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GEOLOGY DATABASE

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_______________________________________________________________ Copyright 2005 Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. This software and documentation is proprietary to Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd. Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd publishes this documentation for the sole use of Surpac licenses. Without written permission you may not sell, reproduce, store in a retrieval system, or transmit any part of the documentation. For such permission, or to obtain extra copies please contact your local Surpac Minex Group Office.

Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Level 8 190 St Georges Terrace Perth, Western Australia 6000 Telephone: Fax: (08) 94201383 (08) 94201350

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual, we assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damage resulting from the use of the information contained herein. All brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of there respective companies. About This Manual This manual has been designed to provide a practical guide to the many uses of the software. The applications contained within this manual are by no means exhaustive as the possible uses of the software are only limited by the users imagination. However, it will give new users a starting point and existing users a good overview by demonstrating how to use may of the functions in Surpac Vision. If you have any difficulties, or questions whist working through this manual feel free to contact your local Surpac Minex Group Office.

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GEOLOGICAL DATABASE
FILES USED................................................................................................................................................. 4 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................................................ 4 DATABASE STRUCTURE......................................................................................................................... 4 COLLAR TABLE................................................................................................................................... 4 SURVEY TABLE ................................................................................................................................... 5 OPTIONAL TABLES............................................................................................................................. 5 MAPPING A DATABASE .......................................................................................................................... 6 Surpac Mapping Detail database tree .................................................................................................. 9 Removing a table and field mapping................................................................................................... 11 Adding an optional database field to a Mandatory table.................................................................... 11 Renaming an optional database field in a table.................................................................................. 12 Mapping Optional Tables (sample or geology) .................................................................................. 12 TASKS........................................................................................................................................................ 14 1. Map the surpac_training.mdb database to create the surpac_training.ddb map link .................... 16 2. Add an interval table called geology with an optional field called lithology to the surpac database. ............................................................................................................................................. 21 3. Import geology and sample data into the database from the files geology.txt and samples.txt, respectively. ........................................................................................................................................ 21 4. Display the drillholes and create colour display styles for lithology and assays ........................... 23 5. Manipulation of the drillholes by:................................................................................................... 29 Display lithological codes on the right-hand side. .................................................................... 29 Display assays on the left-hand side.......................................................................................... 29 Display colour-filled bar graphs of the gold assays on the left-hand side and offset them 5m. 29 6. Drillhole Investigation and interrogation ....................................................................................... 32 7. Sectioning by Create E-W sections starting at 7120N to 7600N in steps of 40m............................ 34 8. Interpretation and digitizing of sections on screen ......................................................................... 42 9. Flagging an interval table with 3dm intercepts .............................................................................. 44 COMPOSITING......................................................................................................................................... 47 BENCH ELEVATIONS ....................................................................................................................... 48 DOWNHOLE COMPOSITING........................................................................................................... 52 COMPOSITING DOWNHOLE CONSTRAINED BY INTERCEPT TABLE ....................................... 53 COMPOSITING GRAPHICAL ............................................................................................................... 56 OPTIONAL EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................... 62 Grade Control Activity........................................................................................................................ 62 VERTICAL SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING ............................................................................................ 72 SETTING UP A MAP ENTITY FOR PLOTTING ................................................................................ 76

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GEOLOGICAL DATABASE OBJECTIVES



To become familiar with Surpacs Geological Database module. To learn about the minimum requirements for a geological database. To learn to import data into a database from ASCII text files. To learn to map a database To create composite files To view data and create sections

Using these principles then to apply to interpreting geological sections

FILES USED
Files used in this lab exercise are found in the following folder: C:\GEOLOGY\DATABASES\DATA

DISCUSSION
The Geological Database module in Surpac is one of the most important set of tools you can learn. Drillhole data are the starting point of all mining projects and constitute the basis on which feasibility studies and ore reserve estimations are done. A geological database consists of a number of tables, each of which contains a different kind of data. Each table contains a number of fields of data. Each table will have many records with each record containing the data fields. Surpac uses a relational database model and supports several different types including oracle, paradox and Microsoft access. We also support Open Database Connectivity for ODBC and can connect to databases across networks. A database can contain up to 50 tables and each table can have a max of 60 fields

DATABASE STRUCTURE
Surpac requires 2 mandatory tables within a database: collar and survey. COLLAR TABLE The information stored in the collar table describes the location of the drill hole collar, the maximum depth of the hole and whether a linear or curved hole trace is to be calculated when retrieving the hole. Optional collar data may also be stored for each drill hole. For example, date drilled, type of drill hole or project name. The mandatory fields in a collar table are:

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SURVEY TABLE The survey table stores the drill hole survey information used to calculate the drill hole trace coordinates. Mandatory fields include: downhole depth at which the survey was taken, the dip and the azimuth of the hole. For a vertical hole, which has not been surveyed, the depth would be the same as the max_depth field in the collar table, the dip as -90 and the azimuth as zero. The y, x and z fields are used to store the calculated coordinates of each survey. Optional fields for this table may include other information taken at the survey point e.g., core orientation. The mandatory fields in a survey table are:

OPTIONAL TABLES Aside from the mandatory tables, optional tables may be added and used to store such data as geology and assays. There are 3 different types of optional tables that can be added to a database: 1. interval 2. point 3. discreet (depth from and depth to) (depth to) (point data)

The interval tables require the depth at the start of the interval and the depth at the end of the interval, called the depth_from and depth_to fields respectively. The point tables require only the depth where the sample was taken, called the depth_to field. A sample identifier field is defined for interval tables but this field is not a key field and so does not require data if not available. The y, x and z fields are used to store the calculated coordinates of the sample depths. The discrete sample tables are used for storing data for a point, which has a unique samp_id. All that is

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required for this is the samp_id and its position in space i.e., its Y, X and Z coordinates. The discrete sample table is ideally suited for storing and later processing geochemical soil samples.

