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ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

LI M U
Trong nhng nm gn y, cng ngh truyn thng quang c
nhng bc tin vng chc, c minh ha bi nhu cu ngy cng tng ca
cc dch v. Cc nh nghin cu thit k h thng quang v mng nhn thy
bn thn chng l nhu cu trng tn lm tng thm dung lng v
truyn thng ng di. Tt nhin c mt s cnh tranh mnh m gia h
thng tuyn tnh v phi tuyn. Lp cc h thng truyn dn tuyn tnh NRZ-
IM/DD kt hp vi cng ngh WDM bao trm trn mt din rng cc ng
dng, bao gm cc khong cch truyn dn ln n 10000km, v cc tc
ln n 100Gb/s. Nhng h thng ny hin ti hot ng ph bin, nhng
ni chung b hn ch n tc 2,5-5 Gb/s mi knh trong cc truyn dn
ng di. Mt s lng ln cc sng mang quang sau c th c yu
cu to ra tc 100Gb/s. Mt khc cc h thng phi tuyn RZ, tc l
cc h thng soliton c khuych i t n chn c th xem xt,
chnh v th l mt s la chn ng n i vi truyn thng dung lng
cao. Trong truyn thng ng di mi knh h thng RZ phi tuyn c th
h tr cc tc ln n 10Gb/s.
Mc d ang c mt cc cng ngh hon ho cc h thng soliton c
khuych i vn cha c trin khai ph bin. L do chnh l trong cc
soliton chu nh hng Gordon-Haus kht khe, kt qu t s trn ln tn
hiu v nhiu s pht x t pht t pht to ra bi cc b khuych i
EDFA c s dng b suy hao si quang. S trn ln tn hiu v nhiu
to ra mt s jitter trn cc rng xung, chnh v th hn ch dung lng
cc soliton c khuych i.
Vic nghin cu h thng truyn thng quang c ra trn nhiu kha
1
cnh. Trong phn trnh by ca n em tp trung vo cc vn c bn
nht ca h thng soliton, yu t jitter nh hng n h thng soliton n
knh v a knh.
Mc d ht sc c gng nhng chc chn trong phm vi n ny
cha th hon chnh cc vn nu ra. Em rt mong s ng gp kin ca
cc thy c gio, cc bn sinh vin v cc bn c quan tm n vn
ny.
Em xin c gi ti Thy gio Thc s Nguyn c Nhn hng
dn, ch bo tn tnh, gip em hon thnh bn n ny. Xin gi li cm
n ti gia nh Gia nh, thy c gio, nhng ngi thn ht sc to iu
kin, ng vin, gip em trong thi gian lm n.

1
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 1
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton



H Ni, ngy 25 thng 10 nm 2005
Sinh vin
inh S Thc Ch


CHNG I
HIU NG QUANG PHI TUYN
1.1. Gii thiu chung
Cc h thng thng tin quang hin nay ang khai thc trn mng li
vin thng u s dng cc si quang truyn dn trong mi trng tuyn
tnh m cc tham s si khng ph thuc vo cng sut quang.
Hiu ng phi tuyn si xut hin khi tc d liu, chiu di truyn
dn, s bc sng v cng sut quang tng ln. Cc hiu ng phi tuyn ny
c nh hng trc tip ti cht lng truyn dn ca h thng v thm
ch tr nn quan trng hn v s pht trin ca b khuch i quang si
EDFA cng vi s pht trin ca cc h thng ghp knh phn chia theo
bc sng WDM. Vi vic tng hiu qu truyn thng tin m c th c
lm bng vic tng tc bit, gim khong cch gia cc knh hoc kt hp
c hai phng php trn, cc nh hng ca phi tuyn si tr nn ng vai
tr quyt nh hn.
Mc d cng sut ring ca mi knh c th thp di mc cn thit
xut hin tnh phi tuyn, tng cng sut ca tt c cc knh c th nhanh
chng tr nn ln. S kt hp ca tng cng sut quang cao v mt s
ln cc knh cc bc sng gn nhau th l tng cho nhiu loi hiu ng
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Cng sut quang
2
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
phi tuyn. Vi tt c l do ny cho thy tm quan trng ca vic hiu cc
hiu ng phi tuyn.
Cc hiu ng phi tuyn ny bao gm: tn x Raman kch thch (SRS:
simulated Raman scattering), tn x Brillouin kch thich (SBS: simulated
Brillouin scattering), hiu ng trn 4 sng (four-wave mixing), iu ch
cho pha (XPM: cross-phase modulation), t iu ch pha (SPM: self-phase
modulation). Mi hiu ng phi tuyn ty tng trng hp c th c li hoc
c hi. Chng hn XPM v FWM th bt li cho h thng a knh WDM.
SPM v XPM gy ra s m rng ph trong cc xung quang m sau tng
tc vi tn sc si. iu ny c th c li hoc c hi cho h thng truyn
thng quang ty thuc vo tn sc thng hay d thng.
Nh vy, vic nm r cc hiu ng phi tuyn ny l rt cn thit c
th hn ch cc nh hng khng c li ca n v ti u ha trong vic thit
k h thng truyn dn quang.
1.2. Nguyn nhn gy ra hiu ng phi tuyn quang
Hiu ng phi tuyn quang xut hin khi cng sut quang pht trn
ng truyn tng dn n mc no . Nguyn nhn l do hai yu t:
- Th nht l s ph thuc ca ch s chit sut n vo cng sut nh
sng :

eff
A
P
n n n .
2 0
+
(1.1)

Trong : n0 l ch s chit sut tuyn tnh (ch s chit sut trong
mi trng tuyn tnh cng thp).
n
2
l ch s chit sut phi tuyn. Gi tr in hnh ca n
2

trong thy tinh silic l 3,2.10
20
m
2
/ W v khng ph thuc
vo bc sng.
S di y m t mi quan h gia ch s chit sut v cng sut quang:
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Cng sut quang
3
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 1.1. S ph thuc ca chit sut si silica vo cng sut quang

Ta nhn thy s thay i chit sut tng i nh song n li rt quan
trng v chiu di tng tc trong si quang thc t c th ln ti hng trm
kilmt v s bin i ny gy ra cc hiu ng XPM, SPM, FWM.
- Th hai l do cc hin tng tn x kch thch nh: SRS, SBS.
1.3 Tn x nh sng kch thch SRS v SBS
1.3.1 Tn x Raman kch thch SRS
SRS l mt loi ca tn x khng n hi (tn x m tn s nh sng
pht ra b dch xung). Ta c th hiu y l mt loi tn x ca mt photon
ti photon nng lng thp hn sao cho nng lng khc xut hin di
dng mt phonon. Qu trnh tn x gy ra suy hao cng sut tn s ti v
thit lp mt c ch suy hao cho si quang. mc cng sut thp, thit din
tn x phi nh suy hao l khng ng k.
mc cng sut cao, hin tng phi tuyn SRS xy ra nn cn xem
xt n suy hao si. Cng nh sng s tng theo hm m mi khi cng
sut quang vt qu gii hn nht nh. Gi tr ngng ny c tnh ton
da trn vic cng nh sng tng nh th no so vi tp m v c
nh ngha l cng sut ti ti ni na cng sut b mt bi SRS cui u
ra si di L v c m phng nh sau [2]:

g
R
.P
th
.Leff /A

eff 16 (1.2)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Cng sut quang
1.47006
1.47005
1.47004
1.47003
1.47002
1.47001
1.47000
4
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

Trong : gR l gi tr nh ca h s khuych i Raman.
Aeff l din tch hiu dng
Leff l chiu di tng tc hiu dng
Leff = (1-e
L
)/

(1.3)
Vi

l suy hao si.


