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, 1993,12 (3), 909-922
Successful therapeutic regimens for treating Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in cows
A.I. RADWAN *, S.I. BEKAIRI *, A.M. AL-BOKMY *, P.V.S. PRASAD *, O.M. MOHAMED ** and S.T. HUSSAIN **
Summary: Three therapeutic regimens were evaluated in 121 cows naturally infected with Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus, using a combination of long-acting Oxytetracycline (LA-OTC), streptomycin (ST) and OTCintramammary infusion (IMI). Cessation of shedding of b r u c e l l a in udder secretions and absence of Brucella in selected tissues were considered criteria for successful treatment. Regimen A (tested on 35 cows) consisted of LA-OTC 25 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (i.m.) every 3 days for 42 days, ST 25 mg/kg i.m. daily for 8 days, and OTC-IMI 20 ml/teat daily for 4 days. Regimen B (tested on 53 cows) was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 2 days for 16 days and OTC-IMI every 2 days for 8 days. Both regimens were equally effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all cows involved in the tests and no relapses were recorded. However, regimen C, which was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 3 days for 24 days and OTC-IMI every 3 days for 12 days, resulted in the elimination of Brucella organisms from only 30 (91%) of 33 cows. Before commencement of the therapeutic regimens, B. melitensis biovar 1 or 2 had been repeatedly isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows and B. abortus biovar 1 from mammary secretions of 18 cows. KEYWORDS: Antibiotics - Brucella abortus - Brucella melitensis - Cattle Oxytetracycline - Streptomycin - Therapy.
INTRODUCTION Several c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c agents have b e e n employed in recent decades for the treatment of Brucella abortus infection in cows; however, n o n e of these has been entirely successful. N u m e r o u s chemical agents, general antimicrobials (phenols or dyes), trace elements, minerals and mixtures of vitamins (A and E ) have b e e n tried unsuccessfully. F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t e m p t s using antibiotics such as penicillin or sulfonamides failed to cause cessation of the shedding of B. abortus from the mammary secretions of infected cows, or caused only temporary cessation (7,11,37).
* Animal Production and Health Section, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, P.O. Box 17285, Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia. ** National Agriculture Development Co., P.O. Box 2557, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
With the development of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and long-acting (LA)-OTC.p. when 8 infected Najdi sheep were inoculated with 1. when L A . In the respective groups. One of these regimens ( L A . has resulted in the reduction of abortions in infected herds or individual cows (20. effective and least expensive means of achieving complete elimination of B. daily for 6 weeks) combined with ST (1 g i.m.000 mg O T C daily for 6 weeks. the regimens previously tried involved small doses and few injections of the antibiotics used.m.] or i. the use of these agents alone or in combination with ST has succeeded in eliminating the symptoms of this disease and reducing the shedding of brucellae by infected cows. 46 days after infection (30).p. abortus were injected daily for 6 days with 1 g Chlortetracycline. every 2 days for 2 weeks) proved to be the most practical. practical. 9 sheep experimentally infected with B. melitensis or B. increasing the percentage of Brucella-tree sheep to 82%. Consequently. in order to make treatment of Briicella-infected cows with superior genes a viable alternative to slaughter.O T C (20 mg/kg intramuscularly [i. serious local reactions were reported in cows.O T C was combined with ST (20 mg/kg intravenously [i.p. every 3 days for 2 weeks) alone was successful in curing 3 (21%) of 14 cows. the majority of the treated sheep developed subcutaneous sterile abscesses in the flank at the site of repeated i. then 20 days later with 1. In a n o t h e r study. Radwan and colleagues (34) conducted a long-term treatment trial using a variety of doses of O T C . In addition. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive.000 mg LA-OTC i. terramycin. 6 sheep were Brucella-iiee. tetracyclines and streptomycin (ST). at necropsy (34). With regard to brucellosis in sheep. the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the failure to cure udder infections in many cases have led to the general conclusion that such treatment is unsuitable for the control of bovine brucellosis. 