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, 1993,12 (3), 909-922
Successful therapeutic regimens for treating Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in cows
A.I. RADWAN *, S.I. BEKAIRI *, A.M. AL-BOKMY *, P.V.S. PRASAD *, O.M. MOHAMED ** and S.T. HUSSAIN **
Summary: Three therapeutic regimens were evaluated in 121 cows naturally infected with Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus, using a combination of long-acting Oxytetracycline (LA-OTC), streptomycin (ST) and OTCintramammary infusion (IMI). Cessation of shedding of b r u c e l l a in udder secretions and absence of Brucella in selected tissues were considered criteria for successful treatment. Regimen A (tested on 35 cows) consisted of LA-OTC 25 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (i.m.) every 3 days for 42 days, ST 25 mg/kg i.m. daily for 8 days, and OTC-IMI 20 ml/teat daily for 4 days. Regimen B (tested on 53 cows) was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 2 days for 16 days and OTC-IMI every 2 days for 8 days. Both regimens were equally effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all cows involved in the tests and no relapses were recorded. However, regimen C, which was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 3 days for 24 days and OTC-IMI every 3 days for 12 days, resulted in the elimination of Brucella organisms from only 30 (91%) of 33 cows. Before commencement of the therapeutic regimens, B. melitensis biovar 1 or 2 had been repeatedly isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows and B. abortus biovar 1 from mammary secretions of 18 cows. KEYWORDS: Antibiotics - Brucella abortus - Brucella melitensis - Cattle Oxytetracycline - Streptomycin - Therapy.
INTRODUCTION Several c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c agents have b e e n employed in recent decades for the treatment of Brucella abortus infection in cows; however, n o n e of these has been entirely successful. N u m e r o u s chemical agents, general antimicrobials (phenols or dyes), trace elements, minerals and mixtures of vitamins (A and E ) have b e e n tried unsuccessfully. F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t e m p t s using antibiotics such as penicillin or sulfonamides failed to cause cessation of the shedding of B. abortus from the mammary secretions of infected cows, or caused only temporary cessation (7,11,37).
* Animal Production and Health Section, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, P.O. Box 17285, Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia. ** National Agriculture Development Co., P.O. Box 2557, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
9 sheep experimentally infected with B. In a n o t h e r study. In this trial. However.O T C (20 mg/kg intramuscularly [i. daily for 3 weeks) showed a synergistic effect. With regard to brucellosis in sheep. the majority of the treated sheep developed subcutaneous sterile abscesses in the flank at the site of repeated i.21). Moreover. Recently. Radwan and colleagues (35) evaluated six different long-term treatment regimens on 480 sheep and goats naturally infected with B.p. serious local reactions were reported in cows.m. every 3 days for 6 weeks. melitensis or B.p. daily for 1 week) resulted in cessation of shedding of B.m. daily for 1 week) 14 (67%) of 21 cows w e r e successfully treated (25). 69% and 100% of the sheep were found to be Brucella-îre-c at the end of the trial. the cost of therapy. singly or in combination.29). alone or in combination with ST. In one of these studies. Consequently. every 2 days for 2 weeks) proved to be the most practical. such therapeutic regimens have been applied in infected herds to prevent abortions and reduce the spread of brucellosis. injections of L A . abortus in 10 (71.m.p. at necropsy (34). increasing the percentage of Brucella-tree sheep to 82%. the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the failure to cure udder infections in many cases have led to the general conclusion that such treatment is unsuitable for the control of bovine brucellosis. In view of the encouraging results in cows (24.m.25) and the successful results in sheep and goats (35). when 8 infected Najdi sheep were inoculated with 1. melitensis.O T C 25 mg/kg i. Furthermore.13. However.p.500 or 1. ST and OTC intramammary infusion (IMI) in eliminating B.V. .p. effective and least expensive means of achieving complete elimination of B.000 mg LA-OTC i.) inoculations with O T C (12. has resulted in the reduction of abortions in infected herds or individual cows (20. due to repeated intraperitoneal (i. every 3 days for 2 weeks) alone was successful in curing 3 (21%) of 14 cows. In this trial. However. melitensis. tetracyclines and streptomycin (ST). practical. