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AUTO CONTROL DESIGN FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Supervisor Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Professor EED

Submitted By Asad Ali Khan Waqas Ali Qamar-u-Zaman 08-EE-23 08-EE-35 08-EE-74

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA July 2012

AUTO CONTROL DESIGN FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Supervisor Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Professor EED

Submitted By Asad Ali Khan Waqas Ali Qamar-u-Zaman 08-EE-23 08-EE-35 08-EE-74

A Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA July 2012

Undertaking

We certify that project work titled Auto Control Design for Power Factor Improvement is our own work. No portion of the work presented in this project has been submitted in support of another award or qualification either at this institution or elsewhere. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged / referred. ___________________________ Asad Ali Khan 08-EE-23

___________________________ Waqas Ali 08-EE-35

___________________________ Qamar-u-Zaman 08-EE-74

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our supervisor for guiding us in understanding the concepts of our final year project. We would like to thank all our teachers especially Dr. Aftab Ahmad for guiding us in solving our problems related to our project, his cooperation and support to bring this project to completion. We would also like to thank our families and friends for their continuous encouragement and moral support.

Abstract

This project describes the implementation of auto control design for power factor measurement and improvement using PIC microcontroller. Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique of counteracting the undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor that is less than one. Power factor correction may be applied either by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission network or correction may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the costs charged to them by their electricity supplier. In order to improve transmission efficiency, power factor correction research has become a hot topic. Many control methods for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) have been proposed. This project describes the design and development of a power factor corrector using PIC (Programmable Interface Controller) microcontroller chip. This involves measuring the power factor value from the load using PIC and proper algorithm to determine and trigger sufficient switching capacitors in order to compensate excessive reactive components, thus bringing power factor near to unity.

In this project we have used two different loads as follows: 370 WATT single phase induction motor as a load, its low power factor was 0.762. We have used another load 180 WATT Universal motor.Its low power factor was 0.78.

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

INTRODUCTION... 1
BASIC CONCEPT... . 1 POWER FACTOR ....1 POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT ..2 ADVANTAGES OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT.3 POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT EQUIPMENT. .4 LOCATION OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION EQUIPMENT...5 CALCULATION OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION...5 MOST ECONOMICAL POWER FACTOR..12 EXAMPLE..13

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3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19

CHAPTER 2 MICROCONTROLLER17
2.1 INTRODUCTION ...17 2.2 PIC MICROCONTROLLER ....18 2.2.1 ADVANTAGES....19 2.2.2 PERIPHERAL HIGHLIGHT20 2.3 SPECIAL MICROCONTROLLER FEATURES.... 20 2.4 MEMORY ORGANIZATION . ...21 2.5 INTERRUPTS.. 24 2.6 I/O PORTS25 2.7 TIMER MODULES 25 2.8 CCP MODULES...28 2.9 MSSP MODULE....28 2.10 EUSART...29 2.11 A/D CONVERTOR......30 2.12 CONFIGURATION BITS....31 2.13 WATCH DOG TIMMER..31

18 CHAPTER 3

LCD..33

3.1 INTRODUCTION .33

20 21 22 23 24 25

3.2 PIN DESCRIPTION. 33 3.3 DDRAM-DISPLAY DATA RAM..36 3.4 CGROM CHARACTER GENRATOR ROM...37 3.5 CGRAM CHARACTER GENRATOR RAM........40 3.6 COMMANDS AND INSTRUCTION SET...41 3.7 LCD INITIALIZATION......44

26 CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARES 27 HIGH TECH AND MPLAB....49


28 29 30 32 33 34 4.1 MICROCHIP MPLAB IDE........49 4.2 HIGH TECH...56 4.3 CREATING AND BUILDING PROJECTS IN MPLAB......59 5.1 ALGORITHIM..68 5.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM..69 5.3PROJECT 70

31 CHAPTER 5 PROJECTS AND ALGORITHIM67

CONCLUSION _______________________________________________________________72 FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS___________________________________________________ 73 REFERENCES ________________________________________________________________74

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Power Triangle ............................................................................................................................ 2 Figure 1.2 Connection Diagram .................................................................................................................... 7 Figure 1.3 Series Capacitor ........................................................................................................................... 8 Figure 1.4 Power Factor Improvement using Synchronous Machine .............................................................. 8 Figure 1.5 Phasor Diagram ..........................................................................................................................12 Figure 2.1 Pin Diagram ...............................................................................................................................21 Figure 2.2 Block diagram of Timer 0 Module ..............................................................................................26 Figure 2.3 Block Diagram of Timer 1 Module..............................................................................................28 Figure 3.1 Character LCD type HD44780 Pindiagram34 Figure 3.2 DDRAM Address for 1 Line LCD. 37 Figure 3.3 DDRAM Address for 2 Line LCD37 Figure 3.4 DDRAM Address for 4 Line LCD...............................................................................................37 Figure 3.5 Internal Power Supply reset.46

Figure 3.6 Flow chart for LCD initialization47


Figure 4.1 Design .........................................................................................................................................50 Figure 4.2 MPLAB Manager .......................................................................................................................51 Figure 4.3 Compiler ....................................................................................................................................53 Figure 4.4 Creating Project ..........................................................................................................................59 Figure 4.5 Tool Suit .....................................................................................................................................60 Figure 4.6-Windows61 Figure 4.7-Code62 Figure 4.8-Libraries63 Figure 4.9-Build64 Figure 4.10-Path..65 Figure 4.11-Results..66 Figure 5.1 Algorithim ..................................................................................................................................68 Figure 5.2 Block Diagram ...........................................................................................................................69

List of Tables
Table 1: Power Factors ......................................................................................................................4 Table2: Character LCD pins with controller 35 Table 3: Character LCD pins with 2 controller.36 Table 4: LCD characters code map for 5x8 dots..38 Table 5: Command and Instruction set for LCD type HD4478042 Table 6: Frequently used commands and instructions for LCD.. 43 Table 7: Power Supply condition for Internal Reset circuit..45 Table 8: Language Tools56

CHAPTER: 1
INTRODUCTION
BASIC CONCEPT
A power factor of one or unity power factor is the goal of any electric utility company since if the power factor is less than one, they have to supply more current to the user for a given amount of power use. In so doing, they incur more line losses. They also must have larger capacity equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary. As a result, an industrial facility will be charged a penalty if its power factor is much different from 1. Industrial facilities tend to have a lagging power factor, where the current lags the voltage (like an inductor). This is primarily the result of having a lot of electric induction motors the windings of motors act as inductors as seen by the power supply. Capacitors have the opposite effect and can compensate for the inductive motor windings. Some industrial sites will have large banks of capacitors strictly for the purpose of correcting the power factor back toward one to save on utility company charges.

1.2 POWER FACTOR


In an a.c. circuit, there is generally a phase difference between voltage and current. The term cos is called power factor of the circuit. Power factor is also known as the ratio of true power or watts to apparent power or volt amps. If the circuit is capacitive, the current leads the voltage and power factor is said to be leading. However if
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it is inductive, the current lags behind the voltage and the power factor is referred to as lagging.

Fig 1.1 Power Triangle We generally describe power factor with word lagging or leading with the numerical value of power factor to signify whether the current lags or leads the voltage. For example if the circuit has a power factor of 0.5 and the current lags the voltage. We generally write p.f. as 0.5 lagging. Similarly if current leads the voltage we write p.f as .5 leading.