69% and 100% of the sheep were found to be Brucella-îre-c at the end of the trial. inoculation with OTC. In view of the encouraging results in cows (24.m. by the i. route. The aim of the study was to obtain a therapeutic regimen which is effective.m.) inoculations with O T C (12. melitensis in the 80 sheep and goats treated (35). the cost of therapy. daily for 1 week) resulted in cessation of shedding of B. However. However. on 118 sheep naturally infected with B.p. In one of these studies.910 The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aureomycin.V.4 g t o g e t h e r with i m m u n e serum for 3 days.p. Radwan and colleagues (35) evaluated six different long-term treatment regimens on 480 sheep and goats naturally infected with B.24. these regimens have failed to result in complete cure. injections of L A . every 3 days for 6 weeks.m. abortus in 10 (71. Only one sheep was found to be bacteriologically positive at slaughter. using high doses of L A . .O T C 25 mg/kg i. groups of infected Najdi sheep were injected with 250.25. every 2 days for 4 weeks combined with ST 20 mg/kg i. 52%.m. daily for 1 week) 14 (67%) of 21 cows w e r e successfully treated (25). such therapeutic regimens have been applied in infected herds to prevent abortions and reduce the spread of brucellosis. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three long-term therapeutic regimens using a combination of LA-OTC. Furthermore. melitensis.O T C combined with ST. singly or in combination. safe. due to repeated intraperitoneal (i. melitensis. In addition. In this trial.29).m. daily for 3 weeks) showed a synergistic effect. inoculation of L A . However.O T C (20 mg/kg i.4%) of 14 cows (24).25) and the successful results in sheep and goats (35).500 or 1.13. abortus from naturallyinfected cows.21). Moreover. Furthermore. In this trial.] every 3 days for 2 weeks) combined with ST (20 mg/kg i. alone or in combination with ST. Recently. treatment with OTC (250 mg i. ST and OTC intramammary infusion (IMI) in eliminating B.
Non-treated cows were not included as controls. Therapeutic agents The pharmaceutical products used in this study were as follows: . without regard to age. 89 cows were found not to be pregnant (having already aborted or calved 4-8 months before t r e a t m e n t ) and 32 cows were in various stages of pregnancy. particularly because L A . melitensis. The cows originated from three large commercial dairy herds raised in the central and eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia. These animals were selected to provide a m o r e conclusive evaluation than that obtained in previous studies.O T C is a long-acting antibiotic. E g y p t ) supplied in vials. a total of 12 pregnant cows (4 from each t r e a t m e n t group) were sacrificed. Herd records indicated that none of the cows had been vaccinated during calfhood. a total of 3 calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group) were sacrificed.L A . Since the number of available cows infected with B. which gave positive results for brucellosis after serological and bacteriological tests. T h e animals belonged to two breeds (108 Holstein x Friesian and 13 Jersey). B and C).28).ST sulphate (from Giza. This herd contained few seropositive cows on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . Milking was ceased in lactating cows. date of recent pregnancy and n u m b e r of previous abortions due to Brucella. and selected tissues were collected for bacteriological examination. Three months later. T h e cows contracted brucellosis from sheep and goats infected with B. One m o n t h after t r e a t m e n t . The cows were aged 3-10 years and weighed between 450 kg and 750 kg. these were placed in g r o u p B together with 35 cows with B. Shortly before initiation of the present treatment regimens. The three herds were composed of highly valuable breeding cows originally imported from the United States of America (USA) and Europe.911 MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals A total of 121 cows were selected. B. in contrast to ST and OTC-IMI which are not. B. melitensis was isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows (biovar 1 from 97 cows and biovar 2 from 6 cows). These two herds originally tested seronegative on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . as several previous studies have indicated that Brucella infections persist in cattle and s p o n t a n e o u s recovery is uncommon (10. respectively . approximately four years prior to this study. The reason for the division into three treatment schedules was to choose the most practical and effective regimen.O T C injectable solution (from F i a n c e ) containing 200 mg O T C base p e r millilitre . eight years prior to the present study.p r e g n a n t cows were artificially inseminated. immediately after birth. abortus was small. and selected tissue samples were cultured. all n o n . The 121 cows were divided into three treatment groups (A. melitensis (biovars 1 and 2) which had been introduced to the two farms 8-12 m o n t h s before bovine brucellosis occurred in the two cattle herds (unpublished findings). dissolved (just before use) in 3 ml or 12 ml sterile distilled water. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from the mammary secretions of 18 cows. In two herds. In the third herd.22. All cows in the study were isolated from other animals. each containing l g or 4 g. number of previous pregnancies. In addition.