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive. these regimens have failed to result in complete cure. treatment with OTC (250 mg i.O T C combined with ST. route. groups of infected Najdi sheep were injected with 250. the use of these agents alone or in combination with ST has succeeded in eliminating the symptoms of this disease and reducing the shedding of brucellae by infected cows. 6 sheep were Brucella-iiee. daily for 6 weeks) combined with ST (1 g i. In addition.] every 3 days for 2 weeks) combined with ST (20 mg/kg i. 46 days after infection (30). One of these regimens ( L A .m. In addition.24. abortus were injected daily for 6 days with 1 g Chlortetracycline.m. inoculation with OTC. Furthermore. 52%. abortus from naturallyinfected cows. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three long-term therapeutic regimens using a combination of LA-OTC. With the development of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and long-acting (LA)-OTC. inoculation of L A .4 g t o g e t h e r with i m m u n e serum for 3 days. on 118 sheep naturally infected with B. safe. Only one sheep was found to be bacteriologically positive at slaughter. every 2 days for 4 weeks combined with ST 20 mg/kg i. In the respective groups.O T C (20 mg/kg i.4%) of 14 cows (24). The aim of the study was to obtain a therapeutic regimen which is effective.m.25. in order to make treatment of Briicella-infected cows with superior genes a viable alternative to slaughter.910 The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aureomycin. using high doses of L A . Radwan and colleagues (34) conducted a long-term treatment trial using a variety of doses of O T C . by the i. melitensis in the 80 sheep and goats treated (35).000 mg O T C daily for 6 weeks. the regimens previously tried involved small doses and few injections of the antibiotics used. then 20 days later with 1.] or i. when L A . terramycin.O T C was combined with ST (20 mg/kg intravenously [i.
B and C). abortus biovar 1 was isolated from the mammary secretions of 18 cows. E g y p t ) supplied in vials. Milking was ceased in lactating cows. all n o n . these were placed in g r o u p B together with 35 cows with B.22. In addition. T h e cows contracted brucellosis from sheep and goats infected with B. The cows originated from three large commercial dairy herds raised in the central and eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia. melitensis (biovars 1 and 2) which had been introduced to the two farms 8-12 m o n t h s before bovine brucellosis occurred in the two cattle herds (unpublished findings). One m o n t h after t r e a t m e n t . Therapeutic agents The pharmaceutical products used in this study were as follows: .p r e g n a n t cows were artificially inseminated. immediately after birth. without regard to age. number of previous pregnancies. melitensis. B. each containing l g or 4 g. These two herds originally tested seronegative on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a .O T C injectable solution (from F i a n c e ) containing 200 mg O T C base p e r millilitre . B.ST sulphate (from Giza. The cows were aged 3-10 years and weighed between 450 kg and 750 kg. dissolved (just before use) in 3 ml or 12 ml sterile distilled water. Shortly before initiation of the present treatment regimens. abortus was small. T h e animals belonged to two breeds (108 Holstein x Friesian and 13 Jersey).28). Non-treated cows were not included as controls. These animals were selected to provide a m o r e conclusive evaluation than that obtained in previous studies. and selected tissues were collected for bacteriological examination. a total of 12 pregnant cows (4 from each t r e a t m e n t group) were sacrificed.O T C is a long-acting antibiotic. approximately four years prior to this study. and selected tissue samples were cultured. which gave positive results for brucellosis after serological and bacteriological tests. The three herds were composed of highly valuable breeding cows originally imported from the United States of America (USA) and Europe.L A . as several previous studies have indicated that Brucella infections persist in cattle and s p o n t a n e o u s recovery is uncommon (10. in contrast to ST and OTC-IMI which are not.911 MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals A total of 121 cows were selected. Since the number of available cows infected with B. The reason for the division into three treatment schedules was to choose the most practical and effective regimen. particularly because L A . The 121 cows were divided into three treatment groups (A. date of recent pregnancy and n u m b e r of previous abortions due to Brucella. eight years prior to the present study. Herd records indicated that none of the cows had been vaccinated during calfhood. In the third herd. a total of 3 calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group) were sacrificed. Three months later. respectively . This herd contained few seropositive cows on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . In two herds. melitensis was isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows (biovar 1 from 97 cows and biovar 2 from 6 cows). 89 cows were found not to be pregnant (having already aborted or calved 4-8 months before t r e a t m e n t ) and 32 cows were in various stages of pregnancy. All cows in the study were isolated from other animals.
