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DISEO DE UNA ZAPATA AISLADA

Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 70 x 50 lleva 10 fierros de 1" y transmite


las cargas PD = 180 tn y PL = 100 tn . La capacidad portante admisible del suelo es qa = 2.5 kg/cm2
; ademas fy = 4200kg/cm2 , fy = 280 kg/cm2 en la columna y fc = 210 kg/cm2 en la zapata

DATOS:
Zapata
210 kg/cm
Columna
f ' c = 280 kg/cm
b=
50 cm
t=
70 cm
f'c=

S/C =
PD =
PL =

Otros
550 kg/m
180 Tn
100 Tn

Df =
g2=
qa =
db =
Lv =

Acero
f y = 4200 kg/cm

Suelo
1.4
1700
2.50
2.54
150

m
kg/m
kg/cm
cm
cm

MD,ML
PD, PL

1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA


Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )

Ld =

0.08.db.Fy

Reemplazo los valores que tenemos:

Ld =

f'c

58.89 cm

ht
Tomar

Ld = 58.89 cm

Df

Lv

(Del problema se emplean varillas de 1")


b ( 1") = 2.5 cm
r.e. =
7.50 cm
(recubrimiento)
hc =
68.93 cm
Tomar
hc =
70.00 cm
hc = Ld + r.e + b
ht = Df - hc
ht =
70.00 cm

hc
T

Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )

qm qa ght gchc-s/c

qm = 2.16 kg/cm

T
Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )

P
qm
(t1-t2)
T= Az
2
(t1-t2)
S Az
2
Azap

Azap = 129,629.63 cm
T =
370.00
cm
B =
350.00
cm

Donde:
P = Carga de servicio
Lv = Volados iguales sin
excentricidad

2.- DETERMINACIN DE LA REACCIN AMPLIFICADA ( qmu )

Wnu

Pu =
Azap

1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000


350 x 370

3.26

kg/cm2

Donde:
Pu = Carga Ultima

3.- VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( = 0.85 )


Por Flexin:

Tt
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(L v-d)

Lv

Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
Por Punzonamiento :

Lv =
r.e =
b ( 3/4") =
d=
Vdu =
=

150.00
7.50
1.9
60.59
101,975.73
0.85

cm
cm
cm
cm
kg

(Suponiendo varillas 3/4")


( d = hc - b - r.e. )
(Coef. De reduccion por corte)

Vc = 162,875.03 kg
Vc = 138,443.78 kg
Vc > Vdu OK!

4
Vc=0.272+ f ' cbod

c
Dmayor
c Dmenor , c 2 Vc=1.06 f 'c bo d
VuVc; =0.85

4
Vc=0.272+ f ' cbod

c
Dmayor
c Dmenor , c 2 Vc=1.06 f 'c bo d
VuVc; =0.85

Vu=Pu-Wnu x mn
kg

bo = 2 x ( t + d ) + 2 x ( b + d ) =
bo = 482.36
cm

2m +2n
(perimetro de los
planos de falla)
* f 'c^.5 * bo * d = 1.06 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d

Vc = 0.27 * 2 + 4
c
Vc =
555,426.41 kg
Vc=
Vc =
472,112.45 kg
Vc=
Vc > Vdu
OK!
c = lado mayor columna ( t )
c = 1.4
lado menor columna ( b )

448,939.43 Kg
Kg

d/2
d/2

m=t+d
n=t+b
bo = 2*m + 2*n
Vu = vc OK !

m = 130.59
n = 110.59
Vu = 1.1 x f'c x bo x d
Vu = 448,939.43
kg
kg
vc = 381,598.52

381,598.52

374,938.21

n = b+d

Vu =

m = t+d
T

4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO LONGITUDINAL ( = 0.90 )


Direccin Mayor:

(Wnu x B)L v2
2
Mu
As=
a
Fy(d- )
2
As.Fy
a
0.85f'c b

Mu=

cm
ree = 7.50
kg-cm b ( 3/4") = 1.91

Lv =
150.00
Mu = 12,831,081.08
B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!

350.00

60.59
3.89
57.88
3.89

cm

cm2
cm
cm
cm

As = 57.88 cm2
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

As mn = 44.1
As

>

cm2

As mn

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
20 3/4" @

2.85
20
17.53
17.53 cm

Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
15 3/4" @

2.85
15
23.79
23.79 cm

OK !!

Direccin Menor:
As tranv = As * T
B
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!

T=
B=
d=
a=

370
350 cm
60.59 cm2
5.01 cm

ree = 7.50 cm
1.91 cm

b ( 3/4") =

As transv = 61.19 cm2

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
21 3/4" @

2.85 cm2
21
17.65
17.65 cm

Asmin = 46.62 cm2

Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
16 3/4" @

2.85
16
23.54
23.54 cm

Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

As transv

>

As mn

OK !!

Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )


ld = b * fy * a * * g * l
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e

<

Lv1

La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:

Asc = 2 * Astrv
(+1)
= Lado mayor Zapata
Lado menor Zapata
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b
n -1

=
g=
l=
a=

1.00
0.80
1.00
1.00

b (3/4") =
r.e.e =
fy =
f'c =

1.91
7.50
4200
210

C = 8.50
ktr = 0
2.5

q = ( C+kt r )/ b

Longitud de desarrollo en traccin


Lv1 = 142.50 cm
Ld = 50.04 cm
Ld < Lv1

q= 10.41
q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!
OK !!

Espaciamiento del Refuerzo


Asc = 61.19 cm2
45 cm
> 17.65 OK !!

3xh

210 cm

5.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN COLUMNA - ZAPATA ( = 0.70 )


Para la seccin A colum = 70*50 = 3500 cm ( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A colum = b *t
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
Ab
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab
As col. > As mn OK !!

cm2

Pu = 422000 kg
A1 = 3500 cm2
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 583100 kg
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1

# Varilla ( n ) =

OK !!

As mn = 17.50 cm2
Ab ( 3/4" ) = 2.85 cm2
USAR : As1 = 17.50 cm2
OK !!
As col > As min

Para la seccin A zapata = 350*370 = 129500 cm ( ZAPATA )


Pu = 422000 kg
A1 = 3500 cm2
A2 = 129500 cm2

Pu < x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1

x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 =

874650 kg

OK !!

