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noise vibration harshness

nvh principles and diagnosis


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student reference book


COURSE CODE: 30S03T0 ORDER NUMBER: FCS-13423-REF OCTOBER, 2004

DELIVER

Ford Customer Service Division Technical Training

IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE


Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles, as well as the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This manual provides general directions for accomplishing service and repair work with tested, effective techniques. Following them will help assure reliability. There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of the individual doing the work. This manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or cautions as to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from instructions provided in this manual must first establish that he compromises neither his personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by his choice of methods, tools or parts. As you read through the procedures, you will come across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each one is there for a specific purpose. NOTES give you added information that will help you to complete a particular procedure. CAUTIONS are given to prevent you from making an error that could damage the vehicle. WARNINGS remind you to be especially careful in those areas where carelessness can cause personal injury. The following list contains some general WARNINGS that you should follow when you work on a vehicle.

Always wear safety glasses for eye protection. Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires you to be under the vehicle. Be sure that the ignition switch is always in the OFF position, unless otherwise required by the procedure. Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle. If you have an automatic transmission, set it in PARK unless instructed otherwise for a specific service operation. If you have a manual transmission it should be in REVERSE (engine OFF) or NEUTRAL (engine ON) unless instructed otherwise for a specific service operation. Operate the engine only in a well-ventilated area to avoid the danger of carbon monoxide. Keep yourself and your clothing away from moving parts when the engine is running, especially the fan and belts.

To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler. Do not smoke while working on the vehicle. To avoid injury, always remove rings, watches, loose hanging jewelry, and loose clothing before beginning to work on a vehicle. Tie long hair securely behind your head. Keep hands and other objects clear of the radiator fan blades. Electric cooling fans can start to operate at any time by an increase in underhood temperatures, even though the ignition is in the OFF position. Therefore, care should be taken to ensure that the electric cooling fan is completely disconnected when working under the hood.

The recommendations and suggestions contained in this manual are made to assist the dealer in improving his dealership parts and/or service department operations. These recommendations and suggestions do not supersede or override the provisions of the Warranty and Policy Manual, and in any cases where there may be a conflict, the provisions of the Warranty and Policy Manual shall govern. The descriptions, testing procedures, and specifications in this handbook were in effect at the time the handbook was approved for printing. Ford Motor Company reserves the right to discontinue models at any time, or change specifications, design, or testing procedures without notice and without incurring obligation. Any reference to brand names in this manual is intended merely as an example of the types of tools, lubricants, materials, etc. recommended for use. Equivalents, if available, may be used. The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice. WARNING: Many brake linings contain asbestos fibers. When working on brake components, avoid breathing the dust. Breathing the asbestos dust can cause asbestosis and cancer. Breathing asbestos dust is harmful to your health. Dust and dirt present on car wheel brake and clutch assemblies may contain asbestos fibers that are hazardous to your health when made airborne by cleaning with compressed air or by dry brushing. Wheel brake assemblies and clutch facings should be cleaned using a vacuum cleaner recommended for use with asbestos fibers. Dust and dirt should be disposed of in a manner that prevents dust exposure, such as sealed bags. The bag must be labeled per OSHA instructions and the trash hauler notified as to the contents of the bag. If a vacuum bag suitable for asbestos is not available, cleaning should be done wet. If dust generation is still possible, technicians should wear government approved toxic dust purifying respirators. OSHA requires areas where asbestos dust generation is possible to be isolated and posted with warning signs. Only technicians concerned with performing brake or clutch service should be present in the area. Copyright 2001 Ford Motor Company Produced and Coodinated by Technical Service Support Operations Ford Customer Service Division October, 2004

SERVICE
Mission Statement:

STANDARDS

All dealership personnel will treat every customer as a potential lifetime purchaser, communicating a professional image which embraces honesty and concern for customer wants and needs.

Dealer-to-Customer Service Standards:

1. Appointment available within one


day of the customers requested service day.

4. Vehicles serviced right on the


first visit.

2. Write-up begins within four minutes of


arrival.

5. Service status provided within one


minute of inquiry.

3. Service needs courteously identified,


accurately recorded on Repair Order, and verified with customer.

6. Vehicle ready at agreed upon time. 7. Thorough explanation of work done,


coverages and changes.

These seven service standards provide a process and product value that are compelling reasons for owners to purchase and repurchase Ford or Lincoln-Mercury products. These standards also help to attract new owners through favorable testimonials and improved owner satisfaction.
Standard 4 Fix It Right the First Time, on Time. The technician is the most important player when it comes to Standard #4. Why Customers tell us Fixing It Right the First Time, on Time is one of the reasons they would decide to return to a dealer to buy a vehicle and get their vehicles serviced. Technician Training It is our goal to help the technician acquire all of the skills and knowledge necessary to Fix it Right the First Time, on Time. We refer to this as competency. Technicians Role Acquire the skills and knowledge for competency in your specialty via STST New Model Self Study Self Study Ford Multimedia Training (FMT) Instructor Led Instructor Led The Benefits The successful implementation of standards means Satisfied customers Repeat vehicle sales Repeat service sales Recognition that Ford and Lincoln/Mercury technicians are the Best in the Business

TABLE OF CONTENTS
WARM UP QUIZ ...................................................................................................................... Warm Up-1 NVH Warm Up Quiz ........................................................................................................... Warm Up-1 Instructors Information Sheet ...................................................................................... Warm Up-1 Instructors Answer Sheet ............................................................................................. Warm Up-3 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. Intro-1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. Intro-1 Evaluation Strategy ...................................................................................................................... Intro-1 DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH ................................................................................................ 1-1 What is NVH? .................................................................................................................................... 1-2 Fundamentals of NVH ....................................................................................................................... 1-3 Definition of Vibration ........................................................................................................................ 1-8 Definition of Noise ........................................................................................................................... 1-13 Definition of Harshness .................................................................................................................... 1-15 Worksheet A (at Workstation 1) Identifying Engine Noises (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 1-20 DAY ONE: NVH DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ......................................................... 2-1 Vibration Diagnostic Tools ................................................................................................................. 2-2 Noise Diagnostic Tools .................................................................................................................... 2-18 Worksheet B (at Workstation 1) Identifying Vehicle Noise (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 2-29 Worksheet C (at Workstation 2) Measuring Frequency and Amplitude (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 2-33 Worksheet D (at Workstation 3) Measuring Frequency (Bench) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 2-37 Worksheet E (at Workstation 4) NVH Terminology and Tools Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 2-41

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS ............................................................................... 3-1 Diagnostic Process.............................................................................................................................. 3-2 Diagnosis of Vibration Concerns ...................................................................................................... 3-15 Worksheet F (at Workstation 1) Diagnosing Vehicle Vibrations (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 3-55 Worksheet G (at Workstation 2) Diagnosing Vehicle Vibrations (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 3-59 Worksheet H (at Workstation3) Vibrate 5.0 (Bench) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 3-63 Worksheet I (at Workstation 4) Frequency Calculations (Navigation) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................................ 3-69 Diagnosis of Noise Concerns ........................................................................................................... 3-73 Diagnosis of Harshness Concerns .................................................................................................... 3-78 DAY THREE ............................................................................................................................ Day Three-1 Worksheet J (at Workstation 1) Diagnosing Vehicle Noise (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet .............................................................................................. Day Three-3 Worksheet K (at Workstation 2) Diagnose A Vehicle Vibration (On-Vehicle) Students Answer Sheet .............................................................................................. Day Three-7 Worksheet L (at Workstation 4) Diagnosing Noise and Vibration Concerns (Navigation) Students Answer Sheet ............................................................................................ Day Three-11 NVH GLOSSARY ...................................................................................................................... Glossary-1 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................ Appendix-1 Write-Up Job Aid .............................................................................................................. Appendix-1 Courtesy Inspection .............................................................................................................. Appendix-3 NVH Diagnostic Guide ........................................................................................................ Appendix-5 Frequency and RPM Calculations ........................................................................................ Appendix-7 Day One Homework ......................................................................................................... Appendix-9 Day Two Homework ...................................................................................................... Appendix-11

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WARM UP QUIZ
NVH WARM UP QUIZ STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Harshness is a term commonly used to describe: A. a hard steering condition due to lack of power steering fluid. B. an unpleasant sound found to be abnormal to the vehicles characteristics. C. a firmer than usual response from the suspension system. D. none of the above. 2. Which of the following modes is used to monitor engine RPM with a New Generation Star (NGS) Tester? A. Output State Commands B. Retrieve and Clear Continuous Memory C. On Demand Self Test D. PID/Data Monitor and Record 3. Every time a vibrating component goes through its complete range of motion and returns to the starting point is called a: A. cycle. B. frequency. C. pitch. D. period. 4. The ChassisEAR is used to detect: A. ultrasonic sounds. B. the frequency of a repetitive vibration. C. the origin of a noise. D. only the frequency of a noise. 5. Which of the following is critical for vibration diagnosis? A. vibration frequency B. engine RPM C. vehicle speed D. all of the above 6. The number of times an engine fires a cylinder with each crankshaft revolution is equal to: A. One-half the number of cylinders B. Three-fourth the number of cylinders C. Total number of cylinders D. Twice the number of cylinders

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WARM UP QUIZ
NVH WARM UP QUIZ STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
7. Which of the following terms indicates the actual amount of component movement during a vibration? A. frequency B. amplitude C. pitch D. cycle 8. Which of the following is the correct order of vibration transfer path. A. Conductor to Reactor to Originator B. Reactor to Conductor to Originator C. Originator to Conductor to Reactor D. Originator to Reactor to Conductor 9. Runout and imbalance conditions are affected mostly by: A. speed. B. torque. C. power. D. all of the above. 10. To interrupt the transmission of a normal engine vibration from reaching the passenger compartment, a technician would: A. eliminate the originator of the vibration. B. repair the engine vibration C. replace or realign faulty conductors of the vibration. D. all of the above. 11. Two high spots on a tire rotating 10 times a second has a ___________ order vibration of 20 Hz. A. first B. second C. third D. half 12. All of the following are vibration diagnosis tools except: A. Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) B. Sirometer C. ChassisEAR D. Reed Tachometer

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WARM UP QUIZ
NVH WARM UP QUIZ STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
13. What is the ChassisEAR? How does it operate? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 14. How do you get engine rpm readings from the New Generation Star Tester (NGS)? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Define noise. Define vibration. Define harshness. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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NOTES

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Before getting into the basic concepts of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), it is necessary to understand why these concepts are important. They are the building blocks in learning how to diagnose certain concerns. For example, you first need to understand what frequency is and why it is significant before you can use it to diagnose a concern. You can record the frequency using tools, but if you do not understand the concept, it will not help you in your diagnosis. You need to know why you are collecting the test data as well as what data to collect. Once you know why you are collecting it, it is much easier to analyze it to diagnose a concern. There are basically three things you need to know to pinpoint an NVH concern:

Basic NVH concepts Use of appropriate tools Test data required

Another thing to remember is that the three most important pieces of test data required to diagnose a concern are as follows:

Frequency of the concern (more important for vibration diagnosis) RPM at which the concern occurs Vehicle speed at which the concern occurs

The importance of frequency, RPM, and vehicle speed at which the concern is evident will be reinforced throughout the course. You will be taught how to use specific tools to obtain this data and how to use it to diagnose NVH concerns.

EVALUATION STRATEGY
This course will allow you to perform Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) diagnostic skills. Your evaluation will be based on score of 75% or higher on a written final examination and the ability to pass a hands-on post-test.

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Intro-1

NOTES

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Before getting into the basic concepts of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), it is necessary to understand why these concepts are important. They are the building blocks in learning how to diagnose certain concerns. For example, you first need to understand what frequency is and why it is significant before you can use it to diagnose a concern. You can record the frequency using tools, but if you do not understand the concept, it will not help you in your diagnosis. You need to know why you are collecting the test data as well as what data to collect. Once you know why you are collecting it, it is much easier to analyze it to diagnose a concern. There are basically three things you need to know to pinpoint an NVH concern:

Basic NVH concepts Use of appropriate tools Test data required

Another thing to remember is that the three most important pieces of test data required to diagnose a concern are as follows:

Frequency of the concern (more important for vibration diagnosis) RPM at which the concern occurs Vehicle speed at which the concern occurs

The importance of frequency, RPM, and vehicle speed at which the concern is evident will be reinforced throughout the course. You will be taught how to use specific tools to obtain this data and how to use it to diagnose NVH concerns.

EVALUATION STRATEGY
This course will allow you to perform Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) diagnostic skills. Your evaluation will be based on score of 80% or higher on a written final examination and the ability to pass a hands-on post-test.

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NOTES

DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


TECHNICIAN OBJECTIVES

Define vibration terminology and concepts. Define noise terminology and concepts. Define harshness terminology and concepts.

CONTENTS
What is NVH? Fundamentals of NVH Definition of Vibration Definition of Noise Definition of Harshness

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


WHAT IS NVH?
The letters NVH stand for Noise, Vibration, and Harshness. Any noise, vibration, or harshness that is irritating or annoying to the owner of a vehicle is an NVH concern. In dealing with these concerns, it is important that you understand the meaning of the terms used to describe NVH complaints.

Vibration is a shaking or trembling that can be felt when an object/ component moves back and forth or up and down consistently. A noise is an unpleasant sound found to be abnormal to the vehicles operating characteristics. Harshness refers to the vehicles ride. It is normally used to describe a firmer than usual response from the suspension system. Harshness also describes a perceived lack of suspension compliance (or give).

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FUNDAMENTALS OF NVH Frequency

ONE CYCLE

1 SEC.

NVH002-A

Frequency and Cycle Most vibrations consist of movements back and forth or up and down that repeat as long as the causal conditions exist. Every time the vibrating component goes through its complete range of motion and returns to the starting point is called a cycle. The rate at which these cycles occur within a given time is called the frequency. Frequency is usually measured in cycles per second (cps). The term Hertz (Hz) is also used as a measurement of frequency. One cps equals one Hertz (Hz). The NVH concern of steering wheel nibble can demonstrate frequency. As the steering wheel oscillates from left to right, it repeats the movement over and over. The number of times the steering wheel goes through this range of motion in one second is its frequency. A steering wheel nibble of 5 Hz will oscillate back and forth 5 times in 1 second.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Resonance

POINT OF RESONANCE

20

SUSPENSION FREQUENCY
S IRE D T RCE E NC FO G LA BA LLIN E UN MP CO

FREQUENCY 10 CPS
5

PROBLEM SPEED

20

40

60

80

100 NVH060-A

CAR SPEED

Point of Resonance Resonant frequency refers to the frequency of the applied force on an object that results in the greatest vibration. This point is where the natural frequency of the object and the frequency of the applied force meet. The natural frequency refers to the frequency range during which an object tends to vibrate. Natural frequency varies depending on the material composition, mass, and size of an object. Two identical looking objects with different material composition will have different natural frequencies and a different resonant frequency when acted upon by an identical applied force. For example, a suspension system of a particular vehicle may have a natural frequency of 15 Hz which will remain constant at any speed. Suppose that this same vehicle has an unbalanced tire. As the tire speed increases, so does the frequency of the force created by the unbalance. At some point, the frequency of the force created by the tire imbalance will be the same as the natural frequency of the suspension system, causing the suspension system to vibrate. This is the point of resonance, or the resonant frequency.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Amplitude

AMPLITUDE

AMPLITUDE

LOW AMPLITUDE TIME

HIGH AMPLITUDE

TIME

NVH003-A

Amplitude of Vibration The term amplitude, when applied to vibration, indicates the actual amount of component movement. An extreme vibration has a high amplitude, and a mild vibration has a low amplitude. Referring back to the NVH concern of steering wheel nibble, amplitude can be demonstrated by the amount of steering wheel movement. The more the steering wheel moves, the higher the amplitude of the vibration causing the concern.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Sound
Sound is the result of the disturbance of air caused by a vibration. The physical movement of vibration causes pressure variations in the air that may be detected by the ear, if they are within normal hearing range. (The normal range of human hearing is 20-20,000 Hz.) For example, striking a tuning fork causes it to vibrate. The vibrations create air pressure variations, or waves, that we hear as sound.