MAPPING A DATABASE
How does Surpac connect to a Database? Whether connecting to a database which has been created using Surpac or one created independently, a database definition file is required to read/write to the database. Put simply, a database definition file (*.ddb) can be described as a header file that describes: type and name of database, where the database is located ( a path location) table names, fields names and formatting of each field type. The ddb file is a text file and does no contain any data. It allows Surpac to connect to a backend relational database and is usually the same name as the database itself.

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A database definition file is created automatically if a databse is created within Surpac Vision. If connecting to a database that was not created using Surpac Vision, a ddb file has to be created in order to view drill and manipulate the data in Surpac. This is called mapping (or connecting) a database and Surpac Vision has a function that allows a ddb file to be created quickly and simply. If the structure of the database does not change, ie the field and table names do not change, this process only need to be done once. Data can be added to a database at any point. This does not change the ddb file, you are simply adding more data into each table. Mapping a Database (Creating a database definition file) For Surpac to read a database, it must know where the geological database and drill hole data live if the database is not created within Surpac. Surpac knows that certain tables and fields exist, but the location of these must be mapped so that fields can be linked. The DB MAPPER function is a tool that is used to set up the mappings between the actual database and the database Surpac expects to have. This function will also allow you to define a view of your database by specifying which tables and fields you want Surpac to know about. This is useful if you have a very large database and Surpac only needs to use information from a few of the tables. It is also possible to add validation information to fields in your tables using the DB MAPPER so that Surpac will check the integrity of the data that is about to be stored or modified in your database. Once you have finished mapping your database, a ddb file will be produced that Surpac can then use to connect to your database. If you rename or change the configuration of your database, you can use the DB MAPPER to reflect these new changes.

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The DB MAPPER function can be used to map an access, paradox or ODBC database. The type of database to be mapped will determine how the database is selected. Go to Database, Map the Database. On the first form, select the database to be mapped.

Mapping an Access database called SE2004.mdb Click Next to continue. The following form will appear:

A ddb file called se2004.ddb will be created. Click Next to continue. A process bar may appear. This may appear for a minute or so, depending on the size of database.

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The following form will appear:

The form is split into two halves. The left hand side, Source Database, shows all tables and queries contained in the Database. The right and side, Mapping Detail, shows the table and fields names (explained in the previous section) that Surpac requires to connect to a database. If you open one of these folders by clicking on the + symbol to the left of the folder, a list within that table will be displayed. Tip: Surpac can map Queries in a Database. Set up a query to look at specific holes, map the queries, Only this data is accessible in Surpac. Surpac Mapping Detail database tree The mapping detail side of the form shows two folders labelled "Mandatory Tables" and "Optional Tables". As discussed earlier, Surpac requires mandatory tables within a database to display and manipulate drillholes. The mandatory tables that Surpac requires are the ' collar' and ' survey' tables.

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If you drilldown into each of the survey or collar folders, you will also see listed an "Optional Fields" and "Indexes" folder. The "Optional Fields" folder will be used to specify any other fields from the table you wish to work with. The "Indexes" folder will also contain two folders - one that specifies what the mandatory Surpac index is for this table and one that shows what other indexes you want Surpac to know about. Under the "Optional Tables" folder are five folders.

The first folder represents the ' translation' table that is needed if you require a table for assisting in translating numeric codes, such as below detection assays from the lab. This folder will contain the mandatory fields for the translation table and folders for any optional fields and indexes you wish to also view. The ' styles' table stores the drawing styles created for drillhole geology codes and assay values that are stored in the database. These styles are used when displaying drillholes in Surpac. The "Interval Tables", "Point Tables" and "Discrete Tables" folders will be used to specify which non-mandatory tables in your database that you wish to access. NOTE: Any table names or fields names that have an asterisk (*) next to their name MUST be mapped. Mapping required tables. If the external database has used the same table names and field name conventions as a database created using Surpac then during the process of mapping the database, Surpac can identify the collar, survey, interval and point tables automatically (note this is case sensitive). If other naming conventions have been used, including upper or mixed case, then each table must be mapped. Any table names or field names that have not been recognised by the Mapper is highlighted with an asterix (*). Mapping a Mandatory collar and survey table: Drag and drop the collar table from the left hand side over the top of the collar table on the right hand side. Repeat this process to map each of the Mandatory fields. All optional fields are mapped automatically.