popliteal and head lymph nodes. Greece) in 10 ml syringes.and bacteriologically-positive cows were serologically tested again immediately before initiation of the present treatment regimens and at monthly intervals after completion of treatment (for 4 months in 12 sacrificed cows and for 16 months in the remaining 109 cows). The date of previous abortions in relation to the initiation of treatment was not recorded on the farms involved. In addition. and sections of udder. USA. Agglutination at 1:100 or greater was considered positive. A t each examination. New Haw. Following the three serological examinations. Therapeutic regimens The treatment regimens of the three groups of infected cows are shown in Table I. brain. prescapular. Separate 30 ml samples of udder secretions from each quarter were also cultured every week during treatment. abortus strain 1119-3) was obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture in Ames. ovary. iliac. T h e isolated 2 . every month after completion of treatment until calving and again every 2 weeks after calving for 6 m o n t h s . Aliquots from each udder secretion sample were spread with sterile cotton swabs on 2-4 freshly prepared plates of culture medium. animals were initially screened for the presence of Brucella agglutinins by the rose bengal test (3). Each tissue specimen was individually homogenised in a tissue grinder and aliquots were spread with sterile cotton swabs on several (4-8) freshly prepared plates of culture medium. Serological testing All animals were subjected to three successive serological examinations at monthly intervals. liver and spleen. Iowa. at a dosage of 20-30 ml per site. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 7 days in the presence and absence of 10% C 0 a t m o s p h e r e . Bacteriological examination T h e m e d i u m for Brucella culture was p r e p a r e d as described previously (35). Both ST and OTC-IMI were administered with L A . mesenteric. each containing 200 mg OTC hydrochloride. The standard Brucella plate antigen (made of B. In addition. in the cervical. thigh and shoulder muscles. cultures of udder secretions were m a d e from the selected 121 positive cows to confirm shedding of Brucella organisms. 100 mg oleandomycin p h o s p h a t e . 100 mg neomycin sulphate. Immediately before initiation of the therapeutic regimens.O T C at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of therapy. Similar selected tissue specimens were cultured from 3 sacrificed newborn calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group). 5 mg Prednisolone and 10 ml special excipient. samples of stomach contents. udder secretion. milk samples from all seropositive cows were subjected to bacteriological examination for identification of Brucella shedders.912 .OTC-IMI (from Athens. sera from all calves born from treated cows were examined immediately after birth. In addition. lung and spleen of foetuses from the sacrificed animals were cultured. United Kingdom.m. uterus. Animals testing positive to the rose bengal test were retested by the standard US plate agglutination procedure for the determination of Brucella antibody titres (3). Furthermore. T h e rose bengal test antigen was obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory. precrural. The L A . Weybridge. liver. mediastinal.O T C and ST were injected i. from the 12 pregnant sacrificed cows (4 cows from each treatment group which were slaughtered at 4 months post-treatment) the following tissue specimens were aseptically collected for bacteriological examination: supramammary. sera from the selected 121 serologically.
m. 25mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 3 3 27/29(91%) i. 25mg/kg &OTC-IMlig) IMI 20 ml/teat 25mg/kg 2 2 3 4/4 4 e C 3 33W LA-OTC( ) STW &OTC-IMl(s) i.TABLE I Efficacy of three treatment regimens in eliminating Brucella melitensis or B.m.m. 25mg/kg i. abortus long-acting Oxytetracycline injectable solution (from France) 200 mg/ml streptomycin sulphate (from Egypt) Oxytetracycline intramammary infusion (from Greece) 913 . 25 mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 1 e B 8 14 49/49(100%) 35(c) ST(f) 18( ) 14 8 4 3/4 d LA-OTC( ) i. No of Success/treated Tissuesa)Udder secretions < > b e i.m.m. melitensis cows naturally infected with B. i.of Periodicity treated Therapeutic agents cows Route Dosage E ™° Y ^¿J.m. abortus from naturally-infected cows Regimen FA v 3 No. 1 4 8 4/4 31/31 (100%) 3 14 A 35(c) LA-OTC( ) ST( ) & OTC-IMI(g) f 25mg/kg i.m.: IMI: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) intramuscular (injection) intramammary infusion number of sacrificed cows from which selected tissues were cultured for Brucella number of cows from which mammary secretions were repeatedly cultured for Brucella cows naturally infected with B.