Pitch

INTENSITY

HIGH FREQUENCY: HIGH PITCH

LOW FREQUENCY: LOW PITCH TIME


NVH004-A

Pitch Pitch is the physical quality of sound (or noise) that relates to the frequency of its vibration. Increasing the frequency of a sound increases the pitch of the sound. If frequency decreases, pitch also decreases. Simply speaking, pitch refers to the highness or lowness of a sound.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Intensity

LOW AMPLITUDE: LOW INTENSITY

INTENSITY

HIGH AMPLITUDE: HIGH INTENSITY TIME


NVH005-A

Intensity Intensity is the physical quality of sound (or noise) that relates to the strength of the sounds vibration. The illustration shows two sound waves with the same frequency, but with different intensity levels (amplitudes). Intensity is measured in decibels.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


DEFINITION OF VIBRATION
Vibration is a shaking or trembling that can be felt by the customer when an object/component moves back and forth or up and down consistently. Abnormal vibrations usually occur under certain vehicle operating conditions. There are three types of vibrations:

Free vibration a vibration that continues after the cause has been removed. For example, a tire hitting a pothole will continue to vibrate after the initial impact has passed. Forced vibration a vibration that only occurs as long as the force that initiated the vibration remains. For example, an unbalanced driveshaft only causes a vibration as long as it is rotating. Another example would be an unbalanced tire, which would stop vibrating when it stops rotating. Forced vibrations are the most common type dealt with in automotive applications. Torsional vibration vibration caused by a constant twisting force that is felt in the floor and seats of the vehicle. This type of vibration is most noticeable during hard acceleration and is amplified by the application of torque.

Under normal circumstances, a rotating component will not produce a noticeable vibration. However, if the component has improper weight distribution (imbalance) or is rotating in an eccentric pattern (out-ofround or bent), then a vibration may be produced. If the frequency and amplitude of the vibration can be measured, then those characteristics along with the vehicle speed and engine RPM at which the vibration occurs, can be matched with components that would likely cause the vibration at that particular speed. This procedure can help find the source quickly and accurately.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Vibration Transfer Path

NVH006-A

Vibration Transfer Path Item 1 2 3 Description Origin (Imbalance) Conductor (Transfer Path) Reactor

Vibrations are often noticed in a component far removed from where they are generated. This is called transfer path or telegraphing. For example, an out-of-balance front tire and wheel assembly may result in a noticeable steering wheel shake. In this case, we would call the wheel and tire assembly the origin (or originator), the steering linkage the conductor, and the steering wheel the reactor. Damaged or worn engine and body mounts or a grounded exhaust hanger are components that could transmit (conduct) a normal engine vibration (originator) into the passenger compartment (reactor) as an NVH concern.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH


Vibration Dampers Vibration dampers are used to dampen vibrations at the originator, transfer path and/or reactor. There are three types of vibration dampers:

Torsional rotational inertia ring. Tuned vibrates at the same frequency, but not at the same time, to cancel out original vibration. Mass changer changes the weight to change the natural frequency. This changes the frequency at which the object/ component will vibrate.

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Order of Vibration

NVH007-A

First and Second Order Item 1 2 Description First Order Vibration (Once Per Revolution) Second Order Vibration (Twice Per Revolution)

Rotating components with more than one abnormal condition may generate more than one vibration per revolution. For example, a tire with one high spot would cause one vibration per revolution. This would be called a first order vibration. A tire with two high spots would create two vibrations per revolution. This would be called a second order vibration. This concept is important to remember when the measured frequency of a vibration does not seem to coordinate with any of the likely origins. For example, it would be necessary to divide the frequency of a second order vibration by two to identify the originating component.

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Normal Engine Order Vibration Engines have vibrations created by firing frequency. Firing frequency refers to the force created by the engine each time a cylinder fires. The force of the combustion creates one pulse, and the cylinders firing in order create a normal vibration. The frequency of these vibrations is dependent on the number of cylinders in the engine. For example, six-cylinder engines fire half of its cylinders with each crankshaft revolution. This results in a third order vibration. A fourth order vibration would be common with eight-cylinder engines since four cylinders fire with each crankshaft revolution.

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DEFINITION OF NOISE
Generally, specific primary noises can be associated with a certain portion of the vehicle, such as the engine, driveline, axle, brakes, or body components. However, there are times when a noise will sound as though it is coming from one area, but it is actually a secondary noise, being produced by a completely unrelated component. Roof racks are a classic example of this situation. Many times, the air flow around the rack will produce a sound that can be easily mistaken for gear howl from the drive axle. Unless you are aware of these conditions, an incorrect diagnosis could be made. In still other conditions, a noise will telegraph through the body. In this case, for example, you may hear a chirping noise in the area of the instrument panel, only to find that the noise is being produced in the rear brakes. The sound has traveled, or telegraphed, through the parking brake cables. This is a situation where following a strict road test procedure will help to locate the cause since the noise will only occur when the brakes are applied or released.

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Noise Transfer Path
When a vibration produces a noise, the vibration can be transmitted from the originator, through the conductor, and on to the reactor where the noise is heard by the customer. The transfer path for a noise that is generated by a vibration is identical to a vibrations transfer path. For example, if the steering system (originator) is producing an abnormal vibration, the suspension system (conductor) can transmit the vibration to the instrument panel (reactor) where a noticeable squeak is heard. Noises that are produced by wind, turbulence, and air leaks are independent from noises produced by moving components. Many wind noises are caused by air escaping from the vehicle. Turbulence created by loose or protruding moldings, or by gaps between rubber seals, moldings, and drip rails, can produce wind noise. Wind noise is covered in-depth in a separate course.

Normal Noise
A gear-driven unit, especially an automotive drive axle, will produce a certain amount of noise. Some noise is normal and may be audible at certain speeds or under certain driving conditions. The noise is not harmful but is disturbing to the owner. This is also true of TractionLok axles. A slight chatter may be heard during low-speed turns, which is nothing more than the clutches doing their job. In dealing with these noise related concerns, it is important that you know what is normal and that you explain why it is normal to the owner. This can often be accomplished with a comparison drive in a known normal vehicle. In most cases, after you explain the condition, the owner will accept the fact that the noise will be there. After you have determined that a problem exists, the symptom must be diagnosed and the cause repaired.

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DEFINITION OF HARSHNESS
Harshness is a concern that is related to the customers perception or expectation of a vehicles ability to absorb vibrations caused by road imperfections. Harshness is usually due to:

Deterioration of vehicle components such as worn or damaged suspension components that cannot move within their normal range of motion, or that have lost their isolating grommets or bearings. Modification of original equipment such as over-sized tires or heavy-duty springs and shocks. Improper tire inflation over- or under-inflated tires can cause a harsh ride.

Normal Harshness
Different vehicles have differing levels of ride quality. A customer may perceive that the ride of a vehicle is harsh, when in reality it is a normal operating characteristic of the vehicle. For example, a customer who drives a utility vehicle may expect the same ride quality as a luxury car, not realizing that the utility vehicles normal ride quality is harsher than a luxury vehicle. This would be an example of normal harshness and comparison to a known good vehicle could resolve this concern for the customer.

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH NOTES

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH NOTES

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH NOTES

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DAY ONE: INTRODUCTION TO NVH NOTES

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WORKSHEET A (AT WORKSTATION 1) IDENTIFYING ENGINE NOISES (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVE: Use the ChassisEAR to identify engine noises.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions while using the ChassisEAR on a classroom vehicle. 1. What components of the ChassisEAR are color-coded? A. ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Listen to the engine and identify normal engine noises without using the ChassisEAR. 3. Compare the sounds on each channel of the ChassisEAR. 4. What channel of the ChassisEAR is detecting fuel injector noise? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Record the component and the color of the ChassisEAR microphone attached to the component. 1. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Move the microphones to various components and continue to compare the sounds on each channel of the ChassisEAR. 7. Move the microphones back to their original position.

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DAY ONE: NVH DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


TECHNICIAN OBJECTIVES

Describe the function and use of NVH diagnostic tools and equipment. Describe the role of the NVH diagnostic tools in the diagnostic process.

CONTENTS

Vibration Diagnostic Tools Noise Diagnostic Tools

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VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
There are several diagnostic tools that can be used to identify vibrations. These tools can be very helpful in isolating problems and making your diagnosis easier. In this section, we will describe these tools and equipment.

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Sirometer

Siromete r

Hz RPM

NVH051-A

Sirometer The sirometer is an inexpensive tool used to measure frequency (in Hz and RPM). The sirometer contains a wire that is coiled inside of a casing. To use the sirometer, place it on a component that is vibrating and slowly scroll the wire out by turning the knob. Find the length of wire that vibrates with the highest amplitude. Read the frequency for this length of wire. The sirometer operates on the principle of resonant frequency. As the length of the scrolled wire changes, so does its natural frequency. Once the scrolled wire's natural frequency matches the vibrating components natural frequency, this is the point of resonance (or its resonant frequency). It is at this point that the scrolled wire will vibrate with the highest amplitude.

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DAY ONE: NVH DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


Reed Tachometer
1 2

10

12

14

16

18

20

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

3
NVH011-A

Reed Tachometer Item 1 2 3 Description Low Frequency Scale Indicated Frequency of a Repetitive Vibration High Frequency Scale

A reed tachometer is used to identify the frequency of a repetitive vibration. Some reed tachometers measure vibration frequency in cycles per second (Hz), others in revolutions per minute (RPM). The only difference between the two is face plate labeling since RPM values can be calculated from Hz values by multiplying by 60. The reed tachometer contains several reeds, each tuned to vibrate or resonate at a different frequency. The reeds range from 10 to 80 Hz or 600 to 4800 RPM, so the reed tachometer will only identify vibrations within this range. A knob located on the side of the reed tachometer is used during transportation to protect the reeds from excessive vibration. When the knob is turned, the reeds are held in place. The knob also serves as a reset to dampen out the reeds to obtain a better reading.

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Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA)
Introduction

Electronic Vibration Analyzer Tools Item 1 2 3 4 Holding Strap Electronic Vibration Analyzer Vibration Sensor Software Cartridge Description

The EVA allows for a systematic collection of information that is necessary to accurately diagnose and repair NVH problems. The basic function of the EVA is to provide frequency and amplitude readings of vibrations. Accurately obtaining these characteristics of a vibration can significantly reduce vehicle service time. This section explains the operation of the EVA and contains important information to assist in diagnosing customer NVH concerns. The EVA includes the following components:

EVA unit with a five-foot power cord and protective cover Software cartridge Vibration sensor with a 20-foot cord Magnet Velcro holding strap Putty Instructions Carrying case

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Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) Features Display screen The display screen on the EVA unit is a liquid crystal display that provides output messages to the operator. It also provides information about vibration frequency and strength, for the three strongest vibrations. The display screen also provides instruction messages for unit operation. Keypad The keypad allows for programming of the EVA for several different operating modes. Several of the keys have dual functions, depending on the operating mode the unit is using. Cartridge port A port at the bottom of the unit is for installation of the software cartridge. USE ONLY THE EVA CARTRIDGE IN THIS UNIT. Input jacks At the top of the EVA unit is a pair of sensor input jacks (labeled A and B). Sensor The sensor detects vehicle vibrations and transmits data to the EVA. The sensor can function in either of the EVA input jacks. Power cord A 12-volt feed from the vehicles cigarette lighter supplies power to the EVA. Strobe The strobe function uses a normal ignition timing light with an inductive probe. It serves to detect imbalance in rotating components so they can be rebalanced. A trigger wire for the inductive pickup allows the strobe to light at the same frequency as the vibration. The trigger wire is located at the top of the EVA.

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Preparing the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) for Use The design of the EVA allows for quick and easy setup. When preparing the EVA for use, follow these steps:

Insert the software cartridge into the bottom of the EVA unit. The cartridge can remain in this position when the unit is not in use. Connect the cord from the vibration sensor into either Input A or B on the top of the EVA. It is advisable to use Input A for most applications. Align the connector so the release button is at the bottom and press the connector into the input jack. The connector should click and lock into place when in position. Turn the EVA on by plugging the power cord into the vehicles 12-volt accessory outlet (cigarette lighter). This instantly provides power as the EVA has no ON/OFF switch.

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Sensor placement Proper operation of the EVA requires the sensor to be carefully positioned. Placing the sensor near the location of the suspected vibration usually gives the highest amplitude reading. It is important to remember that the sensor may have to be placed on the vehicle component responding to the vibration. For example, if an engine is experiencing a first order crankshaft imbalance, placing the sensor on the oil pan near the source of the vibration may result in erroneous indications. There are many engine vibrations that the sensor can pick up. If the engine imbalance is causing the body panels of the vehicle to vibrate, placement of the sensor on these components that are responding to the vibration produces an accurate reading. The sensor is directionally sensitive and works when placed with the mark UP facing the vibration direction. An exception to this guideline is when strobe balancing a driveshaft. The sensor must be placed with the UP side of the sensor facing up (away from the ground). Strobe balancing is discussed later in this section. Never place the sensor on a component that is rotating or extremely hot (exhaust pipes, rotating driveshaft, etc.) This could damage the sensor or leads and require their replacement. The magnet provided with the kit allows for the attachment of the sensor to ferrous components. Use the putty or Velcro strap to mount the sensor in situations where it is not possible to use the magnet. Ensure that the sensor is always firmly attached to the component. When removing the sensor from the EVA, depress the release button and gently pull it straight out of the jack. While the sensor is not fragile, handle it with care since the sensor is expensive to replace. Keep the sensor connected to the EVA when not in use to prevent damage to the unit.

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Data Information

R P M 1 8 0 0

A V G 1 0 0

G ' S . 3 2 . 2 5 . 0 9

3 6 0 1 2 0 0

NVH014-A

EVA Data Information Item A B C D E F G Description The three (3) most dominant vibration frequencies The frequency in RPM/Hz of each vibration A graphical representation of the strength of each vibration A numerical representation of the strength of each vibration Shows whether frequency displayed is in RPM or Hz Active sensor input Current active mode

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The EVAs liquid crystal display screen shows the three most dominant vibration frequencies. The vibration with the highest amplitude is displayed on the first (top) line of the display. When three vibrations are not present, the screen leaves the third (and possibly second) line blank. The left side of the display provides the frequency of each vibration. The center portion of the screen features a bar graph that represents the relative strength of each vibration. The far right side of the display shows the actual strength, or amplitude, of each vibration in Gs. The EVA displays frequencies in either revolutions per minute (RPM) or cycles per second (cps), with one cps equal to one Hertz (Hz). Hertz are displayed only as even numbers while RPMs occur in 120 RPM increments (for example, 120, 240, 360, 480, etc.). To switch between the two, press the RPM/Hz button (0 key) on the EVAs keypad. Next to the frequency data on the top line of the screen, the EVA displays the letter A or B to indicate which of the sensor input jacks found on the top of the unit is currently active. Switch between the input jacks by pressing the A/B button (4 key) on the key pad. Always confirm that the letter on the display matches the input jack the sensor is using. In addition, the display screen indicates what mode the unit is in: averaging, freeze, record, playback, or strobe functions.