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The hole_path field does not have to be mapped. If the external database does not have this field (highly likely if the database was created not using Surpac), Surpac uses the CURVED algorithm for all holes. Repeat the same steps to map the survey table. Removing a table and field mapping If you have mapped a Surpac table or field with an incorrect table in your database, you can remove the mapping by selecting the Surpac table/field folder name and by right clicking on the mouse. A menu will popup with the option to Remove mapping. Select this item from the menu and the mapping will be removed The other option is to follow the mapping procedure using the correct name.

Adding an optional database field to a Mandatory table If you have mapped one of your database tables to a Surpac mandatory table and you wish to access other fields in the database you can map these to the optional fields within that table. Highlight the database field name with a left mouse click and without releasing the mouse button, move the mouse pointer over the "Optional Fields" folder in the Surpac database tree and release it. If you open the "Optional Fields" folder you will see the field name you have just added.

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Renaming an optional database field in a table If you want to change the name of an optional field to give it a more meaningful name when Surpac connects to the database, you can do so by highlighting the field name and right-clicking on the mouse so that a menu pops up with the option to Rename. Select this from the menu to bring up a form that will allow you to enter in a new name for the field.

Note: this will not change the actual name of the field in your database. Mapping Optional Tables (sample or geology) The interval, point and discrete tables allow you to map tables such as sample, geology, weathering, geochem etc.

A sample or assay table can be mapped to the interval table within Surpac by the same steps as detailed above.

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This new folder will contain all the mandatory Surpac field names that the table requires and a folder to add in optional fields and indexes. You must map the fields in your database table to the fields Surpac expects to have if their names are not the same. This process is the same as mapping any other mandatory Surpac table. NOTE: For an interval table, the field samp_id is specified as a mandatory field however you DO NOT need to map this field if your interval table is a geology table. All other fields with an asterisk (*) next to their name MUST be mapped. Connecting to a Database Once the mapping is complete, it will create a *.ddb file in the same directory as the database which is the link which you can now open the database. To open a database either, double click the *.ddb file in the navigator or select DATABASE | OPEN/NEW. A message will be sent to the message window that the database is connected and the symbol below will appear in the status bar at the bottom of the screen.

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TASKS
Now that you understand the structure of the database you can map the surpac.mdb. We can insert new tables within the database, load new data into these tables, report and create sections.
1. Map the surpac_training.mdb database to create surpac_training.ddb 2. Add an interval table called geology with an optional field called lithology to the surpac database. 3. Import geology data into the database from the files geology.txt. 4. Display the drillholes and create colour display styles for lithology and assays 5. Manipulation of the drillholes by: I. II. III. Display lithological codes on the right-hand side. Display assays on the left-hand side. Display colour-filled bar graphs of the gold assays on the left-hand side and offset them 5m.

6. Drillhole Investigation and interrogation I. II. Inquire drillholes Using graphical logs

7. Sectioning by Create E-W sections starting at 7120N to 7600N in steps of 40m. 8. Interpretation and digitizing of sections on screen 9. Flagging an interval table with 3dm intercepts

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USEFUL TOOLBAR ICONS GEOLOGICAL DATABASE


Open Database Close Database Drillhole Display Styles Display Drillholes Complete unextended hole Previous Section Next Section Reverse View Direction Zoom Plane Refresh Drillholes Identify Drillhole Edit Drillhole End Section Mode

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PROCEDURE
1. Map the surpac_training.mdb database to create the surpac_training.ddb map link a. From the database menu, select Map the Database. The following form will be displayed.

b. The database type: browser will also allow you to map to other forms of databases, including paradox or oracle. Select the surpac_training.mdb and select c. This will now create the following *.ddb file, select mapping the database. Next to continue with

Next

The map the database form will now appear. On the left hand side of the form is the source data, or the access database that we are trying to connect to, and on the right hand side are the mandatory and optional tables that surpac is looking for.

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d. If the database has been created with the exact wording (case specific) as discussed in the structure of database section: hole_id y x z max_depth Surpac is automatically able to recognize which fields are to be mapped to which table. If this is not the case, then a * will appear to the right of the table name as shown below:

We will begin with the collar table. Drill down on the collar file on both sides of the form to expose the fields which require mapping

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Now we begin with dragging and dropping the entire collar folder from the source database onto the collar folder from the mapping detail. Now individually map each field within that table, matching the Depth_max with the corresponding max_depth until all of the fields within the collar table are mapped.

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e. Continue this process for the survey folder. We have now mapped all of the mandatory tables. We can now map our optional tables f. The Optional Tables will include the sample, weathering and any other tables such as geology. Drill down on the optional table folder on the mapping detail side of the form to expose the optional tables to map.

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Interval Tables will the sample table (as it is an interval containing a to and from) and the weathering table will map to the point table. Continue this process until all the tables on the source database, have been matched with tables on the mapping detail and then select Finish. You will now be connect to the database surpac_training as shown on the status bar and the file surpac_training.ddb will appear in your directory

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2. Add an interval table called geology with an optional field called lithology to the surpac database. a. First you must connect to the drillhole database. To do this simply click and drag the file surpac_training.ddb from the Navigator to the viewport. You will see in the Status Bar an item appear with the database icon and the name surpac_training. This means you have successfully connected to the database. b. From the Database menu choose Database, Administration, Create table. c. Fill the subsequent forms as follows:

3. Import geology and sample data into the database from the files geology.txt and samples.txt, respectively. d. Make sure you are connected to the drillhole database. See step 2geo.a. e. From the Database menu, choose Database, Import data and fill the subsequent forms as follows:

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This will create a format file which if the structure of the text file being imported remains the same, can be used each time you import data. Select which table you want to insert the data into in this case its the geology table. Review the text file to check the delimiter of the file.