1.2.1 DISADVANTAGES OF LOW POWER FACTOR


Disadvantages of low power factor are given below: (1) For a given power to be supplied, the current is increased.

(2) The current thus increased in-return causes increase in copper losses (PL=I2R) and decrease in the efficiency of both apparatus and the supply system, which results in overloading and hence burning of the associated equipment. (3) Copper losses in transformers also increase. (4) Generators, transformers, switches, transmission lines and other associated switchgears become over-loaded. (5) Voltage regulation of generators, transformers and transmission lines increases. (6) Hence, cost of generation, transmission and distribution increases.

1.2.2 Causes of Low Power Factor


The following are the causes of low power factor. Low power factor is caused by inductive loads.

(iv)

Induction motors are a prime cause of low power factor for many customers. Poor power factor is an issue especially for customers with large numbers of small fractional horsepower motors, those who purchase cheap or poorly made motors, and those having oversized, under-loaded motors.

(ii) AC motors, transformers, fans, welding equipment, extruders and

injection

machines, presses and stamping equipment as well as ballasted lighting are some of the many prevalent inductive loads that contribute to a lagging power factor within an electrical delivery system.

(iii) The power factor, at which motors operate, falls due to improper maintenance and
repairs of motors. In repaired motors, less wire is sometimes used than originally wound

motors, therefore, in such motors leakage of magnetic flux increases and power factor of the motor decreases.

(iv) Industrial heating furnaces such as arc and induction


very lagging power factor.

furnaces

operate

on

Table 1.1 Power Factors

1.3 POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT


A consumer has to pay electricity charges for his maximum demand in KVA plus the units consumed. if the consumer improves the power factor, then there is reduction in his maximum KVA demand and consequently there will be annual saving due to maximum demand charges. Although power factor improvement involves extra annual expenditure on account of power factor correction equipment, yet improvement of power factor to proper value results in the net annual saving for the consumer. Power factor can be improved by installing specially-designed PFC capacitors or reactive power generators into the electrical distribution system. These capacitors will produce and supplement the reactive power necessary in the operation of all inductive loads and reduce the amount of kVA drawn from the main transformer and registered on the meter as "peak demand". The
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capacitor draws a leading current and partly or completely neutralizes the lagging reactive component of load current. This raises the power factor of load.

1.4 ADVANTAGES OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT


Automatic Power Factor improvement capacitors or capacitor banks applied on the load end of circuit, with lagging power factor (more than 95% loads), have particular effects, one or more of which may be the reason for the application.

(1) Improves the power factor at the source. (2) Reduces system losses as current in conductors decreases. (3) Improves voltage level at the load. (4) Reduces investment in system facilities per KW of load supplied. (5) Decreases KVA loading on the source. (6) Eliminates low power factor penalty imposed by WAPDA.

1.5 POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT EQUIPMENT


The low power factor is due to the inductive nature of the load i.e. a device that draws lagging reactive power. If a device drawing leading reactive power is connected in parallel with the inductive load, then the lagging reactive power of the load will be partly neutralized, resulting in improvement of the power factor of the system. Therefore, when such a device is connected across the load, which takes leading reactive power such as static capacitors, synchronous machines or synchronous condensers, the leading reactive component of current drawn by power factor correcting device neutralizes
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the lagging reactive component of current drawn by the load partly or completely. Power factor of the system will approach unity when lagging reactive component of load current is completely neutralized by the leading reactive component of current drawn by power factor correcting device Mainly there are three methods to improve the power factor an inductive load.

1. Static capacitors 2. Synchronous condenser 3. Phase advancers

1. STATIC CAPACITOR
Power factor can be improved by connecting the capacitors in parallel with the equipment operating at lagging power factor such as induction motors, fluorescent tubes. Static capacitors have the advantages of small losses (less than 1/2% ) or higher efficiency (say 99.6%); low initial cost; little maintenance and easy installation. Power factor can also be improved by connecting static capacitors in series with the line. Capacitors connected in series with the line neutralize the line reactance. The capacitors, when connected in series with line, are called the series capacitors, and when connected in parallel with the equipment are called the shunt capacitors. Shunt capacitors are used in factories, plants and also on transmission lines. Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variation in load.

ADVANTAGES (i) Low initial cost (ii) High efficiency (approximately 99.6%). (iii) (iv)
Low maintenance Small losses

(v) They can be easily installed (vi)


They can work under ordinary atmospheric conditions.

DISADVANTAGES (i)They are easily damaged if voltage exceeds the rated value. (ii) (iii)
They have short service life ranging from 8 to 10 years. Once the capacitors are damaged, their repair is uneconomical. In case of 3-phase loads capacitors can be connected either in star or delta, as shown in below Fig. These capacitors remain connected permanently across the equipment and are across the supply mains, whenever the equipment is switched on.

Fig 1.2 Connection Type

(a) Y- connected capacitors. (b) connected capacitors.


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Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variations in load.

Fig 1.3 Series Capacitor

2. SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER
An over-excited synchronous motor running on no load is called the synchronous condenser or synchronous phase advancer and behaves like a capacitor, the capacitive reactance of which depends upon the motor excitation. Power factor can be improved by using synchronous condensers like shunt capacitors connected across the supply. Synchronous converters are used where dc supply is needed. The pf of induction motor of rating exceeding 150 kW may be improved by equipping the set with ac exciter or phase advancer which supplies the exciting current to the rotor circuit at slip frequency

Fig 1.4 Power factor improvement using synchronous machine


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In phasor diagram given above phasor IL represents the current draw by the industrial load, lagging behind the applied voltage V by a large angle L and phasor IM represents the current drawn by the synchronous condenser leading the applied voltage V by the angle m, The resultant current I is the phasor sum of IL and IM and now angle of lag is much smaller than L, Thus overall power factor is improved from cosL to cos by the use of the synchronous condenser. In this way the power factor can be made unity even.

ADVANTAGES
(i) By use of synchronous condensers at intermediate stations, the voltage of the line can be kept constant at various points along its length, thereby, increasing the current carrying capacity of the line and improvement of power factor. (ii) A finer control can be obtained by variation of field excitation. Inherent characteristic of synchronous condensers of stabilizing variations in the line voltage and thereby automatically aid in regulation. (iii) Improvement in the system stability and reduction of the effect of sudden changes in load owing to inertia of synchronous condenser.

DISADVANTAGES
(i) Comparatively lower efficiency (say 97%) due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses. (ii) Noise is produced in operation.

(iii) The cost is higher than that of static capacitors of the same rating (iv) Comparatively higher maintenance and operating costs. (v) Possibility of synchronous condensers falling out of synchronism causing interruption of supply. (vi) Auxiliary equipment is required for starting synchronous condenser

3. PHASE ADVANCERS
Phase advancers are used to improve the power factor of induction motors. The low power factor of induction motor is due to the fact that its stator winding draws exciting current which lags behind the supply voltage by 90 degree. If the exciting ampere turns can be provided from some other a.c. source, then stator winding will be relieved. Of exciting current and the power factor of the motor can be improved. This is done by phase advancer which is simply an a.c. exciter. The phase is mounted on the same shaft as the main motor and is connected in the rotor circuit of motor. It provides exciting ampere turns to rotor circuit at slip frequency. By providing more ampere turns than required, the induction motor can be made to operate on leading power factor like an overexcited synchronous motor.