T h e isolated 2 . samples of stomach contents. T h e rose bengal test antigen was obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory. precrural. Immediately before initiation of the therapeutic regimens. each containing 200 mg OTC hydrochloride. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 7 days in the presence and absence of 10% C 0 a t m o s p h e r e .m. Agglutination at 1:100 or greater was considered positive. The standard Brucella plate antigen (made of B. in the cervical.O T C and ST were injected i.O T C at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of therapy. liver. prescapular. popliteal and head lymph nodes. iliac. Animals testing positive to the rose bengal test were retested by the standard US plate agglutination procedure for the determination of Brucella antibody titres (3). A t each examination. and sections of udder. New Haw. Following the three serological examinations. thigh and shoulder muscles. abortus strain 1119-3) was obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture in Ames. USA. mediastinal. Greece) in 10 ml syringes. Aliquots from each udder secretion sample were spread with sterile cotton swabs on 2-4 freshly prepared plates of culture medium. milk samples from all seropositive cows were subjected to bacteriological examination for identification of Brucella shedders. from the 12 pregnant sacrificed cows (4 cows from each treatment group which were slaughtered at 4 months post-treatment) the following tissue specimens were aseptically collected for bacteriological examination: supramammary. Weybridge. The date of previous abortions in relation to the initiation of treatment was not recorded on the farms involved. Bacteriological examination T h e m e d i u m for Brucella culture was p r e p a r e d as described previously (35). animals were initially screened for the presence of Brucella agglutinins by the rose bengal test (3). In addition. every month after completion of treatment until calving and again every 2 weeks after calving for 6 m o n t h s . Furthermore. 100 mg neomycin sulphate. Both ST and OTC-IMI were administered with L A . United Kingdom. Separate 30 ml samples of udder secretions from each quarter were also cultured every week during treatment.912 . The L A . cultures of udder secretions were m a d e from the selected 121 positive cows to confirm shedding of Brucella organisms. sera from all calves born from treated cows were examined immediately after birth. Iowa. liver and spleen. Similar selected tissue specimens were cultured from 3 sacrificed newborn calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group).OTC-IMI (from Athens.and bacteriologically-positive cows were serologically tested again immediately before initiation of the present treatment regimens and at monthly intervals after completion of treatment (for 4 months in 12 sacrificed cows and for 16 months in the remaining 109 cows). Therapeutic regimens The treatment regimens of the three groups of infected cows are shown in Table I. at a dosage of 20-30 ml per site. In addition. Each tissue specimen was individually homogenised in a tissue grinder and aliquots were spread with sterile cotton swabs on several (4-8) freshly prepared plates of culture medium. Serological testing All animals were subjected to three successive serological examinations at monthly intervals. udder secretion. 5 mg Prednisolone and 10 ml special excipient. brain. uterus. 100 mg oleandomycin p h o s p h a t e . ovary. sera from the selected 121 serologically. mesenteric. lung and spleen of foetuses from the sacrificed animals were cultured. In addition.
1 4 8 4/4 31/31 (100%) 3 14 A 35(c) LA-OTC( ) ST( ) & OTC-IMI(g) f 25mg/kg i.m. abortus from naturally-infected cows Regimen FA v 3 No.m.m.m.of Periodicity treated Therapeutic agents cows Route Dosage E ™° Y ^¿J. i. melitensis cows naturally infected with B. No of Success/treated Tissuesa)Udder secretions < > b e i. 25mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 3 3 27/29(91%) i. abortus long-acting Oxytetracycline injectable solution (from France) 200 mg/ml streptomycin sulphate (from Egypt) Oxytetracycline intramammary infusion (from Greece) 913 .: IMI: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) intramuscular (injection) intramammary infusion number of sacrificed cows from which selected tissues were cultured for Brucella number of cows from which mammary secretions were repeatedly cultured for Brucella cows naturally infected with B. 25mg/kg i.m.m. 25mg/kg &OTC-IMlig) IMI 20 ml/teat 25mg/kg 2 2 3 4/4 4 e C 3 33W LA-OTC( ) STW &OTC-IMl(s) i.TABLE I Efficacy of three treatment regimens in eliminating Brucella melitensis or B. 25 mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 1 e B 8 14 49/49(100%) 35(c) ST(f) 18( ) 14 8 4 3/4 d LA-OTC( ) i.m.
