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/

..

(.)

(Healthy Public Policy)

(.)
1

.
Global Status Report on Alcohol.
Who/HSC/SAB/99.11 WHO, Geneva, 1999

(.)
(Healthy Public Policy)

1168 22
0 2511 5855 0 2939 2122

ISBN
1

30
974-92433-8-2
2547
2,000

()

10

22

23






Global Status Report on Alcohol
..

..
(.)

(Global burden of disease) (WHO)


(World Bank)

(unsafe sex)
(Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) (Murray & Lopez, 1996)

.. 2533
(net deaths) 773,594 80



1 .. 2533


(x 1,000)

(x 1,000)
(DALY)

(DALY)

5 881

11.7

199 486

22.0

20 089

4.2

219 575

15.9

2 668

5.3

85 520

9.4

7 872

1.7

93 392

6.8

1 095

2.2

27 602

3.0

21 100

4.5

48 702

3.5

3 038

6.0

26 217

2.9

9 965

2.1

36 182

2.6

774

1.5

19 287

2.1

28 400

6.0

47 687

3.5

1 129

2.2

22 493

2.5

15 394

3.3

37 887

2.7

2 918

5.8

17 665

1.9

1 411

0.3

19 076

1.4

1 991

3.9

11 353

1.3

2 300

0.5

13 653

1.0

100

0.2

2 634

0.3

5 834

1.2

8 467

0.6

568

1.1

5 625

0.6

1 630

0.3

7 254

0.5

Source: Murray & Lopez, 1996

(Leon , 1997; Kauhanen


, 1997; McKee & Britton, 1998),

.. 2523


.. 2539 Murray Lopez




Murray Lopez

.. 2533
1.1
470,616
773,594
Murray Lopez

2 .. 2533


(x 1,000)

(x 1,000)

(DALY)

(DALY)

83.8

1.2

2 537

5.1

7 667

15.6

10 204

10.3

53.0

1.4

2 063

5.7

3 130

11.9

5 19

8.3

112.9

1.2

2 723

1.4

1 974

2.3

4 697

1.6

114.1

1.3

2 118

1.8

2 737

3.0

4 856

2.3

97.4

1.8

1 862

1.6

3 191

5.1

5 053

2.8

Sub-Sahara

170.7

2.1

4 435

2.0

3 169

4.6

7 603

2.6

136.1

4.5

3 319

5.9

6 201

14.7

9 520

9.7

5.6

0.1

229

0.2

437

1.0

666

0.4

773.6

1.5

19 287

2.1

28 400

6.0

47 687

3.5

Source: Murray & Lopez, 1996

( )



23
(Bloomberg News, 1997)

10
.. 2538 (Jernigen, 1997)

3.2-3.5 (Saxena, 1997)
1.8 (Casswell,1997)

() (social
costs)







* 3.09
.. 2531
* 46.2
.. 2530
* 166.5
.. 2538
* 2.5 .. 2538
* 2.7
.. 2538


.. 2522
32 WHOA32.40


.. 2518

.. 2518 (Bruun
, 1975)

.. 2526 WHOA36.12
36

(1)

(2)




(Alcohol Policy and the
Public Good, Edward , 1994)

(The European
Alcohol Action Plan)

New Zealands
Alcohol Liquor Advisory Council


(canton)


1. Education

2.
Regulation of Physical Availability

and Health Promotion

(
)



(Wyllie, Zhang
& Casswell, 1998a; Wyllie, Zhang & Casswell, 1998b)




(Edwards , 1994)



, 1 , 4

5 .. 1990

10



3.



97



(

) (
)

20







(Edwards
, 1994; Wagenaar & Wolfson, 1995)
76

18
8 21 15
16

16

18

4.
(Monopolies and Licensing Systems)
18

18
18
18

21
16
16
18
18
19
21
18
18
18
18

; 8
16 , 1 15

: 18

11

18
21
18
18
18
16
16
18
21
20
18
18
16
20
18
18
18
18
16
16
18
16
18
18
20
20
18
18
18
18
18
21
18
18
18
21
18
16
18

16 /

18 /

18

12

20

18
16

18
16

18

18

21
18
16

18-21

18

18


, 18

/ 16

* .. 2546






(Minghao , )




40

(Edwards , 1994)

13

4.7

, 18 10
, 3 contract out


.. 2542

/
3

14

4.7

24 .
//

.......
3

15

32

5.




(Cook,
1981; Cook & Moore, 1993)

.. 2538


(Jernigan, 1997)


20

()

(Impact International, 1997)

16



6.

(Saffer , 1997)

29

40

(standard drink)

9 (

)

.. 2532


(Greenfield, 1997)

7.
37

17

Antilles

3
13 6.00 - 21.00 .



20:30 - 04:00 . 19:00 .

22

22:00 - 01:00 .
21:00 - 06:00 .


16:00 - 18:00 .

05.00 - 22:00 .
*
* 29 2546

20

.. 2536

71,271

.. 2535

18


(Johnson &
Walz, 1994)

0.05 g% (14 ) 0.08 g% (18 )


8

17
0.08 g%
0.10 g%

0.0 g% 0.05 g%



0.03 g% 0.05 g%
3,500
0.08 g%


BAC 0.08 g%
1 .. 2538 (Jernigan, 1997)


771,300

14

8.



(BAC)



19



14

BAC LIMIT (g%)

0.05

0.08
0.0
0.04
0.04
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.0
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.07

Palau

0.0
0.08
0.08
0.0
0.05
0.10
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.04
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.10
0.03
0.05
0.03
0.0
0.10



25 3
0.05 g%
0.0 g%
0.07 g% 0.08 g%

0.03 g% 20
-

20

BAC LIMIT (g%)


0.08
0.0
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.15
0.02
0.08
0.05
0.05
0.03
0.0
0.08
0.08 - 0.10
0.08
0.05


0.0 g%
0.05 g% 3,500
0.03 g%
0.0 g%
17 0.08g% 33 0.10g%
-

9. (Treatment

(brief intervention)



Strategies)

21

22


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