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Averaging The EVA normally displays data in the averaging mode. The EVA indicates this by the letters AVG on the top line of the display screen. When in this mode, the EVA averages multiple vibration samples to minimize the effect of sudden vibrations such as expansion joints, potholes or changing road surfaces. These vibrations could cause the data on the screen to change rapidly and make it difficult to read. To access the non-averaging mode, press the AVG button (8 key) on the keypad. This mode is useful when diagnosing vibrations that occur over a short period of time or during acceleration and deceleration tests. Pressing the AVG button again returns the unit to the averaging mode, which is the best choice for most testing situations. Freeze To capture the data on the EVA display, press the FREEZE button on the keypad. The letters FRZ appear at the top of the screen. The freeze mode is very useful when diagnosing vibrations that occur for very short periods, such as during acceleration and deceleration. Press either the FREEZE or EXIT button to deactivate the freeze function. The letters FRZ will then disappear from the EVA screen.

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Record The record function allows the EVA to record and store displayed vibration information for playback at another time. The EVA retains stored data for about 70 hours after being disconnected from the power source. The EVA records data in 10-frame snapshots of vibration information. A total of 10 snapshots (100 total frames of data) is available. The process for recording a snapshot is simple. To begin, press the RECORD button. The screen displays R? to request a tag number of the snapshot to be taken. Select a number from 0-9 using the keypad. After selecting a number, the screen displays the letter W followed by the number chosen. Pressing the ENTER key begins the recording process. The EVA displays R and the selected tag number followed by the letter F and a series of numbers from 0-9. This indicates which frame of the snapshot is being displayed and recorded. At the completion of the 10-frame recording sequence, the EVA returns to the active viewing screen. When tagging a data snapshot, be sure not to select a number that contains previously recorded data. If a snapshot with the number already exists in memory, the EVA deletes the old data and replaces it with the new recording. Playback To review the recorded data, press the PLAYBACK button on the keypad. The screen displays P? to request the tag number of the snapshot to be played back. After you have entered the number, the EVA displays P and the selected tag number followed by the letter F and a series of numbers from 0-9. This indicates which of the ten frames in the snapshot the EVA is viewing. Use the freeze mode at anytime during the playback sequence to view individual frames. To advance frame by frame, freeze the display and use the up arrow to work through the sequence; the down arrow reverses the frame direction. When finished viewing the snapshot, press the EXIT button to return the EVA to the active screen.

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Strobe balancing The EVAs strobe balancing function can provide assistance when balancing a rotating component, such as a driveshaft. This EVA function requires an inductive pickup strobe light. The EVA illuminates the strobe at the same frequency as the vibration, freezing the component at the point of imbalance. When strobe balancing, connect the vibration sensor to Input A because Input B does not provide the strobe function. NOTE: The sensor must be placed with the UP side of the sensor facing up (away from the ground). A trigger wire located on top of the EVA unit makes the strobe active. Attach the strobes power cable to the vehicles battery and clip the strobes induction wire to the trigger wire on the EVA. In order for the strobe to function most effectively, it is important to limit the ranges in which the EVA operates the strobe function. This prevents the strobe from being made active by vibrations generated by other vehicle components. By pressing STROBE on the keypad, the EVA displays a series of questions to determine the correct filter range. To select a range, press the YES key when the EVA displays the range that includes the frequency of the component that requires balancing. The EVA displays the next filter range if the NO key is pressed. Because the full range (no filtering) is the least effective, avoid using it. When ready, the EVA displays the strobe amplitude, frequency, and range selected on the screen. Ensure the EVA is in the active mode (not in a special function, such as freeze or playback). Verify that the frequency to be strobed is on the top line of the display (the frequency with the highest amplitude). The strobe will not function correctly if this frequency is not on the top line. The EVAs strobe balancing function can also be used to detect imbalance, such as on engine accessories

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Keypad Operation

YES

NO

STROBE

0 RPM/HZ

4 RECORD

4 A/B

PLAY BACK

8 AVG

ENTER

EXIT

FREEZE

NVH013-A

Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) Keypad 0 to 9 keys Press keys numbered 0-9 to select the snapshot tag number when storing or playing back information. A/B key Press this key to switch between the A and B sensor inputs. AVG key Press this key to switch the display to the non-averaging mode. To return to the averaging mode, press the AVG key again. Arrow keys Press the up and down arrow keys to scroll the frozen display forward and backward when in the playback mode. ENTER key Press this key to start the record function. EXIT key Press this key to return the screen to the active display from the strobe, record, playback, or freeze modes.

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FREEZE key Press this key to lock the display at the current readings when in the active display or playback modes. Press either the FREEZE or EXIT button to deactivate the freeze function. RECORD key Press this key to place the unit in the RECORD mode. Press EXIT to return to the active display. PLAYBACK key Press this key to review information stored in the snapshot locations. Press EXIT to return to the active display. RPM/HZ key Press this key to change the frequency display from RPM to Hz and back. STROBE key Press this key to energize the strobe function used for the balancing of rotating components. Press the key again to return to the active screen. YES/NO keys These keys provide responses to questions posed by the EVA when programming the strobe for balancing operations.

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Vibration Diagnostic Tool Comparison
The sirometer is portable and easy to use with a little practice. The main disadvantage of the sirometer is its inability to measure a vibrations amplitude. The sirometer, like the other vibration tools, may not be able to locate the frequency of the vibration concern if other vibrations of strong amplitude are present. The reed tachometer also cannot measure a vibrations amplitude. Another disadvantage of the reed tachometer is that it displays many frequencies at once and can be difficult, if not impossible, to get a good reading on a road test. It is also fragile and easily damaged. The EVA is the most accurate tool in measuring frequency and amplitude. The EVA also has a strobe function that can detect imbalance with rotating components. Other advantages of the EVA include the fact that it displays amplitude readings, makes recordings, and has remote sensors.

Scan Tool
The scan tool is an automotive diagnostic tool that can assist the technician with NVH concerns. It is used during the road test as a tachometer to accurately record the engine RPM of an NVH concern.

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NOISE DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
There are several diagnostic tools that can be used to identify noises. These tools can be very helpful in isolating problems and making your diagnosis easier. In this section, we will describe these tools and equipment.

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ChassisEAR

3
NVH019-A

ChassisEAR Item 1 2 3 Description Input Control (Channel) Selector Microphone Clamps Headphones

Advanced electronic listening devices, such as the ChassisEAR, can be used to quickly identify a noise and its location under the chassis while the vehicle is being road-tested. These versatile devices can identify the noise and location of bad wheel bearings and various problems in the differential transmission, CV-joints, brakes, leaf and coil springs, transfer case, pinion bearings, or carrier bearings. For example, the ChassisEAR has a 6-position input selection control switch with 6 microphone clamps that are attached to 16-foot leads. The leads are secured to the vehicle with clamps and Velcro ties. The ChassisEAR provides instant comparisons between any of the six channels during the road test. The unit is equipped with headphones that block out surrounding noises.

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Placement of Clamps

3 1

NVH020-A

Clamp Placement Item 1 2 3 Shock Absorber Microphone Clamp Description Lower Control Arm

Raise the vehicle and attach the clamps to the suspect area. If you suspect there is a bad wheel bearing, attach the clamps, one each per wheel bearing. Place the clamps on identical locations. Attach the other two clamps to the transmission and differential. If you suspect a brake noise, attach the four clamps near the brakes. The closer the clamp is to the suspected problem, the better sound accuracy you will get. Route the wire leads to the passenger front seat and connect the jack from each wire lead into the control box. Use the location identifier note pad and make a note of the locations and corresponding color for each microphone/clamp. Secure the leads under the vehicle with the ties. Do not attach the ties to the exhaust pipe or any location that would cause heat damage. Lower the vehicle.

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Using the ChassisEAR When conducting the road test, turn on the ON/OFF VOLUME CONTROL switch. On the 1 setting (red), adjust the volume to the desired level. Various levels may reveal additional sounds and problems. Make a mental note of the sounds. Turn the selection switch to the next channel and compare the sounds. Now listen to the next channel and compare the sounds again. Continue until you have listened to all the channels. Use the location identifier to make notes on what you have heard (squeaks, rattles, whines, and so on) so that when you return to the shop you can pinpoint the exact location of the problem. WARNING: IN MANY STATES, IT IS ILLEGAL TO DRIVE A VEHICLE WHILE WEARING HEADPHONES. IF YOU ARE PERFORMING THE TEST (WEARING THE HEADPHONES), HAVE ANOTHER TECHNICIAN DRIVE THE VEHICLE DURING THE ROAD TEST.

Common Shop Tools


Keep in mind there are many common shop tools that can aid in noise and vibration diagnosis. A mechanics stethoscope, screwdriver, and rubber hose are tools that can be used to locate a faulty component. Remember that vibration and noise can be transmitted through a conductor.

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EngineEAR

2 3
NVH021-A

EngineEAR Item 1 2 3 Amplifier Sensing Tip Headphones Description

Another electronic listening device, the EngineEAR, is available to detect bad bearings and bushings, noisy lifters, exhaust manifold leaks, and broken or chipped gear teeth. It can also detect wind noise, water leaks, and instrument panel squeaks. It is so sensitive that even the faintest bearing rattle in an alternator, water pump, A/C condenser, and power steering pump can be heard. EngineEAR has a sensing tip, amplifier, and headphones. The directional sensing tip is used to listen to various components. The volume level in the headphones is adjusted with the amplifier.

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Using the EngineEAR Start the engine and open the hood. Aim the sensing tip at the component to which you want to listen. Adjust the volume with the amplifier; various levels may reveal different sounds. Use the location identifier to make notes about what you hear while you listen to different components. The EngineEAR can also be used inside the vehicle during a road test to detect noises. By placing the sensing tip firmly on a surface, one can hear the vibrations present. This is called structure-borne noise and simply means the vibrations are traveling through the surface. Placing the tip near, but not on, the surface will amplify only the airborne noise or sound waves from a potential reactor or responder. If these sounds as amplified by the EngineEAR sound like the disturbing (complaint) noise without the EngineEAR, you have pinpointed the source.

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Ultraphonic Detector Receiver and Transmitter

da Rotun

164-R482
NVH052-A

Ultraphonic Detector Receiver with Headset (Ultraphonic Transmitter Not Shown) An ultraphonic detector receiver and transmitter (formerly known as an ultrasonic leak detector) is used to detect wind noises caused by leaks or gaps in areas of the vehicle where there is weather-stripping or other sealing material. This equipment includes a multidirectional transmitter, operating in the ultrasonic range, and a hand-held detector or probe. The transmitter is placed inside the vehicle. On the outside of the vehicle, the technician uses the detector to sweep the area of the suspected leak to locate its source. As the source of the leak is approached, the emitted sound gets louder. Ultrasounds are well beyond the upper limits of normal human hearing. The reason why these frequencies are used is that sound waves in the audible range penetrate walls and component parts, and are reflected off other surfaces. This makes it difficult to trace them to their source. Ultrasonic sound waves do not penetrate solids; these waves however, pass easily through gaps and voids in gaskets or weld seams.

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Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit
Ford Customer Service Division (FCSD) and Advanced Vehicle Technology Engineering have developed a Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit. The kit contains lubricants and self-adhesive isolation materials that can be used to eliminate interior and exterior squeaks and rattles in customers vehicles. An instructional video has also been developed that details the uses and applications of the various materials. The kit consists of the following materials: Poly Vinyl Chlorice (PVC) Tape (Soft Foam)

Eliminates interior rattles. Easily wraps around wires, connectors, and ducts. Use on plastic, metal, and so on.

Urethane Tape (Hard Foam) Eliminates interior and exterior rattles. Good for more pronounced rattles. Material resists hard contact and the environment.

Flocked Tape (Black Fuzzy) Eliminates interior and exterior squeaks. Good low abrasion isolator and damper. Use between interior components.

Ultra High Molecular Weight (UHMW) Tape (Frosted) Eliminates interior and exterior rattles. Great high abrasion resistance. Low coefficient of friction.

Squeak and Rattle (SR) Oil Tube Open tube with pin. Use on plastic, metal, and rubber applications. Oil flows into tight places (wipe off excess).

Squeak and Rattle (SR) Grease Tube Cut end of tube to open. Use on plastic, metal, and rubber applications. Easy to reach out of sight applications (wipe off excess).

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WORKSHEET B (AT WORKSTATION 1) IDENTIFYING VEHICLE NOISE (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Use the ChassisEAR to locate noise on a classroom vehicle. Use the EngineEAR to locate noise on a classroom vehicle DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions while using the ChassisEAR to locate a vehicle noise. If this workstation is performed as a road test, the driver should not use the ChassisEAR. Switch drivers at some point during the road test so everyone in the group gets a chance to use the ChassisEAR. Customer Concern: ____________________________________________________________________________ 1. Can you verify the customer concern? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Compare the sounds on each channel of the ChassisEAR. 3. How many channels have the noise that is similar to the customer concern? List these channel(s). 1. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What single channel has the clearest/loudest representation of the noise? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Use the EngineEAR to determine if all injectors are operating. 6. Are all the injectors working? If not, which one(s) is/are not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET C (AT WORKSTATION 2) MEASURING FREQUENCY AND AMPLITUDE (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Use the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) to measure a vibrations frequency and amplitude. Use the New Generation Star (NGS) Tester to obtain engine RPM, gear, and vehicle speed readings. DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on measuring frequency and amplitude. Customer Concern: ____________________________________________________________________________ 1. Ensure the software cartridge is installed into the bottom of the EVA unit. 2. Connect the cord from the vibration sensor into either Input A or B on the top of the EVA. 3. Turn the EVA on by plugging the power cord into the vehicles 12-volt accessory outlet (cigarette lighter). This instantly provides power as the EVA has no ON/OFF switch. 4. Locate the vehicle component that is responding to the vibration. Try placing the sensor at different locations such as steering wheel, seatback, and the instrument panel. 5. What display line does the frequency and amplitude of the vibration appear on the EVA? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Duplicate the customer concern. When it is most noticeable, note the vibration frequency and amplitude, vehicle speed, engine RPM, and gear in the table below.

Vibration Frequency RPM Hz

Vibration Amplitude

Vehicle Speed

Engine RPM

Gear

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WORKSHEET D (AT WORKSTATION 3) MEASURING FREQUENCY (BENCH) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Use a sirometer and reed tachometer to measure a vibrations frequency. Use the EVA to measure a vibrations frequency and amplitude. DIRECTIONS: Using the grinder and electric motor as a source of vibration, fill in the chart and answer the following questions on measuring frequency. Write down amplitude where appropriate. 1. Grinder Tool Sirometer Reed Tachometer EVA 2. Electric Motor Sirometer Motor Speed Low Speed Medium Speed High Speed 3. Electric Motor Reed Tachometer Motor Speed Low Speed Medium Speed High Speed 4. Electric Motor EVA Motor Speed Low Speed Medium Speed High Speed Frequency Hz Frequency RPM Amplitude Frequency Hz Frequency RPM Frequency Hz Frequency RPM Frequency Hz Frequency RPM Amplitude NA NA

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WORKSHEET D (AT WORKSTATION 3) MEASURING FREQUENCY (BENCH) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
5. How can you tell you are at the vibrations frequency when measuring with a sirometer? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. With the use of different face plate labeling, the reed tachometer can identify a frequency in what two measurement units? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Are the sirometer and reed tachometer useful tools to measure amplitude? Why? or Why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET E (AT WORKSTATION 4) NVH TERMINOLOGY AND TOOLS STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Identify Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) terms and concepts. Identify NVH tools and their operation. DIRECTIONS: Complete each of the following sections.