T h e s e slight local reactions disappeared within 36 hours. or the use of c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c measures. with milk production reduced by 10-15%.O T C and ST. there were no cases of metritis or mastitis in the treated cows. there was very light swelling and signs of painful sensations at the site of r e p e a t e d L A . mycoplasmosis and mycotic abortion. no systemic reactions were observed in any of the treated cows during the treatment period. in addition to routine bacteriological examination for listeriosis. However. and the average cost of the therapeutic agents alone used (regimen A. New Haw. Weybridge. When Brucella organisms could no longer be recovered from udder secretions nor from any of the selected tissue specimens collected at necropsy. Cost of therapeutic agents and animals The weight of the treated cows ranged between 450 kg and 750 kg. On the whole. The abortion rate in the three herds ranged between 5% and 1 5 % and the infertility r a t e was approximately 1 5 % . in the breeding season following treatment. Furthermore. aborted foetuses from the three cattle herds involved were cultured for Brucella isolation. B or C) in treating a cow weighing 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). United Kingdom. B and C experienced n o r m a l calving within 4 m o n t h s following completion of the treatment. Side-effects of the therapeutic agents In 8 cows. there were unusually high rates of metritis. No abortions were observed a m o n g the treated cows. B and C. The biotyping of the identified isolates was performed at the Central Veterinary Laboratory. Before t r e a t m e n t . Of the cows treated with regimens A. salmonellosis. Moreover. F u r t h e r m o r e . RESULTS Breeding performance A comparison was made between breeding performance in the three herds prior to identification of the infected cows and that in the treated animals in the breeding season following treatment. In addition. the 32 cows which were in various stages of pregnancy at the time of initiation of the therapeutic regimens A. Meat inspection of the twelve cows which were slaughtered (4 months post-treatment) revealed complete absence of any detectable abnormalities in the muscles at the site of intramuscular inoculations of L A .O T C injections. 94% b e c a m e p r e g n a n t and experienced n o r m a l calving. biochemically and serologically (3). particularly in the thigh muscles.914 Brucella cultures were identified morphologically. C o n t i n u e d or r e s u m e d shedding of Brucella organisms in udder secretions or the isolation of Brucella organisms from any of the tissue specimens obtained at necropsy were considered as conclusive evidence of treatment failure. the treated cows expelled placenta from the womb without requiring any special manual manipulation. the cows had b e e n living in an infected environment for periods of between 1 and 8 years. microscopically. retained placenta and mastitis. the respective cow was considered to be cured (successful t r e a t m e n t ) . . and milk production was within the normal range for uninfected animals of the same breed. In this study. the cows were living in an uninfected environment.