The form below is what links the text file you will use to import the data into the correct fields within the database. Open you text file and determine which column each of the fields reside, then complete the column number.

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f.

Read the Database Load Report to validate the import.

4. Display the drillholes and create colour display styles for lithology and assays a. Display the Database menu

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b.

Display the database icons

c.

Display the Drillholes by selecting DATABASE | DISPLAY | DRILLHOLES

Or use the following icon

a) Rescale view to show drillholes? Click to input a tick mark so that the Graphics window will rescale to show all drillholes. b) Add constraint to drillholes? Click to input a tick mark so that only drillholes in the database that satisfy the constraints that are entered on the Define Query Constraints form once the Draw Holes form is applied. c) Location for legend This allows the user to select the location for the drillhole legend. The positions are left right no legend Display a legend to the left of the screen. Display a legend to the right of the screen. Do not display a legend.

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And apply this form to display the drillholes.

Create colour display styles for the lithology and assays.


a. From the Database menu, choose Display, Drillhole display styles.

Or alternatively click on this Icon b. In the subsequent form, expand the geology folder to find the lithology field. c. Right-hand click on the lithology field and choose Get field codes from the context menu:

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g. This will add ALL 7 unique lithological codes to the list. Expand the lithology folder. h. For each of the 7 lithological codes select, on the right-hand side, a different colour (graphics & plotting). For example: B Yello IN Green MU Blue QV1 Red S2 Orange SH Cyan ST Magenta

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Modify colours of each lithological code here

All unique lithological codes

i. j.

Before applying the form, expand the sample folder to find the gold field. Right-hand click on the gold field and choose Get min max range from the context menu:

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k. This will add one grade range, which consists of the minimum and maximum values found in the gold field. This is just to provide you with a reference of the range of values currently available in that field. l. From the first range created, on the right hand side, change the From Value and To Value to 0 and 2, respectively. m. Choose a colour for this particular grade range. n. Right-hand click again on the gold field and choose Add new style from the context menu. This will add a new range below the previously added range. o. On the right-hand side, change the From Value and To Value to 2 and 4, respectively. p. Choose a colour for this particular grade range. q. Continue adding grade ranges in increments of 2 until you reach 10. For example: 0-2 Cyan 2-4 Orange 4-6 Yellow 6-8 Blue 8-10 Red r. Apply the form to save the styles changes.

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5. Manipulation of the drillholes by: Display lithological codes on the right-hand side. Display assays on the left-hand side. Display colour-filled bar graphs of the gold assays on the left-hand side and offset them 5m. a. Display lithological codes on the right-hand side. 1. From the Database menu, choose Display, Drillholes. 2. Fill the different tabs on the subsequent form as follows:

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I.

Display assays on the left-hand side. s. From the Database menu, choose Display, Drillholes. t. Fill the subsequent form as follows:

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II.

Display colour-filled bar graphs of the gold assays on the left-hand side and offset them 5m. u. From the Database menu, choose Display, Drillholes. v. Fill the subsequent form as follows:

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6. Drillhole Investigation and interrogation I. To display the details of a drillhole select:

Database | Display | Identify Drill Hole

or left click on the Identify Drillhole icon

Hole ID: WRC001, Collar Y: 1682.69, Collar X: 7318.77, Collar Z: 191.48, Depth: 120.00

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II.

To interrogate the drillhole using graphical logs Select Database|Display|Edit Drillhole

Or choose the "Edit drillhole" icon

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To remove charts from the editor

hover the mouse over an interval

Note: This function allows you to edit the drillhole database unless permissions have been set.

7. Sectioning by Create E-W sections starting at 7120N to 7600N in steps of 40m. These are the icons that we will be working with

a. Ensure that the drillholes are displayed onscreen and zoom to data extents b. from the Database menu select Database | Section | Define or select

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Distance forward = the width applied half-way either side of the digitised line to trim away parts of the view Step Distance = The distance between sections how far the cutting planes move when the next and previous functions are used Off Section Holes holes within this distance of the section plane will be considered on the section

Select your section left click and hold mouse button down and drag to point

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Move thru sections by using

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or the Rotate section using mouse and if you wish to go back to the zoom plane select View | zoom | zoom plane OR Database | Sections | Zoom Plane

to select a exaggeration End section mode by selecting the b. From the Database menu, choose Sections, Define. c. Fill the subsequent form as follows:

d. This will create section starting on 7120N to 7600m, every 40m. Notice in the status bar the current drillhole section is displayed. To switch to other sections choose Previous section ( ), and Next section ( ) from the Database, Sections menu. Now you will need to display certain information along the hole traces. In order to do this you will need to define the display styles.

