

*rt3i>

3. 3. 1.
3TTCT:
I

Vol. II. p. 146:
41^ (^cf
If^fkl:
I

3. 18: fof:
^T^T
I

^-TOI
^nq^:

tM ?n^fiw(tI

3, 1. 6.

Vol. II. p. 87: t&:

3. 21: %*r:

1. 2. 3.

Vol.

I.

pp. 245-6

^t%sft" 5fr
4. 9:
I

^<4(<icl

to^" ^TftT^ srefa

cTrf

:;

I.

1.

1.

p.

4:

4. 10:
:

Tj>i*te...n^T
I

II

ti^ft^ MftM'llH
Iftfo
i

1. 1. 1. p. 4:

f:

SR^^

^fM

^

e=^^

*T2ri^

I

^ftn

fi^^ft ^r^r i...(kT

[

APPENDIX I
OF JAIMINI.

THE NIRUKTA.
1. 15: 3NTft
1. 15: aroiuj

TUB PURVA MIMAMSA
1. 2. 36: 1. 2.

38:

1. 16:

1. 2. 40:
1. 3.

30:
i

TO;
16:
1. 2.

4

^Tr
1. 16: 1. 2. 41:

gurwi

^:

1.2.45: 4
1. 16:

1. 2. 47:

B-p^
1. 16:

1. 2. 49:

S

THE NIRDKTA.
1. 1:

Sarvadars'anasamgraha. THE PAXIXIDARS'ANA.
p. 140.
q"

1. 1:

p.

144.

1. 1:

p.

135

1.

3

:

p. 140:

3$

frote.

The

references are to the pages of Sarvadars'anasamgraha edited in Bib. Ind. published at Calcutta in 1858. The system of Panini is discussed in the 13th section of the Sarvadars'a. pp. 135-147 in this edition.

36

Additions.
P, 4. line 9:-Devariija says that Madhava does not read but ftr^ and sn<r^ as synonyms of water, ft^ occurs in the Veda as a synonym of water, but as Rr^nj; is used in the spoken
language

bhdxd ) in the sense of water, the adoption of ftra^ is not WT^ is extremely obscure. It has never been quite appropriate. It may however of water by ancient teachers. used as a synonym
(

be explained in the following way:

P.

9.

I.

ll:-For
Siw:
I

*re

as a

synonym

of sra

cf.

S'B. 9. 4. 4.

3.

p. 738: sra

^

in his
(

P. 10.1. 8:-s^H[o5T are quoted as synonyms of cow by S'abara commentary on the Purvamimdmsd. on X. 4. 32. p. 492.
)

Jivananda's edition.

P. 11. 1. 2:~3atyavratasamas'rami attributes the reading H% to Devaraja (see p. 236. Bib. Ind. edition ). This is incorrect for Devaraja really reads ^rcr^ see p. 240. op. cit.

Mss. and printed editions of the the iiddtta accent on the ya of T^fS which occurs in Nighantu put RV. IX. 3. 5 and does not bear any uddtta. re?f occurs in RV.
P. 25.
1.

1:-A11 the accented

:

VIII.
87.

101..

2 also without the uddtta.
is

j4$

is

found in
it

RV. X.

3 and

accented on the syllable

ya

because

occurs in a subo

rdinate clause.

As

P. 26. 1. l:-5pr^ftff bears a double accent an example of devatd-dvandva compound
It occurs

in the
it

Nighantu.

should have a
57. 5

double accent.
accented on the
it is

once only in

RV. IV.

and

is

RV.
cf.

only gThftfr although a devatd-dvandva compound. The form spTfafrTT occurs IV. 57. 8. and is also accented on the first syllable only.
1.

first syllable

it is clear

that
in

P. 27,

8 -.-With Yaska's

definition of a

noun and a verb,

Bhartrhari, Vdkyapadlya.
2.

346:

P. 28.
S'abara

1.

in his

l-2:-The passage commentary on the

t<N^^...WbRf Purvamlmdmsd

is
1.

quoted by

L

5.

p. 15,

with the remark:

P. 29

1.

l:-cf. Bhartrliari,

Vdkyapadlya,
u

2.

347:

P. 30.

1.

13:-^r^R ar^TRT
7.
}

is

quoted by Ksirasvumin

in his

AmaratlM,
Cf. Va-

p. 114.

wdna, M.

29-30. pp. 200-1.

Cf.
cf,

Apastam. Dh. Su.
1. 3. 13:
cf. Pcanini,
1.

1
I

S'abara on
1.

wmw Htsfafo:
101:

14:

8. 2.

18-19:-The two lines are quoted by Kumarila Bhatta in his commentary Tantravartika p. 213, reading sNfa for 5^5!

P. 40.

I

P. 41

f

1.

5-6:-Cf.

Vis'varupacarya in the Balakrtdd
a variant for
8. 2. 53.

p.

83:

is

P. 42.
:
I

1.

4:-Cf< S'abara,

vol. 2.

p.

252:

srft

P. 44.

1.

4 :-3*<HT$R^JT*rr;H is^i fa4^

i

^

is

quoted

by Kumarila

Bhatta in the Tantravartika p. 214.
1.

10:-^^T
1.

5^rtSr

is

a fragment of

RV.

I. 24. 11.
cit.

P. 45.

3:-Quoted by Kumarila Bhatta op.
1

p.

146:

1.

9 '.-^rsgfl
1.

3&

JTf5t8rf?r

looks like a quotation.

P. 48.
P. oO.

23:-Koth reads *Nnfo for WH^o.
10:-Cf.

1.

Mahabharata, Adiparvan,

(

Kumbhakona

49: ed.) 63.

In

cnftsfegrfrT,

.cRt

can be either in the vocative or in the

If in the former, the reading should be ?Rt rft?w%, if genitive. the latter, it should read aJTfaf^rfcf. The case is undoubtedly
vocative.

P. 51.
p. 39
;

14:-The quotation is found in Cf. MS. 3. 3. 1, Vol. III. p. 32.
1.
I

KS.

21. 2, Vol. II.

P. 52. L ISi-^sr^:

Cf.

Ndradas' iksdvivarnam.

i.

4:

P. 5G.
S^r
I

1.

ll:-For

cf.

32. 30. p. 105: Sus'ruta Sutra Sthdna, chapter VI. p. 22:
9FSJ
cf.

Vayu Purdna

Nirnaya sagar
cd. with the com. of Dalhana.

P. 57. footnote 4:-Add, N. X. 31.
1. 4:-Following the method of the Samhita text, be read gcfrft should

P. 58.

I

P. 60.
P.

1.

18:-Eoth reads ^TT.

Accent
is

is

wrong.

60. footnote

11 :-The quotation

from KS.

XXVII.

9.

Vol. II. p. 149.

P. 61. 1. 18 as well a footnote 14:-The quotation is attributed to the S'ruti of the Bhallavis by VisVarupacfirya in his commentary, the Bdlakndd on Ydjnavalkyastnrti p. 61.

P. 63.

1.

2:-Cf. S'ankara

on the

Vedanta Sutra
: i

1.

4.

12:

1.

6:-^T|;
1.

is

a variant for
like

P. 65.

19:-*ro^ 5*5: $*JT ^f^far looks

a quotation.

l:-The Mss. which mark accent on the quotation have changed the accent. The correct accent should be
P. 69.
1.

P. 76.
P. 79.
P. 85.
P. 95.

1.

ll:-Roth reads t^r
17:-3TTi^rT^ft
firere

for

1.

^%
is

seems to be a quotation.
identical with

1.

18:-The quotation

MS. IV.
I. 10.

13. 10.

1.

9:-The quotation

is

found

in

MS.

14;

KS.
19. u.

XXXVI.

8
1.

P. 96.

16:-For the quotation,

see

Ap. grant.
7.

Sii.

XII.

Footnote 16~add,
P. 99.
1.

RVKH.

XVII.
5. 7.

5:-Roth reads ^gs^^T^nj;

for

^is^^r^

i

-in

P. 99. footnote 2:-Omit VS. TS. II. 4. 14. 1.

The quotation

is

found

Foot note 5:-Omit VS.

5. 7.

Add,

cf.

AV. VII.

81. 6;

cf.

TS.

II. 4. 14. 1.

IX.

4

P. 100. footnote 12:-Durga's quotation is identical with KS. MS. I. 10. 2, except the last line, which reads in the KS.
;

as follows:
in the

'M^rWTft

vsr^taTm^w!

MS.
i

as follows:

The same WfT a^rrft %a% adrift *$ft a*r
ii
I
i

is

given

*rfortf*ft

P. 120.
a mistake.

1.

15:-S'ivadatta reads aa$ for TS.

It

is

evidently

There

P. 121. I. 8:-All the Mss. and printed editions read is no evidence therefore to question the genuineness of
it qualifies
it

m?uir

should have been seisin for ^^r is used *$**, in the masculine gender only and never in the neuter. Should this be taken as evidence in support of also used in the being neuter or a slip on the part of Yaska ?

but as

wr

P. 136.
P. 141. P. 150.
the
is

1.

19:-S'ivadatta adds
18:-3TRT%^r
is

*

after snffAnni

I

1.

a variant.
qrsrfar.

1.

8:-The text reads

The
is
is

root *n\is used in
fine distinction

Atmanepada in classical made in this passage i. e.

Sanskrit.

Probably a
used.

the solicitation

not meant for one's

self

but for others, hence the parasmaipada

P. 168.
(1) *mrft

1.

3:-wnft
or (2)

swrrftr

is

not correct.

It should
is

be either
corrupt.

sftfa

wmq;.

In

my

opinion, the text

P. 178.
should be
these critics

1.

sfrftr

20:-Some critics think that the correct reading and not snrrfa. This view is erroneous. It is clear,

have not understood the passage.

The word

arrftr is

used in the sense of tautology. Some scholars are of opinion that the recurrence of an identical expression in a stanza is tautology. Others think that the recurrence of the same expression
in a verse (pcida) is tautology.

Another school of thought holds
(

that
it is

if there

is

even a very slight difference
is

in the expression

),

the negation of tautology. *rer 5p*rr It is clear therefore that snTrfo and not grrftr

the correct reading.
justification,

P. 181.1. 14:-S'i7adatta reads

K^ without any

P. 186.

1.

3-4:-3f*T3

is

used in the masculine gender in the

third hut in the neuter gender in the fourth line.

(uTig

STTOT etc.

)

The word can he used in both genders, but it does not look consistent to use the same word in two different genders in practically the same sentence.
P. 193.
in
1.

14:-S'ivadatta reads
in

srflifiSr:

although the same word
i

is printed as ^trafo: I think, S'ivadatta confounds the Vedic word &fb with the

Durga's commentary

the same edition

classical

P. 194.

1.

4:-S'ivadatta reads ^ft after

P. 204. L 13 and 16:-S'ivadatta reads P. 206.
favour
1.

6:-S'ivadatta reads argwft

while

Durga seems

to

P. 216,
P. 225.

1.

7:S'ivadatta adds

^

after
is

1.

16:-The reading of the text
h-S'ivadatta reads

|$rer8rf<r.

I suggest

P. 227. have been

1.

ar$nft

which

is

wrong.

It should

3r$nr.
1.

P. 230.

4:-S'ivadatta reads

^ T^fto.
is

P. 23 L
I suggest

1.

5:-All Mss. read TOT which does not give any sense

*nft.
1.

P. 231.
subject
is

14:-The reading of the text

srf^r^ but as the

^

I suggest

Corrections.

Page

9

line

11 13 15
5

read
99

for

10
18

W
99
99
99

20 22
II
99

1I-(4| T
<rs*r<

99

9
2 9

23 24

99

99
99 99
J? 9)

99

25
30

99
99

13

99 99

12
6 7

32
41

99
99

99

99

J>

II
99 >9

42

U
47 51

99

10
14
8

99

99
99
9>

99
9)

>;

99
99
>

10
13

}>

9)

99

99 99
9>

ft
9)

52
53 55

99

19
7

99

99
99

99
99

12
3

99
99 99 99

99

59

9)

99 99

16

99

60
footnote

3
*

99
99 99

99
99

hemistich

hemistitch

61
99

line
99

2

2Q
15 11
11

99

ft
99

62 66
69

99
99 99

^f

:

99
99

99
99

'at

99
99
J9

19 70 71 footnote * 12 72 line

99
99

MS.
ffcft

I. 11. 9,
j;
?i

MS.

ii.

9.

74
75
_

9

99 99
99

9)
>>

15

>J

76
77 topnote
line

14
16

j>

99

99
99

99
J

99

37

Page
9!

78 79

line

8
1

99 *

Page

152

Page

THE NIGHANTTJ
AND

THE NIRUKTA
THE OLDEST INDIAN TREATISE

ON ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
CRITICALLY EDITED FROM ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS AND TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME INTO ENGLISH, WITH INTRODUCTION, EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL NOTES, THREE INDEXES AND EIGHT APPENDICES

BY

LAKSHMAN SARUP,

M.A. (PA Nj.),D.

PHIL. (OxoN.)

LATE PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PANJAB. LAHORE

INTRODUCTION, ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND NOTES

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS
DELHI
::

VARANASI

::

PATNA,

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\

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Motilal Banaridacs Bankipnr, Patna.

<

3.

TO

PROFESSOR
AS A

A. A.

MACDONELL

HUMBLE MARK

OF RESPECT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
(

Introduction

)

I.

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHAJfJV
a.
b.
c.

PAGE
5

Detailed description of Manuscripts

Two

recensions
his

Devaraja and

commentary

...... ....
.

9
10
11

Roth's edition of the Nighantu 6' Bibliotheca Indica edition of the >Nighantu /. Title of the work g. Division of the Nighantu
d.

12
13

13

h.

Author of the Nighantu

.

.

14

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
a. b.
c.

Earlier editions of the Nirukta

Detailed description of the Manuscripts Relationship of the Manuscripts two recensions
Omissio ex homoeoteleuto in Sanskrit Manuscripts Dittography in Sanskrit Manuscripts
1
.

.... ...
.

15

19

39

d.
e.

.

.40
41
.

/.

g.
h.

Three stages of interpolations 2. Parallel instance of Servius, commentator of Virgil Commentators of Yaska
1.

.

45 48
49
53

Yaska's contributions to Etymology Philology and Semantics

.

Date of Yaska

.

.

.

.

.

.

.53
54
.

2.

3

.

Phonetic equipment of Yaska Importance of Etymology
of Etymology
.

.

.

.

,56
57

4. Principles
5.

Plato on Etymology'

.

.

.

.

.63
.

6. Philological speculations
7.

of Yaska

.

.

.

8.

Origin of Language Parts of speech
.

64 66
66

.

.

.

9. Aristotle's definition

of

Noun and Verb
given
:

10. Semantics.

How

....66
.

names are
.

Criticism
.

and

t.

Rejoinder Early anti-Vedic Scepticism

.68
.

.

.

.

.

.

71

TABLE OF CONTENTS
(

English Translation and Notes

)

PAGE

CHAPTER
Four
classes of
.

I

words

Prepositions
Particles

Expletives

.

nouns derived from verbs The Kautsa controversy Importance of etymology Compilation of the Mghantu
all
.

Are

?

CHAPTER

II

Principles of Etymology Sakapuni and a deity Devapi and Santanu Vrtra Visvamitra and the Rivers

.

CHAPTER
Inheritance
Brotherless
.

III

maiden

.

Fingers

Synonyms of beauty
Niyoga
Similes

Onomatopoeia Synonyms of Heaven and Earth

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

vii

CHAPTER IX
Sakuni Dice
.

Quiver

Whip

.

Rivers Wilderness Ends of the

Bow

CHAPTER X
Vayu
Rudra
.
.

Brhaspati

Yama Ka
Indu

.

Tarksya Vita
.

CHAPTER XI
Soma
Death Maruts
.

.
.

LIST
AA.
AB.

OF ABBREVIATIONS
Pu.

AP.
Ap. Dh.

AV.
Bau.

Baudhayana Dharma Pu.= Bhagavata Purana. Bhag.
Bib. Ind.

= = = = = =

Aitareya Aranyaka. Aitareya Brahmana.

Purana.

PM.
R. Kh.

AtharvaVeda PratiSakhya. Apastamba Dharma Sutra.
Atharva Veda.
Sutra.

Brh. D.

Brh. U.

Ga.
Ga. Dh.

GB.
IA.
Is*a

U.

KB. KS.

= Bibliotheca Indica. = Brhad-devala. = Brhadaranyakopanisad. = Gautama. = Gautama Dharma Sutra. = Gopatha Brahmana. = Indian Antiquary. = ISavasyopanisad. = KauHaki Brahmana. = Kathaka Samhita.

Rgvidhana Khantfa. RP. or RPr. =Rgveda Pratis"akhya. RV. Rgveda R.Vidh. = Rgvidhana Kharcla. RVKh. = Rgvidhana Khanda. = advimsa Brahmana. ad. B. Satapatha Brahmana.
S. Su.

= =

Purva Mimamsa.

=

sv.

= Sam a Veda.

Samkhya

Sutra.

SV.B.
Sveta.U.

=
= = = = = * = =
=

Samavidhana Brahmana,
5vetasvataropaniad.
Taittiriya Aranyaka.

TA.
Tand.B. TB.
TPr.

Tandya Brahmana.
Taittiriya

Brahmana.
-

Taittiriya Pratis*akhya. Taittiriya Samhita.

MahanU.= Mahanarayana Upanisad. = Mahabhasya. MB.
Mbh. MS.

TS.

U. Su.
Va.
Vai. Su.
}

=

Mahabharata.
Maitrayani Samhita.

Unadi Sutra. Vasitha Dharma

Sastra.

MW.
N.

= =

Ngh.
N. Su.
Pa.

= = = =

Monier Williams' Dictionary.
Nirukta.

= Vaisesika Sutra. VP. VPr.= Vajafianeyi Prati^akhya.
VS. VSu. Ya. or
=

Vajasaneyi Samhita.

=

Nighantu.

Vedanta Sutra,

Nyaya
Panini.

Sutra.

a.

=

Yajftavalkya Smrti.

EIGHTH BOOK.

PREFACE
WHEN
I first

came

to

Oxford in the autumn of 1916,

I undertook,

on the suggestion of unutilized Nirukta Manuscripts, contained in the

Professor A. A. Macdonell, to collate the hitherto

Max

Miiller
if

Memorial
light

and the Chandra
materials at

Shum

Shere Collections, and to see

some new

could be thrown on the text of the Nirukta.

A

careful examination of the

my

disposal lias led

me

to the conclusion that the text of

the Nirukta has been gradually expanded by the addition of short passages, chiefly in the etymological explanations which easily lent themselves 'to

At present the history of this gradual expansion can be traced only down to the thirteenth century A.D. There is a lack of reliable evidence going further. But I have reasons to suspect that even
such interpolations.

up

to the thirteenth century, the text of the

Nirulda has not been handed

down with a uniform and unbroken

tradition.

A

few remarks of Durga

scattered here and there in his commentary open up the possibility that

is

the interpolators were already busy with their nefarious work. There no doubt that the text had already been tampered with. Thus one

should be cautious in making Yaska responsible for many passages, and the numerous absurd derivations contained therein, now commonly attributed
to him.
text,

All such passages have been pointed out in
sets

my

edition of the

which

forth as clearly as possible the history of the gradual
of square brackets
first

expansion by means
I

and

foot-notes.

have also produced, for the

time, a complete English translation

of the whole of the Nirukta.
critical

I

have added numerous exegetical and
possible
I

notes with a view to extract as

from Yaska.

And

in

order to

much information as make my work further useful,

have

and Appendices: (1) An Index to the words of the Nighantu with meanings ;] (2^ An Index to the words of the Quoted Passages occurring in the Nirukta vith meaning*; (3) an Index
also prepared the following Indexes

2

PREFACE
An An
Nirukta minus the Quoted Passages with meanings; alphabetical list of the ^Quotations occurring in the Nirukta
to the

Verborum
(4)
(5)

;

alphabetical
(6)

list

of the Untraced Quotations occurring in the

Nirukta;
Samhitas;

A
A

list list

of Vedic Quotations arranged in the order of the of the Authorities mentioned
;

(7)

01 Stories related
texts, i.e.

by Yaska

(9)

The Relation

of the

by Yaska; (8) A list Nirukta to other
of the etymologies

a collection of parallel passages from the Brahmanas, Prdti(10)
;

Sakhyas, Mahtibhdsya, &c.;
to be found in the Nirukta

An

alphabetical
list

list

Nirukta passages quoted (11) by Sayana. The whole work being embodied in the form of a dissertation was presented to, and accepted by, the University of Oxford, for the
of the

A

Notwithstanding the Statt. Tit. VI, which requires an Advanced Student to publish his thesis in extenso before supplicating for the said degree, the Committee for
Sec. v,
5. (8),

degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Advanced Studies very kindly permitted me
the very high cost of printing at present
alone.
I think I

taking into consideration

to publish the Introduction

need make no apology for bringing out this part only

at present, in the
If

hope that the

rest will follow in course of time.
it

my

labours have borne any fruit,

is

simply due to the guidance
it is

which I have received in the course of
pleasant duty
I

my

work, and which

my

very

to acknowledge.

owe a great debt

of gratitude to Professor A. A. Macdonell.
is,

The
his

inception of this study
suggestion.

as I have

already mentioned, due to
his supervision.

The whole work was done under

His guidance

and encouragement have been of invaluable help to me. And through his recommendation the Administrators to the Max Miiller Memorial Fund have
voted a

sum

of

50 for the publication of
I

my

dissertation

my

thanks to

them

for this generous help.

am much

indebted to Dr. F.

W. Thomas,

Librarian, India Office, and to Dr. J. Morison, Librarian, Indian Institute,

Oxford, for granting
readiness to help

me

facilities

in the use

of books,

and for their

way whenever I had the occasion to seek their advice. I desire to put on record my special thanks to Mr. Madan, ex-Librarian of the Bodleian, for permission to work on valuable manuin every
scripts during the

me

dark days of

air-raids,

when

the manuscripts had been

carefully stored away.

Professor A. B. Keith has placed

me under

great

PREFACE
obligation

3
difficult

by giving me his valuable opinion on many

points.

Dr. T.

W.

Arnold, C.I.E., Educational Adviser to the Secretary of State

for India, has taken a good deal of interest in

me

in almost every obstacle to the completion
It has been

my work and of my studies.

has supported

my

privilege to interpret an ancient Indian author,

who

Etymology and Semantics are concerned, is far in advance of the greatest of ancient Greek writers like Plato and Aristotle, and if he
as far as

comes to be better appreciated,

my

labour will be amply repaid.

LAKSHMAN SARUP
BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD.
July, 1920.

INTRODUCTION
THE NIGHA^TU
THE
following manuscripts have l>een collated for this edition of the
:

Nighantu,

1.

Max

Muller Memorial MS.

2.

3 and

4.
5.

,,

Chandra Shum Shere MS.

6, 7, 8.

=M1 e. 6 = M2 e. 7 = M 3 and M 4 respectively d. 184 = C 1 e. 62 = C 2, C 3, C 4 respectively
e.

5

9.

10.

MS. Sanskrit MS. Wilson
;,

e.

17

11 and 12.
13.

379 502 503

=S =W1 = W2 = W4

,

W 3 respectively

<(.

Detailed Description of the Manuscripts.

M

1.

This

is

a neatly-written manuscript in Devanagari characters on

paper. It originally consisted of 13 leaves, but the first two are missing The accent has been -marked in yellow ink. The text is not bounded on
either side

by double lines. The size of the paper is 9J" x 3|". The number of lines on each page
14
r.

varies

on

f.

as

ak. 1455, is not reliable,

from 9 to 10. The date given and has obviously been added at

a later period by a different hand, as the evidence of the writing indicates. The manuscript is well preserved, but neither its general appearance nor the condition and the colour of its paper, nor its spelling lend the least support to the date given above. It is on the whole accurate. It belongs
to the longer recension.
:

The

scribe

seems to have been a devotee of Krsna,

scribe, nor of the for he says ^V ftWLU^*^nor of the place of its origin, is known. owner, This is perhaps the oldest of all the manuscripts of the tfighantu. 2.

Neither the name of the

M

It is written in

DevaMgam
it suffers

many places of the ink.
:

In

from

characters on paper, but is not well preserved. illegibility, partly caused by the smudging

It begins *TOt TOUrra H the fiiksa Cati&taya in 26 leaves.

$

$

H

W
The

flj^f JH^Mlfa

.

.

.

,

&c.

It gives

different traUises are not bodily

6

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU

separated from each other, all the four, i. e. fiiksd, Jyotisa, Chandas and Nighantu being written continuously without a break. The end of each
is

found on

not marked.

12 r., and f. 24 v. respectively. The accent bounded on each side by double black lines. " The size of the paper is 9f x 4J" The number of lines on each page varies from 10-13.
f.

4 r., f. 7 The text

v., f.

is

is

It has preserved the archaic spelling in

many

cases, especially in the

<*KJW is written ItfcK^ULi: and <fK*ll*!j: as lrfK*JH5: on 15-26 are slightly worm-eaten. It was copied in the month of Phdlguna, Samvat 1778, by a scribe named ivananda. It belongs to
case of ^5t
f.
;

22

v.

Ff.

the shorter recension.
is a Devandgarl paper manuscript, neatly In this manuscript also the j&iksd, Jyotisa, Chandas, and Niyhantu are written without a break between them. The accent in the Niyhatdu is not marked. The size of the paper is 9"x4", and the number of lines on each page is 7. The text is bounded on each side by double red lines. The name of the owner is As'arama KedaresVara, son of

M 3.

This

written in

characters.

6n Xandarama.
is

It

was copied

for private study at Benares.

The date given
^00
H

Samvat 1801:

(sic)

^ne
II

manuscript ends

:

(sic)

JETt ^fU^*l^<sHI

II

It belongs to the shorter recension.

gives, in

This contains the iksa &c., without a break between them, and 23 leaves, the 6iksd, Jyotisa, Chandas, and Nighantu, which end on f. 5 v., f. 8 r., f. 13 r., and f. 23 v. The five adhayds of the respectively. end on f. 15 v., f. 18 v., f. 21 r., f. 22 v., f. 23 v. respectively. It Niyhantu
y
:

M 4.

begins

sft

ir%JTTO 1*:

N

^ $^1^5 W
;

II

TO

fiT*rf

H*WTfa,

&c.

It

ends

:

The size of paper is 8f " x Sf" the number of lines on each page is 8. The text is bounded on either side by double red lines. The accent is marked in the Nighantu with red ink. No date is given, nor the name
of the scribe, nor the place. It belongs to the longer recension.

C 1. It consists of three different manuscripts. The first manuscript, which gives tb* Nighantu in full, seems to be a fragment, for the first folio is numbered 10. It appears that originally it gave the iksa Catustaya,

VIII. 3149J

EIGHTH BOOK.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPTS

7

and that now the Nighantu alone survives. It begins on f. 10 r., and ends on f. 22 r. The text is bounded on each side by double red lines. The accent is marked. The size of the paper is 9" x 4J" ; the number of lines
is

11.

It ends:

(sic)

\ff(

fttjdl

M-<|jftUM<i:

II

^ft

fll

The date

Sale.

1875, and the

name

of the then owner, Gopala

Ananda

Sarasvati, are added in a different, probably later, hand. longer recension.

It belongs to the

C

2.

[e. 62].

It contains the
first
II

Is the first of five different manuscripts bound in one volume Nighantu in 17 leaves, marking the accent with

red ink in the
It begins
:
II
:

adhydya

only.
II

sft

*[%*TTO TO:
II

f ft:

^

II

It

ends

:

(sic)

tf?T

f*N%
is

ti*iiH-

Neither the date nor the name of the scribe
is

given.

The
is 7.

size of the

paper

8J" x 3 J"

The number

of lines on each page
is fairly

Ff. 15, 16, 17 are slightly worm-eaten.

It is written in

Devanagarl characters on paper, and

accurate.

It belongs to the longer recension.

Are contained in the same volume, each being a &iksa which the Nighantu forms a part. The text of each of these jsiksa Catustaya is written continuously, and is bounded by double red The size of the paper is 8 J" x 4, and the number of lines on each lines. is 10. The first two sections of the first adhydya are missing in the page first manuscript. The other manuscript is dated Samvat, 1852. Both are written in Devandgart characters and represent the longer
Gatustoya, of
recension.

C3-C4.

attributed to Yajnavalkya.

The other manuscripts are a Siksa attributed to The latter begins (sic)
:

Panini,
l

and a Siksd

^

i<aii
T,

<&c.

It

ends:

the

Another manuscript bound in the same volume gives in seven leaves iksd of the Sama Veda, attributed to Lomasa. It begins: If TO:
.

It has preserved

some old spellings

;

for instance, it writes

as

The

last

manuscript gives the Chandomafijarl in 5 leaves. It begins:

(sic)

8

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU
l

N

r:

^ ii*i^ njf^, &c
II
.

It ends

:

S4.

This manuscript contains five works.

The

first

four consist of

the j&iksd Catustaya, of which the first three works are probably written by the same scribe. The first part gives the fcilcsd in 6 leaves, the second the 1 Jyotisa in 4, the third the Chandas in 7 leaves, the fourth the Nighantu.

The first and third were copied in aka 1665, and the fourth in aka 1660. All these four parts are complete in themselves individually, each being
separately numbered. rayana of Themti.

The name

of their former

owner

is

JBhatta Jayanaside

by a pair of double red lines. accent is marked with red ink.
Keith, vol.
ii,

The text is bounded on each a neatly-written manuscript, The size of the paper is 9^" x 3f ". further details see Catalogue Codd. MSS. Mb. Bodl., by Winternitz

The Nighantu

consists of 9 leaves.
It
is

The
For and

p. 105.

The manuscript belongs t the longer recension, and does not seem to have been used by Roth. 1. This contains two different manuscripts. The first is Veddrtha-

W

dlpikd, a
It is

commentary on the Sarvdnukramam by Sadgurusisya. The second is the Nighantu. It begins on f 1 v., and ends on
.

f.

10

r.

without accent, quite modern, and

full of mistakes.

It is Roth's F.

It belongs to the shorter recension. For further details, see Catalogue Codd.

MSS,

Bib. Bodl.,

by Winternitz

and Keith,

vol.

W
I.

ii,

p.

104.

2.

The

This manuscript contains three different works. first work is the Siksd Catustaya. It is a continuously-written
f.

manuscript, the four parts ending on
respectively. belongs to the shorter recension.

3

v.,

f.

6

v.,

f.

11

v.,

and

f.

23

The Nighantu
ii,

is

given without accent.

It is Roth's C,

and

For further

details see Catalogus Codd.

MSS.

W

Bib. Bodl., vol.
3.

p. 104.

II.

This

is

the second manuscript bound in the volume just

mentioned.

It gives the

Nighantu

in

24

leaves.

It is without accent.
is

The name
:

of the scribe, partially obliterated

by yellow pigment,

the

following It is Roth's D, and belongs to the shorter recension. III. The third manuscript is the Anuvdkdnukramanl.
4. This manuscript contains two different works. The first Siksd Catustaya. Its first three parts are written continuously.
1

W

is

the

The

The

fifth is

the Uttarasatka-m of the Nirukta.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPTS
Nighantu
is

9

separated from the

rest.

It ends

on

f.

of the total

number
1st

of

words and Khandas words 412 516 410

for each

16, which gives a list adhydya as follows
:

Khanda
17

4th
5th

3

279
151

2nd
3rd
It is Roth's E,

22

6

30

and belongs to the longer recension. these manuscripts, which I have directly collated myself, added the and B which were used by Roth (not directly collated

To

may

be

A

besides C.D.E.F

=

W

by me),

1,

W2, W3, W4, and
b.

31, ^r, *T, ^C,

*, and

^

used

by

SamasYami, in his edition, published in the Bib. Ind.

Two
two

recensions.
:

The manuscripts
and

fall

into

distinct groups

H form

one family group, and

M

1,

M 4, C

A, B, E; R, *, ^J, ^, and ^ the other. shorter recension, the latter the longer.

C 2, C 3, C 4, S, W 4 The former may be called the
1,

M 2, M 3, W

1,

W W3
2,

;

The

chief reason for calling the

former group the shorter recension is that at the end of every section the explanation is more concise than in the other. The latter not only gives an extended explanation at the end of every section, but also adds the

number

of the

words enumerated in the

section.

Besides, at the end of

every chapter, gives a summary by quoting the first word of every section, and adds the number of the sections in the chapter. In It is difficult to sections the shorter recension gives fewer words. many
it

of the sections

two represents the original. But as far as the at the end of every section is concerned, it is quite longer explanation obvious that it is a later addition. The evidence of the manuscripts shows
decide which of these

that this addition

was gradual.

For instance,

let

us take the

first

section

All the manuscripts of the shorter recension agree in the text as follows: 4Y^ft trf^RTT:. giving gives the Manuscript

of the first chapter.

W2

number of the
which seems
:

i.e. USD, and throughout it follows this method, have been the original one. Gradually a change was introduced along with the number of the section, the number of the words in the section was added, and a numerical figure placed immediately before 3 the number of the section, as the evidence of manuscripts 2 and

section only,

to

M

W

indicates, in the first section of the first chapter,
i- e- *i\^fr ^ tjfq<*{|: note that manuscripts
II II

II

^

II

is

placed before

In this connexion it is interesting to 1 and 3 at first agree with 2, but gradually come round to the side of M 2 and 3. The next stage of development is marked by the incorporation of the numerical word in substitution for the
H
||

W

^

q

||

M

W

W

10
figure in the
is

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU
II

body of the explanation, as *fV%3fa5f*Tlrffl: <jfa<*H: most clearly seen in the sections containing verbs, for instance, in of the first chapter, all the stages appear very clearly
:

II.

This
sec.

16

d.
b.

qprfffit

<*nafd*4m:

<*$>

W

1,

W2.

msm$H M2,M3,W3.
In q4iq:
D
<\

Manuscripts of longer recension. From the verbs the process was extended by ana-logy to nouns, perhaps in imitation of Yaska's own words or for the sake of parallelism,
H

|fa

was

also introduced.

Last of

all

came the summary and the
I

Sa and taking into consideration the fact that in some cases, like that of Nighantu II. 6, 8, 11, &c., his only explanation is that a particular word has so many synonyms suits the shorter recension better, for in the case of the longer recension such an explanation is super\

statement of the sections in every chapter. Yaska's description of the Nighantu Samdmndyah Saindmndtah
I

vydkhydtavyah

N.

I. 1.

fluous.

Nighantu

II. 11,

the shorter recension reads

t|\0fd TTT, while

the longer has:

ajgtOfa -*W

(N. 3. 9) is: jfHmi^HKjrU! longer recension is absurd, while in the case of the shorter recension be accepted as an explanation to a certain extent.
c.

THi*nfi, and Yaska's only explanation To call this the explanation of the f^.
it

may

Devaraja and his commentary.

Devarajayajvan explains every single word of the Nighantu ; his commentary therefore is valuable, for it shows the state of the Nighantu in his
day.

Moreover, in the introduction to his Commentary, he gives a general description of the many manuscripts of the Nighantu known to him. He
says
:

?tg ^T

^jft^fj tl^iUHt^lf^fw
I

3firfafarH^l^fVeftT*lTO*t

I

He has attempted to supply a critical edition, for he says that Yaska explained 150 words of the Naighantuka Kdnda, and Skandasvami, in his commentary on Yaska, added some more, bringing the total to 200, so the evidence of Yaska and Skandasvami was very valuable for these 200
words.

About the

rest he says

:

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPTS
like

11

Devaraia has frequently given the readings of former commentators Skandasvami, Bhatta Bhaskaramis*ra, and Madhava, when he differed from them. His commentary has therefore the value of a collation of a number of manuscripts, brought as he says from various parts of the country, and also of the collation of former commentaries. I have carefully examined it and noted all the differences, as the foot-notes to the text
will show.
d.

Roth's edition of the Nighantu.-

Roth examined the commentary of Devaraja, but the manuscripts which he used were probably defective, so that his results are unsatisfactory. Often he attributes readings to Devaraja which are not to be found in the
is

published text of that commentator; for instance attributed to Devaraja, who actually reads *n:

(I.
;

variants given by Devaraja. Devaraja gives RT which Roth does not mention. Similarly Devaraja gives 5jpj (I. 12) as a different reading, which Roth again does not notice. Devaraja gives 1RH
for

11) the reading *TT he also passes over as a variant for 'TOT,

VRl which Roth ignores.
,

Other cases are

:

I.

14.

Roth

attributes *Tf^: to Dev.,

who

reads ^*|r:, and gives *TOT:

as a variant.
I.

13.

Dev. gives ^jnis5' for *T& as the reading of Madhava, unnoticed by Roth.
Dev. gives

I. 13.
I. I.

^TOI

for

^T^W

as another reading, unnoticed

by Roth.
of.

14.
15.

Roth attributes uf^q*i: to Dev., whose actual reading is Dev. reads ^^TW for ^Wf and gives ^TO! as the reading
*4iy!<|ffl

Skan-

I.

dasvami, unnoticed by Roth. 16. Dev. gives HT*|*lfd as another reading for
Roth.

unnoticed by

II. 1.

Dev. gives ^JRV7{. as the reading of Madhava for ^TORl, Roth does not notice it.
Dev. gives ^TOnfo: as a different reading for
notice
it.

II. 5.

^*T& Roth
,

does not

II. 7.

Dev. gives TO: as the reading of Skandasvami also, but he further gives ^|: as a variant. Roth does not notice it.

II. 7.

Dev. gi es

?pr:

as a variant for

"W, Roth does not notice
,

it.

found in

It is unnecessary to multiply instances, for all such cases can be easily foot-notes to the text of the Nighantu.

my

12

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU

Roth does not give any various readings for the fourth chapter of the Nighantu, although the evidence of the manuscripts as shown in this edition proves that there are several such variants. There are a few inaccuracies of accent, for instance in III. 13.
^Tfa

$

% is
is,

accented in manuscripts, but not so in Roth's edition.

^<*ir<!f; has been omitted between *4f<|IUj: That the omission is an oversight appears ^uRjri: from the fact that though this section is stated to contain 84 words, Roth's edition has only 83. Yaska explains every word of the fourth and fifth chapters of the Nighantu. His evidence is therefore particularly valuable for a critical edition of the fourth and fifth chapters. He gives g<4JIUn in its proper place and explains it. Both the recensions agree in reading
2.

There

however, a serious omission in IV.

and

.

^<i||<!i:

between

4|<t||(Ht

Yaska supports

this reading

and ^flXdt, and the testimony of Devaraja and The omission 1 in Roth's edition is thus

evidently due to an oversight. The evidence of Yaska on the fourth and fifth chapters of the Nighantu indicates that he follows the longer recension. Thus in IV. 1 the shorter
recension gives |JM<:, but Yaska reads ^f^UT, which is also the reading of the longer recension. Again ^, which is omitted by the shorter recension, is explained by Yaska. In IV. 2 f/f: is omitted by the shorter recension, but
][

choice seems to be followed

Devaraja has also followed the longer recension, and this by a long line of commentators, and is also, as an unbroken tradition in his own family. The Devaraja says, supported by shorter recension has undoubtedly preserved the original form of the text, at least towards the end of the sections, but the weighty testimony of

not by Yaska.

Yaska is against it. I have therefore given the text and the order in which the words occur in accordance with the longer recension, though at the end of every section I have placed side by side the text of both
recensions.
e.

Bib. Ind. edition of the Nighantu.

Samasrami's edition of the Nighantu is useful, for besides publishing the commentary of Devaraja Yajvan it supplies a much larger number of various readings than Roth. But it suffers from the one defect of presenting only Devaraja's reading of the text of the Nighantu. The commentary

however valuable as giving the various readings of the manuscripts of his time, cannot be made the sole basis of an edition of the Nighantu. Moreover, occasionally the text in this edition contains words which are not justified either by the evidence of the manuscripts of
of Devaraja,
1

This was admitted, and later on rectified by Roth himself.

THE TITLE OF THE WORK
, ;

13

both recensions, or even by that of Devaraja himself. For instance, on p. 236, appears the word ^faf?f which does not exist anywhere again, on
p.

257,

rami

find ^ifafair^ instead of the correct form ^l^flfair Samas'seems to have used six manuscripts, from which he gives a number

we

of various readings in foot-notes, but in the constitution of the text he has

Hence it is not a critical edition, from the consistently followed Devaraja. of view of constituting an independent text of the Nighantu based on point manuscript evidence.
/.

The

title

of the work.
the
title

Sayanacarya in the Rgvedabhdsyabhumikd has given

of

Niruktam

to this list of words.
i

He

says:

aft:

i

also given Similarly Samas'rami follows Sayana in calling the work Niruktam, although he adds in brackets (Nighantu). Sayana is evidently wrong in giving the title of Niruktam to the Samamnaya, for Yaska distinctly states that it is called Nighantu.

Madhusudanasvami, the author of the Prasthdnabheda has
title of

the

Niruktam

to this list of words.

Samdmndyah samdmndtah ....
itydcaksate
it is
I

(N.

I.

1).

wrong to call it when some etymological explanations are
Nighantu.
g.

imam, Samdmndyam Nighantava words can only be called Nighantu, and Niruktam; the term Nirukta can be applied only
tarn

The

list

of

given.

Moreover,

all

the

manu-

scripts call it

The

diviBion of the Nighantu.

The Nighantu contains five chapters, the first three are called the Naighantuka Kdnda, the fourth the Naigama Kdnda, and the fifth the Daivata Kdnda. In other words it may be said that
the Naighantuka the

the

Kdnda deals with synonyms Kdnda deals with homonyms Naigama Daivata Kdnda deals with deities.
:

;

sort of a principle discernible in the arrangement of the in the first three chapters. The first chapter deals with physical synonyms like earth, air, water, and objects of nature like cloud, dawn, day things
is

There

some

and night, &c.
finger,

The second chapter deals with man, his limbs, like arm, and qualities associated with man, such as wealth, prosperity, objects

anger, battle, &c.

14

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU
The
qualities
is

third chapter deals with abstract The arrangement, of course, lightness, &c.
cases,

such as heaviness,

not

scientific, nor, in

many

even systematic, but

it

shows at

least

an attempt to group the

words methodically.

The compilation

of the

Nighantu

is

the earliest

In India it marks the beginning of the Kom literature, and later Kosds have sometimes been called Nighantavas. The Nighantu contains only a small number of the words of the Rgveda,
in lexicography.

known attempt

does not contain any explanations of the words collected, in or any other language, the modern term dictionary cannot be Sanskrit applied to it, although the Kosds can be so called. It should rather be

and as

it

'

'

containing a collection of words of when the words are few in number, being a language, dialect, or subject only a small part of those belonging to the subject, or when they are given without explanation, or some only are explained, or explanations are
called

a vocabulary, which

is

a book

'

'

'

partial

'.

h.

The author of the Nighantu.

There is Nothing definite is known of the author of the Nighantu. a vague reference to the time of its compilation in the NiruJcta I. 20, which attributes the compilation of the Nighantu along with other Veddngas to a later generation of the sages who had no direct perception
of

dharma

(truth).

The following two verses occur
bhdrata, chapter 342. 86, 87
=pft
:

in the

Moksa parvan

of the

Mahd-

ff

Some conclude from the second verse that Kas'yapa, 1 the Prajapati, is the author of the Nighantu, for the word vrsdkapi occurs in the Nighaiitu. It is not safe to build any argument upon such evidence, for supposing that
his

Kas'yapa did invent the word vrsdJcapi he would be the last person to put own word in a list of difficult words like those of the Nighantu. The
is

Nighantu

result of the united efforts of

probably not the production of a single individual, but the a whole generation, or perhaps of several
of Kasyapa's authorship is indeed absurd, and hardly deserves any mention, in India believe in it, and seriously put it forward, I thought it necessary
it.

generations.
1

The theory

but as
to

many people

make

a passing reference to

EARLIER EDITIONS OF THE NIRUKTA

15

THE NIRUKTA
a.

Earlier editions of the Nirukta.

The

and published then in its infancy.
sible in

editio princeps of the Nirukta was brought out by Rudolph Roth, Sanskrit scholarship in Europe was at Gottingen in 1852.

The bulk of the Vedic literature was as yet accesmanuscripts only. Even the text of the Rgveda in print was not available, Max Muller having given to the world the first two volumes
1 Guides to only of his edition of the Rgveda with Say ana's commentary. Vedic studies which are now indispensable, such as Prof. Macdonell's Vedic Grammar, and books of reference like Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance, did
,

There was not even a good Vedic dictionary. Taking these facts into consideration, Roth's achievement was remarkable. He was the first to observe that the text of the Nirukta has been handed down in two recensions, a shorter and a longer one, and to prepare a critical edition of the same based on the manuscript material to which he then had access. It must be admitted that as far as the text of the Nirukta is concerned Roth's work has not been superseded so far, and this fact alone is very creditable to the author of a work published nearly 70 years ago,
not exist at that time.

and speaks highly

of

the critical judgement exercised by him in the

constitution of the text.

But it is obvious that a work produced under such circumstances and about three-quarters of a century ago shows certain defects and limitations. First of all, the materials at his disposal were scanty. For instance, he seems to have consulted only one manuscript of Durga's commentary, i.e.
by no means an accurate manuscript, and Roth's incorrect quotations from Durga's commentary, which I have pointed out in my Hence he could notes, are perhaps due to the errors of this manuscript.
142,

MS. Mill

2

not have found
vailing

it a very reliable Secondly, many of the then preguide. methods of indicating references are now obsolete, as, for instance, Roth's division of the Rgveda into Mandala, anuvdka, &c., which has curtailed, to some extent, the usefulness of his Nachiveisung, pp. 21728. He gives a list of various readings at the end of the first and the second part of the Nirukta, but does not specify that such and such a variant is to be found in such and such a manuscript, a very unsatisfactory method of Further, Roth has procedure, which no modern editor would follow. adopted the text of the longer recension in his edition, but he does not
1 Professor J. Wackernagel has been kind enough to write to me from Bale that as Roth's Nirukta first began-to be printed in 1847, he could not therefore have made use of Max Muller's edition of the Ryveda, the preface to the first volume of which is dated Oct 1849. 2

Described by Keith in the 'Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in
ii,

the

Bodleian Library,

vol.

p. 108.

16

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

show any reason

As proved by me elsewhere, the for this preference. recension does not represent the original text of the Nirukta. longerAgain, 'he divided the parixista into two chapters, the 13th and the 14th,

a division not supported by the evidence of older manuscripts, which makes the whole of the parisista, to consist of one chapter (the 13th) only. Roth is also wrong in using the term Naigamu Kdndam as applicable to the first
three chapters of the Nirukta, the right term being Naighantuka Kaiidam. Further, there are some inaccuracies in the text of the Nirukta itself, which
I have pointed out in my notes. Again, there is the inexplicable inconsistency in using large type for printing some Vedic quotations, and small type for others, even when they are of the same length, and are cited from

the same Veda.

For instance, the passage -411^3

t:

JTft^

^TT *Jff

'

is

printed in large type and

is accented, whilst the immediately following -*Tfa Pq^^qiwr^ 2 is printed in small type, and is not accented, passage Other examples, are although both quotations are from the Rgveda.
:

'^MJM

^
1*?t

tnd" *HX

TT

^

^nft!' *i*IW
^*f*tozn
4

3

is

in large type

and accented,

but

4Jig{ft

nft

is
6

in
is

small

type

5

and unaccented.
;

Again,

tfKftl^ttal *rf^ *rf$

in large

type and accented
unaccented
accented

while tlT^f

fH^^RT

T[f?T

.

.

.

7
.

is is

in small
in

type and type
type

;

and ^*ft
while

H

W^TT OlfijdW ^WT
9

8

large

and
and

;

TWJft

<J|ir*||

^p?:

is
10

in
is

small
in
in
in

unaccented.

Again,

*Hfll*JUl*t:

H*5<jfl

fj^

large

type

11

arid

accented;

while fa: ^f

*n)p

^n^t %?f%T
^^l^ldlH.
14

12

is is

small type and
large

unaccented.
accented;

And
while

ly^f

1^

*i*H!$0^4n

type

and

^ft Vl
one

^f^nft *f%HT:

is

in small type

and unaccented.
in

In

case.

Roth

treats
15

both quotations
large type
16

the

same manner

:

^*1 *}4l

^HH
"
is
iii.

is in

and accented.

^t

^fif

^J^SfTf

also in large type
10

and accented.
85. 37.
ed., p. 64.

RV. viii. 4. 3 N. RV. x. 133. 1. RV. i. 126. 7. RV. i. 27. 13.
;

20, Roth's ed., p. 62.

RV. x. n Roth's
x.
ii.

12 13

Roth's ed., p. 03.

RV. RV. RV. RV.

v. 75. 7.
vii. 104. 21.
i.

RV. RV. " RV. 16 RV.
1

95.5.
12. 1.

vi. 66. 9.

iv. 19. 9.

Roth's ed., p. C3.

24. 10.

1T

RV.

viii. 102. 21.

iv. 7. 3.

EARLIER EDITIONS OF THE NIRUKTA

17

This practice of Roth is misleading, and is perhaps responsible for the fact that several Vedic passages printed in small type are omitted a occurring in the Nirukta by Bloomfield in his Vedic Concordance a few
;

such examples are the following and without accents in Roth's edition, 2
:

M^Kt
is

^JWt<J

1

*
,

1

printed in small type

not mentioned in VC. as being

quoted by Yaska,.and similarly

and

also

the Nirulda
are ignored.
in

Mdb< 1{\& <flifT*i, a fragment of RV. I. 164. 12, and quoted in 4. 27, and wf^TJrf:, a fragment of VS. 7. 1, quoted in N. 5. 6,
(Besides the reference of tft *P9t
7 ^flM*^ tHTT

is

wrong

VC.

8

It is

quoted in
T\

N.

11. 7,

and not in N.
9

10. 7

,

as stated there.

Also the reference to

RV.
are:

f^ 'JJT yO^I^Hi is III. 46. 3, while the correct reference is

^^

10 wrong in VC., where it is RV. III. 41. 3. Other cases

ijfl% 3RT*?t

^%, RV.
p.

III. 30.

19

c,

is

wrongly given as IV. 30.
is

19 c in VC,

cf. p.

285

a
;

the reference of

iNt 1 ^faw^fff *TW
is

wrongly

given as IX.

63. 5 b in

VC.,

936

b
,

while the correct reference

VII. 63. 5 b.)

The Bib. lad. Edition of the Niruktti.
This was published at Calcutta under the editorship of Samasrami from Its chief merit is that it, for the first time, supplies us with the
of

1882-91.

commentary

Devardja Tajvan on the Nighantu and of Durga on uie

Nirukta. It also adds an index to the words of the Nighantu as well as to the words of the Nirukta. The practical utility of this index, however, suffers much from its being separated into three indexes, one for each

volume and not consisting of one single whole. Besides many misprints and errors of Sandhi, the text constituted is not very valuable from the critical point of view, and is thus not a trustworthy basis for further research. The editor, although his text generally agrees with the shorter
i

RV.

vi. 55.

5

;

N.
N.
N.

iii.

16

;

VC.,

p.

1052

b.

p.

328

b.
vi. 7.
b.
;

3 8

Roth's

ed., p. 60.
;

RV.
iii.

6

;

N. N.

vi.

3

;

Roth's ed.,

p.

91

;

RV.
p.

x. 133. 1

20

;

Roth's
Roth's

ed., p.

62 ;

VC.,
7
8

p.

839

VC.,
VC.,
5

95

b.
iv.

RV.

x. 81. 1

xi. 7.

RV.
p.

iv. 51. 1:

25
iv.

;

ed., p. 74

;

Cf. Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance, p.

566

b.

346 b.
iv. 138. 1
;

*

RV.

iii.

41. 3
b.

;

N.

iv. 19.

RV.

N.

25

;

loc.

tit.,

VC.,

10

Cf. p.

897

B

18

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
seem to
realize that there are

recension, does not

two recensions

of the

text of the NiTikta, and has thus unconsciously introduced an element of For instance, he omits the phrase ^Nl^t <*^K eclecticism in his edition.
:

(vol.

scripts

on account of its being not found in the manuii, p. 49), probably shorter recension, but he puts the line of the
(vol.
ii,

p.

text,

although it is omitted Further, he omits the passage
it

132) within brackets in his constituted by manuscripts of the shorter recension.

:

f^TT

^t fflBdMd TT
:

from his

a foot-note with the remark text, adding This shows that he does not follow any general plan (vol. ii, p. 181). with regard to the additional passages of the longer recension, as he sometimes puts them within brackets in the text itself, and sometimes adds
in

them

This would also imply that he does not regard the which he puts within brackets, as interpolations, but only those passage, which he adds in foot-notes this, to say the least of it, is altogether an arbitrary distinction, made with reference to the additional passages of the longer recension. Further, he is not consistent even in this, for occasionally he puts passages of the shorter recension within brackets, as well (see vol. iii, pp. 121-22). Examples might be multiplied. Both these editions and Bib. Ind.) are very meagrely punctuated, and many (i.e. Roth
in foot-notes.
;

sentences, being not properly divided, are misleading or tend to be obscure.

The Bombay Edition.

Another excellent edition of the Nirukta, together with Durga's commentary, is that of Mahamahopadhyaya, P. 6ivadatta, published at Bombay in 1912. In type, in paper, and in general get-up it marks a distinct improvement on its predecessors. The sentences are intelligently divided, and, to a great extent, the obscurities due to defective punctuation in previous editions have been removed. The text followed is that of the longer recension, and the criticism to which Roth's text is subject, except his inconsistency with regard to the use of large and small type, is applicable to the Bombay edition as well. The editor does not state whether he uses any manuscripts or not in the constitution of his text. As a matter of fact, as expressly mentioned in his he has taken introductory remarks, the two previous editions as the basis of his own work. A critical edition of the Nirukta professing to represent the archetype as closely as possible, and based on the manuscript material hitherto not utilized is therefore still a desideratum. I have, on these grounds, undertaken to edit the Nw*ukta
afresh.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Detailed

19

Description

of

Manuscripts.
e.