T h e efficacy of the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t regimens applied in eliminating B. In addition. melitensis biovar 2 was isolated (1-5 colonies per plate) from mammary secretions. the amount of shedding declined after the initiation of treatment and remained low until 4 months post-treatment in 1 slaughtered cow. melitensis or B. the selected tissue specimens from 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months posttreatment) and all repeated udder secretion samples from the remaining 31 cows (for 16 months post-treatment) were all found to be free from Brucella organisms. In addition. melitensis and 18 infected with B. no Listeria. t h r e e and four dilutions in 4 2 % . However. including the cost of air freight to Saudi Arabia. at a cost of US$3. The average number of Brucella colonies recovered per plate from the udder secretion samples of these 2 cows prior to treatment was approximately 30 times higher than the number recovered following treatment. they ceased shedding Brucella. B. melitensis or B. B or C). Serological findings Among the treated animals. 4 3 % and 10% of the treated cows respectively. abortus) were treated with regimen B.600 each. Mycoplasma or pathogenic fungi were isolated from the aborted foetuses examined in the three herds. In all successfully treated cows in the present study (118 cows treated with regimen A. udder tissue and supramammary lymph nodes of only 1 of 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months post-treatment). or after calving in the other 2 cows (these animals were then re-treated with regimen B). abortus from 121 naturally-infected cows is shown in Table I. shedding of Brucella organisms in mammary secretions had ceased when these secretions were cultured (1 week after initiation of the antibiotherapy) and did not recommence. When 53 cows (of which 35 were naturally infected with B. The Brucella agglutinin titres w e r e also c o m p a r e d with results o b t a i n e d p r e treatment and 16 months post-treatment in the remaining 109 treated cows. while all calves born from treated cows were seronegative for brucellosis. only 5% of the 109 cows became seronegative 16 months posttreatment. abortus w e r e isolated. when these 2 Brucella-shedding cows were re-treated with regimen B. Salmonella. melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the repeated udder secretion samples from only 2 of 29 cows. all selected tissue samples from 4 slaughtered cows and the repeated udder secretion samples were found to be Brucella-free. There was a decrease of two. B. there was a decrease of only one dilution in the US plate agglutination test (from 400 to 200) from the beginning of t r e a t m e n t until 4 months post-treatment in 4 of 12 slaughtered cows. melitensis) were treated with regimen C.915 The treated cows were imported a few years previously as pregnant heifers. Bacteriological findings In the present study. All selected tissue specimens from the 3 newborn calves (1 calf from a cow in each treatment group) were found to be free from Brucella organisms. However. In regimen A. in the 3 cows of regimen C where t r e a t m e n t failed. when 33 cows (naturally infected with B. . T h e remaining 8 slaughtered cows did not show any decrease in titre over the same period. However. only B. which ranged between 2 and 8 colonies per plate.
particularly in lymph nodes.6. Consequently. one worker assessed the average cost of an infected cow at approximately US$3. liver. A n effective. melitensis accounted for 92% of human cases and B. In a campaign against brucellosis. and the reduced h u m a n productivity resulting from a spread of infection (38). with the development and widespread use of techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. the . These cattle were originally imported as p r e g n a n t heifers from the USA and some E u r o p e a n countries. practical and safe antibiotherapy would be of e n o r m o u s benefit to producers in these countries as an alternative to slaughter of infected animals of high value. On arrival in Saudi Arabia. but from the subsequent problems or irregular breeding. In addition. Germany and France. commercial dairy production was introduced to Saudi Arabia through the importation of valuable and highly productive exotic cattle at a very high cost. it is recognised that the economic consequences of infection are e n c o u n t e r e d principally during initial infection and become less prominent in further pregnancies. while B. camels and dairy cattle. Transmission of this infection to cattle p r o d u c e d an infection similar to that p r o d u c e d by B. in B. abortus. melitensis infection from sheep and goats raised on the same farms. loss of milk production.34.16. mass vaccination of infected herds protects only uninfected animals without altering the course of infection. goats. abortus for 8%. In the present study. Livestock producers in Saudi Arabia and in many other developing countries cannot afford the traditional "test and slaughter" approach used in developed countries. However. retained placenta and mastitis with reduced milk production. Such infection was directly responsible for the high rate of abortions. B. The "test and slaughter" m e t h o d combined with calfhood vaccination no doubt contributes to considerable reduction in the number of infected herds. spleen. except cows in one dairy herd which had B.31. it is impossible to apply only one method which would suit every country. Although this has been the goal of several workers.2. namely: the Netherlands.200. for economic reasons this method cannot be applied in all cases.19. Slaughter of infected animals with superior genetic potential has serious economic and genetic consequences (24).33. not just for abortion or stillbirth.4. cattle with superior genetic potential have become increasingly valuable. leading to serious consequences for cattle performance and cattle handlers.39).23. especially where it is difficult to change agricultural customs or social habits. On the other hand. abortus infection. the cattle were raised in large n u m b e r s u n d e r intensive management systems and sometimes together with small ruminants. T h e infected vaccinated animals continue to present a serious public health risk. however.916 DISCUSSION In order to increase milk production. 35. B. melitensis biovars 1. T h e following explanations were given for the previous t r e a t m e n t failures and difficulties: a) Brucella organisms are known to survive within phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Moreover. none has been fully successful. abortus. An eradication campaign through slaughter and compensation is not within the economic scope of developing countries. suis was not found in animals or humans (1. infertility. 2 and 3 were responsible for all infections in sheep.32.5. Brucellosis has been reported and confirmed in both livestock and humans in Saudi Arabia. metritis. two of the cattle herds contracted B. bone marrow.18.