PART ONE
Match the NVH definition to the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided. 1. _________ An unpleasant sound found to be abnormal to the vehicles operating characteristics. 2. _________ A shaking or trembling that can be felt. 3. _________ A perceived lack of suspension compliance (or give). 4. _________ The complete range of motion a vibrating component travels before starting the path again. 5. _________ The number of cycles a vibrating component completes in a given period of time. 6. _________ The amount of movement of a vibrating component. 7. _________ The physical quality of sound (or noise) that relates to the frequency of the vibration. 8. _________ The physical quality of sound (or noise) that relates to the strength of the vibration. 9. _________ How vibrations are transmitted to components far removed from where they are generated. 10. _________ The number of disturbances created in one revolution of a component. A B C D E F Order Frequency Intensity Vibration Transfer Path Vibration Cycle

G Amplitude H Harshness I J Noise Pitch

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WORKSHEET E (AT WORKSTATION 4) NVH TERMINOLOGY AND TOOLS STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued) PART TWO
Answer the following questions about NVH tools and their basic operation. 1. What NVH tool uses a scrolling wire to measure frequency? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How does the sirometer measure frequency? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How does the reed tachometer measure frequency? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The knob located on the side of the reed tachometer serves what purpose? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET E (AT WORKSTATION 4) NVH TERMINOLOGY AND TOOLS STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued) PART TWO (Continued)

R P M 1 8 0 0 3 6 0 1 2 0 0

A V G 1 0 0

G ' S . 3 2 . 2 5 . 0 9

NVH053-A

EVA Display Screen 5. Use the illustration to answer the following questions about the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) display screen. A. What is the frequency (in RPM) of the most dominant vibration? ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. What is the amplitude (in Gs) of the most dominant vibration? ____________________________________________________________________________________ C. What sensor jack is being used to measure the vibration? ____________________________________________________________________________________ D. What is the maximum number of vibrations the EVA can display at one time? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. How many channels does the ChassisEAR provide for noise diagnosis? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. List three common shop tools that can be used for noise and vibration diagnosis? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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DAY ONE: NVH DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


WORKSHEET E (AT WORKSTATION 4) NVH TERMINOLOGY AND TOOLS STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued) PART THREE
1. A customer brings a 2004 Mustang GT (Mach 1), VIN # 1FAFP42R34F149066, in for a rattle noise coming from the hood at all speeds. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Conductor, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

2. A customer brings a 2003 Lincoln Navigator, VIN # 5LMFU28RX3LJ08909, in for excessive noise under the hood coming from the air compressor for the air suspension. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________

B.

Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Conductor, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

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WORKSHEET E (AT WORKSTATION 4) NVH TERMINOLOGY AND TOOLS STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued) PART THREE (CONTINUED)
3. A customer brings a 2004 Mercury Grand Marquis, VIN# 2MEFM74W14X643808, in for an engine vibration at idle. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Conductor, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

4. A customer brings a 2004 Ford F-150, VIN # 1FTPX14534NA27658, in for a squeaking noise coming from the power sliding rear window. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________

B.

Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

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NOTES

DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS


TECHNICIAN OBJECTIVES

Describe the diagnostic process for NVH concerns. Describe road test procedures. Describe engine run-up tests. Describe the process for pinpointing vibration concerns. Perform vehicle frequency calculations Use Vibrate software to assist in diagnosing vibration concerns. Describe the process for pinpointing noise concerns. Describe the process for pinpoint harshness concerns.

CONTENTS
Diagnostic Process Diagnosis of Vibration Concerns Diagnosis of Noise Concerns Diagnosis of Harshness Concerns

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DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS
Diagnosis for NVH concerns has changed significantly over the years. Old techniques are replaced with sophisticated tools, equipment, and data collecting methods. The tools are used to gather needed data. This data can be charted on graphs or charts to determine sources of NVH concerns. New technologies serve to take out some of the guesswork in diagnosis and replace it with a scientific methodology, or a standardized method to follow that works. It is important to know and understand the basic diagnostic process to properly diagnose any Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) concern. The diagnostic process starts with the repair order. The Service Advisor must obtain as much information as possible from the customer and record it on the Repair Order (RO). It is important for you, the technician, to know when the NVH concern occurs. To assist the Service Advisor, a Write-up Job Aid (included in the appendix) has been developed. The job aid is used to make sure that all important symptom information is recorded. The technician receives this information and transfers it to the NVH Diagnostic Guide (also included in the appendix and in the Workshop Manuals) to continue the diagnostic process. The NVH Diagnostic Guide assists in understanding and duplicating an NVH concern. The technician should copy the information from the Write-up Job Aid to the top of the NVH Diagnostic Guide and continue to fill out the rest of the guide as necessary to diagnose the customer concern. This guide serves as a place to record diagnostic information as testing is performed. Various test results can easily be compared, instead of relying on memory for comparison. It also eliminates some of the confusion created by differences in descriptive language, and helps you identify the customers concern more accurately. Information gained from the description of the condition should not be used in place of facts gained from diagnosis, nor should it be used as an attempted shortcut fix. In the long run, you will save time by adhering to the diagnostic procedures demonstrated in this course. After reviewing the NVH Diagnostic Guide, the next step is verifying the customer concern.

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NVH Diagnostic Process Flow

REPAIR ORDER

PREDRIVE CHECK

VERIFY CONCERN (Road Test, Eng. Run-Up Test, Visual/Audio Insp)

P
CLASSIFY CONCERN AS A NOISE, VIBRATION, OR HARSHNESS SYMPTOM

CHECK OASIS, TSB'S AND VEHICLE SERVICE HISTORY

SYMPTOM-TO-SYSTEM-TO COMPONENT-TO-CAUSE REPAIR CONCERN (ROOT CAUSE)

VERIFY REPAIR

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Pre Drive Check
The predrive check consists of a brief visual inspection. During this brief inspection, take note of anything that could compromise safety during the road test and make those repairs and adjustments before taking the car on the road.

Verify Customer Concern


Verifying the customer concern is done by either performing a road test, or an engine run-up test. The decision to perform a road test, the engine run-up test, or both depends on the type of NVH concern. If the symptom is related to the suspension system or is sensitive to torque, a road test may be necessary. An engine run-up test in Drive and in Neutral can identify noises and vibrations as related to engine and drivetrain RPM. Remember, the engine run-up/road tests may not tell you what the problem is, but they will eliminate many possibilities if done correctly. Road Test With Customer It may be necessary to have the customer ride along to point out the concern. During the road test, be sure to take into consideration the customers driving habits and driving conditions. You may find that the customer concern is a normal operating condition for that vehicle. Before road testing a vehicle, it is important to do a predrive check. By performing a predrive check, you ensure that the vehicle is relatively safe to drive and eliminate any obvious faults on the vehicle.

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Observe the following when preparing for the road test:

Check the customer repair order before beginning the road test. It is important to know what specific concern the customer has with the automobile. This prevents correcting the wrong concern, and increasing the cost of repair. Do not be misled by the reported location of the noise or vibration. The cause may actually be some distance away. Remember that the vibrating component (originator) may only generate a small vibration. This small vibration may in turn cause a larger vibration or noise with a component (reactor), due to contact with other components (conductor). Conduct the road test on a quiet street where safely duplicating the noise or vibration is possible. The ideal testing route is an open, low-traffic area. It must be possible to operate the vehicle at the speed in which the condition occurs. If possible, lower the radio antenna in order to minimize turbulence. Inspect the vehicle for add-on items that may be creating a noise. Turn off the radio and blower for the heater and air conditioner.

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Slow acceleration test The first vehicle test used in determining an NVH concern is the slow acceleration test. This test is used to identify the noise or vibration if a road test with the customer is not possible. The steps of the slow acceleration test are:

Slowly accelerate the vehicle to the speed where the problem occurs. Note the vehicle speed and the engine RPM. If possible, determine the frequency of the vibration. Attempt to identify the location of the concern (front or rear, and right or left) on the vehicle. Attempt to identify the noise or vibration.

Heavy acceleration test This test is done to determine if a concern is torque related.

Accelerate hard from 0-40 mph. Decelerate in a lower gear at the reported speed. If the concern is duplicated during this test, it is torque related.

Neutral coast down speed test The next step when performing the road test is the Neutral coast down speed test. This test determines if an NVH concern is vehicle speedrelated. The steps of the Neutral coast down speed test are:

Drive the vehicle at a speed higher than where the noise or vibration was obvious in the slow acceleration test. Place the vehicle in Neutral and coast down through the speed where the concern occurs. If the noise or vibration exists, the concern is vehicle speed-related. This eliminates the engine and torque converter. If the NVH concern did not occur during the Neutral coast down speed test, perform a downshift speed test to confirm the concern as engine speed-related.

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Downshift speed test This vehicle test helps to confirm the NVH concern as engine speedrelated. The steps of the downshift speed test are:

Stop the vehicle and place the transmission in a lower gear. Drive the vehicle at the engine RPM where the noise or vibration occurs. If the noise or vibration exists, the concern is engine speed-related. This eliminates tires, wheels, brakes, and suspension components. If necessary, repeat the test using other gears and Neutral to confirm the results.

Steering input test This test determines how wheel bearings and other suspension components contribute to a vehicle speed-related condition. The steps of the steering input test are:

Drive the vehicle at the speed where the NVH concern exists, while making sweeping turns in both directions. If the concern goes away or gets worse, wheel bearings, hubs, U-joints (contained in the axles of 4WD applications), and tire tread wear can be the components causing the concern.

Road test over bumps The road test over bumps is used to help isolate a noise that occurs when going over a rough road or a bump. By driving the vehicle across a bump or dip diagonally, one wheel at a time will hit the bump or dip. This will isolate the noise to one quadrant of the vehicle.

To determine if the noise is coming from the front or the back, drive only the front or rear wheels over a bump. To determine if the noise is on the left or the right, drive one wheel over a bump.

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Engine Run-up Tests Engine run-up tests are performed on a hoist with an accurate tachometer connected to the engine. Even if the vehicle has a tachometer, it is a good idea to use one that has clearly defined increments of less than 50 RPM so that an exact reading of engine speed can be recorded. Engine speed will be an important factor in arriving at a final conclusion. Perform the Neutral run-up and engine loaded tests if the NVH concern is engine speed-related. Neutral run-up test Use the Neutral run-up test as a follow-up to the downshift test or when the NVH concern occurs at idle. The steps of the Neutral run-up test are:

Increase the engine RPM while in Park on front wheel drive vehicles, or Neutral on rear wheel drive vehicles. Make note of the RPM and frequency of the NVH concern.

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Engine loaded test The second in-shop test is the engine loaded test. This test may help reproduce engine speed-related concerns not evident with the Neutral run-up or Neutral coast down tests. The engine loaded test also identifies noise and vibration sensitive to engine load or torque. These NVH concerns often appear during heavy acceleration or when climbing a hill. WARNING: BLOCK THE FRONT AND BACK WHEELS, OR INJURY TO PERSONNEL MAY RESULT. DO NOT EXCEED FIVE SECONDS WHEN PERFORMING THE ENGINE LOADED TEST OR DAMAGE TO TRANSAXLE MAY RESULT. The steps of the engine loaded test are:

Block the front and back wheels. Apply the parking and service brakes. Put the transmission in Drive and increase the engine RPM to where the NVH concern appears. Make note of the RPM and frequency of the NVH concern. Be sure to perform the test in Drive and then in Reverse. If the noise or vibration occurs, check engine and transaxle mounts. If the concern is definitely engine speed-related, perform the engine accessory test to narrow down the possible trouble source.

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Engine accessory test The last in-shop test is the engine accessory test. This test helps locate faulty belts and accessories that are causing engine speedrelated NVH concerns. NOTE: The use of a serpentine belt decreases the usefulness of this vehicle check. However, accessory variations can be pinpointed easily with a vibration analyzer, such as the EVA. Noises from specific accessories can usually be identified with electronic listening devices, such as the EngineEAR. CAUTION: Block the front and back wheels, or injury to personnel may result. Limit running time with belts removed or overheating may result. The steps of the engine accessory test are:

Remove the accessory drive belts. Increase engine RPM to where the NVH concern is obvious. If the vibration occurs, the belts and accessories are not the source. If the belts and accessories are the source of the NVH concern, continue to add or remove specific accessory belts to locate the concern.

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OASIS/TSBs/Service History
After verifying the customer concern, or symptom, check for Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs), work history, and OASIS reports related to that symptom. If a TSB or OASIS report relates to the symptom, follow the procedure in the report to repair the concern. If no TSBs or OASIS reports are found, perform vehicle preliminary inspections to eliminate any obvious failed components or misadjusted components or systems.

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Classify Concern

NOISE

NOISE CONCERN DIAGNOSIS PROCESS MOMENTARY (Not torque related)

NOISE AND VIBRATION CUSTOMER CONCERN

ENGINE OR VEHICLE SPEED

TORQUE RELATED

VERIFY CONCERN VISUAL/AUDIO INSPECTION PRE-DRIVE CHECKS ROAD TEST

VIBRATION

VIBRATION CONCERN DIAGNOSIS PROCESS

CLASSIFY CONCERN VIBRATION AND HARSHNESS

ENGINE OR VEHICLE SPEED

TORQUE RELATED

MOMENTARY/ ROAD INDUCED

HARSHNESS

HARSHNESS CONCERN DIAGNOSIS PROCESS

Classify Concern For NVH concerns, it is necessary to classify the customers concern into one of the three categories: noise, vibration, or harshness. The reason for this is that a customer concern may consist of a combination of symptoms involving noise and vibration, or vibration and harshness. In cases where there are combination symptoms, you, the technician, need to know which diagnostic path to follow: noise, vibration, or harshness. Above is a flow diagram to assist you in making that decision. For example, if a customer has a concern involving a noise and a vibration, and you determine that it is vehicle speed-related (Neutral coast down speed test), you would follow the vibration diagnostic path.

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Logical Diagnostic Thought Process
Technicians should always refer to the vehicle Workshop Manual for the proper diagnostic procedures. Technicians should always use the symptom-to-system-to-component-to-cause diagnostic technique when diagnosing any customer concern. This technique provides a logical method for correcting customer concerns. First, determine and verify the symptom. Next, determine which system(s) could cause the symptom by performing road test and engine run-up procedures. After determining the system, utilize diagnostic tools and equipment to identify the faulty component(s). After identifying the components, always try to find the cause of the failure. Sometimes components just wear out. In other instances, however, something other than the failed component is responsible for the problem.

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Repair (Root Cause)
After an NVH concern is identified, perform the necessary adjustments and repairs using the appropriate Workshop Manual. Always look for the cause of component damage. If you only replace the component that is causing the symptom, and do not try to determine what caused that component to fail, the failure is likely to reoccur. An example of this concept is as follows: a customer complains of excessive vibration in the passenger compartment. After performing the required tests, you determine that this is a normal vibration being transferred from the engine. You then determine that a worn bushing on the engine mount has caused the vibration to travel on the transfer path from the engine to the passenger compartment. You also note that the bushing is oil-soaked. Had you replaced the bushing without checking the oil, the concern would have returned, since the root cause was not the bushing itself, but its contact with contaminated oil. In this case, contaminated oil is the root cause of the customers concern.

Verify Repair
After performing repairs, verify that the vehicle operates properly. It is possible that fixing one NVH noise or vibration may reveal another. Take the time to road test and verify that no further problems exist.

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DIAGNOSIS OF VIBRATION CONCERNS
Identifying vibration concerns is easier with the data obtained from the vehicle tests. To identify a vibration to a specific system/ component group, the following information should have been obtained from the vehicle tests:

Duplication of the vibration was possible. The vibration is determined to be abnormal. Vibration is related to engine speed or vehicle speed. The frequency was identified using an Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA), reed tachometer, or sirometer.