ADVANTAGES
Phase advancers have two principal advantages. (i) Phase advancer can be conveniently used where the use of synchronous motors is inadmissible.

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(ii)

Lagging KVAR drawn by the motor is considerably reduced due to supply of exciting ampere-turns at slip frequency.

DISADVANTAGES
(i) They are not economical for motors below 200 H.P.

1.6 LOCATION OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION EQUIPMENT


In case of transmission system, if synchronous condensers are to be employed for power factor improvement then these should be installed at the receiving end so that, not only the generators but also the transmission lines are relieved of carrying excessive current due to poor power factor. However, if synchronous condensers are installed near the generators then only generators will be relieved from the excessive current component and the transmission lines will have to carry it.

1.7 CALCULATION OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION


Consider an inductive load taking a lagging current I at a power factor cos 1. In order to improve the power factor of this circuit, the remedy is to connect such equipment in parallel with load which takes a leading reactive component of the

load. Diagram shows capacitor connected across the load. The capacitor takes a current Ic which leads the supply voltage V by 90 degree. The current Ic partly cancels the lagging reactive component of the load current shown in phasor diagram. The resultant circuit current becomes I and its angle of lag is 2. It is clear that 2 is less than 1 so that new p.f. cos 2 is more than the previous p.f. cos 1.

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Ic

v 1
2

I sin

Fig 1.5 Phasor Diagram From the phasor diagram, it is clear that after power factor correction, the lagging reactive component of load is reduced to I sin 2. I sin 2 = I sin 1 Ic Ic = I sin 1 I sin 2 Capacitance of capacitor to improve power from cos 1 to cos 2 = Ic / V 1.8 Most Economical Power Factor The increase in power demand on the generating station can be met either by increasing the capacity of the generating plant working at the same pf or by raising the power factor of the system by installation power factor correction devices. Owing to improvement of power factor in the beginning the saving in the generating and distributing plant outweighs the extra cost of the pf correction
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equipment in most of the cases but as the power factor is raised further its cost begins to approximate to the saving and finally any saving over the plant is obtained by incurring a greater expenditure on the pf correcting equipment. Thus there is a limit beyond which it is not economical still further to improve the power factor. The maximum value to which the power factor can be economically raised entirely depends upon the relative costs of the generating plant and phase advancing plant. When the power factor is improved it involves expenditure on account of the power factor correcting equipment. Improvement of power factor will result in reduction of maximum demand and thus affect an annual saving over the maximum demand charge but on the other hand expenditure is to be incurred every year in the shape of interest and depreciation on account of the investment made over the power factor correcting equipment. The limit of the power factor at which the net saving (saving in annual maximum demand charges less annual expenditure incurred on power factor correcting equipment) is maximum is known as economical limit of power factor correcting. It will be seen that the economical limit of power factor correction is governed by the relative costs of the supply and power factor correcting equipment.

1.9 Example
Let us take an example of a cement industry with initial load condition of 5000 kVA at 60% power factor with a consumption of 19,20,000 units per month, supplied at 33 KV.

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Taking the Tariff as below: 1. Demand charges Rs. 144/kVA/month 2. Energy Charges Rs. 4.11 / Unit 3. PF surcharge for each 1% below 90% 1% of (Demand charges + Energy Charges) A. Cost saving due to Power Factor improvement (i) As we already know, by improving the power factor there will be a reduction in the kVA demand of the load. Thus, in this case the kVA MD will drop from 5000 kVA (at 60%) to 3333.33 kVA (at 90%): Power Factor= cos = kW/ kVA Cos1 = 0.6 = kW/kvA1 = kW/5000 KW=5000*0.6 Cos2 = 0.9 = kW/kVA2 KW=kVA2*0.9 For the same value of kW, 5000*0.6=kVA2*0.9 kVA2=(5000*0.6)/0.9 = 3333.33 kVA Therefore reduction in energy bill due to reduction in maximum demand due to improved power factor from 0.6 to 0.9 shall be:
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Rs. 144.00 * (5000-3333.33)= Rs. 240000.48 per month (ii) In addition, by increasing the power factor from 60% to 90%, there shall be no power factor penalty/surcharge on account of low power factor. Thus the savings due to avoidance of the PF surcharge per month would be as below: Rs. ((5000-3333)*144*(90-60))*1/100= Rs.72014.14 (iii) Thus the total monthly reduction in bill due to P.F improvement from 0.6 to 0.9 would be: Rs. 240000.48 + 72014.14 = Rs. 312014.88 per month. Net reduction per annum = 312014.88*12 = 3744178.56 ~ Rs.37, 44,179/B. Cost of investment for Power Factor improvement: Size of capacitor required to improve the PF from 0.6 to 0.9 = kVA1* Sin1 kVA2* Sin2 =5000*sin (53.1) 3333.33*Sin(25.84) =5000*0.8 3333.33*0.436 =4000-1453=2547 kVAr say 2550 kAVr If we take the cost of capacitor bank per kVAr as Rs. 200/- , the cost of the capacitor bank = 2550*200 = Rs. 5,10,000/Cost of switching and associated equipment = Rs. 3, 00,000/and installation, etc.
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Total cost = Rs. 8, 10,000/Annual depreciation and interest@ 20% = Rs. 810000*0.2 = Rs. 1, 62,000/Net Annual saving = 37, 44,179 - 1, 62,000 = Rs. 35, 82,179/Net monthly saving = Rs. 2, 98,515/Therefore payback period = 2.7 months

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CHAPTER: 2

PIC MICROCONTROLLER
2.1 Introduction
A microcontroller is a single-chip computer. Before microcontrollers some other devices were used. Hence it was difficult to make complex circuits. Before micro controllers use of micro processors were common. There is a little bit difference between a microcomputer and micro controller. If we combine ram and rom and other things like input port and out port and if we embed all these things on a single chip then the name of that device is microcontroller. There are two types of processor 1) Dedicated Microprocessor 2) General purpose Microprocessor Dedicated Microprocessor is that processor which is dedicated one particular task which will perform only one action, action only for which it is made. e.g microprocessor used in microwave oven, Microprocessor used for washing machine. If we combine Ram and Rom and other things like input port and out port with microprocessor then it is known as microcomputer. Hence the difference between
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microcomputer and microcontroller is that microcontroller is embedded in single chip whereas microcomputer is not. We need some kind of language for microcontroller. Well known languages C, Basic, Pascal are being used. Microcontroller or any chip understands only one language that is machine language (binary language).so we need some kind of translator if we will use any other language than that of machine language. Like if we are using assembly language then we need assembler and if we are using any high level language like c then we need compiler or interpreter. Difference between compiler and interpreter is that, compiler converts whole high level language file into object file whereas interpreter converts instruction by instruction. In our case microcontroller is PIC. There are some benefits of PIC over Atmel.

2.2 PIC Microcontroller


PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640, originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface

Controller"
PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and reprogramming with flash memory) capability. The PIC architecture is characterized by its multiple attributes:

Separate code and data spaces (Harvard architecture) for devices other than PIC32, which has Von Neumann architecture.

A small number of fixed length instructions


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Most instructions are single cycle execution (2 clock cycles, or 4 clock cycles in 8bit models), with one delay cycle on branches and skips

One accumulator (W0), the use of which (as source operand) is implied (i.e. is not encoded in the opcode)

All RAM locations function as registers as both source and/or destination of math and other functions.