Meat inspection of the twelve cows which were slaughtered (4 months post-treatment) revealed complete absence of any detectable abnormalities in the muscles at the site of intramuscular inoculations of L A . Side-effects of the therapeutic agents In 8 cows. and milk production was within the normal range for uninfected animals of the same breed. salmonellosis.O T C injections. particularly in the thigh muscles. in addition to routine bacteriological examination for listeriosis. C o n t i n u e d or r e s u m e d shedding of Brucella organisms in udder secretions or the isolation of Brucella organisms from any of the tissue specimens obtained at necropsy were considered as conclusive evidence of treatment failure. RESULTS Breeding performance A comparison was made between breeding performance in the three herds prior to identification of the infected cows and that in the treated animals in the breeding season following treatment. retained placenta and mastitis. there were no cases of metritis or mastitis in the treated cows. there was very light swelling and signs of painful sensations at the site of r e p e a t e d L A . However. On the whole. In this study. no systemic reactions were observed in any of the treated cows during the treatment period. biochemically and serologically (3). No abortions were observed a m o n g the treated cows. Furthermore. B or C) in treating a cow weighing 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). The biotyping of the identified isolates was performed at the Central Veterinary Laboratory. F u r t h e r m o r e . Moreover. When Brucella organisms could no longer be recovered from udder secretions nor from any of the selected tissue specimens collected at necropsy. with milk production reduced by 10-15%. in the breeding season following treatment. the 32 cows which were in various stages of pregnancy at the time of initiation of the therapeutic regimens A. Before t r e a t m e n t . In addition. Of the cows treated with regimens A. B and C. Weybridge.O T C and ST. 94% b e c a m e p r e g n a n t and experienced n o r m a l calving. New Haw. The abortion rate in the three herds ranged between 5% and 1 5 % and the infertility r a t e was approximately 1 5 % . microscopically. the cows were living in an uninfected environment. B and C experienced n o r m a l calving within 4 m o n t h s following completion of the treatment. Cost of therapeutic agents and animals The weight of the treated cows ranged between 450 kg and 750 kg. aborted foetuses from the three cattle herds involved were cultured for Brucella isolation. the cows had b e e n living in an infected environment for periods of between 1 and 8 years.914 Brucella cultures were identified morphologically. there were unusually high rates of metritis. T h e s e slight local reactions disappeared within 36 hours. . United Kingdom. or the use of c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c measures. the respective cow was considered to be cured (successful t r e a t m e n t ) . the treated cows expelled placenta from the womb without requiring any special manual manipulation. and the average cost of the therapeutic agents alone used (regimen A. mycoplasmosis and mycotic abortion.