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Diagnostic Process for Pinpointing Vibration Concerns

VIBRATION CONCERN DIAGNOSIS PROCESS

OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY IF CONDITIONS ARE MAINTAINED

MOMENTARY EVENT

BRAKE RELATED

ENGINE SPEED RELATED-EVA

VEHICLE SPEED RELATED-EVA

VARIES WITH ROAD CONDITIONS

TORQUE RELATED EVA

TRANSFER PATH*

TRANSFER PATH*

TIRE SPEED

SYSTEM

TRANSFER PATH*

SUSPENSION

ENGINE ACCESSORY

DRIVELINE SPEED

RIDE HEIGHTSUSPENSION

BRAKES

ENGINE

DRIVELINE

*Normal Vibrations Accentuated by Transfer Path

Diagnosing Vibration Concerns Pinpointing a vibration concern is the most complicated of the three concerns (noise, vibration, and harshness). The first step in this process is to decide if the concern is a momentary event or if it occurs consistently while particular conditions are maintained. This information should have been obtained from your initial road test to verify the customers concern.

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Momentary Event If the concern is a momentary event, you need to determine if the concern is torque related or if it varies with road conditions. (This should also have been determined on the initial road test.) If the concern varies with road conditions, you can identify affected systems and perform an inspection to determine the cause. If the concern is momentary, but is torque related (determined on the initial road test), an additional road test using the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) is necessary. The EVA will isolate this concern to one of the following:

Driveline Suspension ride height Normal vibration accentuated by transfer path

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Occurs While Conditions are Maintained Concerns that occur consistently while conditions are maintained are categorized into three types:

Vehicle speed-related These vibrations occur at the same vehicle speed regardless of RPM. This type of vibration cannot be detected with the vehicle stopped. Vehicle speed-related concerns are determined through the Neutral coast down speed test. These concerns are related to tire speed and driveline concerns. The use of the EVA on a diagnostic road test will pinpoint the concern to one of these systems. Vehicle speed-related vibrations can be divided into two groups: low vehicle speed-related vibrations and high vehicle speed-related vibrations. Because there may be some overlap between these groups, it is necessary to consider a number of possibilities when diagnosing a vehicle speed-related vibration. Low vehicle speed-related vibrations These vibrations typically occur at less than 45-50 mph (72-80 km/h). High vehicle speed-related vibrations These vibrations typically occur at 45-50 mph (72-80 km/h) or higher.

Engine speed-related These vibrations typically occur at the same engine RPM and can be duplicated while the vehicle is stationary. A downshift speed test will verify a concern as engine speedrelated after the Neutral coast down speed test. These concerns are related to the engine or engine accessories, or they may be normal vibrations that are accentuated by transfer path. The use of the EVA on a diagnostic road test will pinpoint the concern to one of these systems. Brake related The concern is brake related if it occurs while braking. These concerns are related to the brake system or the suspension system. They could also be normal vibrations that are accentuated by transfer path. An inspection of the brake and suspension systems should reveal the source of this type of concern.

The information necessary to categorize the concern into one of these types is obtained on the initial road test verifying the customer concern. Additional road tests may be required to further diagnose the concern. Read the section on Road Test Diagnostic Procedures for more information on specific test procedures.

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Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) Usage
During the diagnostic process, the EVA is used to identify the frequency and amplitude of a vibration. Identifying the frequency of a vibration is important because each component vibrates at a particular frequency. It is the fingerprint of the vibration. Once the frequency has been identified, it can be compared to the frequency of components to determine the source of vibration. The EVA does not tell you if the vibration is normal or abnormal. If you have the luxury of having an identical vehicle at your disposal, you can measure and compare frequencies to determine if the vibration is normal or abnormal. If not, then you may have to compare the EVA identified frequency to component frequencies at the speed at which the vibration appears. The component frequencies are obtained by completing frequency calculations for each suspect component. The component frequencies are then compared to the EVA readings to determine the source of vibration. Refer to the tool section of the Student Guide for a complete description of the EVA. The next section is an explanation of frequency calculations and how they are completed. This is followed by an explanation of a software package that does the calculations for you.

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Calculating Tire/Wheel RPM and Frequency Use the vehicle speed where the vibration symptom occurs to determine tire/wheel RPM and frequency. Calculate tire/wheel RPM and frequency by performing the following steps:

Measure the diameter of the tire. Using the diameter of the tire and the vehicle speed at which the vibration is most noticeable, obtain the corresponding tire/wheel RPM and frequency from the Tire Speed and Frequency Chart. If the vehicle speed is not listed, divide the vehicle speed at which the vibration occurs by ten (or by 16 for km/h). Multiply this factor by the 10 mph (16 km/h) tire RPM listed for that tire diameter.

For example, a vehicle is experiencing a vibration at 40 mph with 33 in. (835 mm) diameter tires. Divide 40 by 10 to get a factor of 4. Multiply 4 by 105 RPM (10 mph tire RPM for a 33 in. tire diameter) to get a tire/wheel speed of 420 RPM and a first order tire/wheel frequency of 7 Hz at 40 mph. Remember, order is the number of disturbances created in one revolution of a component. The second order frequency of the tire/ wheel assemblies is twice this number, or 14 Hz. The third order frequency is three times this number, or 21 Hz. If the vibration concern has a frequency that matches the first, second, or third order frequency, the cause of the concern can possibly be in the tire/wheel area. First order tire/wheel vibrations are usually the result of one of two conditions:

Excessive runout Excessive imbalance

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TIRE SPEED AND FREQUENCY CHART
TIRE DIAMETER MM 483 508 533 560 585 610 635 660 685 710 735 760 785 810 835 864 INCHES 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 10 MPH (16 km/h) 182 RPM 173 RPM 165 RPM 158 RPM 151 RPM 145 RPM 139 RPM 134 RPM 129 RPM 124 RPM 119 RPM 115 RPM 111 RPM 108 RPM 105 RPM 102 RPM 50 MPH (80 km/h) 910 RPM 15 Hz 865 RPM 14 Hz 825 RPM 14 Hz 790 RPM 13 Hz 755 RPM 13 Hz 725 RPM 12 Hz 695 RPM 12 Hz 670 RPM 11 Hz 645 RPM 11 Hz 620 RPM 10 Hz 595 RPM 10 Hz 575 RPM 10 Hz 555 RPM 9 Hz 540 RPM 9 Hz 525 RPM 9 Hz 510 RPM 8 Hz TIRE RPM OR HERTZ 60 MPH (97 km/h) 1,092 RPM 18 Hz 1,038 RPM 17 Hz 990 RPM 16 Hz 948 RPM 16 Hz 906 RPM 15 Hz 870 RPM 14 Hz 834 RPM 14 Hz 804 RPM 13 Hz 774 RPM 13 Hz 744 RPM 12 Hz 714 RPM 12 Hz 690 RPM 11 Hz 666 RPM 11 Hz 648 RPM 11 Hz 630 RPM 10 Hz 612 RPM 10 Hz 70 MPH (113 km/h) 1,274 RPM 21 Hz 1,211 RPM 20 Hz 1,155 RPM 19 Hz 1,106 RPM 18 Hz 1,057 RPM 18 Hz 1,015 RPM 17 Hz 973 RPM 16 Hz 938 RPM 16 Hz 903 RPM 15 Hz 868 RPM 14 Hz 833 RPM 14 Hz 805 RPM 13 Hz 777 RPM 13 Hz 756 RPM 13 Hz 735 RPM 12 Hz 714 RPM 12 Hz

Tire Speed and Frequency Chart

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Calculating Driveshaft Frequency Knowing the tire/wheel frequency allows for easy calculation of driveshaft frequency. The driveshaft drives the tires through the rear axle. Therefore, to determine driveshaft frequency, multiply tire/ wheel frequency by the ratio of the rear axle. Calculate driveshaft frequency by performing the following steps:

Obtain the axle ratio of the vehicle. Suppose the vehicle you are diagnosing has a vibration problem at 45 mph (72 km/h) and a rear axle ratio of 3.08:1. Multiply the tire/wheel frequency of 7 Hz (determined in the last section) with the rear axle ratio of 3.08:1. This results in a driveshaft frequency of 22 Hz at a vehicle speed of 45 mph (72 km/h).

The calculated frequency of 22 Hz is the first order driveshaft frequency. The second order frequency of the driveshaft is twice this number, or 44 Hz. It is important to remember the difference between driveshaft and halfshaft frequencies. Driveshaft concerns are of a high frequency since the driveshaft rotates approximately three times the speed of the tire and wheel assemblies. Halfshaft concerns occur at a low frequency because they turn at the same speed as the wheel and tire. Halfshafts are shorter and smaller in diameter, and therefore less susceptible to vibration.

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Calculating Engine Frequency Use the engine RPM where the vibration symptom occurs to determine engine frequency. Calculate engine frequency by performing the following step:

Divide the engine RPM by 60 (the number of seconds in a minute). For example, if the corresponding engine RPM of a vibration concern on an automobile is 2,400 RPM, the resulting engine frequency is 40 Hz.

2,400 RPM 60 seconds = 40 Hz (or cycles per second) For purposes of vibration diagnosis, the engine also includes the torque converter and exhaust system.

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Calculating Engine Accessory Frequency Belt-driven engine accessories often produce vibrations at different frequencies than the engine itself. This is because the drive ratio created by the different size pulleys causes them to rotate at different speeds. Determining engine accessory frequency is comparable to calculating driveline frequency. Calculate engine accessory frequency by performing the following steps:

Determine the size ratio factor between the accessory pulley and the crankshaft pulley. For example, if the diameter of the crankshaft pulley is six inches and the accessory pulley diameter is two inches, the accessory pulley rotates three times for every crankshaft rotation (six divided by two). Multiply the engine RPM where the vibration condition occurs by the number of times the accessory pulley is rotating per crankshaft revolution. For example, if the engine RPM is 2,400 RPM (engine speed), the accessory is rotating at 7,200 RPM (2,400 RPM multiplied by 3). Divide the accessory RPM by 60 (the number of seconds in a minute). In this example, the engine accessory frequency is 120 Hz (7,200 divided by 60).

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Calculating Engine Firing Frequency Engine firing frequency is a term used to describe the pulses an engine creates from the firing of the cylinders. Engine firing frequency depends upon how many cylinders an engine has. The number of times an engine fires a cylinder with each crankshaft revolution is equal to one-half the number of cylinders. A fourcylinder engine fires two cylinders with each crankshaft revolution. Two revolutions of the crankshaft fire all four cylinders. A sixcylinder engine fires three cylinders with each crankshaft revolution. An eight-cylinder engine fires four cylinders for each crankshaft revolution. Calculate engine firing frequency by performing the following steps:

Multiply the engine RPM where the vibration symptom occurs by the number of cylinders fired with each crankshaft revolution. For example, an automobile with a six-cylinder engine experiences a vibration concern at 2,400 RPM. The engine is firing the cylinders at 7,200 times per minute (3 times 2,400). Divide this number by 60 (the number of seconds in a minute) to obtain the engine firing frequency. In this example, the engine firing frequency is 120 Hz (7,200 divided by 60) at 2,400 RPM.

Engine firing frequency is calculated using this formula: (engine RPM) x (0.5 x no. of cylinders) 60

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Calculating Frequencies
Once the frequency of a vibration is identified, the technician can match the vibration to one of the following system/component groups:

Tire and wheel Driveline Engine and torque converter Engine accessories

If the vibration concern is vehicle speed-related, tire/wheel and driveline system/component group frequencies should be calculated. If the vibration concern is engine speed-related, engine, engine accessory, and engine firing frequencies should be calculated. In calculating and using frequency readings it is important to remember the direct relationship between Hz and RPM. One Hz equals 60 RPM. This is easy to remember if you think of Hz as cycles per second. There are 60 seconds in a minute, therefore you would multiply your Hz reading by 60 to get RPM. Conversely, you would divide RPM by 60 to get Hz. 1 Hz = 60 RPM (2 Hz = 120 RPM, 3 Hz = 180 RPM, etc.). This is true for all first order (imbalance and runout) vibrations. Use the NVH Frequency Worksheet to calculate system/component group frequencies. The worksheet provides the necessary steps to determine each system/component group frequency.

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FREQUENCY AND RPM CALCULATIONS
TIRE AND WHEEL Vibration occurs at ______ mph (km/h) Tire diameter ______ Tire speed RPM and frequency from chart DRIVESHAFT Tire/wheel frequency ______ x axle ratio = Tire/wheel RPM ______ x axle ratio = ENGINE FREQUENCIES AND ASSOCIATED RPMS Engine RPM divided by 60 equals 1st order frequency 1st order RPM x 2 = 2nd order RPM (normal for 4 cylinder engines) Cylinders fired per engine revolutions 1st order Hz x 2 = 2nd order Hz (normal for 4 cylinder engines) 1st order RPM x 3 = 3rd order RPM (normal for 6 cylinder engines) 1st order Hz x 3 = 3rd order Hz (normal for 6 cylinder engines) x 4 = 4th order vibrations (normal for 8 cylinder engines) x 5 = 5th order, x 6 = 6th order, etc. Order of vibration x engine RPM equals cylinders fired per minute Order of vibration (2nd, 3rd, 4th etc.) x 1st order Hz equals ENGINE ACCESSORY FREQUENCIES AND RPMS Crankshaft pulley diameter ______ divided by accessory pulley diameter ______ = ______ pulley size ratio Engine speed ______ RPM x pulley ratio = accessory ______ RPM Accessory pulley ______ RPM divided by 60 = ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz

______ RPM ______ Hz

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Vibrate Software

Vibrate Screen Vibrate assists the technician in calculating the system/component group frequencies discussed in the previous section. Vibrate performs the calculations automatically and displays the results. Most vehicle vibrations are caused by rotating components that are out of balance or out of round. Since the engine must be running for these components to begin rotating, the engines crankshaft will be the point of reference for vibration diagnosis using the Vibrate software. Every rotating component will have a rotating speed that is faster, slower, or the same as the engines crankshaft. Determining the rotating speed of each component in relation to the engines crankshaft is the key to an accurate vibration diagnosis.

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Vibrate calculates the rotating speed of each component and graphically represents this on a computer screen and on a printed graph. The printed graph is for use while road testing a vehicle with a vibration concern. When the vehicles vibration is present, record the vibration frequency and the engine RPM on the graph (appropriate NVH diagnostic tools will be needed to measure vibration frequency and engine RPM). There is a point on the graph where the vibration frequency reading and the engine RPM reading intersect. This point should be on, or very close to, a plotted line on the graph. The plotted line indicates the specific component group causing the vibration.

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Step-by-step instructions

Figure 1 After starting the software program, a prompt is displayed (Figure 1) to select the appropriate powertrain. The software program uses this information to determine if it needs to perform driveline rotational speed calculations.

Figure 2 Next, a prompt to enter the drive axle gear ratio is displayed (Figure 2). To see a list of drive axle gear ratios for each vehicle manufacturer, press the Help button or F1. The help file will display a list of vehicle manufacturers; select the manufacturer of the vehicle. A list of final drive axle gear ratios is displayed. Determine the gear ratio used in the vehicle. A default drive axle gear ratio of 3.73 is displayed in the box. Just type in your gear ratio and press OK with the mouse or press ENTER on your keyboard. (NOTE: The default axle gear ratio can be changed to any gear ratio wanted. Select Options from the View Menu.)

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Figure 3 Next, a prompt to enter the transmission gear ratio is displayed (Figure 3). To see a list of transmission gear ratios for each vehicle manufacturer, press the Help button or F1. The help file will display a list of vehicle manufacturers; select the manufacturer of the vehicle. A list of transmissions is displayed. Determine the transmission used, then determine the gear ratio for the gear used while the vehicle is vibrating. A default drive transmission ratio of 0.70 (overdrive) is displayed in the box. Just type in your gear ratio and press OK with the mouse or press ENTER on your keyboard. If the transmission gear ratio is unknown, enter 1.0 as the gear ratio and drive the vehicle in third gear (direct drive for most automatic transmissions). (NOTE: The default transmission gear ratio can be changed to any gear ratio wanted. Select Options from the View Menu.)