36). O T C . milking was stopped in lactating cows and udders were completely evacuated before each injection. For these reasons. the following points were taken into account when attempting to obtain more successful results. the O T C base was used because it is capable of penetrating intracellularly and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the ribosomes.26. The L A .5-1. before initiation of the present treatment regimens. e) Use of the intraperitoneal route for administration of antibiotics created serious reactions in some cases (17. For this reason.24.13. when administered every 3 days in regimen C. b) Incorrect choice of antibiotics (7. relapses after antimicrobial t r e a t m e n t w e r e also explained by the intracellular location of brucellae (9. melitensis (35). because it is known to inhibit p r o t e i n synthesis of G r a m . ST acts synergistically with O T C to inhibit growth of B. reproductive organs and tissues with a weak blood supply.26). f) Use of only one antibiotic (20.12. in infected cows.21. This c o m b i n a t i o n p r o v e d to be highly effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all infected cows in regimens A and B. g) High cost of antibiotherapy (24.n e g a t i v e bacteria. F u r t h e r m o r e .) inoculation of L A .11. In addition.917 mammary glands. several authors failed to cure udder infections in many cases (24.24. This may be due to the'fact that both ST and OTC-IMI are .24). O T C proved to be effectively bactericidal when combined with 10 µg/ml of ST (15. 34. were less effective in eliminating Brucella organisms in infected cows. d) Insufficient duration of treatment (8. However.6 ug/ml for three days (26).26).25.O T C combined with ST was used for the t r e a t m e n t of cows naturally infected with B. a combination of L A . Consequently. OTC-IMI was used locally in combination with systemic (i. O T C at 0. p e r m i t t e d growth or was bacteriostatic for brucellae within tissue cells.29).13.25.26).0 µg/ml. h) Failure to cure udder infections in many cases (24.29). However. However.25) on the treatment of bovine brucellosis indicated poor success rates when L A .I M I and ST. as one injection gave an effective concentration of 0.37). in order to decrease the n u m b e r of Brucella organisms in u d d e r tissues and secretions. which were all serologically and (particularly) bacteriologically positive. In addition. abortus within bovine cells cultured in vitro.34).O T C and ST. melitensis or B. c) Insufficient doses of effective antibiotics (12. despite the use of a combination of L A .25. early studies (20.24.O T C and ST. Furthermore.25.25. and the possible harmful effect on consumers (27). and are therefore p r o t e c t e d from antibodies. The present study aimed to overcome the above problems and involved work under particularly difficult conditions with regard to the level of infection among the cows used. i) Presence of antibiotic residues in milk and m e a t of t r e a t e d animals. Consequently.24. ST was also used.O T C or ST was used alone.O T C variant was selected to save time and effort and to provide long-lasting O T C concentration in blood plasma. T h e ability of Brucella organisms to survive intracellularly can result in long-term chronic infection.26.25.34). 25. L A . abortus. Since successful therapy in human beings appears to depend on the permeability of cell walls to drugs (24).O T C and ST proved very effective in curing sheep and goats naturally infected with B. c o m p l e m e n t and antibiotics.m.