1

MS.

Max

Muller Memorial,

8.

Ml.

PART
:

I.

A.D. 1749.

Contents The Nirukta of Yaska in the longer recension, the text of which consists of two manuscripts, containing the two parts (the purvdrdha The work is divided into chapters and the uttardrdha) respectively. and sections (khandas) thus Chapter I, which contains 20 sec(adhydyas) tions, begins on f. 1 v. and ends on f. 10 r. Chapter II, 28 sections, ends on f. 21 r. III, 22 sections, ends on f. 32 v. Chapter Chapter IV lias 27 sections, and ends on f. 42 v. V, 28, sections, ends on f. 53 v. Chapter Chapter VI, 36 sections, ends on f. 68 r. The chapters are written consecutively, and at the end of each chapter there is added a short summary, quoting the first word or words of every section thus indicating and also
:

expressly stating the

number

of sections in the chapter.
lines,

The text

is

sometimes carelessly drawn, regularly up to f. 25 r., after which similar red lines only occasionally appear. A short red vertical stroke is placed above the letter where it indicates the application of the rules of euphonic combination, and is also used to mark the termination of a sentence, being thus a sign of punctuation. The danda appears at the end of a section only, but also points out the beginning and ending of a quotation. The red vertical stroke is often confusing

bounded on both

sides

by double red

as the accent in Vedic quotations is also marked with red ink. There are two figures drawn vertically in red ink on f 1 r.
.

One looks

Durgd, seated in a chariot with a flying banner, the other is the god Gane&a, seated on an ornamented lotus, to which is added in black ink the representation of a small bird, probably a peacock.
like a goddess, probably

The two

figures contain

between them the words

:

(sic)

II

fa^

^jfa^

attempt has 'been made to colour ff. 14, 29, 42, 49, 64 with yellow pigment, which is frequently used also to obliterate, though only with partial success, individual words, syllables, and letters. Black pigment is also employed to obliterate, for instance on f. 24 v., where half

TTTW

H

An

a line

is

completely covered.
It is the best

The manuscript

accurate.
1

among

is neat, well preserved, and those belonging to the longer recension.

From the

can be

much

curtailed.

point of view of the general reader, the detailed description of the manuscripts But as the manuscripts of the Max Miiller Memorial and Chandra

Shere collections have not been so far catalogued,, this description, in addition to supplying information with regard to the manuscripts material available for a critical edition, is also intended to serve the purpose of u descriptive catalogue. And as Professor
A. A. Macdonell
is

Shum

in favour of

it,

I

have retained the whole of

it,

without any curtailment.

B 2

20
Size:

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
8i"x3f".
:

Material

Paper.
:

Number Number
Date:

of leaves

ii. -f

68.
;

of lines per folio: 9
:

ff.

3 v.-13 v. have 10 lines each.

Character

Devanagari.
fol.

On

68

r.

:

(sic)
(i.e.

qfc

l$&<\

qir^
night of the
Scribe
:

(Hf*=M

finished

(=A.D. 1749 on the third day in the

first fort-

month

of As* van).
:

On f. 68 r. (sic) qiiqliii ^RrT ^fl** Ruswrl ^ He seems to be a faithful copyist, for he remarks
\

(sic)

:

Peculiarity of spelling

:

t

is

doubled in conjunction,
II.

e.g.

tya

= ttya.

PART
Contents
recension.
:

A. D.

1775.

sections
f.

The Nirukta of Yaska, Chapters VII-XIII, in the longer The text is divided into chapters (adhydyas and khandas), and thus Chapter VII has 31 sections, begins on f. 1 v. and ends on
:

Chapter VIII has 22 sections, and ends on f. 16 r. Chapter IX has 43 sections, and ends on f. 24 r. Chapter X has 47 sections, and ends on f. 33 r. Chapter XI has 50 sections, and ends on f. 43 v. Chapter XII
11
r.

has 46 sections, and ends on f 54 v. Chapter XIII has 50 sections, and ends on f. 70 r. The so-called two chapters of the parisista are treated
.

as one.

All the chapters are

written consecutively without a break.
II

Chapters Chapter VII begins with ^ft jRlUJIil W: ^ft ^jvTi<q *W VIII and X begin with ffr;: ^5t$^ IX with ^ft ff?:: %$^|| Chapter fadHH^ri W Chapter XII with l|3ni, and Chapter XI with ^ Sect. 14 of the thirteenth chapter also Chapter XIII with sft U f
II
II

II

||

||

^

II

II

II

II.

begins with ||^6|| The last word of the 13th section of the same chapter is repeated. At the end of each chapter a short summary, which quotes the first word or words of each section and states the number of
sections in the chapter,
is

double red lines from
Part
itself,
I.

f.

The text is bounded on both sides by subjoined. 11 r. to f. 33 v. Punctuation is similar to that of

Ff. 6 r.-lO v.
first

where the

do not give the Vedic stanza in full in the text few words only of the stanza are written, while the

remaining part of the stanza is added in the margin. Black pigment is used to obliterate a part of the line on ff. 60 v. and 63 r. F. 66 is coloured This is also a neat, well-preserved, and accurately written light blue.
manuscript. Size : 8 j" x 3|", and after
f.

32,

8" x 3|".

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Material
:

21

Paper.
:

Number Number
:

of leaves

70 + ii blank.
:

of lines per folio

9.

Character: Devanagari. Date On f. 70 r. (sic) ^f^ <\*
*J
i$ (i.e.

H

^ (= A.D. 1775)

fa^TOg *l*HMi

%^

finished

on the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the
r.:

month

of Caitra).
:

Scribe

On

f.

70

order to

Although these two parts are brought together in the same volume in make up the text of the Nirukta they are not related to each

other except in so far as they both belong to the longer recension. They were copied at different times as their respective dates show. And the
fact that the first part uses the aka era, while the second, the Vikrama indicates that the former comes from the south, while the latter from era,

the north.
these parts.

For the sake of convenience

I

have used the sign

M1

for both

MS.
Contents: The
recension.

Max
is

Mutter Memorial,

d. 23.

M 2.
:

half (Chapters I- VI) of the Nirukta in the longer divided into chapters and sections thus Chapter I on f. 1 v., has 20 sections, and ends on f. 10 r. JlUJUntJ TO* begins with Chapter II has 28 sections, and .ends on f. 19 r. Chapter III has 22 secfirst

The text

^

II

and ends on f. 27 v. Chapter IV has 27 sections, and ends on f. 35 v. V has 28 sections, and ends on f. 44 r. Chapter VI has 36 secThe text is bounded on both sides by double tions, and ends on f. 55 v. red lines. Punctuation is similar to M 1. The Vedic stanzas are not given
tions,

Chapter

in full, but the

word
f.

^B^j is
r.

added after the
II

first
II

two or three words of the
In
e.

quotation thus:

5

4NUejiri: ^jTjfcnf:
is

^B^

Samdhi
g. f .

the sign of

the elision of short a

retained, but not always,

2

r.

^J7U*njfa^
every
fifth

and

siniflfcl, loc.
last is

cit.

Ff. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50,

i.e.

coloured with yellow pigment. except the It is a very neat and beautifully written and modern manuscript. Size 10f" x 4J".
Material: Paper. Number of leaves
ii

:

+ 55 + ii

blank.

Number
Date
:

of lines
:

:

9.

Character

Devanagari.

Not given, but looks modern. Scribe Not known. The colophon runs ff?T fa MI TOftj
:

:

WW

II

^JH

W<J

II

22

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
MS.
Contents
is
:

Max

Mutter Memorial,
of

d. 24.

M 3.
recension.

The Nirukta

Yaska

in

the

shorter

The

treated as one chapter, and all the 13 chapters are written parisista consecutively, the purvdrdha being separated from the. uttardrdha only by

the words

:

(sic)

II

Tf^ **$'
:

M

Tne

text

is
.

and khandas thus

Chapter

I begins

on

f 1 v.

divided into adhydyas, pddas, with the words 3Jft *nfajTO
II

*m:

has 4 pddas, which end on ff. 3 r., 7 r., 9 v., and 11 v. respectively. The sections are numbered continuously the numbering of sections in each pdda being not afresh, but the continuation from the previous section thus Chapter I has 27 sections; the 1st pdda comes to an end after the
II

5th section; 2nd pdda after the 15th section; the 3rd pdda after the 21st section and the 4th pdda after the 27th section. Chapter II has 7 pddas and end on f 14 r. 2nd pdda has 5 sections, and 1st pdda has 7 sections,
:

;

.

;

ends on

3rd pdda has 3 sections, and ends on f 17 r. (where it is wrongly stated gifVtlHn& I) 4<ihpdda has 7 sections, and ends on f. 18 v. 5th pdda has 3 sections, and ends on f. 19 v. 6th pdda has 5 secti6ns, and ends on f 21 r. 7th pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f 23 v. Sections in this chapter are not numbered continuously, but at the end of the chapter;
f.

16

r.;

.

I

J

;

;

.

.

;

the total
I

number

of the sections is stated thus
;

:

(sic)

*3f?W

m^t
.

|

<SHNSIU

ft[ifY*n^zrro.
.

and ends on

f 26 r. 3rd pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f. 32 r. the 4th pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f. 35 r. As in Chapter II, the total number of sections is stated to be 25. Chapter IV has 4 pddas the 1st pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f 37 v. the 2nd pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f 40 r the 3rd pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f 43 r the 4th pdda has 7 sections, and
;
; ; ;
.
.

Chapter III has 4 pddas the 1st pdda has 7 sections, the 2nd pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f 29 v. the

;

;

.

;

ends on

colophon on

of sections is given in the has 4 pddas the 1st pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f 48 v. the 2nd pdda has 8 sections, and ends on the 3rd pdda has 7 sections, and ends on f. 54 r. the 4th pdda f. 51 v.
f
.

45

v.
.

As

before, the total
29.

number

f

45

v. as

Chapter
;

V

;

.

;

;

has 10 sections, and ends on f. 57 v. the total number of sections being given as 31. Chapter VI has 5 pddas the 1st pdda has 5 sections, and ends on f. 60 r. the 2nd pdda has 13 sections, and ends on f. 65 v. the
; ; ;

;

3rd pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f 68 v. the 4th pdda has 5 sections, and ends on f 70 v. the 5th pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f 73 v. the
.

;

.

;

.

;

total

number
:

of sections,

i.

e.

39, being
II

added in the colophon, which runs
I

as follows

(sic)

*Nw

HT^t
;

^^tWRT:

^1^T9Rf

$<> U

W

II

II

Chapter VII has 7 pddas the 1st pdda has 5 the 2nd pdda has 3 sections, and ends on

^^

II

sections, and ends on f. 75 v.: f. 76 v. (wrongly numbered

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
;

23

the 3rd pdda has 10 sections, and ends on as 75 on the restored part) the 4th pdda has 5 sections, and ends on f 80 v. the 5th pdda f. 79 r. has 3 sections, and ends on f. 81 v. ; the 6th pdda has 9 sections, and ends
;

.

;

sections, and ends on f. 86 v. the total added in the colophon. Chapter VIII has 3 pddas the 1st pada has 4 sections, and ends on f. 88 r. the 2nd pada has 12 sections, and ends on f. 91 v. the 3rd pada has 7 sections, and ends on f 93 v. the total number of sections, 23, is stated in the colophon as before. Chapter IX has 4 pddas', the 1st pdda has 10 sections, and ends on f. 96 r. the 2nd pdda has 11 sections, and ends on f. 98 v. the 3rd pdda has 13 sections, and ends on f. 102 r. the 4th pdda has 9 sections, and ends on f. 104 r. the total number of sections being 43. Chapter X has 4 pddas the 1st pdda has 13 sections, and ends on f. 108 r. the 2nd pdda has 11 sections, and ends on f. 110 v. the 3rd pdda has 13 sections, and ends on f. 114 r. the 4th pdda has 10 sections, and ends on f. 116 v. the total number of sections being 47. Chapter XI has 4 pddas the 1st pdda has 12 sections, and ends on f. 119 r. the 2nd pdda has 9 sections, and ends on f. 121 v. the 3rd pdda has 13 sections, and ends on f. 125 r. (the colophon is completely obliterated with black pigment) the 4th pdda has 16 sections, and ends on f. 128 v. the total number of sections being 50. Chapter XII has 4 pddas; the 1st pdda has 11 sections, and ends on f. 131 v. the 2nd pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f. 133 v. the 3rd pada has 15 sections, and ends on f. 136 v. the 4th pdda has 12 sections, and ends on f. 140 r. the total number of sections, as stated in the colophon, is 46. Chapter XIII, written consecutively, has 4 pddas', the 1st pdda has 13 sections the last word of the 13th section is repeated, a sign of the termination of the chapter and ends on f. 144 r. the 2nd pdda has 19 the 3rd pdda has 9 sections, and ends on sections, and ends on f. 152 v. f. 155 r. the 4th pdda has 7 sections, and ends on f. 157 v. It marks the accent not only on Vedic stanzas, but on fragments of Vedie quotations also, several words preceding the quotation are similarly marked. The dc.nda appears at the end of a section, or the beginning and end of a quotation.

on

f

.

83

v.

;

the 7th

pdda has 9
44, is

;

number

of sections,

i.e.

;

;

;

.

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Size:

9i"x3i".
:

Material: Paper. Number of leaves

ii
;

+ 157 -f ii
f.

blank.
lines.

Number
:

of lines

:

8

157 has 9

Character: Devanagarl. Date Not given, but rather
Scribe
:

old.

Not known.

24
Injuries
:

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
It is a very much injured manuscript f. 12 is torn on the leftand the text is restored on a patched-up piece of paper a part 23 and 52 is injured and the text is similarly restored; on f. 153 v.
;

hand
of
ff.

side,

;

and 154
writing.

v.

the right half is restored f. 157 is restored in a different handBesides, the leaves are torn in innumerable marginal spaces, but
;

without injuring the text.
Peculiarity of spelling the chief peculiarities are
: :

It has preserved the old calligraphy.

Some
e.
.

of

^with 1R
.

is

sometimes written as VT
f.

;

g. f 1 v.,

line 5,
Tfc

TTMTf

is

written IH^R;

Cf. also

1 v., line 6.
;

is
i
.,

written as Til
line 2,

e.

g. f 1 v., line 5,
>

c^ = ?H%
2
r,

f

.

2

v.,

line 1,

^%^ =?tt*fa

;

f.

63

%^WTJ = iK?m: and

so on.
line 5,

U

is

occasionally written as
,

l/> e.g. f.
f.

%^=%T<3[ and

541 4Jr)

line 6,

^ft = ^Jnf
1[

;

2

v.,

line 8,
;

not always adhered to occasionally H is written in the ordinary way, e.g., f. 2 v., line 5, ^ejijjuf and not ^Hlivsf f. 2 v., line 7, *jf%[frf$ and not t^SRVTrf f. 63 r., line 2, *T^ and

But

in the case of

this

method

is

;

;

not ^SRpRl M*^ and not <4|l*(*j: is written as T^ft, e.g., f. 2 r., line
,

^

1, *ft:

= "Rt*

,

line 2,

!

,

line 8,

Occasionally q is written like ^T, and the sign of added, not at the bottom, but on the side of a letter
;

^
;

in conjunction is
1 v., g., f .

e.

line 3,

but

f.

2

r,

line 1. *J^h" is written in the

ordinary

way

;

f.

1 v., line 3, ^j:

= ^:.
^WtfT = ^TfT,
;

c^ is

written as a short horizontal stroke in conjunction with other
e.

letters

,

g., f.

1 v., line 4,

line 6,

f.

1 v., line 7,

S
2,

^=^ =
jf
.
,

;

f.

2

r.

line 5,

<^ is

occasionally written as a short horizontal stroke, even

when

it is

not a conjunct consonant; e.g., f. 2 r., line tion with ^ it is written in the ordinary
,

= ^<J? ^f^lf
;

but in conjunc-

way

e.

g., cf.

'3|Rd| above,
f.

and

L

I

vv

line

6.

There

is

dittography

also,

e.g.,

2

r.,

line 3,

The manuscript belongs

to a period

when

calligraphy

was

still

in a

process of transition, consequently it preserves the old and new forms of letters side by side; it cannot therefore be later than the fifteenth
I think that

century. the manuscripts of the Nirukto, in the Bodleian this is the oldest and best manuscript belonging to the shorter recension.

among

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
MS.
Contents
:

25

Max

Milller

Memorial,
;

e.

9.

M 4.
is

The Nirukta (7-14 chapters

the parisista

treated as

two

chapters) in the longer recension. The text is punctuated with a short and vertical stroke, indicating Samdhi and the termination of a sentence,

while the
tions.

danda appears

at the end of a section, or the

commencement
in Vedic quota:

and end of a quotation

Accent

is

marked ^with red ink
II

The work is divided into chapters and sections, thus Chapter VII with ^ft -if^lH^ *w: fft 3f^ on f. 1 v., has 31 sections, and begins on f. 15 v. Chapter VIII has 22 sections, and ends on f. 23 v. ends Chapter IX has 43 sections, and ends on f. 35 r. Chapter X has 47 and ends on f. 49 r. Chapter XI has 50 sections, and ends on sections, f. 61 v. Chapter XII has 46 sections, and ends on f. 75 r. Chapter XIII has 13 sections, and ends on f 79 v. Chapter XIV has 37 sections, and ends on f. 96 r. All the 14 chapters are written consecutively, and at the end of each chapter a summary similar to that described on p. 1 is added.
II

II

;

.

Size: 11" x5".

Material: paper. Number of leaves

:

ii

+ 96 + ii

blank.

Number
Date
:

of lines

:

7.

Character: Devanagari.
Scribe

Not given. Not known.
:

The colophon on
:

f.

96

r.

runs as follows

:

II

n <*8

11

^

It is a neat, well- written, fairly accurate,

and modern manuscript.

Chandra Shum Shere, d. 178. C 1. text of the Nirukta is made up of two different manuscripts, which contain Chapters I-VI and VII-X-II respectively, but both are incomplete, and both belong to the longer recension. The two parts are separated

MS.

The

by a fragment of a third manuscript (ff. 38-43), which gives a part of Chapters XI and XII. The fragment has no value for the purpose of
collation,

and

is

therefore ignored.

PART
Contents:

I.

The text
f.

1 v.,

The Nirukta (Chapters I-VI) in the longer recension divided into chapters and sections thus Chapter I begins on has 20 sections, and ends on f 7 v ; Chapter II has 28 sections, and
is
:

.

ends on

f.

12

r.

;

Chapter III has 22

sections,

and ends on

f.

18

v.

:

26

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
sections,
r.
;

Chapter IV has 27 and ends on f. 30
lines
ff.

and ends on
is

f.

25

Chapter VI has 35

sections are missing.

The text

bounded

r. has 28 sections, Chaptei sections only, the remaining on both sides by double red
;

V

1-21; by double black lines ff. 1.1 r, 17 v, and 22-36; f. 12 is written in a different handwriting. The accent is marked in red ink in Vedic stanzas only. Double short vertical red strokes are used to indicate

sandhi and the end of a sentence, which are replaced by similar black f. 7 v.-f. 12 r., which are again replaced by a similar single red stroke ff. 19-30. The danda, as usual, appears at the end of a section The only, or at the commencement and the termination of a quotation.
strokes from

Numerous notes are added on the chapters are written consecutively. margin, and sometimes between the lines of the text also, e.g. ff. 2, 3, 12, 18 v. 19. At the end of each chapter a short summary, as described on
}

page

1, is

subjoined

:

Size 13" x 5".

Number Number
Date
:

Material: paper. of leaves
of lines
:

:

1

-1-

:

10

ff.

36 + i blank. 1-25 11 ff. 26-36.
;

Character

Devanagari.
last leaves of the
is

The

manuscript are missing

;

neither the date

known. From its appearance the manuscript looks old, f. 8 is numbered as f. 9, and f. 9 as f. 11, and the mistake continues up to the end the reference to folios are therefore to the number added in pencil.
nor the name of the scribe
;

Injuries: It

is

injured in

many

places, e.g.

ff.

7-12 on the top

(left).

PART
Contents
:

II.

longer recension.

The uttardrdha of the Nirukta (Chapters VII-XII) in the The text is divided into chapters and sections thus:
II

has 'llSUTO *W: Chapter VII begins on f. 1 v. with the words 31 sections, and ends on f. 11 r (= f. 54 r.) Chapter VIII has 22 sections, and ends on f. 15 v. (= f. 58 v.) Chapter IX has 43 sections, and ends on f 23 v. ( = f 66 v.) Chapter X has 47 sections, and ends on f 32 r. ( = f 75 r.) Chapter XI has 30 sections, and ends on f. 40 v. (= f. 83 v.) Chapter XII has 43 sections only, and ends on f 48' v. ( = f 91 v.) the remaining portion
II II ;

^

^
.

;

.

.

.

;

;

;

.

.

;

of the manuscript is missing. All the chapters are written consecutively, and at the end of each chapter a summary similar to that of Part I is

added.
lines,
ff.

The text is bounded on both sides by two sets on double black 1-34 (ff. 44-77) and ff. 41-48 (ff. 84-91); and by similar red lines 35-40 (ff. 78-83). The accent is marked in red ink in Vedic stanzas
ff.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS

27
;

only, and a short vertical red stroke is occasionally used for punctuation F. 9 (= f. 52) is written the use of the cUiiida is similar to that of Part I.
in a different handwriting.

Size: ll TY'x4
Material
:

.

Number Number

paper. of leaves
of lines
:

:

48 -f i blank.
9-10.

Character: Devanagari.

Date: The
date and the
:

last part of the

manuscript

is

missing; consequently the

name

of the scribe are not

known.

Injuries ff. 18 (= 61), 34-40 (= 77-83) are slightly injured in the top margin; f. 22 (= 65) is practically defaced by black and yellow ink, and f. 28 (= 71) by water.

MS.
The text
is

Chandra Shum
of

Shere, d. 181.

C

2.

made up

two

different manuscripts.

PART
Contents
:

I.

The of the Nirukta in the longer recension. and incomplete, containing Chapters I, IV, V, manuscript fragmentary and a part of the first section of the VI. The text is divided into chapters and sections. Chapter I has 20 sections, and ends on f. 13 v. Chapter IV has 27 sections, and ends on f 26 r. Chapter V .has 28 sections, and ends on f. 40 r. The accent is marked in red ink in Vedic stanzas only, while a short vertical red stroke is used for punctuation. The words (sic)

The purvdrdha

is

.

II

are wrongly added at the bottom of

f.

1 v."in

a different handwriting. F. 1 r. has a figure of Ganesa drawn rather in red with two female attendants. crudely
Size: 13j'"x5J". Material: paper.

Number Number

of leaves

:

i

+ 40.

of lines
:

:

7-8.

Character

Devanagari.
:

Date and scribe Not known. Injuries ff. 13-14 are slightly injured by worms. The numbering in the original is wrong the reference added in pencil. It is full of mistakes.
:

It looks
is

modern.

;

to the

number
1 *ft is

Peculiarity of spelling:

f.

2,

1.

1

?(W[

is

written as "3*6

,

f.

2,

1.

written as ^f

28

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
PART
Contents
:

II.

The uttardrdha of the Nirukta (Chapters VII-XIII) in the The text is divided into chapters and sections thus: recension. longer VII has 31 sections, and ends on f. 6 v. (= 46 v.) the colophon Chapter
;

adds
f.

:

^ft <J*ft
(

<aJ^d<J
;

II

W

II

50 r.) Chapter IX Chapter X has 47 sections, and ends on f. 20 v (= 60 v.) Chapter XI has 50 sections, and ends on f 26 v. ( = 66 v.) Chapter XII has 46 sections, and ends on f. 32 r. (= 72 r.) Chapter XIII begins on f. 32 v. (= 72 v.), 34 v. (= 74 v.); the colophon runs (sic) has 13 sections, and ends on

10

r.

=

Chapter VIII has 22 sections, and ends on has 43 sections, and ends on f. 15 r. (= 55 r.)
;

;

.

;

;

.

the last chapter, which

is also named XIII, has 37 sections, which are not numbered anew, but continuously from the previous section, and ends on f. 42 r. (= 82 r.). Chapters VIII-XII are written consecutively, and a summary, similar to the one described on p. 1, is added at the end of each chapter, but the summary on f.42 r. (= 82 r.) also includes that of the first

13 sections, although the
f.

summary

of these sections

is

already subjoined on

34

v.

(=74

v.).
. : II
II

The colophon on f 42 r ( = 82 r) runs thus J[f?T fa^i ^ift^^UfW The text is bounded on both sides by double black lines, ff. 1-23 (= 41-63) and ff. 38-42 (=78-82) by similar red lines, ff. 24-36 (=64-76), f. 37 (=77)
is

coloured yellow.

A

short vertical red stroke
is

is

employed
41
v.),
1.

for

punctuaof

tion, the

dropping of visarga
op. oit.

indicated
e.g.

by adding them on the top
f.

the letter just before the red stroke,
;

1 v.
1-

(=
:

3

:

1.

4

:

Tjfasrf

tgll*

;

P-

&&

8

4VI<fi^f ^?f*ffii
but the sign i
cit.
I.

>

and
not

so on.

Occasionally the short red stroke

is

written

|{,

is

meant
or at

to

point out the elision of short a, e.g. op.
is
.

5:

Sometimes $

The danda appears at the end of a section, replaced by x the beginning and end of a quotation. The accent is marked in red

ink on Vedic stanzas.
Size:

13^x5|".
:

Material: paper. Number of leaves

42 + i blank.
12-17.

Number
Date and
Injuries
:

of lines

:

Character: Devanagari.
scribe
f.
:

Not known.

(= 41), ff. 21-22 (= 61-22), f. 23 It is a neat, but closely written manuscript.
1

(=

63) are slightly injured.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
MS.
The text
of the

29

Chandra Shum
is

Sh&re, d. 182.

C 3.

Nirukta

made up
PART

of

two manuscripts.

I.

Contents

:

The purvdrdha
:

work

is

divided into chapters and sections thus

with the words (sic) ^ft <j+n*4 fR* has 20 sections, and ends J|%3{ on f. 7.r. Chapter II has 28 sections, and ends on f. 12 r. (ff. 8-9, containing sections 3-11 of the second chapter, are missing in the original). Chapter III has 22 sections, and ends on f. 18 r. (ff. 19 and 21-23, contain| ,

^

of the Nirukta in the longer recension. The Chapter I begins on f 1 v.
:
.

ing sections 11-12 and 14-19, are missing in the original). Chapter IV has 27 sections, and ends on f. 23 v. Chapter V has 28 sections, and ends on

29 v. Chapter VI has 36 sections, and ends on f. 38 r. The chapters are written consecutively, the summary is added as usual, punctuation and accents in Vedic stanzas are marked in red ink. The text is bounded on
f.

both sides by double black lines, f. 1 r. has a few laudatory verses written on it and the words (sic) ^TOT Mf^^s tf^f ^faMf^fa ^J^j. A part of line 9 on f 5 r., and of line 4 on f 7 r., of line 5 on f. 7 v., is
:
II
I . .

f.

Two lines are added to the top of f. 13 v., defaced by light red ink, and half a line on f. 20 r. is similarly obliterated with red pigment. Colophon on f. 38 r. runs thus
obliterated with black pigment.

19

v. is partially

:

frvto

r

TOt ^TR:
nr:
II

11

sffr

A

female figure

is

drawn on

f.

38

v.,

and a

list

of several articles

is

added.

The prominent

carelessness, occasionally disproportionate use of red ink for marginal notes, smudging of the black ink, give a untidy appearance to the manuscript.

difference of ink, characters, red vertical strokes, frequent

very

Size:

12"x5 Ty'
:

Material

Paper.
:

Number Number

of .leaves of lines
:

i

+ 38 + i blank

10-11.

Character: Devanagari.

Date and scribe

:

Not known.
owner
is

The name
3ft

of the

given on

f.

1

r.

as Godabole

Laksmana Bhatta.
e.g.,
t
f.

Peculiarity of spelling: It occasionally writes

<j*n< =

^ >lut4.
e.g.
J
;

^

as 1,

1 v., line 1,

Like
f.

M

1, it

frequently doubles
2,

in conjunction
line 3,

with other

letters,

1 v., line

*RTf3r =
;

Wrim

;

line 4, t|<||(\

= -d-c||(\

line 8, f^TM

=

30

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
PART
Contents: The
II.

= begins on f. 1 r. ( 40 r.), has 47 sections, and ends on f. 16 v. Chapter 55 v.). Chapter XI has 50 sections, and ends on f. 31 v. (= 70 v.). (= These two chapters are written consecutively. Chapter XII begins with has 46 sections, and ends on L 13 v. (= 83 v.). This ll^ft qui*n*T f* different manuscript from the previous one containing seems to be a

longer recension.

uttardrdka of the Nirukta (Chapters X-XIII) in the The text is divided into chapters and sections thus
:

X

:

II

the pagination begins anew, the handwriting is different, former the text is bounded on both sides by double red lines. and unlike the The parisista is separated from Chapter XII, and is treated as one chapter.

Chapters

X-XI

;

anew from the first. It begins with has 50 sections, and ends on 14 v (=97 v.). The last word of the 13th section is repeated, but the summary is added at the end of the 50th section. The summary, as usual, is added at the end of while every chapter. The accent is marked in red ink in Vedic quotations,
The numbering
on
f.

of leaves starts
r.),

II

^

II ,

1 r.

(= 84

a short vertical red stroke is used for punctuation. A line in different handwriting is added at the bottom of f. 1 v. (= 40 v.). A line and a half in red ink is added on the right-hand margin of f. 22 r. (= 61 r.) part of
;

the 50th section of the eleventh chapter is finished off on the top and righthand margin on f. 31 v. (= 70 v.). A line is added on the top of f. 11 v. (= 81 v.). Section 43 of Chapter XIII is left out in the text, but added

on the top and the margin on
Size:

the" right

on

f.

13

r.

(= 96

r.).

9"x4".
:

Material

Number Number

Paper. of .leaves
of lines
:
:

:

31

+ 13 + 12 (=

58)

-f i

blank.

7 to 9.

Character

Devanagari.
:

Date and scribe

Not known

;

the colophon runs thus

:

Injuries

:

It is slightly injured

by worms

in several places, e.g.

ff.

7-4

(= 47-54) and ff.. 1-3 (= 84-86). It has a modern look.
MS. Chandra Shum
Shere, d. 179.

C 4.

The text is made up of two manuscripts, containing the purvardha and the uttardrdha, with the pari&ista respectively, each being copied by a different scribe, at a different place and period. They will therefore be
separately described.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
MS.
:

31

1.

A.D.

1629 Copied at Benares.
;

text

Contents The pilrvdrdha of the Nirukta in the shorter recension the is divided into chapters, padas, and sections, thus Chapter I has 6
:

pddas
stated

;

the 1st

pdda

contains 5 sections, and ends on
to

f

.

2

v.

;

it

is

not

where the 2nd pdda comes

an end, probably
;

it

should be ended
;

number of the following section begins anew has six sections, and ends on f. 6 v. the 4th pdda has 4 pdda the 5th pdda has 2 sections, and ends on sections, and ends on f. 8 r. f 9 v. the 6th pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f. 11 v. 27 being the
after the 4th section, as the

the 3rd

;

.

;

;

total

number

of sections given in the colophon,

which runs thus:
u

(sic)

II

$K

the 1st pada, contains 7 sections, and ends on 2nd pdda contains 5 sections, and ends on f. 16 r. 3rd pdda contains 3 sections, and ends on f. 17r. 4th pdda contains 7 sections, and ends on f. 18 v. 5th pdda contains 3 sections, and ends on f. 19 v. 6th pdda contains 5 sections, and ends on f. 21 r. 7th pdda contains 6 sections, and ends on f 23 r. the total number of sections being 36. Chapter III has 4 pddas 1st pdda contains 7 sections, and ends on f. 25 v. 2nd pdda contains 6 sections, and ends on f 28 v. 3rd pdda contains 6 sections, f 30 containing sections 5-6 is missing 4th pdda contains 6 sections, and ends on f 33 v. the total number of the sections being 25. Chapter IV has 4 pddas 1st pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f. 35 v. 2nd pdda has 8 sections, f. 38 containing a part of the 8th section of the 2nd pdda, and the 1-2 sections of the 3rd pdda is missing 3rd pdda has 6 sections, and ends on f 40 v. 4th pdda has 7 .sections, and ends on f 43 v. Chapter V has 4 pddas 1st pdda contains 6 sections, and ends on f 46 r. 2nd pdda contains 8 sections f 48 3rd pdda containing sections 6-8 is missing contains 7 sections, and ends on f. 51 r. 4th pdda contains 10 sections, and ends on f. 54 r. the total number of sections being 31. Chapter VI has 6 pddas 1st pdda contains 5 sections, on f. 56 r. 2nd pdda contains ending 6 sections, and ends on f. 58 r. 3rd j)dda contains 7 sections, and ends on f. 61 r. 4th pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f. 64 r.; 5th pdda has 5 6th pdda has 8 sections, and ends on f 68 v. sections, and ends on f 66 r. f. 1 is missing. The text is bounded on both sides by double black lines.

Chapter II has 7 pddas
v.
;

:

f.

13

;

;

;

;

;

.

;

:

;

.

;

.

;

.

;

:

;

;

.

;

.

:

.

;

;

.

;

;

;

:

;

;

;

.

;

.

;

Punctuation

is

similar to that of

C

3.

Occasionally marginal notes are

added in red

ink.

Size: 8 T Y'x3f".

Material

Number

paper. of leaves
:

:

i

+ 64

S2

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
Number
of lines
:

10.

Character: Devanagari. Date: on f. 68 v. (= 64
(i.e.

v.) (sic) ifr ^Rl completed on Wednesday in the former half of the month Vaisakha
:

c^ ^

A.D. 1627).

Scribe: on

f.

68

v.

(= 64

v.)

:

(sic)

Place: on
ii

f.

68

v.

(

=

64

v.)

:

(sic)

II

*prrtt
ff.

TO:
1,

n

defaced,

48 are missing; f. 22 is injured, and slightly defaced by marginal notes. Peculiarity of spelling 1J is occasionally written as I/, e.g. f. 2 r. line 2 f. 2 r., line 8 *R^ qjlfl f 2 v., line 4
Injuries:
30, 38,

and

f.

33

is

:

:

:

=

.

:

^t

is

occasionally written as |/|

e. g.

f.

2 8

v.,
:

line

2

:

=
is

ii*n<3nni4i:

but cf

.

line 3,

f

.

2

v.,

line
:

occasionally written in conjunction thus
j

f.

3

r.,

line 2

:

line

4

:

Manuscript containing the uttardrdha. Copied at Dacca.
shorter recension
this division,

A.D. 1691.

Contents The second part (Chapters VII-XII) of the Nirukta in the the text is divided into chapter, pada, and section. In
;

and the number of pdclas in a chapter, and that of sections in a pdda, it agrees with M 3. The 7 pddas of Chapter VII end on 3 r. (= 67 r.), 4 v. (= 68 v.), 7 v. (= 71 v.), 9 r. (= 73 r.), 10 v. (= 74 v.), 13 r. (= 77 r.), 16 v. (=80v.) respectively; the 3 pddas of Chapter VIII end on ff. 18 r. (= 82 r.), 21 v. ( = 85 v.) 24 r. (= 88 r.) respectively; the 4 pddas of Chapter IX end on ff. 27 v. (= 91 v.) 30 r. (= 94 r.), 33 v. (=97 v.), 35 v. (= 99 v.) respectively; the 4 pcidas of Chapter X end on ff. 39 v. (= 103 v.), 42 v. (106 v.), 46 r. (110 r.), 48 v. (= 112 v.) respectively; the4>adasof Chapter XI end on ff. 51 v. (= 115 v.), 54r. (= 118r.), 58 v. (= 122 v.), 62 v. (126 v.) respectively the 4 pddas of Chapter XII end on ff. 65 v. (=129 v.), 68 r. (= 132 r.), 71 v. (= 135 v.), 75 v. (= 139 v.) f. 56 r. respectively, (= 120 r.) is left blank. The text is bounded on
ff'.
; ;

both sides by treble black
in red ink.

lines. The accent in Vedic quotations is marked The short vertical stroke is replaced by a similar black stroke for punctuation. The use of the danda is similar to M 3. The parisista is separated from Chapter XII, and is contained in ff. 76-94 (= 140-158). The division of the text into pddas and Khandas

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
is

33
ff.

identical
v.),

with
89
r.

M

3.

The 4 padas
r.),

of Chapter
r,

XIII end on

80

v.

(= 144
on

(= 153
:

91

v.

(= 155 v.), 94

(= 158 r.)

respectively.

Pagination

is

continued from the end* of Chapter XII.

q M j|Vinft f. 94 r. (= 158 r.) 33OTT% TOgM (iic) *T cannot be genuine, for it is clear from the numbering of folios that it must have been written after Chapter XII, which was finished in 5R^ q^>8^>
||
J

^

The date given

^m%

The name of the scribe is could not be earlier than cj^g^. hence, a resident of Muphalipura. The colophon runs thus (sic) Harirama,
it
:

Size:

9"x4".
:

Material

Paper.
:

Number Number

of leaves

94 + i blank.

of lines

:

8.

Character: Devanagari. Date: on f. 75 v. (= 139

IT

^T^ JTT^T
Scribe: on

^
75

v.)

:

^f% *\

*fa^

^8^

(=
to

A.D. 1691)

M $>*.

f.

75 v.

(= 139

v.)

:

^)^^4t*)^^: he seems
remarks
n
:

have taken

grea,t pains in copying the manuscript, for he

Place

Injuries:

v. (= 139 v.) (sic) ^ft ^RTRTaT ^PMdf^<( 1-11 (= 65-75) are slightly defaced. Peculiarity of spelling it occasionally writes if as in Part f. 1 v. (= 65 v.), line 1
:

on

f.

II

II

ff.

:

I, e. g.

,,

r,

3

Some
8=
ii,

of the figures for

M
r.),

= ^, ^ = ^J
line 8:

numbers are occasionally
r.

slightly different:

f.

73

(=

137r.)

5

^t

is

written as

f

;

f.

73

r.

(=

i37

MS. The text
is

Chandra Shum
of

Shere, d. 180.

C

5.

made up

two manuscripts which are described
the

separately.

MS. containing
Contents
text
is
:

purvardha, A.D. 1758.

Chapters I- VI of the Nirukta in the shorter recension. The divided into padas and sections. It agrees with C4 in having

C

34
six

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
full of mistakes. The pddas in Chapter I. It is carelessly written, and is bounded by double red lines up to f. 24, and by similar black lines,

text
ff.

25-67.

Ff. 55

v.,

56 are defaced by disproportionate marginal notes.
in the original..

F. 57 is

wrongly numbered 56
f.

The

first

four lines on
.-e

the top of

58

r.

are to be crossed.

Two

geometrical figures

drawn

on

f 1
.

r.

Size:

8J"x4*":
:

Material: Paper. ^Number of leaves

i

+ 67.

Number

of lines

:

7-14.

^
(=
on

Character: Devanagarl. Daoe: on f. 67 v. (sic)
A.D. 1758). The Scribe
:

SR^

^8 J^
is

*faft

%

*^l

^

TJ%

name

of the

owner

f

.

67

v.

:

^T

*ftfa

quto^KW^ Hiyjq

added in a different handwriting *RrfTT (i. e. this book ft

%^

belongs to Nathurama, son of Bhamangabarama).

MS. containing
Contents
:

the

uttdrardha with the parisista, dated A.D. 1479.

Chapters VII-XIII of the Nirukta in the shorter recensioa,

The text is divided into pddas and Khandas, with C 4 in the number of pddas and Khandas, distributed in agreeing each chapter and pdda respectively. The seven pddas end on ff. 2 v. (= 69 v.), 3 v. (= 70 v.), 5 v. (= 72 v.), 7 r. (= 74 r.), 8 r. (= 75 r.), 9 v. (= 76 v.), 12 r. (= 79 r.); the three pddas of Chapter VIII on ff. 13 r. (= 80 r.), 16 r. (= 83 r.), 17 v. (= 84 v.) the four pddas of Chapter IX on ff. 20 r. (= 87 r.), 22 r. (= 89 r.), 24 v. (= 91 v.), 26 r. '(= 93 t.) the four pddas of Chapter X on ff. 29 v. (= 96 v.), 31 v. (= 98 v.), 34 v. (= 101 v.), 36 v. (= 103 v.) the four pddas of Chapter XI on ff. 39 r. (= 106 r.), 41 r.
written consecutively.
;
; ;

(= 108 r.), 43 v. (= 110 v.), 46 v. (= 113 v.) the four pddas of Chapter XII on ff. 49 r. (= 116 r.), 51 r. (= 118 r.), 54 r. (= 121 r.), 56 v. (= 123 v.) the four pddas of Chapter XIII on ff. 60 r. (= 127 r.), 67 r. (= 134 r.), 69 v. (= 136 v.), 71 v. (= 138 v.). The text is bounded on both sides by double black lines. The accent in Vedic stanzas is marked in red ink. Punctua;
;

tion- is

similar to

M 3.
:

It is

a very good manuscript, neat and accurate.

Size:

8f"x3".
Paper. of leaves
:

Material

Number Number

72 + i blank.

of lines

:

9.

Character: Devanagarl.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Date: on
f.

35

71

v.

(= 138
v.

v.)

:

H

^rf^T

^RHTJ^M ( = A.D.

1479)

Scribe

:

on

f.

71

(= 138
:

v.)

:

<tfM?;U!

f^ff *g

fSff^TTOftr

II

^

II

The Colophon runs thus

(sic) ^ft

^
The name
of the

^
is

TT
f.

given on '^nf'f 4tf^

72

r.

Wj[ -*u*<<<qnf Tlnii7,!j &c. (= 139 r):

owner

II

Rites and sacrifices performed

by the owner at various

places
f.

of pilgrimages like Kuruksetra, Benares, &c., are enumerated on

72

r.

(=
.

139

r.).

Peculiarity of spelling:
g.

^

is

always written as

IZT> Tf *s

written as |/ ?

'W =
f.

^iri

on

f

.

71

v.,

line 6.
line

54
,,

r.

(= 121
e.

r.),

3

:

^RWT:
farf

4

:

= T^Rm: = "HRt and

so on.

^

is

written as |/H,
f.

g
v.), line

53

v.

(= 120
|/|
e.

9
2

:

:

fti

=

fMI^MJ and so on.

is

written as
f.

,

g. 1
:

53

v.

(= 120 v.), line
,

6:

is

written as |/^5t, e.g.
f.

5

r.

(= 72

r.),

line 6

:

conjunction with ^is written as a short vertical stroke, and with or ^as a horizontal stroke, e. g.
?fv in

^WTf
^T is

I

W

=

^T

and

so on.

written variously as
ff.

^

or

^ or ^.
(=96)
are slightly

Injuries:
injured.

9 (=76), 10 (=77), 19 (=86), 29

MS.
Contents
:

Chandra Shum

Share,

e.

Bt

C

6.

The Nirukta of Yaska

in the longer recension.

It consists

of three manuscripts ; the first contains Chapters I-V- in 86 leaves (86 v. gives a part of the first section of Chapter VI) ; the second, Chapter VI in

2

8b

INTRODUCTION TO THE N1RUKTA
in

the original as 47-73 = 87-113); the third, 78 leaves (= 114-191). The division of the text Chapters VII-XIV, in into Chapters (adkydya) and sections (KJtandas), the punctuation, and the 4. method of marking the accent in Vedic stanzas are identical with

27 leaves (numbered

M

The

text

is

bounded by double red

by a leaf in a later handwriting. A summary similar to M 4 is added
Size
:

lines only occasionally. F. 3 is replaced Ff. 87-92 are written on blue paper.

at the end of each chapter.
(ff.

8J" x 4" (ff. 1-86) and 7}* x 3| Material: Paper. Character: Devanagari.

87-113),

7" x 3J"

(ff.

114-191).

Number Number

of leaves

:

i

+ 191 -f i

blank.
(ff.

of lines: 7
:

(ff.

1-113), 7-10

114-191).

Date and Scribe

Not known.
owner
is

The name

of the

added on

f.

114

r.

:

I

MS.

Chandra Shum

Shere, d. 183.

C

7.

sections

Contents: The uttardrdha of the NiruJda, Chapters VII-XI, and 1-27 of Chapter XII in the shorter recension. The text is bounded by treble black lines on both sides, and is divided into pddas

and Khandas.
pdda, but
is

The numbering of sections does not begin anew in each consecutive for the whole chapter, and agrees with the manuscripts of the longer recension. It looks old; the ink is totally effaced in several parts, which makes it difficult to read; but it is not
It really old, for it does not display any characteristics of old writing. is full of mistakes. Three lines are added at the bottom on f. 13 v., 52 v.

Marginal notes are occasionally written.
Size:

9j*x34".
:

Material: Paper. Number of leaves

i

+ 58 + i
:

blank.

Number

of lines per folio

7.

Character: Devanagari. Date and Scribe Not known, for the last leaves are missing.
:

Peculiarity of spelling 7^ is occasionally written as a short horizontal = stroke in conjunction. F. 1 v., line 1 f. 1 v., line 2
:

;

HJjfi'Hi

:

HJift*!!,

is

^t?t ^jf^f torn in tv,

=

1 is doubled in conjunction
j.

with ^,

e.g. ?W$

=

1*$. F. 58

v.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS
MS.
Yaska's

37

Wilson 488.
Nirukta,

W

1.

A.D. 1768.

This is described in detail by Keith in the Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts, vol. ii, p. 107. His description may be supplemented by the v. runs thus "^ (sic) following: the Colophon on f. 79
:

II

II

8

^

II

Two more

verses are added

in a different hand, one being a slight

modification of a verse from the Pancatantra.

The purvfrrdha and the
doubled in conjunction

uttarardha are written in different hands.
Peculiarity of spelling
:

?^and
7 2
folio:
:

rf^are occasionally
-

with ^,

e.

g.

f 1 v., line
.

f.

2

r.,

:

Number
8
(ff.

of lines

per

7

(ff.

1-21), 9

(ff.

22-79), 7

(ff.

80-162),
left

163-183).
Ff.

Injuries:

53-63

are

slightly

injured

by worms on the

marginal top.

MS.

Wilson 491.

W

2.

This manuscript is described in detail by Keith in the Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, vol. ii, p. 106. His description may be supplemented as follows
:

Peculiarity of spelling

:

It writes

VT

as

Vf
e.

H

is

occasionally written as

|/,

g.

Number
(ff.

of
it

lines

per folio

:

8

(ff.

1-61), 9

(ff.

62-78), 8

(ff.

79-91), 9

92-101),

Ff.

from 10-11 (ff. 102-130). F. 104 is upside down. The size of leaves (ff. 79-86) is 8|" x SJ*. 79-130 are written in a handwriting different from that of the previous
varies
:

folios.

38

.

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
MS.
Wilson 474.

W
ii,

3.

This

is

described in detail
the

by Keith
vol.
:

Manuscripts in

Bodleian Library,
is

in the Catalogue of Sanskrit His description may p. 107.

be supplemented by the following
Peculiarity of spelling:
line 2:

f$ =
is

tj^TJ

^

TJ

occasionally written as I/, e.g.

f.

.2

r.

=

*&>
e.

^ft =

^THf;

f.

2

r.,

line 3;

written as |/TJ,

g
frequently doubles consonants in is doubled doubled, v*^n>

But

its chief

peculiarity
f.

is
:

that

it

conjunction, e.g.

2

r.,

line 2
;

*jfa|3T:

^is

1
ii

;

is

yrJIiqT. doubled

rf

v

is

doubled

line 4:

fti|pT,
;

^
:

is

doubled; line 5: ^jfahf^
;

^
?
:

;

OjqH^,
;

i^is

doubled line 6
2
:.

TgiiIW>f or n^p^o
for

ne 7
r.,

:

?rf,

is

doubled
^T

f.

2

v. t line

fM^lj"^^^
^g^H> ?
is

f^^W^

}

f.

3

line 1

'Wni.
f.

is

doubled
:

;

line 6:

doubled,

TT^,
l!e

^T is doubled;

4

r.,

line 1

TTT^t<$i^**<*jnf\*!jiii<nkv*tf^i for ^ii^l^^*H

nr\5n^ q*,ili>

and_so on.

MS.

Mill 144.

Mi.

Copied at Ahmedabad, A.D. 1730.
This
is

described in detail
the

Manuscripts in
doubles

?Hn

by Keith in the Catalogue of Sanskrit Bodleian Library, vol. ii, p. 106. It occasionally conjunction with other consonants, e.g. f. 2 r., line 8:
&C.
is

The numbering of sections does not begin anew in each pdda, but continuous, and agrees with the longer recension as to the total number sections in Chapters IX-XII. It belongs to the shorter recension.
MS.
Sanskrit,
e.

of

17.

S.

A.V. 1781.

This is described in detail by Keith in the Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, vol, ii, p. 105. The text is punctuated
as usual, and divided into chapters and sections. A summary similar to the one described on p. 1 is added at the end of each chapter. It belongs to the longer recension. The text is bounded on both sides by two sets of double red lines. It is a neat and accurate manuscript.

THE TEXT OF THE NIRUKTA
:

39

t

The Relationship of the MSB. two recensions. The manuscripts fall into two groups, and for the sake of convenience
called

and brevity, may be
shorter recension.

A and B A

representing the longer and

B

the

two families is earlier than A. D. 1479. Although they have been copied from earlier manuoften with great labour and trouble -as some of the scribes remark scripts neither of them transmits the text of the Nirukta in an uninterpolated state. Both recensions add the pariMsta which can be proved to be an interpolation by independent testimony as an integral part of the text, and cannot,
of the manuscripts grouped in these
therefore, be the faithful representatives of the archetype. Moreover, both have besides the pariMsta, an entire section or the equivalent of a section

None

added on to them. These additions are meaningless. The commentary on the Vedic stanzas quoted therein is very poor, and written in a style quite For instance, there can hardly be any doubt different from that of Yaska. as to the interpolated character of ix. 2, which is given as a constituent part

by the manuscripts of both recensions. Further, the commentary on the Vedic stanza in xi. 7 is meaningless and written in a different Yaska style. The Vedic stanza, being quite easy, requires no explanation. generally does not comment on easy Vedic stanzas, simply remarking: iti so, nigada-vydkhydtd 1 i.e. 'this stanza is explained by the mere reading*. In all such cases, this note of Yaska comes after easy Vedic stanzas only. It would thus be intelligible, if it had followed immediately the Vedic stanzas in xi. 7. But as the text now stands, it is placed just after a very
of the text
,

This is contrary to Yaska's method. It is sd nigada-vydkhydtd were originally placed immediately after the Vedic stanzas in xi. 7. The intervening passage is an interpolation, and rather a clumsy one, for it can be easily detected.
difficult

clear that the

Vedic stanza in words:

xi. 8.

iti

by the fact that Durga, who repeats every word of commentary, ignores them. How these additions gradually find their way into the text is illustrated by the following example. There is an easy quotation in xii. 2, and" Yaska, as usual, simply adds iti sd Some interpolators have endeavoured to add after nigada-vydkhydta. these words a short comment. Thus some manuscripts here subjoin the
This
is

further proved

Yaska

in his

:

^T*ft TOHrft <H!*ft *TO% following remark TOTfiig gTHTOt: I Further, each recension contains passages, which, being superfluous, are omitted by the other, or are amplified versions of those in the other. For
:

W

example, B adds, between vii. 19 and 20, one entire section, which is omitted by A. It is clearly an interpolation as the commentary on the Vedic stanzas is identical with that of xiv. 33 with slight alterations.
1

Cf.

N.

x. 18,

24

;

xi. 8,

45;

xii. 81.

40
Again, in
as follows
:

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
B
the commentary on the Vedic stanza quoted in
<eiiQi^ift
u

v. 27,

reads

j^q*$ji

A's version of this

is

greatly amplified

:

<nf*T

II

^

II

Further, omitted by B.
c.

A

contains a long passage in

6.

5

:

'Omissio ex homoeoteleuto

'

in Sanskrit Manuscripts.

It- is clear, therefore, that' both the recensions cannot faithfully represent the archetype. Hence the question arises which of them adheres more Roth adopted the text as given by the longer closely to the original? recension in his edition, without, however, assigning adequate reasons for The same text is also adopted by most of the editors of his preference.

the Nirukta.

This text, as has been shown above, does not represent the

It is true that often the longer recension preserves the better original. The eye of the for sometimes passages are omitted by accident. text, scribe wanders from a particular word to the same or to a similar word,

occurring further on in the text, with the result that the intervening words are omitted. This phenomenon known as omissio ex homoeoteleuto
is

illustrates
is

universal and of very frequent occurrence. The following example The book, which thigjdnd of omission. In copying the lines rather scarce, was till very lately of absolute necessity for the Student of
' :

hymns V
the same the
'

the Christian hymnology, above all for the Student of Adam of St. Victor's the eye of the copyist wandered from the student of the first to

word

in the second line

were

left out.

and the words of the Christian .... for The same thing happened to the scribe of MS. C 3.
'

In copying the

sentence:

tiT^qi'K^n
his eye

fl<tJ<JU!i

tjvsn.

I

wandered from the word
result that

in the first line to the

the words nw<j*ui tjt^n.

same word in the second line, with the ^nfK*J<J^ were left out.
I
:

RV. TH*: itdk'ti 31^5* 3 I^fofe*J Again, in copying N. vi. 22 VIII. 4. 19. the eye of the scribe wandered <44j|(4Mt||<^ *fl|TWrf?f

^t

I

"^nt:

I

from the

^T

of the first line to the similar
1

word ^^:
1.

in the second line,

Clark, Descent of Manuscripts, p.

THE TEXT OF THE NIRUKTA
consequent^
the intervening words "^TVi
?|dl^j

41
f<(ftfKtJ

....

were

omitted in MS.