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More advanced cross-sectional viewing


A feature allows the generation of string slices from DTM or 3DM objects and resident block models as well as the Drillhole database. 1. 2. Reset Graphics Add topo, faults and an open pit outline.

topo1.dtm fault1.dtm pit1.dtm

We can section these DTMs and Drillholes 1. Draw the drillholes with trace colours and geology table and sample assays

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We will now define the section we wish to look at but not graphically as we did earlier. 3. Sections >Define.

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Displays the section number

Screen now shows the ore outline, to find out the averaged grade of this outline [or segment as Surpac calls it]. Left click on Sections > Digitised segment grade

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length weighted if you want the segment grade to be calculated as the length weighted average of the sample intervals intersecting the selected segment (eg. a length weighted average of intervals A, B and C in the diagram below). This is useful for calculating the grade of a geologically constrained area.

Select area weighted to calculate segment grade as a polygonal (area weighted) composite of the drillhole samples with an area of influence (ie. the region of space closer to that sample than to any other sample) overlapping the selected segment (eg. the area

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weighted average of the darkly coloured regions in the diagram below). This is useful for calculating the grade of a segment that doesn'intersect a drillhole or to remove the t effect of drillhole "clustering". Where drillholes cross, common sample positions will be given the average grade of the two or more samples at the same location.

Dilute

If there are gaps or negative assay values in the samples along the drill hole trace, you must decide how to treat them. If this checkbox is checked the composited grade is diluted by assuming a value of zero for the blank or negative samples. If this checkbox is left unchecked, the missing or negative samples are completely ignored and the composited grade is not affected

This will calculate the length average for the segment and write this value to the D1 field in the sample table. Select the segment and it will calculate and display in the message window

8. Interpretation and digitizing of sections on screen

REVIEW OF DIGITISING
a. Determine which parts of the drillhole that you wish to be able to select whilst digitizing. To do this, view the Database | Display menu and select Drillhole trace selectable, Label tickmarks selectable, geology patterns selectable.

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b. c.

Review the F1 assist/Esc key for digistising. Review four ways to digistise a point: digistise wherever the cusor sits is where you will get a point point at mouse location (snap off) The digitised point will be appended to the end of the digitiser string select: (snap to a feature)drill hole trace) drill hole or point snap on mid point: select a point, select another point and surpac will determine a mid point. useful when interpolating geological zones from drilling data by following a segment: click and drag along a segment to copy it

Digitising the Ore Outline Beginning with the section 7120, ensure that this section is on screen 1. Select Create | Digitise | Properties

The z-value of the first point will be initialised with either a value of 7120 or if the SELECT mode is chosen, the z-value will be assigned from the drill hole. 2. Create a New Layer by selecting EDIT | LAYER | NEW and then name your layer the same as the ore section you are digitizing

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3. Use the select function to snap to existing points in the drillhole trace. The geology code QPY is magenta colour. Make sure the string is clockwise to give a positive area 4. Use Digitise mode to digitise new points at either end. assigned based on the z-value of the last selected point. 5. Use close segment to close the segment once finished 6. Select digistise end once completed digitizing 7. SAVE your ore outine 8. If desired, you can determine the segment grade as shown in the previous section 9. Complete the ore outlines for each section from 7120 to 7600 northing 10. Create a solid of your ore zone The z-value will be

9. Flagging an interval table with 3dm intercepts Now we have modeled an ore zone for you deposit. We wish carry out some statistical analysis on the data to determine sample populations and to then use the composited data to estimate the block model 1. Create a 3DM for each ore zone to be modelled. This is usually a grade envelope. Use a different object number for each ore envelope. 2. Add a new interval table to your drillhole database. I usually call the table 'intersect' and create a new character field called 'flag'. This table will be used to store drill hole intercepts that pass through the 3DM ore envelopes. Go to Database, Administration, Create Table and fill out the forms as shown below.

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3. Recall the 3DM into Graphics.

4. On the Database Menubar, Go to Analysis, DrillHole 3DM intersection

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Apply through the query constraints Fill out the form as shown below. At the very top of the form is an object pick list. Surpac will list all objects sitting in the active layer. You will have to do each object separately if there are more than one.

Any drill holes that pass through object three will be written to the ' intersect' table. A new layer will also be created to visually show intercepts that pass through the 3DM. (shown below). It is not necessary to save this information. It can be used as a graphics check to ensure an intercept has been generated for all drillholes passing through the 3DM.

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We now have flagged the grade intervals we wish to composite for statistical analysis, compositing and block model filling.

COMPOSITING
Several different ways to composite: Composite by grade

Produces bulked samples of different sample lengths based on width and grade constraints. Composite by geology

Produces composited samples of possibly different sample lengths based on geological constraints. Composite by elevation

Produces composited samples of equal length based on elevation restrictions. Composite downhole

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Produces composited samples of equal length down a set of drill holes. Composite From End Of Hole

Create sample composites by searching up from the end of the hole and maximising one criteria while minimising a second criteria. Of these compositing methods, only Composite by elevation and Composite downhole will produce composited samples of equal length suitable for use in statistical and geostatistical studies.