A hardware stack for storing return addresses A fairly small amount of addressable data space (typically 256 bytes), extended through banking

Data space mapped CPU, port, and peripheral registers The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement indirect jumps).

There is no distinction between memory space and register space because the RAM serves the job of both memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers.

2.2.1 Advantages
The PIC architectures have these advantages:

Small instruction set to learn RISC architecture Built in oscillator with selectable speeds Easy entry level, in circuit programming plus in circuit debugging PICKit units available from Microchip.com for less than $50

Inexpensive microcontrollers
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Wide range of interfaces including I2C, SPI, USB, USART, A/D, programmable Comparators, PWM, LIN, CAN, PSP, and Ethernet

We have used PIC 18f4620 which has 28/40/44-Pin Enhanced Flash with 10-Bit A/D and nanoWatt Technology.

2.2.2 Peripheral Highlights:


Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module supporting 3-wire SPI (all 4 modes) and I2C Master and Slave modes Enhanced Addressable USART module Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN1.2, RS232 operation using internal oscillator block (no external crystal required) Auto-Wakeup on Start bit- Auto-Baud Detect 10-bit, up to 13-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter module (A/D):- Autoacquisition capability- Conversion available during Sleep Dual analog comparators with input multiplexing Programmable 16-level High/Low-Voltage Detection (HLVD) module:- Supports interrupt on High/Low-Voltage Detection

2.3 Special Microcontroller Features:

C compiler optimized architecture:- Optional extended instruction set designed to optimize re-entrant code 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash program memory typical 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM memory typical Flash/Data EEPROM Retention: 100 years typical Self-programmable under software control
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Priority levels for interrupts 8 x 8 Single Cycle Hardware Multiplier Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT):- Programmable period from 4 ms to 131s Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via two pins In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR) with software enable option

Fig 2.1 Pin Diagram

2.4 MEMORY ORGANIZATION


There are three types of memory in PIC18 Enhanced microcontroller devices: Program Memory Data RAM Data EEPROM As Harvard architecture devices, the data and program memories use separate busses; this allows for concurrent access of the two memory spaces .The data EEPROM, for
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practical purposes, can be regarded as a peripheral device, since it is addressed and accessed through a set of control registers.

2.4.1 Program Memory Organization

PIC18 microcontrollers implement a 21-bit program counter, which is capable of addressing a 2-Mbyte program memory space. Accessing a location between the upper boundary of the physically implemented memory and the 2-Mbyte address will return all 0s (a NOP instruction). The PIC18F2525 and PIC18F4525 each have 48 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 24,576 single-word instructions. The PIC18F2620 and PIC18F4620 each have 64 Kbytes of Flash memory and can store up to 32,768 singleword instructions. PIC18 devices have two interrupt vectors. The Reset vector address is at 0000h and the interrupt vector addresses are at 0008h and 0018h.

2.4.2 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY

The Flash program memory is readable, writable and erasable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. A read from program memory is executed on one byte at a time. A write to program memory is executed on blocks of 64 bytes at a time. Program memory is erased in blocks of 64 bytes at a time. A bulk erase operation may not be issued from user code. Writing or erasing program memory will cease instruction fetches until the operation is complete. The program memory cannot be accessed during the write or erase, therefore, code cannot execute. An internal
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programming time terminates program memory writes and erases. A value written to program memory does not need to be a valid instruction. Executing a program memory location that forms an invalid instruction results in a NOP.

2.4.3 DATA EEPROM MEMORY

The data EEPROM is a nonvolatile memory array, separate from the data RAM and program memory, which is used for long-term storage of program data. It is not directly mapped in either the register file or program memory space but is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers (SFRs). The EEPROM is readable and writable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. Five SFRs are used to read and write to the data EEPROM as well as the program memory. They are: EECON1 EECON2 EEDATA EEADR EEADRH The data EEPROM allows byte read and writes. When interfacing to the data memory block, EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write and the EEADRH:EEADR register pair holds the address of the EEPROM location being accessed. The EEPROM data memory is rated for high erase/write cycle endurance. A byte write automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase-before-write). The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer; it will vary with voltage and temperature as well as from chip to chip.
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2.5 INTERRUPTS

The PIC18F2525/2620/4525/4620 devices have multiple interrupt sources and an interrupt priority feature that allows most interrupt sources to be assigned a high priority level or a low priority level. The high priority interrupt vector is at 0008h and the low priority interrupt vector is at 0018h. High priority interrupt events will interrupt any low priority interrupts that may be in progress. There are ten registers which are used to control interrupt operation. These registers are: RCON INTCON INTCON2 INTCON3 PIR1, PIR2 PIE1, PIE2 IPR1, IPR2 It is recommended that the Microchip header files supplied with MPLAB IDE be used for the symbolic bit names in these registers. This allows the assembler/ compiler to automatically take care of the placement of these bits within the specified register. In general, interrupt sources have three bits to control their operation. They are: Flag bit to indicate that an interrupt event occurred Enable bit that allows program execution to branch to the interrupt vector address when the flag bit is set Priority bit to select high priority or low priority. The interrupt priority feature is enabled by setting the IPEN bit (RCON<7>). When interrupt priority is enabled, there
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are two bits which enable interrupts globally. Setting the GIEH bit (INTCON<7>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit set (high priority). Setting the GIEL bit (INTCON<6>) enables all interrupts that have the priority bit cleared (low priority). When the interrupt flag, enable bit and appropriate global interrupt enable bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately to address 0008h or 0018h, depending on the priority bit setting. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits.

2.6 I/O PORTS

Depending on the device selected and features enabled, there are up to five ports available. Some pins of the I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function from the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. Each port has three registers for its operation. These registers are: TRIS register (data direction register) PORT register (reads the levels on the pins of the device) LAT register (output latch) The Data Latch (LAT register) is useful for read modify write operations on the value that the I/O pins are driving.

2.7 TIMER MODULE 2.7.1 TIMER0 MODULE


The Timer0 module incorporates the following features: Software selectable operation as a timer or counter in both 8-bit and 16-bit modes
25

Readable and writable registers Dedicated 8-bit, software programmable prescaler Selectable clock source (internal or external) Edge select for external clock Interrupt-on-overflow The T0CON register controls all aspects of the modules operation including the prescale selection. It is both readable and writable. A simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 8-bit mode is shown in Figure 11-1. Figure below shows a simplified block diagram of the Timer0 module in 16-bit mode.

Fig 2.2 Block diagram of the Timer0 module in 16-bit mode

2.7.1.2 Prescaler
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the Timer0 module. The prescaler is not directly readable or writable its value is set by the PSA and T0PS2:T0PS0 bits (T0CON<3:0>) which determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio. Clearing the PSA bit assigns the prescaler to the Timer0 module. When it is assigned, prescale values from 1:2 through 1:256 in power-of-2 increments are selectable. When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF TMR0, MOVWF TMR0, BSF TMR0, etc.) clear the prescaler count.