C

3.

Further in N.

ii.

26

:

:

is

the

first

pdda
it

of the second hemistich of the stanza of

RV.

III.,

33. 6.

Unconsciously the scribe remembered the second
^RffJ

pada

cf^J

^nW

and wrote

down immediately

after finishing the first
I

with the result that the intervening words c^niiuifui: MlfUj: MOjI^Tl .... ^*4{n are missing in MS. C 4. It cannot therefore be concluded that the shorter recension is always the best, for sometimes omissions are accidental.
e.

Dittography in Sanskrit Manuscripts.

On
i.

e.

the other hand, there is also the phenomenon called dittography, the repetition or addition of a few words or sentences. An excellent

example of dittography is furnished by The Globe on July 9, 1915. The Echo de Paris publishes a message from Cettinje announcing the message from Cettinje announcing the appointment as Governor of Scutari of Bojo Petrovitch.' T The part of the second line is a verbatim repetition
'

of a part of the

first line,
>

In N.

ii.

28,

^cT ^f cn<*l f^lf^f <<*lflld iTNl^i

3Tlh

. . the eye of the scribe wandered by chance after 3R<j to the Vedic stanza, and he mechanically copies the whole of the first line except
.

^Rf

^ in MS. C

5.

Again, in N. vi. 8, the scribe of the MS. Mi. repeats JJfn!(dMJI ^TT. Further there are some passages whose omission by B is absolutely unjustifiable. Yaska explains every word occurring in the fourth chapter
tion of

of the Nighantu. The omission of the passages containing the explanaany of these words is therefore inconsistent with Yaska's plan.

Examples of such omissions are the following.
(Ngh.
4. 3. 12)

Yaska explains

f%^pTT:

f'PJpn fr^lUlfglfXuj: is omitted B. by Again, Yaska explains ^t^RT (Ngh. 4.3. 28) in N. vi. 6 as ^Jra This omission makes the following Vedic ^4<!!<g, which is omitted by B.
vi. 3,
:

in N.

but the passage

quotation meaningless. Further, in commenting upon a Vedic stanza, Yaska always starts from the very beginning of the stanza. To leave out the first few words and to
1

Clark, op.

cit.,

p. 6.

42

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKT4

begin from somewhere in the middle of the stanza is altogether foreign to his practice, yet if the text of B be followed, the omission of the passage:
(N. vi. 26) would involve Yaska in an inconAll this shows that B is not absolutely reliable. The majority of the manuscripts of let us examine A. belong

sistency.

Now

A

to a period later than those of B. Thus, not one of them has preserved the old spelling, while most of the B MSS. retain this peculiarity, i.e.

of writing

TJ
ij
"3ft

as

\/

as

^r^

for

^f

\/\
I

/I

for

thirteenth

Again, some of the A MSS. divide the pari&ista into the so-called and the fourteenth chapters, while those of B put he whole of

the parUista into one chapter only, which is numbered the thirteenth. It has already been pointed out that contains an obvious interpolation

A

and an amplified version of B's comment in N. v. 27. Besides these there are shorter passages scattered throughout the book which are omitted by B and are suspected to be interpolations. One very fertile and insidious source of interpolations is supplied by Yaska's own method of giving etymological explanations. He does not content himself with one derivation, but goes on adding derivation after derivation of a single word till the whole list of probable, possible, and even fanciful etymologies is exhausted. In many cases, interpolators found it quite easy to add new A contains a considerable derivations and attribute them to Yaska.
5,

in N. vi.

number

of such additions, while

B

has only two.

The following are a few samples: N. ii. 6. A reads ^T ^t PlBdlft TT ^t si^ii^
: I

I

^IT

B reads cp^ q'^m^ l*i<ni*il*i<in^. The two derivations are omitted.
:
I

.

.

N.

ii.

10.

A

reads:

ffT^

^Wf.

.

.

ff7TT*nr?

B
N.
ii.

reads: ffT*S <*^I<V ..... fifK*RI aTOftfTI 17
13.

I

A A
:

reads

:

B
N.
ii.

reads:
20.

reads

:

^Tfa^f^

-*uf*MI*l

B

reads

THE TEXT OF THE NIRUKTA
N.
ii.

43
I

22.

A

reads

:

JTZRT

l^T

*J*s*MI*J

Urfjfl

*Rf?f

B
N.

reads: 1HRT Tfa
8.

<WI

Jffi*

Hqlfl

I

iii.

A

reads

:

B
N.

reads:

iii.

10.

A
:

reads

:

^n^^sRint
I

I

U
N.

reads
15.

^IMU^Rld:

cfRfrt
ql

iii.

A reads
:

:

qft

W*& f%^%^ ^T^l
I I

I

qT

^3^
B

I

ftVql fqVr^qTr
qft

*Tq1?T

reads

ql TF&l

fqWqq ^K*i

fq^Iql f^Ml^ehl JTqUf

I

In

this particular case it is obvious that the passage ^qT qTCRTf, &c., is an for as the words stand in the first line, Yaska would naturally interpolation,

give the etymological explanation of
vice versa.

fq^RT

first

and then of %*K, not
if

As a matter

of fact he does so; after explaining

^^0
N.

<!*lfflqN&l.

This would

have been absurd

says the reading of

f^WF he

:

A

represents the original.
iii.

16.

A
:

reads

:

mfRT ** fWT
T^

T%fa

I

fWt

B
N.

reads
19.

sTT^WT

f^T ^f?f
.

II

<*

II

iii.

A reads:
:

f*H9ftTRrff<T

.

.

.

^

I

f^fr!

B
N.

reads

iv. 2.

A
:

reads:

B
N.

reads

iv. 10.

A
:

reads

:

B
N.

reads

iv. 13.

A
:

reads:

t^n:

fJ*nf\rfMi

B
N.
fTI

reads

iv. 15.

A
:

reads

:

qTOT <*ii)q( 9Tqt?f

I

S^9f

^d^ffl qT

I

ql^qTl
reads
ql^qr

B

qW^Nn

Hqt?f

I

l^i %ff%f?T qT

I

44
N.
I

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
iv. 19.

A
:

reads

:

^31

^?C

^WJ}

I

<sTim

CM*^I%

I

B
N.

reads

^F

fC *WS
:

I

v. 3.

A
:

reads

qi^f^f?f TT

^l^(\fd ^T

iMl}*IRRl

B
N.

reads

m%ft
reads
:

v. 12.

A
:

B
N.

reads

v. 26.

A
:

reads

:

f%T|>{

B
N.

reads

f%r^T

<*1
:

$31

I

^

vi. 8.

A
:

reads

f^RTfrf

faKf^^T ^T

JJUllfdeM$l

B
N.

reads

f^Rfif

vi. 16.

A
:

reads

:

B
N.
vi.

reads
33.

A
:

reads

:

?0iri
I

B
N.

reads

ufl*i^ f^T3

vi. 32.

A
:

reads:

B
N.

^

5Tpfof?r

f%^t TT ^T^t ^T T^t TT
.
.

.

-

reads

^^ TH^^f ^T^t ^T H^T TT
reads
:

.

vi. 33.

A

^"q ^fMlfdTl

J|*i*mirdTi

P
n-i

reads:

Instances might be multiplied, but the above examples suffice to
that

show

A

has been
in his

Fortunately,

much more tampered with than B. as has been said above, Durga repeats every word
'

of the

* commentary, so that the text of the Nirukta in toto can be from his commentary alone. This commentary therefore serves reproduced the purpose of a manuscript of the Nirukta and supplies valuable information about the condition of the text in its author's time. Durga does not

Nirukta

recognize the paritdsta as an integral part of the Nirukta, as in fact he is even unaware of its existence. Thus his commentary preserves the text of the Nirukta as current before the addition of the Further,
^

paritdsta.

derives great value from the fact that Durga displays critical judgement in the adoption of readings in the text, while giving variants and adding critical notes on them. For example, in N. i. 2, he reads
it

THE TEXT OF THE NIRUKTA
gives
JJ|Mc^

45

as

a variant, adding

Again, in N.
a variant,
*JT<fr
I

i.

12,

he reads

*iR|1jldlR but gives
rfTf'f

*i Hill

HI ft

as

adding ^RTTT ^'fain^n!*!
he remarks

^"faijMlfa

<TTf*T

^rtJ^NUjrfi

Again, in N.

iii. 1 5,

:

^ifa

^

Again, in N.

iii.

21,

he reads ^faiTfil but gives 4|RMIV! as a variant*
I

adding

:

"^Rf

^vTl^ ^fannf MrtRl
N.
t

Again, in

iv. 19,

he reads
(sic)

^j:

but gives HNJ ^ as a variant, adding
1

:

Tra^

i

^
:

Again, in N. vi. 2,

he remarks

fnc% TT ^oiH
<1

*iRrM*|fl

Again, in

N.

vi. 4,

he reads

4|^11^I^H. but gives HqNlfl*^ and

as variants.

Again, in N.

vi. 6,

he reads ^^Ul^l but gives ^l*i^ as a variant,
I

adding

:

^)<u^3q^

*i*q^

Again, on N.

vi. 21,

he remarks: ^Sfft: K4I|VMM$I

I

3. 5. 8. 1.

Again, on N.
j:
I

vi.

33,
I

he remarks

:

^m|44^

*t

^Rrf^RT ^?RI%

I

TTtft

*f\*l*i

This shows that Durga took pains to ascertain the correct readings and has handed down a sort of critical edition of the Nirukta, as it existed in
his time.
/. 1.

Three stages of interpolations.

We have thus manuscript materials which belong to three distinct periods.
(1)

D,

i.e.

the commentary of Durga, written before the edition of

the parisistas and embodying the whole text of the Nirukta, represents the earliest period, i. e. about the thirteenth century A. D.
(2) B, i.e. the nianuscripts of the shorter recension represent a period later than D, when the pariMstas were added, but not divided as yet into different chapters, and when the old orthography was still

prevalent.

46
(3)

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
A,
i.

later period

manuscript of the longer recension, represents a still the pari&istaa had been divided into chapters and the old orthography had gone out of use.
e.

th

when

A

collation

of these three different recensions indicates that

three

For distinct stages of interpolations in the Nirukta can be clearly traced. example, let us take a passage in N. i. 4. On collating D, B, and A, we
find that the reading of

D

has been expanded in B, and that of

B

in A.

N.

i.

4.

D

reads

:

B

reads:

TT
I

I

A

reads

:

^i-qifefc^

mf^fa $* 1*11*1
T
i

I

"^i^u^

<nmnj
1

^rr^f^^Mn?
suppled

31^*11 q i

Another example for these three stages
follows
:

is

by N.

ix.

2,

as

D

reads:
B

^

B

B

reads

:

:

i

11

^

11

^fft

f^rfr

A

reads

:

n

q

N

I

i

^jfT

*wd?f
i

TT

i

^m

q^
TT
^TRrr

*^IIIU1I*

I

TT m^iPyfli wr

i

i

?rrfT^nc^t^

THREE STAGES OF INTERPOLATIONS
it has

47

been shown above that the list of etymologies increases as one from the text of B to that of A. In the same manner the list passes of etymologies increases in B as compared with D. The following are some examples.
N.
i.

4.

D
:

reads:

yfllMlfq^l^qflfaft
I

|

J

B

reads

gramifc^itvei^sifci^

<ji<9imi:

fi%*J

^ft^f

I

J

D
B
N.
i.

reads
reads
7.

:

:

*R1T: tyltdl *ft

rflT*HT

H^T
\

I

D
:

reads

:

^tg^fl

% ^^
I

I

ff f^f?f

B
N.
ii.

reads
22.

^^^*i ^ %^% D reads: 3*

Vfift

l&ft:

B
r

reads
it

:

^qi
reads
:

N.

ii.

26.

D

B

reads

:

N.

iii.

18.

D

reads

.

flff:

B

reads:

N.

v. 4.

D
:

reads

:

B
N.

reads

1
reads
:

v. 23.

D

B

reads

:

48

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
MS. C
1

agrees with

B

except that the last line *P<(Ufl*i%

^

is

omitted.

N.

vi. 3.

D

reads

:

B

reads

:

^WT

TV

N.

vi. 8.

D
:

reads

:

^ft" r^l'HrtJrh^l

1RT

qif^MnqT

II

^

||

B
N.

reads

^ft

^^I'Mrtlrft^l
:

WT[

I

^HH W^T

n<?M7l4l

II

^

II

vi. 24.

D
:

reads

A
B
N.

reads

omits

it

altogether.

vi. 28.

D
:

reads

:

B

reads

/. 2.

Parallel instance of Servius, commentator of Virgil.

Thus the stages of interpolation at different periods can be traced. The principle of the 'best MSS.' is obviously inapplicable in this case,
All that is available for none of the manuscripts can be called the best. is the best of each family, and the best plan, under the circummanuscript
stances,
it is

would be to place all the three families side by side. Fortunately possible to do so, for the successive interpolations from one family to

another are invariably the amplifications of the text of a shorter recension, and are thrust between sentences wherever the text could be so enlarged

with impunity, as, for instance, in multiplying the number of etymologies and attributing them all to Yaska. I have, however, distinguished the evidence of Durga's commentary from that of the manuscripts of the
Nirukta, although Durga's commentary is very important for supplying such valuable evidence for the history of the text of the Nirukta, it cannot, The relation of strictly speaking, be called a manuscript of the Nirukta. the shorter to the longer recension is shown by the use of square brackets,

which contain the additional passages of the longer recension, while the i O O

by

relation of the shorter recension to the text preserved by Durga is indicated foot-notes. An analogous example is furnished by Latin literature. The

text of Servius, commentator of Virgil, shows a similar threefold amplinca-

THREE STAGES OF INTERPOLATIONS
tion, the three stages of interpolation

49

edition.

I think the text of the
it is

the archetype as closely as

being pointef out by Thilo in his Nirukta reproduced from Durga represents possible to restore it with the help of the

1 present materials. I have collated sixteen manuscripts myself, besides taking into account fourteen manuscripts collated by Roth, and eight by

Thus, directly and indirectly, the been available for this edition, anc7 evidence of about fortv manuscripts has the text may therefore be regarded as more or less settled.
the editor of the Nirukta in Bib. Ind.
g.

Commentators of Yaska.

Although, from an early period, Yaska's work has been recognized as one of the most important vedangas by the orthodox tradition of literary This does not India, he, unlike Panini, has not had many commentators. mean that he had few followers or that his speculations did not dominate On the contrary, he has been the thought of succeeding generations.

acknowledged to be the pre-eminent authority on etymology. Hence (at first sight) it seems rather inexplicable that his work should have been commented upon by so few people. One r.eason of this paucity is that Yaska's work itself is a commentary and not an independent treatise, hence it did not stand in need of much elucidation. Secondly, it is written in classical Sanskrit prose, and, notwithstanding its somewhat archaic and terse style, is easily intelligible to the reader as compared, for instance, with the
aphorisms of Panini consequently there was not much demand for further comment. Yet three commentators, at least, are known to have elucidated Yaska's work. (1) Ugra is mentioned as a commentator on the Nirukta by Aufrecht in his Catalogue Catalogorum,. 2 But no other information, about his personality, the character of his work, and the time when he lived, is
;

available.

No
field.

reference

is

made

to

him by any

of the other writers in

the same
(2)

The second commentator
3

is

Skandasvami, mentioned by Deva-

rajayajvan.

work exists in the Bibliotheque manuscript 4 Nationale, Paris, and a friend of mine from Lahore has recently informed me that he has obtained a complete manuscript of his commentary.
of
his
all

A

1 Since then, on my visit to Paris, I have been able, through the courtesy of Professor Sylvaiu Lt vi, to examine the Nirukta manu;

and do not

represent the text of the longer recension, afford any other variants. The contents of Nos. 263 and 264 is Durga's
to

scripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Nos.

commentary, which comes
the twelfth chapter.
2
3

an end with

267-64, described by Cabaton in the Catalogue sommaire des Manuscrits Sanskrits et Pali, pp. 39-

Vol.

i,

p. 297.
vol.
i,

All of them, except the first collated by Roth, belong to the nineteenth century. They
40.

See Bib. Ind. ed.,
Loc.
cit.

pp. 2-4.

*

(Aufrecht).

D

50

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

most important of all these commentators is Durga. He (3) But the seems to be later than Devarajayajvan who is familiar with the then extant commentaries on the Vedas, the Niffhantu, and the Nirukta, and who does not mention Durga in the long list of the authorities use<] by him for the purpose of his own work. Although a conclusion based on the argument
not cogent, yet in this particular case, it is justified to assume not ref erred to because he was posterior to Devaraja, hence Durga would also be later than Skandasvami. Durga's commentary is Durga
of silence
is

that

is

His work published, and has superseded the works of his predecessors. is important for two reasons (1) he is the last of the commentators, and
:

therefore represents the fullest development of the traditional interpretation of the Nirukia (2) the very fact that it has survived at the cost of earlier shall therefore examine his commentaries indicates its importance.
;

We

work somewhat

in detail.

Date of Durga.
It has already

been pointed out that in
this

Devarajayajvan, though Devaraja himself is not known. determined almost with certainty.

probability he is later than assumption hardly helps us, for the date of
all

However, Durga's lower limit can be

A manuscript

l

of his

commentary

in the

Bodleian Library is dated 1387 A.D. The date is genuine and is accepted as such by Professor A. B. Keith. 2 The manuscript was copied at Bhrgu Ksetra in the reign of Maharana Durgasimhavijaya. Thus he could not be later than 1387 A.D. It is difficult to identify any particular site with Bhrgu
Ksetra, but probably it was situated somewhere between the Sarasvati and the Jairma. As Durga wrote his commentary in a hermitage near Jammu, a place not easily accessible in the absence of modern means of communication, the

migration of the MS. of his commentary to Bhrgu Ksetra presupposes the lapse of sufficient time in order to account for Die spreading of his fame as a commentator from the isolated heights of Jammu to the
plains of

place

Bhrgu Ksetra. It will not be far from the truth, therefore, to Durga about the thirteenth century A.D. Durga does not speak of any predecessors by name nor does he leave any clue as to the sources of his own commentary. Unlike Devaraja-

yajvan, he does not give the slightest information about himself or the general state of the Niru/da during his time. That he wrote his com3 mentary in a hermitage near Jammu is proved by the colophon on f. 132 v. at the end of the eleventh chapter of the NiruJda, which runs as follows
:

1 2

MS. Wilson

475.
the

See Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in

Bodleian Library, vol. * MS. Wilson 475.

ii,

p. 108.

COMMENTATORS OF YASKA
*

51

This skows that the full name of the was Durgasimha. The fact that he lived in a hermitage and commentator was addressed as bhagavat indicates that he was an ascetic and belonged to some particular order of Sannyasa. Further, he is a descendant of the family of the Vasisthas. He does not explain the stanza RV. III. 53. 23, l quoted by Yaska to illustrate the meaning of the word lodham, because
I

the stanza implies hostility to Vasistha.

He
|

in

which

this

^^ word
I

says

:

^f^RfWTTT Tp*
'
I

^^: *H
stanza,
I

^RTfTO^t Trf*re:
is

^r<T^f

^ f^^tfa

The

(lodham) occurs

hostile to Vasistha.

And

am

a

descendant of Vasistha, belonging to the Kapisthala branch, hence I do not explain the stanza.' 2

Sayana has the following note on
i

*r

^r

^

^nf

^ri
:
I

it:

i

cTT

'There was formerly a royal sage named Sudas, a disciple of VisVamitra. Somehow, he became an object of Vasistha's hatred. Then, VisVamitra, in order to protect his disciple, reviled Vasistha with these stanzas. These are the imprecatory stanzas. The Vasisthas do not pay any attention This corroborates Yaska's statement that there are (lit. listen) to them.'
:i

stanzas which contain asseveration and imprecation only
' '

*

Durga's commentary is important for it repeats every word of Yaska, thus the text of the Nirukta in toto could be reproduced from Durga's work alone. As none of the manuscripts collated by me is older than the
fifteenth century, Durga supplies therefore evidence of a very valuable character for the textual criticism oi' the Nirukta. The number of variants

by Durga to his predecessors and his frequent remarks that the corrupt and that the right reading is to be discovered, all such indicate that there has been no cases I have pointed out. in my. notes, unbroken tradition with regard to the handing down of the text of the
attributed
is

text

Nirukta. Further there seems to have been some sort of revival of the study oi the Nirukta in the neighbourhood of Jammu in Durga's time, for it seems

imagine that in an isolated place like Jammu, Durga sat down to write his commentary simply for the love of writing a commentary. It is more reasonable to suppose that Durga accomplished this task in order
difficult to
1

The

Nirv&ta, iv. 14.

2

Durga's

Commentary on
III. 53.

thtrN.
Cf.

iv. 14.

edition of the Nirukta, vol. Muir, Sanscrit Texts.
*

ii,

p. 416.

Cf.

8

Sayana on RV.

Bib. Ind.

N.

vii. 3.

D

2

52
to

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
meet the demand for a good

text, elucidation of obscure passages, and of Yaska's arguments, a demand which a revival of the study amplification The examination of the manuscript of of the Nirukta had called forth.

Durga's commentary, mentioned above, leads one to the conclusion that

Durga did not live to complete his work and that he himself wrote his commentary up to the end of the llth chapter only. This is indicated by
a comparison of colophons in the manuscript which, at the end of the 7th-12th chapters, numbered as 12-17 by Durga consecutively from the
five chapters of the
(1)

Nighantu, are as follows
.

:

At the end

of the 7th chap, on f 50

r.

II

(2)
(3) (4)
(5)

8th chap, on

f.

70 86

v.
v.
II

9th chap, on

f.

10th chap, on
llth chap, on

f.

112r.

II

f.

132

v.

||

<e

comparison of these five colophons shows that the first four do not contain any reference to Durga by name nor to his honorific titles, which fact implies that they were written by Durga himself, while that at the

A

end of the

1

1th chapter

was added by some

disciple,

who

speaks of Durga

as an acdrya and ^addresses him as bhagavat. Durga could not have appropriated these titles himself unless he was very vain. Another point

by a person other than Durga four colophons say that such and such a chapter has. come to an end, the fifth remarks that such a pada of that chapter has come to an end. The colophon at the end of the llth chapter is the final inscription
in favour of the fifth colophon being written
is

that while the

first

and as such should have been placed at the end of the 12th chapter, where no such description is found; the colophon there, on f. 150 r., being 1 H<*13I
This leads one to the conclusion that Durga himsell wrote ^^5: m^r: his commentary up to the end of the llth chapter, whose colopnon was added by a disciple who also wrote the commentary on the 12th chapter, and faithfully refrained himself from adding the name of Durga in the colophon at the end of the 12th chapter. MS. Mill 142, dated A.D. 1839, and described in the Catalogues of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the P^leian
ll

Library by Keith,
says
H

1

also preserves the final inscription at the
f.

end of the

llth chapter, while on

123
R

v.,

at the end of the 12th chapter it simply

4IH<^<3 ^3*f

I

T^

It is also to be noticed that in this
1

manuscript

Vol.

ii,

p. 108.

COMMENTATORS OF YASKA
as well, the

53

used in the earlier colophons while pada end of the llth and the 12th chapters. Another point of minor importance may also be adduced in this connexion, i.e. the manuscripts have the following sloka at the end of the
is

word cidhydya only

makes

its

appearance in those at the

12th chapter.

As Durga

is

shown

to be a hermit, to. ascribe these verses to

him

will be

highly inappropriate.

Durga and

the Pariuista.

Both the published editions of Durga's commentary regard the commentary on the portions of the 13th chapter as an integral part of Durga's But the MS. Wilson 475, 1 dated 1387 A. D., and MS. Mill 142 \ work. dated 1839 A.D., do not contain the commentary on the 13th chapter. In both these manuscripts the commentary is completed at the end of the 12th chapter and the MS. Mill 142, expressly say that the work is finished.
Moreover, the 13th chapter was not added to the Nirukta by Durga's time, is proved by his remark in the introductory part of his commentary
:

as

wnsrra

:

11

And this (the Nirukta) consisting of twelve chapters
*

(the Nighantu's) amplified commentary whose first sentence is " a list has been handed down by tradition".' Hence the commentary on the 13th chapter was written at a later period and attributed to Durga by some disciple or

is its

follower of his.

Yaska's contributions to Etymology, Philology, and Semantics.
1.

Date of

YdsJca.

History

is

the one

weak

point of Sanskrit literature,, being practically

lion-existent.

Not a
is

and so complete
the dates of
JCalidasa are
1

single systematic chronological record has survived, the lack of any data to guide us in this matter that

even the most
still

famous Indian authors

like

Panini and

subject to controversy.
view I

Yaska's date cannot therefore
arrive at a relative date

\& determined with absolute certainty.
This evidence
is,

One can

however,

inadequate.

am now systematically examining and

To make the
berated by

case plausible, it must be corrothe internal evidence, i.e. the

difference of style, treatment, &c.

With

this

comparing the commentary on the twelfth with that of the preceding chaptera. Later on I shall add the result of my tixaminatiou.

54

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

only by bringing together the isolated pieces of information supplied by
archaeological finds, literary references, and accidental mention of known This evidence, however, is not conclusive, historical or political events.

There is a differently interpreted by various oriental scholars. difference of opinion among them about the precise date of Yaska, great but at the same time there is also the unanimity which sets down his

and

is

lower limit as not later than 500

B.C..

As

this

limit

has not been

questioned so far (while his upper limit is carried as far as 700 B.C.), it may therefore be safely assumed that Yaska lived at least about a century

Both Yaska and Plato sum up as it were the results of and etymological investigations in the Both stand pre-eminent with Nvrukta and the Cratyhix respectively. regard to their age, and have dominated the thought of succeeding generaearlier

than Plato.

their predecessors in philological

tions

as the representative record of the researches of ancient Indians, it is of considerable interest for a compara.tf "e study of the Indian and Greek achievements in these two branches of 'iwledge in the earliest period of their history.

in their respective countries. history of philology and etymology.

Yaska's work

is

important for the

And

2.

Phonetic equipment of Yaska.

we proceed to examine, in detail, the principles laid down by for etymology, or his speculations in philology, it will be worth while to ^ inquire whether Yaska was a properly qualified person to underBefore

Yaska

or,

take the task, i.e. whether he possessed any knowledge of sound-laws, in other words, whether he received any phonetic training, and of what sort ? As has already been pointed out, historical and biographical
records

about ancient India do not exist, or at least, if they existed, have not survived. Nothing definite is, therefore, known about the life of Yaska, nor about the period in which he lived, nor about the educational system which then prevailed. In the absence of such records it is therefore extremely difficult to ascertain the worth of his qualifications, or the extent of, and his familiarity with, sound-laws. Yet some indirect information can be pieced together by collecting a few isolated data capable of throwing some light on the subject. In the nrst place, Yaska is with a vast amount of Sanskrit literature. The numerous acquainted exemplary quotations occurring in the Nirukta conclusively show that he knew the Rg-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharva-veda, the Yajur-veda, and their pada-pa&has, the Taittimya Sawhitd, the Maitrdyanl Samhitd,
the
the

Kdthaka Samhitd, the Aitareya Brdhmana, the Gopatha Brdhmana, KausUakl Brdhm<(>ia, the tiatapatha Brahma na, the Prdti&dkhyas,

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
j,nd
is

55

some of the Upanisads. The full list of all the works known to him given in the Appendix. This shows that Yaska was a man of comprehensive knowledge and vast reading. Secondly, he refers to and quotes
the opinions of the various schools of thought which existed in his time, i. e. the school of etymologists, the school of grammarians, the school of the school of legendists, the school of Naiddnaa (i. e. specialists, ritualists,

authorities
is

in primary causes). Further, he discusses and criticizes the views of many his predecessors and contemporaries. The full list of these
also given in the

Appendix.

The mention

of

eminent scholars and

schools of thought presupposes specialization in their respective departments of knowledge which implies some uniform system of training and a sufficiently high order of education extending over a long period.

Otherwise

it is difficult

to conceive

how

these various schools could have

Thus it can be assumed without much doubt that Yaska had received some kind of training in one, or more than one,
come
into existence at
all.

of these schools.
his

He

discusses

the doctrines of the schools other than

own, and thus seems to have acquired a general familiarity with them to be able to do so. Thirdly, he distinctly mentions the prati&akhyas, researches made by ancient i.e. phonetic treatises which record the Indians in the physiological and the acoustic aspects of Phonetics. These
treatises themselves

presuppose

the existence of

the padi-pdthas,

i.e.

which give every word of the samhitd in its isolated state, i. e. free from the euphonic combinations, and analyse compounds into their component elements. Gradually by the time of Yaska, a strong had come into existence, as is evident from the scientific phonetic feeling This shows arrangement and classification of the Sanskrit alphabet. that Yaska was furnished with some phonetic equipment, such as
'the

word

texts',

the state of the scholarship of the time permitted him to acquire. This view is supported by the fact that Yaska is familiar with and recognizes
the following phonetic phenomena (1) Syncope as in 5R*j: (they went) Metathesis as in JfHctT a drop from from the root 3RJ. (to go) (2) "^jp^
:

'

'

;

(to drop), "^Sj: (rope)

from ^Co^

(to emit),

and

(

<T^

knife from 3nj (to cut),

'

and

so

on

;

(3)

(door) from the root 5
(4)

Anaptyxis, as in ^nsjq^ from the root 1R^ (to throw), 3[TT (to cover), *r^j3CT: from the root *R^ (to fry), &c.;

three stanzas He is also acquainted has noticed an example of prakrtization in the with assimilation, and For the detailed Kg-veda while explaining gj^^T by SRTO (N. v. 24).

haplology as in 7f^

= tri + rca, i.e.

'

1

'-

account of his observations on phonetic phenomena see Chapter
All these words are found in the Nirukta, Yaska himself.
1

II, sections

ii.

1-2.

I have cited examples furnished by

56
1-2.

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
From what has gone

before, it may be concluded that Yaska was of extensive reading, that he had pursued a systematic course of study, and that he was furnished with some phonetic equipment. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that his explanations are pervaded

a

man

and devoid of the mystifying or supernatural of the ritualiet and the parivrdjaka school, cf. element, a characteristic He is altogether free from fanaticism, e. g. Yaska's explanation of Vrtra,. and intolerance when he meets Kautsa's adverse criticism of what bigotry,
with a
rationalistic spirit

he believes to be the revealed hymns, but gives rational answers to the various points of objection. He is actuated by a scientific spirit even when he is dealing with gods. Thus, for instance, he classifies gods into
various groups, i.e. the terrestrial, the atmospheric, and the celestial according to the sphere of their activity, and assigns definite functions Yaska's classification of gods has nothing corresponding to it to each. in the mythologies of other nations. Further, his treatment of synonyms

he attributes a particular meaning by quoting a passage, from the Vedic literature, in which that word is used in that generally particular sense. Whether or not one agrees with him in attributing particular meanings to particular words, it cannot be denied that his method is scientific and, notwithstanding his remote antiquity, surprisingly modern. This scientific spirit, so evident in the Nirukta, coufil be developed by a scientific training only. In the absence of any definite information,

|nd homonyms

is

also scientific.

At

first

to a particular word,

and then supports

his assertion

the preceding statement
qualifications to

will, I think,

give some indication as to Yaska's

undertake the task which he set before himself.

3.

Importance of Etymology.
is

Taking both the East and the West together, Yaska on etymology. He is also the first to treat it as a

the

first

writer
itself.

science

by

According *o the orthodox Indian tradition, the Nir*ikta has, for a long time, been recognized as a treatise which deals specially with etymology.

But the claim of Yaska

is

his doctrines in the Nirukta.

not based on this recognition. He has enunciated His remarks on the importance of etymology

very commonplace to us, but probably appeared to have the same profoundness of wisdom when they were first uttered about 2,500 years ago, as President Wilson's fourteen points for the modern political world. His arguments for etymology are summarized as follows:

may sound

(I)

Etymology

is

essential for the proper understanding of the Vedic

texts.

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
1

57

Etymology is the complement of grammar. (3) Etymology is necessary for the analysis of the sanihita into the pada-pdthci, and of words into their component elements. (4) Etymology has practical utility, for it enables one to discover the primary deitj- of a stanza which bears the characteristic marks of more than one deity, and thus helps to perform the sacrifice with perfection. (5) Etymology is a science, and should be studied for its own sake, for knowledge is commended, and ignorance is condemned. (Chapter I,
(2)
sec. 15-17.)
4.

Principles of Etymology.

Yaska's fundamental notion about language is, that all words can be reduced to their primordial elements which he calls roots. With this idea

he lays great emphasis on the point that as every word can be traced to an original root, one should never give up a word as underivable. His first general principle is, One should give the etymological explanation of words whose accent and grammatical form are regular, and are aci. e. in companied with a radical modification in the usual manner accordance with the laws of phonology. One would hardly question the
'

',

to read or of MN<A from q^ to cook or of Mld^i from to know ', or of 5fc^ from *ffaf from fWJ to break and so on. It should ^s^' be observed that Yaska recognized the importance of accent, and accords it

derivation of

'

',

^

'

',

*

',

a due place in his principle.
is

It is obvious that the

above-mentioned rule

limited in

fulfil

for only a comparatively small number of words can the conditions therein laid down. Yaska therefore strikes a note
its scope,

of warning and says that a disproportionate importance should not be attached to grammatical form, for the rules of grammar are not universal
like laws of nature, and have many exceptions, adding that one has also to take into consideration phonetic phenomena such as syncope, metathesis, haplology, anaptyxis, assimilation, &c. His second principle is that in

case the accent

and grammatical form are not regular, and are not acwith a radical modification, one should always take his stand companied on the meaning of the word and endeavour to derive it from some similarity of form, or if there is no such similarity of form, even from the similarity of a single letter or syllable. Thus, according to Yaska, one should not be afraid to derive, dois, dti, doive, dusse, &c. from devoir, to owe or isti (sacrifice) from the root yog (to sacrifice), on account of the apparent
'

',

dissimilarity of their form. Comparative philology furnishes the best examples to illustrate Yaska's remark that often there is hardly any

resemblance between a word and
1

its

original source, i.e. its primitive
N.
i.

Tad idam vidyG-slhdnam vydkaranasya kurtsnymn.

15.

58

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
Cf. IE.
;
;

*penque Skt. panca Zend, pailca Gk. Tre^re penke Goth.^m/; Germ. /?m/; OE. //; Eng. quinque French larme and English tear have only r in common, both Again, Jive. being otherwise quite different from their original source *dakru, which assumed an Anglo-Saxon form tear, and a primitive Lat. dacru. The Eng. eive and Lat. ovis have nothing in common, and each has exclusively preserved some parts of their original *owis. Eng. four, Germ, vier, have only r in common with Gk. rerTapcy. Eng. quick (orig. alive ') has only i in common with Gk. /&o9 (life). Eng. sit, and Gk. hed (HSpa, seat ') have nothing in common, and each has preserved one exclusive part of the original *sed. Skt. hamsa Gk. xfl v Lat. anser (for hanser) Again, cf IE. *ghane Germ. Gans; OE. gos\ Eng. goose. But the application of this rule by an incompetent person gives rise
; ;

and derivative forms.
Lat.
;

Lith.

;

'

'

.

;

;

5

;

many such cases are supplied by the Nirukta, e. g. derivation of Sat-ya, the ya of which he formed from the akatayana's causal of i, and Sat from as, 'to be'. Yaska foresaw the danger of the
to grotesque results
;

misuse of his principle.

So after laying down his rule, he adds a note of that single words isolated from their context should warning. urges not be thus derived, for without a knowledge of the context, it is often difficult to know the precise meaning of a word. He recommends that

He

derivations should not be explained for a person not acquainted, or not well acquainted, with grammar, and not for one who has not studied

etymology as a
for one's

own
is

one

who

says, 'One should indeed explain derivations has been in residence studying etymology or for capable of understanding; for the intelligent and for the
pupil.

He

pupil
3.

who

diligent.'

N.

ii.

The third derive words

principle of etymology laid down by in accordance with their meanings.

Yaska
'

is

that one should

If their

meanings are

the same, their etymologies should be the same, if the meanings are different, the etymologies should also be different/ (N. ii. 7.)

This principle is on the whole sound, for in every language there occurs the phenomenon that words of different origin often assume the same form. For instance
:

Skt. Akt(

derived from the root aj
; ,

means driven
'

'.

a/y
aj
'

'besmeared'.
'driver'.
'

Aja

not born = a-ja jan = an-ista from Vis means unwished Anista = an-ista not sacrificed Vyaj A nudara = an-udara means a niggardly man
'.
'

'.

'.

.,

'

'.

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
Skt.

59

Anuddra = anu-ddm means
Apava-'iw.

= =

=

a-pavana apa-vana
a-vasdna
ava-ttdiw,

followed by a wife 'without air '.
'
(

'.

a grove

'.

'

not dressed

'.

AvasdiM

'resting-place'.
'
' '

English Abode. From abide, meaning delay or dwelling-place '. Abode. OE. abedd-an, connected with the primitive verb beodaii,
'
'

meaning prognostication
Abound.
'

;

cf.

fore-bode.

OFr. cMouler, abonder, haloiulcr; Lat. abunddre, meaning
to be plentiful
'.
'

= a-bound,
Admiral.

meaning

to get limits to*.

OFr. amiral, derived from the Arabic amlr-cd, latinized in
various ways and assimilated according to popular forms, meaning a naval officer by- form of admirable. OFr. amirable, Lat. admlrdbil-em,
'

'.

A
Adust.

Aught.

meaning exciting admiration Lat. adust-US, Fr. aduste, meaning scorched =: a-dust, meaning in a dusty condition OE. aid OHG. eht Goth, aifit-s, meaning possession OE, d, 6 + whit; OHG. eouriht, ioiviht, &c.; ME. otd, meaning anything whatever
'.
'

'

'.

'

'.

'

'.

;

;

oyht,

'

'.

Bay.

OFr.

bale',
;

Lat. bdca,
baitt,

Fr. baie

Lat.

meaning 'a small fruit, a. berry meaning an indentation of sea into
'.
'

land,

or of land into the sea
;

'.
'

OFr. baee Lat. type baddta, meaning the division of a barn OFr. bay It. bada Lat. badare, to open the mouth meaning barking or baying \ to push back ^meaning an <mibankment Cf. ON. bagr, bayja,
'.
'
;

;

',

'

'

'

or
,,

dam

'.
'

Short form of bay-antler, meaning stag's horn
'.

the second branch of a

Fr. bai

;

Lat. badius,

Beak.

Fr. bee
'

;

It. becco;

meaning a reddish-brown colour Sp. bko\ Late Lat. beccus, meaning 'a birtl's bill
'

'.

'.

A justice A variant

of the peace '. of beek, to warm
'

'.

Bear.

OE. bera- OHG. bero Mod. G. bar-, cf. ON. bjorn Lat ferus, meaning an animal OE. b^re cf. Goth, barizeins, meaning barley OE. and OHG. ber-an; ON. ber-a; Goth, buir-anj La-t/er;
;

;

'

'.

'

;

'.

Gk. fop

;

Skt.

War, meaning

'

to carry

'.

60

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
4

English Dole derived from French dtutt means grief related to Teut. deed Ger. Tell means portion '.
'

'.

'

;

Fame.

Fr.fame; L&t.fdma (report); Gk. faiprj, meaning 'public report'. Fr./aim; Lat./ames; cf. OFr. afamer, meaning 'want of food, hunger Obsolete form of/oaw.
'.

Fast.

OE.
'

OHG. fasten, fcextan to abstain from food '.
;

;

ON. favta
*

;

Goth, fastan, meaning

ME. fest
"Fr.faste

;

ON. fest-r, meaning a
'

rope

'.

;

L&tfastus, meaning arrogance
'

'.
'

Fold.

OKfolde; OLG.fotda; ON.
'.

fold, related to *felfu,

field

',

meaning ground OE.fealdon; OKG.faldan; ON.fcdda; Qoth.fatyan: OTeut. *falfan cf. Lith. pleta Gk. &'-7raAroy, meaning 'to arrange one thing over another QJL.falced Mod. LG. fait, meaning 'an enclosure for domestic
;

;

'.

;

animals

'.

ME. fold OHG?/aft ON. fald-r, meaning a bend or ply Hound. OE. hund; OHG. hunt (d-); Goth, hwub; ON. humlr
'

;

'.

;

Gk. KV&V, KVV
;

;

Skt. svan, meaning
'

'

'

dog
'.
'

Seed.

ME. hun ON. hunn, meaning a projection OE. slol] OHG. selah ON. sel-r, meaning an animal
;
'

'.

OFr. seel It. huggdlo Lat. sigillum, meaning a device Sound. Derived from Fr. son Lat. sonus,. means noise
; ;
'
;

'.

'.

OE. sund means strong Fr. sonder Lat subundare, means testing depths
c

t

'.

'

;

'.

French Air.

Gk.

Sp. aire, meaning substance which envelopes the earth
drjp
; ;

Lat.

aer-efti

'

the gaseous

'.

OFr. aire, meaning disposition
'

'.

It.

Champs.
Chere.

Lat.

meaning melody campus It. campo Sp. campo, meaningOFr. cant, meaning side
'.
;

aria,

'

'

;

field

'.

'

'.

Feminine of cher, dear Gk. \apd, face
f

'.

'.

Goimn,

-e.

Lat. coiisobrinus

;

It.
'

cugino, -a

;

Sp. (tobrino, -a

;

Ptg.

Levant.

meaning an insect Preposition meaning before
' '

sobrinho, -a, meaning Lat. cuHcinus,

a relative

'.

'.

'.

Feu.

Pr. participle of devoir, Lat. focus; It.fuoco;
'

-

to

owe

'.

Sp.fuego: Ptg. foyo

;

OFr. /ow, mean-

ing

fire

'.

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
;

61

French Feu. Derived by Estienne and Scheler from L&t.fuit >feut >feu by Manage from Lat. felix >felicis >felce >feu by Littre' from OFr. fahu > feu, connecting with Lat. fatutus, meaning
;
'

dead'.
;

Fier.

Lat. jidtire for (fidere) to put confidence '.
'

Itfidare

;

Sp. and Ptg. far,

meaning
'.

Tu&t.

ferns

;

It.
;

and Sp.fiero

;

Ptg./ero,
c

Firrtie.

Lat./irmu* ME. fernie, meaning firm Med. La,t.firma, meaning, a farm '.
Lat. /raraus
* ;

'

meaning 'proud cf. Skt. Vdhr.
;

Fra-iic.
.,

It./raiico;
'. '

Sp. and Ptg. frunco, meaning

'free*.

Meaning a French coin

Geste.

Lat. gestus, meaning, gesture '. Lat. gesta; It. getsta, meaning 'heroic deed, poetry';

cf.

chanson,

de

ge&te.

Louer

derive<J

from Lat. locare means

*

to let
'

'.

laudure means to praise

'.

German

nckt.

OHG.
asztuni,

ahto

;

MHG.
; '

akte
.

;

Goth.

Man
Gk.

;

OE.
;

eakta, derived
;

from an IE. root

cf Skt.
'.

astau

;

6/cro>

Lat. octo

Lath.

meaning eight OHG. dkta MHG. dhte OE.
;
:

'

oht,

meaning proscription

'.

Bull.

From

belleu,

meaning 'barking'.
'

cognate with OHG. ballo; MHG. baUe-, ME. OTeut. *ball6n, *balldtt cf. Lat. foil-is, something inflated Fr. balle, meaning a ball to play with '. Fr. b(d Fr. baler or bcdler' Lat. ballare Gk. paXXi'fa, It. ballo
bed, Indies;

MHG.

hal,

bdUe
'

;

;

*

;

;

;

;

meaning a dance
Bauer.

'

'.
<

OHG.

LG. buur ON. bur OE. Mur, dwelE. cf -neighbour OE. mah-cjebur and -nock-bar ling IE. Vbhu cf bower OTeut. *buro(m), from Teut. Vb& Skt. bhu (bhumi, earth '): Gk. <f>va> Lat. /ui (fwtur-us)
Inlr
;
;

MHG.

btir

;

;

;

'

.

;

;

;

;

:

.

'

;

;

meaning bird-cage

'

'.

OHG.

btidri

;

MHG.

bAwcere

Vbaueii, 'to cultivate';

cf. Erbauer, Ackerbauer, from the Du. bouwen; MHG., MDu. b-ilwen,;
;

meaning a peasant
*

'.

Bulle.

MLG.
4

bulle

;

bole (boole)

;

MDu. bulle Du. Ind, bol cf ME. bule, bulle and E.
;
.

;

ON.

bole, loll
;

;

ME.

bull, buttock

meaning

a buffalo
butte
;

'.

MHG.

OE. hille E. bull Fr. meaning a papal mandate
; ;
*

butte,

derived from Lat.

'.

62

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
Geiseln. PI. of geisel,
1

German

OHG.

g-lnal

:

MHO.

glzel

;

OE.
*

gr&eZ,

meaning

hostages

'.

form of geiszeln, MHG. geisel it, meaning to whip Kehreu. OHG. keran MHG. keren, meaning to sweep

A

'.

'

;

'.

Kiefer.

OHG. kerian MHG. kfr-n, meaning to turn OHG. klenforha MHG. kienboum and tlie correspond in g word to OHG. *kienforhe; cf. Kien and Fohre, meaning
'

'

;

;

'

Scotch

fir,

pine tree

'.

MHG.
Kiel.

kiver, kivel, kivele

;

OSaxon.
kit

kdflos

:

OE. OE.

redfl,

meaning
OS. jirf,

'jaw'.

OHG.

kiol, chiol
'

;

MLG.
'.
;

Ml,
E.

;

MHG

kid

;

Ml

;

meaning

keel

MHG.
Laden.

kil

;

LG. guide
'.
;

^u^, meaning
;

'

a piece of reed or

feather of a bird

OHG. hladan
(af)halfan
;

MHG.
E.
tacfe,

laden

OS. Idadan
*

;

OE. /tZodan

;

Goth.

meaning
;

to load

'.

OHG. ladon
'

;

MHG.

laden

Goth, lafiou

;

OE. laDfan, meaning

shop Mwtuld. MLG. MDu. maiule; OE. mand, mpnd: E. maund, meaning to count by fifteen '. OHG. tnandala\ MHG. mattd^; OFr. almande^&l^o am<mde, amundre cf. Sp. almendra It. maitdorla, mandola, mean'.
'
; ;

c

ing

almond
;

'.

Mark.

.

OHG.
*

wiarka

MHG.

marine: OS. rn.rka

;

OE.

raearr,

meaning

boundary

'.

MHG. mark
'

;

MDu. marc
Fr.

;

ON.

mpr/j
It.

;

OE. marc

;

Med. Lat.

iiwrca, marcus'. a coin
'.

inai'c;

inarco,

marca,

meaning

OHG.

niarg, .ma-ray
;

wears, m&trh

*mazyo:
Reis.

cf.

MHG. marc, morg: OS. man/; OE. MDu. march, innry Mod. Du. wer# OTeut. AV. mazya; Skt. majjatt< meaning 'the soft
;

;

;

fatty substance of bones

'.

OHG.hrlis:
'

MHG.

rls

;

ON.

/w^fo;
'.

MDu. Du. Hjs; OF.
It.
'

/m'v,

meaning twigs or small branches

MHG.

rfa:
;

MLG. rm; ME.
:

*orizum Gk. opv^a Hindi kdma derived from Skt. kr

cf.

rys: OFr. r/s; Skt. vrlhl, meaning
'

riso;
'.

Lat.

rice

means work
'

'.

kam

love

'.

Examples might be multiplied. It is clear that such words can be satisfactorily derived only with reference to their meaning, for being derivable

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
from more than one original source, they are
the
rule

63

wrong
is

root unless the derivation

therefore sound.

liable to be connected with based on the meaning. Yaska's But in criticism of Yaska's rule, it may be
is
' '

remarked that words, having the same origin, come to acquire different and Skt. kup, to meanings. For instance, Lat. cup(cupido), to desire be angry have the same common origin. Again, cf IE. klutds Skt. 6rutda Gk. /cAuroy Lat. (iri)clutu8 OE. hlud Eng. loud. Yaska did not know any other language besides Sanskrit, his horizon was therefore necessarily limited, yet his familiarity with the two phases of the Sanskrit language, i. e. the Vedic and the classical, which is historically the development of the former, and which in their relation to each other bear a close correspondence to that of the Ionic and the Attic tongues, placed him on a better working ground than those who were not fully conscious of such There is no passage in the Cratylus, for instance, historical development.
',
',
.

;

;

;

;

;

showing that Plato realized that the Attic was

historically the outgrowth of the Ionic language. On the contrary, the following passage indicates that he was not aware of any such development.

5.

Plato on Etymology.
;

Yes, my dear friend but then you know that the original names have been long ago buried and disguised by people sticking on and stripping off letters for the sake of euphony, and twisting and bedizening And the additions are often such that at them in all sorts of ways. last no human being can possibly make out the original meaning of the
Soc.
'
.
.

.

Again, Plato does not recognize that etymology has any scientific or even systematic basis. He does not seem to realize that derivation of In addition to the words should be governed by some general rules.
word.'

*

above, I quote the following passage in support of my statement Now attend to rue and first, remember that we often put Soc. in and pull out letters in words and give names as we please and change
:
'
.

.

.

;

the accents.'

2

The only

principle,
'

Evidently he did not attach much importance to accent. which can hardly be so called, is contained in the

following passage: And whether the syllables of the name are the same or Soc not the same, makes no difference, providing the meaning is retained ; nor does the addition or subtraction of a letter make any difference so long
1

Jowett, Dialogues of Plato (3rd
Ibid. p. 341.

ed.),

vol

i,

p. 368.

64
as the

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
essence of
it.'
l

the tiling remains in possession of

the

name and

appears in

These three passages from the Cratylus indicate that Plato looked upon etymology as a compendium of individual conjecture which would justify Voltaire's famous satire that, 'Etymology is a science in which vowels count for nothing and consonants for very little and Max Muller's well-known epigram that, a sound etymology has nothing to do with The fundamental difference between Yaska and Plato is that the sound former distinguished roots from affixes and suffixes, i. e. the radical from
',
'

'.

the formative element, and hence was able to formulate general principles for analysing words into their constituent parts; the latter did not realize

and .consequently made conjecture the basis of etymology. be remarked, however, that Sanskrit is generally acknowledged to may be more perspicuous than Greek it was easier therefore to see this distinction in Sanskrit than it was in Greek, and besides Yaska had the
this distinction
It
;

advantage of inheriting this knowledge from a long line' 'of predecessors who had made this discovery at a very early period. But Yaska's greatness, even if every one of his etymological explanations is proved as many are manifestly so, lies in the fact that he is the to be wrong
first to

claim a scientific foundation, and also the

first to

formulate general

principles for etymology.

6.

Philological speculations of Ydska.
rules,

In two aphoristic
speech
is

Yaska enunciates

his

view as to

why

articulate

given preference to other modes of expression, such as gestures, movements of hands and body, &c. He says, words are used to designate objects with regard to everyday affairs in the world, on account of their
'

2 comprehensiveness and minuteness Durga, the commentator of Yaska, the term 'comprehensiveness', with regard to the psychological explains process involved in the apprehension of meaning through the instrumentality
'.

of the spoken word. He says that there are two phases of consciousness in the human mind, i.e. (1) the manifest, and (2) the unmanifest. When a person desires to express the manifest consciousness, his effort results in the

exhalation of breath which modified in the various speech-organs produces the word. The word again pervades the unmanifest consciousness of the
hearer,

makes

it

manifest, and thus the

philological terminology,

we may

Using meaning is apprehended. express the same thing by saying that

3

there are permanent word-records in the sub-conscious strata of the
1

human

Jowett, Dialogues tf Plato (8rd ed.), vol.

8
i,

The NinAta,

i. i.

2.

P. 335.

s

D urga on

N.

2.

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
mind.
conscious state

65

These word-records are brought from the sub-conscious to the by articulated speech. It may be objected that whatever the psychological process may be, the most important use of the word is to express and convey the meaning to somebody else, and this purpose can equally be accomplished by other methods, such as gestures, movements of hands, face, and eyes. As if Yaska had anticipated this objection, he adds the term 'minuteness' in his aphorism. Durga has the following comment: The movements of hands and the winking of the eyes, &c v are also comprehensive, they will express the meaning and in this manner we will be saved the trouble of studying grammar and the bulky Vedic literature.

True, gestures, &c., are comprehensive, but they are not minute, i. e. they Even involve greater effort in production and are always indefinite. discarding Durga's elaborate explanation of 'comprehensiveness', Yaska's

aphorism can mean only that words are used in the everyday affairs of the world because they are capable of giving expression to every kind of meaning with their numerous shades of difference, and are produced with comparatively less exertion. There seems to be no doubt that at the time of writing the above-mentioned aphorism, Yaska had in his mind the

method of expression by means of gestures, &c. And iiis argument that words are preferred to gestures, on account of the economy of effort, has a strikingly modern note.
alternative

7.

Origin of Language.

Yaska
doctrines

is
is

that

a follower of the school of etymologists, whose fundamental 1 all words are derived from original roots. Gargya and

the followers of the school of grammarians do not agree with him. 2 There 3 is also a short discussion about onomatopoeia Aupamanyava maintains
that there is no such thing as onomatopoeia, but Yaska holds that there are some words which are formed by the mere imitation of sounds of nature, mostly the names of birds, such as crow, partridge, &c., but which can be

derived otherwise also. It is surprising that in this connexion he does not mention the word cuckoo. Besides the names of birds, he thinks that the 4 diindubhi 5 a gambler following words are similarly formed. Kitava 1 'a drum'; ciacd krnoti,*, 'it makes a ci&ca sound'; krka the fanner ' part of krkavdku, a cock According to Yaska, onomatopoeia does not
' '

,

;

;

,

'.

play any important part in the foundation of language.
1

He

discards

Nimkta,
Loc.
cit.

i.

12.

6
6

Ibid. ix. 12.