BENCH ELEVATIONS This function creates one or more string files which contain elevation composites of sample data. It can be weighted by length alone or by other fields in the table containing the sample data and can be used to weight by specific gravity or recovery.

Drill Holes are processed as described below:


All samples, or fractions of samples, of a drill hole which are within the nominated elevations for the composite, are reduced to a single point value. This value has the length weighted average of all samples which intersected the elevation range of interest. If the total vertical length of the samples as a percentage of the vertical height of the elevation bounds of the composite is less than a defined threshold percentage then the hole will be ignored. The reason for this is to give you some control over whether drill holes which only partially intersect the elevation composite are included or excluded from the final result.

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a. b.

Enter a file name Enter the elevation range that you wish to composite

c.

Define the elevation extent and type The Type of extent can be either:

-, to composite samples for the required extent below the nominal elevation +, to composite samples for the required extent above the nominal elevation +-, to composite samples for the required extent above and below the nominal elevation.

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In this example an elevation range of 280, 300, 20 was specified with an extent of 10 and a type of `+-' .

Note: If you choose the +- method you should use an extent which is equal to half the spacing between the required composite elevations since the extent is applied both below and above the nominal elevation. d. Define the output class range to determine to colour the string by grade range for greater impact e. enter the minimum acceptable % of interval If the total vertical length of the samples for a drill hole when expressed as a percentage of the vertical height of the elevation bounds of the composite, is equal to or greater than this threshold percentage then a composite value for the drill hole will be saved. f. Threshold dip for channels Holes which are within this angular tolerance of the horizontal are treated as channel samples, and one composite is extracted per discrete sample from the hole. Note: These composites may not be representative of the same length sample as composites from other, more vertical holes. g.
In certain conditions, sample values for some elements may be missing. If this occurs special sentinel values are usually stored to indicate the absence of meaningful sample data. Generally negative values are stored to indicate the absence of data. There are two ways in which this absence of data may be treated:

Dilute negative samples

Y= the sample will take on an assumed value of 0 (zero) this has the effect of reducing or diluting the final averages. N= the sample will be ignored completely and it will have no effect on the final result.

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Optional weighting fields - Field Name, Default


Typically, additional weighting fields used would be specific gravity and/or recovery. A maximum of 5 additional weighting fields may be used. Enter the field name/s which are to be used to provide the additional weighting criteria for the creation of the composite intervals.

Select the field that you wish to composite

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DOWNHOLE COMPOSITING a) Go to Composite, Downhole and fill out the form as shown.

Apply the form to continue.

Apply the form to continue

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b.

Recall the composite string file into graphics and view the results.

COMPOSITING DOWNHOLE CONSTRAINED BY INTERCEPT TABLE a. Go to Composite, Downhole and fill out the form as shown. Make sure that ' Multiple Zones' has been selected on the form.

Apply the form to continue.

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6. Because ' Multiple Zone' was chosen. Surpac will show the following form. s

This is where we use the flagged intercepts created and stored in the ' Intersect' Table. Surpac will now composite samples that fall inside the intervals stored in this table. b. Recall the composite string file into graphics and view the results.

To display the strings as markers, select from the display menu, strings and points

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Display shows 1m composite string files inside the 3DM. Note the string 2 are the composites which did not meet the criteria.

c.. The Intersect table can be deleted from the drill hole database when finished as it is a sub-set of primary data.

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Compositing Graphical
I. II. III. IV. Create a Graphical Compositing Create a bench composite Create a downhole composite Create a composite of interval data

I.

Graphical Compositing 1. Composite >Setup options

The dilute option means that if the box is ticked any negative values or missing samples will be classed as zero and will therefore dilute any composite you create. If it is not ticked the negative value or missing sample will be ignored and not effect the composite.

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This will display the averaged sample value 1 unit high, as a thick default trace terminated at each end by diamond shaped markers. Composite code labels.

This will display the code labels on the left hand side of the drillhole trace, 1 unit high. The code is a character value suitable for storing in a database table representing an interval. Composite > Create

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Select the first composite point

Select the second composite point

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Now shows the completed composite on the drillhole trace in blue change the alignment and sizes if you wish Change the size and alignment of the composite value so that it is visible. Setup options .

Change the label position and alignment as shown below.

View the calculated grade and the exact depth to and depth. Composite >Edit,

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Select the composite

You can also edit the depths at this point should you wish. You can also edit the created composite in two other ways. 1. Composite | Adjust Length and Select and drag an end point As you move this it also changes the calculated composite 2. Composite | Move and Select and drag an end point the composite length does not change. The the calculated grade changes dynamically. Exercise. Create composites of high grade for the entire cross section. To delete a composite left click on the Delete One composite icon the composite that you wish to delete. , then left click on

Creating a Composite Report


Using the previously created high grade areas we are going to generate a simple report for the cross section we have been working on.