or after calving in the other 2 cows (these animals were then re-treated with regimen B).915 The treated cows were imported a few years previously as pregnant heifers. which ranged between 2 and 8 colonies per plate. In addition. in the 3 cows of regimen C where t r e a t m e n t failed. abortus from 121 naturally-infected cows is shown in Table I. 4 3 % and 10% of the treated cows respectively. Salmonella. abortus) were treated with regimen B. In regimen A. In addition. they ceased shedding Brucella. .600 each. all selected tissue samples from 4 slaughtered cows and the repeated udder secretion samples were found to be Brucella-free. when 33 cows (naturally infected with B. abortus w e r e isolated. All selected tissue specimens from the 3 newborn calves (1 calf from a cow in each treatment group) were found to be free from Brucella organisms. However. while all calves born from treated cows were seronegative for brucellosis. when these 2 Brucella-shedding cows were re-treated with regimen B. only 5% of the 109 cows became seronegative 16 months posttreatment. Serological findings Among the treated animals. no Listeria. melitensis and 18 infected with B. t h r e e and four dilutions in 4 2 % . In all successfully treated cows in the present study (118 cows treated with regimen A. melitensis or B. there was a decrease of only one dilution in the US plate agglutination test (from 400 to 200) from the beginning of t r e a t m e n t until 4 months post-treatment in 4 of 12 slaughtered cows. B. melitensis or B. T h e remaining 8 slaughtered cows did not show any decrease in titre over the same period. the amount of shedding declined after the initiation of treatment and remained low until 4 months post-treatment in 1 slaughtered cow. the selected tissue specimens from 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months posttreatment) and all repeated udder secretion samples from the remaining 31 cows (for 16 months post-treatment) were all found to be free from Brucella organisms. However. There was a decrease of two. including the cost of air freight to Saudi Arabia. melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the repeated udder secretion samples from only 2 of 29 cows. B or C). When 53 cows (of which 35 were naturally infected with B. udder tissue and supramammary lymph nodes of only 1 of 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months post-treatment). shedding of Brucella organisms in mammary secretions had ceased when these secretions were cultured (1 week after initiation of the antibiotherapy) and did not recommence. Bacteriological findings In the present study. T h e efficacy of the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t regimens applied in eliminating B. The average number of Brucella colonies recovered per plate from the udder secretion samples of these 2 cows prior to treatment was approximately 30 times higher than the number recovered following treatment. at a cost of US$3. only B. B. melitensis biovar 2 was isolated (1-5 colonies per plate) from mammary secretions. However. Mycoplasma or pathogenic fungi were isolated from the aborted foetuses examined in the three herds. The Brucella agglutinin titres w e r e also c o m p a r e d with results o b t a i n e d p r e treatment and 16 months post-treatment in the remaining 109 treated cows. melitensis) were treated with regimen C.
Although this has been the goal of several workers. but from the subsequent problems or irregular breeding. except cows in one dairy herd which had B. infertility. it is impossible to apply only one method which would suit every country. loss of milk production. Brucellosis has been reported and confirmed in both livestock and humans in Saudi Arabia. with the development and widespread use of techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. bone marrow. B. in B.34. Such infection was directly responsible for the high rate of abortions. namely: the Netherlands. A n effective. Livestock producers in Saudi Arabia and in many other developing countries cannot afford the traditional "test and slaughter" approach used in developed countries.6. liver. spleen. practical and safe antibiotherapy would be of e n o r m o u s benefit to producers in these countries as an alternative to slaughter of infected animals of high value. An eradication campaign through slaughter and compensation is not within the economic scope of developing countries.2.5. metritis.916 DISCUSSION In order to increase milk production. 35.4. Slaughter of infected animals with superior genetic potential has serious economic and genetic consequences (24).23. These cattle were originally imported as p r e g n a n t heifers from the USA and some E u r o p e a n countries. especially where it is difficult to change agricultural customs or social habits. while B.31. abortus for 8%. particularly in lymph nodes. goats. commercial dairy production was introduced to Saudi Arabia through the importation of valuable and highly productive exotic cattle at a very high cost. retained placenta and mastitis with reduced milk production. Moreover. 2 and 3 were responsible for all infections in sheep. abortus infection. In addition. however. In a campaign against brucellosis. Germany and France.19. B. camels and dairy cattle.32. On arrival in Saudi Arabia. the . one worker assessed the average cost of an infected cow at approximately US$3. it is recognised that the economic consequences of infection are e n c o u n t e r e d principally during initial infection and become less prominent in further pregnancies. melitensis biovars 1. cattle with superior genetic potential have become increasingly valuable. melitensis infection from sheep and goats raised on the same farms. T h e following explanations were given for the previous t r e a t m e n t failures and difficulties: a) Brucella organisms are known to survive within phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. In the present study. mass vaccination of infected herds protects only uninfected animals without altering the course of infection. Consequently. abortus. and the reduced h u m a n productivity resulting from a spread of infection (38). suis was not found in animals or humans (1. The "test and slaughter" m e t h o d combined with calfhood vaccination no doubt contributes to considerable reduction in the number of infected herds. melitensis accounted for 92% of human cases and B. Transmission of this infection to cattle p r o d u c e d an infection similar to that p r o d u c e d by B.200. leading to serious consequences for cattle performance and cattle handlers.16. none has been fully successful. two of the cattle herds contracted B.18. T h e infected vaccinated animals continue to present a serious public health risk. However. the cattle were raised in large n u m b e r s u n d e r intensive management systems and sometimes together with small ruminants.39). abortus.33. not just for abortion or stillbirth. On the other hand. for economic reasons this method cannot be applied in all cases.