A2/A1 =

DISEO DE UNA ZAPATA AISLADA

Ejemplo 1.2 pg. 20 Libro Hormigon reforzado de Ro

Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 45 x 45 lleva 8 fierros de N 7 y transmite


las cargas PD = 110 tn y PL = 90 tn . La capacidad portante admisible del suelo es qa = 2.3 kg/cm2
; ademas fy = 4200kg/cm2 , fy = 280 kg/cm2 en la columna y fc = 280 kg/cm2 en la zapata

DATOS:
Zapata
280 kg/cm
Columna
f ' c = 280 kg/cm
b=
45 cm
t=
45 cm
f'c=

S/C =
PD =
PL =

Otros
550 kg/m
110 Tn
90 Tn

Df =
g2=
qa =
db =
Lv =

Acero
f y = 4200 kg/cm

Suelo
1.3
1700
2.50
3.87
150

m
kg/m
kg/cm
cm
cm

MD,ML
PD, PL

1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA


Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )

Ld =

0.08.db.Fy

Reemplazo los valores que tenemos:

Ld =

f'c

77.71 cm

ht
Tomar

Ld = 77.71 cm

Df

Lv

(Del problema se emplean varillas de 1") b ( 7/8") = 3.9 cm


r.e. =
7.50 cm
(recubrimiento)
hc =
89.08 cm
Tomar
hc =
70.00 cm
hc = Ld + r.e + b
ht = Df - hc
ht =
60.00 cm

hc
T

Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )

qm qa ght gchc-s/c

qm = 2.18 kg/cm

T
Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )

P
qm
(t1-t2)
T= Az
2
(t1-t2)
S Az
2
Azap

Azap =
T =
B =

91,743.12 cm
303.00
cm
303.00
cm

Donde:
P = Carga de servicio
Lv = Volados iguales sin
excentricidad

2.- DETERMINACIN DE LA REACCIN AMPLIFICADA ( qmu )

Wnu

Pu
Azap

1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000


350 x 370

3.34

kg/cm2

Donde:
Pu = Carga Ultima

3.- VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( = 0.85 )


Por Flexin:

Tt
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(L v-d)

Lv

Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
Por Punzonamiento :

Lv =
r.e =
b ( 7/8") =
d=
Vdu =
=

129.00
cm
7.50
cm
3.9
cm
58.63
cm
71,298.98 kg
0.85

(Suponiendo varillas 3/4")


( d = hc - b - r.e. )
(Coef. De reduccion por corte)

Vc = 157,549.64 kg
Vc = 133,917.19 kg
Vc > Vdu OK!

4
Vc=0.272+ f ' cbod

c
Dmayor
c Dmenor , c 2 Vc=1.06 f 'c bo d
VuVc; =0.85

4
Vc=0.272+ f ' cbod

c
Dmayor
c Dmenor , c 2 Vc=1.06 f 'c bo d
VuVc; =0.85

Vu=Pu-Wnu x mn
kg

bo = 2 x ( t + d ) + 2 x ( b + d ) =
bo = 414.52
cm

2m +2n
(perimetro de los
planos de falla)
* f 'c^.5 * bo * d = 1.06 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d

Vc = 0.27 * 2 + 4
c
Vc =
658,808.83 kg
Vc=
Vc =
559,987.51 kg
Vc=
Vc > Vdu
OK!
c = lado mayor columna ( t )
1
c =
lado menor columna ( b )

431,072.45 Kg
Kg

d/2
d/2

m=t+d
n=t+b
bo = 2*m + 2*n
Vu = vc OK !

m = 103.63
n = 103.63
Vu = 1.1 x f'c x bo x d
Vu = 431,072.45
kg
kg
vc = 366,411.58

366,411.58

271,089.28

n = b+d

Vu =

m = t+d
T

4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO LONGITUDINAL ( = 0.90 )


Direccin Mayor:

(Wnu x B)L v2
2
Mu
As=
a
Fy(d- )
2
As.Fy
a
0.85f'c b

Mu=

Lv =
Mu =
B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

303.00

58.63
3.89
39.34
2.29

cm

cm2
cm
cm
cm
cm2

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 7/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
10 7/8" @

3.87
10
31.75
31.75 cm

As mn = 24.54 cm2

Ab ( 7/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
6 7/8" @

3.87
6
57.16
57.16 cm

As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!

As = 38.8
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

cm
ree = 7.50
kg-cm b ( 7/8") = 2.22

129.00
8,430,341.58

As

>

As mn

OK !!

Direccin Menor:
As tranv = As * T
B
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!

T=
B=
d=
a=

303
303 cm
58.63 cm2
5.01 cm

ree = 7.50 cm
2.22 cm

b ( 7/8") =

As transv = 38.80 cm2

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 7/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
10 7/8" @

3.87 cm2
10
31.75
31.75 cm

Asmin = 32.72 cm2

Ab ( 7/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
8 7/8" @

3.87
8
40.83
40.83 cm

Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

As transv

>

As mn

OK !!

Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )


ld = b * fy * a * * g * l
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e

<

Lv1

La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:

Asc = 2 * Astrv
(+1)
= Lado mayor Zapata
Lado menor Zapata
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b
n -1

=
g=
l=
a=

1.00
0.80
1.00
1.00

b (3/4") =
r.e.e =
fy =
f'c =

2.22
7.50
4200
280

C = 8.50
ktr = 0
2.5

q = ( C+kt r )/ b

Longitud de desarrollo en traccin


Lv1 = 142.50 cm
Ld = 50.37 cm
Ld < Lv1

q= 10.72
q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!
OK !!

Espaciamiento del Refuerzo


Asc = 38.80 cm2
45 cm
> 31.75 OK !!

3xh

180 cm

5.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN COLUMNA - ZAPATA ( = 0.70 )


Para la seccin A colum = 70*50 = 3500 cm ( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A colum = b *t
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
Ab
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab
As col. > As mn OK !!

cm2

Pu = 307000 kg
A1 = 2025 cm2
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 337365 kg
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1

# Varilla ( n ) =

OK !!

As mn = 10.13 cm2
Ab ( 7/8" ) = 3.87 cm2
USAR : As1 = 10.13 cm2
OK !!
As col > As min

Para la seccin A zapata = 350*370 = 129500 cm ( ZAPATA )


Pu = 307000 kg
A1 = 2025 cm2
A2 = 91809 cm2

Pu < x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1

x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 =

674730 kg

OK !!

A2/A1 =

Pgina 7 de 43

DISEO DE ZAPATA COMBINADA


Disear la zapata combinada que soportara las columnas mostradas en la figura. La capacidad portante del suelo es
qa = 2 kg/cm2Considere fy = 4200 kg/cm2 y f'c = 210 kg/cm2 para la cimentacion . F'c = 280 kg/cm2 en las columnas.
COL:
C1
C2

SECCION
50 X 50
40 X 50
b x t

REF.
9 3/4"
9 3/4"
Acero

PD
20
40
tn

PL
15
24
tn

PL1

PL2
S/C = 500 kg/m

t1

hc = 54.00

t2

4.55

Df = 1.60
g m = 1800
qa = 2.00

h t = 101.00

b2

b1

gm

1.40

m
Otros
kg/m3
S/C = 500 kg/m
kg/cm2 d(eje-eje)= 4.3 m

Columna
f ' c = 210 kg/cm

f'c=
fy =

Zapata
175 kg/cm
4200 kg/cm

1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA ( Az = S*T )


Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )
ld = 0.08 * b * Fy
raiz(f 'c)

b ( 3/4" ) =
0.08 x b x fy / f c =
.004*b*fy =

1.91
49
32

cm
cm
cm

ld =

49

cm

r.e =
hc=
ht=

7.50
59.00
101.00

cm
cm
cm

ht =

101.00

cm

qm =

1.63

OK !!

ld >= 0.004 * b * fy
Tomar
hc = ld + r.e + b
hm = Df - hc

Tomar

Longitud de desarrollo en compresin

Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )


qm = qa - gm*hm -c*hc - s/c

kg/cm

Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )


P1s =

Ps1 = P1D + P1L


Ps2 = P2D + P2L
Rs = P1s + P2s
20

+ e Mo = 0

35

Tn

P2s = 64 Tn

20

30

Rs * Xo = P1s* t1/2 + P2s * 455


Xo = ??