Trong h thng truyn thng quang thc t, si quang di Leff
/ 1 . Nu thay A
eff
=
2
, vi

l kch thc im
=> P
th
R R eff
g g L
) ( 16
.
) ( 16
2 2


(1.4)
H s khuych i Raman g
R


1.10
13

m/W vi si silica gn vng
bc sng 1
m
v t l nghch vi bc sng.
Nu ta thay th
2
=50
2
m
v

=0,2dB/Km, P
th

370mW gn vng
1,55

m. V cng sut t trong si quang thng nh (di 10mW) nn tn


x Raman kch thch (SRS) khng gy hi nhiu ti suy hao si.
n mt ch x
1.3.2 Tn x Brillouin kch thch (SBS)
Cng ging vi SRS,SBS l mt loi ca tn x khng n hi v c hai
rt ging nhau v ngun gc ca chng. im khc nhau chnh l cc
phonon quang tham gia trong tn x Raman cn tn x Brillouin c cc
phonon m thanh tham gia. Mi quan h tn sc khc nhau vi cc phonon
quang v cc phonon m thanh dn n vi im khc nhau c bn gia
chng. l hiu ng SBS trong si mt ch xy ra theo hng ngc cn
SRS chim u th trong hng i.
Mc cng sut ngng ca SBS cng c tnh tng t nh sau:
g
B
.P
th
.L
eff
/A
eff

21 (1.5)
Trong : g
B
l gi tr nh ca h s khuych i Brillouin
Thay L
eff

1/

, A
eff
2

=>
P
th B
g / ) ( 21
2

(1.6)
H s khuych i Brillouin g
B

5.10 /
11
m

W vi si silica ln gp
hng trm ln h s khuych i Raman. Suy ra P
th

1mW, vi cng iu
kin gn bc sng 1,55

m, ni suy hao si nh nht.


R rng, SBS thit lp mt gii hn trn i vi cng sut quang v gi
tr ngng ca n thp. Khi cng sut quang vt qu ngng, mt phn ln
nh sng pht s truyn li b pht. Do , SBS gy ra s bo ha cng
sut quang trong my thu, ng thi cng lm xut hin s phn x ngc
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 5
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ca tn hiu quang, v nhiu lm gim t l BER. Nh vy vic iu khin
SBS trong h thng truyn dn tc cao l khng th thiu.
Hin tng phn x ngc tng t nh hiu ng ca cch t Bragg v
nh sng tn x ngc cng tng khi cng sut quang vt qu gi tr
ngng cng tng
Hnh 1.2. S tng nh sng tn x ngc khi cng sut quang tng.
Vic tnh ton P
th
trn khng tnh n nh hng ca rng ph
kt hp vi nh sng ti. V ph khuych i cho si silica rt hp
(<100MHz), cng sut ngng c th tng n 10mW hoc hn bng vic
tng trc bng tn khuych i ti 200-400MHz qua s iu ch pha. Bi
vy, SBS gii hn mc cng sut t di 100mW trong hu ht cc h
thng truyn thng quang.
Tm li: C SRS v SBS c th c s dng ci tin trong thit
k h thng truyn thng quang v chng c th khuych i mt trng
quang bng vic truyn nng lng ti n t mt trng bm vi bc sng
c chn thch hp. SRS c bit c ch v mt bng tn cc ln (~10THz)
kt hp vi dng ph khuych i Raman ca silica. C SRS v SBS u c
th s dng lm b khuych i Raman si v khuych i brillouin si
tng ng.
1.4 T iu ch pha SPM (self-phase modulation) v iu ch cho
pha XPM (cross-phase modulation)
1.4.1. T iu ch pha SPM
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
s gim
cng sut
thu c
s tng
tn x
Cng
sut
quang
thu
c
Cng
sut
quang
tn x
ngc
ngng SBS
Cng sut u ra b pht quang
6
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
S ph thuc ca ch s chit sut n vo cng trng ca sng nh
sng c gi l hiu ng Kerr quang, trong ton b cc trng tham gia
vo tng tc phi tuyn cng mt tn s. Ch s chit sut bin i nh
sau [2]:
n
,
j = n j + n 2
.
eff
A
P
vi j=1,2 (1.7)
Trong : n
,
1
, n
,
2
l chit sut li v v.
n 2
l h s chit sut phi tuyn.
n
j
l ch s chit sut tuyn tnh
n 2
/ 10 . 3
2 20
m

W vi si silica
H s truyn dn phi tuyn [2]:

P
A
P
n
A
P
n
n n
c
n
eff
eff
j j j
.
2
2
2 .
. 2 .
2
2
' '
'

+ +
+
(1.8)
Vi
/
2
2
n


A
eff
l hng s truyn dn phi tuyn.
Pha kt hp vi mode si tng tuyn tnh theo z, nh hng ca chit
sut phi tuyn dn n mt s dch pha phi tuyn l:


eff in
L
in
L z
in
z
in
L L
NL
L P e P e P
dz e P dz z P dz
. . ) 1 (
1
. . | .
1
. .
. . ) ( . ) (
0
0 0
'


(1.9)
P
in
gi thit l khng i. Thc t s ph thuc ca P
in
vo thi gian
lm cho NL

thay i theo thi gian dn n mt s dch chuyn tn s m


tng bc nh hng ti hnh dng xung qua GVD. gim nh hng ca
chit sut phi tuyn th dch pha phi tuyn cn tha mn iu kin NL

<<1. T c th suy ra iu kin ngng ca cng sut quang:



<< > <<


.
1
1 . . .
eff
in eff in in
L
P L P P
(1.10)
Vi 2 , 046 . 0 / 2 . 0
1


Km Km dB W
1 1
.