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2.7.2 TIMER1 MODULE


The Timer1 timer/counter module incorporates these features: Software selectable operation as a 16-bit timer or counter Readable and writable 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) Selectable clock source (internal or external) with device clock or Timer1 oscillator internal options Interrupt-on-overflow Reset on CCP Special Event Trigger Device clock status flag (T1RUN) A simplified block diagram of the Timer1 module is shown in Figure below. The module incorporates its own low-power oscillator to provide an additional clocking option. The Timer1 oscillator can also be used as a low-power clock source for the microcontroller in power managed operation. Timer1 can also be used to provide Real-Time Clock (RTC) functionality to applications with only a minimal addition of external components and code overhead. Timer1 is controlled through the T1CON Control register. It also contains the Timer1 Oscillator Enable bit (T1OSCEN). Timer1 can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing control bit, TMR1ON (T1CON<0>)

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Fig 2.3 Block diagram of the Timer1 module

2.8 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM (CCP) MODULES


PIC18F2525/2620/4525/4620 devices all have two CCP (Capture/ Compare/ PWM) modules. Each module contains a 16-bit register which can operate as a 16-bit Capture register, a 16-bit Compare register or a PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle register. In 28-pin devices, the two standard CCP modules (CCP1 and CCP2) operate as described in this chapter. In 40/44-pin devices, CCP1 is implemented as an Enhanced CCP module with standard Capture and Compare modes and Enhanced PWM modes.

2.9 MASTER SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT (MSSP) MODULE


The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is a serial interface, useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral devices may be serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The MSSP module can operate in one of two modes: Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
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Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) - Full Master mode- Slave mode (with general address call) The I2C interface supports the following modes in hardware: Master mode Multi-Master mode Slave mode

2.9.1 SPI Mode


The SPI mode allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. All four SPI modes are supported. To accomplish communication, typically three pins are used: Serial Data Out (SDO) RC5/SDO Serial Data In (SDI) RC4/SDI/SDA Serial Clock (SCK) RC3/SCK/SCL Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a Slave mode of operation: Slave Select (SS) RA5/AN4/SS/HLVDIN/C2OUT module when operating in SPI mode.

2.10

ENHANCED

UNIVERSAL

SYNCHRONOUS

RECEIVER

TRANSMITTER (EUSART)
The Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. (Generically, the USART is also
29

known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI.) The EUSART can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as CRT terminals and personal computers. It can also be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs, etc. The Enhanced USART module implements additional features, including automatic baud rate detection and calibration, automatic wake-up on Sync Break reception and 12-bit Break character transmit. These make it ideally suited for use in Local Interconnect Network bus (LIN bus) systems. The EUSART can be configured in the following modes: Asynchronous (full duplex) with:- Auto-wake-up on character reception - Auto-baud calibration- 12-bit Break character transmission Synchronous Master (half duplex) with selectable clock polarity Synchronous Slave (half duplex) with selectable clock polarity

2.11 10-BIT ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS (A/D) MODULE


The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter module has 10 inputs for the 28-pin devices and 13 for the 40/44-pin devices. This module allows conversion of an analog input signal to a corresponding 10-bit digital number. The module has five registers: A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL)

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A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0) A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1) A/D Control Register 2 (ADCON2)

2.12 Configuration Bits


The configuration bits can be programmed (read as 0) or left unprogrammed (read as 1) to select various device configurations. These bits are mapped starting at program memory location 300000h. The user will note that address 300000h is beyond the user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the configuration memory space (300000h3FFFFFh), which can only be accessed using table reads and table writes. Programming the configuration registers is done in a manner similar to programming the Flash memory. The WR bit in the EECON1 register starts a self-timed write to the configuration register. In normal operation mode, a TBLWT instruction with the TBLPTR pointing to the configuration register sets up the address and the data for the configuration register write. Setting the WR bit starts a long write to the configuration register. The configuration registers are written a byte at a time. To write or erase a configuration cell, a TBLWT instruction can write a 1 or a 0 into the cell

2.13 Watchdog Timer (WDT)


For PIC18F2525/2620/4525/4620 devices, the WDT is driven by the INTRC source. When the WDT is enabled, the clock source is also enabled. The nominal WDT period is 4 ms and has the same stability as the INTRC oscillator. The 4 ms period of the
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WDT is multiplied by a 16-bit postscaler. Any output of the WDT postscaler is selected by a multiplexer, controlled by bits in Configuration Register 2H. Available periods range from 4 ms to 131.072 seconds (2.18 minutes). The WDT and postscaler are cleared when any of the following events occur: a SLEEP or CLRWDT instruction is executed, the IRCF bits (OSCCON<6:4>) are changed or a clock failure has occurred.

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CHAPTER: 3

LCD
3.1 Introduction

The most commonly used Character based LCDs are based on Hitachi's HD44780 controller or other which are compatible with HD44580. In this tutorial, we will discuss about character based LCDs, their interfacing with various microcontrollers, various interfaces (8-bit/4-bit), programming, special stuff and tricks you can do with these simple looking LCDs which can give a new look to your application.

3.2 Pin Description

The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line, 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters, whereas LCDs supporting more than 80 characters make use of 2 HD44780 controllers.

Most LCDs with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). Pin description is shown in the table below.

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Figure 3.1: Character LCD type HD44780 Pin diagram

Pin No.

Name

Description

Pin no. 1

VSS

Power supply (GND)

Pin no. 2

VCC

Power supply (+5V)

Pin no. 3

VEE

Contrast adjust

0 Pin no. 4 RS

Instruction

input

1 = Data input

0 = Write to LCD module Pin no. 5 R/W 1 = Read from LCD module

Pin no. 6

EN

Enable signal

Pin no. 7

D0

Data bus line 0 (LSB)

Pin no. 8

D1

Data bus line 1

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Pin no. 9

D2

Data bus line 2

Pin no. 10

D3

Data bus line 3

Pin no. 11

D4

Data bus line 4

Pin no. 12

D5

Data bus line 5

Pin no. 13

D6

Data bus line 6

Pin no. 14

D7

Data bus line 7 (MSB)

Table2: Character LCD pins with 1 Controller

Pin No.

Name Description

Pin no. 1

D7

Data bus line 7 (MSB)

Pin no. 2

D6

Data bus line 6

Pin no. 3

D5

Data bus line 5

Pin no. 4

D4

Data bus line 4

Pin no. 5

D3

Data bus line 3

Pin no. 6

D2

Data bus line 2

Pin no. 7

D1

Data bus line 1

Pin no. 8

D0

Data bus line 0 (LSB)

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Pin no. 9

EN1

Enable signal for row 0 and 1 (1stcontroller)

0 Pin no. 10 R/W

Write

to

LCD

module

1 = Read from LCD module

0 Pin no. 11 RS

Instruction

input

1 = Data input

Pin no. 12

VEE

Contrast adjust

Pin no. 13

VSS

Power supply (GND)

Pin no. 14

VCC

Power supply (+5V) Enable signal for row 2 and 3 (2ndcontroller)

Pin no. 15

EN2

Pin no. 16

NC

Not Connected

Table3: Character LCD pins with 2 Controller

Usually these days you will find single controller LCD modules are used more in the market. So in the tutorial we will discuss more about the single controller LCD, the operation and everything else is same for the double controller too. Lets take a look at the basic information which is there in every LCD.

3.3 DDRAM - Display Data RAM

Display data RAM (DDRAM) stores display data represented in 8-bit character codes. Its extended capacity is 80 X 8 bits, or 80 characters. The area in display data RAM
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(DDRAM) that is not used for display can be used as general data RAM. So whatever you send on the DDRAM is actually displayed on the LCD. For LCDs like 1x16, only 16 characters are visible, so whatever you write after 16 chars is written in DDRAM but is not visible to the user.