2

Ibid. ix. 14.

3 4

Op.

cit. iii.

18.

'

ibid. xii. 13.

Ibid. v.

22

66

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
he

therefore the so-called

primordial roots,
root-theory.

Bow-Wow theory. 1 As Yaska reduces all words to may therefore be regarded as an adherent of the

This again affords a point of difference from the Cratylus, where Plato, in attempting to trace the origin of the sounds of the alphabet to the sounds of nature, considers onomatopoeia to be the most important factor
in the formation of language.

As an objection to his theory, it may be remarked that the objects with which men in primitive society are most tree familiar would be things like cave &c., and the naming pit
'
'

'

',

',

',

of these objects precludes all imitation of natural sounds. Words like ' 2 digger , weaver ', &c., would represent a higher stage of civilization.
8.

Parts of Speech.
:

noun and verb, Yaska says that there are four parts of speech 3 At first sight, it seems 'inexplicable that an preposition and particle. ancient author like Yaska should mention preposition as a part of speech and snould ignore adverbs which historically can be shown to have been
evolved at an earlier stage of the linguistic development than the former. The difficulty, however, disappears when it is remembered that prepositions
in Sanskrit are seldom used to express case relations, but mostly serve as adverbial prepositions. With Yaska's division of speech into four parts

may

be

compared the remarks of Dionysius of

Halicarnassus,

who

attributes a similar classification to Aristotle.

.

.

.

'Composition is .... a certain arrangement of the parts of speech. These were reckoned as three only by Theodectes and Aristotle and

the philosophers of those times, who regarded nouns, verbs, and connectives as the primary parts of speech. Their successors, particularly the leaders
of the Stoic school, raised the number to four, separating the article from the connectives.' 4 According to Aristotle, ' Diction viewed as a whole is

made up
5

of the following parts

:

syllable, the conjunction, the article, the

the letter (or the ultimate element), the noun, the verb, the case, and the

speech/
9.

Aristotle's definition of

Noun and

Verb.

verb as tollows: A verb has as its fundamental notion, a noun has being as its fundabecoming mental notion. But where both (i.e. becoming and being) are dominated by becoming as in a verbal noun), a becoming arising from a former

Yaska

defines

the

noun ana the

1

Max

Muller, Science of Language, vol.

4
i,

Literary Composiimn, ch.

iii>

Roberta's ed.,

pp. 407-17.
2

p. 71.

See also
Nirvkta,

Max
i.

Muller, lc.

cit.

5

Poetics, 20.

1456 b, Byvvater's ed., p. 57.

s

1.

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
to a later state
is

(57

denoted by a verb, as 'he goes', 'he cooks', &c.; while

the embodiment of the whole process beginning with the original and ending with the final conception, which has assumed the character of
1 Further, becoming being, is denoted by a noun, as going ', cooking '. &c. has six modifications (1) genesis, (2) existence. (3) alteration, (4) growth, 2 With these may be compared Aristotle's (5) decay, and (6) destruction.
:

'

'

definitions of
ficant

noun and

verb.

*

A

noun or name

is

a composite signi-

sound not involving the idea of time, with parts which have no significance by themselves in it. ... A verb is a composite significant sound involving the idea of time, with parts which have no significance by themselves in it. \Vhereas the word man or white does not imply when. walks' and has walked involve in addition to the idea of walking that of time present or time past.' 3 In his definition of a verb. Aristotle lays great emphasis on the idea his definition is of time, but ignores the idea of action involved in it
'

'

'

'

'

'

:

therefore incomplete and states the element of lesser importance only, for of the two ideas of action, and time, the former is of primary and the Yaska has hit on the right word, i.e. latter of secondary significance.

becoming which expresses both, the notion of action and time as
Aristotle's definition of a

well.

does not involve,

noun but not what

is
it

a negative one. He explains what it Yaska. on the positively does involve.

other hand, gives a positive definition, setting forth being to be thtfundamental notion of a noun. Further, he also defines a verbal noun,

which is ignored by Aristotle. Yaska explains prepositions as words which bring into prominence the subordinate meaning of nouns and verbs. He then subjoins A list ot'
twenty prepositions assigning
to

each

its

appropriate meaning.

Proceeding

further, he divides particles into three groups, (1) comparatives, (2) conHe defines these terms, giving a list of the junctives, and (3) expletives.

uses

particles of each group, explaining their meanings by suitable quotations from Vedic literature.

and

They are

illustrating their treated in

detail in the first chapter of the Nirukta. (sec. 3-9). Yaska observes the dialectical differences in the

spoken language of

his time.

Thus he points out certain and the Kambojas, the people Aryans

characteristics of the speech of the of the East, and the people of the

North. 4
Sanskrit.

He acknowledges

the

relation

of

the classical

to

the

Vedic

Thus he remarks that their vocabulary is identical, 5 that their use of prepositions and particles with occasional exceptions is similar."
1

Nintkta,
Op.
cit.
i.

i.

1.

4

AVn</rfu.

ii.

2.

1

2.

8

Op.

cit.
fi(.

i.

1C.

3

Poet its. 20.

1456

h. 10.

Bywater's

ed.. p. 58.

6

Op.

i.

3-9.

II

68

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

seems to be conscious of the historical connexion of the two languages says that the words of the one are derived from the roots of the He knows that it is not nouns only, but also verbs, which have other. 1

He

when he

synonyms.

'So

many

verbs have the same meaning.
2

(lit. being).' synonym has more than one meaning. 3 He also notices certain idiomatic expressions, father and son but whose order is immutably fixed as Indra and Agni not Agni and Indra son and father 4
'
*

of a

noun

He

So many are the explains homonym as a word which
',
',

'

'

',

'.

Semantics.

How names

are given.

The epoch of Yaska was an age of remarkable literary activity. There seems to be a general striving after the search of truth in all the departments of human knowledge. On the philosophic side, it marks the beginning of the Upanisadic period which preached monotheism of an
exalted type, and gave expression to some of the sublimest thoughts ever recorded in the history of mankind. On the religious side, it was the

harbinger of the Buddha who was soon to carry out a campaign of vigorous protestantism against the then prevailing ritualistic practices. Even in the matter of style, it is the period of transition which ushered in the era of the aphorism (sutra). As shown above, the age was busy with

grammatical and philological speculations, nor WE* semantics ignored.
the
first

In

chapter of the N^riikta (see 12-14), Yaska discusses the question, how names are given. The most important arguments are set forth in the form of questions and answers. A critic is introduced who raises the various points of objection, each of which is duly answered by the author.
:

It is a dialogue consisting of two monologues which are put in the mouths of the critic and the author in succession. The arguments are as follows
(1) Every being who performs a particular action should be called by the same name, e. g. every one who runs on the road should be called a&va

(runner), and not the horse alone; everything that pricks, as a needle or spear for instance, should be called trna (pricker) and not a blade of grass alone. (2) Every being should be given as many names as the

actions with
called not

which that particular being is associated, e. g. a pillar should be sthuna (i.e. which stands upright) only, but also dara aayd (i.e. which rests in a hole), and also sanjanl (i. e. which is joined with the beams). (3) Only such words should be used in giving names as are regularly derived from roots according to the rules of grammar, so that
,

U. 2.

Qp.

at

i.

20.

Op.

cit.

iv. 1.

Op. at.

i.

10

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS

69

the meaning of the object which they denote, should be quite clear and free from doubt, e.g. piiruea, (man) should be puri-aaya (i.e. city-dweller); asva (horse) = asta (i. e. runner) tr-na (grass) = tardana (pricker) and so on. (4) If the name of an object is to be determined by its actions, the
;

being precedes the action (e.g. the horse comes into existence before it actually runs), the designation of a being, which is earlier, from an action,

which

is

subsequent to

it, is

not tenaole (perhaps for the reason that

it

will leave the being nameless during the (5) People indulge in interval). in explaining names, as for instance, when it is said that earth sophistry
(prthiri) is so called

consider as to

who made

on account of its being broad it broad and on what basis.

(prath), they

do

nofc

Rqoinder.
(1) We find that of the beings who perform a particular acuon, all do not get the same name but only a few, e. g. every one who cuts wood is not it is the ascetic called tuksaka, but the carpenter alone is so called only who is called pari-vrdjaka (i. e. a wanderer) and not every one who
;

only the sap of the sugar-cane that is called jivana (i.e. and not everything that enlivens it is only the planet Mars enlivening) that is called bhumi-ja (i. e. earth-born), and not everything that is born from the earth and so on. He seems to imply that there is a law of specialization by which a particular name comes to be exclusively associated with a particular object.

wanders;

it is

;

(2)

He means

to say that in spite of their manifold activities, objects

take their

and the most
he
is

particular action, which is the most important to them, e.g. a carpenter performs many actions, yet special called taksaka (i. e. a cutter of wood), because the shaping of things
specially

name from one

by cutting wood is his most important function and can be associated with him. Durga has the following comment on it
:

I

Wf 3^
^re

g

I

i

^

(T^ror

*wH*flf*rnTTTi

ff

n^TTt ftnrrsr^
i

70

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
^*JW*^
I

I

iff

;

Thou

seest,

my

friend,

and we also

see,

that one

man who

cuts

wood

is

called 'carpenter', while another who does the same is not so called. You may well ask the reason. Listen ; go and ask the world, quarrel with
if

the world

you

like, for it is

not I

who made

this law.

But

this is

what

the same work, some are named in accordance with that activity, others not You may say that because one object is named in accordance with that activity, therefore others doing the same

we

find

:

of those

who do

Although all nouns are derived with reference to a particular action or it may be that the choice is is made by nature (svabhavatah) made by the law of special action. A man who performs one particular action more specially, whatever other actions he may perform, will obtain his name from that particular action. This is a settled rule. For
.
. .

thing should be similarly named from verbs, the choice of names

;

call the man, who cuts wood now and then, by the name of but him we call carpenter who cuts wood at any time, or in any carpenter, place and always. This is an instance of a name, the choice of which is

we do not

made by

and this name may be freely given '.to others who same action specially. And if sometimes, or somewhere, some other action is still more special to them, they will obtain their names in accordance with that action only. We see that persons who perform many actions, obtain their names
special action

perform the

.

.

.

iroin

one particular action.
is

but he

A carpenter performs many other actions, not called after those activities. ... If it be said, that many

persons who perform the same action, should have a common name, and one person who performs many actions, should have as many names, all that we can say IB, that it is contrary to the practice of the world. Neither
is the case.

Whether many persons perform a particular action, or a single person many actions, the law about the names is that the choice is made by natural selection.'
]

With
'

this

may

be compared the remarks of BreVl.
:

is to be drawn from all that has gone before it is an undoubted fact that Language designates things in an incomplete and

One conclusion

1

Cf.

Max

Mailer's translation of some parts of the above-quoted passage

(ilid., p.

167).

ETYMOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, AND SEMANTICS
inaccurate manner.

71
that can

Incomplete
it trots.

:

since

we have
it
:

not exhausted

all

be said of the sun

when we have

declared

when we say
that
rest,
it

that

Inaccurate

to be shining, or of the horse since we cannot say of the sun
it trots

shines

or

when it has set, or when wounded or dead.

of the horse that

when

it is

at

amount

Substantives are signs attached to things: they contain exactly that of truth which can be contained by a name, an amount which is of

necessity small in proportion to the reality of the object. ... It will fo impossible for language to introduce into the word all the ideas which this entity or object awakens in the mind. Language is therefore compelled to
choose.'
*

(3) Many words whose grammatical form is quite regular are used to denote names of objects, such as vratati (creeper), jdgaruka (wakeful), dcirvi-homi (one who sacrifices with a ladle), &c.

that many objects get names which are based on subsequent the wood-pecker. actions, g. (5) If prthiw (earth) is derived from Vprath (to be broad) there is no
(4)
e.

We find

sophistry at

all.

It is not necessary to consider as to

who made

it

broad

and on what basis, for it is broad to the eye. Thus the question is discussed in the Nirukta. The same question is discussed at length in the Cratylus also, wherein Plato propounds three theories and makes the three characters in the dialogue their exponents. Hermogenes holds that names are conventional, arbitrarily given, and
altered at will.
Its antithesis is represented by Cratylus who maintains that they are natural. Socrates takes an intermediate position and admits that names are natural and at the same time have an element

of convention as well. 8

i.

Early anti-Vedic Scepticism.

is

In the fifteenth section of the first chapter of the NiruJda, a critic introduced in the person of Kautsa, who not only questions the authority of the Vedas, but actually maintains that the Vedic stanzas are meaningless, adducing several arguments in support of his assertion. From the twentieth
section of the

same chapter

it

is

evident that Yaska believes the Vedic

hymns to be revealed, having been handed clown from generation to generation by oral tradition, and requiring to be studied with great care;
the purpose of his
1

own work being

to
2

facilitate

this

study.

As the
i,

Semantics, eh. xviii,

Eng. trans, by Cust,

Cf. Jowett, Dialogues of Plato (3rd ed.), vol.

pp. 171, 172.

pp 3E7-8,

368, StW, 37S.

72

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
ta is one of the six auxiliary treatises of the Veda, it is rather say with what object Yaska presented and tried to controvert
it is

difficult to

the view of his opponents, for

inconceivable that the learned theologians

would reproduce, in their orthodox books, a controversy which challenges the most fundamental beliefs of their religion. The reproduction of the Kautsa controversy indicates on the one hand, that not only Yaska was endowed with a rationalistic spirit, and was free from bigoted fanaticism, but also that it was possible to carry on such discussions with- tolerance at that period of remote antiquity and implies on the other, that Kautsa was an eminent scholar, or some great personality, or the exponent of some philosophic system, whose thought could 'not be ignored. Some, however, think that Yaska has invented Kautsa as a convenient method of giving expression to Vedic Scepticism. This view is conjectural, and is not supported by any evidence. Yaska uses the terms eke, and ekam, aparam, &c. when he wants to refer to something in general, and he could have very welj employed the same terms with regard to the above-mentioned controversy, had it not been associated with a particular individual, i. e. Kautsa. There is no ground to doubt the historical existence of the authorities whose opinions are quoted, or referred to, or to whom particular
;

statements are attributed, by Yaska. And unless the contrary can be proved, it may be assumed that Kautsa was an historical entity. It

may

also be taken for granted that he was the leader of a movement, which may be described as something akin to materialistic rationalism, and which was the result of a remarkable literary activity, a characteristic of. the epoch of Yaska, as pointed out elsewhere. But Kautsa was by no means the originator of such a movement, the beginning of which can be

traced to an earlier period. Its origin is probably to be sought in sectarianism. For a considerable time, the Atharva-veda was not recognized as divine revelation. For the followers of the Atharva-veda, it was therefore necessary to demonstrate the superiority of their own Veda to the

RV., the SV., and the VS. Perhaps the most effective means, employed for the achievement of this object, was to invent legends and allegorical stories, in which all the four Vedas are introduced, and in which a certain
task
is

proposed for them.
to be

The RV.. the

SV., and the VS. are invariably

shown

difficult

by

incompetent in its performance, and it is given up as too the three Vedas in succession, being finally accomplished by

the AV., whose superiority over the other three Vedas is thus implicitly expressed. I quote the following two stories from the Gopatha Brahinana
in support of

my

statement

:

EARLY ANTI-VEDIC SCEPTICISM

73

I

<T^RT

Wf

fq<Hi<4
"

Be it so ", replied they. Speech said to them, tame the horse ". Having approached him, the RV. said, "I shall tame the horse". When he set about (accomplishing it), a great terror seized him. He turned her
'

"

in the eastern direction.

He

declared,

"

this horse is wild indeed

"

The

VS. approached him and said, "I shall tame the horse". When he set about (accomplishing it), a great terror seized him. He turned her in the western direction. He declared, "this horse is wild indeed". The SV. " " How indeed wilt approached him and said, I shall tame the horse ". " " thou tame the horse ? Rathu,iitaram is the name of my song of praise which is neither terrific, nor harsh. With that the horse is praised ". But when he set about (accomplishing it), the same great terror seized him. He turned her in the northern direction. He declared. the horse is indeed
'*

still

wild

".'

*

After these futile attempts, they are advised to seek Atharvana the tamer. They approach him and request him to tame the horse. He

prepares the water of tranquillity, which he sprinkles over the horse. From every limb of the horse flames fall down on the ground, and the horse, perfectly tame, salutes the sage.
object of the following story the three Vedas to afford protection
:

The

is

to

show the incompetency
^c

of

...

%

I

r

'The gods said to Indra, " Do now protect this sacrifice of ours. Verily protect us with that form of thine, with which thou affordest us the He assumed the greatest shelter, with which thou canst best protect us'.
1

GB.

i.

2.

18

;

Bib. lud. ed., p. 35.

74

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

form of the RV., and having approached, stood before them. The gods " with this form thou canst not assume some other form afford us the greatest shelter, with this form thou canst not best proHe assumed the form of the VS., and having approached tect us". " assume some other form stood behind them. The gods said to him, with this form thou canst not afford us the greatest shelter, with this He assumed the form of the SV., form thou canst not best protect us ".
said to him,
;

;

The gods said to him, and, having approached stood to their north. ''assume some other form; with this form thou canst not afford us the * greatest shelter, with this form thou canst not best protect us ".'
which
Indra then assumes the form of the Bralvnia-veda, i. e. the Atharva-veda, is approved by the gods as competent to- give them the greatest

protection. It need hardly be said that the efforts of the followers of the Atharvaveda were crowned with success, for, in course of time, the AV. was

recognized as one of the revealed scriptures. But their method of discrediting the other Vedas gave rise to a movement of inquiry and

a movement, the traces of which can still be discovered in Besides the fact isolated passages of the Aranyakas and the Upanisads. that the anti-Vedic ideas have been preserved in the Aranyakas and the Ujxinisads, which, according to the orthodox tradition, are a part of the
scepticism
scriptures, indicates that the

movement must have been important and

wide-spread, so
its influence,

some of the Vedic Scholars came under and freely gave expression to their heterodox views, some
so that even
I

much

of

which have survived.
:

quote the following passages in support of the

foregoing conclusion

'

^rf^ ff Verily it was
i

irnri

so,

^ft tfa ^jn?: irrisr TT then the Kavaseyas, the learned

TR

"

seers, said,

to

what
is

purpose shall

we study

the Vedas, to
'

what purpose
;

shall

we

sacrifice ?
is

We

sacrifice

breath in speech, and speech in breath
2

whosoever

born

indeed the authoritative person."

'

"

People say,

Hymn, Hymn ".

This earth indeed,

is

the hymn, for

all,

whatever exists springs from it.' 3 The study of the Vedas is regarded as avidyd (non-knowledge) in
1

MU.

GB.

i.

2.

19
1.

-,.

A. A.

ii.

2

;

Bib. Ind. ed., p. 36. Keith's ed., p. 101.

A. A. iiL

2.

6

;

Keith's ed., p. 139.

EARLY ANTI-VEDIC SCEPTICISM
I. 1.

75

4-5

;

as lower knowledge in

MU.

III. 2.

3

;

KU.

I. 2.

condemnation Upanisads are also regarded as revealed books (fruti). be analogous if, for instance, St. Paul had declared in one of his epistles that the study of the Bible is non-knowledge, or lower knowledge. The Kau. U., following are the other anti-Vedic passages Brh. U., I. 5. 23
force of this
:

will be realized, if it is borne in

The full 23. mind that the The case would

;

5; Ch. U., V. 11-24; TU., II. 5; XIV. 12 dfiydyana sutras, IV. 12
II.
;

Vivekacuddmani 2; the Jain UttardIX. 21 XI. 48, 53. Gtta, II, 42, 45 In order to reconcile them with the pro-Vedic doctrines, the commentators have offered ingenious explanations of these passages. It is possible that the Buddha came under the influence of this anfciVedic movement at an early period, which may be responsible for his vehement denunciation not only of Vedic rites and practices, injunctions, and invocations, &c,, but of Vedic lore. He held them up to ridicule, and discarded them as an obstacle to final emancipation. His views about Vedic knowledge have beer preserved in the form of a dialogue in the Two Brahmanas, Vasettha and Tevijja sutta in the JDtyha Nikdya. as to which is the true path. Unable to settle their Bharadvaja quarrel The Buddha holds a dispute, they go to the Buddha for a decision. conversation with them, and after perplexing and confounding them with analogies and arguments in a Socratic manner, gradually leads them to his own way of thinking, and finally converts them to Buddhism. The important parts of the dialogue with regard to the Vedas are the following 13. Well then, Vasettha, those ancient Esis of the Brahmanas versed
;
;
:

:

'

in the three Vedas, the authors of the verses ... to wit,

.

.

.

Vamadeva,

Vessamitta, Jamadaggi, Angirasa. Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, and " We know it, we have seen it, Bhagu did even they speak thus, saying
:

where Brahma

"Not
15.

so,

whence Brahma Gautama!"
is
}

is,

whither Brahma

"

is ?

..." Just, Vasettha, as when a string of blind men are clinging to one another, neither can the foremost see, nor can the "middle one see, nor can the hindmost see just even so, methinks, Vasettha, is the talk the of the Brahmanas versed in the three Vedas but blind talk talk ... of the Brahmanas versed in the three Vedas turns out to be ridiculous, mere words, a vain and empty thing." " 24. Again, Vasettha, if this river Aciravati were full of water even to the brim, and overflowing, and a man with business on the other side, bound for the other side, should come up, and want to cross over, and he, standing on this bank, should invoke the farther bank, and say, 'Come " Come over to this side hither, O Farther Bank "Now what think you, Vasettha? Would the farther bank of the
. .
.

'

!

!

76

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

river Aciravati, by reason of that man's invoking and praying and hoping " and praising, come over to this side ? " " Certainly not, Gautama. " In just the same way, Vasettha, do the Brahmanas versed in the 25. three Vedas Indra we call upon, Soma we call upon, say thus Varuna we call upon, Isana we call upon, Pajapati we call upon, Brahma
! c

.

.

.

:

we call upon that they, by reason of their invoking Verily, Vasettha, and praying and hoping and praising, should after death become united with Brahma verily such a condition of things can in no wise be." 35. "... Therefore is it that the threefold wisdom of the Brahmanas,
.

.

.'

.

.

.

.

.

wisdom

wise in their three Vedas, is called a waterless desert, their threefold is called a pathless jungle, their threefold wisdom is called
"
'

l

perdition. In criticism of this, it

may

be remarked that the views of the Buddha

concerning Vedic prayer are erroneous. His arguments, and especially his analogy of the bank of the Aciravati, are applicable to any other

prayer as well, and thus prayer itself will become an absurdity. Not only is prayer a very important act of worship in every religion, but in the

form of the wheel of prayer is the most distinguishing characteristic of Tibetan Buddhism. Moreover, prayer is a psychical phenomenon, it exerts a powerful influence on the mind through the medium o subconscious Further, the analogy suggestion, and as such its efficacy is beyond doubt.
of the Buddha is fallacious. To compare not only sentient but omniscient and omnipotent God with an inanimate piece of matter like the bank of a river, and then to deduce a conclusion from this comparison that because

the latter does not respond to prayer hence the former also does not do so, is altogether Nevertheless the Buddha's denunciation of the unjustifiable. Vedas developed a strong contempt for them in his followers who often 2 It is also probable that these teachings of the trampled them under foot.

The criticisms of some , inspired other non- Vedic scho6ls as well. of these schools are equally vehement, and one seems to hear the rever-

Buddh

berated echo of the voice of the

Buddha even in some of their The following passage gives the views of the Carvaka system

expressions.

:

i

Dialogues of the Buddha, translated into English pp. 304-14: cf. also S.B.E., vol. xi, pp. 159-203.
2

1

The

by Rhys-Davids,

S.B.B., vol.

ii,

See Sankaradigmjaya, the episode of Kumarila Bhatta's

life in

a Buddhist monastery.

EARLY ANTI-VEDIC SCEPTICISM

77

:

If you object ..." how should men of experienced wisdom engage in the Agnihotra and other sacrifices", your objection cannot be accepted as any proof to the contrary, since the Agnihotra, &c. are only useful as means of livelihood, for the Veda is tainted by the three faults of untruth,
' . . .

and tautology then again the impostors who call themmutually destructive, as the authority of the Jnanakanda is overthrown by those who maintain that of the Karmaand lastly, the three Vedas themselves are only kanda, and vice versa the incoherent rhapsodies of knaves, and to this effect runs the popular
self-contradiction,
;

selves Vedic Pandits are

;

saying: Brihaspati says that the (performance of) Agnihotra, the three Vedas, the three staves, and smearing oneself with ashes, are but means of livelihood for those who have neither sense, nor manliness.' l
If a beast, slain in the jyotistoma sacrifice goes to heaven, does not the sacrificer kill his own father ? 2
1

why

then,

'

'

The three authors
3

of the

Veda were

buffoons, knaves,

darkness.

Jarphari, turpharl,

&c., these are the

and spirits of well-known rhapsodies
with regard to the

of the Pandits.'

The Arhata system has the following
Vedas
:

criticism

'

And
;

Veda

a non-eternal omniscient being cannot be the subject of an etenia then how can he be expounded by a spurious and a false Veda ? 4
'
' :

the Rg-veda, nor was any

There was neither the Sama-veda, nor the Yajur-veda, nor work done by man.' 5 The ear'ier anti- Vedic scepticism, together with the doctrines of the Buddhist, the Carvaka, and the Arhata svstems must have created, in
Cf. also
1

Sarva-darfana-aamgrnhah, Bib. Ind. ed., p.

3.

3
*

Loc.

cit.

For this passage I have adopted Cowell's translation with some modifications.
2

Op.

cit.,

p. 28.

*

MahdbMrata Fawoparam, 11234.

Op.

ctf.,

p. 6.

78

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA

course of time, a considerable amount of opposition to the teachings of tho Vedas. It was therefore necessary for the followers of the Vedas to answer the objections of their opponents and to re-establish their position.

Hence Jaimini was compelled to devote almost the whole of the firso adhyaya of the Purva-Mvmamsa, to the examination and refutation of such objections. The substance of Kautsa's criticism, together with the subject-matter of Yaska's rejoinder is amplified with numerous additions The controversy, however, is too long to in the nrst chapter of the PM. be quoted here. Kumarila Bhatta, the commentator on the PM. was another expounder of Vedic doctrines, and after him the task devolved on the great ^ankaracarva, who by his eloquence, vast learning, profound philosophy, and great powers of debate rebuilt the shattered supremacy of the Vedic religion, and extirpated Buddhism l and other non-Vedic systems from the land of their birth. But adverse critics of the Veda, even after the great ^ankaracarya, have not been altogether unknown in India. For instance, Nanaka, the founder of the Sikh religion, may be mentioned as a notable teacher who laid great emphasis on saintliness, and discarded the Vedas as mere mythical records. He said Santa M> mahimd veda na jdiie Cdron veda ksiddni.
:

'The greatness of a saint is not known to the Veda all the four Vedas are merely (books of) stoiieb. Hence we find that Sayanacarya again reverts to the same discussion in the introduction of his commentary on the Rg-veda. The number of arguments for and against is still further increased. A brief summary
;

of the controversy

is

subjoined

:

Criticism.

The primd facie view is that there is 110 such thing as the Veda howcan there be a part of it, as the Rg-veda ? .... It is not possible to admit the existence of the Veda, for it is not capable of definition or proof.' 2 If the Veda is defined as being the last of three kinds of proofs, 1
'
:
I

)

perception, inference, and evidence, the definition will be too wide, for it will include the Smrtis as well.
(2) It

the Veda

is

defined as an instrument of apprehending transthe commentary of Sayanacarya. vol. i,p]>. 2 3. The Sanskrit text of the introductory psrt
of Say a mi's

cendental things, the definition will again suffer from the same defect.
1

However, the

final

blow was dealt by

invaders, who destroyed the Buddhist monasteries in the Northern

the

Mohammedan

part of India. 2 See Max Mailer's edition 2 of theRV. with

commentary, together with an English translation, is given by Pett>r-on in his Handbook to Uit Study of the Rgwia. Part 1.

EARLY ANTI-VEDIC SCEPTICISM

79

(3) The qualifying expression, 'being not the product of human authors ', will not improve the definition, for the Vedas are the works of

human

'human authors' you mean 'men having a frame we will draw your attention to the purvusa-sulcta. corporeal you mean a body which is (5) If you say that by corporeal frame the result of the actions of a previous life we will point out that Agni, Vayu, and Aditya, the authors of the Vedas, were endowed with bodies
(4) If
',
*
'

anthers, though they you say that by

may

be super-men

'

which were the
(6)

result of actions of

a previous

life.

sisting

now

it

(7)

Veda is defined as a collection of words (sabda-rdsih) conof the mantra and the Brdhmana, it does not hold good, for up till has not oeen settled what is mantra, and what is Brahinaw*. Nor is there any proof of the existence of the Veda. The scriptural
If the

quotations in support of your contention are useless, as they are cited from the Vedas themselves, and nothing can be proved by its own evidence

No

man, however
(8) If

clever,

can mount his

own

shoulders.

you say that the consensus of public opinion is in favour of the Vedas, we will reply that the whole world can be dluded for instance, the people believe in a blue sky, yet there is no such thing as skv, nor has
:

its

blue colour any reality.

Sdyana's rejoinder.

The definition of the Veda as a collection of words, consisting of the mantra and the Brdhmana is faultless; therefore Apastamba has said, The Veda is the name given to the mantra and the Brdhmana.'
(1)
'

self-luminous, but

true that things like a jar, or a piece of cloth, &c., are not it does not follow from this that the sun, and the stars, &c., too have no such character. Granting that it is impossible for a man to mount his own shoulders, nevertheless, the Vedas have the power to
(2) It is

proofs, including the evidence of the Smrtis, and of tradition cannot but be admitted as proof of tne existence of the Veda. Hence, the Vedas cannot be overthrown by any of the infidels like the followers of Carvaka.

illuminate themselves as well as other things. (3) You have to recognize the various kinds of
evidence.

And

further criticism.
called the Veda, it is not worth (1) Admitting that there exists a thing a commentary, for the Veda is of no authority (na hi Vedah pramdnam). 'an instrument of sound experience', (2) Some define authority as others as 'a means of acquiring knowledge, not known before'. Neither of these is to be found in the Veda.

80

INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
Then

follows an amplified statement of Kautsa's criticism. Sayana's reply gives the substance of Yaska's rejoinder with additions and modifications, to which is added a long quotation from the first chapter of the

'jwrca-Mlmamsa, reference to which has already been made. It would be superfluous to collect the pro-Vedic passages. The Vedas are the foundation of the whole of Sanskrit literature. But the triumph of the Vedic school is apparent from this fact alone that all the anti- Vedic systems have either perished, or been driven into exile, or been reduced to Thus the pre-Buddhistic antr- Vedic scepticism can now be insignificance. traced in a few isolated passages only. Buddhism, once the state religion of the Mauryan Empire at its zenith under As*oka, the then greatest Empire in the world has been banished from its native land. The Carvaka and the Arhata systems have been reduced to insignificance. Their followers are few and far between, and their influence on Indian thought and religion is so small tht for all practical purposes it can be
safely ignored.

THE NIRUKTA
CHAPTER
A
TRADITIONAL
list (of

I
It is to

be (here) explained.
(root) is (the

words) has been handed down (to This same list is called Ni-ghantavas. 1

us).

From what

word) Ni-ghantavas derived 1 They are words quoted from 3 Having been repeatedly gathered together from Vedic hymns, they have been handed down by tradition. Aupamanyava holds that, as these are the quoted words of the Vedas, they are called Nighantavas on account of their being quoted (t/ii-gamandt). Or else (the word Ni-ghantavas) may be (so called) from being fixed only (Vhan), i.e.
the Vedas (ni-gamoih)?
(a list.in

which) they (the words) are fixed together, or collected together ( Vhr).
(are) the four classes
;

of words ? They are the following and particles. With reference to this, they 6 thus prescribe the definition of noun and verb the verb has becoming as 6 nouns have being as their fundamental notion. 7 its fundamental notion, But where both are dominated by becoming ,/a becoming arising from
:

Now, what

4

noun and verb

prepositions

:

denoted by a verb, as lie goes he cooks *, 8 &c. The embodiment of the whole process from the beginning to the end, which
a former to a later state
is
' '

',

1

Cf.

Muir, Sanskrit

Texts, vol.

ii,
:

p. 165.

part V,
5
i.

p. 7.

2

Durga explains ni-gamdh
ete

as

nis-cayendsanto

dhikam vu ni-gudhurtha

parijndthah

Preceptors. Durga. Identical with Brh.D.ii. 121, see Professor
ii,
;

e.

mantrdrthdn yamayanti jndpayanti. 8 Both adopted the variant samdhatya on

Macdonell, Brhaddevatd, vol.

p.

65;

cf.

the principle, lectio difficilior potiot est, but this reading is not supported by the evidence of MSS., and, later on, WHS admitted to be unjustified
i. 1,

RP. xii. 5, Kautilya, Arthaiidstra, loc. cit. 701, 707 VP. viii. 54 ; the commentator on
;

AP., J.A.Q.S., vol.
Patanjali,

vii, p.
i.

591
8.

;

PM.

ii. 1.

1

;

MaMbMtya
vol.
i,

1,

Kielhorn's
Aristotle,

by Roth himself
xii. 5.

;

see Erlciutervngen,
viii.

edition,
Poetics,

pp.
10,

254,

256;

p. 4.

20,

1456 b

Bywater's

edition,

4
i.

Cf.
;

RP.

699

;

VP.
ii.
*

52

;

AP.
72
;

1

Kautilya, Arthasastra,
Mahabltasya*
;

10. 28, p.
!>

PataBjali,

1-

Kielhorn's

Gune's trans. IA., vol. xlv, 158. 7 The same as note 6 except Brh. D. cf. Jowett, Dialogues of Plato, vol. i, pp. 868-9
p.

58

;

;

:

edition, p. 8

Dionysius of Halicarnassus on
ii,

'

Name
. .

is

Literary Composition, ch.

p.

71; Aristotle,

Poetics, '20,

Roberts's edition, 1456 b 1, By-

but it thing in letters and
.

not a musical or pictorial imitation is expression of the essence of each
syllables.'

water's edition, p. 57; Wackernagel, Altindi9chcGrammfttik,vol.i,p.lTLvni',cf.Sils<>Dharma

8

Cf.
ii,

Professor
p.

vol.
ii. 1.

10;

cf.

Macdonell, Brhaddtvata, Durga's Comm. Cf. PM.

Samgrahah, xxxv, Anecdota Oxoniensia, vol.

i,

3-4.

6

MODIFICATIONS OF BECOMING
'
'

[1.

i

has assumed the character of being, is denoted by a noun, as going ', cookl ing &c. The demonstrative pronoun is a reference to beings, as cow ', 2 to be ', to becoming, as he sits man horse he elephant ', &c.
'

',

'

'

'

'

'

'

*,

',

;

',

sleeps',

he goes he stands &c. 3 According to Audumbarayana speech is permanent in the organs only. 4 (Here ends tlte first section. )
', ',

*

'

(of words) will not hold good, nor the connexion, nor the mutual reference of sounds which are not grammatical, 5 Words are used to designate objects, with produced simultaneously.

In that case the fourfold division

regard to everyday affairs in the world, on account of -their comprehensiveas well as of human ness and minuteness. They, too, are the names of gc
7

beings.

On

account of the impermanence of

human Uaowledge,

the stanza,

(directing) the

accomplishment of action,

is (to

be found) in the Veda. 8
:

According to Varsyayani, there are six modifications of becoming 9 Genesis genesis, existence, alteration, growth, decay, and destruction. the commencement of the first state, but neither affirms nor denotes only denies the later. Existence affirms a being that has been produced. Alteration connotes the modification of elements of a non-decaying being. 10 Growth
denotes the increase of one's

own

(with one's self), as he
1 Cf.

grows by means
:

limbs or of objects which are associated of victory, or he grow.s with his
6

Patafijali, Mahabluisya

sarvandma ca
is

Cf.

Durga'sComm.
i,

;

Jowett, Dialogic* of
vol.
;

sdmdnyavaci:

'And the pronoun
cit. i. 1. 1,

the general
pp.
1

Plafo, vol.
7

p. 368.
op.
tit.,
i.

exponent.'
8

Cf.

Jowett,

p.

333

:

Soc.

Patafijali, op.

vol.
1.

i,

and
p.

5.

'

He often speaks of them

'notably

and nobly

*
i. i.

Cf. Patanjali, op.
i,

cit.
;

i.

1,

vol.
i,

i,

6

;

1, 6, vol.
4. 4,

p. 104
i,

i.

1. 8,

vol.

p.

136

;

vol.

p.

356;

Bhandarkar, Wilson

in the places where he distinguishes the different names which gods and men give to the same things', i.e. words are used in

Ptulological Lectures, p.

of Plato, vol.

i,
;

PM.
4.
ii.

i.

1.

6-23
1.

Jowett, Dialogues ; pi. 327, 387, 388 ; Jaimini ; the Vedanta su'ras, i. 3. 28 ;

291

giving

names
is

to thing* both

by gods and

men.
This

tantamount
is

io the statement that

28; ii. 2. 21-37
;

58-60 the origin and nature ii. 2. 13-17 ; iii. 2. 49 of Sabda is a subject for discussion in the Buddhist literature also Sddda is an action,
;
:

4; Kanada, Vaitetika svtras, the Sdmkhya-pravacana sutras, v. ; the Nydya sutras, i. 1. 7, 54-7

the Veda
Cf.

the repository of eternal and
ii.

perfect knowledge.

;

Brh. D.

121

;

see Professor
ii,

Ma<-

donell, Brhaddevatd, vol.
is

p.

65

;

the passage
cit. i. 8. 1,

quoted verbatim by
i,

Patafijali, op.

vol.
'

Kathavatihu, xii. 3; Sadda
tions, op.
cit.

is

physical vibra-

258, except that he calls Varsyayani. bhagavdn, and uses the past tense,
p.
10 The word a-pracyavamdnasya is used by Y&ska in order to shov/ that alteration which may be for bettor or for worse is to

Eng. trans, entitled, 'Points of Controversy', is by S. Z. Aung
ix.
;

9-10

and
4

C. A. F.
Cf. Cf.

Rhys Davids.
I.

Gune, Gune,

A.,

/oc. cit.

be interpreted as denoting the former only

I.

A

,

loc. cit.

and not the

latter.

1.

4]

PREPOSITIONS

7

Destruction denotes the body. The term decay denotes its antithesis. commencement of the later state, but neither affirms nor denies the former.

(Here ends the second

section.)

Hence, other modifications of becoming are only further developments of
those (enumerated above), and should be inferred according to the occasion.

'Unconnected prepositions', says 6akatayana, 'have no meaning, but l only express a subordinate sense of nouns and verbs.' They have various hence, whatever their meaning may be, they meanings,' says Gargya
'
'

;

express that meaning (which brings about) modification in the sense of the noun and the verb.' - The word a is used in the sense of hitherward 3
'

'

;

pro, and puroi are ati and su, apj
'

its

antitheses
'

:

abhi*

'

towards
'

'

;

prati
'

is its
:

antithesis

:

val
is

;

nir and dur are their antitheses
:

*

downwards
'

'
;

ud
'

their antithesis
'

sum,
'

combination
' :

;

ni and ava vi and apa are
'
: '

,

'

upa, 5 pari, being being above or supremacy 6 Thus they express various meanings to which attention should be paid. (Here ends the third section.)
:

its

antitheses
:

ai'.u,

similarity
all

and

succession
'

'

api^
',

contact

1

accession

around': adhi,

'.

the particles occur in various senses, 7 both in a comparative sense, in a conjunctive sense, 8 and as expletives. Of them, the following four are used in the sense of comparison. 8 Iva (has this sense) both in the classical

Now

and in the Vedic Sanskrit thus like Agni like Indra &c. The word iia has the sense of negation in classical, and both (i.e. the sense of negation and comparison) in Vedic Sanskrit thus in the passage, They did not recc^i
' *
:

',

',

'

:

1
*

Cf.

RP. VP.

xii. 5. is

The

preposition
;

ing)'
4.

viii.

707 ; upasargo vis'esa-krt : the specializer (of mean54-5 ; AP. iv. 8 see Whitney,
;

in RP.

and VP.

is

identical with that of the

Nirukta, but enumerated in a different orderit is also identical with the list in the ganapdtJw,, if

J.A.O.S., vol. vii, p. 515
i.

;

Panini, Astddhyuyl
kriya-yoge
p.
;

58

:

pradaya(fy
cit.

upasargdh
1,

the double forms of nih and dtih are not taken into consideration cf. also AP.
;

Patanjaii, op.

I

3.

vol.

i,

256

:

'A

preposition is the distinguishing mark of an action' ; cf. also ii. 1. 1, vol. i, p. 365.
*

Cf.

RP.

xii.

6.

702-3

' :

Prepositions

are

twenty and they express a meaning together with the other two (i.e. noun and
;

incomplete and only half of that giyen in RP., VP., N., and Pa ; propositions are explained by Panini, op. cit. i. 4. 83-97 Patanjali, op. cit. i. *4. 4, vol. i, Professor Macdonell, Vedic pp. 341, 345-9
i.

15

;

the

list is

;

;

Grammar,

pp.

414-21

;

cf.

also

A

Vedic

verb)'
'

PataiYjali, op. cit.i. 3. 1, vol.

i,

p.

356:

But again individual prepositions express the distinction of actions, whenever a word
which denotes the same action
3

Grammar for Students, pp. 208, 211-58, 265 6. 6 The sentence is omitted by Durga. 7 Cf. RP. xii. 9. 708 nipaf.dnam arthavatftn
:

is

used.'

nipidanad
8

.

.

.

itare

ca sarthakah.
89>

Cf. Panini. op.
Op.
cit. i.

cit. i.

4. 89.

o f> B rh p
i,

iig

p ro fe ssor Macdonell's

4

4. 91.
xii. 6.

edition, vol.

p. 19.

5 Cf.

RP.
op.

702-3
;

;

VP.

vi.

24

;

Op.

cit. ii.

91.

Panini,

cit. i. 4.

53

tlio list

of prepositions

g

PARTICLES
2

[1.

4

The established use is (to Jndra as a god V it has the sense of negation. it immediately) before that which it makes negative. In the passage place 3 'Lake hard drinkers of wine', it has the sense of comparison. The estabii shed use is (to place it immediately) after that with which it compares. The word cid has many meanings. In the sentence Will the teacher kindly
' '

explain

it ?

it is

used in the (sense of) respect,
*

word) dcdrya derived ?]

A-cdrya (teacher)
6
;

is

[from what root is (the so called because he imparts

traditional precepts (d-cdra)

or because he systematically arranges (a + the various objects (of knowledge), or because he systematicy/cl + artha) 6 In the expression like curd ', it ally develops the intellectual faculty. used in the sense of comparison in bring even the sour gruel ', it is ft
'

;

Used in the sense of contempt. Kul-md$dk (sour gruels) are so called 1 The word because they are wasted away (sldaidi) in families (kulesu). In the sentence therefore he will do it it is TVu has many meanings. Used in assigning a reason in how pray will he do it ? in asking a quesIt is also used in the sense of tion, as well as in has he really done it ?
'

',

'

'

;

'

'

comparison

(as follows)

:

a tree, O widely invoked one! * a tree, O widely invoked one Of thee like the branches of "Vaydh means branches, (and) is derived from (the root) vi (to move)

Ot thee

?

like the branches of

!

:

they

tid-khdh (branches) are so called because they rest in trhe sky (kha-saydh), or (the word) may be derived from (the root) auk (to

9 paove in the wind.

be

9

able).

a conjunctive particle is that by whose addition separateness of indeed recognized, but not like an enumerative one, i.e. because notions 10 The word ca is used in the sense of aggreof a separation by isolation. " as I and with O of Vrtra and is
is
'

Now

'

'

gation ',

for gods and for manes V* The word vd is Used in the sense of deliberation, as Ah, shall I put this earth here or there? >K! ^Moreover, it is used in the sense of aggregation (as follows).

d is

joined together used in the same sense, as

both,

you,

slayer

I

'

'

'

'

(Here end* thefowyth
1

secticrti.)

x. 86. 1

;

N. 18.
is

4.
*

7

The sentence
vi. 24. 3.

is

omitted by Durga.

*

The passage beginning from,
ii,

.negation',
* viii. 2. 12. 4

Of them translated by Muir ; see
p. 151.

*

a

The sentence
Cf.
;

Sanskrit Texts, vol.

10

Gune, IA.,
cf.

note
brackets
is

omitted by Durga. 159-00 ; see Aristotle's definition of a conis

vol. xlv, pp.

The passage within square
cit. i. 1.
'

junction;
p. 59.

.Poetics,

20,

1457* (ed.

By witter),

Omitted by MSS. of the shorter recension.
* Cf. Patanjali, op.
6
. .

8, p. 88.

viii. 02. 11.

The passage beginning, From what
intellectual faculty', is omitted

root

"
1S

x. 10. 11.
x. 119. 9.

by Durga.

1.6]
'

CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES
Vayu and
*

9

The words aha and hi have the mutual opposition and are combined with the former (member) and this man will do this, not as let this man do this, the other that that &c. The letter u is also used in the same sense, (being joined) with
thee,
thee.'
l

Mann and
',

sense of
'

*

',

',

the later (member], as < these people tell a lie, those the truth it is further used as an expletive, as 'this', 'that'. The word Id has many meanings
;

'

in (the sentence) 'therefore

he will do
'

it',

it
it

(is

used) to point out the
;

reason

;

in (the sentence)

'

how pray
it ?

will he

do

V
'

to ask a question

in (the

to (indicate) displeasure. sentence) used to express.) superiority of knowledge, as thus truly (is
it is
'
' ' '

'how can he analyse

The word
it

kild
'.

happened

combined with the two (particles) wt and mi uu in asking Moreover, a question, as was it not so ? and was it so, pray ? The word iita denotes as do not do it and do not take The word kfudu alsoj prohibition, (denotes prohibition), as enough of doing this and have done with it J f urther, it is used as an The word satiwit expletive, as thus it happened
'

'

',

'.

'

'

'

',

'

'.

the sense of uncertainty in classical Sanskrit (in the sentence) was it ever so it (is used) in an interrogation (in the sentence) was it ever so pray ? in an interrogation but not to oneself. The word nunam has
lias
' :

V

'

;

'

the sense of uncertainty in the classical language, both, 2 uncertainty and that of an expletive, in Vedic Sanskrit.

i.e.

the sense of
to the

Agastya, having assigned an oblation to Indra, desired to offer Maruts. Indra, having presented himself, lamented (as follows).3
(Here ends the fifth section.)

it

There, it seems, it does not exist ; there is no to-mouow who kru>w$ that which is not past? The mind of another is apt to waver; lo! the
,

expected is lost. 5 There, it seems, it does not exist, i. e. there is no to-day nor indeed to-morrow. To-day, on this day. Dyuh is a synonym of day (so called)
it is bright ( Vdyut)^ To-morrow, the time that is still expected. Who knows that which is not Yesterday, the time that has expired. past r i. e. who knows that which is yet to come (i. e. the future) ? This

4

because

'

1

TS.

i.

7. 7. 2.

see also the different

vendon* o f th* story,

Muir's translation of the sentence, Sanskrit Texts, vol. ii, p. 161 : 'The particle

2 Cf.

Sieg, Sagenstoffe des fgv^da, pp. 108-20. i. 70. 1.
5

used in the bluitd to signify uncertainty in the Veda, too, it has that signification, and is also a mere expletive.' 3 Cf. the story related in Brh. D. iv. 46-51
is
;

"nunam"

He

Durga paraphrases no by om<MM"'^>ctm is wrong, for no is accented and could

;

not therefore - nos, but a
particle na +
u.

mean
Cf.

'

for us',

i.e.

it is

not

compound
N.

of the

negative

Professor Macdonell's ed

,

vol.

ii,

pp. 138-9;

1. 7.

10
other word
is

NUNAM
adbhutam
('

[1.

6

= abhutam, i. e. something which, as it ') 'The mind of another is apt to waver', i.e. fickle. were, unprecedented. 1 Another, a person not to be introduced (to good people). Cittam (mind) is derived from (the root) cit (to know), Lo the expected is lost [even the
wonderful
' !

',

assigned thing Moreover, it (nunam)

is lost],

2

assigned,
is

i.

e.

a thing intended (for

offering).

used as an expletive. (Here ends the sixth section.)
!

May
singer.
(corne) to

Be

milk every boon for the that rich reward of thine, O Indra to the worshippers, do not put us aside, let good fortune helpful
us
;

may we

3 speak loudly in the assembly with heroes.

May
what
is

wealth.

that (reward) of thine milk every boon for the singer. Boon, to be chosen. Rich reward, i. e. abounding in Singer, praiser. The word magham is a synonym of wealth, it is derived from

(the root)

mamh, meaning
meaning

root) daka,

Or accomplished. With reference to the quarter, (it means) the quarter natural to the hand, 6 i.e. the right hand. Daksinah (right) is derived from (the root) daks, meaning to work strenuously, or from das, meaning to give. IJastah
(hand)
is

to give. 4 Daksina (reward) is derived from (thu it causes the imperfect to be to cause to accomplish else, it may be (so called) from circumambulating.
:

derived from (the root)

han

(to strike):

it is

Fulfil the desires of the worshippers. Do not pass us aside. Let good fortune be for us. leaving

quick to strike. us over, do not give,

our
(*A>

own

assembly.
6

distribute).

Bhaya (good fortune) The word brhat is a synonym
is

May we speak loudly in derived from (the root) bhaj
of
' '

great

:

it is

grown

all

round.

hero, he disperses Having heroes, or having blessed heroes, the enemies, or it (w-ra) may be derived from (the root) vf. (vi-irayati) 7 meaning to go, or from mr (to be powerful).
1

A

u low-class

Explained by Durga as an offspring of man who lives in various ways, or who is not to be brought to the assembly
of the good.

became the southern quarter. The expression,
'

as

The passage within square brackets is omitted by the MSS. of the shorter recension
and Durga.
3
ii. 4

2

', is to be understood being pointed out by the right hand while cne faces the eastern direction. 6 The sentence is omitted by Durga.

natural to the hand

11.21.
cit.

Durga paraphrases Vlrayati by niinaprakdram mdrayati, i.e. he kills in various ways'. He seems to take mr as a non;

7

Cf. Patanjali, op.

vi. 1. 1, vol.

iii,

p. 16.

compound

root,

and

is

supported in

this

5

This

is

tantamount

to the statement that

the word daksind also

means
:

the southern

interpretation by DhMujtatha, xxxv. 49, where rir is enumerated as a verb of the tenth class,

quarter '.

Durga

remarks

pranmxkkasya

prajapater ya'o daksino hasto babhiiva ad daksind

digabhacat, i.e. the quarter to the right hand of Prajapati, while he stood facing the east,

But Yaska appears to take it as a compound + lr (to disperse), for he distinguishes it from the denominative verb, cf. his third
of vi

derivation.

1. 8]

TVA
l
:

11

The word aim has the sense of totality, or is (used) as an expletive 2 Aditya sent them forth. Sent them forth, i. e. sent them forth on all sides. And also
:

From
i.

all sidas

the wise one has manifested bright rays. B
all sides.

e.

The sun has uncovered (them) on

8u-Wtfah means the rays

of the sun, (so called) on account of their brilliant light (su-rocaua). Or else the word sima takes the ablative suffix (-tas) without any meaning,
i.e. sliniiah

=

slmatalt

=

tiwnd means boundary: word tva, being a pronoun with the sense of

* from the boundary '. simd-tah, (which means) The it forms the seam between two countries.
'

opposition

',

is

unaccented.

Some hold

it

to be a

synonym

of

'

half

'.

(Here ends the seventh section.)

One
;

sits

increasing the store of stanzas

;

a second chants the yayatra

Brahma, expounds the science of hymn whilst another metes the measure of the sacrifice. 4 being
in vakvari measures.

One,

i.

e.

With

A

the priests. stanza (re)

these words, (the stanza) declares the application of the duties of One sits increasing the store of stanzas, i. e. the invoker.
is

yayatra

hymn

in Zakvarl- measures,

a means of worshipping (arcana). i. e. the chanter.

A

second chants the
is

Gdyatram
:

derived
;

from (the root) yai, meaning to praise. Sakvaryah are stanzas it is derived from (the root) &uk (to .be able). It is known because with these
he was able to slay Vrtra, that is the characteristic of the &alwari stanzas. 5 One, i. e. the Brahma, expounds the science of every being. Brahma is omniscient: he knows everything; Brahma is supererninent from knowledge,

Brahma
i.

is

supereminent

all

around.

One metes

the measure of the

the (performing) priest. Adhvar-yuh (priest) sacrifice, adhvara-yuh, i. e. he directs the sacrifice, he is the leader of the sacrifice, or else, he loves the sacrifice. Or (the word is formed) by the addition of (the suffix) yuh
e.

=

Vadhi) in the sense of studying. A-dhvara is a synonym of sacrifice the verb dhvr means to kill, (a-dhvara denotes) the negation of it (killing). According to some, the word (tva) is a particle, then how could it be a noun
'

'

(to

:

of unaccented character

?

It is clearly inflected.

'

Lo

!

they

call thee,

1

Cf. Professor

Mncdouell.

A

Vedic

Grammar

4 5

x. 72.

11.

for Students, p. 249.
-

Cf.

KB.

xxiii.

ii.

28. 4.
4.
1. 1
;

he
5. 6.
1
;

vfas able to slay Vrtra,

2: 'Because with these, hence they (are
See

8

AV.

SV.

1.

321

;

VS.

called)

xakvaryah:

Gune, Bhandarkar

13. 3.

ffomro. Vol., p. 44.

12

TVA
;

[1.

8

' for one she yielded steadfast in friendship V (here it is) in the accusative it is (inflected) in the nominative her body', 2 in the dative. Further,

plural.

(Here ends the eighth
'

section.)