Xo

455.00
Rs =
Lz / 2
e = Lz / 2 - Xo
Lz / 6
e < Lz/6
q1,2 = Rs * 1 6 * e
Lz
Lz

30

P1s =
P2s =
Rs =
Xo =

35
64
99
301.21

Tn
Tn
Tn
cm

Lz =
Lz / 2 =
e=
Lz / 6=

625.00
312.50
11.29
104

cm
cm
cm
cm

170.00
99

Tn

cm

Pgina 8 de 43

L = 2 x Xo
B =(P1s +P2s)
qn x L

L=
602
cm
B=
101
cm
tomamos B =
85 cm

Como S/C = 500 kg/cm, Verificamos las presiones del suelo - ADICIONAL ( q 1,2 )
Ps1 = P1D + 50%P1L
Ps2 = P2D + P2L
R1s = P1s + P2s

P1s =

+ e Mo = 0

20

R1s * Xo = P1s* t1/2 + P2s * 455


Xo = ??

27.5 Tn

P2s =

20

30

30

0
Xo

455.00
e = Xo1 - Xo
q = Ps + Mc = Ps + Ps x e
Az I
Az
I

64 Tn

P1s =
P2s =
R1s =
Xo1 =

27.5
64
91.5
324.26

Tn
Tn
Tn
cm

170.00

cm

R1s = 91.5 Tn

e=

23.05

I = ( B x L^3 )/12
I=
1454767.917 cm4

cm

q=
44.56
kg/cm2
AUMENTAMOS EL ANCHO B
q < qm cumple " OK "
q > qm no cumple "AUMENTAMOS EL ANCHO B"
Aumentamos el Ancho hc =
150 cm
Un nuevo calculo
Ps = 91500 kg
q = 1.41 kg/cm2
e = 23.05 cm
B = 265
cm
I = 74531250
cm4

OK !!

Ps1 = P1D + P1L


Ps2 = P2D + 50%P2L
R2s = P1s + P2s

P1s =

+ e Mo = 0

20

R2s * Xo = P1s* t1/2 + P2s * 455


Xo = ??

35 Tn

P2s =

20

30

30

0
Xo

470.00
Lz / 2
e2 = Lz / 2 - Xo
Lz / 6
e2 < Lz/6
q1,2 = R2s * 1 6 * e2
Lz*BBLz

52 Tn

P1s =
P2s =
R2s =
Xo =

35
52
87
288.97

Tn
Tn
Tn
cm

1.40

R2s =

q > qm no cumple "AUMENTAMOS EL ANCHO B"


q < qm cumple " OK "

87 Tn

e=

12.24

cm

q=

1.62

kg/cm2

P1s =

2.- DISEO EN SENTIDO LONGITUDINAL

I = ( B x L^3 )/12
I=
74531250

cm4

OK !!

35 Tn

P2s =

64 Tn

Clculo de la presin neta por unidad de longitud ( qm )


qm
0.2

qn = P1s + P2s
Az
qn = 6205.729 kg/m
Por unidad de Longitud
qm = qm1*B

4.50

( No amplificada )

Por Unidad de LONGITUD

qm =

6205.73

kg/m

140.00 m

cm3

Pgina 9 de 43

55311.98 kg

V
1241.15 kg

+
-

1.6297

-8688.022 kg
-33758.85kg
kg - m
-27385.1
M

+
124.12

kg - m
kg - m

6081.62
Encontramos el diagrama de fuerzas cortantes verificamos el corte por Flexion:
d = -ree + hc
1.50 x Vu =
67050.27
d = 141.00
cm
Vu = Vmax - qn x ( b2/2 + d ) =
44700.18 kg
Aporte del Concreto :

Vc = 0.53 x f ' c x b x d =
0.85 x Vc = 222678.8 kg
Aumentamos el Peralte a h =
150 cm.

Vu = Vmax - qn x ( b2/2 + d ) =
Aporte del Concreto :

261975.02 kg
OK !!
d=
h- ree
d=
141 cm

kg

ya que : F = ( 1.4 x D + 1.7 x L )/( D + L )


F=

Vu < 0 x Vc

1.5

Cumple !!

44700.18 kg

Vc = 0.53 x f ' c x b x d =
0.85 x Vc = 222678.8 kg

261975.02 kg
Vu < 0 x Vc Cumple !!
Vu < O x Vc
CUMPLE !!

VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( = 0.85 )


COLUMNA EXTERIOR :
Vu = 1.50 x ( Pu - qnu x m x n ) =
31075.81 kg
Vu = 31075.8055 kg
c=
El aporte del Concreto :
1
bo = ( b + ,5*d ) + 2x( t + d ) =

4 x f 'c x bo x d
c

Vc = 1396870.76 kg
Vc = 1187340.14 kg
Vc = 1.10 x f 'c x bo x d =
Vc = 948492.49 kg
Vc = 806218.62 kg
Vu < Vc
CUMPLE !!

75697.49
1.3

bo = ( b + 0,5*d ) + 2x( t + d ) = 493 cm

Vc = 0.27 x 2 +

4 x f 'c x bo x d
c

Vc = 1412870 kg
Vc = 1200939 kg
948492.5 kg

Vc = 1.10 x f 'c x bo x d =
Vc = 1106949 kg
Vc = 940906.8 kg
Vu < Vc
CUMPLE !!

Vc = 0.27 x 2 +

422 cm

COLUMNA INTERIOR :
Vu = 1.50 x ( Pu - qnu x m x n ) =
Vu =
75697.49
kg
c=
El aporte del Concreto :

1E+06 kg

kg

Pgina 10 de 43

4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO EN EL TRAMO CENTRAL


X x qn - P1 = 0
X=

P1
qn

X = 5.64 m

Mu =

Calculo de As :

As = Mu / ( * fy * ( d - a/2 ))
a = As * fy / ( 0.85 * f 'c * B )

As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

Mu =

B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

qn x X^2
2

91699.11
r .e .e =

265 cm2
141 cm2
2.77 cm
26.06 cm2
2.78 cm

P1 x X

Mu = -91699.1

kg - m
8cm

db =1.91
c

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
2.85 cm2
# Varilla ( n ) =
9
Espaciam =31 cm
9 3/4" @
31 cm

As = 26.06 cm2

Ab ( 3/4" ) = 2.85 cm2


# Varilla ( n ) = 24
Espaciam =11 cm
As mn = 67.26 cm2
24 3/4" @
11 cm
As

>

As mnASUMIR As mn !!