Km , ta c:
P
in
<<
023 . 0
2
046 . 0

W= 23mW
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 7
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
R rng s ph thuc chit sut vo cng sut quang l mt yu t
gii hn vi h thng truyn thng quang. Hin tng phi tuyn tng ng
vi gii hn ny c gi l t iu ch pha SPM v dch pha NL

c
cm ng bi chnh trng quang. SPM tng tc vi tn sc sc th trong
si thay i tc m rng xung khi n lan truyn trong si quang. Khi
tn sc sc th trong si quang cng tng nh hng ca SPM cng ln. N
dn n vic thay i cc thnh phn trong xung quang. Hiu ng ny c th
xem nh l c ch chirp phi tuyn, tn s hoc bc sng ca nh sng trong
mt xung c th b chirp khng ch n gin do c tnh ni ti ca ngun
pht m cn do tng tc phi tuyn vi mi trng truyn dn ca si. iu
ny dn n s dch cc sn xung, xung ln b dch v pha bc sng di
hn v xung xung b dch v pha bc sng ngn hn v dn ti mt s
dch tn trn mi sn xung m tng tc vi tn sc si m rng xung.

Hnh 1.3. nh hng ca hiu ng SPM trn xung
1.4.2 iu ch cho pha (XPM)
S ph thuc ca ch s chit sut vo cng trng ca sng nh
sng c th cng dn n hin tng phi tuyn c bit l iu ch cho
pha. N ch xut hin trong h thng a knh v xy ra khi hai hay nhiu
knh c truyn ng thi trong si s dng cc tn s sng mang khc
nhau. dch pha phi tuyn cho mt knh ring khng ph thuc vo ch s
chit sut ca knh khc. dch pha cho knh j l [2]:

,
_

M
j m
m j eff
NL
j
P P L 2 .
(1.11)
Trong : M l tng s knh
P
j
l cng sut knh j (j= M , 1 ).
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
S dch
xung
Xung b m rng
khi lan truyn trong
si
Chirp tn s
Xung pht
Tn s
8
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
H s 2 ch ra rng XPM nh hng bng 2 ln SPM vi cng cng
sut. dch pha tng by gi ph thuc vo tt c cc knh v c th thay
i tng bit ph thuc vo kiu bit ca knh ln cn.
Nu ta gi s cng sut cc knh bng nhau, dch pha trong trng
hp xu nht khi tt c cc knh truyn ng thi tt c cc bit 1 l:

( )
j
NL
j
P M 1 2

(1.12)

<<
NL
j

1 => P
j
<1 (mW) ngay c vi M=10 nu chng ta s dng
gi tr

vng =1,55
m
. R rng XPM c th l nhn t gii hn
cng sut chnh.
Tm li: Vi nhng xung quang rng tng i (>100ps), nh hng
ca tn sc khng ng k. Vi nhng xung quang ngn hn, nh hng ca
tn sc v phi tuyn hot ng cng nhau trn xung dn n nhiu c tnh
mi. C th s m rng xung quang do tn sc c gim nhiu vi s c
mt ca SPM v GVD d thng. Thc t mt xung quang c th lan truyn
khng mo nu cng sut nh ca chng c la chn tng ng vi
Soliton c bn. Solition v truyn thng trn c s Soliton s c tho lun
trong chng sau.
1.5 Hiu ng trn 4 sng (FWM: four-wave mixing)
S ph thuc ca ch s chit sut vo cng c gc ca n trong
cm phi tuyn bc 3 c biu hin bi
) 3 (

. Hin tng phi tuyn khc


c bit t s trn 4 sng (FWM) cng xut pht t gi tr hu hn ca
) 3 (


trong si thy tinh [2]. Nu 3 trng quang vi tn s sng mang 3 2 1
, ,

lan truyn ng thi trong si,
) 3 (

to ra trng th t m tn s
4

ca n
lin quan vi cc tn s qua cng thc:
4

= 3 2 1
t t
.
V nguyn l s xut hin nhiu tn s tng ng vi cc s kt hp
khc nhau ca cc du +, -. Tuy nhin trong thc t hu ht s kt hp ca
chng khng xy dng c yu cu thch ng pha. S kt hp ca dng
3 2 1 4
+
l gy rc ri nht cho h thng truyn thng quang a knh
v chng c th gn vi pha c thch ng khi bc sng nm vng tn
sc bng 0.
Hai yu t nh hng mnh m ti hiu nng trn l:
- u tin l khong cch knh. Hiu nng trn s tng mnh m khi
khong cch knh tr nn gn hn.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 9
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
- Th hai l tn sc si. Hiu nng trn t l nghch vi tn sc si v
ln nht vng tn sc bng khng v khi cc sn phm trn
khng mong mun s di chuyn cng tc . Do vy trong thc t,
cc si dch tn sc thng c thit k c tn sc d bc
sng vn hnh nhm loi b nh hng ca FWM.
Hnh v sau m t hiu nng trn 4 sng trong si n mode.

Hnh 1.5. Hiu nng trn sng vi cc mc khong cch khc
nhau theo khong cch knh
mc c bn, mt qu trnh FWM c th xem nh mt qu trnh tn x
m hai photon nng lng
1

v
2

to ra 2 photon nng lng 3

v
4

. iu kin thch ng pha bt u t yu cu duy tr ng lng. Qu
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
Tn sc si
0ps/nm/km
Tn sc si
1ps/nm/km
Tn sc si
17ps/nm/km
Hiu
nng
trn
10
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50
Khong cch knh (nm)
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
trnh FWM cng c th xy ra khi hai phonon bt u suy bin (
2 1

),
v vy 3 1 4
. 2
.
FWM khng nh hng n h thng sng nh sng n knh nhng li
tr nn quan trng vi cc h thng a knh m s dng ghp knh phn
chia theo bc sng WDM (wavelength division multiplexing ). Mt lng
cng sut ln ca knh c th c truyn ti knh ln cn qua FWM. S
truyn nng lng nh vy khng ch lm suy hao cng sut cho mt knh
ring m cn dn n xuyn m gia cc knh, lm gim hiu nng h thng
quang. Tuy nhin, hiu ng FWM cng c ch vi cc h thng sng nh
sng. N c s dng gii ghp knh khi ghp knh phn chia theo thi
gian c s dng trong min quang. T nhng nm 1933, FWM c
s dng to tn hiu ngc ph qua qu trnh phn chia pha quang
(optical phase conjugation)- mt trong cc k thut s dng cho s b tn
sc v c th ci tin hiu nng ca h thng nh sng c hn ch tn sc.
1.6 Kt lun
S thay i chit sut theo cng sut quang gy ra mt s nh hng
phi tuyn nh SPM m cho php tn ti trong mt h thng truyn thng
quang n knh; hoc XPM v FWM trong h thng a knh WDM. SPM
v XPM gy ra s m rng xung quang m sau tng tc vi tn sc si.
iu ny c th c l hoc c hi ty thuc vo tn sc bnh thng hay d
thng.
Khi 2 hoc nhiu bc sng lan truyn dc theo 1 si quang, FWM l
nguyn nhn pht sinh tn s mi. nh hng ny c bit c hi cho h
thng WDM m mi knh c bc sng ca n v bt c tn hiu no c
to ra bc sng s xut hin nh l nhiu, lm gim hiu nng thc
hin.
Tt c cc hiu ng ny u c nhng u khuyt im ring, yu cu
ngi thit k h thng phi thc c iu ny c th a ra cc
phng php ti u gim thiu nh hng ca hiu ng phi tuyn quang.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 11
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
CHNG II
M T TON HC V CC PHNG PHP M PHNG
QU TRNH TRUYN DN XUNG QUANG SI N MODE
2.1 M t ton hc qu trnh truyn dn xung quang trong si n
mode
Qu trnh lan truyn sng quang trong cc si n mode c xc nh
qua h phng trnh Maxell:

) , ( ) , ( t r B
t
t r E


(1)

) , ( ) , ( t r D
t
t r H


(2)
0 ) , ( t r D

(3)
0 ) , ( t r B

(4)
H E

, l cc vect in trng v t trng tng ng v B D

, l mt
thng lng in v t.
Mt thng lng in v trng lin h vi nhau bi cc h thc:

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
0
t r P t r E t r E t r D

+
(5)

) , ( ) , (
0
t r H t r B


(6)
0

- Hng s in mi chn khng


inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 12
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

- Hng s in mi ca mi trng
0

- t thm chn khng


) , ( t r P

- Vect phn cc in ca mi trng (m men lng cc trn


mt n v th tch)
Quan h gia P E

, c xc nh bng hm mt in cm:


' ' '
0
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( dt t r E t t r t r P
e L


(7)
Trong mi trng tuyn tnh, ng nht v ng hng, tenx cm
in c xc nh bi tch mt ma trn v hng v ma trn n v. gii
thch tnh phi tuyn ca si quang, vect phn cc in c th c vit
dng khai trin chui ly tha theo cng in trng:

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ... ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
t r P t r P t r P t r P t r P t r P
NL L
n

+ + + +
(8)
(n

)
Phng trnh (8) ng trong vng bc sng t 0,5-2
m
, trong vng ny
tn s ca in trng khc xa vi cng hng mi trng. V vt liu thy
tinh khng pha tp c i xng tm nn tt c cc phn cc c bc chn u
bng 0. Cc thnh phn cao hn (n>3) bc l, v nguyn tc l v cng yu
v c th b qua. Nh vy, tt c cc hiu ng phi tuyn lin quan u sinh
ra t s hng phn cc bc 3.


+


3 2 1 3 2 1
) 3 (
0
) 3 (
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , , ( ) , ( ) , ( dt dt dt t r E t r E t r E t t t t t t t r P t r P
NL


(9)
N c c trng bi cm ng bc 3 l mt tenx hng 4 c 81 phn
t. i vi cc qu trnh cng hng cch x mi trng, c tnh cng
hng ca vt liu si quang gim s lng cc phn t tenx xung cn
mt. Cc phng trnh t (2.1)-(2.5) c th c swr dng thu c
phng trnh c bn xc nh qu trnh lan truyn xung trong cc si quang
tn sc phi tuyn:
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0 0
2
t r P
t
t r P
t
t r E
t
t r E
NL L

+ (10)

2
0 0
/ 1 c
Vc t phn cc phi tuyn, P(
t r,

) l gii v cc bc x nh sng ti cc
tn s c th khc vi cc tn s ca cc sng ti ban u v c th truyn
theo cc chu khc nhau. Vc t in trng trong (10) c trng cho vect
tng bng tng cc vect in trng cc sng i ti v cc sng c phn
ra bi phn cc. Trong h ta cc, ) , ( t r E

c xc nh di dng:
) , ( t r E

= z z y y x x
e t r E e t r E e t r E

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( + +
(11)
y
) , ( t r E
x


) , ( t r E
y


) , ( t r E
z

l cc trng vect thnh phn v z y x
e e e

, ,

l cc vc t n v theo trc x,y,z tng ng. Mi thnh phn vect c
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 13
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
trng nh mt tng theo tt c cc tn s v cho chiu lan truyn. V mi
thnh phn c th cha mt s s hng cc tn s khc nhau, nn phn t
tenx
) 3 (

phi c nh gi i vi mi tn s c mt trong khai trin


vect trng. Nu vect phn cc c xc nh r, n s c thay vo
phng trnh sng (10). i vi trng hp ny thng thng c tch ra
thnh mt tp cc phng trnh ghp cp m t trng nh l mt hm
ca thi gian v khong cch.
Trong trng hp sng nh sng phn cc theo trc x v lan truyn theo
chiu z, in trng c th c vit di dng:
) , ( t r E

+ c c z j t j t z A y x F e . ) ) ( 2 exp( ) , (
2
1
) , (
0

(12)
Trong A(z,t) l lp v trng, 0

l tn s sng mang quang,


) (
xc nh hng s lan truyn mode v

c c. l s hng lin hp phc.


Gi s rng:
*
NL
P

c coi nh l s nhiu lon nh i vi


L
P

* Vect phn cc trng c duy tr dc theo si quang,


* ph ca in trng c tm ti tn s f
0
v c rng ph 0
f f >>
* lch chit sut gia li v v l nh (gn ng dn sng yu), v
s dng php gn ng lp v trng bin i chm i vi phng
trnh (10) ta c:


) , ( ) , ( ) , (
6
) , (
2
) , (
2
) , (
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
t z A t z A j t z A
T
t z A
T
j t z A t z A
z



) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 2
0
t z A t z A
T
T j t z A t z A
T
R

(13)
y 3 2
,
l cc s hng bc 2,3 trong khai trin chui Taylor ca
hng s truyn mode quanh tn s sng mang 0

tng ng.
T
R
l dc khuych i Raman ( khuych i Raman bin i
tuyn tnh theo tn s ln cn tn s sng mang )
T
R
=

0
' ' '
) ( dt t R t
(14)
R(t)-Hm p ng phi tuyn
R(t)=
) ( ) ( ) 1 ( t h f t f
R R R
+
(15)
f
R
c trng cho t phn ng ghp ca p ng Raman tr b nh hng
bi hm
) (t h
R

) (t
- hm delta
Hm p ng Raman c th thu c t ph khuych i Raman g
R
(

)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 14
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

[ ] ) (
~
Im ) (
) 3 (
0
0


R R R
h f
cn
g
(16)
Trong 0

v Im l phn o, phn thc ca ) (
~

R
h c th thu
c t phn o bng h thc Kramers-Kronig. Khai trin Fourier ) (
~

R
h
cho ta hm p ng Raman h(t), dng gii tch gn ng ca hm p ng h-
R
(t) c dng:

) / sin( ) / exp( ) (
1 2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1



t t t h
R

+

(17)

2 1
,
- Cc hng s thi gian Raman, c chn fit ng ph khuych
i Raman thc.
Phng trnh (13) c chun ha v mt thi gian bng vic s dng
mt khung chun dch chuyn theo xung vn tc nhm v
g,
nn y T=t-
z/v
g
.
H s phi tuyn c xc nh:

) (
8
3
) 3 ( 0


eff
cnA


(18)

) (
) 3 (

l phn thc ca
) 3 (


Nu mode c bn c tnh gn ng dng phn b Gausse:

( )

,
_

+

2
2 2
exp ) , (
w
y x
y x F
(19)
th din tch li hiu dng l:



+

+

+

+

,
_

dxdy y x F
dxdy y x F
A
eff
4
2
2
) , (
) , (
(20)
v in hnh thng c tnh l
2
w A
eff

(21)
(w- rng trng mode)
Trong v bn phi ca phng trnh (13) s hng u tin c trng cho
suy hao, s hng th hai c trng cho tn sc bc mt, s hng th ba c
trng cho tn sc bc 2, s hng th t c trng cho hiu ng Kerr, s hng
th nm c trng cho hiu ng t dc nhn (self-steepening) do s ph
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 15
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
thuc vn tc nhm vo cng trng, s hng cui cng lin quan ti
tn x Raman kch thch.
Phng trnh (13) c xem nh phng trnh schrodinger phi tuyn
(NLSE) tng qut v c th p dng i vi trng hp rng ph lp v
THz f 16
. hiu r qu trnh truyn xung th cn phi gii phng trnh
(13).
2.2 Cc phng php m phng qu trnh lan truyn xung quang trong
si
tnh qu trnh tn hiu quang lan truyn trong si, cc phng trnh vi
phn phi c ly tch phn trn tuyn truyn dn si quang. Cc phng
php tnh ton qu trnh truyn dn trong si quang c bit c th phn
thnh 2 loi chnh l phng php gii tch v phng php i s. Cc
phng php gii tch (analytical methods) gii phng trnh (13) ch c
th p dng trong cc trng hp c bit v phng trnh vi phn tng phn
ny ni chung khng a n cc nghim gii tch. Cc phng php
s(numerical methods) thng c s dng tnh qu trnh truyn xung
quang trong si v c th chia thnh 2 loi: phng php sai phn hu hn
(finite-difference methods) v phng php gi ph (pseudospectral
methods). Phng php sai phn hu hn gii trc tip cc phng trnh
Maxell, n gii quyt tt c cc thnh phn in t m khng loi b thnh
phn sng mang 0

. Phng php ny cho nghim c chnh xc cao nht,


n c th xem xt ng thi c sng truyn cng v ngc chiu. Tuy nhin,
phng php ny i hi thi gian v cc n lc tnh ton rt ln, nn t
c s dng m phng cc h thng si quang trong thc t. Phng
php gi ph thc hin nhanh hn bng vic loi b tn s sng mang quang
0

. Mt phng php c s dng rng ri gii phng trnh (13)


l phng php Fourier tch bc (split-step Fourier methods).
2.2.1. Phng php Fourier tch bc (SSFM).
SSFM gii phng trnh (13) b qua o hm bc hai A(z,t) theo chiu
truyn dn z (php gn ng lp v trng bin i chm ) v s dng k
thut khai trin Fourier nhanh (FFT). hiu r phng php SSFM, c th
vit phng trnh (13) dng:

A
z
A
) N

( +

(22)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
z=z+h
Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)A1
At=A2
16
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Trong D

l ton t vi phn lin quan n tn sc v suy hao ca mi


trng tuyn tnh v N

l ton t phi tuyn lin quan n cc hiu ng phi


tuyn. Cc hiu ng ny c xc nh bi:

2 6
1
2
1
- D

3
3
3
2
2
2

T T
(23)

,
_

+
T
A
T A A
T A
i
R
2
2
2
2
0
2
) (
2
A i N

(24)
Ni chung tn sc v phi tuyn tc ng ng thi dc theo chiu di si
quang. Phng php SSFM thu c nghim gn ng bng cch gi s
rng trong qu trnh trng quang lan truyn trn mt khong cch nh h,
nh hng ca tn sc v phi tuyn coi nh tc ng c lp. C th hn qu
trnh truyn dn t z n z+h c thc hin theo 2 bc. bc th nht,
nh hng ca phi tuyn hot ng mt mnh v D

=0 trong phng trnh


(22). bc th hai, nh hng ca tn sc tc ng mt mnh v N

=0
trong phng trnh (22). V mt ton hc:
) , ( )

exp( )

exp( ) , ( T z A N D h T h z A + (25)
Vic thc hin ton t e m )

exp( D h c thc hin trong min Fourier:


[ ] [ ] { } ) , ( ) (

exp ) , ( ) , ( )

exp(
1
T z B F j D h F T z B T z B D h

(26)
y F k hiu cho khai trin Fourier, ) (

j D thu c bng vic thay


ton t vi phn
T /
bng
j
v

l tn s trong min Fourier. V ) (

j D
ch l mt s trong khng gian Fourier nn vic nh gi phng trnh (26)
c thc hin r rng.
[ ] ) , ( )

( exp ) , ( T z A N D h T h z A + + (27)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
z=z+h
Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)A1
At=A2
h
Ch tn sc Ch phi tuyn
17
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

Hnh 1. Lu gii phng trnh NLSE bng SSFM
Nghim chnh xc ca phng trnh (22) c xc nh bi: Phng
php SSFM c chnh xc bc 2 theo c bc h. Lu thc hin vic
tnh ton theo phng php SSFM c thc hin hnh 1.
tng chnh xc ca phng php SSFM, c th s dng phng
php Fourier tch bc i xng. Trong phng php ny tch truyn
xung quang trn mt on t z n z+h thay (25) bng:

) , ( )

2
exp( ) (

exp

2
exp ) , (
' '
T z A D
h
dz z N D
h
T h z A
h z
z
1
]
1

,
_

+
(28)
im khc chnh vi phng php trc l hiu ng phi tuyn c tnh
c gia on ch khng phi ch ti bin on. Tch phn trong (28) tnh
ti c s ph thuc ca ton t N

vo z. Nu c bc h nh, n c th
tnh gn ng bng )

exp( N h tng t phng trnh (25). Mt cch n gin


tnh tch phn ny l:

[ ] ) (

) (

2
) (

' '
h z N z N
h
dz z N
h z
z
+ +

+
(29)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Bt u
At-Ain,z=0
z=z+h
Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)At
Tnh A1=exp(h)A1
At=A2 S dng FFT trong min s
z>L
Kt qu
Aout=A2
No
h
Ch tn sc Ch phi tuyn
Bt u
z=z+h;Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)At

,i=1
Kt qu
Aout=A5
i=i+1


18
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

Hnh 2. M t phng php SSFM i xng
Tuy nhin vic tnh phng trnh (29) khng d v ) (

h z N + cha c
bit gia on ti v tr z+h/2. Do cn mt th tc lp c a ra
thay ) (

h z N + bng ) (

z N . Sau phng trnh (28) c s dng xc nh


A(z+h,T) tip tc c s dng tnh gi tr mi ca ) (

h z N + . Mc d
th tc lp tn thi gian nhng c th rt bt xung nu tng c bc ln v
chnh xc ca thut ton c ci thin. Hai ln lp ni chung l trong
thc t. Vic thc hin SSFM c th thy trn hnh 2, chiu di si quang
c chia thnh mt s lng ln cc on nh, khong cch gia cc on
khng nht thit phi bng nhau. Cc xung quang truyn t on ny ti
on kia s dng hm (28). V mt ton hc u tin trng quang A(z,T)
c truyn trn khong cch h/2 ch c tn sc bng vic s dng thut
ton FFT v phng trnh (26). on gia z+h/2, trng c nhn vi
mt s hng phi tuyn c trng cho hiu ng phi tuyn trn ton b chiu
di on h. Cui cng trng c truyn trn khong cch h/2 cn li ch
c tn sc tnh c A(z+h,T). Lu thc hin c th c th hin trn
hnh 3.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
z=0
h
A(z,T)
Ch tn sc Ch phi tuyn
Bt u
z=z+h;Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)At