Friends, having (similar) eyes and ears, were unequal in the speed of Some are like tanks, which reach up to the mouth, and are suitable for a bath others indeed are like those which reach up to the
their minds.
;

meant) to be seen only. Aksih (eye; is derived from [Friends], having (similar) eyes and ears. it is from ailj (to be beautiful),' (the root) caks (to see) says Agrayana. It is well known: Therefore, they are, as it were, more beautiful. 4 Karnah it has its entrance torn (ear) is derived from (the root) krt (to cut) asunder it is from r (to go)/ says Agrayana. It is well known Going 4 upwards, as it were, they have protruded in space. They were unequal in
breast,
(are
'

and

3

;

:

'

;

:

the speed of their minds.
breast. 5

Some reach up
is
:

to the

mouth, others up to the

Asyam
'

6

(mouth)
')

(from d-syand,

to flow

derived from (the root) as (to throw), or else food flows towards it. Dagh'iiam is derived
:

from (the root) dagh, meaning to flow, or from das (to be wasted) it is very much wasted. Some are like tanks, suitable for bathing. Suitable
7 Hradah (others are) to be seen only. (tank) is derived from (the root) hrdd, meaning to make a sound, or from hldd, meaning to make cool. Further, it (tva) is used in the sense of

for bathing,

i.

e. fit

for bathing

;

8 recurrences and possession of As*vins i. e. possession of As'vins, and recurrences. Now the words which are used the sense being complete to fill up
'

aggregation

',

as

'

'

;

as

a sentence in prose, and a verse in poetic compositions, are expletives such 9 fawn-, lm, id, and it. (Here ends the ninth section.)

Men without
x. 71.

wolf, as it were, longed for the
5;
;

garments, and having many children, being afraid of a 11 10 dewy season to live.
the
i.e.

cf.
cf.

N.
N.

1.

20.

x. 71. 4 x. 71. 7.

1. 19.

the

mouth (2) from mouth begins
;

^/u-syand (to stream), to water when food is
it

thrown into
been before.
'

it,

however dry
is

might have

The quotation is untraced. Some reach up to the mouth
'

is

exi.e.
'

7
8 9

plained by Durga as 'unfathomable', minds whose depths cannot be reached ;
to the breast' as shallow,

The sentence KB. xvii. 4.
Cf.

omitted by Durga.
xii. 9.

up
is

RP.

xii. 8.

707

;

708

;

$rh. D.

ii.

whose bottom

within
6

siyht.

90-1, Professor Macdonell's ed., vol. i. p. 19. 10 It comprises the period from the middle
of

Durgu derives </.<,oni in two ways: (1) from Vfl* to throw), i.e. food is thrown in

January to the middle of March.
The. quotation
is

n

untraced.

1. i

a]

EXPLETIVES
season to
live,

13
r (to crush),

Dewy

siuiram
l
;

is

derived from (the root)

or turn (to put an end to). He emitted it for pressing
juice).

i.

c.

he created

it

for pressing (the soma-

May our hymns make him grow.* May our hymns, i. e. songs of praise, make him grow. Giras (songs) is derived from (the root) gr (to speak).
This person, whom thou approachest, }s for thee. 3 Thine is this man whom thou approachest. lua is also usdd (as an expletive), as 'they all knew it well ', and they both knew it \yell '. Moreover the word na is
'

combined with

id. in (the sense of)

'

apprehension

'.

(Here enda

.tie tenth

section.)

With

oblations some .seek heaven from this world

;

others press stfma:

juices in sacrifices.

The pure

rejoice indeed

with their rewards

pursuing

crooked ways,
Hell

lest

we

should

fall

into hell. 4
;

is going downwards, i. e. falling lower and lower or it does not Moreover the words iw. ca are even slight room for happiness. contain with the word id, in interrogation, as 'do- they not drink wine?' joined

Surd

(wine)

in various

derived from (the root) -sw, (to press). Thus they are used 5 meanings, to which attention should be paid.
is

(Here end*

tJte

eleventh section.)

these words, the four word-classes, i. e. the noun and the verb, order. With prepositions and particles, are explained in their (respective)

With

reference to this, 6akatayana holds that nouns are derived from verbs.
This, too, is the doctrine of the etymologists.
1 i.

6

'

Not

all,'

say Gargj'a and
kam, im,
i.

9.

2;

AVi
4;

20. 71. 8.

vet,

aha, ha, kila, &c.
u,
4.

;

(3) expletives,
op.
tit.

2
3

viii. 13. 18.
i.

id,

&c.
4,

Cf.

Patafijali,

1.

6.;

#0.

AV.
x.

20.

45.

1;

SV.

1.

183;

2.

949.
4

pp. 94, 340-1; Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, p. 429.
i.

vol.

i,

Professor

RV. Khila

106.

1.

Cf.

Patafijali,
'

op.

cil.

iii.

3.

1,

vol.

ii,

Panini uses the term uii>ata to denote not only particles, but also prepositions, see
6

p.

138

:

And

the noun

is

derived from the

Astadln/dyl,

i.

4.

56.

The
for
1.

technical

word

employed by him
avijaya
(op.
cit.
i.

37).

particles alone is Particles are
(op.

verb ' says the author in the Nirukta. 'The noun indeed is derived from the verb', so say the etymologists, and the son of

ynumm-ated in the gana called cadayah
cit.
i.

4. 57).

The

total
is

number
195.

of particles

collected in the list

This, however,

docs not include cid and ki mentioned by Yaska. Of the 195 particles, 22 only are

Sakata in grammar. Among the grammarians, Sakatayana says, 'The noun is derived from the verb'; cf. also Breal, 'It comes from the fact Semantics, p. 107: that the vrb is the essential and the capital of our languages, which serves to form
part substantives
The
Origin

explained in the Nintktu
tro, na, eld,

:

(1)

comparatives,

and adjectives';
of

see

Moncalm,
p.

and nu

;

(2) conjunctives, ca, a,

Thought and

Speech,

74:

14

ARE ALL NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS?
'

[1.

ia

some of the grammarians, but only those, the accent and grammatical form of which are regular and which are accompanied by an explanatory
Those (nouns), such as cow, horse, man, elephant, &c., radical modification. are conventional 1 (terms, and hence are underivable).' Now, if all nouns are derived from verbs, every person who performs
a particular action should be called by the same name, i.e. whosoever runs on the road should be called 'runner' (a&va, 'horse'); whatever
pricks (like needle, &c.), 'pricker' (trnam, 'grass'). Further, if are derived from verbs, a substantive should obtain as many
all

nouns

names as

the actions with which
called
'

it

is
'

beam-supporter

',

and that which

connected; thus a column should also be rests in a hole
'.

(Here ends the twelfth section.)

correct grammatical

Moreover, substantives should be named according to the regular and form of a verb, so that their meanings may be

indubitable, e.g.

purusa (man) should take the form
(horse),

of pur!. -say a (city-

triiam (grass), of tardanam Further, people indulge in sophistry with regard to current (pricker). expressions, e. g. they declare that earth (prthivi is (so called) on account
dweller)
;

aim

of astd

(runner)

;

who spread it, and what was the base? derived parts of one word from different verbs, in Again, JSakatayana spite of the meaning being irrelevant, and of the explanatory radical
of being spread (Vprath)\ but

modification being non-existent, e.g. (explaining sat-ya) he derived the syllable ya from the causal form of (the root) i (to go), and the former syllable sat from the regular form of (the root) as (to be). Further,
later

said that a becoming is preceded by a being, (hence) the designation of a prior (being) from a posterior (becoming) is not tenable ; consequently this (theory of the derivation of nouns from verbs) is not tenable.
it is

(Here ends the thirteenth

section.)

'.

.

.

elements of

there remain in the end certain simple human speech the primordial

roots which have sufficed to provide the innumerable multitude of words used by the

The diametrically opposite view, that names are natural, is put in the mouth of Cratylus while Socrates takes an intermediate position,
admitting that names are natural, while at the same time they have an element of con-

Muller, Lectures on the science of language, 6th ed., vol. ii, pp. 70, 80, 86 ; cf. also AA. ii. 1. 3 ; ii. 1. 6. 1 Plato introduces, in the Crafyft!, a character
;

human

race

'

Max

Some passages of the dialogue also. relevant to the controversy are given in the additional notes; see JoweH, Dialogues of
vention
Plato,

in the person of Hermogenes who maintains that names are conventional, that they are

3rd ed. f vol.

i,

pp. 324, 327-8, 358, 366,

378.

given arbitrarily and

;-an

be altered at will.

1.15]

ARE ALL NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS?

15

As to (the statement) that all those (nouns), the accent and grammatical form of which are regular, and which are accompanied by an explanatory
^we reply that) in that case it is quite to (the point) that every person whoever performs a particular action should be called by the same name, we see that in some
radical modification, are derived,

evident.

As

cases the performers of the action

do obtain a common name, while in

others they do not, e. g. a carpenter or ascetic, enlivener, earth-born, Arc. 1 With this, the following objection is answered as well. As to (the point) that substantives should be named in such a way that their meanings

may

be indubitable, (we reply that) there are words (of that character),

i.e. single words formed by primary suffixes, as creeper, guest, one having matted locks, a wanderer, wakeful, one who sacrifices with a ladle, <&c. /As to (the objection) that people indulge in

words of rare occurrence,

sophistry with regard to current expressions, (we reply that) it is with regard to current expressions alone that (etymological) examination is

most

desirable.

With regard
'

to

'

(so called) on account of being spread what was the base ? (we reply that)

they declare that earth (prthivi) is but who spread it, and ( V'jyrath) it is indeed broad to look at, even
:

if it is not spread by others. Moreover, in this way all known words, without any exception, can be found fault with. As to (the point) that a certain individual derived parts of one word from different verbs, (we reply that) the person who made such a derivation in spite of the meaning being irrelevant should be blamed; it is the fault of an individual, not

of the science (of etymology). As to (the argument) that the designation of' a prior (beiny) from a poster or becoming is not tenable, we see that in some cases prior beinga

do obtain their names from posterior becomings, but not in others, as one having long locks &c. Bllva is (so called) from a woodpecker or from sprouting. being supported
'

'

',

',

(Here ends the fourteenth

2

section.)

Moreover, without it (etymology) the precise meaning of Vedic stanzas cannot be understood. For one who does not understand the meaning, a thorough investigation of accent and grammatical form is not possible,
1

The former two,

ascetic, are

i.e. a carpenter and an examples of cases where people

2

Cf. Patanjali, op.

cit.

i.

1.

9,

vol.

i,

pp.

176-6.

See Introduction, Yaska's contribu-

the same action get a common name; the latter two are examples of cases where they do not get a common name, as enlivener means the juice of sugar-cane, and earth-born moans the planet Mars.

who perform

tions to Etymology, Philology, and Semantics; sects. 12-14 are translated rather freely by

Max
ture,

Miiller, History of Ancient .Snna/irft Lfara-

2nd

ed., pp. 164-8.

16

THE KAUTSA CONTROVERSY
is

[1.

15

hence this science (etymology)

the complement of

grammar und a means
Vedic

of accomplishing one's own object. * 'If (the object of the science) is to ascertain the meaning of stanzas, it is useless,' says Kautsa, for the Vedic stanzas have no
'

mean-

'

by the following arguments propositions 2 Further, immutably fixed. the accomplishment of the ritual form is enjoined by the Brahmana, 3 as 4 and so he spreads Let me pour out 6 and so he pours Spread it wide 6 7 out. and Further, their meaning is impossible, as Save him, O plant
ing
:
;

'

l

this is to be established
fixed, their

have their words
'

order, too, is
'

',

;

',

'

'

!

while striking, one declares,
their

'

Do
9

meaning second 10 and
',

is
'

contradictory,

as

not injure him, O Axe Moreover, There was but one Rudra and no
'

8

!

'

Rudras,

who on

earth are thousands without

number

' ;

n

'O 'Indra! thou
'

art born without a foe', 12 an(i 'Indra vanquished hundred

armies together'. 13 Further, one enjoins a person who is already acu Besides, quainted, as Address the hymn to-Agni which is being kindled Aditi is heaven. Aditi is atmosphere,15 it is said, Aditi is everything
'.
' *

'.

&c.' will

be explained later on. !G

a myak,
f

1*

yadr&min,

1*

jdraydyi,

20

Further, their meaning kdnukd, &c.

is

obscure,

17

as

(Here ends tfo fifteenth section.)

Vedic stanzas are signifieA&t, because (their) words are identical (with This those of the spoken language). There is the Brahmana passage indeed is the perfection of the sacrifice, that the prescription of the form, that is to say, the action which is to be performed, is declared by a stanza
:

of the
1 2
3

Rg
i.

or the Yajurveda. 22
2. 1.

'

Playing with their sons and grandsons,
J

Cf.

PM.
cit. i.

6

See N.
i.

4. 23.
eft. ii.

Op.
Cf.

2. 32.
i.

"
PM.
8;
cf.

Cf. Patanjali, op.
2. 38.

1. 1,

vol.

i,

p. 363-;

PM.
i.
;

2. 83.
;

4

TS.
i.

1. 8. 1

vi. 2. 7.

MS.

i.

1.

;

The word occurs once only in RV.
169. 3.

i.

KS.

8

xxxi. 7
2. 15.
i.

;

TB.

iii.

2. 8. 4.

6 Cf.

VS.

M The word
34-5.
zo

occurs once only in

Cf.
7
8 9

PM.
i.

2.

The word occurs once only
The word occurs once only
GB.
ii.

RV. Y. 44. 8. in RV. vh
in

TS.

2. 1. 1.
;

12. 2.
;

VS.
Cf.
Cf.

4. 1

5.

42

(>.

15.

21

RV.

via.

PM.
TS.

i.
i.

2. 36. 8. 6. 1.

77. 4.
22

10
11 JZ

2.
'

G

;

ii.

4.

2

;

the passage without

VS.

16. 54.

x. 133. 2;
x. 103.
1
;

18

AV. 20. 05. 3 SV. 2. AV. 19. jlS. 2; SV.
;

1152.
2.

1199;

or the Yajurveda' is fo,und in AB. i. 4, 13, 15, 17, &c. Cf. liar's tr'anslation: What is appropriate in iu is

the words

frpi,

VS.
i4

17. 33.

TS.
;

vi.

3.
i.

7.

1; MS.
5. 2, 3.

i.

3. 7. 1

tlarkar
18
i.

&B. Comm.

3.

11; TB. iii. See Gune, Shan4.

successful in the sacrifice; when the verse (re or yaj us)
refers to

that

i*

to say,

which is recited the ceremony which is being per-

Vol., loc. cif.

formed.'

89. 10.

1. 1 7]

THE KAUTSA CONTROVERSY
objection)
fixed,

17

that propositions have their words fixed, (we reply) that it is the same with immutably to the everyday speech of the world, as Indra and Agni father regard and son'. 2 As to (the objection) that the accomplishment of the ritual
1
'

As to (the &C.' their order too is

'

',

is enjoined by the Brahmana, (we reply) that this is a mere reiteration what has been said already. As to (the objection) that their meaning is impossible, (we reply) that no injury is to be inflicted, so it must be understood by the authority of the Vedic passage. As to (the objection) that their meaning is contradictory, (we reply) that the same (objection) is applicable to the everyday speech of the world, as 'this Brahmana has no rival', 'this king has no enemies', &c. As to (the objection)

form

of

that one enjoins a person who is already acquainted, (we- reply) that in salutation a person announces his name to one who is already acquainted
the mixture of honey and milk is declared (to the guest) who already acquainted with it. .As to (the objection) that Aditi is everything, (we reply) that it is the same in the everyday speech of the world, as all fluids reside in water '. 3 As to (the objection) that their meaning

with
is

it;

'

is

does not see

obscure, (we reply) that it is not the fault of the post if the blind man Just as among the it it is the fault of the man himself.
;

country-folk a man becomes distinguished with (a little) knowledge, so among the scholars of the traditional Vedic lore a man of profound

knowledge alone

is

worthy of praised
(Here ends the sixteenth
section.)

Moreover, without this (etymology) the word-division

is

not possible.

Be
is

merciful,

O

Rudra, to the footed wanderer.

5

i. e. cows, provision for the journey (avasdya) derived from (the root) av, meaning to go, with the suffix asa\ it is therefore not analysed (in the Padap&tha).
:

The footed wanderer,

Having released the horses. Here (ava-saya is derived from the
(ava)
;

6

root) so preceded

by the preposition

in the sense of releasing

it is

therefore analysed.
that water
all fluids
4

1 x. 85. 42; AV. 14. 1. 22; this is an example of the identity of words of Vedic stanzas with those of classical Sanskrit. * i.e. The order of words in these idiomatic

is

the source of

all fluids,

hence

are contained within water,

ticism
5
c

phrases cannot be reversed, e.g. wrong to say, 'Agni and Indra'
father'.
1

it
;

will be

See Introduction, Early anti-Vedic Scepa summary of the controversy i given by Muir, op. cit. vol. ii, pp. 169-72.
;

'son and
is

x. 169. 1.
i.

104.

1.

Durga's explanation of the example

B

18

IMPORTANCE OF ETYMOLOGY
Here has come
this

[1.17

messenger of death.

1

(Nirrtyd) is either in the ablative or in the genitive case, (so written in the Padapdtha) as ending in the visarjaniya (=nirrtydh).
Far, far

it is

away
is

call for death.

2

Here (nirrtyd)
as ending in ai
(

in the dative case, (so

it is

written in the Padapdtka)

= nirvtyai).

Samhitd is the closest conjunction by means of euphonic combination. 3 Samhitd is based on the original form of words. 4 The phonetic treatises of all schools are based on the original form of words.
Moreover, in the
sacrificial act,

there are
is

to the characteristics of deities.

This

many injunctions with regard to be established by the following.

Should some people say, 'We here know the characteristic marks"' (of deities, we need not therefore study etymology/ set before them the
following stanza). Like Indra, like Vayu, the gods fill thee with strength. 6 Here is the characteristic mark of Indra and Vayu in a stanza addressed
to Agni.

Shining like Agni,

O Manyu

!

be strong. 7

Similarly (the characteristic mark of) Agni (is found) in a stanza addressed to Manyu. 8 Tvisitah means shining. Of this word (the part) tvisih is a synonym of light.

Moreover, there

is

praise of

knowledge and censure of ignorance.
section.)

(Here ends the seventeenth

He

is

the bearer of a burden only,

;the

blockhead who, having studied,

does not understand the meaning of the Veda. But he who knows the meaning obtains all good fortune and, with his sins purged off by know9 ledge> attains heaven.

Whatever
cramming;
illuminate. 10
1

is

learnt without

its

being

understood

is

called
it

mere

like

dry

logs of

wood on an extinguished
VS.

fire,

can never

x.

165. 1

;

2

x. 164. 1

;

AV. AV.
cit. i.

6. 27. 1.

vi. 4. 7
7
i.

;

83. 13.
4. 31. 2.

20. 96. 23.
op.
cit.
i,

8

Quoted by Panini,

4.

109

;

cf.

Patafijali, op.

4. 4, vol.

p. 354.

* Identical with RP. ii. 1. 105, except that the order of words is reversed. 5 The sentence is incomplete, abrupt, and obscure, very unlike the style of Yaska. The meaning has to be completed by an additional clause put within brackets.

is that etymology helps to discover the principal deity to whom a stanza is addressed. This cannot be found out by

*

AV. The meaning
x. 84.

2

;

the knowledge of the characteristic

mark

only as in the cases adduced by Yaska.
'

Samhitopanisad B.
cit.

3.

10 Loc.

quoted with the variant adhlfam
cit. i.

by

Patanjali, op.

1. 1,

vol.

i,

p. 2.

1.

20]

PRAISE OF
(post)
is

KNOWLEDGE
(the ^root)

19
(to

Sthdnuh
(meaning)
it
is

derived from

sthd

derived from (the root) ar (to go), or

it is (so

Artha, stand). called because)

stops

from going. 1
(Here ends the eighteenth section.)

to another she yielded her

Seeing one does not see speech, hearing one does not hear it. And body like a well-dressed and loving wife to her

husband. 2

Even
hear
'

it.

And

even hearing, one does not these words, the hemistich describes the ignorant man. to another she yielded her body she reveals herself, i. e. knowledge ;
seeing, one does not see speech;

With

',

the manifestation of meaning (is described) by this speech, i. e. the third verse. Like a well-dressed and loving wife to her husband [well dressed at proper seasons, dressed in an auspicious manner, and loving], 3 i. e. just
as he (the husband) sees her and hears her at proper seasons this is the praise of one who understands the meaning. 4 The stanza following
:

this explains it still

more

(explicitly). section.)

(Here ends the nineteenth

They certainly declare one to be steadfast in friendship, him no one can overpower in conflicts (of debates). But that man wanders with a barren delusion he listened to speech that is without fruit or flower. 5 Indeed, they declare one to be steadfast in friendship with speech,
;

e. taking delight in it, and having thoroughly understood the meaning, or in friendship with gods in a delightful place they do not overpower him, who knows the meaning well, even in powerful debates. But that
i.
;

man wanders with
him

a barren delusion,

i.

e.

with a symbol of speech.

To

Who

(speech) does not grant desires, which are to be granted by speech. heard speech without fruit or flower in the abodes of gods and men,

for that
flower.

man

speech has no fruit nor flower, or

lias

very

little fruit

or

The meaning of speech is called its fruit and flower. Or the sacrificial stanzas, and stanzas addressed to deities, or the deity and the 6 soul are its fruit and flower.
1

Durga takes artfia in the sense of wealth, and explains the two derivations as (1) wealth is approached by greedy people, (2) wealth stops from going with the deceased
person to the next world. Durga's explanation of ariha does not suit the context, which
sthtind

bearing a load of sandal- wood, who perceives its weight but not its fragrance,
8
3

x. 71. 4

;

cf.

N.

1. 8.

here denotes meaning or knowledge '. By Durga understands an ass. A person
'

'

'

The passage within square brackets is omitted by MSS. of the shorter recension and Durga. 4 The whole section is quoted by Patanjali,
op.
5
6
cit. i.

1. 1, vol. i, p. 4.

who commits

Vedic texts to
is

memory

withass

x. 71.
Gf.

5

;

cf.

N.

1. 8.
i,

out understanding

compared to an

Muir,

op. cit. vol.

p. 255.

B2

20

COMPILATION OF THE NIGHANTU

[1.

ao

Seers had direct intuitive insight into duty. They by oral instruction handed down the hymns to later generations who were destitute of the direct intuitive insight. The later generations, declining in (power of) oral communication, compiled this work, the Veda, and the auxiliary Vedic BUma = bhilma (division) treatises, in order to compreheAd their meaning.
or illustration. 1

Dhatuh (root) is derived So many roots have the same meaning. from (the root) dhd (to put). So many are the synonyms of this substantive. This is the homonym of so many meanings. This name of a deity
is incidental,

the other

is

primary.

With

reference to this, the (name)

which occurs in a stanza addressed to another deity is called incidental. 2 3 (We adore) thee like a horse with, long hair. thee like a horse that has long hair. Long hair is for (We adore) warding off the gad-flies. Damsa (gad-fly) is derived from (the root)

dams

(to bite).

like a fierce animal, roaming everywhere, haunting the mountains. 4 As a fierce animal roaming everywhere, haunting the mountains. Mrgah (animal) is derived from (the root) mrj, meaning to go. Fierce, of whom all are afraid. Dreadful is derived from the same root also. Ku-carah means 'one who moves in a crooked manner '. If it be an epithet of a deity (it means) where does he not go ? Haunting the mountains,
* '
'

'

li

ving in mountains.

Oirih means a mountain

:

it is

raised up.

Parvata

But parva is (mountain) is (so called) because it has joints (parva). derived from (the root) pr (to fill), or from prl (to propitiate). Here, during
a period of a fortnight, they propitiate the gods. It (mountain) is (so called) on account of the similarity of the joints of the nature of the other 5 Seated on a cloud. A cloud is called mountain from the same (period). reason (i.e. from its being The section which deals with the

raised).^ appellations of deities to whom panegyrics are primarily addressed is called the daivata ; this we shall explain later on, but the synonyms and

homonyms now.
(Here ends the twentieth
section.)

1

'Cf.

Muir,

op. cit. vol.

ii,

p. 165

;

vol. Hi,

6

According to Durga, a mountain Las

p. 118.
2 3 4

Cf.
i.

Brh. D.
;

i,

18.
1.

joints in the form of stone slabs, and a period has joints in the form of time with its various
;

27. 1

SV.
;

17

2. 984.

divisions.

Cf. Muir, op.

cit.

vol. iv, p. 69.

i.

164. 2

x. 182. 2.

2.1]

PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY

21

CHAPTEB

II

Now (we shall deal with) etymology. With reference to this, the words, the accent and the grammatical form of which are regular and are accompanied by an explanatory radical modification, should be derived in the
ordinary manner.
i3ut the

meaning being

irrelevant,

and the explanatory

radical modification being non-existent, one should always examine them with regard to their meaning, by the analogy of some (common) course of

no (such) analogy, one should explain them even by of a (single) syijable or letter l but one should never (give up the attempt at) derivation. One should not attach (too much) importance to the grammatical form, for tllese complex formations (w'ttayah) are (often)
action.

If there be

the

community

;

subject to exceptions. One should interpret inflected cases according to the meaning. In prattam (= pra-dattam, 'given away') and avattam ava-dattam from ava */do, divided ') only the initial parts of the root {

=

'

survive.
(to be) in

weak

Further, there is aphaeresis of the initial part of the verb Us forms, as stah ('they two are'), santi ('they all are'), &c.
is elision

Further, there
ultimate, as in

gone '), yatam (Vyam,
'

of the final part, as in gatvd (from Vgam, having Further, there is elision of the pen'gone'), &c.
'
'

form of gam, they two went '), and jagmuh 2 (red. form of gam, they all went *). Moreover, there is the modification of the penultimate, as in raja (rdjan, king '), dandl (dandin, a staff-bearer '),

jagmatuh

(red.

'

*

&c. Further, there is elision of a letter, as in tatvd ydmi (= tatvd ydcami), &c. tri + rca, three Moreover, there is elision of two letters, as in trca (

=

'

stanzas
jyotih
(

').

Further, there
'

Vdynl, light '),

alteration in the initial part (of the root), as in l ' ghanah ( </han, killer '), binduh ( i/bhid, a drop '),
is

batyah (\/bkat, 'to be hired or nourished'), &c. Further, there is meta3 thesis, as in stokak (from Vscut, 'a drop'), rajjiih ('rope'), vikatdh*
1

Cf. Jowett,
i,

Dialogues of Plato (3rd ed.),
Cratylus,

vol.

p.

335

;

the

393

the syllables of the name are the same makes no difference provided the meaning is retained ; nor does the addition
or subtraction of a letter

'And whether the same or not
:

names have been long ago buried and disguised by people sticking on and stripping off letters for the sake of euphony, and
twisting and bedizening
.

them

in all sorts of
(syllable)

make any difference

.' Durga ways paraphrases akxara by svara (accent).
.

so long as the essence of the thing remains in possession of the name and appears in it.* Also p. 341, Soc. 'Now attend . . and just
.

2 3

Cf. Patanjali, op.

cit.

vi. 1. 1, vol. iii,p. 17. it is

Durga derives rajjufy from ^srj, but more likely to be derived from ^rasj.
4

remember that we often put in and pull out letters in words and give names as we please and change the accents.' And p. 358, Soc.
'
.

shine ', but

to Durga derives sticata from */kas, it is more probably derived from
'

Vsik or
vol.
i,

-v/sic;

cf.

Patafijali, op.

cit.

i.

1.

2,

.

.

but then you

know

that the original

p. 81.

22
('

PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY
'),

[2. i

sand

tarku
1

'

(

*/krt,

a knife

').

Further, there

is

change in the

final

part

(of the root).

(Here ends the first section.)

Oghah (Vvah, 'flood'), meghah (Vmih, 'cloud'), nddhah* ('refuge'), gddhah (*/gdh, fordable'), Vadhuh ( </vah, bride'), madhu ( V Triad, mead'}.
'

'

'

'

'to throw'), dvdrah (Virr, With reference to this, it is Vbhrajj, ripe '. D.), &o pointed out that when a root contains a semi- vowel contiguous to a vowel it becomes the origin of two primary bases. There, if an accomplished form is not derivable from one base, one should try to derive it from the

Further, there
'door'),

is

anaptyxis, as in dsthat
'

(V,

bharujd

(

some are of rare occurrence, as utih (-/av, protection '), mrduk (Vmrad, 'soft'), prthuh (^pjeath, 'broad'), prsatah (V'prua, 'a drop '), kunarum ( </kvan, sounding '). Further, Vedic primary nouns are derived from roots of classical Sanskrit, as damundh (devoted to the house), ksetrasddhdh (one who divides the fields), &c. and also nouns of classical Sanskrit from Vedic roots, as usnam (werm), ghrtam (clarified
other.
there,
'
;

Even

*

Further, primary forms alone are employed (in speech) among some people secondary forms among others. The verb savati, meaning to Kambojas (are so called becar.se) they go, is used by the Kambojas only.
butter).
;

3

4 blanket (kambala) is enjoy blankets (kambala), or beautiful things. a desirable object (kamanlya). Its modified form vava is used by the Aryans ddti, in the sense to cut, is employed by the people of the east,
:

A
5

while the people of the north use ddtra should explain single words.

(sickle).

In this manner, one

Now with regard to derivatives and compounds, whether of one or more than one member, one should explain their component parts in their
6 Punishable, respective order, having first divided (the words) into them. L e. a person [a person of punishment] deserving punishment, or something to be accomplished by punishment Danda (punishment) is derived from

1

For the detailed examination

of

tide

is

unjustified;

see

Sanskrit

Texts,

vol.

ii,

section, see Introduction, Yaska's Contribuvions, &c.
1
,

p. 856.
* Roth denies the correctness of Yaska's utatement that the Aryans use fava (see Brl&uttntngen, p. 17). His denial is, however, groundless, because Yaska is corroborated by

Durga derives nddhah from \'nah bind), but it is probably from VnddA;
nadhamandh.
3
4
'

(to
cf.

Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. ii, p. 152. is omitted by Muir in his translation as if it did not exist. As it is
Cf.

The sentence

a grammarian of such eminence as Patafijali the Mahabhdsya, i. 1. 1, vol. i, p. 9). (sa The passage in the MB. is almost identical

given by MSS. of both recessions and explained by Durga, it cannot be regarded as an interpolation, hence its omission by Muir

with the Nirukta.
vol.

Cf. Jowett, Dialogues of Plato (3rd ed.), Soc. < But the secondary, i, pp. 368, 370,

2.3]
(the root) dad,

PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY
meaning
to hold.
'

23
'.

Akrura holds the jewel l The word (danda) is derived from (the root) dam,' says Aupamanyava. Inflict punishment on him is (used) in censure. Kaksyd means girth of a horse it is carried round the region of girth. Kaksah (armpit) is derived from (the root) gdh (to plunge into) with the suffix ksa, or from khyd (to make known) with redundant reduplication what is there worth * seeing 1 Or it (may be derived) from kas (to rub against). On account of this 3 analogy (i. e. of being rubbed) it means human armpit and on account of the analogy of the arms and their root, the word (signifies arm'

People say,

'

'

:

:

'

',

pit) of

a horse.
(Here ends the second section.)

Royal servant, a servant of the king.
root) raj (to shine).
city),

Raja (king)

is

Purusah
(one
fills

or

= puri-vayah
(to
fill), i. e.

(person)

= puri-sddah

derived from (the

(one

who

sits in

a

root)

pr

he

sleeps in a city), or is derived from (the the interior, with reference to the inner soul.
filled

who

This entire (universe)

is

by that inner

soul, to

whom

there

is

nothing anterior, nothing subsequent, than whom there is nothing more minute, nor more great, and immovable like a tree, who alone lives in
heaven. 4

one who drags about like a despicable dog The words vi and cakadra are used (to denote) gait of a dog drati means a despicable gait kadrdti means a despicable drdti
This, too,
'

is

a quotation.
'.

Vi&eakadrdkarsa,

'

'

;

;

;

cakadrdti

the same as kadrdti with redundant reduplication he who possesses that (kadrdti) is called vticakadrah. beauty of auspicious colours, i. e. one whose beauty is like that of auspicious colours. Auspicious,
is
:

A

Vartiah (colour) is derived from (the root) vr (to cover). Rufjain (beauty) is Derived from (the root) rue (to shine). In this manner one should explain derivatives and compounds. One should not explain
it is

desirable.

as I conceive, derive their significance

from

Hemacandra
vol.
ii,

;

the primary.'
Soc.
.

p. 164,

see the Nirukta in Bib.Ind. ed., foot-note.

.

.

Ought we

not, thereforo, first to

2

Durga remarks that an armpit always
because
it
is
it

separate the letters, just as those who are beginning rhythm first distinguish the powers
of elementary,
Soc.
4 .
.

itches,

is

full

of perspiration,

.

and then of compound sounds?' Must we not begin in the same

constantly rubbed and may be appropriately derived from the root kcu 'to

hence
rub
3
'.

separating the vowels, and then the consonants and mutes into classes, according to the received distinctions

way with

letters, first

of the learned ?
1

'

Cf.

Brh. D.

ii.

106.

By tat Durga understands the armpit of woman. His explanation that from the analogy of the armpit of a woman the word kakta moans the armpit of a man is arbia
trary.
*

story of Akrura, a king, and a jewel called syamantaka is related in the Mahdbharata,

The

TA.
9
;

10. 10. 3

;

Mahan. U.

10.

4

;

SveU U.

the Bhagavatu and the Brahma Paraxas, and

iii.

cf.

Muir,

op. cit. vol. v, p.

874.

24

PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY
who
1

[2.3

isolated syllables, either to a

non-grammarian, or to a non-residential pupil,

or to one

Eternal indeed is the (incapable of) understanding it. scorn of the ignorant for knowledge. But one should explain to a resiis

dential pupil, or one

who

is

capable of knowing them, the intelligent and

the diligent.

(Here ends the third section.)

Verily knowledge approached Brahmana, Protect me, I am thy treasure. Do not expound me to the scornful, nor to the unstraightforward, nor to 2 one who has no self-control thus shall I grow powerful.'
'

;

One should honour him as a father and mother, and should never bear enmity towards him who pierces ears with truth, without causing pain,
and
3 besto\\ ing ambrosia.

Just as religious students, who, having received instruction, do nottheir teachers with word, thought, and deed, are not to be fed by the 'teacher, similarly that knowledge does not feed them. In order to protect thy treasure, O Brahman expound me to him alone

honour

!

whom

thou knowest to be pure, diligent, intelligent, observing the rules of 4 a celibate life, and who never bears enmity towards thee.
*

tievadhi

means

treasure.

(Here ends the fourth

5

section.)

Now, synonym
go over
suffix

therefore,

we
Or

shall

of

'

earth

',

(so called)
it

it

(Vgam).

an

(go,

+ au = gau).
also.

The word gauh is a proceed in order. because it goes very far, or because people may be derived from (the root) go, with the
'

the same root
'

Moreover, it is a synonym of an animal ', from Further, in the latter meaning, there are Vedic
:

passages where primary forms (of gauh) are used in a derivative sense Mix soma with milk ', c i. e. (gauh is used in the sense) of milk. Matsarah

means soma; it is derived from (the Matsarah is a synonym of greed also:

root)
it

mand meaning to satisfy. makes man mad a^fter wealth.

Payas

derived from (the root) pa (to drink), or fr6m pydy (to (milk) is derived from (the root) ksar (to flow), or jit is swell). derived from ghas (to consume) with the suffix Ira, like uxlra (root of
(milk)
is

Kslmm
iii. 2. 6.
ii.

1

Of. Cf.

AA.

8

Manu,

114

;

Vasistha, ii.8
ii.

;

Visnu,
Visnu,

from Samhitopanitad B. 3, Burnell's ed., pp. 29-32.
6 According to Roth, the section in toto is an interpolation. The evidence of the MSS. and of Durga goes against him, but from the nature of its contents the section seems to be
.

xxix. 9.
8

Cf.

Manu,
;

ii.

144

;

Vasistha,
i.

10

;

xxx. 47
*

Apastamba,
ii.
;

1.

14.
;

Cf.

Manu,
j

xxix.

10

all

115 Vasistha, ii. 9 Visnu, the four stanzas are quoted

of a spurious character.

6

ix. 46. 4.

2.6]

GAUH

25

a plant). 'Milking soma, they sit on a cow-skin/ 1 i.e. (gauh is used in the sense) of cow-skin used for sitting on. Amsuh (soma is so called
because) no sooner than it goes in, it is agreeable, or it is agreeable for life. Carma (skin) is derived from (the root) car (to move) or (it is so called
because)

phlegm
this
(is

:

phlegm
is in
is

:

cut off (from the body). Moreover (gauh) means skin and 2 art girded round with skin and phlegm, be strong s Moreover, it means tendon and said) in praise of a chariot. 3 this Girt with tendon and phlegm, it flies when discharged
it is
*

Thou

'

;

'

'

;

praise of an arrow. Bow-string is called gauh also if it be gavyd, the derivative form if not (it is causal), i. e. it sets arrows in motion.
:

it

;

(Here ends the fifth

section.)

every strip of wood twanged the well-strung string: thence the 4 men-eating birds flew. On every strip of wood, i. e. on every bone. Vrksa (tree) is (so called) from being cut down ( Vvra&c). [Or it stands having covered ( Vvr) the
earth ksa (earth) ksd is derived from (the root) ksi meaning to dwell]. 5 Twanged the well-strung string, i. e. it makes a sharp ringing sound. The From thence birds fly in order (verb) mlm means to make a low sound
;
'

On

'.

to eat men.
root)

The word vih

is

a synonym^ of
it is
*

bird,

and

is

derived from (the

m, meaning to go. Moreover, same root. The sun is called gauh

a synonym of arrow also from the Lo that (charioteer) in the sun also.

who
'

has joints.'

6

7 Morejoints means having brilliance/ says Aupamanyava. a ray of the sun illuminates the moon. 8 That the illumination of the over, moon is caused by the sun is to be established by the following Susumna 9 is the This, too, is a Vedic passage. ray of the sun, the moon is the holder. That (ray) is called gauh also. Here indeed they thought of the ray: 10

Having

:

this

we

shall explain later on.

All the rays are called gavah also.
section.)

(Here ends the sixth

1

x.^94. 9.
vi. 47. vi. 75.

2

26

j

AV.

6. 125. 1

;

cf.

N.

9. 12.

8
4 5

11; VS. 29. 48;

cf.

N.

9. 12.

x. 27. 22.

The passage within square bi-ackets is omitted by the MSS. of the shorter recension and Durga. vi. 56. 3. 7 According to Durga, days and nights are
joints, joints.

8 This shows that Yaska was acquainted with the non-self-luminous character of the moon. 9 VS. 18. 40 &B. ix. 4. 1. 9. Durga exone who gladdens all plains susumna as
; '

beings '.
i.

84. 15;
;

AV. 20.41. 3; SV.

1.

147;

2.

265

cf.

N.

4. 25.

hence the sun

is

called one

who

has

26

NIRRT1H

[2.

7

We

desire to

go to those regions of you two, where are nimble and

many-horned rays. There, indeed, shines forth brightly that highest ^step of the wide-striding Visnu. 1 We long to go to those regions of you two, where are rays [many2 The word bhuri is a synonym horned], having a large number of horns.
of
'

'

many

;

(so called)

because

it

produces much.

&rhga (horn)

is

derived

from (the root)
destroy) ; of the head.

&ri (to rest, on), or from ? (to slay), or from sam (to or (it is so called because) it grows up to protect, or it comes out

highest step, paced, Visnu.
is

i.

There shines forth Brightly the the loftiest step, of the wide-striding, i. e. of the greatPddah (foot) is derived from (the root) pud (to go) when it
e.
;

Ayasah means nimble.

placed down., (the same word in the neuter gender) means a footstep. The word (also signifies) a quarter of division from the analogy of a quadruped and other quarters from the analogy of the pdda of division.
;

In like manner, doubts are entertained with regard to other nouns as well (the rule is that) tlie^ aliould be explained according to their meaning if their meanings are uniform, their etymologies are uniform if their
; :
;

meanings are multiform, their etymologies are multiform." With these words, the twenty-one synonyms of earth are dealt with. With reference the other to them, nirrtik (earth) is (so called) from giving enjoyment word (nirrtih), which signifies calamity, is derived from (the root) r (to the latter is confused with the former their difference (should be befall)
; ; ;

noted).

The following stanza

is

addressed to her.
section.)

(Here ends the seventh

He,
it.

who made

it,

did not

know

of

it

;

it

Encompassed within the
*

womb

of the mother,

was hidden from him who saw and multiplying greatly,
'

he entered the earth. 4
It People having many children fall into calamity/ say the ascetics. He who made to the phenomenon of rain/ say the etymologists. refers
*

'

it

;

the verbs

'

to

make and

'

'

to scatter

'

are used in connexion with the
it,
i.

phenomenon
middle one,

of rain.

He
it
:

did not

know
by

of

e.

the middle one. 5

who saw

concealed

the sun, alone

knew
;
:

of

it.

He, the In the

womb

mother (matd) means atmosphere in it, the beings are measured out (nir </ma). Womb means atmosphere this is a vast
of the mother
1
i.

164. 6;

cf.

Professor Macdonell, Vedic
vol. iv, pp. 73, 74.

words
i.

of the

same origin different meanings;
;

Raider, p. 35. a Cf. Muir, op.
9

see Introduction, Yaska'.s Contributions, &c.
crt.,

164. 32

AV.

9. 10. 10.

In criticism of this rule, it may be remarked that words of different origin often come to acquire the same meaning, and

G

According to Durga, it refers to cloud, i. e. Indra alone knew of it. Durga.

2.

IQ]

6AKAPUNI AND A DEITY
:

27

region encompassed by air. This other (meaning, i. e.) a woman's womb, is derived from the same root also it is surrounded. 1 Multiplying greatly,
fie

reaches earth through the phenomenon of rain. 2 3 Sakapuni made the determination that he would
'

know

all

the deities.

A

4 deity having the two characteristics appeared before him. He did not know her; he said to her, I would like to know thee '. She referred hin

to the following stanza, with the

words that

it

was addressed

to her.

(Here ends the eighth section.)
snorts, covered by whom the speech, resting on a spluttering She indeed frightened the mortal with her utters a lowing sound. (cloud), actions ; becoming lightning, she concealed her form. 5 (thltfedering) He IB he thunders, surrounded by whom the speech utters a lowing sound,

Here he

i.e.

makes a

noise, or (utters

is the almosphefic speech. mortal with her (thundiww^g) actions, 8 deeds, and, becoming lightning, conThe word vavrih is a synonym of form because it covers ceals her form. 9 (Vvr, to cover). Having overspread the earth with rain, it draws it back
:

a lowing sound) like niayu, i.e. the sun. c This 7 Resting on a spluttering cloud, she frightens the

again.

(Here ends the ninth

section.)

is
1

The following fifteen (words) are synonyms of gold. 10 From what (root) 11 hiranyam derived ? It is circulated (hriyate) in a stretched form, or it
it

According to Durga ainews and flesh.
8

is

surrounded by

5 *

i.

164, 29

;

AV.

9, 10, 7.

The sun
first

is

called mayu, because lie is the

Two different
;

interpretations of the

word

signifying calamity, according to the ascetics (2) as meaning earth, according
to the etymologists, are here presented. Durga remarks that similar differences of interpreta-

nirrtih, (1) as

beings (-/wa). Durga thinks hemistich describes the internal thunder of a cloud which is yet unmanifested. 7 Cloud is called spluttering, because it
all

measurer of

that the

splutters water.
* '

tion exist with regard to other Vedic passages as well. He cites dadhi-kravno akarisam as to

Dhvamsani is translated as Wwskt by Both. ' Durga thinks this refers to the manifested
:

be recited at the time of eating curds according to AP. vi. 13 ; the same is also chanted by
in a horse-sacrifice, in the vicinity of the horse, when the queen has risen. He thinks this difference of application of the same stanza is to be based on different inter-

women,

thunder, which produces a most dreadful ; everybody is frightened and seeks shelter Both translates cittibhih by 'mil

sound

Zischcn
'

'.

According to Durga, having manifested herself as lightning and producing rain, she
disappears.
10 According to Durga, synonyms of gold follow those of the earth, because gold, being found in earth, is intimately associated with it " * e In the form of ornaments, being
-

pretations of the stanza, and points out the importance of etymology for the correct

understanding of the Vedic texts and hence for their correct application at sacrifices.
8

aka-puni

is

explained by Durga as a

gatherer of herbs.
4 i. e. Male and female, or the atmospheric or the celestial characteristics. Durga.

extended in the form of beautiful bracelets, necklaces, Ac. Durga.

28
is

DEVAPI AND J&ANTANU
circulated

[2.
it is

10
the

from man to man, 1 or
it

it is

useful and delightful, 2 [or

delight of the heart], or

may be

derived from (the root) hary, meaning to

yearn

after.

The following
(root) is
;

sixteen (words) are synonyms of atmosphere. From what anfariksam derived ? It is intermediate (a-ntara, i.e. between heaven
;

and earth) it is the end of the earth or it lies between these two (i.e. heaven and earth), or it is imperishable in the bodies. With reference to this, the word sumudra (atmosphere) is confused with samudra (which means terrestrial ocean).

From what

(root) is

samudra derived

?

From

it

waters flow

up (sam + ud + Vdru),

or waters flow towards

it

(sam + abhi + Vdru),
1
-

beings take delight in it, or it is a great reservoir of water, or it moistens thoroughly (samVud). Their difference (should be noted). With rfifcrunci 3 to this, they relate (the following) legend: Devapl and 6antanu, sons ot Rstisena, were two brothers, who belonged to the clan of the Kurus. Sautanu, the younger brother, caused himself to be installed as king. Do vapi retired From that time the god did not rain for twelve to practise austerities.

years in the kingdom of 6antanu.

The Brahmanas

committed (an act

of)

unrighteousness.

said to him, Thou hast Because thou hast caused thyself
'

to be installed as king, having put thy elder brother aside, therefore the god does not rain in thy kingdom/ Then he, i.e. Santanu. sought to invest

Devapi with sovereignty. To him said Devapi, Let me be thy priest and 4 Here is his hymn expressing a desire for rain. 5 The sacrifice for thee '.
'

following

is

a stanza of this hymn.
(Here eiids the tenth section.)

The

seer Devapi, son of Rstisena, acting as the performing priest,

knew

(how to obtain) the goodwill of the gods. flow from the upper to the lower ocean by

He

caused the divine waters to

means of rain. 6 Arstisenah means the son of Rstisena (i. e. one whose army is well supplied with spears), or of Isita-sena (i. e. one whose army is mobilized). Army is
(so called because) it
1

has a commander, or a uniform mode of marching.
bharata
vol.
*
'

i.e.

tena hi vyavahdrah kriyate

In the form of coins. Durga remarks : this shows that there ;

and many Puranas
pp. 271-8.

;

see Muir,

op. tit.

i,

was gold currency in Yaska's time. 2 Even a mouse ', says Durga,
'

This shows that the different castes were

enjoys

itself,

if it

possesses gold,
' !

how much more
vii.

a

human
3

being
story

not divided into water-tight compartments by a rigid barrier of mutual exclusiyeness. Here we find a Ksatriya, acting as a priest,

The
;

is
;

also related in Brh. D.

155-7

viii.

1-7

see Professor Macdonell's
ii,

promotion from one to the other was not infrequent.
so the
5

note in his edition, vol.
also

p.

292

;

cf.

Sieg,
is
6

Cf.

Muir,

op.

tit.

vol.

i,

pp. 269, 270.

Sagenstqffe des Rgveda, pp. 129-1 42.

The story

x. 98. 5.

found in different versions in the Maha-

2.13]

DEVAPI AND SANTANU
:

(son) either he very much protects by offering (sacrificial cakes, &c.) or put being (the name of) a hell, he (the son) saves one from that. 1 The 2 seer is (so called) from his having seer, acting as the performing priest.

Putra

;

A

'He saw the hymns,' says Aupamanyava. It is known: because the self-born Brahma manifested himself to them while practising austerities, they became seers that is the characteristic of the seers." Devapi, one who knew, i.e. was aware of (how to obtain) the goodwill of the gods, i.e. the blessed will of the gods, by songs, praise, and gifts to the gods. From the upper to the lower ocean upper, raised much higher lower, moving below Adhah (below), i.e. it does not run with this word its up(the ground). ward motion is denied. The stanza following this explains this much more.
vision.
; :

;

;

(Here ends the eleventh section.)

When Devapi, domestic chaplain to 6antanu, and selected to be the performing priest, imploring kindled fire, the generous Brhaspati granted him 4 speech, which was heard by the gods, and which was the winner of rain. &an-tanu means, peace to thee, O body, or peace to him in his body. Domestic chaplain is (so called' because) they place him in front. 5 Selected to be the performing priest, (he) imploring kindled fire. Which was heard by the gods, i.e. which the gods hear. [Which was the winner of rain], Rardna (generous) is a reduplicated form of rd i.e. requesting rain. (to give). Brhaspati was Brahma he granted him speech. Brhat has been
;

fully explained

(i.

7; cp. x. \1).

(Here ends the twelfth section.)

The following six (words) are common (synonyms) of sky and sun. Those which primarily belong to the sun will be explained by us later on. c From what (root) is dditya derived ? He takes the fluids, he takes (i. e. 7 eclipses) the light of the luminaries, or he blazes with lustre, or he is the son of Aditi this last (epithet) however is rarely applied to him in the text of the Rgveda, and he has only one hymn addressed 8 (under this epithet). The sun, son of Aditi, 9 [i.e. the son of Aditi]. In like manner, there
;

1

Cf.

2

Cf.

Manu, ix. 138 Visnu, xv. 44. the Ramayana, i. 8. 8-7, quoted by
;

TA. i. U. 1 Brh. U. iii. 9. 5 ; all the passages bearing on the etymology are cited by Muir,
;

Muir,
8

op.

tit.

vol. iv, p. 441.

op. dt. vol. iv, p. 117.

TA.

ii.

9

;

see

Gune, Bkandarkar Conim.

Vol.
4

x. 98. 7.

Aufrecht proposes the variant a-suMano hymn addressed to it, but one stanza only. See Muir, loc. dt. The
bhak, as it has

8

6 Cf.
6

Brh. D/viii. See N. 12. 8-22.

6.

author, however, means to say that although hymns are addressed, oblations are not offered

7

The word

dditya is derived
6. 3.

root a-</da, in SB. xi.

8

;

from the same TB. iii. 9. 21. 1

under
9

this epithet
:

;

cf.

Durga's remarks.
29.

;

x. 88. 11

cf.

N.

7.

30

SYNONYMS OF THE SUN AND SKY
them as Adityas, as
Aryaman, Daksa, Bhaga, Am3a.

[2.

13

are panegyrics of other deities addressed to
case of Mitra, Varuna,

in the

Also of Mitra and

Varuna

:

1 Adityas, lords of the act of bestowing. Lords of gift. Also of Mitra alone May that mortal, O Mitra, be rich in food, who, O Aditya. abides by 2 thy ordinance.
:

This too

Now
because

let

is a Vedic quotation. Also of Varuna alone us be in thy ordinance, O Aditya 3
!

:

The word vrata 4
it enjoins.
:

is

a

synonym

of action, having the sense of abstaining
is

:

the same root also
covers the body.

This other meaning of vrata (i.e. a vow) because it chooses. Food is called vrata

derived from

also,

because

it

(Here ends the thirteenth
;

section.)

Svar means the sun it is very distant, it has well dispersed (the darkness), has well penetrated the fluids, it has well penetrated the light of the luminaries, or it is pierced through with light. Dyauh (sky) is explained by It is thoroughly pervaded by the bright the same. Pr&ni means the sun. It closely unites the fluids, it closely unites colour/ say the etymologists.
it
'

it is closely united with light. sky is called because) it is closely united with luminaries and the virtuous. (so Naka means the sun, [the bearer of fluids], bearer of lights, leader of lumi-

the light of the luminaries, or

Now

naries.

Now

the sky

:

the word
(i.

ham

is

a synonym of happiness, the oppo-

site of its

negative form

e.

ndkam).

There is no misery for the man who has departed to the other world. 5 There is no wretchedness for the man who has departed to the other world it is the virtuous only who go there. Gauh means the sun it causes
; :

the fluids to move, it moves in the sky ( </gam). Now the sky is .(called gauh) because it is gone very far from the earth, or because the luminaries

move in it. Vistap means the sun it has pervaded the fluids, it has pervaded the light of the luminaries, or it is pervaded with light. Now the sky is (called vistap) because it is pervaded by the luminaries and the virtu:

ous.

luminaries.
it is

Nabhas means the sun: [bearer of fluids], bearer of lights, leader of Or else it may be the word bhanas itself, in reversed order not that it does not shine. The sky is explained by the same.
:

(Here ends the fourteenth

section.)

The following
1 i.

fifteen (words) are

synonyms
<

of ray.

Ray

is (so called)

136. 3

;

ii.

41.

6

;

SV.

2.

262.

2
?

iii.
i.

59. 2.
;

24. 15

VS.

12. 12.

Roth, Erlduterungm, p. 21. See Roth, op. ett. p. 21 the quotation untraced.
;

Cf.

is

2.

17]

VRTRA
Of these the
first five

31
are

on account of restraining. of horse and rays.
is

common (synonyms)

From what of quarter. dtt (to point out), root) (root) or they are (so called) from being within easy reach, or from pervading. With reference to these, the word Icdsthd is a synonym of many objects.
The following eight (words) are synonyms
disah derived?
l

It is derived

from (the

Kastha means quarters they are situated having gone across. Kdstfta means intermediate quarters they are situated having crossed each other. The sun is called kasthd also it is situated having gone across. Destination is
: :
:

called kasthd also: it is situated

having gone

across.
i.e.

Waters are called

kasthd also

:

they are situated having gone across,

stationary waters.