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or use the Report Composites Icon

The Group by Composite code will group all the HG_ORE code composites together, should you have also done some composites for low grade ore, previously in the exercise above these would also have been presented in the report

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OPTIONAL EXERCISE
Grade Control Activity Grade control drilling can also be interpreted in section, then the ore zones sliced in plan to produce flitch bars, these, together with a bench composite file can be re-interpreted in plan and then a grade assigned to the polygon to form a mining bench plan. 1. Display the drillholes and then section, interpreting each ore zone and saving to a separate file. A good naming convention is to ensure that the suffix of the file contains the section name, ie sec7200.str 2. Save all the section into one file. An easy way to do this is to select FILE | OPEN and nominate the ore sections and the range, dont forget to specify the append which will place it all in one layer. Now that all the files are in the same layer, save the files, creating a new file name.

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3. Ensure that all the ore polygons are clockwise and closed, with no duplicate points. Use the edit layer clean function to check for duplicate points and closure, the Identify Segment to check for string direction or the file tools | string summary to report the string directions within the file. 4. The ore zones where digitized in real world co-ordinates. To do any further calculations on this file, we need to flip it into sectional co-ordinates. This can be done easily using the edit | layer | maths function, to convert the Y field to the Z field, and the Z field to the Y field. The diagram below shows the sections as digitized in real world co-ordinates.

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This is shown with a 3D grid over the file, below is the file in plan view

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And section view

Using the layer maths function, complete the form as shown below:

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Now the file in plan view is shown below. Compare this with the plan view screen capture taken above.

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This is in section view. The result of swapping the Y and Z fields is that the Y field (which was the northing) has now become the elevation, and the Z field (which was the rl) has now become the northing. 5.

Create flitch bars

Once the ore section files have been converted to sectional co-ordinates and are cleaned, we can slice them in plan to obtain flitch bars to indicate where the ore lies in section. This can help us when we do our interpretation in plan, as it indicates where the ore zone lies. To do this, select: FILE TOOLS | SLICES THROUGH SECTIONS

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6. Open the corresponding flitch bar file and bench composite file, we now have all the details on screen to begin to digitize in plan view.

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7.

Create ore blocks in plan view a. b. c. Create a new layer and name it bench110 Set the digitizer properties to Z= 110 (or the rl required) Digitise the oreblocks in plan view saving the file as orebench110.str

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8.

To calculate the grade of the bench polygon, select FILE TOOLS | CALCULATE GRADE IN POLYGONS

This outputs the grade results to the message window and also creates a new file ore_blocks110.str. View this file in graphics to validate the ore grade.

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VERTICAL SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING


The output from VERTICAL SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING is a series of string files containing the selected information for holes that match the hole selection criteria. There will be one string file for each section you have selected, with a location name that you have specified and an ID number equal to each section value. The structure of each string file is such that you can set up permanent map definitions in the PLOTTING menu which refer to the specific string numbers in which the selected information is stored. A summary of the string numbers output for each string file is given below: String 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 Description Hole trace for holes entirely within extraction limits. Hole trace for holes which start outside the extraction limits, but finish inside the extraction limits. Hole trace for holes which start inside the extraction limits but finish outside the extraction limits. Hole trace for holes that start and finish outside the extraction limits. Top, bottom and down hole survey depths with survey data stored in the D fields. The point at which the hole trace crosses the extraction plane. The first interval sample grade range string, for the first sample table, with different elements stored in the D fields in the order in which they were selected (second table = 111, third = 211 etc). The second and subsequent interval sample grade range strings, for the first sample table with different elements stored in the D fields in the order in which they were selected ( second table = 112, third = 212 etc). The interval sample bar graph strings for the first selected element (or the first sample table), with the grade range in the D field (second table = 121, third = 221 etc). The interval sample bar graph strings for the second and subsequent selected elements, for the first sample table with the grade range in the D field (second table = 122, third = 222 etc). The interval bulked sample string for the first selected element, for the first sample table (second table = 131, third = 231 etc) The interval bulked assay strings for the second and subsequent selected elements, for the first sample table (second table = 132, third = 232 etc). The first point sample grade range string with different elements stored in the D fields for the first sample table, in the order in which they were selected (second table = 141, third = 241 etc). The second and subsequent interval sample grade range strings with different elements stored in the D fields for the first sample table in the order in which they were selected (second table = 142, third = 242 etc).

12

21

22

31 32

41

42

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51 52

The line graph string for the first selected element, in the order in which they were selected (second table = 151, third = 251 etc). The line graph string for the second and subsequent selected elements, in the order in which they were selected (second table = 152, third = 252 etc). The literal geology string for the first sample table with the different geology fields stored in the D fields in the order in which they were selected (second table = 170, third = 270 etc). The symbolic geology box strings for each geology field that has been selected with the literal geology codes in the D field, in the order in which they were selected (second table = 171, third = 271 etc). Geology trace for each geology field for the drill hole display module.

70

71 81 90

Strings 1 to 4 contain the drill hole trace strings for all of the holes extracted for plotting. Only the portion of the hole which lies within the extraction limits is extracted, so that special plot entities can be used to correctly display those holes which enter or leave the extraction limits.