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Figure 4 Finally, a prompt to enter the number of engine cylinders is displayed (Figure 4). Enter the number of cylinders in the engine. The software program uses this information to calculate engine speed-related vibration frequencies. A default number of 8 cylinders is displayed in the box. Just type in your number of cylinders and press OK with the mouse or press ENTER on your keyboard. (NOTE: The default number of cylinders can be changed to any number wanted. Select Options from the View Menu.)

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Figure 5 Road test instructions are presented next (Figure 5). Print these instructions and take them on the vehicle road test. (NOTE: The road test instructions are always displayed upon starting the Vibrate software. This feature can be turned off in the Options section of the View Menu.)

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Figure 6 The calculations are performed and Vibrate displays a graph of vehicle speed-related vibrations and engine speed-related vibrations on the screen (Figure 6).

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Figure 7 Using the mouse, press the Print Worksheet button (Figure 7) at the top of the screen to print the current graph. A vibration worksheet with the graph of vehicle speed-related vibrations and engine speed-related vibrations on it is printed (Figure 8).

RWD Vibration Diagnosis Worksheet


5,000
Each minor division = 50 RPM

P3 E4

P2

P1

4,750 4,500 4,250 4,000 3,750 3,500 3,250 3,000 E1 T3

Vibration 2,500 RPM


2,250 2,000 1,750 1,500 1,250 1,000 750 500 250
Each minor division = 50 RPM

2,750

T2

T1

250

500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

1,750

2,000

2,250

2,500

2,750

3,000

3,250

3,500

8 Cylinder Engine RPM Rear Axle Gear Ratio = 3.73:1


T1 = 1st Order Tire Speed Related P1 = 1st Order Propshaft Speed Related E1 = 1st Order Engine Speed Related T2 = 2nd Order Tire Speed Related P2 = 2nd Order Propshaft Speed Related

Transmission Gear Ratio = 0.70:1


T3 = 3rd Order Tire Speed Related P3 = 3rd Order Propshaft Speed Related E4 = 4th Order Engine Speed Related

(c) Copyright 1994-2003, Vibrate Software - 1-801-791-5807 - www.vibratesoftware.com

Ford Motor Company

Version 5.0.0218

Figure 8

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Figure 9 Next you must perform a road test. After the road test, the technician uses the readings obtained on the road test to line up the mouse crosshair (Figure 9).

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Figure 10

Figure 11 If, for example, you suspect a belt-driven accessory is causing a vibration, follow this procedure:

Using the mouse, press the Pulley Diameters button (Figure 10) at the top of the screen. You must enter the diameter of the crankshaft pulley. This is the drive pulley. A default pulley diameter of 7.5 is displayed in the box (Figure 11). Just type in your pulley diameter and press OK with the mouse or press ENTER on your keyboard.

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Figure 12

Next, you may select any of the prelisted or user defined pulleys to enter their diameter. These are the driven pulleys. Each prelisted and user defined pulley has a default value displayed (Figure 12). Just type in your pulley diameter and press OK with the mouse or press ENTER on your keyboard. When you are finished entering pulley diameters, press OK with your mouse. A new graph of engine speed-related vibrations and belt-driven accessory-related vibrations will be displayed. Print this graph to assist you in diagnosing which accessory is the cause of the unwanted vibration.

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Vibrate: button function reference

Buttons Axle Ratio Allows the user to enter the final drive axle gear ratio. Allows the user to enter the transmission gear ratio. This must be the gear used while the vehicle is vibrating. Allows the user to enter the number of engine cylinders. Allows the user to enter the pulley diameters of the engines belt-driven accessories. Allows the user to toggle between the RPM and Hz modes of display on the graph. Allows the user to change the engine RPM range on the screen. This is useful when a vibration is higher than the screen is displaying. Allows the user to view vehicle speed-related vibrations, engine speed-related vibrations, or both on the screen (as determined by the Neutral coast down speed test). Allows the user to print the current vibration graph.

Trans Ratio

Cylinders

Pulleys

RPM/Hz

RPM Range

View

Print

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Vibration Terminology This section describes common vehicle vibrations and applicable vehicle and component systems that can be affected. Brake shudder Brake shudder is the vibration generated when applying a brake with a nonuniform drum or rotor. Drive away shudder When the vehicle is accelerating, a definite shuddering vibration can be felt and heard from the time the vehicle starts to move, up to about 8 mph (13 km/h). Although more noticeable during hard acceleration, drive away shudder may also be felt during light to moderate acceleration. Drive away shudder is possible on all vehicle types and is an NVH concern of the driveline system (front and rear wheel drive). Shudder This is a low frequency vibration that is felt in the floor and/or steering wheel on acceleration or deceleration. Common vehicle speeds range between 8 and 40 mph (13 and 64 km/h). Shudder is possible on all vehicle types.

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Torsional vibration Torsional vibration is felt in the seats and floor of the vehicle and may be heard as a rumbling sound. It is most noticeable during steady, hard acceleration. Torsional vibrations are difficult to duplicate on a hoist since they are amplified by application of torque. Common vehicle speeds range between 25 and 45 mph (40 and 72 km/h). Torsional vibration occurs on rear wheel drive cars and light trucks, and is an NVH concern of the driveline system. Driveline vibration This condition is felt in the seats and floor of the vehicle and is heard as a rumbling sound. This driveline vibration occurs at the same speed in any gear, and is not reduced by acceleration, deceleration, or coast. This vibration can be duplicated with the vehicle supported by the drive axle. Common vehicle speeds range above 30 mph (48 km/h). Driveline vibration occurs on rear wheel drive cars and light trucks, and is an NVH concern of the driveline system. Engine vibration This vibration may occur at any vehicle speed, but always at the same engine RPM. An engine vibration will disappear in a Neutral coast down speed test and can be duplicated in a Neutral run-up test. Engine vibration is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the engine or engine accessories.

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Steering wheel nibble Steering wheel nibble is a low frequency vibration characterized by a slight or partial oscillation of the steering wheel. Common vehicle speeds range between 40 and 50 mph (64 and 80 km/h). Steering wheel nibble is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the wheels and tires. Mid-car shake Mid-car shake is a low frequency vibration (5 to 20 Hz) that causes the vehicle interior elements (seat, steering column, and so on) to shake. Usually most noticeable in an overdrive gear under light acceleration. Mid-car shake occurs on rear wheel drive frame cars, and is an NVH concern of the drive axle (rear wheel drive). High speed shake High speed shake produces a visible shake and pumping feel in the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, seat, and floor. This condition is sometimes seen as front-end sheet metal flutter. Common vehicle speeds range above 45 to 50 mph (72 to 80 km/ h). High speed shake is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the wheels and tires. Shimmy Consistent wobble of the wheels may be felt as a rapid oscillation of the steering wheel and/or shake of the entire vehicle. Usually felt near 40 mph (64 km/h), and may begin or be amplified when vehicle contacts potholes, and so on. Shimmy is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the wheels, tires, and suspension system.

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WORKSHEET F (AT WORKSTATION 1) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATIONS (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENT ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Perform diagnostics for a vehicle vibration. Use the New Generation Star (NGS) Tester as a tachometer. Use the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) strobe function. Calculate vehicle system/component frequencies. DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on diagnosing a vehicle vibration. Customer Concern:____________________________________________________________________________ 1. What vehicle component was the reactor to the vibration? (Where do you feel the vibration?) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What in-shop vehicle checks can be performed to locate a vibration? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Duplicate the customer concern when it is most noticeable. Note the vibration frequency, amplitude, and engine RPM in the table below.

Vibration Frequency RPM Hz

Vibration Amplitude

Engine RPM

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WORKSHEET F (AT WORKSTATION 1) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATIONS (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENT ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
4. Use the table below to calculate the engine accessory and firing frequencies. Engine Speed Related Table Engine Speed Number of Cylinders Fired per Revolution Engine Firing Frequency Engine Accessory Speed Related Table Component Pulley Diameter To Crankshaft Pulley Rato 1:1 Component Speed (RPM or Frequency) RPM Hz RPM Hz

Crankshaft Power Steering Generator Coolant Pump Air Conditioning Idler Tensioner

5. What input jack must be used for the EVA strobe function? _______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. In order for the strobe to function most effectively, it is important to limit the ranges in which the EVA operates the strobe function. True or false? _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Use the EVA to strobe the engine accessories.

8. What was the cause of the in-shop vehicle vibration? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET G (AT WORKSTATION 2) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATIONS (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Perform diagnostics for a vehicle vibration. Use the Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) to measure a vibrations frequency and amplitude. Use the New Generation Star (NGS) Tester as a tachometer. Calculate vehicle system/component frequencies.

DIRECTIONS: Duplicate the customer concern and answer the following questions on diagnosing the vibration. Customer Concern: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. What vehicle component was responding (the reactor) to the vibration? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Duplicate the customer concern and note the vehicle speed, vibration frequency, engine RPM, and gear in the table below when the vibration is most noticeable.

Vibration Frequency RPM Hz

Vibration Amplitude

Vehicle Speed

Engine RPM

Gear

3. Drive the vehicle with overdrive canceled. Does the RPM of the vibration match the engine RPM where the vibration is most noticeable? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are the most important test procedures performed during a road test? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET G (AT WORKSTATION 2) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATIONS (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)

5. What systems did you rule out on the road test? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Was the vibration vehicle speed related or engine speed related? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What component frequencies that should be calculated for this type of vibration. (Circle all that apply)

Wheel/Tire

Driveline

Engine

Engine Accessory

Engine Firing Frequency

8. Measure and record the tire diameter of the classroom vehicle. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Record the axle ratio. Obtain the axle ratio by inspecting the rear differential tag or by using the workshop manual. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Use the space below to calculate the frequencies listed in Question 7. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What was the cause of the on-vehicle vibration? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET H (AT WORKSTATION 3) VIBRATE (BENCH) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVE: Use Vibrate software to identify the source of a vibration to a system/component group.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on Vibrate software. 1. What are the three different graph views as displayed using the VIEW button? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How can you change the engine RPM range on the graph? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The point where the engine RPM and vibration RPM intersects on the Vibrate graph indicates: _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET H (AT WORKSTATION 3) VIBRATE (BENCH) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
4. Using the information given, determine the component group responsible for the vibration. Vehicle Axle ratio Trans. gear ratio Cylinders Pulleys Crankshaft Water pump Power steering pump Alternator A/C compressor RWD 2.73 0.79 8

7.5 5.5 6.375 2.25 4.5

A. This vehicle has a vibration of 34 Hz at 2000 RPM. During the neutral coast down speed test the vibration disappeared. Is this a vehicle speed related or engine speed related vibration? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. What is the responsible component group? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ C. Using the HELP function, list some of the components that you would check. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET H (AT WORKSTATION 3) VIBRATE (BENCH) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
5. Using the information given, determine the component group responsible for the vibration. Vehicle Axle ratio Trans. gear ratio Cylinders Pulleys Crankshaft Water pump Power steering pump Alternator A/C compressor RWD 3.08 0.70 8

7.1 5.5 7.5 2.0 4.0

A. This vehicle has a vibration of 34 Hz at 2200 RPM. During the neutral coast down speed test the vibration was still evident. What is the component group responsible? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. What are three possible causes of the component group (identified in part A) vibration? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ C. How would the component group (identified in part A) change if the vibration disappears in neutral coast? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. A. Using the same graph (from Question 5), change the axle ratio. The axle tag on this 2003 Ford Crown Victoria reads 058-F. What steps did you follow to change the axle ratio? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. A vibration of 76 Hz can be felt at 3500 RPM and it disappears in the neutral coast test. What is the responsible component group? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET I (AT WORKSTATION 4) FREQUENCY CALCULATIONS (NAVIGATION) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Pinpoint the source of a vibration to a system/component group. Calculate vehicle system/component frequencies. DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on system/component group frequency calculations. 1. What component frequencies should be calculated for a vehicle speed related vibration? (Circle all that apply)

Wheel/Tire

Driveline

Engine

Engine Accessory

Engine Firing Frequency

2. What is the tire/wheel frequency of a vehicle with a vibration at 50 mph (80 km/h) with 24 in. tires? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If a vehicle has a rear axle ratio of 3.31, calculate the driveshaft frequency using the tire/wheel frequency from question two. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What component frequencies should be calculated when an engine speed related vibration? (Circle all that apply)

Wheel/Tire

Driveline

Engine

Engine Accessory

Engine Firing Frequency

5. To calculate engine frequency, the engine RPM where the vibration is most noticeable is divided by what number? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If a vehicle has an engine vibration at 2,400 RPM, calculate the engine frequency. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET I (AT WORKSTATION 4) FREQUENCY CALCULATIONS (NAVIGATION) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)

7. List the three steps that must be performed in order to obtain engine accessory frequency. A. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ C. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What is the engine accessory frequency of a vehicle that has a six-inch crankshaft pulley and a twoinch accessory pulley experiencing a vibration concern at 2,000 RPM? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9. On an eight cylinder engine, how many engine cylinders are fired with each crankshaft revolution? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 10. List the steps to determine engine firing frequency in Hertz. A. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

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WORKSHEET I (AT WORKSTATION 4) FREQUENCY CALCULATIONS (NAVIGATION) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)

11. What is the engine firing frequency in Hertz of a vehicle with an eight-cylinder engine experiencing _ an NVH concern at 2,000 RPM? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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DIAGNOSIS OF NOISE CONCERNS
Identifying noise concerns is easier with the data obtained from the vehicle tests. A noise produced by a vibration can be diagnosed in the same manner as a vibration. A noise produced by wind, leaks, or vehicle turbulence requires the use of special listening tools.

Diagnostic Equipment for Noise Concerns


To be able to isolate a noise to a specific system/component group, use one or more of the following noise detection tools:

ChassisEAR Common shop tools (mechanics stethoscope, screwdriver, rubber hose, and so on) EngineEAR Ultraphonic detector/receiver and transmitter (Ultrasonic leak detector)

Refer to the section on tools for more information regarding these listening devices.

Noise Transfer Paths


When a vibration produces a noise, the vibration can be transmitted from the originator, through the conductor, and on to the reactor where the noise is heard by the customer. The noise is transferred directly from component to component. For example, if the steering system (originator) is producing an abnormal vibration, the suspension system (conductor) can transmit the vibration to the instrument panel (reactor) where a noticeable squeak is heard. Noises that are produced by wind, turbulence, and air leaks are independent from noises produced by moving components. The noise is not transferred directly from component to component. Wind noise is covered in-depth in a separate course.

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Diagnostic Process for Pinpointing Noise Concerns

NOISE CONCERN DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS

PRELIMINARY INSPECTION OF SYSTEM NOT FOUND

FOUND REPAIR

PARTICULAR CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH NOISE OCCURS STATIONARY MOMENTARY WHILE TURNING INTERIOR SPEED RELATED (VEHICLE OR ENGINE)

USE LISTENING DEVICES TO TRACK DOWN SOURCE OF NOISE

IS THE REACTOR RELATED TO SYSTEM PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED? NO

YES

REACTOR = ORIGINATOR = REPAIR

IDENTIFY SYSTEMS RELATED TO CONDITIONS IDENTIFY RELATIONSHIP

IDENTIFY NOISE TRANSFER PATH

DETERMINE IF REPAIR IS FOR CONDUCTOR, ORIGINATOR, OR REACTOR

REPAIR

Diagnosing Noise Concerns Once a symptom is classified as a noise concern, the particular conditions under which the noise occurs need to be identified. These conditions are identified and verified on the road test. For example, a noise may only occur while turning. The next step is to determine which systems on the vehicle are related to that condition. In our example with the noise while turning, the steering system and wheel/tire system may be suspect. After identifying possible systems, a preliminary inspection of these systems should be done. If the cause is identified at this stage, the repair is done. If the source of noise is still unidentified, use a listening device (such as the ChassisEAR) to pinpoint the source of noise.