,i=1
Kt qu
Aout=A5
i=i+1


19
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 3. Lu gii phng trnh NLSE bng SSFM i xng
Chng III
TNG QUAN V SOLITON
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Bt u
At=Ain,z=0
z=z+h;Tnh
Tnh A1=exp(h)At

,i=1
Tnh
Tnh
Tnh
i>m?
Tnh
Tnh
z>L?
Kt qu
Aout=A5
i=i+1


No
Yes
S dng FFT trong min tn s
Yes
No
m - s ln lp li, m=2
S dng FFT trong min tn s
S dng FFT trong
min tn s
H
s
m
rng
T
1
/T
0
Hnh 3.1. S thay i h s m rng theo khong

cch lan truyn
20
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
3.1 Khi nim v soliton
T soliton c a vo nm 1965 miu t thuc tnh phn t ca
ng bao xung trong mi trng phi tuyn tn sc. Di iu kin no
ng bao xung khng ch lan truyn khng mo m cn tn ti s va chm
nh cc phn t lm.
Vy soliton l thut ng biu din cc xung lan truyn qua khong cch
di m khng thay i hnh dng xung do n a ra kh nng c bit
truyn cc xung khng nhy cm vi tn sc.
S tn ti ca soliton trong si quang v s dng chng cho truyn thng
quang c ngh t nhng nm 1973 v n nm 1980 soliton c
chng minh bng thc nghim. Tim nng ca soliton cho truyn dn quang
ng di c khnh nh vo nm 1988 trong mt th nghim m suy hao
si c b nh bng k thut khuych i Raman.
H thng soliton quang mc d cha c ng dng nhiu trong thc t
song vi nhng tim nng vn c, n tr thnh mt d tuyn c bit cho h
thng truyn dn quang.
3.2 Soliton si
S tn ti ca soliton si l kt qu ca s cn bng gia tn sc vn tc
nhm GVD (group-veocity disperson) v t iu ch pha SPM, c hai u
hn ch hiu nng truyn thng quang si khi hot ng c lp trn xung
quang ang lan truyn bn trong si ngoi tr khi xung b dch ban u theo
ng hng. c bit hn mt xung b dch c th c nn trong sut giai
on u ca s lan truyn bt c khi no tham s GVD
2

v h s chirp C
tri du nhau (
2

.C<0). SPM, kt qu t s ph thuc ca chit sut vo


cng quang, a ra mt s dch trn xung quang sao cho C > 0. V
2

<0
vng bc sng 1,55
m
nn iu kin
2

.C<0 c tha mn. Hn na


s dch chuyn bi SPM ph thuc cng sut nn khng kh khn hiu
rng di iu kin no SPM v GVD c th kt hp theo mt cch no
sao cho s dch bi SPM l ng hng loi b s m rng xung do
GVD gy ra. Nh vy xung quang c th lan truyn khng mo di dng
ca mt Soliton.
th sau miu t s bin thin ca h s m rng theo khong cch
lan truyn cho mt xung Gausse vo b dch tn.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
H
s
m
rng
T
1
/T
0
Hnh 3.1. S thay i h s m rng theo khong

cch lan truyn
21
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ng nt chm biu din s m rng xung trong trng hp xung
Gauss khng b dch tn (C=0).
Da vo th ta thy s m rng xung tng khi khong cch lan truyn
tng. V khi C=-2,C.
2

<0, xung ban u c nn li (T


1
/T
0
<1) sau li
m rng do nh hng ca tn sc. Nh vy, kt hp cn bng gia GVD v
SPM s lm gim s m rng xung xung quang c th lan truyn khng
mo qua khong cch di.
3.3 Phng trnh Schorodinger phi tuyn
S miu t ton hc c bn ca cc soliton si yu cu gii hm sng
trong mi trng phi tuyn tn sc. Hm sng ny c suy ra t phng
trnh Maxell v c tha mn bi ng bao xung bin i chm A(z,t)
trong s c mt ca c GVD v hiu ng phi tuyn si.
y ta quan tm n si n mode dn yu, lc ny s lan truyn ca
nh sng c th m t bng hm v hng i vi trng in E nh sau:
E(r,

,z,t) = R(r,

).A(z,t). exp(ik
0
z- 0

t) (2.1)
Trong : R: hm trng ngang.
A: ng bao thi gian bin i chm.
(B qua cc hiu ng phn cc)
V E tch ly theo si dn quang m tnh phi tuyn c th nh hng
ng k n s dch chuyn theo chiu dc, ni cch khc l nh hng ca
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
4
0
2
>
C=0
C=-2
C=2
3
2
1
0
H
s
m
rng
T
1
/T
0
Hnh 3.1. S thay i h s m rng theo khong

cch lan truyn
22
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Khong cch, z/L0
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
n ln cc c tnh dn c th b qua v s khc nhau v ch s chit sut li-
v l ln hn s bin i phi tuyn trong mt ct chit sut. nh hng ca
tnh phi tuyn ln s dch chuyn theo chiu dc c th c c tnh bng
cch ly trung bnh tch n
2
I trn phn ct trong si.

n
( )
2
| | , A
n
0
(

) + n
2
eff
A
A
2
| |

(2.2)
A t l vi trng in c chun ha theo cng thc P=| A|
2
.
Vector sng mode:
( ) . | | ,
2
c
A


n
( )
2
| | , A

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 0
3
0 3
2
0 2 0 1 0 1
| |
6
1
2
1
A
A
n
c
eff

+ + +
(2.3)
Vi
0
|
1

,
0
|
2
2
2

,
0
|
3
3
3

Phng trnh ny c th xem nh dng trin khai Fourier ca phng


trnh sng sau y i vi s lan truyn ca ng bao xung bin i chm
A(z,t):

A A
n
A t
A
t
A i
t
A
z
A
eff
2 2
3
3
3
2
2
2 1
| |
2
6
1
2

(2.4)

1
1

g
v
(v
g
l vn tc nhm ti tn s sng mang 0

).
t
) /( 2
2 eff
A n
l hng s phi tuyn.
l bc sng quang.
A
eff
l din tch hiu dng li si.
Tham s
2

tng ng cho nh hng ca GVD v SPM.