Figures below will show you the DDRAM addresses of 1 Line, 2 Line and 4 Line LCDs.

Figure 3.2: DDRAM Address for 1 Line LCD

Figure 3.3: DDRAM Address for 2 Line LCD

Figure 3.4: DDRAM Address for 4 Line LCD

3.4 CGROM - Character Generator ROM

Now you might be thinking that when you send an ascii value to DDRAM, how the character is displayed on LCD? So the answer is CGROM. The character generator ROM
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generates 5 x 8 dot or 5 x 10 dot character patterns from 8-bit character codes (see Figure 5 and Figure 6 for more details). It can generate 208 5 x 8 dot character patterns and 32 5 x 10 dot character patterns. User defined character patterns are also available by maskprogrammed ROM.

Table 4: LCD characters code map for 5x8 dots

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As you can see in both the code maps, the character code from 0x00 to 0x07 is occupied by the CGRAM characters or the user defined characters. If user wants to display the fourth custom character then the code to display it is 0x03 i.e. when user sends 0x03 code to the LCD DDRAM then the fourth user created character or pattern will be displayed on the LCD.

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3.5 CGRAM - Character Generator RAM

As clear from the name, CGRAM area is used to create custom characters in LCD. In the character generator RAM, the user can rewrite character patterns by program. For 5 x 8 dots, eight character patterns can be written, and for 5 x 10 dots, four character patterns can be written.

3.5.1 BF - Busy Flag

Busy Flag is a status indicator flag for LCD. When we send a command or data to the LCD for processing, this flag is set (i.e. BF =1) and as soon as the instruction is executed successfully this flag is cleared (BF = 0). This is helpful in producing and exact amount of delay. For the LCD processing.

To read Busy Flag, the condition RS = 0 and R/W = 1 must be met and The MSB of the LCD data bus (D7) act as busy flag. When BF = 1 means LCD is busy and will not accept next command or data and BF = 0 means LCD is ready for the next command or data to process.

3.5.2 Instruction Register (IR) and Data Register (DR)

There are two 8-bit registers in HD44780 controller Instruction and Data register. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD e.g LCD shift command, LCD clear, LCD address etc. and Data register is used for storing data
40

which is to be displayed on LCD. When send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted, the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD. Data Register is not only used for sending data to DDRAM but also for CGRAM, the address where you want to send the data, is decided by the instruction you send to LCD.

3.6 Commands and Instruction set

Only the instruction register (IR) and the data register (DR) of the LCD can be controlled by the MCU. Before starting the internal operation of the LCD, control information is temporarily stored into these registers to allow interfacing with various MCUs, which operate at different speeds, or various peripheral control devices. The internal operation of the LCD is determined by signals sent from the MCU. These signals, which include register selection signal (RS), read/write signal (R/W), and the data bus (DB0 to DB7), make up the LCD instructions (Table 3). There are four categories of instructions that:

Designate LCD functions, such as display format, data length, etc. Set internal RAM addresses Perform data transfer with internal RAM Perform miscellaneous functions

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Table 5: Command and Instruction set for LCD type HD44780

Although looking at the table you can make your own commands and test them. Below is a breif list of useful commands which are used frequently while working on the LCD.

No. Instruction

Hex

Decimal
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1 2 3 4 5

Function Set: 8-bit, 1 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set: 8-bit, 2 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set: 4-bit, 1 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set: 4-bit, 2 Line, 5x7 Dots Entry Mode Display off Cursor off

0x30 0x38 0x20 0x28 0x06

48 56 32 40 6

(clearing display without clearing DDRAM 0x08 content)

7 8 9

Display on Cursor on Display on Cursor off Display on Cursor blinking

0x0E 0x0C 0x0F 0x18 0x1C 0x10 0x14 0x01

14 12 15 24 30 16 20 1

10 Shift entire display left 12 Shift entire display right 13 Move cursor left by one character 14 Move cursor right by one character 15 Clear Display (also clear DDRAM content) Set DDRAM address or coursor position on 16 display Set CGRAM address or set pointer to CGRAM 17 location

0x80+add* 128+add*

0x40+add** 64+add**

Table 6: Frequently used commands and instructions for LCD

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DDRAM

address

given

in

LCD

basics

section

see

Figure

2,3,4

** CGRAM address from 0x00 to 0x3F, 0x00 to 0x07 for char1 and so on..

The table above will help you while writing programs for LCD. But after you are done testing with the table 4, i recommend you to use table 3 to get more grip on working with LCD and trying your own commands. In the next section of the tutorial we will see the initialization with some of the coding examples in C as well as assembly.

3.7 LCD Initialization

Before using the LCD for display purpose, LCD has to be initialized either by the internal reset circuit or sending set of commands to initialize the LCD. It is the user who has to decide whether an LCD has to be initialized by instructions or by internal reset circuit. We will discuss both ways of initialization one by one.

3.7.1 Initialization by internal Reset Circuit

An internal reset circuit automatically initializes the HD44780U when the power is turned on. The following instructions are executed during the initialization. The busy flag (BF) is kept in the busy state until the initialization ends (BF = 1). The busy state lasts for 10 ms after VCC rises to 4.5 V.
44

Display clear Function set: DL = 1; 8-bit interface data N = 0; 1-line display F = 0; 5 x 8 dot character font

Display on/off control: D = 0; Display off C = 0; Cursor off B = 0; Blinking off

Entry mode set: I/D = 1; Increment by 1 S = 0; No shift

As mentioned in the Note, there are certain conditions that has to be met, if user want to use initialization by internal reset circuit. These conditions are shown in the Table 5 below.

Table 7: Power Supply condition for Internal Reset circuit

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Figure 3.5: Internal Power Supply reset

Now the problem with the internal reset circuit is, it is highly dependent on power supply, to meet this critical power supply conditions is not hard but are difficult to achieve when you are making a simple application. So usually the second method i.e. Initialization by instruction is used and is recommended most of the time.

3.7.2 Initialization by instructions

Initializing LCD with instructions is really simple. Given below is a flowchart that describes the step to follow, to initialize the LCD.

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Figure 3.6: Flow chart for LCD initialization

As you can see from the flow chart, the LCD is initialized in the following sequence... 1) Send command 0x30 - Using 8-bit interface 2) Delay 20ms 3) Send command 0x30 - 8-bit interface
47

4) Delay 20ms 5) Send command 0x30 - 8-bit interface 6) Delay 20ms 7) Send Function set - see Table 4 for more information 8) Display Clear command 9) Set entry mode command - explained below

The first 3 commands are usually not required but are recommended when you are using 4-bit interface. So you can program the LCD starting from step 7 when working with 8-bit interface. Function set command depends on what kind of LCD you are using and what kind of interface you are using (see Table 4 in LCD Command section).

3.7.3 LCD Entry mode


From Table 3 in command section, you can see that the two bits decide the entry mode for LCD, these bits are: a) I/D - Increment/Decrement bit b) S - Display shift. With these two bits we get four combinations of entry mode which are 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07 (see table 3 in LCD Command section). So we get different results with these different entry modes. Normally entry mode 0x06 is used which is No shift and auto increment.