(Here ends the fifteenth section.)

body was in the midst of waters which neither stay nor Waters march against the secret (outlet) of Vrtra in deep darkness 2 lay he whose enemy is Indra. The deposited body, i. e. the cloud, was in the midst of waters which neither stay nor rest, i. e. waters which are non-stationary. 3 &arira (body) Waters is derived from (the root) sr (to kill), or from sam (to destroy). march against, i. e. know, [the secret] outlet 4 of Vrtra. Dlrgha (long) is derived from drdgh (to lengthen). Tamas (darkness) is derived from tew A-sayad is formed from (the root) a-si (to lie). Whost (to spread). is Indra, i. e. Indra is his slayer, or destroyer, therefore he (is enemy 'It is a cloud/ )3ut who is Vrtra? called) having Indra as his enemy.
Thfe deposited

rest

;

say the etymologists.

['

It is
is

The phenomenon 'of rain and lightning (jyotis).
descriptions of battle. the narratives of the

a demon, son of Tvasta/ say the legendarians.] produced by the commingling of water (vapours)

With reference

to

this,

there are

figurative

Indeed, the descriptions of Vedic stanzas and Brahmanas (depict him), ro doubt, as a serpent. 5 By expanding his body, he blocked the channels (of the rivers). When was killed, waters flowed forth. The following is the stanza which he
explains this.

(Here ends ike sixteenth section.)

Having the demon as their master, and the cloud as their guardian, the obstructed waters stood (behind) as kine (held back) by a merchant.
1

Of.

Roth,

toe. cit.

2 i.

32. 10.

4 Durga explains ninycan as the outlet in the cloud through which the waters flow down.

3 According to Dnrga, these waters are in the interior of the cloud, so as long as the

Both

translates Vrtrasya ninyam as

'

von Vrtra

cloud does not rain they

move with the
the ocean.

unbemerkt', i.e. without Vrtra ; see op. cit. p. 21.
5

being

noticed by

moving

cloud,

and

finally rest in

Cf.

Muir,

op.

cit.

vol. ii,-pp. 174-5.

32

VRTRA
slew Vrtra, and reopened
1

[2.

17

He

that

outlet
2

of

water which had been

closed.

Having the demon as their master, as their overlord. Ddsa (slave) derived from (the root) das (to exhaust): he causes the works to be exhausted. Having the cloud as their guardian, i. e. guarded by the cloud, they stood (behind). The cloud (ahi) is (so called) on account of its
is

This other (meaning of) ahi, motion: 3 it moves in the atmosphere. i.e. a serpent, is derived from the same root also, or from dVhan (to
it attacks. attack) with its preposition shortened as cows by a merchant. Pani means a merchant
:

The waters held back
;

a merchant
closed,

is

(so
4

called)

from trading

(

Span).

A

trader

is

(so called because)

he cleanses
JSi^am,

his articles of trade.

The

outlet of waters

which had been

the opening through which anything is conveyed, is derived from (the He slew Vrtra and reopened that outlet. Vrtra root) bhr (to convey). derived from (the root) vr (to cover), or from vrt (to roll) or from vrdh is
(to grow).
5 of Vrtra.

It is
It is

of Vrtra. Vrtra.

It

known: because he covered, that is the characteristic known: because he rolled, that is the characteristic is. known: because he grew, that is the characteristic of
(Here ends
tfte

seventeenth section.)

The following twenty-three (words) are synonyms of night. From what (root) is ratrih (night) derived ? It exhilarates the nocturnal creatures and causes the others to cease work, and makes them strong, or it
be derived from (the root) rd meaning to give: the dew is given away during this (period). The following sixteen (words) are synonyms of dawn. From what

may

(root) is

usdh (dawn) derived?

(It is so called)

because

it

shines (Vvas). 1

It is the time subsequent to night. The following stanza is addressed to her, (Here ends the eighteenth section.)

This light, the best of all lights, has come, and has generated a variegated and extensive illumination. Just as being born it gives birth 8 to the sun, so the night has left its seat for the dawn.
1

i.

82. 11.

4

Durga explains the compound as a tatpurusa, but the accent shows that it is a possessive compound. His explanation is
:

2

ram,
5

Durga paraphrases bUaWby i. e. an outlet.
ii.

nirgcKnadva-

TS.

4. 12.

2

;

i.

e.

he covered the waters

of the atmosphere.
6

Durga.

Lords of servants, i. e. a servant, exhausted by the performance of various works entrusted to him, drinks, water, and becomes fresh
again.
Cf.

According to Durga, be was instrumental

.

in setting the waters in motion, Durga derives Utah from ucch,' to disperse': Cf. Brh. D. iii. 9. it disperses darkness.
''

Brh. D.

v. 166.

i.

113. 1

;

SV.

2.

1099.

2. acL
1

SYNONYMS OF DAY

33

This light, the best of all lights, has approached. It has generated a variegated, .well-known, and very extensive illumination. Just as^ being born it gives birth to the sun, i.e. the night 2 to the sun, so the Hght has left its seat, i. e. place for the dawn. A woman's womb is (so called 3 The following, another stanza, is because) the foetus is joined with it.
addressed to her.

(Here ends the nineteenth section.)
Resplendent, having a resplendent
black, one has left places for her.
colour. 4
calf,

the white one has

come

;

the

Having a common relation, immortal, each other, the two bright ones wander about fashioning the succeeding
Having a resplendent calf, i. e. the sun. The word riwat is a synonym it is derived from (the root) rue, meaning to shine. The sun called her calf on account of companionship, or of drawing up the
;

of colour
is
8

juices.
is

Resplendent, the white one has come. derived from (the root) twit (to be bright).

&vetya (the white one)

places for her: the one of black colour, i.e. is derived from (the root) krs (to drag away):

The black one has left the night. Krsnam. (black)
it is

the despised colour.

6 having a common relation, having (the seer) praises them together a common tie 7 immortal, having the characteristic of immortality suc: ;

Now

;

ceeding each other [coming after one another], i. e. with reference to each 8 ones wander about, they themselves are bright, other; the two bright on account of shining. Or else they wander about with heaven, (so called) i. e. they wander about along heaven. Fashioning [creating], making each
other's inner self.

is

The following twelve (words) are synonyms of day. From what (root) ahah (day) derived ? (It is so called because) people accomplish works during (this period). The following is its incidental occurrence in a stanza
addressed to VaisVanara.

(Here ends the twentieth section.)
1

Durga remarks that the sun

is
is

too hot,

the

moon

is

too cool, but the
it is

dawn

neither
other

cold nor hot, hence
lights.
2

the best of

all

calf: this is companionship. As the drinks milk from the udder of the cow, so the sun draws up the dew, which is pur-

by her

calf

The

read

text seems to be corrupt it should dawn ' instead of night ; the present
:

ticularly associated with dawn, sun is called her calf. Durga.
6

hence the

'

'

The

first

hemistich describes the points

reading makes the sentence meaningless.

There
8 4
i.

is

a confusion in the sequence of birth.

of contrast, i.e. the one is white, the other black, one comes, the other leaves ; the second

Cf. 2. 8.

118. 2

;

SV.

2.

1100.

hemistich, the points of resemblance. 7 The sun is the common tie. Durga.
8

8 The dawn is represented as being followed by the sun. She is compared to a cow followed

The night

is

called bright also,

on account

of the multitude of shining stars.

34

SYNONYMS OF CLOUD

[2.

21

The black day and the white day, the two regions roll on with As soon as born, VaisVanara Agni, (activities) worthy of knowledge.
like -a king, has
2

overcome darkness with his
i.

1

light.

The black day,
regions
roll

e.

night.

on with

activities

be known.

As soon

as

The white day, i. e. bright day. The two worthy of knowledge, i.e. which should born, VaisVanara Agni has dispelled darkness
is

with his light like the rising sun, who

the king of

all

luminaries.

The following thirty (words) are synonyms of cloud. From what (root) is megha (cloud) derived ? (It is so called) because it sheds water (*/mih). They are common with the synonyms of mountain up to the two words upara and upala, which mean cloud: clouds cease to move in it, or the waters are made inactive. 3 The following stanza is addressed
to them.

(Here ends the twenty-first

section.)

In the measurement of gods they stood
waters flowed down.

first;

from their

division,
;

The three working

in succession

warm

the earth

the two carry the fertilizing moisture. 4 In the creation of gods they, i.e. groups of atmospheric gods, stood 5 G First is a synonym of chief first. it is foremost. [Krntatram means
' ' :

atmosphere,
the earth,
heat, cold,
i.

i.

e.

where the clouds are cut into
7

pieces.]

By

cutting clouds

into pieces water
e.

is

produced.

The three working

in succession

warm

cloud, wind,
rain.

and

and sun cause the herbs to become ripe with Working in succession, i.e. with their respective
:

This other (meaning functions, they sow the worlds one after, another. i. e. a bank of a river, is derived from the same it of) anupa, (root) also is sown with water. Or else it may (really) be anvdp, just like prdc
;

from that form (anvdp) anupa may be derived as prdclna (from prdc). The two carry the fertilizing moisture, i.e. wind and sun (carry) the water (vapours). Brbukam (moisture) is a synonym of water it is derived
;

1

vi. 9. 1

;

AB.

v. 15. 5.

Durga paraphrases rajasl by ranjakt, i.e. dyers and remarks that the day colours the
;

a

of their importance clouds, the entire
'
*

;

for

universe

had there been no would have
'

perished for want of rain,

night with darkness. 8 The word upara (cloud) is derived from upa ^ram (to cease to move). Yaska's explanalight,

world with

Roth translates krntatram as
'

seed

'

or

seedland
7

see op. ciV., p. 22. According to Durga, the wcrd upara here
; <
'

tion, 'the clouds cease to

move ',

is

obscure,

and
4

is

passed over by Durga.

denotes water. Originally it means cloud ', then the water of the cloud ', and lastly

x. 27. 23.

water in general

'.

He

cites

an analogous
' :

According to Durga, this refers to the creation of clouds, i.e. Prajapati, while creating gods, created clouds first on account

5

case of the extension of

meaning

crying

of earth', i.e. mounds of earth here signify people seated on them.

mounds

2.2 4 ]

VISVAMITRA AND RIVERS

35

from (the root) bru, meaning to make a sound, or from bhramv (to fall down). Purlsam (fertilizing) is derived from (the root) pf (to fill), or from
the causal of pf.

(Here ends the twenty- second

section.)

The following

fifty-seven (words) are
?

synonyms

of speech.

From what

(root) is vac (speech) derived

With

reference to these,

from (the root) vac (to speak). the word Sarasvat^ is used both in the sense
It is derived
1

and of 'a deity' in Vedic passages; we shall explain the (Vedic passages) where it is used in the sense of a deity later, and just now those where it is used in the sense of a river.
of 'a river'

(Here ends the twenty-third section.)

Like one who digs the lotus-stem, she has shattered the peaks of mounmight and strong waves. Let us worship Sarasvat!, who sweeps what is far and what is near alike, with well-composed hymns, for our protection. 2 She (has shattered) with her might, i. e. with crushing powers. The word msma is a synonym of strength, (so called) because it crushes (everytains with her

or grow.

(lotus-stem) is derived from (the root) bis, meaning to split, Peak is (so called because) it is very much raised up, or it is very With mighty waves. Who sweeps what is far and what is near lofty. i. e. who alike, destroys what is on the other, as well as what is on this, bank. Pdrctm means something afar avdram, something near at hand. Let us
thing).
;

Bisam

attend upon the river Sarasvat! with well-composed sublime songs of praise,

and acts (of worship), for our protection/' The following hundred and one (words) are synonyms of water. From what (root) is uda.kam (water) derived? (It is so called) because it
moistens
(

Vud).
thirty -seven (words) are
?

The following

synonyms

of river.

From what

(root) is iiadyah (rivers) derived

(They are so called because) they pro-

they are roaring. Their character is mostly secondary, and very rarely primary. With reference to this, they relate 4 The seer Visvamitra was the domestic priest of (the following) legend. the son of Pijavana. Sudas, All, moving Vi&vA-mitra, friend of all.
i.e.
1

duce a sound (*/ natty,

Cf.
vi.

Brh.D.

ii.

135.
ii.

earth.

2
3

61.2; TB.
also

8. 2. 8.

Durga

interprets

the
;

stanza

as

< The story is found in AB. viii. 18-18, Visnu Purana, &c. See Muir, op. cit., vol i,

addressed to SarasvatI, the deity Sarasvatl is the atmospheric speech, the peaks of moun tains are the tops of clouds shattered by

pp. 387-64

;

cf.

Brh.D.

iv.

105-6, see Professor

her strong waves, i.e. mighty thunders. She sweeps what is far and near, i.e. heaven and

pp. 154-5 ; Sayana gives an amplified version in his commentary on iii. 33. 1.
ii,

Macdonell's edition, vol.

86
together.

VISVAMITRA AND RIVERS
Mu-das, a bountiful giver.
is

[2.

24

Paijavana, son of Pijavana.

Again

Pi-javana, one whose speed

enviable, or

whose gait

is

inimitable. 1

Having gathered his wealth, the priest came to the confluence of the Sutlej and the Bias. Others 2 followed him. He, i. e. VisVamitra, implored the rivers to become fordable. (He addressed them) in the dual as well as in the plural number. With reference to this we shall explain (the stanza in which he addresses them) in the dual number later, and just now (the stanza in which he addresses them) in the plural number.
(Here ends the twenty-fourth section.)

I,

Stop your courses for a moment, ye great floods, at my friendly bidding. the son of Kus*ika, and desirous of protection, invoke the river with

a sublime hymn. 3 Stop from flowing at my friendly bidding, I who prepare soma (for you). Great flood, rich in water. The word rtam is a synonym of water, (so For a moment (stop) your courses, 4 called because) it pervades everything. your journeys, or your protections. A moment, a recurring (unit of) time.

Muhuh (again) as if the is derived from (the root) r, meaning to "go. abhitime was indolent (mulhah) as long as a moment. Abhl-ksnam ksanam (a moment). Ksana (an instant) is derived from (the root) ksan (to
Rtu
injure)

meaning to

the injured time/ Kalah (time) is derived from (the root) kal, I call upon the river with a great, mighty, sublime, profound panegyric, full of wisdom, for protection. Son of Kus"ika. KuSika
:

it is

go.

was
kryx,

(the

name

of)

a king.

The word kuxika*

is

meaning to cry, or krams, meaning to cause to shine expounder of meaning. The rivers answered (as follows),
(Here ends the twenty-fifth
section.)

derived from (the root) or he is a good
;

.Indra, the wield er of the thunderbolt, dug our (channels) he smote down Vrtra, the enclosure of rivers. Savitr, the god of beautiful hands, led us
;

flow expanded. 7 Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, dug our (channels) the verb rad means to dig. He smote down Vrtra, the enclosure of rivers, has been explained. Savitr, the god of beautiful hands, i. e. of auspicious hands, led
(hither), at his stimulation
;

we

us (hither).
1

Pdnih (hand)
it

is

derived from (the root) pan, meaning to
waters',
i.

According to Durga,

means a person

who walks
* i.e. 8
4
iii.

so quickly that others cannot

e.
s

keep pace with him.
Seivants or robbers.
33. 5,
evaih

and takes avanaih to mean 'prayers*, stop (your course) at our prayers, Durga remarks that an instant is called
it is

Durga.
udakaifyy.'

injured time', because
Cf.

so short.

Roth,
83. 6.

op.

cit.,

p. 23.

Durga paraphases

by

with

7 iii.

2.

*81

SYNONYMS OF HORSE

57

worship: they worship gods, having folded their hands. At his stimula1 tion, we flow expanded. Urvyah (expanded) is derived from (the root) urnu (to cover). 'It is derived from (the root vj' (to cover),' says

Aurnavabha.

Having

(thus) answered, the rivers consented in the end.
section.)

(Here ends the twenty-sixth

thy words, O bard thou earnest from afar with this bend myself down for thee, as a nursing mother (for her son), as a maiden to embrace her lover; 2 We listen to thy words, O bard Go afar with this chariot. We bend down for thy sake, as a nursing mother for her son, or as a maiden bends herself to embrace her lover.

We

shall listen to
I

;

chariot.

:i

!

horse. Of these, the (always used) in the plural number. From what (root) is affvak derived ? (It is so called because) it trots on the road, or it eats too much. With reference to these, the word dadhikra (horse) is (so called
last eight are
it runs while bearing a rider on its back, or it neighs while bearing a rider on its back, or it looks beautiful while bearing a rider on its back. There are Vedic passages where the word is used (both in the sense We shall explain those (passages where the of) a horse and of a deity.

The following twenty-six (words) are synonyms of

because)

word
is

is

u^ed in the sense

used in the sense of) a deity of) a horse.

later,

and

in this place those (where it

(Here ends the twenty -seventh

section.)

That courser hastens with speed, although it is bound by neck, flank, and mouth. Putting forth its (best) power, dadhikra sprang along the bends of
roads. 4

That courser, i.e. swift runner, 5 trots on the road with speed, i.e. quickly, although it is bound by the neck. Grwa (neck) is derived from (the root) gf Bound by (to swallow), or from gf (to call out), or from grah (to seize). flank and mouth has been explained. Putting forth its (best) power, i.e. action or intelligence. Anusa iritavltvat is a word (derived) from the simple Bends of roads, curves of roads. original form of (the root) tau (to spread).
r

1

i.

e.

He

is

our lord

;

he alone

lias

the right

to issue orders to us,
2

and not you.

Durga.

iii.

33. 10.

3

Yaska explains yayutha

(perfect)

by

yiihi

hast come, from a long distance, and hence deservest some compassion, and so on. Durga follows Yaska ; cf. Roth, op. cit., p. 23. * iv. 40. 4; the stanza is translated by
Profe-sor
p. 439.
'

(imperative); this gives better sense but cannot be grammatically justified. If it is

Macdonell, J.R.A.S.,
i.

vol.

xxv,

construed as perfect, the meaning would be
equally relevant, i.e. we shall listen to thy words, for thou earnest (a yayatha}, i.e. thou

Dreadful, heart of those

e.

it

inspires terror in the

who

look at him.

Durga,

38

SYNONYMS OF FLAME

[2.

38

Panthdh

(path) is derived from (the root) pat (to fall), or from pad (to go), or from panth (to move). Ankah (curve) is derived from (the root) anc (to bend). Apaniphanat is a reduplicated form (intensive) of (the root) phan
(to

bound).

The following ten (words)
knowledge of
association.

describe the specified teams of gods for the

following (words)

The following eleven verbs mean to shine. is the synonym of flame.
(Here ends the tiventy-eighth

That very number of the
section.)

CHAPTEK
THE
(root) is
"?

III

1 From what following twenty-six (words) are synonyms of action. because it is done ( Vkr). karma (action) derived (It is so called)

The following
(root)
is

fifteen (words) are

synonyms
(It is
fall
3

farther, or

apatya (offspring) derived? with offspring one does not

From what of offspring. so called because) it spreads
(into hell).

2

With

reference

to this,

shall quote (the following) two stanzas, in order to the offspring belongs to the begetter only. 4

we

show that

(Here ends the first section.)

The treasure

of the stranger

is

indeed to be avoided
is

;

may we be masters
no son
;

of eternal wealth.
;

the fool (only) The treasure of the stranger

(The child) begotten by another 5 Agni, do not corrupt our paths.

he

is

so for

approached.
it is left

by

is indeed to be avoided, i.e. it is not to be Stranger, one who is distant. Eekna is a synonym of wealth the deceased ( Vric). May we be masters of eternal wealth,
:

as of the parental property.

The word
1

sesas is

(The child) begotten by another is no son. a synonym of offspring: this is what remains of the
xviii.

According to Durga, synonyms of action

9-14

;

Ap. Dh.

ii.

13.

6-7

;

Vasistha,

follow those of flame, because it is in the flame of the burning fire that actions like the

xvii. 6-9, 63-4.
5 vii. 4. 7. Durga remarks that the stanza forms a part of a dialogue between Agni and Vasistha. The latter implored the former to

performance of sacrifice, &c., are accomplished,

Synonyms of offspring follow those of action, because procreation is the most important of all actions. Durga.
Manu, ix. 138 Visnu, xv. 44. Manu, ix. 81-3 the opposite view is expressed in Manu. ix. 43. 49-51. 54 Ga. Dh.
Cf.
;

8

grant
killed.

him a son, as all his sons had been The former asked him to get a son
;

3

4

Cf.

;

by adoption or purchase, &c. whereupon he denounced all but the legitimate son.

;

3. 4]

INHERITANCE
That
is

39

deceased.
paths.

a child for the

fool, i.e. insane, only.
it

Do

not corrupt our

The stanza following

this explains

much

more.

(Here ends the second

section.)

The stranger, however delightful, should not be adopted, begotten in another's womb ; he should not be regarded (as one's own) even in thought.
Let the new (hero), impetuous his own abode he certainly goes back. and irresistible, come to us. 1 The stranger should never be adopted, although he may be the most 2 womb should not be delightful man. The child begotten in another's

To

Now he goes back to the regarded as this is my son even in thought. same abode from whence he came. Olcah (abode) is used as a synonym of Let the newly-born (hero), impetuous, i.e. swift and overdwelling--place. his rivals, come to us he alone is (the real) son. powering;
'

',

;

Now (some lawgivers) cite the following stanza in support of
(Here ends the third section.)

3 right to inheritance, others hold (that it is to be cited) in support of to inheritance. right

a daughter's a son's

The husband admits that he
4

(the father) shall obtain a grandson

from

the daughter, the wise man, honouring the process of the sacred rite. When a father arranges a husband for his daughter, he bears himself with a tran5 quil mind.

right to be appointed as a son, with to (the discharge of) the duties of offspring. regard daughter is (so called because) it is difficult (to arrange) for her welfare, or she fares well

The husband admits the daughter's

A

at a distance
milk).

He

or (the word duhitd) has obtained a grandson,
;

is

derived from (the root) duh 7 (to i.e. the son of the daughter is the

8 The wise man, honouring the process of the procreative sacrifice, grandson. i.e. (of the diffusion) of the seminal fluid, which is produced from each and every limb, which is engendered from the heart, and which is inserted in the
1 2

vii. 4. 8.

two interpretations, (1) I.e. a child begotten on one's own wife from the seed of another man (2) a child begotten on a woman other than one's own wife. An illegitimate son is already denounced in the

Durga

offers

line, so

Both the son and the daughter continue the both are offspring, and should have

;

equal rights to inheritance. Durga. 4 The translation of the 1st and 3rd pdda
is

approximate only,
5 6

iii.

81. 1

;

AB.

vi. 18. 2.

preceding stanza, quoted in section 2 I think, therefore, that the adopted child is the object of denunciation in this stanza, hence Durga's
;

She

is difficult

may

be given

away

to please, wherever she in marriage. Durga.

second interpretation is more appropriate. 8 Offspring has been explained as that

which spreads

farther than the progenitor.

7 She is always milking wealth, &c., in the form of presents from her father, and she is always demanding something or other. Durga. 8 Cf. Manu, ir. 188, 186, 189.

40

INHERITANCE
(i.e.

[3.

4

mother, (holds) that both children

the son and the daughter) have the

1 The selfsame right to inheritance without any distinction (whatsoever). view is expressed in the following stanza and sloka. Thou art produced from each and every limb ; thou art engendered from

the heart

itself.

Verily, thou art the very soul

named

son, as such live

a hundred autumns. 2
self that

In the beginning of the creation, Manu, the self-existent, declared himaccording to law the right of inheritance belongs to both children son and the daughter) without any distinction (whatsoever). 3 (the
1

Not the daughters/ say some

(of the lawgivers).

It is

known

:

there:

has the right to inheritance, but not the woman. And also therefore they abandon a woman as soon as she is born, but not the man. 4 Women are given away, sold, and abandoned, but not the man. ' The man
fore the

man

also/ retort others,

'

another view, this refers to a maiden

as is seen in the case of Sunahs^pa/ who has no brother.

According to

[Women,

all

clad in red garments,
like

move

like veins.]

5

They stand with
is

their path obstructed like

They stand

women who have no brother. 6 women who have no brother, and whose path

4

obstructed with regard to procreation and the offering of the sacrificial cake. With these words the simile implies the prohibition of marrying a brotherless

maiden. 7

The stanza following

this explains it

much more.

(Here ends the fourth

section.)

Like a brotherless maiden who goes back to men, like one who ascends the pillar of the assembly-room for the acquisition of wealth, like a welldressed wife longing for her husband, dawn like displays her

beauty

a smiling damsel. 8 Like a brotherless maiden
cestors,
9

who goes towards men, i. e. parental anrender) the duties of offspring and to offer the funeral Like one who ascends the pillar of the cake, but not to her husband.
(to
1

Durga remarks that an

identical garblta-

dVlna ceremony is performed, and the same Vedic texts are recited, both for a son and a daughter. The process of birth is the same in both cases, so there is no difference between

B The passage within square brackets is omitted by the MSS. of the shorter recension and Durga. As Yaska himself does not explain the first hemistich, it is clear that he

them. 8 SB.
i. 6.

xiv. 9. 4.

8

;

Brh.U.

vi. 4.

8

;

SV.B.

quoted the second hemistich only. Hence, according to the evidence of Yaska himself, the shorter recension has a better claim to
represent the archetype.
6
7 8

Baudhayana, ii. 2. 14. 8 The gloka is not found in the extant code of Manu. A similar view is expressed Manu,
;
:

17

AV.
Cf.
i.

1. 17. 1.
iii.

Manu,

11

;

Yajfia,

i.

53.

ix. 130, 133, 139.
4

124. 7.

MS.

iv. 6.

4; iv.

7.

9;

cf.

also TS. vi. 6.

Cf. Roth, op. ctt, p. 25.

8.2;

vi. 5.

10.3.

3.6]

BROTHERLESS MAIDEN

41

l in order to obtain wealth, i. e. a woman from the south. assembly-room Garta signifies the pillar of the assembly-room it is derived from (the transactions made under it are true. There she root) gf (to invoke) who has neither son nor husband ascends. There they strike her with
;
:

dies.

She obtains wealth. The cemetery heap is called garta also, being derived from (the root) gur (to raise): it is raised up. cemetery is &arlra is tranquil, or the body becomes tranquil. (a place where) repose is derived from (the root) &r (to burn), or from &am (to destroy). (body)

A

&ma-6ru
(smani).

(beard)

is hair, (so

called because) it stands

(

</sri)

on the body
;

Loma

(hair) is derived

(to cling to).

One

(the root) lu (to cut), or from ll should not expose the lower part of the sacrificial post

from

the negligent sacrificer who exposes the lower part of the sacrificial 2 This too is a Vedic quotation. post shall soon rest in the cemetery.

Chariot
praise
:

is

it is

called garta also, being derived the most praised vehicle.
chariot,

from (the

root) gf,

meaning

to

Mitra and Varuna. 3 Like a well-dressed wife, eager for the husband at the proper seasons, dawn displays her beauty as a smiling One should not marry a damsel her teeth. There are four similes. brotherless maiden, for his (the husband's) son belongs to him (to the father 4 From this, the prohibition of marrying a brotherless maiden 5 of the girl).

Ascend the
is

O

This too

a Vedic quotation.

When father's right to appoint his daughter as a son are evident. a father selects a husband for his unmarried daughter, he unites himself with a tranquil mind. 6 Now (some lawgivers) cite the following stanza
and the
(in

support) of their denial of a daughter's right to inheritance. Some 7 are of opinion that the major share belongs to the (appointed) daughter.

(Here ends the fifth

section.)

The

legitimate son did not leave wealth for his sister.

He made

her

the place of depositing the seed of her husband. If the mothers have engendered offspring, one is the performer, and the other is the director,
of good deeds. 8

Na jdmaye
from (the
root)

means not
i. e.

for the sister.
offspring,
:

Jamih

(sister)

is

(so

called

because) others beget jd,

on

her, or the

word may be derived

jam, meaning to go

she has mostly to go (to the husband's
4
T>

1 Durga remarks that the custom of the people of the south is that a woman who has lost her son and husband approaches the dice-board, and the gamblers make a collection

The quotation is untraced. Cf. Manu, iii. 1 1 Yajftavalkya,
;

i.

58.

6

i.e.

Heisfreefromthetormentinganxiety
Durga.

of childlessness.
Cf.

for her.
'

Manu,
8i. 2.

ix. 184.

The quotation

is

untraced.

'

v. 62. 8.

'

iii.

42
family). The made her the

FIVE TRIBES
legitimate, i.e. one's own son, left, i.e. gave, wealth. place of depositing the seed of her husband, i.e. the

[3.6

He man

who accepts her hand. If the mothers have engendered vahni, i. e. a son, and avahnjf, i.e. a daughter, one of them, i.e. the son and the heir, becomes the procreator of children, and the other, i. e. the daughter, is brought up and given away (in marriage) to another person.
(Here ends the sixth section.)

The following twenty-five (words) are synonyms
(men) derived?

of

man.

From what

(They are so called because) they (root) is manuoydh their works after having thought about them ( Vmari) or because connect they were created by a wise creator. Again, the verb manasyati is used
in the sense of being wise. Or they are the offspring of Manu, or of Manus. With reference to this, there are Vedic passages (in wliict) the

word

(

'

five-tribes

is

used.

(Here ends the seventh

section.)

To-day, then,
shall
five-tribes,

let

me

first

overcome the demons.
enjoy

think out the speech with which we, the gods, Ye partakers of sacrificial food, ye holy
1

my

sacrifice.

To-day, then, I will think out the best speech with which

we gods may

overpower the demons.

Demons

delight in evil places, or throw). Or else the word asuh is a synonym of breath; inhaled, it rests he created in the body, i. e. endowed with it (asu-rah). It is known from good (su), that is the characteristic of gods he created gods (surdn)
:

(a-su-rah) are (so called because) they they are expelled from places (Vas, to

;

demons (asurdn) from
Partakers of
holy. strength, or
sacrifice.

evil (a-su), that is the characteristic pf

demons. 2

sacrificial
is

The word urj
it is

food and holy, i. e. eaters of the sacred food and a synonym of food, (so called) because it gives

easy to divide when cooked. Ye five-tribes, enjoy my According to some, (the five-tribes) are the gandharvas, the manes, gods, demons, and evil spirits. 'They are the four castes with nisada as the fifth/ says Aupamanyava. 3 From what (root) is nisdda
(hunter) derived?
*

Sin

(He is so called because) he lives by killing animals. embodied (ni- Vsad) in him,' say the etymologists. When with the tribe of five peoples. 4
is
i.

With the tribe consisting of five peoples. Five, united number, (remains) uninflected in the masculine, feminine, and neuter genders.
1

e.

x. 53. 4.

a

Cf.
p.

TB.
175

ii.
;

3. 8. 2.

his note vol.
*

i,
;

p. 177.

8

Cf.

Muir,

op.

tit.,

vol.

ii,

see also

viii. 63. 7

AB.

v. 6. 8.

3. 9]

FINGERS

48

(root)

The following twelve (words) are synonyms of arm. From what is bdhu (arm) derived? (It is so called because) they perform
finger.

various actions with them.

The following twenty-two (words) are synonyms of what (root) is angulayah (fingers) derived ? (They are so

From

called because)

they go foremost, or they drip foremost, or they act foremost, [or they move foremost], or they mark, or they bend, or may be (so called) from The following stanza is addressed to them. decorating.
(Here ends the eighth section.)

Worship them who have ten protectors, ten girdling circles, ten yokestraps, ten binding thongs, ten reins ; who are immortal, who bear ten 1 car-pole*, and who when yoked are ten.
Avanayah,

means

fingers:

they promote actions.

Girdling circles

'Yoke-straps' is explained by 'binding thong*. Reins penetrate actions. Who bear ten car-poles, and who when yoked are ten. Dhuh (pole) is derived from (the root) dhurv, meaning to hurt. This other
illumine actions.

(meaning
or
it

of)

dhuh

is

derived from the same (root) also
*

:

it

hurts (the team),
'.

supports them.

The following eighteen roots have the meaning to desire The following twenty- eight (words) are synonyms of food.
(root) is

From what
created

annum

beings, or it is

It is brought near (a (food) derived? derived from (the root) ad (to eat).
'

Vnam)

The following ten roots have the meaning to eat The following twenty-eight (words) are the synonyms of power. From what (root) is balam (power) derived? Power is (so called because) it sustains it is derived from (the root) bhr (to sustain).* The following twenty-eight (words) only are the synonyms of wealth. From what (root) is dhanam (wealth) derived ? (It is so called) because it
'.
;

gives delight

(

Vdhi

cl. 5).

The The The The The
is short.

following nine (words) are synonyms of cow. following ten roots have the meaning to be angry
*

'.

following eleven (words) are

synonyms of anger. hundred and* twenty roots have the meaning following following twenty-six (words) are synonyms of quick.
ksipram (quick) derived ?

'

to

go

'.

From what

(root) is

(It is so called because) the interval

The following eleven (words) are synonyms
1

of near.

From what

(root)

x. 94. 7.

44
is

KHALA
antikam
(near) derived?
(It is so called

[3.

9

because)

it is

brought near

(a Vni).

The following
(root) is

forty-six (words) are
(battle) derived
?

synonyms

of battle.

From what

so called) from going together samgrama or from shouting together (sain Vyr), or (because) the two (sam Vgam) With reference to this, there are Vedic villages have come together.
(It is

passages (in which) the word khala

(is

used).
section.)

(Here ends the ninth

Single-handed I overcome this one (opponent); irresistible I overcome two. What can even three do (against me) I In battle I thrash them
well, as if

they were sheaves.

How

dare

my

enemies,

who

are without

Indra, revile

me ? *

2 one (opponent); resisting all rivals, Single-handed I overpower this I overpower two. What can three do against me? One is the number gone a little (Vi, to go). Two is the number running farther (Vdru,
'

to

run
the

').

Three

is

the

number gone
(Veal).

across farthest (tr

'

t

to cross

').

Four
:j

derived from (the (eight) as (to pervade). Nine, not to be won (Vvan), or not obtained root) 4 (na + ava */dp). Ten, exhausted (das), or whose meaning is seen {Vdrs).
is
is

number moved most

A&ta

Twenty, two times
(number).
(million), of

ten.

A hundred, ten

times ten.

A thousand, a

powerful

Ayutam

(ten thousand), prayutam (hundred thousand), these each latter the former multiplied by ten.

niyutam Arbuda
raining

means a cloud: aranam means water; 5 giver of water
like water, or -it
1

[cloud], it shines

seems to be like water.
is
if

Just as that cloud

when

becomes a large mass, so like that In battle I thrash them well, as
I thrash
it is

the

number arbudam
',

them

well in battle.

The word khala

they were sheaves i. is a synonym of battle
:

(ten millions). e. like sheaves
;

This other derived from (the root) khal (to fall), or Mai (to kill). i. e. threshold, is derived from the same root also it (meaning of) khala,
is

scattered over with grain.

Indra, revile no Indra.
1

me ?

'

i.

e.

'How dare my enemies, who are without who do not know that I am Indra, or who have

x. 48. 7

;

cf.

Brh.D.

i.

49.

Durga.

Durga thinks 'this* refers to the universe as a whole and not to any single opponent. 8 No work is done on the ninth day, and to begin anything on that day is regarded
as inauspicious.
4

9

Durga explains aranam as arana-tflcmi gamana-silam ambu, i. e. from the root r, to go. In Monier-Williams's dictionary the meaning
'water'
i.e.
is

B

not attributed to aranam.

Durga.
(ten) recurs in ekadafa, &c.

Heroes fall, or kill each other. Durga.

The word

cfovfc

3.

n]

TADIT

45

to these, two] synonyms,
'
'

The following ten verbs have the meaning pervade. With reference i. e. aksdiia and dpaiw, are participles, and mean
'

pervading

',

obtaining respectively.

The following thirty -three roots have the meaning 'to kill*. With reference to these, the form viydtah is either the present indicative, 'he crushes or imperative, crush '.
'

',

art invoked, O shatterer. 1 O breaker in pieces. [Khanda, (fragment) is derived from (th root) kJtand (to break).] The word tadit has the joint sense of 'near' and

Thou

'

killing

',

(so called)

because

it kills.

2

(Here ends the tenth section.)

Through
far

thee,

O

Lord of prayer, bringer of prosperity,
covet.

may we

obtain

wealth which

prevail against us into a shapeless form. 3 near, Through thee, O Lord of prayer, good promoter of prosperity, may we obtain enviable treasures from men. Chew them into shapeless form, 4 i. e. the enemies who are far from us and who are near to us, the niggards,

men

Chew

those niggards,

who

and

of form because

are not liberal, or who are stingy. T.he word apnas is a synonym it obtains (Vap) .(something to rest upon). Tadit means says oakapuni, for it smites and is seen from afar.' Or else lightning,'

who

'

'

be meant to be the synonym of near alone. 5 Though afar, thou shinest brightly as if near. Although at a distance, thou lookest bright as if near at hand.
it

may

'

'

The following eighteen (words) are synonyms of thunderbolt, From what (root) is. vajrah (thunderbolt) derived ? (It is so called) because it 6 With reference to these, the word kutsa is derived from (the separates. A seer is a composer of It is also the name of a seer. 7 krt (to cut). root)
'

hymns,' says Aupamanyava. Further, 9 his friend Indra 8 slew drought.
1

it

has the meaning

'

to kill

'

only

;

viii. 17.

2

Durga
is

explains,

12; AV. 20. 5. 6; SV. 2. 76. 'because it kills',

/It

separates

living

beings

from

life.

as

Durga.
7 ,Cf. Roth, op. cit., p. 30 ; Durga remarks that the word kutsa, meaning thunderbolt *,
'

referring to lightning, which, according to
called tadit also, because it kills. This is anticipating Sakapuni in the next section.

him,

should be derived from, the root

krt (to cut),

* ii.
4

23. 9.

and meaning
compose).
8
i.

'

a seer

',

from the root kr

(to

According to Durga, there are two kinds of enemies, (1) who are difficult to be destroyed, (2) who are easy to be destroyed. The former are the liberal ones; the latter, the

e.

Invigorated

by the panegyrics of

Kutsa.

Durga. Durga.

'i.e. Something which dries up the juices,

niggards.
i.

a demon, or a cloud.

94. 7.

46

SYNONYMS OF LORD

[3.

n

The following four roots have the meaning to be prosperous. The following four (words) are synonyms of lord. With reference to these, the word ina means either (1) one who is endowed with prosperity, or (2) who endows others with prosperity.
(Here ends the eleventh
section.)

of beautiful wings vigilantly invoke the portion of with knowledge. The lord, the guardian of the entire universe, immortality J he, the wise one, here approached me, the immature Where (birds) [of beautiful wings], i. e. rays of the sun falling in a

Where

(birds)

3 2 beautiful manner, invoke, i. e. move towards the portion of immortality, 4 The lord, the guardian of all created of water, with consciousness. i. e.

the immature beings, i. e. the sun he, the wise one, here approached me, one. Wise, having intelligence. Immature, i. e. one who is to be matured. The sun is called as of mature wisdom in the description of the Upanisad.
:

This

is

Now

with regard to the deity. about the self. Where (the birds) of beautiful wings,
i.e.

i.

e.

senses,

towards, the portion of easily going astray, vigilantly invoke, The lord, the guardian i.e. of knowledge, with consciousness. immortality, the wise one, here approached me, the imof all senses, i. e. the soul he,
;

move

mature.

Wise, having intelligence.
'

Immature,
'

i.e.

one

who

is

to

be

matured.
the soul.

The

soul is of mature

wisdom

describes the characteristic of

(Here ends

tlte

twelfth section.)

The following twelve (words) are synonyms
(root) is

of much.
it is

From what
produced on
(small)

bahu (much) derived ?
scale.

(It is

so called) because

a large
is

The following eleven (words) are synonyms

of small.

Hrasva

derived from (the root) hras (to become small). The following twenty- five (words) are synonyms of great. From what He repudiates others through pride/ says (root) is maftan derived ?
'

Sakapuni (mdna +. */ha). Or he is to be respected (Vmamh). With reference to these, the two words vavaksitha 5 and vivaksase are the reduplicated forms either of (the root) vac (to speak) or of vah (to carry).
1
i.

164. 21

;

cf.

AV.

9. 9. 22.

the sun.
4 i.

Durga.

on a bright object which is quite free from darkness, or they shine when they fall. Durga. 8 i.e. They make the water warm, or having seized fluids in the form of vapours go back to

a i. e.

They

fall

e.

They have

full

knowledge of what
Durga.

they are required to do.
(to

Yaska derives vataksitlta, perfect o wax), from ^tac or

3.

14]

SYNONYMS OF BEAUTY

47

The following twenty-two (words) are synonyms of home. 1 From what (root) is grhdh (homes) derived ? (They are so called) because they seize
everything
2

(V grah).
'

The following ten roots have the meaning to attend 3 The following twenty (words) are synonyms of happiness. 4 From what (It is so called because) it is useful (root) is sukkam (happiness) derived ? for the senses (kham). Kham (sense) again is derived from (the root) khan
'.

(to dig).

is

The following sixteen (words) are synonyms of beauty. Rupa (beauty) derived from (the root) t*ue (to shine). The following ten (words) are synonyms of praiseworthy.
The following eleven (words) are synonyms of wisdom. The following six (words) are synonyms of truth. From what
(root) is

9at,ya

(truth) derived
it

?

(It is so called because) it is

spread
'.

among

the

good, or

5 originates with the good.
'

eight words have the meaning following] roots, cayati, &c., are mixed with nouns.

The following

to see

And
the

[the
list

The following nine words
(complete,

(are enumerated) in order to
7

make

Now,
Gari^ya.

including) therefore, the similes.
i.

e.

all

words

(classes).

to another

When an object bears (some) resemblance otherwise dissimilar, (it is denoted by a simile), says With reference to this, their function is to compare an inferior
which
is

quality, or
object.
inferior.
8

an unknown

object,
is

Further, (there

with a higher quality, or a very well known also the comparison of) the higher with the

(Here ends the thirfreuth

As two

thieves,

who

risk their lives

and Imuirh the

forest,

have secured

(their victim)

with ten

fingers.

Who
i.e.

risk their lives,

who
It is

10 Who haunt the forest, give up their lives. which frequent the forest: the author compares the two arms,

who

1

their
'

the great alone who have homo* of own, so synonyms of home follow those

fi

Cf. Roth, op.

eft.,

p.

81

;

Durga remarks

>f

::rea t.
2

Dn rga

.

that there are three nouns, i. e. cikyat, vicarare ?' (1 ?/7i, and wYvocarsatu^, in the list, the rest
verbs.
7
i.

3

house can never be made full. Durga. Synonyms of the verb to attend follow
'

A

'

e.

prepositions

and

particles are inis

those of homes, because it is in homes that Durga. people attend or are attended.
4

Synonyms

of happiness
beautiful.

come next,

be-

Durga. 8 According to Durga, the statement applicable to the Veda only.
8 x. 4. 10
i.

eluded also.

cause thus attended one feels happy.

The

6

;

cf.

Roth,

op. eft.,

happy are the
8

Durga.

*.

Highwaymen who
Durga.

pp. 81-2. are determined to

Cf. Sakatfiyana's derivation, 1. 18.

rob or to die.

48
produce
fire

NIYOGA
by
(the process of) friction, with

[3.

14

two

thieves.

1

'

A

thief is (so

called because)

he does that,

i.e.

tan

Or sinful/ say the etymologists. 2 his activities are manifold, or (to spread)
:

[becomes the doer of that], which is the word may be derived from (the root)

he

is

active both during the

secured (their victim) with ten fingers, have day well secured, i. e. have put (in a place of safety). Thus the higher quality intended (to be compared). (of the arms) is
as well as night.

3

Have

(Here ends the fourteenth section.)

you at night, where during the day ? O AsVins, where do necessary things, where do you dwell ? Who puts you to bed you get your in a dwelling-place as a widow a husband's brother; and a bride a bride-

Where

are

groom? Where do you remain at night, and where during the day? Where do you obtain the necessities of life, and where do you dwell ? Who puts you to bed as a widow her husband's brother? From what (root) is devara
derived
?

4

(He

is)

so called (because) he is the second husband. 5

Widow

is

a supporter, or from trembling, or, (so called because) she is without to Carmasiras, from running about. 6 Or else the word dhava 7 according
is

a

synonym

of

man

;

vi-dhavd

('

widow

',

is

so called because) she
'

is

separated from man (dhava). The word devara means a player ( Vdiv, to Maryah means 'a man', i.e. one who has the characteristic of play').
1

This

is

an

example where something

higher,

i.e.

the two arms employed in pro-

the intervening explanation of ridhava this is against the method of Yaska, who places
;

ducing fire by friction, is compared with something inferior, i. e. two thieves, who rob people in a forest. The point of comparison
is,

all

place, connecting

the etymologies of one word at the same them with ' or . . . or ' ;

just as thieves secure their victim, so we tightly fasten the two sticks to produce fire.

(3) the passage is omitted by the MSS, of the shorter recension and Durga. It refers to the

Durga.

the niyoga,
to the

cf.

Durga attributes this explanation
evidence to do
3

tarch, Lives,

Indo-European practice of Xenophon, Rep. f lac. i. 9; Plupart I, ch. iii, sec. 8 and sec. 5
;

school of grammarians, although there is no
so.
i.e.

Caesar, Commentaries, bk. iv, ch. xiv ; Deut. xxv. 5 ; St. Matthew xxii. 24 ; Manu, ix. 57-

He commits

thefts

in the village

68; Gau.

xviii.
;

during the night and robs people in the forest during the day. Durga.
4
x.'

X vii. 56. 61
Niyoga.
e

4-5; Bau. ii. 4, 9-10 Va. Ya. i. 68, 69 ; see Hastings,
;

Encyclopaedia of Ethics and Religion, article

on

40. 2.

6 The passage within square brackets is evidently an interpolation, as shown by the following : (1) the four words vidhava, devara,

i>e<
.

The word

is

derived from the root dh u

a t the death of her husband, a woman trembles at the dark prospect of the future, or

^th vi
s he

man/a, and yosa are explained by Yaska in the same order in which they occur in the

runs about without being protected by
<^dhav}.
;

anybody (n
7

second hemistich of x. 40. disturbs the regular order
tion of devara
is

2,
;

but this passage

Ro th
O

thinks dhava to be a coined word
}

(2) the first deriva-

see

p

t

Ciy t

p

32.

separated from the second by

3. 16]

SIMILES
Yosa

49

being mortal.

Krnute

.

.

Now

1 (a woman) is derived from (the root) yu (to join). a kurute, i. e. who makes you rest in the dwelling-place. The word as the particles have already been explained.
.

a

=

'

'

(denotes) a simile of action As the wind, as the forest, as the ocean stirs. 2
:

As the brilliant fires. 3 The soul of consumption
bird.
4

perishes beforehand as that of a captive

AtmcL
i.

(soul) is derived

from (the
'

e. it

may

be (called)

'

obtained

They of golden They who are
breasts], brilliant

breasts,

who

root) at (to go), or ap (to obtain); the sense) that it is omnipresent. are like Agni on account of their brilliance. 5
(in
[i.

like Agni,

e.

the

brilliant
6

Maruts of resplendent

and having golden

breasts.

(Here ends the fifteenth section.)

Just as one should be afraid of him

who

takes the four (dice) until they

are deposited, so he should not be eager for harsh speech. 7 Just as one is afraid of a gambler who holds the four [dice], 8 in the same manner one should be afraid of (using) harsh speech. One should

never be eager for (using) harsh speech. The letter a is a preposition, and has already been explained. used in the sense of a simile
:

It is also

As a consumer
Like a consumer

to his enjoyment. 9 to his enjoyment.
;

The sun

is

here called the con-

sumer

the consumer of night he is the consumer of lights also. 10 Further, there is the Vedic quotation 11 May the sister's consumer hear our call.
:

he

is

:

The author calls dawn his sister, from companionship, or drawing the Or else this human lover may have been meant; the enjoyment juices.
1

self
2

Durga explains that a woman mutes herwith .a man.
v. 78.

the passage, agnir na

ye, &c., is
1. 4),

explained by

8

;

according to Durga,
:

it is

recited

durmaddso na sura-yam (N. quotation x. 78. 2.
7
8
i.
i.

do not cite the

at the time of delivery
;

child

!

ten months

41. 9.
e.

and the ocean move freely without any difficulty, so come forth from the womb of the mother without
old just as the wind, the forest,

Before the dice are deposited on the gambling board, or remains in suspense as to whether he will win or lose. Durga.
9

injuring her. 3 i. 50. 3 ; AV. 13.
8.

a Frag, of x. 11. 6

;

AV.

18. 1. 28.

2.

18

;

20. 47. 15

;

VS.

10

Night disappears at the rising of the sun,

40; SB.
4

4. 5. 4. 11.
;

x. 97. 11
x. 78. 2.

VS.

12. 85.

.

and the light of the moon eclipsed by that of the sun.
vi. 55. 5.

and the
Durga.

stars is

5

6

According to Durga, some, thinking that

50
in that case will refer to the
enjoy).

SIMILES
woman, derived from
(denoted)

L

3 l6
-

(the root) bhaj (to

In mesah,
disguised as
:

&c.,

the simile

is

by the word

bhuta,

i.

e.

having

1 Being disguised as a ram, thou hast approached us. is derived from (the root) mis (to blink), just as pasuh 2 (animal) is derived from pas (to see). In Agni, &c., the simile is (denoted) by the word rupa, i. e. having the form of Golden in form and glittering like gold sat the offspring of waters

Mesah (ram)

:

3 golden in colour.
i.

e.

One whose form

is like

the colour of gold.

And

the word tkd also
like the

(is
.

used to denote a

simile).
all,

Him
i.

(thou milkest) like the ancient, like the former, like
4

present
e.

(sacrificers).

This,

Just as the ancient, as the former, as all, as these (sacrificers milk). 5 The word nearer than that. That, it is farther than this. amutha is explained by like that '.
it is
'

(denotes) a simile in accomplishment Like a Brahmana, like a contemptible man. 6 As a Brahmana, as a contemptible man. 7 Contemptible, one who has the nature of an ox, or that of a beast.
:

The word vat

(Here ends the sixteenth

section.)

Hear Praskanva's call, O (Lord of) great ordinances, and having all created beings as thy property, like that of Priyamedha, Atri, Virupa, and
8

Angiras.
.

Priyamedhah,

heard the

kanvah*

i. e. one to whom sacrifices are dear. Just as (thou hast of these seers, so hear the call of Praskanva. Prascall) a son of Kanva, or one born of Kanva it is formed on the
;

was produced in flames, i. e. analogy of prdgram (in front). Bhrgu one who, although being roasted, was not burnt. Angiras (was born) in
1

10

viii. 2. 40.

like a contemptible
if

8

It

seems as

independent
of drf.
3
4

root,

Yaska recognized pa4 as an and not the ordinary form

to

man. The simile refers some particular accomplishment. Durga.
i.

8 a

45. 3.

Cf.

Roth,

loc. cit.

ii.

35. 10.

10

Cf.

TB.

i.

8. 2.

5

;

indrasya

.

.

.

tredhd atn;

v. 44, 1. Cf.

6

Roth,

op. cit., p. 32.

6 The quotation, if it is a quotation and not an invented example on Yaska's part, is

untraced.
7 i.e.

He

studies like a

Brahmana, or croaks

dryam mryam parapatat. Bhrgus trtiyam abhavat the seminal fluid of Indra, having his characteristic power, was discharged threefold, The third (person) born was Bhrgu cf. Manu, i. 35, 59, which mention Bhrgu as sprung from fire; MBh. Adi. 2605 and Vayu Pu. i.
;

3. 1 9]

ONOMATOPOEIA
'

51

live coals.

are bright. is' so called,
'

Live coals (are so called because) they leave a mark, or they l They said, Seek the third in this very place '; therefore A-tri
i.

from being dug out from being brought up (so called) '). Bhdradvdja. ( Vkhan, Virupa, multiform. Lord of great ordinances, i. e. whose ordi( Vbhr).
e.

not three.

Vaikhdnasa
is

is (so called)

to dig

nances are great.

(Here ends the seventeenth

section.)

rhetoricians) describe metaphors as similes in which the object Lion ', of comparison is stated without the particles of comparison.
'
'

Now (the
',

tiger

&c., denote excellence

'
;

'

dog

',

cow
'

',

&c., are used in contempt.

(crow) is an onomatopoetic word. This onomatopoeia is found in the names of birds. Onomatopoeia does not exist,' says mostly Kdka (crow) is (so called because) it is to be driven away Aupamanyava.

The word kdka

(i.e.

from Vkal).
it

Tittiri (partridge) is (so called)

from hopping

(*/tr), or

because

has variegated spots of the size of a sesamum seed. A Francolin is (so called) because it is withered like a monkey, or it is swift partridge like a monkey, or it is slightly brown, or it warbles a melodious note. Dog, swift runner, or (the word svd) is derived from (the root) av, meaning Lion (simha) is (so called) from its power of to go, or svas (to breathe).
resistance, or it is derived

from (the

root)

hims

(to injure)

by
it

metathesis, or

from han
collected.

(to kill),

Tiger

is (so called)

kills having from smelling, or it kills having separated. (Here ends the eighteenth section.)

preceded by the (preposition) sam:

The following forty-four roots have the meaning to worship. The following twenty-four (words) are synonyms of wise. From what (He is so called because) he is endowed (root) is medhdvl (wise) derived ? with that, i. e. wisdom. Me-dhd (wisdom) is (so called because) it is stored
(

Vdhd) in the mind. The following thirteen (words)
from praising.

are

synonyms

of praiser.
of sacrifice.

.

A praiser

is

(so called)

The following
(root)
is

fifteen (words) are
'

synonyms

From what

yajna derived

?

It is a

well-known act of worship/ say the
just born said, Seek the third also here', hence the seer who sprang up was called A-tri. Not
'

9.