Gi s
0
3

v t
0
0
1
, ,
P
A
U
L
z
T
z t
D

(2.5)
Trong : T
0
: rng xung
P
0
: cng sut nh xung
L
D
: chiu di tn sc v c nh ngha l:
L
D
= T
2
0
/|
|
2

(2.6)
Thay vo phng trnh (2.4) ta c:
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 23
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

0 | | ) sgn(
2
1
| | ) sgn( .
2
1
.
| |
2
1
.
1
| |
2
1 1
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
0
1
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
0
1
0 0
2
2
0
0
2
2
2
0
0
1 0
+

U U P L
U U
i
L UP U i
U
i
T
UL U
UP U i
T
U
i
T
U U
L
P P U U i
T
P
T
U i
T
P U
L
P
U
D
D
D
D
D



0 | | ) sgn(
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
+

U U N
U U
i

(2.7)
sgn(
2

)=
t
1, ty thuc vo
0
2
<
(tn sc d thng) hay
>
2

0 (tn
sc bnh thng)
N

2
L
D
P
0

2
P
0
T
| | /
2
2
0

(2.8)
Phng trnh (2.7) c gi l phng trnh schrodinger phi tuyn
(NSE) hay l phng trnh sng ca trng quang.
3.4 Phn loi Soliton
3.4.1. Soliton c bn v soliton bc cao
Mc d NSE h tr cc soliton cho c GVD bnh thng v d thng
nhng cc soliton pulselike (sng) ch c tm thy trong trng hp tn
sc d thng (
0
2
<
). Soliton sng c s dng hu ht trong cc h thng
truyn thng quang.
V
0
2
<
nn hm sng c dng:

0 | |
2
1
2 2
2
2
+

U U N
U U
i


t u=N.U, ta c:


0
1
| |
1
2
1 1
2
2
2
+

N
u u
N
u
N
u
i


=> i
0 | |
2
1
2
2
2
+

u u
u u

(2.9)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 24
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Phng trnh ny c th c gii bng phng php tn x ngc [4].
K thut ny ch ra rng li gi tim cn ca phng trnh c cho vi iu
kin u vo ty (nng lng xc nh). Vi hm u vo chng hn nh
u(0,

)=N.sech

t vo trong si, hnh dng ca n khng thay i trong


sut qu trnh lan truyn khi N=1, cn khi N>1 dng u vo c khi
phc ti
) ( 2 / Z m m
. Xung quang tng ng vi N=1 c gi l
soliton c bn. Xung quang ng vi N>1 c gi l soliton bc cao v N
c gi l bc ca soliton. Chu k z
0
l khong cch m cc soliton bc cao
khi phc li dng gc ca chng.
z
0
=
| | 2 2
2
2
0

T
L
D

(2.10)
Chu k z
0
v bc N ca soliton ng mt vai tr quan trng trong thit k
h thng soliton quang. Hnh v sau biu din tin trnh xung ca soliton bc
1 v soliton bc 3 qua mt chu k soliton bng vic v th hnh dng xung
|u(
,
)|
2
(hng trn) v s dch tn (hng di) c nh ngha nh l s
dch thi gian ca pha soliton. Ch soliton c bn vn khng c s dch tn
(chirp-free) trong sut qu trnh lan truyn trong khi duy tr hnh dng xung
ca n.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 25
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 3.2. Tin trnh ca cc soliton bc mt (ct tri) v cc Soliton bc 3
(ct phi) qua mt chu k soliton. Hng trn v hng di tng ng biu
din hnh dng xung v dng chirp ca n.
Ta c th gii trc tip cc soliton c bn t phng trnh (2.9) m
khng s dng phng php tn x ngc. Gi thit rng mt soliton c
dng:
u(
,
)=V(

)exp[i
) , (
] (2.11)
V(

) khng ph thuc vo

phng trnh (2.9) trnh by li mt


soliton c bn m duy tr hnh dng ca n trong sut qu trnh lan truyn.
Pha

c th ph thuc vo c

. Thay (2.11) vo (2.9) v


) , (
=K


vi K=const. Ta c:

0
2
1
0 ) exp( ) ( ) exp( .
) (
2
1
) exp( ) (
3
2
2
3
2
2
+

+
+

+
V
V
KV
i V i
V
i iK iV



) ( 2
2
2
2
V K V
V

(2.12)
C V KV
t
V
+
,
_

4 2
2
2 vi C=const (2.13)
V ta c:

LimV
=0 v

Lim
0

V
nn C=0. Ti nh soliton c
1 V
v
0

V
suy ra (2K-1)=0 suy ra K=1/2
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 26
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

( )

h
e e e
e
V
V
V
V V
V
V V
V
sec
2
1
2
1 1
1 1
ln
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
4 2
2

,
_



,
_



( ) ( ) ( ) 2 / exp sec , i h u
(2.14)
Phng trnh (2.14) cho thy xung u vo thu c mt s dch pha

/2 khi n lan truyn trong si nhng bin khng thay i. y chnh l


thuc tnh quan trng ca soliton c bn, lm cho n tr nn l tng vi
cc h thng truyn thng quang.
3.4.2 Tin trnh soliton
Mt thuc tnh quan trng ca soliton l chng rt n nh, chng li s
nhiu lon. Bi vy, thm ch qua soliton c bn yu cu mt hnh dng
ring v cng sut nh tha mn 1=

P
0
L
D
, n cng c th c to ra ngay
c khi cng sut nh lch khi iu kin l tng.
Hnh v sau m t tin trnh ca mt xung Gauss vo vi cc gi tr:
N=1, u(0,

)= exp(-
2
2

)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 27
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton


Hnh 3.3. Tin trnh ca mt xung Gauss vi N=1 qua mt khong
10 0
. Xung tin trin dn thnh mt soliton c bn bng vic thay i hnh dng,
rng v cng sut nh ca n.
Nh vy xung sa hnh dng v rng ca n tr thnh mt soliton
c bn v t c hnh dng ca mt hm sech vi
1 >>
.
Soliton bc N cng c th c hnh thnh khi n nm trong khong N-
1/2 n N+1/2. C th, soliton c bn c th c to ra vi N

(0.5, 1.5).
Hnh v sau biu din tin trnh mt xung u vo c N=1.2 qua
10 0

bng vic gii phng trnh NSE bng s vi iu kin u vo u(0,

)=1,2sech(

). rng xung v cng sut nh dao ng ban u nhng cui


cng tr nn n nh sau khi xung u vo t sa tha mn iu kin
N=1 trong phng trnh (2.8).
Hnh 3.4. Tin trnh xung ca mt xung sech vi N=1,2 qua khong
10 0
.Xung tin trin thnh mt soliton c bn (N=1) bng vic sa
rng v cng sut nh ca n.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Power