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CHAPTER: 4

SOFTWARES: HIGHTECH AND MPLAB


4.1 Microchip MPLAB IDE
MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers.

4.1.1 The Development Cycle


The process for writing an application is often described as a development cycle, since it is rare that all the steps from design to implementation can be done flawlessly the first time. More often code is written, tested and then modified in order to produce an application that performs correctly. The Integrated Development Environment allows the embedded
49

systems design engineer to progress through this cycle without the distraction of switching among an array of tools. By using MPLAB IDE, all the functions are integrated, allowing the engineer to concentrate on completing the application without the interruption of separate tools and different modes of operation.

The Design Cycle

Figure 4.1: Design Cycle

MPLAB IDE is a "wrapper" that coordinates all the tools from a single graphical user interface, usually automatically. For instance, once code is written, it can be converted to executable instructions and downloaded into a microcontroller to see how it works. In this process multiple tools are needed: an editor to write the code, a project manager to organize files and settings, a compiler or assembler to convert the source code to machine code and some sort of hardware or software that either connects to a target microcontroller or simulates the operation of a microcontroller.

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4.1.2 Project Manager


The project manager organizes the files to be edited and other associated files so they can be sent to the language tools for assembly or compilation, and ultimately to a linker. The linker has the task of placing the object code fragments from the assembler, compiler and libraries into the proper memory areas of the embedded controller, and ensure that the modules function with each other (or are "linked"). This entire operation from assembly and compilation through the link process is called a project "build". From the MPLAB IDE project manager, properties of the language tools can be invoked differently for each file, if desired, and a build process integrates all of the language tools operations.

MPLAB IDE Project Manager

Fig 4.2: MPLAB Manager

The source files are text files that are written conforming to the rules of the assembler or compiler. The assembler and compiler convert them into intermediate
51

modules of machine code and placeholders for references to functions and data storage. The linker resolves these placeholders and combines all the modules into a file of executable machine code. The linker also produces a debug file which allows MPLAB IDE to relate the executing machine codes back to the source files.

A text editor is used to write the code. It is not a normal text editor, but an editor specifically designed for writing code for Microchip MCUs. It recognizes the constructs in the text and uses color coding to identify various elements, such as instruction mnemonics, C language constructs and comments. The editor supports operations commonly used in writing source code, such as finding matching braces in C, commenting and uncommenting out blocks of code, finding text in multiple files and adding special bookmarks. After the code is written, the editor works with the other tools to display code execution in the debugger. Breakpoints (which stop or "break" the execution of code) can be set in the editor, and the values of variables can be inspected by hovering the mouse pointer over the variable name. Names of variables can be dragged from source text windows and then dropped into a Watch window where their changing values can be watched after each breakpoint or during code execution.

4.1.3 Language Tools

Language tools are programs such as cross-assemblers and cross-compilers. Most people are familiar with language tools that run on a PC such as Visual Basic or C compilers. When using language tools for embedded systems, a "cross-assembler" or "cross-compiler" is used. These tools differ from typical compilers in that they run on a PC but produce code to run on another microprocessor, hence they "cross-compile" code for a microcontroller that uses an entirely different set of instructions from the PC.
52

The language tools also produce a debug file that MPLAB IDE uses to correlate the machine instructions and memory locations with the source code. This bit of integration allows the MPLAB IDE editor to set breakpoints, allows watch windows to view variable contents, and lets you single step through the source code, watching the application execute. Embedded system language tools also differ somewhat for compilers that run and execute on a PC because they must be very space conscious. The smaller the code produced, the better, because that allows the smallest possible memory for the target, which reduces cost. This means that techniques to optimize and enhance the code using machine specific knowledge are desirable. The size of programs for PCs typically extends into the megabytes for moderately complex programs. The size of simple embedded systems programs may be as small as a thousand bytes or less. A medium size embedded system might need 32K or 64K of code for relatively complex functions. Some embedded systems use megabytes of storage for large tables, user text messages or data logging.

A Compiler Converts Source Code into Machine Instructions

Fig 4.3: Compiler

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4.1.4 Target Debugging


In a development environment, the execution of the code is tested on a debugger. The debugger can be a software program that simulates the operation of the microcontroller for testing, or it can be special instrumentation to analyze the program as it executes in the application.

4.2 Software Debuggers


Simulators are built into MPLAB IDE so a program can be tested without any additional hardware. A simulator is a software debugger, and the debugger functions for the simulator are almost identical to the hardware debuggers, allowing a new tool to be learned with ease. Usually a simulator runs somewhat slower than an actual microcontroller, since the CPU in the PC is being used to simulate the operations of the microcontroller. In the case of MPLAB IDE, there are many simulators for each of the PIC MCU and the dsPIC DSC processors.

4.3 Hardware Debuggers


There are two types of hardware that can be used with MPLAB IDE: programmers and hardware debuggers. A programmer simply burns the machine code from the PC into the internal memory of the target microcontroller. The microcontroller can then be plugged into the application and, hopefully, it will run as designed.

Usually, however, the code does not function exactly as anticipated, and the engineer is tasked with reviewing the code and its operation in the application to determine how to modify the original source code to make it execute as desired. This process is called
54

debugging. As noted previously, the simulator can be used to test how the code will operate, but once a microcontroller is programmed with the firmware, many things outside the scope of the simulator come into play. Using just a programmer, the code could be changed, reprogrammed into the microcontroller and plugged into the target for retest, but this could be a long, laborious cycle if the code is complex, and it is difficult to understand exactly what is going wrong in the hardware.

This is where a hardware debugger is useful. Hardware debuggers can be in-circuit emulators, which use specialized hardware in place of the actual target microcontroller, or they can be in-circuit debuggers, which use microcontrollers that have special built-in debugging features. A hardware debugger, like a simulator, allows the engineer to inspect variables at various points in the code, and single step to follow instructions as the hardware interacts with its specialized circuitry.

4.4 Integrated Development Environment


Debugging usually becomes urgent near the end of the project design cycle. As deadlines loom, getting the application to function as originally designed is the last step before going into deployment of the product, and often has the most influence on producing delays in getting a product out. That's where an integrated development environment is most important. Doing fine "tweaks" to the code, recompiling, downloading and testing all require time. Using all tools within a single environment will reduce the time around the "cycle." These last steps, where critical bugs are worked out, are a test for the embedded systems designer. The right tool can save time. With MPLAB IDE many tools can be selected, but they all will have a similar interface, and the learning curve from simulator to low-cost in-circuit debugger to powerful in-circuit emulator is small
55

4.5 Device Programming


After the application has been debugged and is running in the development environment, it needs to be tested on its own. A device can be programmed with an incircuit emulator, an in-circuit debugger, a development programmer, or a device programmer. MPLAB IDE can be set to the programmer function, and the part can be "burned". The target application can now be observed in its nearly final state. Engineering prototype programmers allow quick prototypes to be made and evaluated. Some applications can be programmed after the device is soldered on the target PC board. Using In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) programming capability, the firmware can be programmed into the application at the time of manufacture, allowing updated revisions to be programmed into an embedded application later in its life cycle. Devices that support incircuit debugging can even be plugged back into an in-circuit debugger after manufacturing for quality tests and development of next generation firmware.