100 describe Bhrgu as born from the heart

of the creator, and Bhag. Pu. iii. 12. 23 speaks of him as born from the skin of the creator.
1

satisfied as yet,

they began to dig, and the

Durga

relates the following story. Praja-

pati took his

and sacrificed. From the blazing fire Bhrgu was born Angiras rose from the ashes. Then the two
seminal
fluid,
;

own

seer thus produced was called Vaikhanasa. similar story is related in Brh. D. v. 97-103;
see Professor Macdonell's edition, pp. 190-1.

A

D2

52
etymologists.

SYNONYMS OF WELL
Or
it is

[8.19

with the yajus formulas.
antelopes/ says
is

(an act of) supplication (to gods), or it is sprinkled 'It has a large number of the skins of black

Aupamanyava. Or it is directed by the yajus formulas. The following eight (words) are synonyms of priest. From what (root)
'

rtvik (priest) derived?

sacrifice.

He

sacrifices

(He is so called because) he is the furtherer of with the stanzas of the Rgveda,' says 6akapuni.
'

Or he sacrifices at proper seasons. The following seventeen roots have the meaning to beg The following ten roots have the meaning to give The following four roots have the meaning 'to solicit'. The two verbs svapiti and sastt
'.

*

'.

have the meaning

'

to sleep

'.

The following fourteen (words) are synonyms of well. From what (root) is kupa (well) derived ? (It is so called because) drinking (water) from a well is difficult, or from (the root) kup (to be angry). The following fourteen (words) are the synonyms of thief. From what
(root) is stena (thief) derived
'

?

(He

is

so called because) he

is

the recep-

tacle of sin,'

The what is

say the etymologists. following six (words) are
obscure.

synonyms

[From what

(root) is

of what is ascertained, and nirnUa.m (ascertained) derived ? of distant.

(It is -so called because) it is cleansed (of doubts).]

The following
is
(

five (words) are

synonyms
is

From what
it

(root)

duram

(distant) derived?
it is difficult

(It

so called

because)

is

drawn out

\/dru), or

to be reached

(dur </i).
of ancient.

The following
is

six (words) are
?

synonyms

purdnam

(ancient) derived

(It is so called

because)

it

From what (root) was new in the

days of yore.
is

navam

Also the following six (words) are synonyms of new. From what (root) (new) derived ? (It is so called because) it is brought just now.

(Here end* the nineteenth

section.)

The following twenty-six synonyms are in pairs. The words prapitve and abhike 1 are (synonyms) of near. Praf/ttve, i.e. arrived at; ab/dke, i.e.
approached.
2 quickly to us, when the drought is arrived. the maker of room has approached. 4 These two are the Vedic quotations.

Come
Lo
:;

!

Dalhram and arbhaJcam
1

are (synonyms) of small
34), pra-

;

dalhram

is

derived

According

to Rotli

(op.

ci/.,

p.

pitvam refers to morning, and abhipitvam to Grassmann attributes to it the evening.

See WiJrferbuch zum Jlgveda, 2 viii. 4. 3; SV. 1. 252
;

p. 87C.
2. 1071.

a *

Of.

Roth,
;

Joe. tit.

meaning

<

advance

'

',

forward course

',

&c.

x. 133. 1

AV.

20. 05. 2

;

SV.

2.

1151.

3,

20]
(to destroy)
:

PAIRS
it is easily

58
destroyed.

from (the root) dabh
extracted (avai/hr).

Arbhakum,

it is

1 hair) to be small. 2 Salutations to the great, salutations to the small.

Come, approach, embrace, do not think (my

These two are the Vedic quotations. Tims and satas are (synonyms) of attained. Tiras,
(Vtr).
Satas,
it is

i.e. it

has crossed over

moved together

(*/sr).

undeceived ones, come round quickly across the turn. 3 Smashing like an earthen jar, he attacks the demons
4

O

who move

together.

These two are the Vedic quotations.

Tvah and nemah are (synonyms) of half. Tvah, not fully spread (i.e. Nemah, not brought in full (i.e. half). Ardha (half) is derived (1) from (the root) hr (to take away) by metathesis, or (2) it may be derived from (the root) dhr (to hold), i.e. it is held out ( = extracted), or (3) from a most abundant division. (the root) rdh (to increase)
half).
:

One

half reviles, one half praises. 5 Half are gods, half are demons.

These two are Vedic quotations.

Rksdh and strlhih are (synonyms) of stars. Naksatra (stars) is derived from (the root) nalcs, meaning to go. There is also a Brahmana passage These are not gold (tia-ksatrdni). 1 Rkxah 8 (stars) appear to be raised up.
:

Strbhih (stars) appear to be scattered (in the sky). These stars which are placed on high."

Looking at the sky with stars, as it were. These are two Vedic quotations. Vamribhih and upajihvikdk are (synonyms) of einmet. Vamryah (emmets) are (so called) from vomiting. Svmika (ernmet) is (so called) from crawling.
Upaj ihvikdh, smellers. [Unmarried maidens (have taken) the undivided son from the emmets.]
11

10

12

When
This
is

the

emmet

eats,

when

the Vedic quotation.

the pismire crawls. 13 [These are two Vedic quotations.]

i.

126. 7.
27. 13
;

of wealth.
cf.

The

stars glitter like gold.
p. 35.

i.

VS.

16. 26.

fc

Cf.
i.

v. 75. 7.
vii.
i.

9

Roth, op. eft., 24. 10 ; TA. i.

11. 2.

104. 21

;

AV.

8. 4. 21.

10

iv. 7. 3.

i.e.

One half reviles, 147.2; VS. 12.42. demons; one half praises, i.e. gods.
ii.

n Their smelling power isveryacute. Durga.
i.e.

An

Durga.
6

Roth,
9.
Ictatra is

loc. til.

insect provided with proboscis; Bl.ii. 354. ;
102. 21

cf.

Cf.MS.

7

According to Durga,

a

synonym

" "

iv. 19. 9.
viii.
;

VS.

11. 24.

54

PAIRS
r

[3.

20

ffrdaram and krdaram are (synonyms) of granary. 1 Urdaram, i.e. pierced upwards ( ud-dvrna m), or pierced for food (urje dlrnam). Fills him like a granary with barley. 2 This is a Vedic quotation. He fills him like a granary with barley. Krdaram, i.e. something into which a hole is bored (krta-daram).
f

3 Being kindled, anointing the granary of This is a Vedic quotation.

intellects.

4

(Here ends the twentieth section.)

Rambhah and pindkam
grasp
it.

are (synonyms) of

staff.

Rambhah,

i.e.

people

5

6 (We) grasped thee as decrepit people their staff. This is a Vedic quotation. (The sense is that) we lean on thee as decrepit men on their staff. Pindfcam (bone), i.e. with this one destroys (pinasti).

Clad in skin, trident in hand, whose bow is unbent. 7 This is a Vedic quotation. Mendh and gnah are (synonyms) of women. 'Striyah' (women) is derived from (the root) styai, meaning to be bashful. Mendh (women) are (so Gnah (women) are (so called because) men honour them (mdnayanti).
called because) men go to them (gacchanti). Thou didst make even the wifeless to be possessed of a consort. 8 cut thee, the active spread thee. 9

Women

These are two Vedic quotations.

epah and vaitasah are (synonyms) of penis.
(the root) tap,
10 meaning to touch.

epah
faded. 11

is

derived from

Vaitasah,

it is

Loving

whom we

embrace. 12

Thrice during the day hast thou embraced me. 13 These are two Vedic quotations.

Ayd and end
With
Here it
1

are (synonyms) of reference.

this faggot

we worship

thee,

O

Agni

I

u

is

in the feminine gender.
quoted by Roth,
*

Cf. Durga's explanation,
cit.j

MS.

i.

9.

4

;

134. 8
stri.

;

KS.

9. 9.

op.

2 ii. *

p. 36. 14. 11.

10

Sprfyate hi tena

"
op.

Durga.

Cf. Durga's explanation,
cit.,

quoted by Roth,

Butter is the granary of intellects. Durga. VS. 29. 1.

p. 37.

i* x.

85. 37
literal.

;

AV.

14. 2. 38.

The translation

According to Roth (loc. cit.} a-rabh means to catch hold, to keep hold, or to lean upon.
6

is

not

1S x.
*

95. 5.

viii. 45. 20.
7

KS.
i.

9. 7

;

cf.

VS.

3.

61

;

SB.

ii.

6. 2.

7

;

to Pururavas, to stay.

This was addressed by UrvasI when the latter implored her

TS.
8

8. 6. 2.

M

iv. 4. 15.

v. 81. 2.

3.2a]

SYNONYMS OF HEAVEN AND EARTH

55

1 With this, to us, Agni. Here it is in the neuter gender. With this husband commingle thy body. 2 Here it is in- the masculine gender. Sisaktu and sacate are (synonyms) of service. Let him who is smart attend upon us. 3 i.e. Let him who is smart serve us. Attend upon us for thy welfare. 4

i.e.

Serve us for thy welfare.
svasti is (a

The word
tence
bling.
:

synonym) of non-destruction,

i.e.

honoured exis-

it

exists well.

Bhyasate and rejate are (synonyms) of fear and trem-

5 .At whose breath heaven and earth trembled. The world is afraid of the great ones, 6 O Agni

7
!

These are two Vedic quotations. The following twenty-four (words) are synonyms The following stanza is addressed to them.
(Here ends the twenty-first

of heaven

and

earth.

section.)

How were they born, is prior, which posterior ? All that exists, they themselves support. The two sages 8 days roll on like chariot- wheels. Of these two, which is prior, which posterior ? How were they born, 9 O sages who knows them thoroughly ? They themselves support all their
Of
these two, which
!

O

who knows ?

!

functions,

whatever they

are.

And

their

10 placed on chariot-wheels. greatness of heaven and earth.

on as

if

two days, i.e. day and night, roll With these words, the seer describes the

(Here ends the twenty-second
vii 16.
18. 2
1
; ;

section.)

SV.
cf.

1.

46

;

2.

99

;

VS. 15. 32.

7

vi. 66. 9.
i. 185. 1 AB. v. 18. 10 KB. 28. 8. The question is whether they were born
;
;

x. 85. 27
i.
i.
;

AV.

14. 1. 21.
9

VS. 3. 29. 1.9; VS. 3. 24.
12. 1

simultaneously
another.
10

like

twins,
p. 87.

or

one after

ii.
i.

e.

AV. 20. 34. 1. The Mamts. Durga.
;

Durga.
cit.,

Cf. Roth, op.

56

PASYA

[4.

i

CHAPTER IV
HOMONYMS
SYNONYMS
i

have

been

explained.

Now

therefore

we

shall

take

homonyms
padikam,
3

2

in their respective order

matical forms are obscure.
(i.e.
'

They
'.

(such) Vedic words whose gramcall this (i.e. the list of homonyms) aika-

and

composed of single words). Jahd means I have killed
(Here ends the first section.)

flies

men, what friend has said, Unprovoked I have killed my friend ? who from us 1 * The word marya is a synonym of man, or it may be a synonym of

boundary. [Boundary, it is settled by men.] Boundary is the (line of) division between two bounded places. Methati means to provoke. What innocent man have I ever killed ? 5 Who runs away from us because he is afraid of us ? a net Nidha, means (so called) because it is laid (on the
'

',

Pasyd means a collection of snares. Pdsah (snare) root) pas (to fasten), on account of being fastened.
(Here ends the second
section.)

is

ground). derived from (the

Imploring
ful wings.

seers,

fond of

sacrifices,

approached Indra like birds of beauti-

Uncover the encompassed, fill our vision, release us as if we were bound by a net. 6 Vayah is the plural of vi (bird). [Of beautiful wings, i.e.] the beautiUncover our fully falling rays of the sun approached Indra imploring. 7 Caksuh (eye) is derived from (the root) khyd (to vision. encompassed
know), or caks
(to see).
it

Fill,

i.e.

enlarge or give.

Kelease us

who

are

bound with snares as

were.

Ry
1

the region of ribs, hips, and arms. 8
which
have
one
there are a few exceptions in the
list

Lit.,

m.m/ words
single

of

meaning.
8

homonyms,
words which have many
aikapadikam is a be significant
*

as somoaktdh, &c.

Lit.,

viii. 45.

87

;

cf.

Roth,

op.

cit.,

p. 38.

meanings.
3

According to Durga,

a second interpretation of the sentence as follows: will say, 'I am

c

Durga gives

Who

conventional term.

Or

it

may

innocent, kill
*

me
SV.

'.

and

is

rightly applied to the list of
list

homo-

x. 73.

11

;

1.

319.
88.
;

nyms, in which
itself,

each word stands by while in the list of synonyms the
are arranged

7
8

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit., p.

words

in groups.

However,

TB. iii. 6. 11. 1. Durga quotes and explains the stanza in full.
Frag, of VS.
21. 43

4.

4]

MEHANA
:

57

The region of the ribs, i.e. a part (of the body) consisting of joints. 1 Parsuh (joint) is derived from (the.root) spry (to touch) it touches the back part. Prstkam (back) is derived from (the root) sprit (to touch) it is touched
:

from being marked, or from being bent. 2 &ronik (hip) is derived from (the root) won, meaning to go forward, Sitdma means forei.e. a hip appears to go forward when a person walks. tiitdma Dos (fore-foot) is derived from (the root) dru (to run). foot (doe). It means liver on account of means uterus,' says akapuni, it is open.' its dark-red colour,' says Taitiki. tiydmam (dark-red) is derived from (the

by limbs

(of the body).

A limb is (so called)

'

'

'

root) tyai (to cause to congeal).

Liver

is

(so called because) it is

cut out

with great

difficulty.
',

(mdmsam)
whet). else, the

(tiitdma) means fat, becausait is white (viti) meat says Galava. &iti (white) is derived from (the root) so (to
'

3

Mdmsam
mind

(meat), it perishes in it.

is

honoured

4
;

it

is

r>

thought

(delicious)

;

or
(to

Medas

(fat) is

derived from (the root)

mid

grow

fat).

(Here etuis the third section.)

O
there

is.

Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt, give us whatever excellent treasure With both hands bring that wealth to us, O treasure-knower.'
.

taking me-ha-nd) as consisting of three words, that wealth should be given to us, O wielder of the thunderbolt. Adrih (thunderbolt) is (so called because) with it he splits (mountains), or
e. (i.

Whatever or that which

[excellent], glorious, I do not here possess,

and abundant wealth there
7

is,

O

Indra

;

it

may

be derived from (the root) ad

(to eat).

It is well

known: they
:

are eaters of soma. 8
it,

The word rddhas

is

a synonym of wealth

Lord to whom thy hands be full. Damunds? one

O

they conciliate. Bring that wealth to us, Let both treasures are known, with both thy hands.

with

who
is
;

is

inclined towards kindness, or one

who

is

inclined
is

to charity, or one who a synonym of home
to

inclined to self-control.

Or

else the
'

word dwnia
is

home

'.

Manas (mind)

(damund*, therefore) may mean, is derived from (the root) mail
(Here ends the fourth section.)

one

who

devoted

(to think).

1

Joints are called ribs, because they con-

pleasure, or

by those who are
SV.
1.

intelligent.

sist of ribs.
2

Durga. Every limb becomes bent in course of

Durga.
v. 39. 1
'
;

345

;

2. 522.

time.
3

Purga.
to

According
i.

Durga
it is

it

is

cut out with

6akalya, the author of the Rgveda pada^titha, does not analyse the word mehana, while

great ease, because
4

so soft.

e.

It is prepared for a person

who

is to

honoured.
5
i.

Durga.
is

Oargya, the author of the Samaveda padapdtha, analyses it into me-iha-na. Yaska explains it 8 in both ways. x. 94. 9.
9

e.

It

enjoyed by a person with hearty

Cf.

Roth,

op.

cit.,

p. 39.

58

MtSA
Devoted to the house, welcome guest in dwelling-places, approach

[4.

5

this

bring to us the treasures of our enemies, O Agni. 1 Atithih (guest), one who goes (Vat) to the houses,. or one who goes to the families or houses .of other persons on certain dates 2 ( */i + tithih). The

sacrifice of ours,

O

wise onei

Having destroyed

all assailants,

word durona
fied

is

a synonym of house
'

:

(dur + Vav,

to satisfy

'),

i.
!

e.

difficult to

they (homes) are difficult to be satisbe provided for. 3 Approach

O wise one Having destroyed all assailants, bring to us the treasures of our enemies, i. e. having destroyed the forces of our adversaries, bring to us the treasures or the food from the homes of our enemies.
this sacrifice of ours,

Musah means a mouse. Musikd (mouse) again Musah is derived from the same root) mus (to steal).
(Here ends the fifth section.)

is

derived from (the

root also.

(Indra) of a hundred cares devour me, thy praiser, as mice the threads. Know, powers, oppressing heaven and earth, of this (state) of mine. 4

Bricks torment

me on every side, like rival wives. O

O

Bricks,

i. e.

As mice devour
i.

bricks of the well, torment me on every side, like rival wives. the greasy threads. Or (M&na) may mean one's own limbs,
6
;

e.

they devour their own limbs

so oppressing cares, desires torment me, the

heaven and singer of thy praises, O Lord of a hundred powers. [Know, earth, of this (state) of mine.] Realize, O heaven and earth, this (state) of mine. This hymn was revealed to Trita fallen into a well. 6 With referthis, there is an invocation, accompanied with a legend, a stanza, and a gatha. 1 Trita, was one most eminent in wisdom. Or else the word may have been intended as a synonym of number, i. e. ekatah, dvitah, tritah, thus the three were produced. 8

ence to

(Here ends the sixth section.)

May
summer

paternal property.
9

we, with an active mind, partake of thy pressed soma, as if it were O king soma, prolong our lives, as the sun prolongs the

days.

May we, with (an active), i.e. quick, or vigorous, or enlightened mind, partake of thy pressed soma-juice, as if it were paternal property.
1

v. 4.
i.

5

;

AV.

7. 73. 9.

their

own

tails,

and the habit
its tail

oi

.fe

juse

is

2

e.

He comes

to the houses of sacrificers
sacri-

to first
it

besmear
Roth,

with great

d to lick

on the full-moon day and other days of
fice.
8

afterwards.
Cf.
7

Durga.
op. cit., p. 39.

Durga.

Durga quotes the following passage
; :

:

It is

Cf. Sieg, Sagenstqffe des Sgveda, p. 27.

difficult
4

5

indeed to provide for one's family. x. 32. 2 cf. Brh.D. 7. 34. i. 105. 8 It is the habit of some birds to devour

$
9

Cf. Professor
viii. 48. 7
;

Macdonell, J.R.A.S. xxv.
17. 19.

KS.

4. ip]

JATHARA
lives long, as the

59
sun does the days in summer.

O

king soma, make our

Days

are (so called because) they are of different courses, 1 or they are bright, 2

or they pass away. 3

(kill),

The word fcurutaiia (do), as well as the words kartana (do), hantana and ydtana (go), have (na) as a redundant addition. 4 Jatharam means belly (all that is) eaten is held in it, or is deposited
;

in

it.

(Here ends the seventh section.)
Indra, the bull, accompanied by the Maruts, is for battle. Drink soma for rapture after food. Ppur down the flood of mead into thy belly. From days of yore thou art the king of soma-draughts. 5 Indra, accompanied by the Maruts, i. e. having the Maruts as his com-

For battle, for a delightful Bull, i. e. one who brings down rain. Drink soma for rapture, i.e. for a maddening victory, after food, i. e. after meals. 6 Pour down the flood of mead into thy belly. Madhu means soma, is derived from (the root) mad (to exhilarate), and is compared with soma (on account of the analogy of exhilaration). This other (meaning of) madhu (wine) is derived from the same (root) also. Thou art the king of
panions.
battle.

soma-draughts (now, as thou wert) in the former days. (Here ends the eighth section.)

Titau

7

means a

sieve

:

it is

covered with a hide, or

it

has holes, or

its

holes are (small) like

sesamum

seeds.
section.)

(Here ends the ninth

Where the wise have

sifted speech in their minds, as if

winnowing grain

in a sieve, there friends recognize friendships; 8 pressed on their speech.

the blessed

mark

is

im-

As

if

winnowing grain
(to cling):
it is

in a sieve.
difficult to

Saktuh
it is

(grain) is derived
it

from

(the

root) sac

wash; or

may

be derived from

the (root) ka& (to shine)

by metathesis:

fully blown.

Where the wise

have
is

sifted speech,

i.

e.

knowledge, in their minds.

Wise, very learned, or
:

great thinkers.

There friends will recognize friendships. The blessed mark on their speech. Blessed is explained by fortunate it is to be impressed
i.

1

e.

They are cold during the night and
"

.

warm
8
i.

during
e.

the' day.

Durga.

tana,
'

and RV. 2. 3. 26. 3 to illustrate and ydtana respectively.
* iii. 47. 1.
8

kartana, han-

*

i.

e.

They destroy cold. Durga. They are extended, they roll on one
infinitum.
12.

Of.

Roth,

op. cit.,pp.

40-1.
1. 1, vol.
i,

after
4

another ad

Durga quotes VS.

Durga. 69 RV. v.
;

7

Cf. Pataftjali, op.
x. 71. 2.

tit., i.

p.

4.

4. 30.

2

8
;

SO

SIRAS

[4.

jo

enjoyed, or acquired by created beings, or its existence is the cause of enjoyment, or it goes to the deserving person. Laksmt (mark) is (so called) from obtaining, or from indicating, [or from a desire to obtain], or from marking

;

or

it

may

be derived from (the root)

las,

meaning

to desire, or

from

lag,

meaning

We

to cling, or from lajj, meaning not to praise. 1 shall explain sipre later on. 2

(Here ends

tfte

tenth section.)

That is the divinity of the sun, that is his greatness, that in the midst of actions he rolled up what was spread out. When he has yoked the bay steeds
from the stable, night still spreads around her garment for him. 3 That is the divinity of the sun, that is his greatness, that in the midst of actions, i. e. works which were being done, he gathers together what was spread out. When he has yoked the bay steeds, i. e. the rays of the sun, or the horses. Night still spreads around her garment for him, i. e. it disconnects the bright day from all. Or else it may have been used in the sense of comparison, i. e. like night he spreads his garment. There is also the Vedic quotation
:

i.

e.

Weaving what was spread, she wove She gathered together.
(Here ends the eleventh

4

again.

section.)

Verily, thou art seen together with Indra, going with the dauntless Both joyous and of equal valour. 5 (group).

Verily thou art seen together with Indra, going in the company of the dauntless group. 6 Both of you are joyous, happy. Or else the meaning may be with that happy group '. f Of equal valour is to be similarly explained.
'
'

(Here ends the twelfth

section.)

With well-formed haunches, symmetrical
divine coursers

flanks, together the spirited,

make

efforts like

swans

in rows,

when

they, the steeds, have

reached the celestial path. 7 With well-formed haunches, with protruding-, [well-protruding], or broad haunches. With symmetrical flanks, i. e. whose flanks are compact, or whose

head

is

in the middle.

Or

else siras refers

to the sun,

i.

c.

it

follows

all

created things to rest,
1

and stands

in their midst.
4

This other (meaning of)

i.

e.

Men who have
Durga.

lakswfi

do not praise
section
is

ii.
i. i.
i.

38. 4.
6. 7

themselves.

The whole
loc. tit.

6
6
'

quoted by Patanjali, 2 See 6. 17.
3
i.

e.

AV. 20. 40. 1 70. The Maruts. Durga.
;
;

3

;

SV.

2. 200.

163. 10;

VS. 29. 21.

115. 4

;

AV.

20. 123. 1

;

VS. 33. 37.

4. 15]

KAYAMANA
e.

61
:

siras

(i.

the

human
it.

head)

is

derived from the same root also

the senses

urah (spirited) depend upon Together the spirited [divine coursers], is derived from (the Divine, born in heaven. >ot) 6u, meaning to go. Hamsah (swans) Coursers, racers. They make efforts like swans in rows.
,

is

derived from (the root) Jw,n (to smite) they tread the way in lines. &reni (row) is derived from (the root) &ri (to combine), they are combined. When the steeds have reached, i. e. arrived at, the celestial path, track,
:

The panegyric of the sun horse was fashioned from the sun 1
course.
:

is

the panegyric of the horse, for the

2 Vasus, ye fashioned forth the horse from the sun.

(Here ends the thirteenth section.)

Observing the forests, when thou hast gone to the mothers, the waters. That return of thine, Agni, is not to be forgotten, when being afar, thou wert here in an instant. 3 4 Kdyamdna means observing, or desiring the forests, when thou hast gone to the mothers, the waters, i.e. hast become extinguished. O Agni, that return of thine cannot be forgotten, when being afar and being produced, thou wert here in an instant. Thinking him a beast, they drive the greedy one away/'

Thinking him a beast, they drive the greedy seer away. 7 (Praise) Agni of purifying flames. i. e Of pure light 8 it rests through all, or pervades all. (Here ends the fourteenth section.)
:

Like two small dolls on their newly-wrought, perforated, wooden seats
the bay steeds shine on their courses. 9 Two dolls, two young maidens. 10

Kanyd

(maiden)

is (so

called because)

she

an object of love (Icamani'jd), or (because it is said) to whom should her hand be given, [or because she is brought by the lover], or it may be
is
1

According to Durga this gives Yuska's answer to an anticipated objection. The
objection is that the stanza is to be interpreted as addressed to tli.e sun, and as such its application to the horse-sacrifice is highly in-

quotes: Waters verily are the source of Agni. Return, i. e. lightning, if it is born from waters, or the terrestrial fire, if generated

from the friction of the two
6

sticks.

Durga.
it

iii.

53. 23.

appropriate. To this Yaska rejoins, that the panegyric of the one is the panegyric of the other, &c.
2

'

Durga ignores the

stanza, because

im-

plies hostility to Vasistha, a descendant of Vasistha.
7
'"

he himself bein^

iii. 9.
;

8

2 SV. 1. 53. Avoiding, or being afraid, or respectful.'
;

iii. 9.

8

;

viii. 43.

31

;

102. 11.

Cf.

Roth,
Roth,

op.

cit.,

p. 42.

Grassmann,
*
i.

op. cit., p.

443.

9

iv. 32. 23.

Desiring the wood, which is source of thy birth, as well as waters.
e.

the

10

Cf.

loc. cif.

He

62

ADMASAD
'

[4.

15

The words relating to the derived from (the root) Joan, meaning to shine. 1 seats of the maidens are in the locative singular/ says Sakapuni, i. e. on
the ornamental wooden seats.
(to split),

or from dry, (to injure).

Ddru (wood) is derived from (the root) df Dru (wood) is derived from the same
Small,
riot large.

(root) also.
seats, so the

New, newly made. bay steeds shine on

As they shine on
is

their

their courses.

This
'

a joint panegyric of

two bay
'

steeds.

He

has given
:

me

this,

he has given

me

that

;

having thus enumerated,

the seer said On the bank of the Suvastu. 2

Suvastu

3

is

the

name

of a river.

Tugva

4

means a

ford, (so called

because) people hasten towards it. Will the Maruts again bend down for us. 5 Once again, the Maruts bend down for us.

We shall

explain the word 'nasatah later on. Incite Indra, in order to give us wealth, with those gladdening, foaming
hast. 7

6

and exhilarating draughts, which thou
Incite Indra, so that he
thine,

may give us wealth, with those draughts of which are gladdening, which foam, and which are accompanied with
(Here ends the fifteenth section.)

songs of praise.

like the breast of the pure one, she has displayed a singer. Waking up the sleepers like a mother, this lovely traits like one has come of them that are coming again. 8 most constant

She has appeared

She has appeared The pure one one.

lil:e

the breast,

i.

e.

light that is exalted, of the pure

the sun, (so called) from purifying. This other vaksas (breast) is derived from the same (root) also it is (meaning of) exalted in the body. A bird, too, is called the pure one, fron. the same purifying: it roams over waters. Waters, too, are called tbe pure one,
is
:

from the same purifying.
a

Nodhas

(singer)

means a

seer:

he composes

new hymn. As he makes his desires apparent in his songs of praise, so dawn manifests her beauteous forms. Adma-sad 9 (mother) adma means food i.e. one who sits at a meal, or one who obtains food. Waking up the
sleepers, the
1

most constant one has come of them that are coming again.
of the Padapatha agrees

The author
viii.'

with

secret place/ Roth,
5 6

loc. cit.

6akapuni.
8 8

vii. 58. 5.

19. 37.
op.
cit
,

See

7. 17.

Cf.
ii,

Roth,
p. 344.

p.

43

;

Muir,- cp.

7
cit.,

ix. 75. 5.
i.

vol.
4

124. 4.

'A sweeping

flood, waterfall,

and then a

9

Cf.

Roth,

op.

cit. t

p. 44.

4. 17]

DA YAM ANA
sleepers], the

63

[Waking up the coming again.

most constant one has come of them that are

1 They, possessors of speech and impetuous. VaM is a or ambitious, or having a direct perception. Impetuous, of speech, (so called) because it is spoken. synonym Let us two praise (him), priest sing in answer to me, let us compose an agreeable hymn to Indra. 2 Some think it to be a panegyric on invocation others, a recitation on
! ;

pressing the soma.

It

is,

however, addressed to Indra.
later on. 3

We shall
Suvite
birth
to.

explain the

word paritakmyd

(Here ends the sixteenth section.)

= su + ite, or = sute,
in
4

i.e.

in (the sense of) going well, or to give

Place

me

This, too, is

good position. a Vedic quotation.
(In this passage dayatih)
(In this

6 Dayatih has many meanings. Let us protect the old with the new. 6

means

to protect.

Who
divide.

alone here distributes wealth. 7

it)

means
it)

to give, or to
to burn.

Irresistible, dreadful,

he burns the

forests. 8

(In this

means

Irresistible,

one who

is difficult to

be resisted.
(In this
it)

The treasure-knower, slaying

his foes. 9

means

to slay.

These soma-juices are pressed, let the AsVins, who come at dawn and are of equal valour, drink them. I am (here), indeed, to refresh and to
salute you.

The crow
11
i.

flying at

daybreak has waked

me

10

up.

dayamdnah, flying. The word nu cit is a particle, and is used in the sense of ancient and modern nti ca also (is similarly used). Even to-day as in the days of yore, the same is the work of the rivers. 12 And to-day the function of the rivers is the same as it was in ancient
e.
;

times.
1

i.

87. 6.

'

i.

84. 7

;

AV.

20. 68. 4

;

SV.

1.

889

;

2.

3

lit.

53. 3.
11. 25.
i.

691.
8

3
4

See
TS.

vi. 6. 5.

2. 10.

2

;

KS.

2. 8.

9

5

Cf. Roth, op.
is

cit.,

pp. 44-5.

Durga remarks

10

34. 1 AV. The quotation
iii.
;

20. 11.
is

1.

untraced.

Durga

ex-

that Yaska
6

not conjecturing

now

as in the

case of suvite.

plains the fourth quarter only and remarks that the rest of the passage is to be discovered.

KS. 19.3;
16
;

TB.

iii.

6.

13.

1;

cf.

VS.
12

Atra dayatir gatyarthah.
vi. 30. 3.

Durga.

28.

N.

9. 43.

64

KACCHA
The present and the past place of treasures. 1 The modern and the ancient place of treasures.

[4. 17

synonym

of wealth

;

The word rayih derived from (the root) ra, meaning to give. (Here ends the seventeenth section.)
it is

is

a

May we obtain (lit. know) that unlimited gift of thine. 2 May we obtain that illimitable gift of thine. The sun
para
also,
i.

is

called aku-

e.

unlimited, because

it is

immeasurable.

The

called akupdra, i. e. unlimited, because it is boundless. called a-kupa-ara, because it does not move in a well. 3
toise) is (so called

A

ocean, too, is tortoise is also

Kaccliiipa (tor-

protects itself

'

tortoise) = kha-ccha, i. e. something which covers (chddayatl) space (kham). This other (meaning of) kaccha, a bank of a river is derived from the same (root) also, i. e. water (/cam) is

mouth.

by Kaccha (mouth or
',

because) means of

it

protects (pdti) its
(kacchena),

its shell

mouth (kaccham),* or it or it drinks (Vpa) by the

shell of

a

covered (chadyate) by it. To destroy the demons, he sharpens his horns. 5 Rttksa-s i. e. For the destruction of the demons, he sharpens his horns. is (so called because) life has to be protected (Vraks) from him, or (demon) he attacks (Vksan) in solitary places (ra/tasi), or he approaches (<Suaks) at
Q

night (rdtrau).
7 Impetuous, Agni with impetuous steeds. i. e. Swift with swift horses, or nobly-born Agni with horses of noble

breed.

Let the agile rest in this
i.

sacrifice.

8

e.

They who move

swiftly.

(Here ends the eighteenth section.)

So that the gods be ever for our prosperity, our watchful guardians day

by day. So that the gods may always be the promoters Watchful, vigilant. Our guardians on every day. Cyavana
10
:
:

9

of our prosperity.

he is the collector of hymns. is (the name of) a seer are Vedic passages in which it occurs as cyavana
1

There

i.

96. 7.

6

Roth derives raksas from vV^
x. 3. 9.

*

to kill

',

2 3
4

v. 39.
i.e.
i.

2

;

SV.

2.

523.

op. cit., p. 46.
7

On

account of its shallowness. Durga.
as
it

smells any clanger, it draws itsmouth within the shell and assumes
e.

As soon

8
<J

VS.
i.

28. 5.
;

89. 1

VS.

?5.

14

;

KS.

20. 11.

the characteristic shape of the tortoise.
c

I0

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 46.

v. 2. 9.

4.

19]

VYANTAH
the decrepit Cyavana young again, to

65

You two made
a
car.
1

move anew
old,
stirs

like

(prayauti) actions. The verb taksati means to make. 2 Rajas is derived from (the root) raiij (to glow). The two lights are called rajas, water is called rajas, worlds are called rajas, blood and day are called rajas.
is

You two made the decrepit Cyavana, i. e. who was very Yuvd (a youth), he again, in order to move about like a car.

young

[Variegated and thundering worlds a Vedic quotation.]

move

in different directions. 3

This

Haras
Jtaras,

is

water 4

derived from (the root) hr (to take away). Light is called 5 are called haras, [blood and day are is called haras, worlds

called haras.

Mix

this light

with thy

light,

O

6

Agni.

This

is

a Vedic

quotation.]

The wise
sacrificed.

sacrificed. 7

People, having a precise knowledge of the various acts of worship,

The word
Looking

vya-titah

has

many
'

meanings.
see
'.

at the foot of the
it)

8 god with obeisance.

(In this passage

means to

O

9 hero, partake of the oblation. (In this it) means to eat '.
*

Eat and drink the milk of the cow. 10 Do you eat and drink the milk of the cow.

Usriyd [and usrd]

is

a

synonym of cow, (so called) because enjoyable things flow from it. The soma being pressed by the intelligent, 11 the well-conducted
wealth have willingly praised thee, Indra. 12 i. e. the soma, they have praised thee. Having presented Pour down the golden juice in the lap of the wood, prepare
chisels

lovers of

it

with

made of stone. 13 Pour down the golden juice

in the lap of the wood,

i.

e.

of a

wooden

1

x. 89. 4.

Muir, op. cit., voL iv, p. 71. Yaska does not illustrate the various meanings of
Cf.

1

being exhausted, are taken away from them. 6 x. 87. 25 ; SV. 1. 95.
7 8

v. 19. 2.
vi. 1. 4.
iii.

by suitable examples. Durga supplies them and explains Yaska's omission by the remark that the word is frequently used in
rajas

9

41. 3
;

;

10 i.

153. 4

AV. 20. 28. 8. AV. 7. 73. 5.

these senses.

It is the intelligent alone

who

are capable

TB. ii. 4. 5. 4. 4 i. e. It is taken away from -a well, &c., by people for living. Durga. 5 i.e. People, the merit of whose deeds
v. 63.

3

3

;

of pressing the soma,

and not others who do

not possess intelligence. Durga. w The quotation is untraced.
1S

x. 101. .10.

66
cup.

JAMI

[4.

19

The golden juice is the soma, (so called from) its golden colour. This other (meaning of) karih (i.e. a monkey) is derived from the same also.1 Prepare it with chisels* made of stone, i. e. with stone-made
(root) chisels, or

with songs of

2

praise.

he, the noble one, defy the manifold creatures, let phallus- worshipnot penetrate our sanctuary. 3 pers * May he overpower them, i. e. the manifold creatures who are hostile to 6 us. Let the phallus- worshippers, i. e. the unchaste stina (phallus) is derived from (the root) snath (to pierce) not approach our sanctuary,

May

i.

e.

our truth, or

sacrifice.

(Here ends the nineteenth

section.)

like strangers.

Surely there will come those future ages, when kinsmen will behave Seek, O fair one, a husband other than me for him, thy
;

consort,

make thy arm a
will

6

pillow.

ages, when kinsmen will act in the manner Jdml 7 is a synonym of tautology, fool, and one born in the same caste. Make thy arm a pillow for thy consort seek, O fair one, a husband other than me is explained (easily).

There

come those future

of strangers.

;

(Here ends

tJie

twentieth section.)
;

Heaven
earth halves
is
;

my father, progenitor here is my uterine relative ; the great The womb is within the two widespread worldmother. my the father here bestowed a life-germ on the daughter. 8
is

Heaven

is

my
;

father,

protector,
is

uterine relative

the great earth
:

my

mother.

benefactor, progenitor; here is my Relative is (so called) from

Uterine is (so called) from being fastened being connected together. 9 Hence the together. It is said children are born fastened to the umbilicus.
near relatives are called as having a common umbilicus, or a common tie. A near relative is (so called) from being well known. The womb is within
the two widespread world-halves. Widespread, i. e. spread very wide, or spread very high. There the father bestows the life-germ on the daughter, i. e. the rain-cloud on the earth.
1 Durga quotes a verse from the Bamayana, according to which the monkeys are described as soft like the rfmfa flower, and glittering
*

i.e.

Who

destroy our sacrifices.

Durga.

3
f
>

Cf.
x.

Roth, ftp. cil., p. 47. 10. 10; AY. 18. 1. 11.
toe.
cit.

like gold'.
3

7

Cf. Roth,

Durga remarks that
suit,

In the second

case, the

meaning would

Yaska does not
8
i.

cite passages to illustrate the
;

be: prepare, i.e. season or purify the somajuice with songs of praise, which arecomprehensive and sublime. Durga.
vii. 21. 5.

meaning of jdmi
164. 33
;

cf.

he himself follows AV. 0. 10. 12.

Cf.

TS.

vi. 1. 7. 2.

4.

24]

ERIRE
l

67

[Desirous of peace, desirous of happiness.]

Now bestow sinless peace and tranquillity upon us.* The words rapas and ripram are synonyms of sin; i.e. freedom 3 from diseases, and the warding off of dangers. Moreover, a descendant of Brhaspati is called samyu
also:

This
sacrifice.
4

we beg
is

of

amyu:

to go to the sacrifice; to go to the lord of

This too
sacrifice,

a Vedic quotation.

(The meaning

is)

in order to

go to the

and to the lord of the

sacrifice.

(Here ends the twenty-first section.)
Aditi, unimpaired,

mother of gods. 5

(Here ends the twenty-second section.)
Aditi
Aditi
shall
is

is all

heaven, Aditi is atmosphere, Aditi is mother, father, and son. the gods, and the five tribes ; Aditi, what is born and what

be born. 6

these words, the seers describe the greatness of Aditi. these things are unimpaired.
:

With

Or

else, all

Whom the
Erire
is
.0.

Bhrgus raised. a reduplicated form of Ir

7

(to raise),

preceded

by the

pre-

position

(Here ends the twenty-third section)
People shout after him in battles, as they do after a clothes-stealing a falcon let loose and swooping downwards, and a glorious herd

thief, or

of cattle. 8

who steals clothes.
The word
tciyu is

(People shout) after him as they do after a clothes-stealing thief, i. e. one Vastrani (clothes) is derived from (the root) vas (to wear).
'

a synonym of thief he is a store-house of sin/ say the or it may be derived from (the root) tas (to perish). 9 etymologists, People shout after him in battles. The word bhara is a synonym of battle it is derived (from the root) bhr (to bear), or hr (to carry away). 10 Swooping
:
;

The explanation within square brackets is contradictory to YSska's comment and is thus an indirect argument in support of its spuri1

of legendarians respectively,
i.

89. 10
143. 4,

;

AV.

7. 6. 1

;

VS. 25. 28.

7 i.
*

ous character. 9 x. 15. 4 ; VS. 19. 55;
3

iv. 38. 5.

cf.

AV.

18.

1. 5.

c., p. 48. 4 TS. ii. 6. 10. 2 ; SB. i. 9. 1. 26. 6 Durga attributes the two explanations to the school of etymologists and to the school
Cf.

Roth,

op.

He perishes on account of his unrighteous conduct. Durga. 10 i. e. The heroes, or the treasures of the
9

i.e.

enemy

are carried away.

E2

6

GATU

[4.

24

downwards, pouncing downwards. Downwards is going down; upwards Falcon is (so called because) it Like a falcon let loose. 1 is going up. And a glorious herd of cattle, i. e. a in an admirable manner. swoops famous herd of cattle glory and the herd, or wealth and the herd. Yutham (herd is derived from (the root) yu (to connect) it is compact. While kindling, the man of noble wisdom extols him, 2 i. e. he praises
:
:

him.

Mandl
praise.

(praiseworthy)

is

derived from (the root)

mand, meaning

to

3 Worship the praiseworthy (Indra) with hymns and oblations. Bring worship to the praiseworthy (Indra) in (the form of) panegyrics

with offerings of food. Gauh has been explained. 4 (Here ends the twenty-fourth

section.)

Indeed, in this place, it is said, they thought of the ray separated from the sun here in the house of the moon. 5
;

In this place, indeed, the rays of the sun, together of their own accord, thought of the separated, i. e, disunited, removed, disconnected, or concealed 6 (ray) there, in the house of the moon.
;

Gdtu has been explained. 7 8 This too is a Vedic quotation.] [Dawns made a move for man. means works, (so called because) they finish them. Damsayah Thinking (to make)' the works (fruitful) for the peasant, (you
waters
9

let)

the

(flow).
is

This too

a Vedic quotation.
not approach him. 10 does not come near
its

He became prosperous, distress does He became prosperous, distress
(to injure)

him.
initial

The
part

words amhatih, amhah, and amhuh\ are derived from (the root) Jmn
(han

> ahn > anh =

by metathesis,

after

making

penultimate the

O
'

amh). 11 Brhaspati, thou dost destroy the derider.
5
i.

1 to Durga, jastam means According bound ', i. e. a falcon in this state cannot fly up, but comes down and kills its prey, being applauded by people. This explanation seems to be far-fetched and illogical, for a bound

84. 15;

AV.

20.

41. 3;

SV.

1.

147;

2. 265.
6 7 8 9

Cf.

Roth,
4. 21.

op. cit., p. 49.

See
iv.

51. 1.
Cf.

falcon cannot kill
2

its

prey.
380.

x. 138. 1.
i.
i.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 49.

x. 45. 1
1.

;

VS.
;

12. 18.
1.

">

94. 2. 90. 5.

101. 1
2. 5.

SV.

See

4.

26]

ANTA
Brhaspati,

69

O

when thou

1 destroyest the derider.

Ply means

to deride.

Viyute means heaven and

earth, (so called)

from their remaining apart

from each other. 2 Alike, of equal Alike, heaven and earth terminating at a distance. measure. Measure is (so called) from being measured. Duram has been 3 Antah (end) is derived from (the root) at (to go). explained. The word rdhak 4 is a term (used to denote) the idea of separation. 5
It is also

used in the sense of prosperity. Being prosperous, thou hast sacrificed; being prosperous, thou hast
6
;

toiled.

In a state of prosperity, thou hast sacrificed in a state of prosperity, thou hast exerted thyself. The words asydh and asya have the acute accent when referring to a primary, and grave when referring to a secondary, object. The more

emphatic meaning has the acute accent, the less, the grave. For the obtainment of this, be near us, O goat-teamed one, gracious

and bounteous. 7 [Be glorious, O goat-teamed For the obtainment of this, be near us.
Gracious, without being angry.

one.]

Rarivdn ^bounteous)
seer addresses

is

a reduplicated
:

form of (the

root)

rd

(to give).

The

Pusan as goat-teamed.

Goat-teamed, goats are his coursers. Now the grave accent Let her husband, who has a long life, live for hundred autumns. 8 May her husband, who has a long life, live for hundred autumns. Autumn is (so called because) the herbs become ripe during this period,
or the rivers are in flood.

The word asya

(his) is

explained by the word asydh
section.)

(her).

(Here ends the twenty-fifth

Lightning
of. the

is

and benevolent.

the middlemost brother of this sacrificer who is noble His third brother is butter-backed. Here I saw the lord

9 universe with seven sons.

i.e. who is Lightning is the middlemost brother of this sacrificer, of being invoked who is noble, i. e. who is to be honoured who is worthy benevolent, benefactor. Bhrdtd (brother) is derived from (the root) bhr, to take he takes a share (of patrimony), or he is to be brought
; ;

meaning
1
i.

:

e.

object of
2

One who does not sacrifice and the whose life is self-enjoyment.
Cf.

the meaning of separation, VS. 8. 20.
7
8 i.

iii.

54. 7.
3. 19.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 50.

138.4.

8
4

See
Cf.

x. 85.
i.

39

;

Roth,

loc. cit.

9

164. 1

;

AV. 14. 2. 2. AV. 9. 9. 1.

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit.,

8

Durga quotes RV.

iv. 40.

5 to illustrate

p. 61.

70
l

FIVE SEASONS

[4.

26

i. e. this Aghi. There I saw the up. His third brother is butter-backed, lord of the universe, i.e. the protector of everything, or supporter of everything, or with seven sons i. e. with the seventh son,* or whose sons
;

have gone everywhere, 3 Seven rays of the sun, they say.

is

an extended number.

There are seven

(Here ends the twenty-sixth section.)

Seven yoke the one-wheeled
it.

car.

One horse having seven names draws
all

Three-navelled

is

the wheel, imperishable and irresistible, on which
car,
i.

these worlds rest.4

Seven yoke the one- wheeled
wheel.

e.

the car which moves on a single

Cakram (wheel) is derived from (the root) cak (to repel), or car One horse having seven names draws it, i. e. the (to move), or kram (to go). sun seven rays draw up the juices for him, or the seven seers praise him. The other word nama (name) is derived from the same (root, nam) also The second hemistich chiefly describes (so called) from being drawn up.
: ;

the year:

the three-navelled wheel,

i.e.

the year with

its

three seasons,

summer, rainy season, and winter. Year is (so called because) people live together by them. Summer, juices are swallowed during this period. Rainy season, during this time it rains. Winter, full of snow, Again, himam 5 (snow) is derived from (the root) han (to injure), or from hi
(to hasten).
sistible,

not dependent on anything

Imperishable, having the characteristic of non-decay. Irreelse. The seer praises the year, on

which

all

When
This
:

created beings rest together, with all measures. the five-spoked wheel began to roll. 6

is

passage dewy season together: Six are said to have been inserted. 8

with reference to the five seasons. There is the Brahmana There are five seasons in the year, 7 taking the winter and the

This

is

as spokes.

with reference to the six seasons, which are inserted in the navel Again, sat (six) is derived from (the root) sah (to bear).

1

In a stanza addressed
is
;

to

of the three gods
(2) Adrtya, (3)

as follows

Vayu, the order : (1) Vayu,

s

everywhere.
i.

This refers to the sun, Durga.
164. 2.
Cf.

i.

e.

whose rays go

Agni hence Agni is the third.
op

Durga.
7

Durga's explanation, quoted by Roth,
p. 51.
;

Durga
:

attributes to the legendarians the

cit. i.

t

saying
son.

that the sun verily is the seventh also quotes a Brahmana passage which says that the sun is the seventh and

164. 13

AY.
1
;

9. 9. 11.
i.

He

Cf.
i.

AB.

i.

SB.

8. 5. 1

;

i.

7. 2. 8.

164. 12;

AV.

9. 9. 12.

Indra

is

the eighth.

5. i]

VARYAM
That twelve-spoked one does never decay. 1

71

One wheel and twelve
3

fellies.

2

These are with reference to months.
it is

A

month

is

(so called)

from

measuring. Felly, In it are placed together three hundred spokes, as 2 moving one after another.

well secured.

it

4 were, and sixty

There

is

the

Brahmana passage

:

Verily, there are three
is

hundred and

5 sixty days and nights in a year. together (i. e. as one).

This

taking the day and the night

There stood seven hundred and twenty. 6 There is the Brahmana passage Verily, there are seven hundred and 7 This is taking the day and the night twenty days and nights in a year.
:

separately

(i.

e.

as two).

(Here ends the twenty-seventh

section).

CHAPTER V
HE
found the cloud in the course of the
rivers.
8

Sasnim means a

O men
messenger.

!

9 cloud, (so called because) it is washed. invoke the best carrier of invocations, the hymn,

who

is

the

10

of invocations.

men, invoke the messenger, i. e. the hymn, who is the best carrier Nard means men they repeatedly move (Vnrtyanti) in 11 Dutah (messenger) is derived from (the root) ju (to be quick), or actions. from dru (to run), or from the causal of vr (to keep back). 12 This too is a Vedic [Thou art the messenger of gods and mortals.
:

O

quotation.]

Vdvasdnak is a from vds (to roar).
i.

participle (formed)

from (the root)

w&

(to desire), or

164^ 11
164. 48
e.

;

*

i. i.

;

AV. AV.

9. 9. 13.

5

;

AA.
8 9

iii. 2. 1.

10. 8. 4.

x. 139. 6.

3

The year
Durga.

is

measured, as

it

were, by
in the

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 52.

Surrounded on
all

months.
4

all sides

by water-vapours, or flowing on

According to Durga, the second na passage has the sense of aggregation.
5

sides.

The
.

course,

i.

e.

the atmosphere,

Durga
3.

Cf.

GB.

i.

5.

5

;

AB.

ii.

17

;

,$B.

i.

5.9

10
;

viii. 26. 16. 4.

xii. 3. 2. 3.
6
7
i.

"
;

Nrtyanti gatrani
x. 4. 2.

puna* prakiipanti.

Durga.

164. 11
ii.

AV.

9. 9. 18.
xii. 8. 2.

AB.

17

;

&B.

4

;

cf.

GB.

i.

5.

72

VARYAM

[5. i

1 This, too, is a Vedic quotation. Desiring the seven shining sisters. Vdryam (boon) is derived from (the root) vr (to choose). Or else (it

is

so called because) it is the best. choose that boon, the best protection. 2 choose that boon, which is the best (protection), protected, or you are its protectors, or it belongs to you.

We We

i.

e.

it is

to be

The word andhas
be sought.

is

a synonym of food, 3 (so called because)

it is

to

4 pour down the exhilarating food. 5 Pour down the exhilarating food with drinking vessels. Amatrwni means a vessel, (so called because) the householders eat from it. The

With drinking

vessels

householders (are so called because) they are innumerable. 6 A drinking Darkness is called vessel (is so called because) people drink from it.

andhas

also,

is visible.

darkness'.

because no attention can be fixed in it or because nothing People also use the expression andham tamas, i.e. 'blinding This other (meaning of) andhas (blind) is derived from the
sees,

same root

also.

has eyes a Vedic quotation.

He who

but the blind

man

cannot know. 7

This, too,

is

(Here ends the first

section.)

Attached to each other, having many streams, rich in water. 8 Devoted to each other, or without abandoning each other, having streams and rich in water. 9 Vanusyati means to slay,. its grammatical form is not known. 10 May we slay those who seek to injure us. This too is a Vedic quotation.

many

May we, in battle, conquer the perverse, and him who seeks to injure the long-spread (sacrifice). 11 May we, in battle, conquer the perverse, i. e. the pernicious, the sinful
person,

who

desires to

person)
1 2

is (so called

our long-spread sacrifice. Pdpah (sinful he drinks what is not to be drunk, or having because)
spoil
' s
i.

*

6. 5.

164. 16

;

AV.
cf.

9. 9. 15.
op. cit., p. 52.

viii. 25. 13.

vi<

70 2
.

;

Roth,

8

Evam

atra

dana-sambandhad andhah tabdo

*

i. e.

Heaven and
fall,

'nnarthaupapadyate.
4

Durga.
a
i-

rain to

1*. I-

e.

Soma.

Durga.

creation,

who cause much who support the manifold and who are rich in clarified butter.
earth,

or

According Durga, the word a-rod denotes something which cannot be measured, i. e. countle s. Householders are therefore
to

Durga*
10
i.
i.

132. 1
e.

;

viii. 40. 7.

n

A person addicted to the gratification
Durga.

called a-rna for the

same reason.

of sensual pleasures.

5.

3]

VANUSYATI
;

73

committed sin, he falls lower and lower 5 or the word from the intensive of the root pat (to fall). Tarusyati has the same meaning also.
2 Accompanied by Indra, may we slay Vrtra.

may

be (formed)

This too

is

Bhatidaua, (applause)
praise.

a Vedic quotation. is derived from (the root) bftand? meaning to
praises

The widely-loved bard
This too
is

him with many names. 4
5

a Vedic quotation.

He

utters forth praises
(is

which are rich in

offspring.

This also

a Vedic quotation).

Go quickly, O wanton, with some one other than me. 6 Go at once, wanton, with some person different from me. Speaking in this manner, thou hurtest me as it were. Ahand 1 (a wanton) is (so called from) her lascivious speech. Ahanah (i. e. the vocative) is derived
from the same.

Nadah* means a
praise.

seer;

it is

derived from (the root) nod, meaning to

The love of the self -controlled seer has come to me. 9 The love of the self -con trolled seer, i. e. of one who

is

celibate

and who
It is

has controlled himself with regard to procreation, has come to me. said that with these words a seer's daughter wailed. 10

(Here ends the second

section.)