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Once the source of noise has been identified using a listening device, determine if this source is related to the suspected system previously identified. If it is related to the system previously identified, then complete the repair to resolve the customer concern. If it is unrelated, then it is possible that the source of the noise is a reactor to a noise being transmitted through a transfer path. If this is the case, repairing the reactor will not resolve the customer concern. The transfer path must be identified and a determination made if the noise is normal, but accentuated by the transfer path (conductor), or if the originator is the fault causing excessive noise to transfer to another component through a conductor. There is a relationship between systems identified as related to conditions and noise transfer path. In some cases, the condition under which the noise occurs has nothing to do with the identified source. This relationship is important in the diagnosis of noise concerns. It is the first clue that the identified source of noise might be a reactor and that further investigation is needed to diagnose a possible noise transfer path concern.

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Noise Terminology This section describes common vehicle noises and applicable vehicle and component systems that can be affected. Grunt on acceleration A raspy sound and momentary vibration in the floor pan during acceleration or following a braking stop. The vehicle speed range is 0 to 2 mph (0 to 3 km/h). Grunt on acceleration occurs on light trucks, and is an NVH concern of the driveline system. Tip-in moan A moan noise with a possible vibration in the floor during light acceleration. It is usually worse at one particular throttle setting during acceleration at that speed. Common vehicle speeds range between 25 and 50 mph (40 and 80 km/h). Tip-in moan is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the engine and exhaust systems. Brake moan A low-pitch noise that is felt in the floor and/or the steering wheel during light brake application. Common vehicle speeds range between 8 and 40 mph (13 and 64 km/h). Brake moan is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the brake system. Hum or boom These are low-pitch noises often accompanied by a vibration felt in the floor pan. Usually related to driveline angle or balance. It may or may not be torque related. Hum or boom occurs on all rear wheel drive vehicles and is an NVH concern of the driveline system (rear wheel drive). Howl Howl is a medium-pitch noise that may be heard at any speed. Usually, it can be affected by acceleration or deceleration. Howl is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the drive axles (front and rear wheel drive).

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DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS


Whine A high-pitch noise that may be heard at any speed. It is usually (but not always) unaffected by accelerating and decelerating. Whine is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the drive axles (front and rear wheel drive). Driveline clunk A loud noise that can be attributed to total powertrain response to torque reversals in the system, including, but not limited to, backlash in the transmission, driveshaft, and axle. Driveline clunk is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the driveline system (rear wheel drive) and drive axles (front and rear wheel drive). Chuckle Low-pitch noise that normally occurs while decelerating to a stop; pitch goes down as vehicle slows. When very loud, often described as a knock. Chuckle is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the drive axles (front and rear wheel drive). Rumble Low-pitch noise that often is loudest during turns. Can usually be identified as front or rear in origin. Rumble is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the drive axles (front and rear wheel drive). Brake rattle Noise of varying pitch that changes as brakes are applied or released. Brake rattle is possible on all vehicle types, and is an NVH concern of the brake system. Chatter Pronounced noise that occurs only when turning. Chatter is possible on all rear wheel drive vehicles, and is an NVH concern of the drive axle (rear wheel drive). Drone A sustained tone at a higher pitch than boom. Rattle A rapid succession of short sharp noises. Squeak An intermittent sound that is of high pitch and short duration.
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DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS


DIAGNOSIS OF HARSHNESS CONCERNS
Harshness is customer perception which gives the impression of no isolation from the tire/wheel and suspension system. Harshness may be caused by road conditions, temperature changes, component damage, and/or improper customer modifications on original components/specifications. Customers usually experience harshness when the vehicle is driving over bumps or potholes, and in cold weather conditions. Harshness can also be experienced with excessive tire pressure, sporty tires, heavy-duty springs and shocks, or other vehicle modifications. Some aftermarket tires, even with the correct size, may change vehicle behavior and produce customer concerns.

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DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS


Diagnostic Process for Pinpointing Harshness Concerns
HARSHNESS CONCERN DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS

COMPARE TO KNOWN GOOD VEHICLE AND INSPECT*

STEERING

BODY MOUNTS

BODY

DRIVETRAIN

SUSPENSION

TIRE AND WHEELS

* Inspect Components Related to Harshness:


Bushings Isolators Adjustments

SYSTEM

Diagnosing Harshness Concerns The first step in diagnosing a harshness concern is to determine if the concern was experienced only in certain specific operating conditions, such as large potholes or extremely cold weather. In these cases, harshness should be considered normal. A known good vehicle can be driven under the same conditions and the rides can be compared to determine whether the concern is normal or vehicle specific. The second step is to check tire pressure and make sure it was set within vehicle specifications. The third step is to inspect for aftermarket or modified components and determine if they are the cause of the harshness complaint. If the harshness concern persists after the above steps, it is possible that some components are damaged. Components that should be inspected include tire/wheel, spring, shock/strut, suspension bushings, engine mounts, and body mounts. Inspection should focus on bushings, isolators, and adjustments. In particular, look at components that may not be allowed to move within normal travel, or that have lost their isolating grommets.

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

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DAY TWO: DIAGNOSIS OF NVH CONCERNS


System Specific Harshness Concerns
Suspension harshness is usually detected by the driver when driving across pavement joints or cracks, and occurs in the frequency range of 30 to 50 Hz. Suspension components should be thoroughly inspected because this type of vibration is related to suspension compliance. Suspension compliance is dependent on not only the springs and shock absorbers, but also on the condition and type of bushings on the vehicle. Because this type of vibration can be detected in the sprung and unsprung masses of the vehicle, the concern could also be in the tires. Bottoming out of the vehicle body is when the sprung and unsprung components come in contact with each other. In this case, you should inspect the following:

Jounce bumper clearance Springs Seats

During the road test, pay close attention to interior noise levels in the vehicle. In most cases, a harshness condition is due to a component that is not allowed to move within its normal travel, or one that has lost its isolating grommets or bushings. This makes body mounts and suspension components prime suspects in the diagnostic procedure. Oversized tires, heavy duty springs and shocks, or other vehicle modifications must be considered. Some aftermarket tires, even when they are the correct size, may produce changes in the vehicle that will generate owner concerns.

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DAY THREE NOTES

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Day Three-1

DAY THREE NOTES

Day Three-2

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY THREE
WORKSHEET J (AT WORKSTATION 1) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATION (ON-VEHICLE) INSTRUCTORS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Diagnose an on vehicle vibration concern. DIRECTIONS: Using the tools suplied and the skills that you have learned, diagnose the customer concern. Customer Concern: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Duplicate the customer concern and perform various tests to determine whether the concern is vehicle speed related or engine speed related. 2. Use the EVA or any other vibration analysis tool to obtain a vibration frequency. You may fill in the table(s) below using your own calculations or pinpoint the concern using Vibrate software. Note: Fill out the table(s) enough to diagnose the concern. It is not neccessary to fill out all of the tables. Vehicle Speed Related Table Vehicle Speed Tire Diameter Tire/Wheel Speed Axle Ratio Driveshaft Speed Engine Speed Related Table Engine Speed Number of Cylinders Fired per Revolution Engine Firing Frequency RPM Engine Accessory Speed Related Table To Crankshaft Pulley Diameter Pulley Rato 1:1 Hz RPM Hz RPM Hz

RPM

Hz

Component Crankshaft Power Steering Generator Coolant Pump Air Conditioning Idler/Tensioner

Component Speed (RPM or Frequency)

3. What is the component that is causing the concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Day Three-3

DAY THREE NOTES

Day Three-4

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY THREE NOTES

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Day Three-5

DAY THREE NOTES

Day Three-6

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY THREE
WORKSHEET K (AT WORKSTATION 2) DIAGNOSING VEHICLE VIBRATION (ON-VEHICLE) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
NAME: ____________________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES: Diagnose an on vehicle vibration concern. DIRECTIONS: Using the tools suplied and the skills that you have learned, diagnose the customer concern. Customer Concern: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Duplicate the customer concern and perform various tests to determine whether the concern is vehicle speed related or engine speed related. 2. Use the EVA or any other vibration analysis tool to obtain a vibration frequency. You may fill in the table(s) below using your own calculations or pinpoint the concern using Vibrate software. Note: Fill out the table(s) enough to diagnose the concern. It is not neccessary to fill out all of the tables. Vehicle Speed Related Table Vehicle Speed Tire Diameter Tire/Wheel Speed Axle Ratio Driveshaft Speed Engine Speed Related Table Engine Speed Number of Cylinders Fired per Revolution Engine Firing Frequency RPM Engine Accessory Speed Related Table To Crankshaft Pulley Diameter Pulley Rato Crankshaft Power Steering Generator Coolant Pump Air Conditioning Idler/Tensioner 3. What is the component that is causing the concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 1:1 Hz RPM Hz RPM Hz

RPM

Hz

Component Speed (RPM or Frequency)

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Day Three-7

DAY THREE NOTES

Day Three-8

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY THREE NOTES

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Day Three-9

DAY THREE NOTES

Day Three-10

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY THREE
WORKSHEET L (AT WORKSTATION 4) DIAGNOSING NOISE AND VIBRATION CONCERNS (NAVIGATION) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET
1. A customer brings a 2004 Ford F-150, VIN # 1FTPX14584NA04621, in for a steering wheel shimmy at speeds above 60 MPH. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________

B.

What would be the appropriate repair for a First Order Tire/Wheel vibration on 4X2 when the tire/wheel assemblies are ok?. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Conductor, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

D.

What can be done to eliminate flat spots on the tires? ____________________________________________________________________________________

2. A customer brings a 2004 Ford F-150, VIN # 1FTRF14W54NB42895, in for a vibration at highway speeds that is felt in the seat. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. What would be the appropriate repair for a First Order Tire/Wheel vibration on 4X2 when the tire/wheel assemblies are ok?. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Conductor, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

D.

What is the most likely cause of a First Order Driveline vibration if the vibration remains when in neutraL? ____________________________________________________________________________________

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Day Three-11

DAY THREE
WORKSHEET L (AT WORKSTATION 4) DIAGNOSING NOISE AND VIBRATION CONCERNS (NAVIGATION) STUDENTS ANSWER SHEET (Continued)
3. A customer brings a 1997 Ford F-250, 1FTHF26F2VEB59556, in for a vibration/moaning sound from the engine at approximately 2800 RPM. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Transfer Component, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

D.

Would this more likely be a low milage concern or a high mileage concern. ____________________________________________________________________________________

4. A customer brings a 2003 Ford Ranger, VIN # 1FTYR10D63PA95192, in for a boom/vibration at approximately 2000 RPM. Perform an OASIS VIN Request and look for TSB's for this concern. (If OASIS is not available, ask your instructor.) A. What is the TSB number for this concern? ____________________________________________________________________________________

B.

Briefly describe the suggested repair. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

C.

Does this repair fix the Originator, Transfer Component, or the Reactor? (Circle one)

D.

What other symptom is also covered by this TSB? ____________________________________________________________________________________

Day Three-12

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

NVH GLOSSARY
Acceleration Slow Increase speed at less than half throttle. Heavy Increase speed at half to nearly full throttle. The term amplitude, when applied to vibration, indicates the actual amount of component movement. An extreme vibration has a high amplitude, and a mild vibration has a low amplitude. Low pitch noise often accompanied by a vibration felt in the floor pan. Usually related to driveline angle or balance. This is a low pitch noise that is felt in the floor and/or the steering wheel during light brake application. Common vehicle speeds range between 8 and 40 mph (13 and 64 km/h). Noise of varying pitch that changes as brakes are applied or released. Trade name of an electronic noise detection device. It consists of an earphone head-set, amplifier, channel selector and six sensors. It is primarily used to detect noise emanating from engine/chassis components. Pronounced vibration that occurs only when turning. Low pitch noise that normally occurs while decelerating to a stop; pitch goes down as vehicle slows. When very loud, often described as a knock. Short, dull sound often heard when the transaxle engages or when accelerating. Slowing the vehicle by releasing foot from accelerator pedal and at cruise and allowing the engine to slow the vehicle without application of the brakes. Engine/transaxle taken out of gear by placing the gearshift lever in NEUTRAL (N) or by depressing the clutch pedal. The components that carry (transmit) a vibration frequency from the originator to the reactor. Cycles Per Second. The process of a vibrating component going through a complete angle of motion and returning to the starting point. A unit of measurement, referring to sound pressure level, abbreviated dB. A strong vibration felt and heard in the floor pan and seat, usually during heavy acceleration; usually present between 0 and 25 mph (0 and 40 km/h). A loud noise that can be attributed to total powertrain response to torque reversals in the system, including, but not limited to, backlash in the transmission, driveshaft and axle. A vibration felt in the floor pan and/or seats with no visible shaking. It is often accompanied by a rumble or similar noise. Usually felt at speeds over 30 mph (48 km/h).

Amplitude

Boom

Brake moan

Brake Rattle ChassisEAR

Chatter Chuckle

Clunk Coast/Deceleration

Coast/Neutral Coast

Conductor

CPS Cycle

Decibel Drive Away Shudder

Driveline Clunk

Driveline Vibration

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Glossary-1

NVH GLOSSARY
Drivetrain All power transmitting components from the engine to the wheels, including the clutch or torque converter, the transaxle, the driveline, and the drive axle. A sustained tone at a higher pitch than boom. Trade name of an electronic noise detection device. It consists of an earphone head-set, adjustable amplifier and a noise sensor. It is primarily used to isolate engine noises, vacuum leaks (noise), body squeaks, and rattles. Engine imbalance is created when any engine component or accessory that rotates is out of balance or has excessive runout. Any vibration caused by the rotating components of the engine or the related accessories. Engine vibrations can occur at any vehicle speed.

Drone EngineEAR

Engine Imbalance

Engine Vibration

Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) First Order Vibration

An electronic tool that senses and displays vibration frequencies and amplitudes. A vibration frequency that is produced only once during a complete revolution or cycle. A vibration that only occurs as long as the force (originator) that initiated the vibration remains. The continued vibration of an object after the outside force (originator) is removed. The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given time. The additional load or weight produced in an object during acceleration. When measuring the level or amplitude of a vibration without sound, the unit G is added to associate the force of the vibration to gravity. This is similar to measuring the weight of an object, which is also a function of gravity. An object which has a weight of 10 pounds at 1-G will yield a weight of 20 pounds when a 2-G force is applied. Grunt on acceleration is a raspy sound and momentary vibration in the floor pan during acceleration or following a braking stop. Harshness refers to the vehicles ride. It is normally used to describe a firmer than usual response from the suspension system. Vibration that produces a visible shake and pumping feel in the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, seat, and floor. Common vehicle speeds range above 45 mph (72 km/h). A mid-range pitch noise that may be heard at any speed. Usually, it can be affected by acceleration or deceleration. A low-pitch noise often accompanied by a vibration felt in the floor pan. Hertz, a frequency of one cycle per second.

Forced Vibration

Free Vibration Frequency G-force

Grunt on Acceleration

Harshness

High Speed Shake

Howl

Hum Hz

Glossary-2

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration and Harshness

NVH GLOSSARY
Imbalance Improper weight distribution, or heavier on one side than the other. In a rotating component, often causes vibration. The physical quality of sound that relates to the strength of the vibration (measured in decibels). The higher the amplitude of the sound, the higher the intensity, and vice versa. The natural frequency refers to the frequency range during which an object tends to vibrate. Natural frequency varies depending on the material composition, mass, and size of an object. An unpleasant sound found to be abnormal to the vehicles operating characteristics. Noise, vibration, and harshness. The number of times a vibration occurs during one complete cycle. The component, or part that first initiates a vibration. Referring to the rotational positions of the various elements of a driveline. The physical quality of sound that relates to its frequency. Pitch increases as frequency increases, and vice versa. Radial is in the plane of rotation. Lateral is at 90 degrees to the plane of rotation. A rapid succession of short sharp noises. The component, or part that receives a vibration from an originator and conductor and reacts to the vibration by moving. A mechanical tool that consists of several metal reeds. Each reed is tuned to react to a different vibration frequency. It is used to measure the frequency of a vibrating component. Vibration with a slightly higher frequency than shake, 20 to 50 Hz. Revolutions per minute. Low-pitch noise often loudest during turns. Can usually be identified as front or rear in origin.