25. because it is known to inhibit p r o t e i n synthesis of G r a m .24.34). Consequently. the following points were taken into account when attempting to obtain more successful results.O T C and ST proved very effective in curing sheep and goats naturally infected with B. O T C .24. which were all serologically and (particularly) bacteriologically positive.25.29).6 ug/ml for three days (26).13. despite the use of a combination of L A .O T C and ST. Since successful therapy in human beings appears to depend on the permeability of cell walls to drugs (24). In addition. reproductive organs and tissues with a weak blood supply.24).0 µg/ml. early studies (20.I M I and ST.5-1.13. In addition.37).26). 34. were less effective in eliminating Brucella organisms in infected cows. i) Presence of antibiotic residues in milk and m e a t of t r e a t e d animals. when administered every 3 days in regimen C. a combination of L A .25. L A . T h e ability of Brucella organisms to survive intracellularly can result in long-term chronic infection.917 mammary glands. c) Insufficient doses of effective antibiotics (12. Consequently. and are therefore p r o t e c t e d from antibodies. This may be due to the'fact that both ST and OTC-IMI are .24. O T C at 0. before initiation of the present treatment regimens. h) Failure to cure udder infections in many cases (24. as one injection gave an effective concentration of 0.29).O T C variant was selected to save time and effort and to provide long-lasting O T C concentration in blood plasma.25) on the treatment of bovine brucellosis indicated poor success rates when L A .25. the O T C base was used because it is capable of penetrating intracellularly and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the ribosomes. melitensis (35). However.12. ST acts synergistically with O T C to inhibit growth of B. f) Use of only one antibiotic (20. The present study aimed to overcome the above problems and involved work under particularly difficult conditions with regard to the level of infection among the cows used.25.26).26). abortus within bovine cells cultured in vitro.11.O T C and ST. in infected cows. For these reasons. O T C proved to be effectively bactericidal when combined with 10 µg/ml of ST (15.26.O T C combined with ST was used for the t r e a t m e n t of cows naturally infected with B. several authors failed to cure udder infections in many cases (24. b) Incorrect choice of antibiotics (7. melitensis or B.26. OTC-IMI was used locally in combination with systemic (i.n e g a t i v e bacteria.) inoculation of L A .O T C or ST was used alone. Furthermore. p e r m i t t e d growth or was bacteriostatic for brucellae within tissue cells. For this reason. c o m p l e m e n t and antibiotics. 25. in order to decrease the n u m b e r of Brucella organisms in u d d e r tissues and secretions. ST was also used. g) High cost of antibiotherapy (24. This c o m b i n a t i o n p r o v e d to be highly effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all infected cows in regimens A and B. abortus.25.21. d) Insufficient duration of treatment (8. and the possible harmful effect on consumers (27). However.m. e) Use of the intraperitoneal route for administration of antibiotics created serious reactions in some cases (17. However. The L A .24. F u r t h e r m o r e .34). relapses after antimicrobial t r e a t m e n t w e r e also explained by the intracellular location of brucellae (9. milking was stopped in lactating cows and udders were completely evacuated before each injection. 36).