inoculation of L A . in other situations. because all serological and bacteriological examinations were performed free of charge at Government institutions.I M I alone would be effective for the treatement of lactating cows due to the continuous flushing of OTC by milking.24. there was no risk of harmful effects on h u m a n beings from antibiotic residues in the milk from these cows during and after treatment.25. However. it seems unlikely that O T C . the cost of supplies and intervention should be considered. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive in causing cessation of the symptoms of brucellosis and eliminating Brucella organisms from infected cows. The cost of successful treatment of a cow represents approximately 5% of the original price of the animal. In Saudi Arabia. T h e average cost of the antibiotics used in regimen A. at the present time. the treated cows were originally imported as pregnant heifers at an average cost of US$3. However. In humans. and t h e r e was no nontreated control group for comparison.75). In the present study.24. The doses and duration of application of selected antibiotics in the present study indicate that the long-term therapy and the drug combinations used yielded better results than several other regimens (8.12. 34) concluded that i. which is considered economically feasible in Saudi Arabia. In conclusion. consequently.29). However. This did not include the cost of e q u i p m e n t or interventions. the majority (approximately 90%) of the cows treated were monitored bacteriologically for 16 months post-treatment in order to detect possible relapses. including the cost of air freight.O T C did not result in harmful systemic effects or any obvious lasting local reactions at the site of inoculation. Relapses have also been reported in cows (14.25).34). practical. i. relapses occurred in only 3 of 33 cows treated with regimen C. T h e results obtained were in agreement with findings on successful treatment of brucellosis in sheep and goats when monitored for 8 months post-treatment (35). Consequently. B or C for treating a cow of an average weight of 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). the results were not conclusive. and the protection of Brucella organisms in the presence of milk. this treatment would probably be limited to valuable breeding animals.600.13. due to the development of several serious local reactions at the site of injection. however. a small number of relapses do occur. as animals were only monitored for 16 months post-treatment. Also.918 not long-acting antibiotics. regimens A and B proved to be effective. In the present study. The present results of serological examinations were of some use in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment regimens. further research may yield a regimen . when treatment protocols were strictly observed. The cost of antibiotics used was calculated according to sale prices in the Saudi market at the time of the experiment (US$1 = SR3.26.m. However. relapses did not occur in any of the 88 cows treated with regimen A or B (provided that the treatment protocol is strictly observed). In the present trial. only a small n u m b e r of Brucella colonies were recovered from large tissue samples. In the present study. all t r e a t e d cows were dried before initiation of treatment. the residues of antibiotics in milk and meat of treated animals should be investigated to determine accurately when milk and/or meat can be safely consumed following completion of the treatment regimens. However.p. Even in relapsed cows (3 animals in regimen C). reported that serological findings were not useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment regimens (24. inoculation of OTC was not safe. Previous studies in cows and sheep (17. although O T C has been considered the most effective antibiotic for treatment of brucellosis. Other investigators.
les bio types 1 ou 2 de B. . Les deux modes de traitement se sont révélés aussi efficaces l'un que l'autre pour l'élimination totale des brucelles des vaches objet de l'expérimentation et aucune récidive n'a été constatée. similaire au protocole A. O. Furthermore.V. Le protocole B (appliqué à 53 vaches) était similaire au précédent. abortus dans celles de 18 vaches. Avant l'application de ces trois protocoles thérapeutiques.) quotidiennement pendant huit jours et en une OTC-IMI quotidienne de 20 ml par trayon pendant quatre jours.I. Al-Bokmy. for his encouragement and co-operation. P. for their s u p p o r t and c o . melitensis ont été régulièrement isolés dans les sécrétions mammaires de 103 vaches et le biotype 1 de B. Hussain. Bin Salamah.T.m.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC tous les trois jours pendant 42 jours. Al-Taher. Résumé : Trois protocoles thérapeutiques ont été évalués chez 121 vaches atteintes d'une infection naturelle par Brucella melitensis ou Brucella abortus. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i. Quant au protocole C. Mohamed et S. pratiquée également tous les trois jours pendant 12 jours. Mukayel and A . Prasad. Deux critères ont été jugés déterminants pour conclure au succès du traitement : l'arrêt de l'excrétion de brucelles dans les sécrétions mammaires et l'absence de brucelles dans des tissus spécifiques. A.A.I. la streptomycine (ST) et l'infusion intramammaire d'OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion : OTC-IMI). Radwan. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to express their sincere t h a n k s to M.S. * * * DES PROTOCOLES THÉRAPEUTIQUES EFFICACES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'INFECTION PAR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS ET BRUCELLA ABORTUS CHEZ LES VACHES. pratiquée un jour sur deux pendant huit jours. combinant à la fois l'Oxytétracycline à action prolongée (long-acting Oxytetracycline : LA-OTC). Bekairi.S. .o p e r a t i o n in t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t treatment regimens.m.919 which could b e used for the t r e a t m e n t of all infected animals in a h e r d and for prophylaxis of those animals recently exposed to Brucella infection.M. hormis pour la ST qui était administrée tous les trois jours pendant 24 jours et l'OTC-IMI. Thanks are also extended to the owners and veterinary staff of the three dairy farms involved. Le protocole A (appliqué à 35 vaches) consistait en une administration intramusculaire (i. D i r e c t o r General of the Saudi National Agriculture and Water Research Centre and National Director of Project 016/UTFN/SAU/FAO. T h e t r e a t m e n t of seropositive animals should be performed together with vaccination of all seronegative animals in the same herd to achieve effective control and minimise public health risks. il n'a permis l'élimination des brucelles que sur 30 (91 %) des 33 vaches traitées. The authors also acknowledge the technical assistance of A .M. sauf pour la ST qui était administrée un jour sur deux pendant 16 jours et pour l'OTC-IMI. it is concluded that the failure of a small number of cows to respond to regimen C cannot be accounted for by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of resistance by Brucella. S.