4.5.1 HI-TECH Language Tools by Microchip


MPLAB IDE supports the following HI-TECH language tools:

Table 8: Language Tools

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4.5.2 Featuring (HI-TECH C Compilers)


HI-TECH C compilers are enabled with Omniscient Code Generation (OCG), a whole-program compilation technology, to facilitate more intelligent, state-of-the-art code generation and enhance product usability. Rather than relying completely on the linker to uncover errors in independently compiled modules, an OCG compiler completes the initial stages of compilation for each module separately, but defers object code generation until the point at which a view of the whole program is available. Information gathered from a global view of the program, can be used to provide better detection of potential errors in the users code, and to better optimize the output. HI-TECH C compilers can deliver denser code, improve RAM utilization and reduce interrupt latency.

The all-seeing nature of OCG enables the compiler to determine if a variable is being used in the program. Unused variables are removed, thus saving RAM.

OCG enables a compiler to determine which variables are used in a program. Those which are not used are removed to save RAM.

The compiler knows exactly which registers are in both interrupt and mainline context, so it can generate code accordingly, minimizing both the code size and cycles required to switch contexts.

OCG allows automatic allocation of data into RAM banks eliminating the need for the programmer to specify the location of the variables.

OCG has the ability to generate a printf function that is customized for the program at hand. It does this by scanning the users code and only includes those features of printf that were detected. This results in a huge saving in program memory but also saves you valuable RAM space.
57

By only including the features of printf in the user's code, OCG has the ability to generate a print function that is customized for the program at hand, saving significant amounts of program memory and valuable RAM space.

The compiler detects how frequently each variable is used and which are dependent, enabling it to optimize pointers and position objects in the most efficient memory spaces, eliminating the need for this to be done manually with nonstandard C language extensions.

Fully ANSI-compliant Includes Library source for standard libraries and sample code for I/O drivers Includes macro assembler, linker, preprocessor and one-step driver Runs on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X

58

4.6 Creating and Building Projects in MPLAB

Fig 4.4: Creating Project

Go to PROJECT menu

PROJECT WIZARD

Click next and you will see the following window

59

Click next and select the language tool suit. If you wish to code in C then your tool suit must be MICROCHIP C18 TOOLSUIT as shown below

Fig 4.5: Tool Suit

60

Next create project folder and then click next two times. The following window appears

Fig 4.6: Windows


61

Write the C code in the editor window. Then save it with .C extension

Fig 4.7: Code

62

Next go to VIEW

PROJECT menu. The following window will appear. Right

click on SOURCE FILES and add the .c file which you just saved. The added file appears

Fig 4.8: Libraries

63

Then go to PROJECTS menu window appears

BUILD OPTIONS

PROJECT. The following

Fig 4.9: Build

64

In SHOW DIRECTORIES FOR: option, select INCLUDE SEARCH PATH. Then click NEW and browse for h directory.

Fig 4.10: Path


65

Similarly select LIBRARY SEARCH PATH in the SHOW DIRECTORIES FOR option. Click NEW and browse for lib directory. Now the settings are complete. Build the project and yo should see the following window.

Fig 4.11: Results

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CHAPTER:5

PROJECT AND ALGORITHMS

67

5.1 Algorithm

Fig 5.1: Algorithm


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5.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM


AC POWER

CAPACITOR CAPACITOR SWITCHES

CONTROLLER

VOLTAG SENSE

CURRENT SENSE

POWER MANAGEMENT IC

LOAD

Fig 5.2: Block Diagram

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5.4 PROJECT
5.4.1 Goal
The main goal of our project is to automatically improve the power factor of single phase power system. We have used PIC18 microcontroller along with metering chip, EEPROM, capacitor banks, Contactors, ct and pt. Components used in Project i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. PIC 16F877 microcontroller Relays Capacitors Current and potential transformers LCD OPT PC817 Regulated DC Supply 5V Load (Motors)

5.4.2 Explanation
7.4.2.1 CT and PT
The job of the CT and PT is to extract sample of high voltage and current from the load which is connected to the power source and step down to such a value that can be used for measurement.
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5.4.2.4 Microcontroller
PIC take measurement data, then separates all the measurements (voltage, current, power, active, reactive) . Then PIC calculates PF using KW/KVA.. Then after displaying that PF on LCD it also checks weather it is below 0.98 or not. If it is below 0.98 then PIC switches capacitors with the help of relays and finds and applies the best combination of capacitors, so that PF will remain 0.98. The controller continues to monitor the PF and if the PF is below 0.98 , then the above steps are repeated

5.4.2.5 Relays
Practically relays cannot be driven by the microcontroller directly due to low output driving current. We need to use buffer to convert the low current of the controller to a high value that can drive the relay. Transistors can be used for this purpose.

5.4.2.6 LCD
LCD displays the PF of the single phase system

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Conclusion
Benefits of increased Power Factor to different consumers can be described as below.

The Consumers whose applicable tariffs do not include MD charges and Power Factor surcharge shall benefit from reduction in energy consumption due to increased efficiency of their system, better voltage profiles, reduced I2R losses and release of system capacity. The consumers whose applicable tariffs include MD charges and the PF surcharge shall be able to reduce their energy demand as well as consumption and thus shall benefit from both the reduced cost of energy and reduced consumption of electricity. These consumers can expect a payback period of under one year when power factor correction is properly applied.

We started the project with the objectives mentioned in the project statement and achieved all of them.

We have used two inductive loads.

1: 370 WATT single phase induction motor as a load

Its low power factor was 0.762: we have used another load 180 WATT Universal motor.

Its low power factor was 0.78

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Future Recommendations

We would like to recommend the following features to be incorporated in our developed software

1. We have implemented the improvement using capacitor banks. It can be performed by Synchronous Condensers. 2. GUI interface could be established using MATLAB. 3. Pre-defined power factors could be fed into the system and improved accordingly. 4. Wireless connectivity can be done.

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References

[1] AB B, T ec h n ic a l Ap p l ic at io n P a p er s, P o wer fa ct o r co r r ect io n a nd h ar mo n ic f i lt er i n g i n e le ct r ic a l p la n t s. Ju l y 2 0 0 8 . [2] Single Phase Factor Correction Circuit with Wide Output Voltage Range by Yiqing Zhao. [3] HADI SADAT, Mc Graw Hills, Power Systems Analysis. [4] ht t p: // www.env is io nener g y. co m/ ser vices_ p fact o r c_ bo t t o m. ht m [ 5] ht t p: // en. wik ip ed ia. o rg / wik i/ Po wer _ fact o r . [6] ECONOMIC COMPARISION OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION BY CAPACITORS AND HIGH POWER FACTOR/HIGH-EFFICIENCY MOTORS BY K.D. Slack, B.L. Capehart [7] ADB Final Report, Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, Rental Power Review, January 2010 [8] IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 31, NO. I,

FEBRUARY 1990 77, A Microprocessor-Based Adaptive Power Factor Corrector for Nonlinear Loads, By H. M. EL-BOLOK, M. E. MASOUD, AND M. M. MAHMOUD.

[9] Proceedings of MUCEET2009, Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology, June 20-22, 2009, MS Garden, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia MUCEET2009.

[10] ABB, Application manual, Dry type power factor correction capacitors
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[11 Industrial Energy Efficiency, Generic Report, on Energy Efficiency in Steel Sector, NPO Pakistan, May 2008. [12] www.powerflowtechnologies.com

[13] Sanjiv Arora ,AEE ,MPSEB, Jabalpur Postal address , 45, Satyanand Vihar, Rampur, Jabalpur, M.P.,

[14] Energy Loss Reduction In WAPDA Power Distribution By Engr. Daud Beg, MD AlTechnique. Corporation. Islamabad

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