all t r e a t e d cows were dried before initiation of treatment.600.p. including the cost of air freight. at the present time.24.I M I alone would be effective for the treatement of lactating cows due to the continuous flushing of OTC by milking. The present results of serological examinations were of some use in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment regimens.34). Other investigators. the majority (approximately 90%) of the cows treated were monitored bacteriologically for 16 months post-treatment in order to detect possible relapses. This did not include the cost of e q u i p m e n t or interventions. B or C for treating a cow of an average weight of 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). inoculation of OTC was not safe.13. Even in relapsed cows (3 animals in regimen C).26. practical. T h e results obtained were in agreement with findings on successful treatment of brucellosis in sheep and goats when monitored for 8 months post-treatment (35). In the present study. Relapses have also been reported in cows (14. inoculation of L A . However. the results were not conclusive. Previous studies in cows and sheep (17. 34) concluded that i. However. In the present study. consequently. regimens A and B proved to be effective. further research may yield a regimen . In humans. the cost of supplies and intervention should be considered. Consequently. In Saudi Arabia.25).75). this treatment would probably be limited to valuable breeding animals. which is considered economically feasible in Saudi Arabia. reported that serological findings were not useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment regimens (24. relapses did not occur in any of the 88 cows treated with regimen A or B (provided that the treatment protocol is strictly observed). only a small n u m b e r of Brucella colonies were recovered from large tissue samples. the treated cows were originally imported as pregnant heifers at an average cost of US$3. in other situations. although O T C has been considered the most effective antibiotic for treatment of brucellosis. i. The cost of antibiotics used was calculated according to sale prices in the Saudi market at the time of the experiment (US$1 = SR3. In conclusion. Also. it seems unlikely that O T C . as animals were only monitored for 16 months post-treatment. the residues of antibiotics in milk and meat of treated animals should be investigated to determine accurately when milk and/or meat can be safely consumed following completion of the treatment regimens. However. In the present trial. T h e average cost of the antibiotics used in regimen A.O T C did not result in harmful systemic effects or any obvious lasting local reactions at the site of inoculation. and the protection of Brucella organisms in the presence of milk. relapses occurred in only 3 of 33 cows treated with regimen C. when treatment protocols were strictly observed. because all serological and bacteriological examinations were performed free of charge at Government institutions.12.m. However.24. however.918 not long-acting antibiotics. The doses and duration of application of selected antibiotics in the present study indicate that the long-term therapy and the drug combinations used yielded better results than several other regimens (8. there was no risk of harmful effects on h u m a n beings from antibiotic residues in the milk from these cows during and after treatment. The cost of successful treatment of a cow represents approximately 5% of the original price of the animal. In the present study. a small number of relapses do occur.25. However. due to the development of several serious local reactions at the site of injection. and t h e r e was no nontreated control group for comparison. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive in causing cessation of the symptoms of brucellosis and eliminating Brucella organisms from infected cows.29).
919 which could b e used for the t r e a t m e n t of all infected animals in a h e r d and for prophylaxis of those animals recently exposed to Brucella infection. similaire au protocole A. les bio types 1 ou 2 de B. .M. T h e t r e a t m e n t of seropositive animals should be performed together with vaccination of all seronegative animals in the same herd to achieve effective control and minimise public health risks. O. Quant au protocole C. sauf pour la ST qui était administrée un jour sur deux pendant 16 jours et pour l'OTC-IMI. Hussain. Avant l'application de ces trois protocoles thérapeutiques. Furthermore. Les deux modes de traitement se sont révélés aussi efficaces l'un que l'autre pour l'élimination totale des brucelles des vaches objet de l'expérimentation et aucune récidive n'a été constatée. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to express their sincere t h a n k s to M.) quotidiennement pendant huit jours et en une OTC-IMI quotidienne de 20 ml par trayon pendant quatre jours. for his encouragement and co-operation. Al-Taher.I. D i r e c t o r General of the Saudi National Agriculture and Water Research Centre and National Director of Project 016/UTFN/SAU/FAO. Mukayel and A . pratiquée également tous les trois jours pendant 12 jours.T. it is concluded that the failure of a small number of cows to respond to regimen C cannot be accounted for by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of resistance by Brucella. pratiquée un jour sur deux pendant huit jours. for their s u p p o r t and c o . Bin Salamah. Prasad. S.A. A.o p e r a t i o n in t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t treatment regimens. P.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC tous les trois jours pendant 42 jours.S. la streptomycine (ST) et l'infusion intramammaire d'OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion : OTC-IMI). . hormis pour la ST qui était administrée tous les trois jours pendant 24 jours et l'OTC-IMI. The authors also acknowledge the technical assistance of A . de 25 mg/kg de ST (i.V. Le protocole A (appliqué à 35 vaches) consistait en une administration intramusculaire (i. Thanks are also extended to the owners and veterinary staff of the three dairy farms involved. combinant à la fois l'Oxytétracycline à action prolongée (long-acting Oxytetracycline : LA-OTC). Mohamed et S. Bekairi. Radwan.m. abortus dans celles de 18 vaches.I.M. il n'a permis l'élimination des brucelles que sur 30 (91 %) des 33 vaches traitées.S. Le protocole B (appliqué à 53 vaches) était similaire au précédent. Deux critères ont été jugés déterminants pour conclure au succès du traitement : l'arrêt de l'excrétion de brucelles dans les sécrétions mammaires et l'absence de brucelles dans des tissus spécifiques.m. Al-Bokmy. melitensis ont été régulièrement isolés dans les sécrétions mammaires de 103 vaches et le biotype 1 de B. * * * DES PROTOCOLES THÉRAPEUTIQUES EFFICACES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'INFECTION PAR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS ET BRUCELLA ABORTUS CHEZ LES VACHES. Résumé : Trois protocoles thérapeutiques ont été évalués chez 121 vaches atteintes d'une infection naturelle par Brucella melitensis ou Brucella abortus.
Resumen: Se evaluaron tres protocolos terapéuticos en 121 vacas infectadas por vía natural por Brucella melitensis o Brucella abortus.Brucella abortus .. & HARLAND P.. Prasad. Para considerar el tratamiento exitoso se tuvieron en cuenta dos criterios: el cese de la excreción de brucelas en las secreciones mamarias y la ausencia de brucelas en tejidos específicos. WANG C F .M.Brucellosis in children. que fue experimentado en 35 vacas. 3. 190 pp.m. Saudi biol.351-357.Brucella melitensis .Streptomycine . Paris.M.A. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i. (1986). O.S.) diarios durante ocho días y en una OTC-IMI diaria de 20 ml por pezón durante 4 días.. SINOUSSI Y . Ann. A L .920 MOTS-CLÉS : Antibiotiques .Brucella abortus . (1984). A N G U S R.Thérapie. es decir. consistía en la administración intramuscular (i. 6. .Oxytétracycline .Bovins . Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Hussain. los biotipos 1 o 2 de B.G.Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory. P. Soc. . . Radwan. un 91%.E.Terapéutica. El protocolo A. melitensis fueron regularmente aislados en las secreciones mamarias de 103 vacas y el biotipo 1 de B. Proc. El protocolo B.T. HAWARI A.25-27..G. PALABRAS CLAVE: Antibióticos . ALTON G. que se administró cada dos días durante ocho días.H. S. & CHOU N. Antes de aplicar estos tres protocolos terapéuticos. JONES L .Bovinos . Uno y otro tratamiento se mostraron equivalentemente eficaces para la eliminación total de las brucelas en las vacas tratadas y no se constató ninguna recidiva. similar al protocolo A salvo en que la ST se administraba cada tres días durante 24 días y la OTC-IMI también cada tres días durante 12 días. . & V E R G E R J .Oxitetraciclina . 7. sólo permitió eliminación de brucelas en 30 de las 33 vacas tratadas. . M . a partir de una combinación de oxitetraciclina de acción prolongada (long-acting Oxytetracycline: LA-OTC). el protocolo C. era similar al anterior excepto en cuanto a la ST.Y.Brucella melitensis . .V. M . CHEN M . * PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS EFICACES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS Y BRUCELLA ABORTUS EN VACAS.A study on brucellosis among animals of some farms and rural areas of Saudi Arabia. Mohamed y S. Saudi Med.S. . REFERENCES 1. C . que se administró cada dos días durante 16 días.I. Bekairi. (1988).R.M E Z A I N I S. CHANG S. y ala OTC-IMI. Al-Bokmy. 2. estreptomicina (ST) e infusión intramamaria de OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion: OTC-IMI).m. A.. Por último.D.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC cada tres días durante 42 días. que se experimentó en 53 vacas.Estreptomicina .I. AL-MARSHEDY A. abortus en las secreciones mamarias de 18 vacas.
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