5.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO POR DEBAJO DE LA COLUMNA INTERIOR

Mu =

qn x ( L )^2
2

Mu =

6081.61

L=

1.91

Calculo de As :

As = Mu / ( * fy * ( d - a/2 ))
a = As * fy / ( 0.85 * f 'c * B )

As mn = 0.0018 * B * d
As > As mn OK !!
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

kg - m
m

1.4

Mu =

B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

265 cm2
141 cm2
0.18 cm2
1.71 cm2
0.18 cm

As = 1.71 cm2

14 5/8"@ 22cm

6081.61
r .e .e =

kg - m
8cm

db =1.91
c

(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
2.85 cm2
# Varilla ( n ) =
1
Espaciam =#DIV/0!
cm
1 3/4" @
#DIV/0!
cm

Ab ( 3/4" ) = 2.85 cm2


# Varilla ( n ) = 25
Espaciam =10 cm
As mn = 71.55 cm2
25 3/4" @
10 cm
As

>

As mn

ASUMIR As mn !!

Disear en sentido transversal a cada columna le corresponde una porcion de Zapata

d/2

1.205

ZAPATA EXTERIOR

d/2

d/2

1.91

ZAPATA INTERIOR

kg - m

Pgina 11 de 43

qn =

Pu
Az

Mu =

qnu x B x (L^2)
2

B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

120.5 cm2 r .e .e = 8 cm
db = 1.59 cm2
141 cm2
0.52
(Valor Asumido)
cm
2.20
cm2
0.52
cm

As = 2.2

qn =

cm2

As mn = 32.54 cm2

1.68

kg/cm2

Mu = 1169724

qn =

Pu
Az

Mu =

qnu x B x (L^2)
2

B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

Ab ( 3/4" ) = 2.85 cm2


# Varilla ( n ) = 11
Espaciam = 10.00 cm
11 3/4" @ 10 cm

qn = 1.91 kg/cm2

Mu = 2E+06

191 cm
r .e .e = 8 cm
db =
141 cm2
0.64
(Valor Asumido)
cm
4.34
cm2
0.64
cm

As = 4.34

1.59 cm2

Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
18 3/4" @

cm2

As mn = 51.57 cm2

6.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN ZAPATA - COLUMNA( = 0.70 )


Para la seccin A columna = 50*50 = 2500 cm ( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A colum = b *t
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab
As col. > As mn OK !!

Pu = 53500 kg
A1 = 2500 cm2
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 312375 kg
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1

As mn = 12.50cm2
CUMPLE !!

OK !!

As col > As min

Para la seccin B columna = 40*50 = 2000 cm ( COLUMNA )


* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A colum = b *t
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab
As col. > As mn OK !!

Pu = 96800 kg
c
A1 = 2000 cm2
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 249900 kg
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1

As mn = 10.00cm2
CUMPLE !!

OK !!

As col > As min

Detalle de refuerzos en la Zapata Combinada verificamos primero el espaciamiento maximo


Espaciamiento del Refuerzo
>
45 cm
OK !!
450
3xh=
450 cm

d/2

d/2

d/2

24 3/4"@ 11cm

18 3/4"@ 10cm

11 3/4"@ 10cm

25 3/4"@ 10cm

Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )


ld = b * fy * a * * g * l <
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e

Lv1
Ld =

71 cm

Ld1 = 46 cm

La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:


Asc = 2 * Astrv
(+1)
= Lado mayor Zapata
Lado menor Zapata
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b
n -1
Calculo del refuerzo minimo :
As mn = 71.55 cm2
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
25 3/4" @

2.85 cm2
25
10.00 cm
10 cm

b (3/4") = 1.91
= 1.00
b (5/8") = 1.59
g = 0.80
r.e.e = 7.50
l = 1.00
fy = 4200
a = 1.30
f'c = 175
a1 = 1.00
Longitud de desarrollo en traccin

C = 6.50
ktr = 0

2.5

q=

q = ( C+kt r )/ b
8.41

q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!


q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!

Lv1 = 132.50
Ld < Lv1
Ld = 71.26 cm
Refuerzo montaje en forma de Garrido

OK !!

3/8" para refuerzo principal =< 3/4"


1/2" para refuerzo principal > 3/4"
con espaciamiento maximo de 45 cm.
0.2

2.85 cm2
18
10.00 cm
10 cm

Pgina 12 de 43

DISEO DE ZAPATA CONECTADA


Disear la zapata conectada que soportara las columnas mostradas en la figura . La capacidad portante
admisible del suelo es qa = 2.0 kg/cm2 . Considere Fy = 4200 kg/cm2 , f'c = 175 kg/cm2 para la
cimentacion

DATOS:
Zapata
f ' c = 175 kg/cm
Columna
f ' c = 210 kg/cm
b1 = 50 cm
t1 = 50 cm
b2 = 40 cm
t2 = 50 cm
COL
1
2

fy=
Df =
gm=
gc=
qa =
db =

SECCION REFUERZO
50 X
50
9 3/4"
40 X
50
9 3/4"

Acero
4200
Suelo
1.60
1800
2400
2.00
1.91
PD (tn)
50
40

kg/cm

S/C = 500 kg/m

m
kg/m
kg/m
kg/cm
cm

Lc = 550 cm
db = 1.91 cm

PL (tn)
30
24

1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA Y VIGA DE CIMENTACION


ZAPATA EXTERIOR:

Ld =

48.5

Ld = 0.08x1,91x4200/(175^(1/2)) =
Ld = 49 cm

0.08xdbxfy

f 'c

ld >= 0.004 * b * fy

cm

hc = Ld + r.ee + b
hm = Df - hc

32.09 cm

Ld >= 0.004x1.91x4200 =
Ld = 32 cm

Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )


hc = 59 cm
hc = Ld + 10 =
ht = 101 cm

ht = Df - hc =

Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )


qn = qa - gm*hm - gc*hc - s/c

qn = 2.4-(1800xE^-06)x(101)-(2400xE^06)x(59)-(500xE^04) =
qn =

CALCULO DE P'2 : Tanteo e =

P1xe

P'2 =

( PD + PL ) x

Ps
qn

Lc - e
Az =

A = 2 x( b )^2 =
nuevo e =
+

57 cm

( 50 + 30 ) x 1000 x 57

==

9249.49

9249.49kg

P'2 =

Az =

1.63 kg/cm2

P1 + P' 2
qn

54868.44
b -t
2 2

= 54868.437

b = 166
e = 58

cm

A = 2 x( b )^2 = 54980

t=2b

Tomamos b = 165 cm

cm2

P'1 =
P'2 =

9431
54980
b = 166
b= 165
t= 330

----->

A = 165 x 330

e = 57 cm

tomamos

Pgina 13 de 43

ZAPATA EXTERIOR:

Ld =

49

Ld = 0.08x1.91x4200/(175^(1/2)) =
Ld = 49 cm

0.08xdbxfy

f 'c

ld >= 0.004 * b * fy

hc = Ld + r.ee + b
hm = Df - hc

cm

32 cm

Ld >= 0.004x1.91x4200 =
Ld = 32 cm

Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )


hc = 60 cm
hc = Ld + 10 =
ht = 100 cm

ht = Df - hc =

Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )


qn = qa - gm*hm - gc*hc - s/c

qn = 2.4-(1700xE^-06)x(120)-(2400xE-06)x(60)-(500xE-04) =
qn =

CALCULO DE P'2 : Tanteo e =

P1xe

P'2 =

71 cm

( PD + PL ) x

Lc - e

( 40 + 24 ) x 1000 x 50

Ps
qn

Az =

A = ( b )^2 =

P2 + P' 2
qn

36743.00

b = 192

b -t
2 2

nuevo e =
+

e = 71

36743

b=
150
+
VIGAS DE CIMENTACION

b=

= 9486

Lc
7

550
7

P'1 =
P'2 =

P1
31 x Lc

A2 = ( 150 x 150 )
=

h = 79 cm

cm2

usamos b = 250 cm
155 cm

A = 2 x( b )^2 = 44743

h=

9486.00kg

P'2 =

Az =

2.00 kg/cm2

9486
44743
b = 150

SECCION
50 x 80

b = 47 cm

DISEO DE LA VIGA DE CONEXIN


Wv = b x h x g c =

9.6

As = Mu / ( * fy * ( d - a/2 ))
a = As x fy / ( 0.85 x f 'c x b )
As mn = 0.8 x (f ' c ^0.5) x B * d/ fy
As > As mn OK !!
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1

kg/m

Mu = P' 2 x L + Wv x ( L^2 )/2=


7250000
Mu = 7250000 kg-cm
b ( 3/4") =
1.91
ree = 7.50
B = 50
cm
d = 79.00 cm2
a = 5.00 cm2 (Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 1" ) =
As = 25.07 cm2
a = 14.16 cm
# Varilla ( n ) =
Espaciam =
As = 26.67 cm2
11 1" @

2.54 cm2
11
3 cm
3 cm

Pgina 14 de 43

As mn = 9.95

cm2

As > Asmin

11

1" @
OK !!

3 cm

Pgina 15 de 43

VERIFICACION POR CORTE


Vu = P' 2 + Wv x L
L

APORTE DEL CONCRETO


Vu =

21982 KG
Vu < Vc

23540

Vc = 0.53 x (f ' c ^0.5) x b x d =


OK !!

DISEO DE LA ZAPATA EXTERIOR

ZAPATA EXTERIOR

ZAPATA INTERIOR

qn =

Pu
Az

Mu =

qnu x B x (L^2)
2

B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

qn =

150 cm2
41 cm2
5.00
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

cm2
cm2
cm

###

Mu =

#DIV/0!

qn =

Mu =
L=
B=
d=
a=
As =
a=

r .e .e = 7.5 cm
db = 1.59 cm2
(Valor Asumido)

Ab ( 5/8" ) = 1.98 cm2


# Varilla ( n ) = #DIV/0!
cm
Espaciam = #DIV/0!

As = #DIV/0!cm2

As mn = 13.5

#DIV/0! kg/cm2

cm2

5/8" @

Pu
Az

#DIV/0!

qnu x B x (L^2)
2
100 cm
r .e .e =
250 cm2
51
5 cm
( Valor Asumido )
#DIV/0!
cm2
cm
#DIV/0!

As = #DIV/0!cm2
#Varilla n = 14
Espaciam. = 17.88
Asmin = 27 cm2

#DIV/0!
cm

14

5/8" @

6.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN ZAPATA - COLUMNA( = 0.70 )


Columna Exterior
Para la seccin A columna = 50 x 50 = 2500 cm ( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A colum = b *t
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab
As col. > As mn OK !!

Pu = 121000 kg
A1 = 2500 cm2
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 312375 kg
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1

# Varilla ( n ) =

OK !!

As mn = 12.50 cm2
Ab ( 3/4" ) = 2.85 cm2
USAR : As1 = 12.50 cm2
OK !!
Columna Interior
As col > As min
Para la seccin B columna = 50 x 50 = 2500 cm ( COLUMNA )
Pu = 96800 c kg
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1
A1 = 2000 cm2
A colum = b *t
* 0.85 * f 'c * A1 = 249900 kg
# Varilla ( n ) =
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1)
Ab ( 3/4" ) =
As mn = 0.005 * A1
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1
USAR :
As1 =
# Varilla = As1
OK !!
Ab
As mn = 10.00 cm2
OK !!
As col. > As mn OK !!
As col > As min

Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )


ld = b * fy * a * * g * l
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e

<

Lv1

Pgina 16 de 43

La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:


Asc = 2 * Astrv
(+1)
= Lado mayor Zapata
Lado menor Zapata
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b
n -1

=
g=
l=
a=

1.00
0.80
1.00
1.00

b (5/8") =
r.e.e =
fy =
f'c =

1.59
7.50
4200
175

C = 8.50
ktr = 0
2.5

Longitud de desarrollo en traccin


Lv1 = 38.13 cm
Ld = 46 cm
AUMENTAR EL T !!
Ld < Lv1

q = ( C+kt r )/ b
q=
q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!

Espaciamiento del Refuerzo


45 cm
>As1 =

3xh

OK !!

0 cm

6 1"@ 7cm

14 5/8"@ 22cm
12 5/8"@ 12cm

d/2
d/2

14 5/8"@ 18cm

Pgina 17 de 43

Pgina 18 de 43

cm2

3
3

Pgina 19 de 43

Pgina 20 de 43

kg

#DIV/0! kg
8 cm

( Valor Asumido )

18 cm

4
cm2
2.85
10.00 cm2

OK !!

Pgina 21 de 43

8.50

q = ( C+kt r )/ b
10.09
q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!

DISEO DE LOSA DE CIMENTACION


S/C= 450

gm1=

1700

KS
0.9

Y'
A

D
0.2

4.5

Y
9.8
4

6
X

H
4.5

J
0.2

0.6

5.4

X'

5.4

0.6

11.6
DATOS
COLUMNA

PD (ton)

PL (ton)

Pu

45

25

70

2
3

60
60

30
30

90
90

60

30

90

100

40

140

6
7
8
9

70
60
70
60
585

30
30
30
30
275

100
90
100
90
860

1.- CALCULO DEL ESPESOR DE LA PLACA


METODO DE DISEO ASUMIENDO
l=

3Ks

210
4200

kg/cm2
kg/cm2

qa =

2400
1.4

kg/m3
kg/cm2

Ks =

kg/cm3

S/C=

450

Kg/m2

gm1=

1700

kg/m3

F'c =
Fy =

gc=

t=

50

cm.