Soma, whose (greatness) neither heaven, nor earth, nor waters, nor 11 atmosphere, nor mountains (fathomed), has flowed. According to some, aksah is formed from (the root) as (to go). When the C9wherd dwells with kine in a watery place, soma flows from the milked cows. 12

The fox
1

stalked the approaching lion. i:j
hell.

He

falls

very low in
;

Durga.

9

i.

179. 4

;

cf.

Brh. D.

i.

53.

2

vii. 48.

2

KS.

23. 11.

8 Cf.

iii. 3.

Roth, op. cit., p. 53. 4 Durga paraphrases kavi (bard)
;

Durga identifies the seer's daughter with Lopamudra, wife of Agastya. Being loveshe addressed this strophe to her celibate husband. The story is related at greater length in Brh. D. iv. 57-60 ; Professor Macsick,

10

by kranta-darfana
B
's

(of

comprehensive vision).
This
is

ix. 86. 41.

x. 10. 8

;

AV.

18. 1. 9.

a part of
;

donell's edition, vol.
op. cit.,

ii,

pp. 140-2
toe. cit.

;

cf.

Sieg,

a dialogue between

Yama and YamI

cf.

pp. 120-6

;

Roth,
2.

Roth,
7

tor..cit.

x. 89. 6.

Durga quotes a Brahmana passage in support of the meaning attributed by him to the 8 Cf. Roth, loc. cit. word ahanah.

"
"
and

ix. 107.

9
4.

;

SV.

348.
is

x. 28.
is

The quotation

irrelevant,

omitted by Durga.

74

HASAMANE

[5.

3

Some think that (the word aksdh) means to dwell in the former, and 1 When the cowherd dwells with kine in to flow in the latter quotation. In all quotations a watery place, then soma flows from the milked kine.
'

word aksdh) means to dwell/ says Sakapuni. l The word svdtram is a synonym of quick it is of swift motion. He, the winged one, Agni, who has all created beings as his property, made quickly whatever moves, the immovable and the movable. 8
(the
:

And
property,

he, the

winged one, Agni, who has

made
3

in a

moment

all

all created beings as his that moves, the stationary and the noa-

stationary.

Utih (protection) is derived from (the root) av (to protect). To thee (we turn round) for protection, as to a chariot. 4 This too is a Vedic quotation.

We

shall explain

hdsamdne

later.

5

Vamraka has approached Indra with a soma draught. 6 i.e. With drinks, or with beautiful hymns, [or with
gyrics].

rousing pane-

He
*

found
1

it

7 glowing like a fully-manifest dream.

Dream

refers

to the
;

atmospheric light

(i.e.

lightning)

which

is

visible occasionally only

he found it flashing like that (lightning). 8 Twofold existence, and the source of happiness on account of food. Source in the middle and the highest sphere. Double existence, i.e.

of happiness, source of comfort.

As hunters seek game. 9 As hunters seek game, so panegyrics seek
(Here ends the third

thee.

section.)

There

Vardhah means a cloud: it brings (Vhr) the best means of livelihood. is a Brahmana passage: Thou hast brought the best means of
10

livelihood.

afar he pierced the cloud by hurling his thunderbolt. 11 This too is a Vedic quotation. This other (meaning of) vardhah (boar)

From

1

Cf.

Roth,

op.

tit.,

p. 54.

8
9

iii.

17. 5.

2

z. 88. 4.

Durga takes it to mean that Agni consumes all the movable and immovable things
3

6. 2. Durga explains praitah as panegyrics addressed to thee, and vrah as
viii.

at the
*
5

time of final dissolution. viii. 68. 1 ; SV. 1. 354 2. 1121. See 9. 39.
;

greedy persons ; cf. Roth, toe. tit. 10 MSS. of the longer recension place the ' quotation between roots also and he tears
up', in 1.9. " i. 61. 7 ;

6 T

x. 99. 12. x. 79.

Cf.
cf.

Roth,

Joe. cit.
cit.,

AV.

20. 35. 7.

3

;

Roth,

op.

p. 55.

5.

5]

VARAHA
:

75
roots, or

is

derived from the same root also

he tears up the

he tears up

all

the good roots.

Indra (slew) the ravening boar. 1 This too is a Vedic quotation. The Angirases are called vardhds also: The Lord of prayer, with the powerful Angirases. 2 3 Moreover, these groups of atmospheric gods are called vardhavah also

:

Seeing the groups of atmospheric gods, of golden chariot-wheels, of iron tusks, running. 4 Svasardni 5 means days: they move of their own accord. Or else, svar means the sun, he causes them to move. As rays to the days. 6 This too is a Vedic quotation.
fingers: [they create works]. aryah means arrows: ara (arrow) is derived from they are made of Saccharum earn (&ara). (the root) r (to rend).
7 (pierces), supporting (a bow) with two arms. a Vedic quotation. Arkah means a god, (so called) because they worship him. Arkah means a stanza, (so called) because it is by means of a stanza that they worship (gods). Arkam means food: it causes created beings to shine. Arkah means a tree (Calotropis gigantea) it is compressed with bitterness. 8

aryah means

As with arrows one
is

This too

:

(Here ends the fourth

section.)

Chanters chant thy praises, singers sing the song. Brahmanas raised 9 up like a pole, O god of a hundred powers. Chanters chant thy praises. Singers sipg forth the song of thy praise. The Brahmanas raised thee up like a pole, O god of a hundred powers A pole (vamsa) 10 is (so called because) it grows in a forest (vana-6aya), or is so called from being divided into different parts. Paw 10 means the rim of a wheel, (so called) because it brushes away
thee
!

the earth.

Lo! with the rim of their chariots they rend the mountain with
their might. 11

The Maruts destroyed him with the edge These two are Vedic quotations.
1

of their sword. 12

viii. 66. 10.

T

ix.

110. 5

;

SV.

2.

857.

3

x. 67. 7

;

AV.

20. 91. 7.

8 9

It is bitter
i.

From the plural number of the word group, Durga concludes that this refers to the Maruts.
4 i.

10. 1

;

through and through. Durga. SV. i. 842 ; 2. 694.
cit.,

"
'*
cit.

Cf. Roth, op. v. 52. 9.
Cf. Durga's

p. 57.

88. 5; cf.

Roth,

op.

cit.,

p. 56.

remarks quoted by Roth,

loc.

8

Cf.
i.

Roth,

loc. cit.

8. 8.

76

SINAM
Valcsas (breast) has, been explained. 1

[5.

5

Dhanvan means atmosphere waters
:

It shines brightly

flow from from across the atmosphere. 2
:

it.

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.
it

binds created beings together. 3 With which you bring food to friends. 4 This too is a Vedic quotation.
Ittha is explained
'

Swam means food

5 by the word amutha.
'.

if

Saca means together Being together with the Vasus. i. e. Being with the Vasus. Cid is an enclitic particle; it has already been explained. 7 Further, Thou art accented, it is a synonym of animal in the following passage
:

8 animal, thou art mind. All the enjoyments are stored in thee, or thou stimulatest knowledge. The letter a is a preposition it has already been explained. Further, it is used in the sense of on '.
; '

i.

Waters in the cloud. 10 Waters in the cloud, i. e. waters on the cloud. e. waters resting on the cloud.] Dyumnam is derived from (the root) dyut (to

[Waters in the cloud,
shine),

and means glory

or food.

Bestow upon us glory and Bestow upon us glory and

treasure. 11

treasure.
section.)

(Here ends the fifth

Pavitram

is
:

derived from (the root)

pu

(to purify).

A

stanza

is called

pavitra (pure) The stanza with which the gods always purify themselves. 12 This too is a Vedic quotation. Rays are called pavitram
'

:

Purified
1

by rays
AV. vi.

[pressed

by men with

13

stones].
See
3. 16.
ii.

See

4. 16.

8

x. 187.

2

;

34. 8.
7
8
y

Frag, of

81. 1.

Community of meals was a characteristic feature of the Aryan household in ancient
times,

8

See

1. 4.

VS.
See

4.

19

;

12. 63.

and even now implies kinship, or community of caste in India. In Hindu Law
is

1. 4.

10

Frag, of

v. 48. 1.

relationship with a deceased person

deter-

u
12
1S

vii. 25. 3.

mined by
cit.,

one's right to offer the funeral
;

cakes of food
p. 58.
iii.

cf.

Durga, quoted by Roth,

op.

Cf. Roth, loc. tit. 2. 652. Frag, of VS. 7. 1 ; read together with what follows within square brackets, it is
ix. 86. 84.

SV.

4

62.

1.

5. 8]

VISNU
is

77

is called pavitram. Having with food. 1 streams), rejoicing Air is called i. e. Having much water. Fire is called pavitram. Soma is called pavitram. The sun is called pavitram. Indra pavitram. is called pavitram. Vayu, Soma, the Sun, Indra, are Agni is pure, may he purify me. 2 pure, may they purify me. This too is a Vedic quotation. Todah is derived from (the root) tud (to push).

This too

a Vedic quotation.
(i. e.

Water

a hundred waters

(Here ends the sixth
I,

section.)

the liberal giver, call upon thee,

O

indeed the master (of thy panegyrics).
well. 3

As

Agni, in many ways. I am in the cavity of some great

I, who am a liberal giver, invoke thee alone.' Arih means an unfriendly person it is derived from (the root) r (to injure). The master is called arih also, from the same root. Having seen that oblations offered to other
;

deities are sacrificed in fire, the seer declared,

'

as in the cavity of some

great well

' ;

i.

e.

as in the opening of

is good. Having a good gait, i. e. Sacrificed to from all sides, the butter-backed having a good gait. 5

some great chasm. 4 one whose manner of walking

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.

6 ipivista and Visnu are two synonyms of Visnu. a contemptuous meaning says Aupamanyava.
',

'The former has

(Here ends the seventh

section.)
'

What was blameable Do not hide
a different form. 7

in thee,

Visnu this shape from

O

I

that thou didst declare, I am us, for, in battle, thou wert of

Visnu, what is there obscure about thyself, i. e. not worthy of being 8 known, that thou sayest to us, I am denuded like a phallus ', i. e. whose
'

O

1

vii. 47. 8.

injure)
is
1.

and means

'

an

opening

'.

The

*

The quotation
i.

untraced.
97.

uterus is also called toda.
v. 87. 1.
'

150. 1

;

SV.

4

Durga amplifies Yaska's explanation as
:

Muir

attributes the sentence to

follows

I invoke thee alone because I
i.

am

manyava.

There

is

master,

e.

competent to praise thee well,

and am capable of offering many oblations. Another reason for invoking Agni alone is his inexhaustible power of consumption, which is compared with that of some deep well or great chasm. Sarane is derived from sr (to

support this view. the mouth of Aupamanyava
Texts, vol. iv, p. 605.
7
8

Aupano evidence, however, to Durga does not put it in
;

cf.

Sanskrit

vii. 100. 6.

Muir reads the negative
'

particle na inis

stead of nah,

to

us

'.

This

evidently a

78
rays are not displayed?
:

6lPIVITA

[5.

8

1 Or else,. it may be that (the word is used as) a synonym of praise O Visnu, what is this well-known (shape) of thine, i. e. worthy of being fully known, that thou sayest to us, I am enveloped with rays (sipi-vista)', 2 i.e. whose rays are displayed? Rays are here Do not hide this shape from called sipayah? i.e. he is enveloped by them. us. The word varpas is a synonym of form, (so called) because it covers * things. For in the battle, i. e. in the combat, thou wert of a different form
*
;

i.e.

whose rays are gathered together.

The following stanza explains

it

much more.
(Here ends ike eighth section.)

I,

that

name of thine, fiipivista.

a master of hymns, and knowing the sacred customs, to-day praise I, who am weak, glorify thee, who art mighty,

and dweilest beyond this world. 6 I, a master of hymns, to-day will sing forth that name of thine, ftipivista. I am master, i. e. lord, of hymns. Or else it is thou who art a master, I, who am weak, praise thee who art mighty. The word tavasa is a synonym of
mighty
world.
:

he

is

risen high.

Who

dweilest beyond,

i.

e.

very far from this
us.

Glowing with

heat,

i.

e.

one whose glow has reached

6 together serve the god of glowing heat. us both attend upon the god, whose glow 7 has reached us. Let

May we two
Agile,
i.

The

He

one whose speed is great. has shortened the life of the demon. 8 agile caused the life of the demon to be shortened.
e.

(Here ends

tfie

ninth

section.)

From two
their

sticks,
fire,

hands

;

a

men with fingers have produced fire by the motion of 9 glorious, seen at a distance, lord of the house and active.
posed';
504-6.
s cf.

mistake, for Roth's edition, which Muir seems to have used, has the right reading noA. This reading is also supported by the evidence of

Muir,

op.

cit,,

vol.

iv,

pp. 88,
5. 5.

&ipi

means -animal'
c&,

also, cf. TS.

ii.

the MSS. of both recensions and Durga.
Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv, p. 88. 1 i.e. The rising sun at daybreak,
its
*

Cf.

2

:

yajno vat vimah patavah (ipih.
Cf. Roth, op.
p. 69.

when
is

vii.
vi.

100. 5.
65. 1.

rays are not displayed. Durga. Sipivitta is a name of Visnu ; this
:

also

Whose
iii.

glow, or whose anger, has reached

shown by the following passage TS. ii. 5. 5. 2: Vitnave Sipivittaya. It means 'a bald person ', and according to TS. ii. 2. 12. 5, a diseased person whose private parts are ex'

Durga.
49. 2.
;

vii. 1. 1

SV.

1.

72

;

2. 728.

5.ii]

ADHRIGU
:
-

79

l mean fingers they are employed in (the performance of) Fire-sticks are (so called because) fire rests in them, or because fire is produced from them by attrition. By the motion of their hands, by

Dfdhitayah

actions.

the circular

movement

of their hands.

They produced
swift.

fire,

glorious, visible

at a distance, the lord of the house,

and

(Here ends the tenth section.)

At one single draught Indra drank thirty lakes full of soma. 2 At one draught alone Indra drank them together, i. e. along with one
another
this is the meaning. (Lakes) full of soma, i. e. dear to his heart, or full to the brim, or consecrated to Indra. Or else Indra is a lover of 3 With soma, or he drinks till his desire, his appetite, is completely satisfied.
; :

reference to this, the interpretation of the ritualists is the following There are thirty libation- vessels consecrated to one deity at the meridional pressing of the soma-juice. These (libation-vessels) they drink at a single draught.

There are thirty days and nights in the second, month/ say the etymologists. Then the rays drink those same lunar waters which fall on certain days in the second 4 There is also a Vedic quotation fortnight. The imperishable one whom the imperishable drink. 6 They fill him again in the first fortnight. There is also a Vedic quota-

They

are here called lakes.

'

and thirty

in the first half of a

:

tion:

As the gods cause the moon to grow. Adhriguh (lit. irresistible) means a stanza, (so called) from being at the head of a cow (i. e. = adhi-guh). Or else it is intended to refer to an injunction, for there is
toil,

a repetition of words
7

:

Toil,

O

irresistible one, toil well,

O irresistible one.
e.

Fire also

is

called irresistible.

i.

8 (The drops) flow for thee, O irresistible and mighty one. One whose motion is unrestrained and who is active.
:

Indra

is

called irresistible also
(I

9 send) a gift to the irresistible Indra. This too is a Vedic quotation.

1

Cf. Roth, op.
viii. 66. 4.

cit. t

p. 60.

2 3

and
is

Kane ind.

satisfaction, see Pa.
4

used to denote complete i. 4. 66 ; ef. Both, loc. cit.
is

xnana passage, ' That Aditya is verily Indra ', gets over the difficulty by identifying the one with the other,
6
'

Durga remarks that the stanza

ad-

VS. VS.

5. 7

;

cf.

AV.

7. 81. 6.
loc. cit.

5.

7

;

cf.

Roth,

dressed to Indra; the explanation of the etymologists presupposes it to be addressed to

7 *
9

AB.
iii.
i.

ii. 7.

21. 4.
;

Aditya,and it is therefore irrelevant.
this self-raised objection

He meets

61. 1

AV.

20. 35. 1.

by citing a Brah-

80
:

?JISI

[5.

u

Angusah means a hymn it is to be chanted With this hymn we possess Indra. 1 With this hymn we have Indra with us.

aloud.

(Here ends the eleventh section.)

With infused energy, rushing to the attack, shaker, impetuous, great hero and foaming, soma surpasses all plants and trees. All the countermeasures did not deceive Indra. 2 One whose anger is roused, and who rushes to attack, [i. e. who is quick Dhunih to attack, or who attacks while moving,] i.e. soma, or Indra. (shaker) is derived from (the root) dhu (to shake). The word simi is
a synonym of action, or it may be derived from (the root) am (to exert from vak (to be able). The foaming soma that which remains as residue after soma is strained is called ijisam, i. e. something which is thrown away, hence soma is called r/m, i. e. containing the residue. Further, this is used as an epithet of Indra also rjisi, the wielder of thunderbolt. 3
oneself), or
:
:

the residue) and the grains belong to his (i. e. Indra's) 4 Grains are (so called because) they are parched in a kiln, or dried steeds. on a board. Let thy steeds devour grain and sniff at the residue. 5

That portion

e. (i.

is formed by reduplicating and removing the penultimate of (the root) bhas, which means to devour. Soma surpasses all plants and trees. All the countermeasures do not deceive Indra i. e. the counter-measures which they adopt against him are of no avail before Indra they perish before they reach

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.

(Babdhdm)

6

the

first syllable

;

:

him,
is

without reaching him at all. Some are of opinion that the stanza primarily addressed to Indra, while the reference to soma is of secondary
i.

e.

character.

Others hold that
7
i.

it is

primarily addressed to both.

$masa,

something which runs quickly, or runs in the body. The ridge has held back the water. 8 The ridge has held back the water.
e.

(Here ends the
1

tivelfth section.)

i.

105. 19.
;

7

5 cf. Roth, op. cit., p. 62n 3 v. 40. 4 ; AV. 20. 12. 7. 4 This is the reason why Indra is called rjijt, i. e. one whose steeds feed on the resix. 89.

2

meaning

Yaska does not attribute any definite to the word. Durga translates it as

due of soma
8

(rji$am).
cit.,

' a vein '. The word occurs in It is probably connected once only. the RV. with aiman and means ' an elevated edge ', or ' bank ' ; cf. Roth, op. cit., p. 63.

a river ' or

Cp. Roth," op.

p. 68.

8

x. 105. 1

;

SV.

1.

228.

Durga

refers to the sutra Pa. vi. 4. 100.

5.

J5]

VAJAPASTYAM
is

81

Urva&i l
regions

(urn +
\/

(the name of) a naiad, (so called because) she pervades wide A/as to pervade '), or she pervades by means of thighs 2
'

(uru +

Apeardh
:

(a naiad) is

'to pervade'), or her desire is great (urn+ */va& 'to desire one who moves on water. Or else the word apsas
;

').

is

a synonym of beauty it is derived from the negative of (ftie root) paa (to devour) it is not to be devoured, but to be gazed at, or to be made perva3 sive. It is for clear perception,' says Sakapuni. In Whatever forbidden
'
'

food

4
',

(apsas signifies) something which
5
',

is

not to be eaten.
is

In

'

Pervading

indeed

(the

word

signifies) pervasive.

(Apsarah)
:

(therefore) one

who

possesses that (apsas), i. e. a beautiful person the beauty is either acquired 6 On seeing her, the seminal fluid of Mitra and by her or given to her. Varuna fell down. 7 It is to this that the following stanza refers.

(Here ends the thirteenth section.)

O Vasistha, thou art a son of Mitra and Varuna. O Brahman, thou wert born from the mind of Urvai^i. (Thou art) the drop that fell in divine
fervour.

O Vasistha,

All the gods received thee in the atmosphere. 8 thou art certainly the son of Mitra and Varuna.
1

Brahman,

thou wert born from the mind of Urvas'I. (Thou art) the drop that fellindivine fervour. Drop/ it is well nourished, it is to be absorbed. All the gods sup10 ported thee in the atmosphere.

Puskaram means atmosphere
is

:

it

nourishes

puskuram, because it is a means of or to be worshipped (VpHj). This other (meaning worship ('puja-karam), it is a means of of) puslcaram (lotus) is derived from the same root also
(posati) created beings.

Water

called

:

decorating the body (vapus-karam).
root)

Pusyam

(flower)

is

derived from (the
desire or

pus

(to blossom).
is

Vayunam
intelligence.

derived from (the root) vi

(to string)

:

it signifies

(Here ends the fourteenth section.)

He
1

here spread the unintelligible darkness

;

he made
'

it intelligible

with

the sun. 11
Cf.
i.e.
2
3

Roth, op. cit., p. 63. In sexual intercourse.
is

Durga.
op, 'to

This

the second derivation of the word

apsas, i.e. it is

derived from the root

In whatever given to her '. probably misled by the assumption that the passage contains Yaska's remarks, He does not seem to realize that Yaska here
passage from
. .

.

He was

pervade*. 4 VS. 20. 17.

The passage

to support his first the negative of psd.
5

by Yaska derivation of apsas from
is cited
is

two short quotations from the VS. in support of the two etymologies of apsas given by him.
cites
7

Cf.

Brh. D. v. 155.

quoted by Yaska to support his second derivation of apsas from

VS.

14. 4.

The passage
apsas

vii. 38. 11.
9

Cf. Cf.

dp, i.e. to
6

show that

Roth suspects the

pervasive. genuineness of the

means

10

Durga quoted by Both, Brh. D. v. 155.

op.

7.,

p. 64.

n

vi. 21. 3.

82

HARAYANA
He spread unknowable
darkness
;

[5.
it

15

he made

knowable with the sun.

Vdjapastyam means soma.

May we
member

obtain the soma. 1
2

Vdjagandhyam
of the

This too is a Vedic quotation. the same meaning) with gandhya as the second (has
3

compound.

May we eat the soma. This too is a Vedic quotation. Gadhyam is derived from (the root) grah (to seize).
Like food which
4

is

to be seized, they desire to unite themselves with the

straightforward. This too is a Vedic quotation. The verb gadk means to mix.

Mixed on

all sides,

mixed

all

around. 6

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.
is

Kaura-yaiw means one whose
whose chariot
made. 6
Thia too
is

car is made, whose wisdom a Vedic quotation.

is

ripe,

O

Taura-ydna means one whose car is very quick. Approach our sacrifice with the Maruts, thy friends Indra whose car is swift. 7
This too
is

of equal power,

a Vedic quotation.

Ahra-ydna means one whose car does not bring shame on him. 8 Make it presently, (Agni) whose car does not bring shame.
This too

a Vedic quotation. Hara-ydiia means one whose car is moving constantly. (We found) silver on him whose car moves constantly.
is

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.

Who, steady
i.

in every action, belongs to
all

all.

10

e.

Pervading
is

hymns.
soft.

Vraiidl

derived from (the root) vraiid, meaning to become

(Here ends the fifteenth section.)

When
When

thou uprootest

forests, roaring at the
soft.
11

head of wind, and the

draught which makes them

thou causest the forests to

fall

roaring at the head of the howling wind, and the draught, is the drying agent.

with thy deadly weapon, or i. e. the sun who

The hard became
1

soft.

12
7 8
J

ix. 98.

12

;

SV.

2.

1030.

Durga derives

Cf.

Roth, Hid.

&jap<utyatn

\/pat (to fall). Cf. Both, op. c., pp. 64-5. ix. 98. 12 ; SV. 2. 1030.
vGja
iv. 16. 11.
i.

from

and

iv. 4. 14.
viii. 25. 23.
i.
i.

10

101. 4.
54. 5.

126. 6.
Cf. Roth, op.
cit.,

" Fragment
p. 65.

of

ii.

24. 8.

viii. 23. 11.

5. 1

9]

NICUMPUNA

83

This too is a Vedic quotation. The verbs ml and vril, meaning to be hard, are joined together with the former. Nissapi means a libidinous person, i. e. devoid of virility. Paeas (virility) is derived from (the root) sap, meaning to touch.
1 O, do not hand us over to others, as a libidinous person his wealth. Just as the libidinous man wastes his wealth on others, so do not ye hand us over to others.

Turndtam means

water, (so called) because

it

flows quickly.

Like water on a mountain. 2 This too is a Vedic quotation. Ksumpam means a mushroom,

(so called because) it is easily shaken.

(Here ends the sixteenth section.)
his foot, will he trample the infidel man like a mushroom 1 indeed will Indra hear our prayers ? 3 When, with his foot, will he trample the unworshipping man like a

When, with

When

mushroom 1
a

When
of quick

indeed will he listen to our
:

hymns ? The word anga
calculated. 4
i.

is

synonym

it is

gone as soon as

it is

Nicumpuna means
mixed) with water.

soma, the exhilarating food,
tlie

e. it

exhilarates

(when

(Here ends

seventeenth section.)

These pressed soma juices accompanied by their consorts flow lovingly
to be partaken.

Soma

5 spreads to waters.

These pressed soma juices accompanied by their consorts, i. e. waters, flow lovingly to be partaken, i. e. to be drunk. Soma goes to waters. it is filled with water. Ocean is called nwumpuna also The last
:

sacrificial

ablution

is

called

nicumpuna

also

:

*on this occasion,

they

recite

in a

low

O

tone, or they put the sacrificial utensils 7 last sacrificial ablution.
is

down. 6
occurs as nicunkujia also.

This too

a Vedic quotation.

Nicumpuna

Padih means a

goer, (so called) because he goes.

(Here ends the eighteenth section.)

He who catches hold of thee, morning guest coming with wealth, like a bird with a net, shall be rich in kine, gold, and horses great is the life which Indra will bestow upon him. 8
;

1

i.

104. 5.
i.

6

viii.
i.e.

93. 22.

2

viii. 32. 4.

84. 8.
7

For the purpose of cleansing. Durga.
3.

4 The sentence is omitted by Durga. The word artgra is here by Yiska derived from 'to calculate', and -/owe, to go .
'

VS.
i.

48

;

8.

27

:

20. 18.

Cf. Roth, op.

tit.,

p. 07.
8

1

125. 2.

F2

84

V$KA

[5.

19

He who catches hold of thee, O guest who goest at daybreak, coming with food, as a boy catches a bird in a net, becomes rich in kine, gold, and horses great indeed is the life which Indra bestows upon him. A net is (so called) from being let loose on the ground, or from lying on the ground,
;

or from being spread on the ground. Pdduh l (foot) is derived from (the root) pad (to walk). That bright foot of his manifests light, conceals water,
2

and

is

never

relinquished.

and conceals water. The word busam is a from (the root) bru, meaning to sound, or synonym from bhrams (to fall). Whatever water he causes to fall by raining, the same he draws back again by means of his rays.

The sun manifests
of water.

light

It is derived

(Here ends
VrJcah
3

tfte

nineteenth section.)

means the moon,
is

(so called) because her light is disclosed, or

because her light

not

sufficient, or

because her light

is

strong (compared

with

stars).

(Here ends

tlte

twentieth section.)

The red moon, maker
the route.

of the month, indeed, saw (the stars) going along observed she rises up like a carpenter with a bent back Having
this,
e.

:

be witness of

heaven and earth. 4
5

The

red,

i.

bright.

months and

fortnights.

Maker of the month, i. e. the moon is the maker of The moon indeed saw the multitude of stars

going along the heavenly route.

And having
rises

which she will come in conjunction, she from a bent back be witness of this,
;

up

observed every star with like a carpenter suffering

O

heaven and earth.

The sun

is

called vrka also, because he dispels (darkness).

The constant one invoked you, O Asvins, when you released her from the mouth of the wolf. 6 There is a legend that dawn was seized by the sun. She called upon
the AsVins,
biting.

who

released her.

A
is

dog

is

called vrka also,

on account of

The
i.e.

wolf, the killer of sheep, Killer of young sheep.

indeed his warder. 7

A

young sheep
not solar.

is (so

called because)

it is

1

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 67.

2 3

x. 27. 24.

Cf.
i.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 68.
;

In order to bring it into harmony with the solar calendar, an extra month of about thirty days is added every fourth year.
i.

105. 18

cf.

Brh. D.

2. 112.
7

117. 16.

calendar, according to which daily business is transacted, is lunar and

5

The Indian

viii. 66.

8

;

AV.

20. 97.

2

;

SV.

2. 1042.

5.

22]

KRTTI
ffrtid (wool) again, is derived (to

85

covered with wool,
cover), or

from urnu

cover oneself).

The father made Rjrasva, who made
1 she-wolf, blind.

from (the root) vr (to she-jackal is called vrkl also. a gift of a hundred rams to the

A

This too

is

Josavdkam known. 3

a Vedic quotation. 2 is a synonym of unknown,
(Here,

i.

e.

what

is

to

be made

ends the

tiventy-first section.)

Indra and Agni, promoters of
oblations are offered
!

sacrifice,

the gods to

whom

fat

you when unknown (to

(the food of that man) who praises the soma-juices are pressed, but not of his who speaks what is

you partake of

4

him).

two when the soma

man who praises you are pressed. But the two gods, to whom fat juices oblations are offered, do not partake of the food of that man who speaks
Indra and Agni, you partake of the food of that
is

O

what

unknown
6

to him,

i.

e.

who

is

a mere

reciter.
:

5

Krttih

is

Great like fame

derived from the root krt (to cut) 7 is thy protection, O Indra.

it signifies

fame or

food.

O
fame.

Indra, thy protection in the atmosphere This other (meaning of) krttih (garment)
it is
9

is
8

is

very great indeed, like derived from the same
used for the sake of

root also:

made

of cotton threads.

Or

else it is

comparison.

Clad in skin, trident in hand, and with bow outstretched. 10 [Wander about wearing the skin garment, and come to us bearing the
trident.
11

]

This too

is
12

&va-ghnl

a Vedic quotation. means a gambler he destroys (hanti) himself (svam).
:

One-

self is (so called because) it is

As a gambler
1

dependent. 13 picks up the die marked with four dots in play.
'

i.
'

116. 16.
7

Hide, skin

',

&c.

Grassmann,

op.

cit.,

2

cf.

Magniloquence, or challenging speech ', 68 Roth, cit., op. agreeable p.
'

p. 347.
viii. 90. f> SV. 2. 762. According to Durga, the other meaning of the word is a girl ', so called because she is
;

;

speech

',

Grassmann, Worttrluch cum

*

Rg-ceda,

p

.

500.
3

'

i.e.

On account

of being not understood.

wrapped
9

in cotton clothes.

Durga.
4
5

This

vi. 59. 4.
i.e.

third
recites-stanzas on the

is explained by Durga as giving the meaning of theT^brd, i. e. a skin ', from
'

One who
Durga.

bank of

the analogy of a cotton garment,
J0

some
work.
:

river

and does not perform any practical

KS.
VS.
Cf.

9. 7

;

cf.

VS.

3. 61.

quotes a Brahmana pasBecause among the gods Indra and sage Agni have the major share, &c.

He

16. 61.

12

Grassmann,
5
;

op. ctY., p.

1432.

"

x. 43.

AV.

20. 17. 5.

86

URUSYATI

[5.

2*

is it

As a gambler picks up the die marked with four dots in play. Kitava, l Or else an onomatopoetic word = kim -f tava, i. e. what have you got ? 2 is a benedictory exclamation, good luck The word smam 3 is an unaccented pronoun and has the sense of
'

'.

comprehensive. (Here ends the tiventy-second section.)

Let the weapon of our numerous evil-minded vindictive foes not smite
us as a wave does a boat. 4

Let the weapon of all our evil-minded, i. e. whose minds are sinful, and Urmi always vindictive enemies not smite us as a wave does a boat. A boat (nau) is (so is derived from (the root) urnu (to cover). (wave) called because) it is to be pulled through (\/m), or the word may be
derived from (the root) a noun be an enclitic ? 5

nam
(It is

(to bend).
7

With

reference to this,

how can
6

a noun) for the reason that

it is inflected.

Lo
verb

give us wealth on all occasions. In (the above quotation) the word occurs in the locative
!

case.

The

means to give. 8 Protecting from all attacks.
ai&tti
:

In (the above quotation) it occurs in the ablative case. The verb urusyati means to protect. It occurs in the nominative plural also Let all others be destroyed. 9
(Here ends the twenty-third section.)

O Men, the consumer of waters, who is also the bountiful, with oblation the father, the observer of the deed. 10
:

fills

you

He

causes the waters to be consumed with oblations.
Ifill,

The words
father,

piparti and po.puri mean either to
observes the deed, the action, 11
1
i.

or to please.

The

whr

i.

e.

the sun.
a noun is shown by the fact that it is inflected and three quotations illustrating its inflexion in the nominative, ablative, and locative are cited. Towards the end of the twenty-second section Yaska says that samam is a pronoun he here uses the word ndma in the same sense. Cf. Professor Macdonell, Vedic Grammar
;

e.

him questions like the following win ? how much did you win ?
have you got to stake
op. cit., p. 68.
2

His friends the other gamblers ask : did you
or,
;

what
Roth,

? &c.

Durga

cf.

i.e.

His friends wish him good luck, as he

begins to play.
3

Cf.

Grassmann,

op. ctV., p. 1478.

for Students, p. 495.
'

viii. 75. 9.
6

viii. 21. 8.
v. 24. 8. viii. 39.
i.

The

particles alone are

accentless
it

;

as

H

nouns afways have an accent,
a noun.
6

cannot be

9

1-10.
Cf.

the objection. Durga. Yftska's rejoinder to the objection is, that
is

This

10

46. 4.

Brh.D.

8. 11. 2.

u

Cf.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 69.

According to Durga,

it is

accentless

is

quite obvious,

and that

it is

the two words jara and papwri are in contrast

5.

26]

P$THAK
;

87

root)

is a synonym of thunderbolt it is derived from (the sam (to kill), or from the causal of sad (to knock off). The thunderbolt that is terrible with that, O widely-invoked one. 2
;

The word samba l

This too

is
3

a Vedic quotation.

Kepayah

=

Jcapuyak,

i.

e.

puyam

is (so called

because)

it is difficult

The word Jcahaving a stinking smell. to be purified, (even) when one

tries to expiate

a vile deed.
(Here ends the twenty-fourth section.)

The first invokers of gods went forth their several ways, their glorious deeds are hard to surpass. Many, who were not able to ascend the ship of 4 sacrifice, remained in this very world, stinking. went forth severally. Prthak (severally) is derived from (the They
First invokers of gods i. e. who invoked the gods, and performed glorious and heroic exploits, which are hard to be surpassed by others, i.e. those who were not able to ascend the ship of sacrifice. Now those, who were not able to ascend the ship of sacrifice, remained
root) prath (to spread).
:

here,

i.

e.

Srma 5
(sam

is

in this very place, or in debt, or in this world. The word a synonym of arm, (so called because) it is very much moved
6

\/$r).

O

son of strength, thou soon drawest
7

all

these pressed
these

soma

juices

which thou supportest

thyself.
all

son of strength, thou soon favourest

places

which thou

supportest thyself. Amsatram* a means of protectipn from calamity, i. e. a bow, or coat of mail. coat of mail (kavacam) is (so called because) it is bent in a crooked manner (ku + aiicitam), or it is slightly bent (ka + ancitam)

A

t

or

it is fitted

on the body (kdye + ancitam).
(Here ends the twenty-fifth section.)

horses, win fortune, here make a chariot that brings Pour down, in the cavity, the drink for men, having wooden prosperity. 9 troughs, furnished with a stone wheel and pails and armour. Refresh the horses win good fortune let victory be your fortune

Refresh the

;

:

;

make

a chariot that brings prosperity.

Having wooden troughs
Cf.
i.

:

wooden,

to each other,

i.e. the sun first consumes the waters by means of evaporation, &c., and then gives them back through rain.
1

Koth,

op.

cit.,

pp. 69-70.

e.

As compared with other limbs of the
Durga.

body.
Cf.

Cf.

Grassmann,
;

op.

cit.,

p. 1380.

x. 50. 6.

-

x. 42. 7

AV.
AV.

20. 89.

7.

Grassmann,
Cf.

op.

cit.,

p. 2.

3

Shivering
x. 44.

';cf.

Grassmann,

op. cit., p.

851.

x. 101. 7.

Roth,

op. cit., p. 70.

6

;

20. 04. 0.

88

LATA
of

[5.

26

made

wood

;

trough (d-hdva)
is (so called)

A

is (so called because) it goes down very deep (ava-atita). stone wheel, i. e. a pervading wheel, or a wheel that frightens away. Having pails of armour: let your armours be the substitutes for pails.

veyance (avaha) Cavity (avata)

is (so called) from being invoked. from driving (d-Vvah).

Con-

Kosa
out.

(pail) is

This other (meaning

derived from (the root) kus (to draw out): it is drawn of) ko&a (treasure) is derived from the same

Pour down the drink it is .accumulation, a great collection. water for men. The seer compares a battle with the characteristic for men, of a well. Palate * is called kalcudam kokwd signifies tongue, that (tongue) is (called) kokuvd is placed under it. because, being noisy Tongue (kokuyamcfad), it utters sounds. [Or it may be derived from (the root) kokuy, meaning to make a sound.] Tongue (jihvd) is (so called because) Tdlu (palate) is derived from (the it calls out again and again (johuvd). it is the highest part (in the mouth), or from lat root) tr (to cross) (meaning to be long) by metathesis like talam (surface) the word laid (creeper) is (derived from the same root) without metathesis.
root also:
:

:

;

(Here ends the twenty-sixth

section.)

O Varuna, thou art a benevolent god, into whose palate seven livers as into a hollow channel. 2

flow

the

Thou art a benevolent god, i. e. a bountiful god, into whose palate flow the seven rivers for their course as into a hollow channel. This too is
a Vedic quotation. 3 [Thou art a benevolent god, i. e. a bountiful god, or a munificent god, O Varuna, to thee belong the seven rivers. A river (sindhu) is (so called) from flowing (sru). Into thy palate flow the seven streams. Su-Hrmi*
(channel),
i.

e.

having beautiful waves.

Just as a stream (flows) into a

hollow channel.
6 According to Taitiki, blritam means atmosphere, and is derived in the following manner the former part from (the root) ve and the latter
:

from

(the root) Ir: the birds or luminaries Vedic stanza illustrates this.] G

move

in

it.

The following

(Here ends the twenty -seventh
'

7

section).

1

Cf. Patafijali, op.
riii. 69.

cit., 1.

1. 1., vol. i,

p. 4.

see

28.

2

12

;

AV.

20. 92. 9.

The comment
brackets
7

8

This

is

the version of the MSS. of the

is

placed within square the version of the MSS. of the

shorter recension and Durga. * Cf. Grassmann, op. cit., p. 1567
it

longer recension.
;

he derived
907

The
i.

section is quoted in
1. 1,

toto

by

Patanjali,

from Vsr
5
<

(to

move).

op. cit.,

vol. 1, p. 4.

Troop

',

cf.

Grassmann,

op. c#., p.

;

6. i]

SRNI

89

For them he twisted the grass soft to tread, in the atmosphere they appear like lords of all creation. At night, at dawn, at men's earliest call, 1 (may) Vayu and Pusan (come) with their teams for our welfare. For them, the grass soft to tread is twisted. They come as protectors
or benefactors of
light.
all.

Or

else it is

kings, lords of all, night, at the earliest call of

Btritawi means atmosphere it is full of fear or used for the sake of comparison, i. e. they appear like At the termination of in a great multitude of men.
:

men (may) Vayu and Pusan
With

(come) with their

teams for our welfare,
are yoked.
'

i.

e.

protection.

Yoked

'

is (so called)

whose steeds from being restrained or yoked.
his team, i.e. one
'

Accha
fekapuni.

2

is

used in the sense of abh i.

It

means

to obtain

',

says

Par

I,

Enam
5

3 Im, and svm have been explained. and enam are explained by the words asya and asydh*

Sriii means a hook, (so called) from urging (Vsr). Ankum (hook) derived from (the root) anc (to bend) it is bent. From the vicinity of the hook, let him here come to ripe grain. 6
:

is

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.

the nearest place of the hook, let him come to the ripe herbs, let him come to the ripe herbs.

From

(Here ends the tiventy-eighth

section.)

CHAPTER VI
O AGNI, O Sovereign lord of men, burning quickly with thy flames, thou art born, glowing with bright (days), from the waters, from within 7 the flintstone, from the forest-trees, and from the herbs. O Agni, burning quickly with thy flames, thou (art born) with bright days. The words dm and su are two synonyms of quick. Ksani, the latter part (of db-u-vu-ksani), is derived from (the root) ksan (to injure) 8 8uk is derived it quickly injures, or procures (sanoti) with its flames.
:

from (the
ablative
3 ;

Or the nominative has been used for the root) sue (to shine). The former part (of d-sumksani), this is shown by the context.
;

vii. 39.

2

VS. S3. 44.
op. cit., p.

6

x. 101.
1 .

3
;

;

VS.

12. 68.

2

Cf.

Grassmann,
cf.

15

;

cf.

Professor

7 ii.
8

1

VS.

11. 27.

Macdonell, 3 See 1. 7
4

op. cit., p. 472.
;

The
i.e.

division of the word, in the latter
:

Professor Macdonell,

op. cit.,

case, is the following
9

(Mu-tuk-nani.

pp. 476, 486,496.

See
:

4. 25.
'

8

Sickle

;

cf.

Grassmann,

op. cit., p.

1576.

All the other words, like 'from the waters, from within the stone', Ac., are in the ablative.

90
i.
;

LOSTA

[6. i

the latter is formed from the desiderative e. the letter a, is a preposition of the causative of (the root) sue, i. e. desirous of kindling quickly. uci (glowing) is derived from (the root) sue, meaning to glow. This other
'
:

Sin is removed (meaning of) &uci (pure) is derived from the same root also from him,' say the etymologists. May Indra make us fearless from all quarters. 1 Atsdh 2 means quarters, (so called) from being situated (a-sad). Ayah means intermediate quarters, (so called) from pervading ( \/as*). Kadi means fist, (so called) from shining (pra-kas). Fist (mustlh) is (so called) from releasing ( >/muc), or from stealing ( -/raus), or from stupefying
(

Vmuh)*

These boundless regions, which thou hast seized, Indra, are thy fist, Lord of wealth. 4 These two regions, i. e. heaven and earth, having a boundary, are (so called) from being bounded. Modltas means a bank it restrains the stream. Kula (bank) is derived from (the root) ruj (to break) by metathesis and
: ;

losta

(lumps) without metathesis. which thou hast seized are thy great

5

Boundless, very extensive.
fist,

These

Lord of wealth

!

O Indra, O Indra,
all

crush the han~Iless, thundering (cloud). having made him handless, crush the cloud that thunders

around.

(Here ends

tlie

first section.)

The cover easy
before slaughter.

He made
a

to pierce, the enclosure of speech, being afraid, yielded the paths easy to tread for driving the cattle.

The following speech well protected the widely-invoked one. 7 AlMrwa* means easy to pierce, i.e. a cloud. Vala (cover) is derived from (the root) vr (to cover). Vraja (enclosure) is (so called) because it moves in the Of go, i. e. of the atmospheric speech. atmosphere.
Being afraid, he yielded before slaughter. He made the paths easy to tread for driving the cattle he made the paths easy to traverse in order
:

to drive forth the cattle.

The flowing speeches well protected the widely-

invoked one,

i.

e.

waters on account of their flowing, or speeches on account

1

ii.

41. 12;

AV.

20.20. 7

;

57. 10.
cf.

2

'Room, cardinal point',
187.
is

Grassmann,
because one
jits

op. cit., p. 8 Fist

called stupefying,
to

Ruj ) ruj ) ruka > kiira by metathesis, and by the interchange of r and f; ntf) rosta } losta by interchange of r and I. 6 iii. 30.8; VS. 18. 69.
5

kfila

becomes perplexed as
are.
4

what
cit.,

contents

7
3

iii.
'

30. 10.
',

Niggard

cf.

Grassmann,

op.

cit.,

p. 121.

iii.

30. 5. 4

;

Roth,

op.

p. 72.

6. 3]

VIRUDHAH
is

91

The rain-water of being uttered. The verb dkam means to go.

invoked by a large number of people.

(Here ends the second section.}

O

shatter

Indra, tear up the Raksas with their root, rend them in the middle, them in the front. How far did you entice him? Throw the

1 burning weapon upon the foe of prayer. O Indra, tear up the Raksas with their root. Mulam (root) is (so called) from releasing ( -/mur), or from stealing ( Vmus), or from stupefying
(

Jmuh)* Rend them in the middle, shatter them in the front. Agram (front) is (so called because) it comes nearest (d-gatam).
i.

How
',

far,

what country. up Salcdukam 3 means one who is perplexed it means one who is sinful say the etymologists. Or it may be sararulcam, i. e. moving everywhere,
e.

to

'

;

formed by reduplicating (the root) sr (to move). Tapusi (burning) is derived from (the root) tap (to heat). Hetl (weapon) is derived from (the
root) /tan (to kill).

and swelling (Indra) indeed (slew) even him who was lying whose waters are auspicious. 5 i. e. waters), having auspicious waters,
Visruhah means streams, (so The seven streams grew
quotation.
called)

4

(with

like

from flowing (vl </sru). This too is branches. 6

a

Vedic

Virudhah means herbs, (so called) from growing (viVrult). Herbs are our means of salvation. 7 This too is a Vedic quotation. Naksad-ddbham 8 means one who strikes down any man who approaches, or who strikes down by means of a weapon which can reach all. Who strikes the approaching opponent, who is swift and who dwells on
mountains. 9

This too
10

A-skrdhoyu

is a Vedic quotation. means one whose life is not
:

short.

The word krdhu

is

a
11

synonym

of short

it is

mutilated.

He whose
1

life is

not short,

who

is

undecaying, and
c

who

is brilliant.

iii.

80. 17

vi. 7. 6.

2

Durga omits the
'

sentence

tnillam

to

7

x. 07.

3

;

VS.

12. 77.
it

(Vinuh).
3
4

8

Durga explains

as na-ktad-ddbham,

i.e.

Melting 'jcf.Grassmann,

op. cit., p.

1401.

v. 32. 6.

one who annihilates by his mere presence without killing; annihilating, Giassmann,
op. cit., p.

payasam',

Yaska paraphrases kat-payam by sukhaDurga by kapayam, i.e. a cloud whose water is sweet Sayana by sukhakaram pai/o yasya; 'swelling', Grassmann, op. cit.,
;

5

157.
;

vi. 22.
10
i.

e.

2 AV. 20. 36. 2. Having a long life.
'

mann,
ll

op. cit., p. 157,

Durga. not scanty.'

Grass-

p.

311

;

cf.

Both,

op.

cit.,

p. 72.

vi. 22.

3

;

AV.

20. 36. 8.

92
This too
step.]
is

RUJANAH
a Vedic quotation.

[6.^3
l

[Ni&rmbhdh

means drawing with a firm

(Here ends the third section.)

May those goats, who draw with a firm step, bring Pusan, the refuge of 2 men, in a chariot, may they (come) bearing the good. those goats, who draw with a firm step, bring Pusan, the refuge of May 3 men, i. e. the refuge of all the born beings, in a chariot.
Brbad-ukthah
4

means a sublime hymn, or one

to

whom

a hymn, or

a sublime hymn, is to be addressed. We invoke him to whom sublime

hymns

are to be addressed. 5
or
soft in the

This too
inside of

is

a Vedic quotation.
:

Rdu-udara means soma
men.
I be together with
is

its inside

(udara)

is

soft,

it is

May

my

c friend, the soma.

This too

a Vedic quotation.

We
desires.

shall explain the
8

word rdupe
of

later on. 7
desires.

Pulukdma means a man
This too
is

many

Man

is

indeed of

many

a Vedic quotation.

Asinvatl means eating insatiably.

Eating insatiably and devouring too much. This too is a Vedic quotation.

Kapandh means creeping, e. worms. O wise ones, as worms consume 10 a tree. 11
i.

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.
13

12 means one whose Bhd-rjlka light is well known. With a banner of smoke, (kindled) with fuel, of well-known This too is a Vedic quotation.

light.

Rujanah
1

u means rivers: they break (rujanti) whose enemy is Indra, 15 crushed down the He,
'
<J

their banks.
rivers. 16

quickly'
op.
2 8

Durga explains the word as drawing and Grassman as stepping firmly ',
' ;

x. 79. 1.

10
1J

Lit. steal.
v. 54. 6.

cit.,

p. 735.

Durga

also takes vedhasah as
e.

an

vi. 55. 6.

Durga explains janasriyam as 'one whose glory has become manifest ', i.e. as a possessive compound, which is impossible from the
accent.

epithet of worms, i. inside of a tree and
12

who

penetrate into the

consume its sap. Durga explains the word as 'of straight or steady light', and Grassmann,op.7.,p.391,
'

Roth doubts the accuracy of Y5*ka's etymology, which is supported both by M. W. and Grassmann, op. cit., p. 910.
5 7 8

4

of radiating light '. 13 x. 12. 2 AV. 18.
;

1.

30.

viii. 32. 10.

6

viii. 48. 10.

Grassmann, op. cit., p. 1173. 10 Durga takes indra-satruh as a tatpuntsa compound, but from the accent it is clearly
Cf.

14

See
i.

6. 33.

a possessive
10
i.

178.5. Cf.Kalidasa,#umara-samWiaia,iv.

32. 6

;

compound. TB. 11. 5. 4.

4.

6.6]
This too
is

INDRA AND THE SEERS
a Vedic quotation.
is

93

dm (to run), or du (to hurt).

Jurnih l (power, or army)

derived from (the root) ju (to speed), or

The army dispatched (against us) will not be strong. 2 The oblation has reached you every day with protection. 3 The food has reached you from all sides with protection. means day.
(Here ends the fourth section.)

Ghrainsa

Upalaprakqanl* means a woman who grinds grain on stones, or who throws grain down on stones. [Indra asked the seers, How does one live in famine ?' One of them answered, Nine are the means of livelihood in
'

famine,

i.

e. cart,

ocean, mountain, 5 reading of it.]

pot-herbs, kine, net, restraining the flow of water, forest, and the king.' This stanza is explained by the mere

(Here ends the
I

fifth

section.}

a bard, my father is a physician, my mother a stone-grinder. Planning in various ways, desirous of wealth, we live, following (others) like cattle flow, Soma, flow for Indni's sake. 6 I am a bard, i.e. a composer of hymns. My father is a physician.
;

am

The word
grinder,
root)
i.

tatah

is

a synonym of offspring,

it

means father or

son.

Stone(the

i.e.

she

who

e.

nam, means working in various ways.

prepares barley meal. either mother or daughter.
'

Naud, derived from

Planning in various ways,

follow the world like kine. the solicitation.

Desirous of wealth, lovers of wealth. We Flow, Soma, flow for Indra's sake/ this is

Seated, he slays the higher one, in his lap. 7

In the bosom.
the small, even the

Prakalavid* means a trader, minutest parts of a thing.
*

i.e.

one

who knows

Bad
1

friends,
is

This too
Cf.

9 measuring like a trader. a Vedic quotation.

Roth, op.

cil.,

p.

74; Grassmann,

op.

cit.,

493. According to Durga,v/;u 2 i- 129. 8.
3

means to

injure.

Durga, and

omitted by MSS. of the shorter version and is evidently irrelevant. Cp. Brh.

DM
7

Zoc . rft

Roth, toe. cit. 4 Durga explains it to mean a maid-servant who prepares the necessary things used for
;

vii. 69.

4

cf.

ix. 112. 8.

Cf. Roth,

loc. cit.

Indra lets the higher one, i.o. the cone in the form of rain-water, flow in
x. 27. 18.

pressing
cf.

the

soma
op.

;

cf.

also
<

quoted by Roth,

op. cit., p. 74.
cit.,

his remarks Mill-woman '
Cf.

the atmosphere.
8

Durga.
cit.,

;

Cf. Roth, op.
,

p.

75

<
;

reckoning the
864.

Grassmann,

p. 257.

Brh. D.

vi.

smallest part
vii. 18. 15.

Grassmann,

op. cit., p.

13 8.

The passage within square brackets

is

94
Abhyardhayajvd
into separate parts.
1

ASME
means one who
offers sacrifices

[6.

6

having made them

2 Pusd, who sacrifices in separate parts, pours down. This too is a Vedic quotation. I/cse means thou rulest.

Thou
This too

rulest,
is

O

3 King, over the treasures of both (the worlds) indeed.

a Vedic quotation.

j^Ksotiasya-

means of

4

abode.]

O

As*vins,

5 ye gave a spacious abode to Kanva.

This too

is

a Vedic

quotation.

(Here ends the sixth section.)

We
O

6 are thy kinsmen.

i. e.

We

in

the nominative.

Come

to

us,

AsVins of equal power. 7 i. e. To us, in the accusative. With us who are equally strong, O Bull. 8 i. e. With
case.

us, in the instru-

mental
e.

Extend
i.

this to us,

O

Lord of wealth, and wielder of the thunderbolt. 9
us. 10
i.

To

us, in

the dative case.
e.

May
Our
case.

he secretly separate the enemy even when far from
desire spreads like the submarine
fire.
11

From

us, in the ablative.
i.e.

Our, in the genitive

Bestow treasures on us, O Vasus. 12 i.e. On us, in the locative case. 13 1* Pathats means atmosphere it is explained by the word pathd.
:

Like a flying falcon, he sweeps This too is a Vedic quotation.

down

the atmosphere. 15
'

also called pdthas, from 10 observes the water of these rivers.

Water

is

drinking

(

</pd,

to

drink

').

He

This too

is

a Vedic quotation.

also called pathos, from swallowing 17 one, carry up the food of the gods.

Food

is

(Vpd, to swallow).

O

wise

Most munificent ', Durga;' distributing'. Grassmann, op. cit., p. 88.
1
'

J0

vi. 47. 13.
iv. 80.

19

;

TB.

ii.

5. 4.

2 vi.
3 4

50.5.

" VS.
1S

8. 18.

vi. 19. 10.

All these quotations,

i.e.

seven in

all,

The passage within the square brackets is omitted by MSS. of the shorter recension only, and not by Durga.
i.

have been cited to sh