V. Hussain.E. los biotipos 1 o 2 de B. Al-Bokmy.Streptomycine . S.M.D.S. P.351-357. y ala OTC-IMI.Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory. Radwan. AL-MARSHEDY A. Resumen: Se evaluaron tres protocolos terapéuticos en 121 vacas infectadas por vía natural por Brucella melitensis o Brucella abortus.Estreptomicina . melitensis fueron regularmente aislados en las secreciones mamarias de 103 vacas y el biotipo 1 de B. Saudi Med. WANG C F . & V E R G E R J ..M.H.Thérapie. sólo permitió eliminación de brucelas en 30 de las 33 vacas tratadas.A study on brucellosis among animals of some farms and rural areas of Saudi Arabia. (1988). de 25 mg/kg de ST (i.Y. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.Oxytétracycline . .Brucella melitensis . . (1984).Oxitetraciclina . 190 pp.. que se administró cada dos días durante ocho días.A.920 MOTS-CLÉS : Antibiotiques . 7. similar al protocolo A salvo en que la ST se administraba cada tres días durante 24 días y la OTC-IMI también cada tres días durante 12 días. El protocolo A. . un 91%. M . Proc.T. Bekairi. estreptomicina (ST) e infusión intramamaria de OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion: OTC-IMI). SINOUSSI Y . (1986). 3. Uno y otro tratamiento se mostraron equivalentemente eficaces para la eliminación total de las brucelas en las vacas tratadas y no se constató ninguna recidiva. que se experimentó en 53 vacas. & CHOU N.Brucellosis in children. * PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS EFICACES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS Y BRUCELLA ABORTUS EN VACAS. el protocolo C. que fue experimentado en 35 vacas. que se administró cada dos días durante 16 días. ALTON G.S. Soc.G. .Brucella abortus . JONES L .. . CHANG S...G. a partir de una combinación de oxitetraciclina de acción prolongada (long-acting Oxytetracycline: LA-OTC). era similar al anterior excepto en cuanto a la ST. 6. Saudi biol. es decir.Bovinos .R. A N G U S R. Ann.) diarios durante ocho días y en una OTC-IMI diaria de 20 ml por pezón durante 4 días. El protocolo B. C . HAWARI A. Para considerar el tratamiento exitoso se tuvieron en cuenta dos criterios: el cese de la excreción de brucelas en las secreciones mamarias y la ausencia de brucelas en tejidos específicos.m. PALABRAS CLAVE: Antibióticos .m.I. A L . Paris.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC cada tres días durante 42 días. 2. Por último. O.Brucella abortus . Antes de aplicar estos tres protocolos terapéuticos. . A. .Bovins .Brucella melitensis . consistía en la administración intramuscular (i.Terapéutica. REFERENCES 1. abortus en las secreciones mamarias de 18 vacas.25-27.M E Z A I N I S. CHEN M . Prasad.I. & HARLAND P. M . Mohamed y S.
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