E=15000*F'c

Et3
l=
1.75

-1
0.003242 m

5.401

l=
Lc= 5.4

0.003240

m-1

Lc= 4.5

Se debe cumplir la siguiente condicin:


1.75/l <Lc
METODO RIGIDO
AREA DE LOSA
2
113.68 m

A= B * L =

B=
L=

11.6
9.8

m.
m.

qn=qa - gt * ht - gc * hc - S/C

Df=

90

cm.

kg/cm2

ht=

40

cm.

PRESIONES DEL SUELO


qn =

1.167

2.-PRESION POR DEBAJO DE PUNTOS PERIMETRALES


ex= X' - B/2
X'= SPiXi

Pi
X'=

578.84

cm.

Y'= SPiYi

X =

579

cm.

ex =

-1

cm.

Y '=

494

cm.

ey =

cm.

Pi
Y'=

494.30

cm.

ey= Y' - L/2


Entonces :

q = ( Pu/a ) + - ( MyX / Iy ) + - ( MxY / Ix )


Donde :
Pu=

1286500

Ix= BL /12

909.8189333

Ix=

4
909.8189 m

3
Iy= LB /12

1274.731733

Iy=

4
1274.7317 m

kg.

ENTONCES:
q=

q=

1286500 + - 1286500x + - 5146000y


(980)(1160)
1.275*1011 9.098*1010
1.132 + - 0.00001x + - 0.00006y

Pu/A = 1.1317

Pu/A = 1.132

3.-PROCESAMOS LA TABLA
PUNTO

Pu/A

X(cm.)

0.00001X

Y(cm.)

0.00006y

q(kg/cm2)

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132

-580
-290
250
580
-580
580
-580
580
-580
-290
250
580

0.006
0.003
-0.003
-0.006
0.006
-0.006
0.006
-0.006
0.006
0.003
-0.003
-0.006

490
490
490
490
245
245
-205
-205
-490
-490
-490
-490

0.029
0.029
0.029
0.029
0.015
0.015
-0.012
-0.012
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029

1.167
1.164
1.159
1.156
1.153
1.141
1.126
1.114
1.108
1.106
1.100
1.097

4.-COMPARAMOS LAS PRESIONES CALCULADAS CON LA PRESION NETA DEL SUELO


q<=qn

SI CUMPLE

5.-CALCULAMOS EL PERALTE DE LA LOSA A PARTIR DEL CORTE POR PUNZONAMIENTO


COLUMNA 5

Vu = Pu - (qnu * m * n)

n= 40 + d

d/2

m = 40 + d
Vu= 1.4*100000 +1.7*40000 -1.167*(40+d)*(40+d)
Vu=

Vc=1.1F'c*bo*d
Vu = fVc

Igualamos :
Vc=1.1210*4(40+d)
fVc=

n = 40 +d/2

COLUMNA 2

Vu = Pu - (qnu * m * n)
Vu= 1.4*60000 +1.7*30000 -1.167*(40+d)*(40+d/2)

m = 40 +d

COLUMNA 1

Vc=1.1F'c*bo*d

Vu = Pu - (qnu * m * n)

Vc=1.1210*(120+2d)d
fVc=
Vu=fVc

Igualamos

n=40 +d/2

m = 40 +d/2

Vu= 1.4*45000 +1.7*25000 -1.167*(40+d/2)*(40+d/2)


Vu=

Vc=1.1F'c*bo*d
Vc=1.1210*2(40+d/2)d
fVc= 1083.95d +13.55d2
Vu=fVc

Igualamos

13.83d2 + 1130.63d - 103633 =0


Si

d = 55
ht = 65

VERIFICAMOS LA CONDICION DE DISEO


l=

E=15000*F'c

3Ks
Et3
l=

-1
0.002663 m

1.75
6.579
m.
l
Se debe cumplir la siguiente condicin:
1.75/l <Lc

l=

-1
0.002660 m

Lc= 5.4
Lc= 4.5

METODO RIGIDO

6.-CALCULAMOS EL FACTOR DE AMPLIFICACION DE CARGA F PARA CADA FRANJA

FRANJA

q prom.

SP

CP

A
B
C
D
E
F
E
F
H
G
G
H
I
J
K
L
A
B
J
I
G
E
B
C
J
K
C
D
F
H
K
L

1.167
1.164
1.159
1.156
1.153
1.141
1.153
1.141
1.114
1.126
1.126
1.114
1.108
1.106
1.100
1.097
1.167
1.164
1.106
1.108
1.126
1.153
1.164
1.159
1.106
1.100
1.159
1.156
1.141
1.114
1.100
1.097

1.1566

245

1160

P1
P2
P3

375500.0

352098

0.938
1

1.1332

450

1160

P4
P5
P6

492000.00

541765

1.101

1.1084

285

1160

P7
P8
P9

419000.00

392713

0.937
1

1.1372

290

980

P1
P4
P7

375500.00

349351

0.930
1

1.1322

540

980

P2
P5
P8

492000.00

545580

1.109

1.1277

330

980

P3
P6
P9

419000.00

391849

0.935

Efectuamos el diseo de la losa considerando por cuestiones academicas una sola franja central EFGH, en primer lugar
determinamos el diagrama de fuerzas cortantes y momentos flectores a partir del modelo estructural.

1.2 P4

1.2 P5

1.2 P6

q1 = b x (qe + qg)
2

0.2

5.4

5.4

0.6

q1 = 450 x ( 1.153 + 1.126 ) = 513


2
q2 = b x ( qf + qh )
2
q2 = 450 x ( 1.141 + 1.114 ) = 507
2
q = 510

149400
123600

1.2 x P4 =
1.2 x P5 =
1.2 x P6 =

10200

1.2 x(1.4x60000+1.7x30000) =
1.2 x(1.4x100000+1.7x40000) =
1.2 x(1.4x70000+1.7x30000) =

162000
249600
178800

Verificacion por Flexion


Vu = 151800 - 510*(20 + 56 ) =

113040

Vc = 0.53 x( 210 ^.5 ) x b x d =


126000
151800

29400
Vc =164515

Vu < Vc

OK

Refuerzo superior :
22489412

20614568
Mu =
a=

(-)

102000

22489412 kg -cm
5
cm

(-)

7512000

918000

AS =
111.21
a=
5.81
AS = 112.06
( 23 1" @ 20 cm )
Asmin = 0.0018 x b x h =

Refuerzo Inferior :
Mu =
a=

7512000 kg -cm
1.94
cm

AS =
36.11
a=
5.81
AS = 37.43
Asmin = 0.0018 x b x h =
( 19 3/4" @ 25 cm )

cm2
cm
cm2
52.65 cm2

cm2
cm
cm2

52.65 cm2

Disear la losa de cimentacin mostrada considerando un suelo de capacidad portante admisible


qa = 1,2 kg/cm. Todas las columnas son cuadradas de 50 cm x 50 cm. La profundidad de cimentacin
es de 1,10 m., el peso especfico del suelo es g = 1650 kg/m y la sobrecarga s/c = 500 kg/m ,
fy = 4200 kg/cm , f'c = 210 kg/cm y ks = 8 kg/cm.