Intensity

Natural Frequency

Noise NVH Order of Vibration Origin or Originator Phase Pitch

Radial/Lateral Rattle Reactor

Reed Tachometer

Roughness RPM Rumble

Second Order Vibration Shake

Vibration frequencies that are produced twice during a complete revolution or cycle. Low frequency vibration usually accompanied by visible movement of components. Mid-car shake Mid-car shake is a low frequency vibration (5 to 20 Hz) that causes the vehicle interior elements (seat, steering column, and so on) to shake. Usually most noticeable in an overdrive gear under light acceleration. High speed shake High speed shake produces a visible shake and pumping feel in the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, seat, and floor. This condition is sometimes seen as front-end sheet metal flutter. Common vehicle speeds range above 45 and 50 mph (72 and 80 km/h).

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Glossary-3

NVH GLOSSARY
Shimmy Shudder The wobble of a front wheel around the steering axis. This is a low frequency vibration that is felt in the floor and/or steering wheel during light brake application. Common vehicle speeds range between 8 and 40 mph (13 and 64 km/h). An intermittent sound that is of high pitch and short duration. Low-frequency vibration characterized by a slight or partial oscillation of the steering wheel. A light moaning noise heard when the vehicle is lightly accelerated, usually between 40 and 100 km/h (25 and 65 mph). Low frequency vibration that is produced by components while they are under a twisting strain. Torsional vibration is felt in the seats and floor of the vehicle and is heard as a rumbling sound. The vibration is most noticeable during steady, hard acceleration. A diagnostic tool that consists of a high frequency generator (tone generator) and receiver. The frequency generator is placed inside a closed vehicle. The receiver detects the frequencies that escape through gaps and leaks. A double-hinged connection between two shafts which permits one to drive the other, although both shafts operate at intersecting angles. A shaking or trembling that can be felt. High-speed vibrations occur at speeds higher than 45 to 50 mph (72 to 80 km/h). Low-speed vibrations occur at speeds below 45 to 50 mph (72 to 80 km/h). A high pitch noise that may be heard at any speed. It is usually (but not always) unaffected by accelerating and decelerating.

Squeak Steering Wheel Nibble

Tip-in Moan

Torsional Vibration

Ultrasonic Leak Detector

Universal Joints

Vibration

Whine

Glossary-4

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration and Harshness

REPAIR ORDER #

A SENSE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION A SENSE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION


SPECIFIC SENSE IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION ON VEHICLE OF CUSTOMER SYMPTOM(S)
INSTRUCTIONS: Check below sense affected and location of concern on the generic vehicle illustration (darken the vehicle area). Plus circle appropriate responses to the right.

CUSTOMER CONCERN #

VEHICLE SYMPTOM AREA


Front of Vehicle Engine Compartment Dash Steering Wheel Accelerator Pedal Brake Pedal Clutch Pedal Seat Rear of Vehicle Top of Vehicle Floor Pan Under Vehicle Unknown Intermittent Monthly Weekly Accel Light Accel Moderate Accel Heavy Steady Speed Deceleration Neutral Reverse Stopping/Braking Conditional Gear Selection Daily A.M. P.M. Idle Always Start Up

HOW OFTEN?

VEHICLE OPERATING MODE

VEHICLE CONDITIONS
Accessories On (define below) Windows Open 4x4 Hauling Towing Snow Plowing Other (define below)

VEHICLE WHEN SPEED (mph) VEHICLE IS?


0 1-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+

AMBIENT CONDITION

Turning Left

_____ Below Zero

Turning Right

Below Freezing (0-19)

Over Bumps

NOTE: Shaded backgrounds indicate caution areas. Selection of two or more caution areas "flag" difficult repairs. In general, shaded areas are the more difficult to verify and repair, and require all applicable columns to be completed.

Below Freezing (20-32)

Up Hills

Temp33-49

Down Hills

Temp50-69

SEE
YES YES

FEEL

Shifting

Temp70-89

Parked

Temp90+

In Traffic

Sunny

HEAR
YES YES

SMELL

Dry

Wet/Humid Cold Normal Hot

Rain

A B
Other (define below)

C D E F

Snow

1 2 3 4
ENGINE

Ice

DEALER VERIFICATION
YES NO

WHAT THE CUSTOMER SAID

SERVICE ADVISOR

5
SHOP FOREMAN

FRONT

SERVICE MANAGER

QC MANAGER

MID
TECHNICIAN

REAR

VERIFIED WITH CUSTOMER

OASIS SYMPTOM CODE(S)


9
CARGO

VIN NUMBER

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

ENGINE TEMP

Windy

Appendix-1

WRITE-UP JOB AID

NOTES

Appendix-2

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

See Repair Order for Customer Authorization

= OK
X = Not OK Mileage Phone LIGHTS Yr. & Model Head Lamps Front Signals Hazard Lights Brake Lamps Rear Signals License Light Trunk Dome UNDER VEHICLE Exhaust/Heat Shields Shocks/Struts Half Shaft Boots Oil/Fluid Leaks Glove Compartment OTHER (Define) UNDER HOOD Drive Belt(s) (See Mileage Below) Radiator & Heater Hoses Battery & Cables Engine Compartment Light Rear Wiper L R

? = See Tech Name

WIPER WEAR Windshield Wipers

TIRE WEAR

Wear From Incorrect Camber

Wear From Incorrect Toe Angle

Cupping

Position Right Front Left Front Left Rear Right Rear

OK

Leakage

Align Wear

Cupped Tire

Damaged Tire

Worn Out

Tread Depth 32nds

Other

RECOMMEND (circle):

Rotation

Alignment

Replacement

QUALITY CARE MAINTENANCE RECOMMENDED ITEMS 95-98 MODELS ONLY (Always refer to the Scheduled Maintenance Guide for additional recommended maintenance)
Select either 5,000 or 3,000 mile service interval based on customers driving habits. Change engine oil and filter. Perform multi-point inspection Technician will check & fill: Windshield washer fluid Coolant recovery reservoir fluid Brake fluid Power steering fluid Transmission fluid 4 x 4 transfer case, front axle & clutch reservoir fluid (truck) Check & adjust air pressure in all tires (including spare) Check exhaust system Check operation of horn, exterior lamps, turn signals, and hazard warning lights Check radiator, heater & AC hoses for leaks or damage Check windshield washer spray & wiper operation Inspect half shaft boots, if equipped Check & lubricate steering, steering linkage, suspension, U-joints (only if equipped with grease fittings), slip yoke (if equipped) and transmission shift linkage Rotate tires (if required) Change engine oil and filter Perform multi-point inspection Inspect brake system Technician will: Inspect: friction material, caliper operation, rotors, drums, hoses and connections Inspect parking brake for damage and proper operation Inspect engine cooling system, hoses and clamps Lubricate all hinges & latches, door locks and door weatherstrips Rotate tires (if required) Change engine coolant (not required at 15,000 miles) Replace platinum tipped spark plugs (only at the 105,000 mile interval) Inspect non-neoprene accessory drive belt (only at the 105,000 mile interval)

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

Change engine oil and filter Perform multi-point inspection Inspect brake system Visually inspect battery & clean terminals Inspect engine cooling system, hoses and clamps Lubricate all door hinges/latches/locks/weatherstrips Perform automatic transmission/transaxle service Replace air cleaner/filter Replace fuel filter (Lt. Truck and S.U.V.) Inspect and/or repack front wheel bearings (4 x 2 Lt. Trucks, S.U.V.s and Aspire) Inspect clutch operation Rotate tires (if required) Replace PCV valve (only at 60,000 & 120,000 miles) Replace fuel filter (cars and vans not required but recommended at 60,000 & 120,000 miles) Inspect evaporative fuel system hoses and tubes (only at 60,000 and 120,000 miles) Replace non-platinum tipped spark plugs (see scheduled maintenance guide) Inspect neoprene accessory drive belt (not required at 30,000 miles)

30,000 / 60,000 / 90,000 / 120,000 Miles

15,000 / 45,000 / 75,000 / 105,000 Miles

EVERY 5,000 (or 3,000) Miles

October, 2004

Appendix-3

COURTESY INSPECTION

Service Advisor_______________________________________

TECHNICIAN

NOTES

Appendix-4

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

NVH DIAGNOSTIC GUIDE


Dealer: _________________________________________________________________ Date: __________ P.A. Code: ___________ Order No. __________________ Technician: ______________________________ Owners Name: __________________________ Address: ________________________________________ Phone No. Home: ________________________________ Work: ___________________________________ Vehicle Make: ______________ Model: ___________________________________ Year: ______________ VIN: _________________ Mileage: __________ Engine: __________ Trans: __________ Axle: __________ OWNERS DESCRIPTION OF COMPLAINT: Did Condition Exist When Vehicle Was New? Yes / No (circle one) How Did Condition Begin? Gradually Suddenly At What Mileage Did It Occur Or Begin Occurring? _______________________________________________ Which Driving Conditions Affect The Vehicle? Light Accel Closed Throttle Decel Brakes Applied/Released Medium Accel Coast (Float) Driving The Vehicle: Straight Heavy Accel Constant Speed Cornering Is Vibration Noticed? If So, Where: Seat Steering Wheel Instrument Panel Floor Body Panels Ft/Rr of Vehicle Is There Sound Or Sensation Of Sound? Yes / No (circle one) If So, Describe The Sound: Boom Hum Whining Growl Other ___________________ Drone Tip-In-Moan Squeak Rattle PREDRIVE CHECKS Tire Condition/Pressure: ___________________________________________________________________ Vehicle Body Damage? ____________________________________________________________________ Other: _________________________________________________________________________________ ROAD TEST: Vibration/Noise Occurs: Vehicle Speed ____________ Accel ______________ Vibration Frequency ____________ Hz/RPM Gear Range ______________ Decel/Coast _________ Engine Speed _________________ RPM ENGINE RUN-UP TESTS Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Yes / No Engine RPM ______ Vibration/Frequency _____ Hz/RPM Drive Engine Run-Up (DERU) Yes / No Engine RPM ______ Vibration/Frequency _____ Hz/RPM Drivetrain Run-Up (DTRU) Yes / No Engine RPM ______ Vibration/Frequency _____ Hz/RPM Indicate Suspected Area of Concern: Tire/Wheel/Brakes Engine/Accessory Rear Driveline/Axle Susp/Steering Right Body Front Left Other ______________________________________________________________________________ Equipment Used: Read Tachometer Electronic Noise Detector Tape Engine Tachometer Ultrasonic Lead Detector Other _________________

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Appendix-5

WHEEL/TIRE/BRAKES CHECK: Balance Check Yes / No Maximum Runout Allowed: Wheel: Radial ________ Lateral _________ Tire: Radial ________ Lateral _________ Measured Runout: Tire/Wheel Radial: LF __________ LR __________ Lateral: LF __________ LR __________ Wheel Only Radial: LF __________ LR __________ Lateral: LF __________ LR __________ Brake Components: Excessive Rotor Runout? Yes / No

RF RF RF RF

__________ RR ___________ __________ RR ___________ __________ RR ___________ __________ RR ___________

SUSPENSION INSPECTION: Can Cause: Shimmy Clunk Squeak Harshness Suspension Bushings: Loose Worn Missing OK Front Upper Control Arm Stabilizer (sway bar) Rear Lower Control Arm Front Lower Control Arm Rear Upper Control Arm Rear Upper Control Arm Other ______________________________________________________________________________ Suspension/Steering Components: Ball Joints Shock Absorbers F/R Springs F/R Loose Worn Missing OK Idler Arm Center Link Tie Rod Ends/Sleeve Pitman Arm Steering Gear Steering Coupler

DRIVESHAFT CONDITION: Noise Vibration Balance Weights Missing/Other Visual Defects? Yes / No Maximum Allowable Runout: ____________________________________________________________ Actual Runout: Two-Piece Driveshaft Runout: Middle Support Bearing: Front _______________ Middle ___________ Rear ___________ Front _______________ Rear _____________ Loose Damaged Worn Other ____________

Suspect Drivershaft Balanced? Yes / No Pinion Angle: Engine Height: Specification ______________ Actual ________________ Pinion Angle: Driveline Angle - Truck: Specification ______________ Actual ________________ Specification ______________ Actual ________________

ENGINE/ACCESSORY CHECK: Engine Mounts: OK Defective Grounded Visual Inspection / Comments: ______________________________________________________________ Electronic Noise Detection Results Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ Air Intake Accessories Exhaust Engine Comments ______________________________________________________________________ BODY (NOISE/RATTLE) Indicate Suspected Area of Concern: Doors Tests Used to Isolate NVH Concern: Vacuum/Leak Detector Electronic Noise Detector

Windows

Dash Panel

Other _____________

Ultrasonic leak Detector Tracing Powder Other _______________________________________

ROAD/ENGINE RUN-UP TESTS: Improved? Yes / No Vehicle Acceptable? Yes / No Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

Appendix-6

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

FREQUENCY AND RPM CALCULATIONS


TIRE AND WHEEL Vibration occurs at ______ mph (km/h) Tire diameter ______ Tire speed RPM and frequency from chart DRIVESHAFT Tire/wheel frequency ______ x axle ratio = Tire/wheel RPM ______ x axle ratio = ENGINE FREQUENCIES AND ASSOCIATED RPMS Engine RPM divided by 60 equals 1st order frequency 1st order RPM x 2 = 2nd order RPM (normal for 4 cylinder engines) Cylinders fired per engine revolutions 1st order Hz x 2 = 2nd order Hz (normal for 4 cylinder engines) 1st order RPM x 3 = 3rd order RPM (normal for 6 cylinder engines) 1st order Hz x 3 = 3rd order Hz (normal for 6 cylinder engines) x 4 = 4th order vibrations (normal for 8 cylinder engines) x 5 = 5th order, x 6 = 6th order, etc. Order of vibration x engine RPM equals cylinders fired per minute Order of vibration (2nd, 3rd, 4th etc.) x 1st order Hz equals ENGINE ACCESSORY FREQUENCIES AND RPMS Crankshaft pulley diameter ______ divided by accessory pulley diameter ______ = ______ pulley size ratio Engine speed ______ RPM x pulley ratio = accessory ______ RPM Accessory pulley ______ RPM divided by 60 = ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz ______ RPM ______ Hz

______ RPM ______ Hz

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Appendix-7

NOTES

Appendix-8

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY ONE HOMEWORK


1. Imagine yourself as the instructor for the NVH course. None of your students have any experience with NVH. How would you explain the concept of frequency to them? Be creative and use examples. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How does order of vibration relate to frequency? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why is proper sensor placement important when using the EVA? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the function of the ChassisEar and how does it accomplish this function? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

Read Lesson Three: Diagnosis of NVH Concerns for tomorrow.

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Appendix-9

NOTES

Appendix-10

October, 2004

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

DAY TWO HOMEWORK


1. What are the three most important pieces of information you need to diagnose a vibration concern? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How does the identification of a vibration frequency help in NVH diagnosis? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why is it important to understand the concept of noise transfer path in diagnosing a vehicle noise concern? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What system(s) would you inspect if a customer is complaining of a harshness concern? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is the significance of the frequency calculations? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

October, 2004

Appendix-11

NOTES