The number of points defining the drill hole trace is determined by the answer to the question Downhole datapoint interval given in the EXTRACT SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING form. If you entered a value for Interval for plotting depths in the same form, the downhole depths will be stored in the D field of the drill hole trace string. String 5 contains at least two points for each drill hole that has met the selection criteria. These points are for the top of the hole or the position where the hole enters the extraction limits, and the bottom of the hole or the position where the hole leaves the extraction limits. Each point in this string will have the following information stored in the D fields: D1 hole_id D2 depth D3 dip D4 azimuth

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String 6 will contain one point for each drill hole that intersects the section plane. If a drill hole does not intersect the section plane, such as a vertical drill hole, then no point will be stored for that hole. Strings 11 to 20 will contain interval assay data for the selected elements, with each string representing a different grade range. If you answered `Y' the prompt Process each element to separately in the EXTRACT SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING form, then String 11 will contain all the values for each selected element in the first grade range for each individual element, String 12 will contain all the values for each selected element in the second grade range for each individual element, and so on. If you answered `N' the prompt Process each element separately in the to EXTRACT SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING form, then String 11 will contain the values for each selected element in the first grade range of the first selected element. The second and subsequent selected elements for the samples in this string will be stored in this string regardless of their own value. String 12 will contain the values for each selected element in the second grade range of the first selected element, and so on. The actual data point stored for each of these strings represents the end point of the selected sample. Strings 21 to 30 will contain bar graphs for selected elements, with one string number used for each selected element. These bar graph strings are closed segment boxes with the grade range number for each box stored in the D field so that fill entities can be applied when using the plotting module. Strings 31 to 40 will contain the bulked sample data with one string number for each selected element. The bulked grades and lengths are stored in the D field at the point at the end of the bulked interval in the form `10m @ 25' . Strings 41 to 50 will contain point sample data for the selected elements, with each string representing a different grade range. If you answered `Y' the prompt Process each element to separately in the EXTRACT SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING form, then String 41 will contain all the values for each selected element in the first grade range for each individual element, String 42 will contain all the values for each selected element in the second grade range for each individual element, and so on. If you answered `N' the prompt Process each to element separately in the EXTRACT SECTIONS FOR PLOTTING form, then String 41 will contain the values for each selected element in the first grade range of the first selected element. The second and subsequent selected elements for the samples in this string will be stored in this string regardless of their own value. String 42 will contain the values for each selected element in the second grade range of the first selected element, and so on. Strings 51 to 60 will contain line graphs for selected elements, with one string number used for each selected element. If the line graphs are created from interval sample data then the graph points are located half way along each sample length. String 70 will contain the literal geology codes with selected geology fields stored in individual D fields. The actual data point stored for each of these strings represents the end point of the selected sample. Strings 71 to 80 will contain the closed box segments for plotting symbolic geology, with one string number for each selected symbolic geology field. A closed box segment is created for each geological code, with the literal geology code stored in the D field so that fill entities can be used in the plotting module. The boxes will be offset from the drill hole trace by the box thickness.

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String 91 contains the dipmeter values with each dipmeter reading stored in a point down the drill hole trace. The dip, azimuth and quality values are each stored in the D1, D2 and D3 fields of each point for plotting. String 92 contains the actual dipmeter line segments as defined on the DEFINE DIPMETER DATA form with the dip, azimuth and quality value stored in the D1, D2 and D3 fields. These can be plotted out using a line entity.

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SETTING UP A MAP ENTITY FOR PLOTTING


There is a template set up DH section which you can copy to create a new entity which can then be edited as shown below

copy and paste between fields using the right click mouse or control c and then use the down arrow to move and control v to paste fields down To colour the geology boxes add your codes to the pattern lookup table by going to Plotting, Plotting colours, Pattern look up file properties.

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This will allow string 71, the geology boxes to be colour coded when plotted. The geology code is stored in the D1 field. Surpac reads the above table, and if there is a matching code the geology box is plotted out using the selected hatch pattern ad colour.

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One useful way to do batch plotting is to use a procedure. All you have to know is the simple structure of the procedure and how to insert a variable in to a macro. Always have a clear plan of what steps you need to do when recordsing a macro. The first step to creating any batch plotting is to record the steps in a macro and then edit the macro so it can loop, or repeat the steps to do multiple plots. The template of the steps are as follows. 2. Plotting, Map, Edit. This must be done so the next section string files can be inserted in to the Map definition. 3. Plotting, Process map. Make sure the Plot parameters form has display plot ticked. 4. (In the plotting Window), File, Save. Save the plot file as a meaningful name, something crazy like sec7000.pf

5. Close the plotting Window.


6. Delete the *.cf , *.par and he old plot file name.

Do some housekeeping and delete the files created when a plot file *.pf is created. Type in EXEC, Surpac will auto-finish the function name. Hit the enter key to present the form. If the map name was SECTION, the files created will be sectio*.pf, sectio*.cf and sectio*.par ON the form type: Del sectio*.pf, sectio*.cf, sectio*.par This will delete from the current working directory all the files, except for the renamed file, created by the Process Map function.
7. Stop recording the macro.

Now the macro can be edited and set up sing a procedure to do multiple plots! proc secplot { northing } { ##################### # body of plotting macro.

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#substitute the section number with the variable, $northing in all the plotting forms. ###################### } puts Finished plotting $northing.

# List all the sections to plot here # procedure name section secplot 7120 secplot 7160 secplot 7200

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