4
5.05m

8
4.80m

10

11

12

20.00m
4.80m

13

14

15

16
4.80m

17

18

19

20
0.55m

5.75m

5.50m
17.45m

CUADRO DE CARGAS
Toneladas
COLUMNA
PD
PL
1
40
15
2-3
60
30
4
50
25
5 - 9 - 13
70
30
6 - 7 140
70
10 - 11 160
75
14 - 15 160
85
8 - 12 - 16
90
40
17
80
35
18 - 19
85
40
20 100
45

5.50m

0.70m

SOLUCION
qa =

1.2 kg/cm

gs =

0.00165 kg/cm

bcol =

50 cm

s/c =

0.05 kg/cm

tcol =

50 cm

fy =

4200 kg/cm

Df =

110 cm

f'c =

210 kg/cm

Ks =

8 kg/cm

m=

E=

217371 kg/cm

gc =

0.25
0.0024 kg/cm

CALCULO DEL AREA DE LA LOSA Y EL ESPESOR


A=

20.00*17.45 m2

A=

349.00

m2

Mtodo a usar

3 x Ks

Lc =

550
480

Lc

<

1.75
l

METODO RIGIDO

Lc

>

1.75
l

METODO
FLEXIBLE

l=

Si

E x t

cm
cm

Tabulando :
t

10
20
30
40
50
60
70

0.018228569
0.01083877
0.00799672
0.00644477
0.00545161
0.00475488
0.00423574

1,75/l

96
161
219
272
321
368
413

METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE
METODO FLEXIBLE

CALCULO DE LA PRESION NETA


Asumiendo
t=

50.00 cm

qn =

qa - gt x ht - gc x hc - s/c

qn =

1,2 - 1650E-6 (110 - 50) - 2400E-6 (50) - 500E-4

qn =

0.931 kg/cm

Verificacin por punzonamiento


Vu =

Pu - qn x m x n

Vc =

1,1 f'c x bo x d

COLUMNA 1

FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE

50

50 + d/2
50

50 + d/2

Vu = 1,4 x 40000 + 1,7 x 15000 - 0,931 x (50 + d/2) x (50 + d/2)


Vu =

81500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 50 d + 0,25 d )

(a)

Vc = 1,10 210 x 2 (50 + d/2) d


Vc =

31.881 x ( 50 d + 0,50 d )

Vc =

27.099 x ( 50 d + 0,50 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
27.099 x ( 50 d + 0,50 d )
1354,94 d + 13,55 d

81500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 50 d + 0,25 d )

81500 - 2327,50 - 46,55 d - 0,23 d

d + 101,70 d - 5745,46 = 0

d=

40.43 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 2 - 3
50

50 + d/2
50

50 + d

Vu =

1,4 x 60000 + 1,7 x 30000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d/2)

Vu =

135000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )

Vc =

1,10 210 x (( 50 + d ) + ( 50 + d/2) x 2 ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

(a)

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )
2032,35 d + 27,098 d

= 135000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )


=

135000 - 2327,50 - 69,825 d - 0,466 d

d + 76,27 d - 4813,25 = 0

d=

41.03 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 4
50

50 + d/2
50

50 + d

Vu =
Vu =

1,4 x 50000 + 1,7 x 25000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d/2)


112500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )

(a)

Vc =

1,10 210 x (( 50 + d ) + ( 50 + d/2) x 2 ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )
2032,35 d + 27,098 d

112500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )

112500 - 2327,50 - 69,825 d - 0,466 d

d + 76,27 d - 3996,97 = 0

d=

35.7 cm

OK !

COLUMNA 5 - 9 - 13
50

50

50 + d/2

50 + d

Vu =

1,4 x 70000 + 1,7 x 30000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d/2)

Vu =

149000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )

Vc =

1,10 210 x (( 50 + d ) + ( 50 + d/2) x 2 ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

(a)

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )
2032,35 d + 27,098 d

=
=

149000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )


149000 - 2327,50 - 69,825 d - 0,466 d

d + 76,27 d - 5321,16 = 0

d=

44.18 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 6 - 7

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu =
Vu =

1,4 x 140000 + 1,7 x 70000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


315000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

Vc =

1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

(a)

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

315000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


315000 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 5671,86 = 0

d=

54.07 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 10 - 11

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu =
Vu =

1,4 x 160000 + 1,7 x 75000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


351500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

Vc =

1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

(a)

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

351500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


351500 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 6333,97 = 0

d=

58.13 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 14 - 15

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu =
Vu =

1,4 x 160000 + 1,7 x 85000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


368500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

Vc =

1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d

Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

(a)

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

368500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


368500 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 6642,34 = 0

d=

59.95 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 8 - 12 - 16

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu = 1,4 x 90000 + 1,7 x 40000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


Vu =

194000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

(a)

Vc = 1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d
Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

194000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


194000 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 3476,93 = 0

d=

38.79 cm

OK !

COLUMNA 17

50

50

50 + d/2

50 + d

Vu = 1,4 x 80000 + 1,7 x 35000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d/2)


Vu =

171500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )

(a)

Vc = 1,10 210 x (( 50 + d ) + ( 50 + d/2) x 2 ) x d


Vc =

15.941 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 150 d + 2 d )
2032,35 d + 27,098 d

=
=

171500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 75 d + 0,5 d )


171500 - 2327,50 - 69,825 d - 0,466 d

d + 76,27 d - 6137,44 = 0

d=

49.00 cm

NO OK !

COLUMNA 18 - 19

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu = 1,4 x 85000 + 1,7 x 40000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


Vu =

187000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

(a)

Vc = 1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d
Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

187000 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


187000 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 3349,95 = 0

d=

37.79 cm

OK !

COLUMNA 20

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu = 1,4 x 100000 + 1,7 x 45000 - 0,931 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


Vu =

216500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

(a)

Vc = 1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d
Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Vc =

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

()

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

216500 - 0,931 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

216500 - 2327,50 - 93,10 d - 0,931 d

d + 50,84 d - 3885,07 = 0

d=

41.89 cm

t=

70 cm

qn =

NO OK !

1,2 - 1650E-6 (110 - 70) - 2400E-6 (70) - 500E-4

qn =

0.916 kg/cm

COLUMNA 14 - 15

50

50 + d

50

50 + d

Vu = 1,4 x 160000 + 1,7 x 85000 - 0,916 x (50 + d) x (50 + d)


Vu =

368500 - 0,916 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )

Vc = 1,10 210 x 4 x ( 50 + d ) x d
Vc =

15.941 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

(a)

Vc =

()

13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )

Igualando ( a ) y ( ), tenemos:
13.549 x ( 200 d + 4 d )
2709,80 d + 54,196 d

=
=

368500 - 0,916 x ( 2500 + 100 d + d )


368500 - 2290 - 91,60 d - 0,916 d

d + 50,83 d - 6644,83 = 0

d=

59.97 cm

t=

OK !

70.00 cm.

3.-PROCESAMOS LA TABLA
PUNTO
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

Pu/A
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132
1.132

X(cm.)
-580
-290
250
580
-580
580
-580
580
-580
-290
250
580

0.00001 Y(cm.) 0.00006y


0.006
490
0.029
0.003
490
0.029
-0.003
490
0.029
-0.006
490
0.029
0.006
245
0.015
-0.006
245
0.015
0.006
-205
-0.012
-0.006
-205
-0.012
0.006
-490
-0.029
0.003
-490
-0.029
-0.003
-490
-0.029
-0.006
-490
-0.029

q(kg/cm2)
1.167
1.164
1.159
1.156
1.153
1.141
1.126
1.114
1.108
1.106
1.100
1.097

6.-CALCULAMOS EL FACTOR DE AMPLIFICACION DE CARGA F PARA CADA FRANJA


FRANJA
A
B
C
D
E
F
E
F
H
G
G
H
I
J
K
L

q
1.167
1.164
1.159
1.156
1.153
1.141
1.153
1.141
1.114
1.126
1.126
1.114
1.108
1.106
1.100
1.097

q prom.
1.1566

b
245

L
1160

P
P1
P2
P3

SP
626450000.0

CP
313389348

F
0.500
1

1.1332

450

1160

P4
P5
P6

626450000.00 313520765

0.500
1

1.1084

285

1160

P7
P8
P9

626450000.00 313408213

0.500
1

A
B
J
I
G
E
B
C
J
K
C
D
F
H
K
L

1.167
1.164
1.106
1.108
1.126
1.153
1.164
1.159
1.106
1.100
1.159
1.156
1.141
1.114
1.100
1.097

1.1372

290

980

P1
P4
P7

1.1322

540

980

1.1277

330

980

0.00

161600.857

0.500
1

P2
P5
P8

626450000.00 313524580

0.500

P3
P6
P9

626450000.00 313407349

0.500

DISEO DE PILOTES
Una columna de 30 x 60 , que lleva de refuerzo 8 3/4" transmite las cargas PD = 80 tn PL = 40 tn .
En una edificacion a la estratigrafia mostrada en la figura. Disear los elementos a considerar en la cimentacion
que permita transmitir la carga de la columna al estrato duro . Considere f ' c =210 kg/cm2 y fy = 4200kg/cm2.

S/C

kg/m2

300

Arena suelta

ht=

#REF!

f =

Datos
3
24 kg/m

Columna

cm

30

60

g=

Cargas
tn

PD
80

PL
40

f ' c = 210 kg/cm2


Fy = 4200 kg/cm2

db

1.91

1500 kg/m2

gc = 1800 kg/m2
Df =
650 cm
g2 =

hc= 0.00 m.

2400

Estracto Duro

1.- Clculo del peralte de la zapata:

Fy
F' c

Ld =

Ld = 0.004 x db x fy

Ld =

ld 0.08 * db *

La longitud del Pilote es :

44

32

cm

hc = Ld + 15

hc =

59

Se toma hc =

60

cm

L = Df - ( b + t )+ 1

L=

660

cm

Usamos Pilotes de C A Prefabricado cuadrados de 40 x 40 . Calculamos su capacidad de carga.


Qu = Qf + Qp

Para suelos granulares

k=
1
p = 1.6
12165 kg

Qf1 = k x g x tan x x p x D x ( 15 x L - 112.5 x D )


Qf2 = k x gc x tan x1 x p x ( Z2^2 - Z1^2 )/2

D=
L=
Z1 =
Ap =

5708.19 kg
F.S =

Qp = g x L x( Nq - 1) x Ap

Tan x =
Tan x1=
Z2 =
Nq =

0.4
5.6
5.6
0.1

Qp =

49572 kg
Pu =

Qu =

67445.19 kg

Qa = Qu/F.S

Calculamos el N de Pilotes :
N = Pu/ Qa

Qa = 22481.7 kg

Dimensiones de la Zapata
N = 8.01

Entonces N1 = 9

180000

Az =

3.60

3.60

Verificamos el numero de Pilotes a usar :


N = P'u /Qa =( Pu + Az x ( g t x +g c + S/C) )/Qa
N = 9.27

N < N1 No Cumple AUMENTAR SECCION !!

Entonces :

Aumentamos (Pilote o la seccion del Pilote a 0.45 x 0.45


0.45
0.45
Recalculamos la seccion :

Qu = Qf + Qp

Para suelos granulares

k=
1
p = 1.8
13176 kg

Qf1 = k x g x tan x x p x D x ( 15 x L - 112.5 x D )


Qf2 = k x gc x tan x1 x p x ( Z2^2 - Z1^2 )/2

Tan x =
Tan x1=
Z2 =
Nq =

D = 0.45
L = 5.6
Z1 = 5.6
Ap = 0.1

6422 kg
F.S =

Qp = g x L x( Nq - 1) x Ap

Qp =

59982 kg
Pu =

Qu =

79580 kg

Qa = Qu/F.S

Calculamos el N de Pilotes :
N = Pu/ Qa

Qa =

26527

180000

kg

Dimensiones de la Zapata
N = 6.79

Az =

Entonces N1 = 9

4.1

4.1

Verificamos el numero de Pilotes a usar :


N = P'u /Qa =( Pu + Az x ( g t x +g c + S/C) )/Qa
N = 8.17

P' u = 216726 tn
Cumple ,OK !!

Entonces :

Calculamos la capacidad de carca del grupo de Pilotes :


Q = Ef

Qf +

Qp

Ef = (1 - tan ^ - 1 x ( D/d ) ) x( ( n^3 -1 ) x m^3 + (m^3 - 1 ) x n^3)/ (90 x m^3 x n^3) = 0.73
Qf =
Qp =

176382 kg
539838 kg

entonces

Qgu = 0.73 x Qf + Qp
Qgu =
716221

Qga = Qgu/F.S.

Qga = 238740

entonces :

Qga > P'u

Cumple !!

D = 80 tn PL = 40 tn .
s a considerar en la cimentacion
10 kg/cm2 y fy = 4200kg/cm2.

cm
cm

s su capacidad de carga.
0.3249197
0.47697553
6.6
55

kg

0.3249197
0.47697553
6.6
55

180000

Qga > P'u

Cumple !!