-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(a)
-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(b)
1 .
00
0
-1
-11
28
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Nhn chung mt s lch nh t iu kin l tng khng gy nguy hi
n s lan truyn soliton v xung u vo c th sa cc tham s ca n
hnh thnh siliton c bn. Mt phn nng lng xung b mt trong sut qu
trnh thch ng pha ng di dng sng tn sc. Ta c th gim thiu nh
hng ca sng tn sc n hiu nng h thng bng vic thch ng iu
kin u vo gn vi iu kin l tng nht c th.
3.4.3 Soliton ti (Dark soliton)
Hm NSE c th c gii bng phng php tn x ngc ngay c
trong trng hp tn sc bnh thng. Dn cng ca kt qu a ra mt
dc trong nn ng b v dc ny khng thay i trong qu trnh lan
truyn trong si. Nhng nghim nh vy ca NSE c gi l soliton ti.
Mc d c khm ph nhng nm 1970 song ch mi gn y n mi
c nghin cu hon ton.
Hm u vo u(0,

)=tanh(

)
V
0
2
>
nn hm sng c dng:
i
0 | |
2
1
2
2
2
+

u u
u u

Gi s:
[ ] ) , ( exp ) ( ) , ( i V u
(2.15)
V
K ) , (

Ta c:

C KV V
V
V K V
V
V
V
KV
i V V i
V
i iK iV
+
,
_

2 4
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( 2
0
2
1
0 ) exp( ) ( ) ( ) exp(
) (
2
1
) exp( ) (



C=const
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Power

-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(a)
-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(b)
1 .
00
0
-1
-11
29
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Ti nh soliton c V=0,
0 0

C
V

.
V
2
0
2
0
4
0 0
0 ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( 0 , 2 u K K u u
V
Lim u V Lim





Suy ra nghim chung c dng:
u
) exp( ) tanh ( ) , (
2
0
iu i
d

(2.16)
Vi
sin , cos ), (
0 0
u u
(2.17)
0
u
l bin ca nn sng lin tc (CW: continuous wave)

l gc pha trong (0<

< 2 / )

,
bin v vn tc ca soliton ti.
Soliton ti c mt im khc c bn vi soliton sng l vn tc

ca
soliton ti ph thuc vo bin

ca n qua gc pha trong

.

0 ) 0 , ( ) exp( ) tanh ( ) , ( 0
2
0 0

d d
u iu u u
tc l cng sut
soliton gim xung bng khng trung tm ca dc (nhng soliton nh
vy gi l soliton ti).

0
, cng khng gim xung 0 trung tm ca dc ( nhng
soliton nh vy gi l soliton xm)
Tham s en B= cos

phn bit cc soliton.


Khc vi soliton sng c pha khng i, pha ca soliton ti thay i qua
rng ca n.
Hnh (5.4) biu din cng v pha vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca

.
Hnh 3.5. Dng cng (a) v phase (b) ca cc soliton ti vi
cc gi tr

khc nhau.
Vi soliton ti (

=0) xy ra mt s dich pha

trung tm dc.
Vi cc gi tr

khc, pha thay i mt lng

-2

.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
1.00
Power

0
8 /
4
8
3

0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(a)
-4 -2 0 2 4
Time
(b)
8 /
0

8 / 3
4 /

1 .
00
0
-1
-11
Phase
(rad)
B pht

quang
B thu
quang
30
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Soliton ti c chng minh qua thc nghim bng vic s dng cc
xung quang rng tng i vi mt dc hp gia xung. S m phng
bng s cho thy rng trung tm dc c th lan truyn nh mt soliton ti
ngay c khi nn khng ng b min l cng nn ng dng trong
khong ca dc.
Soliton ti bc cao khng cho php mt dng tin trin hon ton sau mi
chu k nh soliton sng bc cao. Vi N>1, xung u vo hnh thnh mt
soliton ti c bn bng vic thu hp rng ca n trong qu trnh pht ra
nhiu cp soliton ti.
C th to ra cc cp soliton ti bng nhiu cch khc nhau nh s dng
giao thoa k Mach-Zender, chuyn i phi tuyn tn hiu beat trong si gim
tn sc v chuyn i mt tn hiu m NRZ thnh tn hiu RZ, sau thnh
cc soliton ti. Nm 1995 trong mt th nghim tn hiu 10Gb/s truyn
qua 1200km bng vic s dng cc soliton ti.
Do tnh khng i xng ca cc soliton ti xut pht t p ng thi
gian ca mch in to ra chng lm hn ch khong cch truyn dn. V
vy chng t c s dng hn cc soliton sng trong cc h thng quang
thc t.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
B pht

quang
B thu
quang
T
B
1 1 0 1 0 1
31
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
CHNG IV
H THNG TRUYN DN SOLITON
4.1 H thng truyn dn soliton

Trong nhng nm gn y, k thut thng tin quang c a vo
khai thc trn mng vin thng p ng nhu cu gia tng cc dch v Vin
thng ngy cng phong ph v hin i ca nhn loi. Truyn thng soliton
quang qua qu trnh nghin cu lu di c tha nhn l mt k thut
tin tin gip tng dung lng v tnh mm do ca cc c tnh truyn
thng ang tn ti, p ng nhu cu truyn dn cao v ng di.
Tuy nhin vic s dng n yu cu nhng thay i cn thit trong thit
k h thng so vi h thng khng soliton thng thng. Trong phn ny
chng ta s tm hiu cc vn .
4.1.1. M hnh h thng chung.
Cng nh h thng thng tin quang thng thng, h thng soliton thng
thng bao gm phn pht, knh truyn dn v phn thu c m t nh
sau:
Hnh 4.1. M hnh chung ca h thng truyn dn soliton
- My pht quang l mt diode laser iu ch cc xung quang trc
tip, v vy s lch tn u ra laser l khng ng k. Tn hiu
u vo l cc bit 0 hoc 1, mi bit 1 l mt soliton c bn.
- Knh truyn dn l cc on si quang n mode, mi on theo
sau l mt b khuych i quang si EDFA dng b suy hao
si, tuy nhin li sinh ra nhiu pht x t pht c khuych i
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
u ra
B pht

quang
B thu
quang
u vo Knh truyn dn
T
B
1 1 0 1 0 1
32
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) lm nh hng n cht
lng truyn dn.
- B thu quang bao gm mt photodiode, mt b lc in v mt b
lc quang. Tn hiu quang thu thng c chuyn i trc tip
thnh tn hiu in. Cc b lc quang t trc photodiode lm
gim nhiu ASE do cc b khuych i a ra.
3.1.2 Truyn thng tin vi cc soliton
Trong h thng thng tin quang, m NRZ thng c s dng
truyn dn thng tin v rng bng tn tn hiu ca n nh hn khong
50% so vi m RZ. Tuy nhin trong truyn dn soliton, m NRZ khng
c s dng v rng soliton phi l mt phn nh ca khe bit chc
chn rng cc soliton ln cn nhau c tch ring. m bo kh nng
lan truyn khng mo, cc soliton phi c dng sech nh hm (2.13). Tuy
nhin, nghim soliton ny ch ng khi n chim gi ton b ca s thi
gian t

. Gi tr ny c th c m bo gn ng cho mt dy
soliton ch khi cc soliton ring c t cch ly. V vy ngi ta s dng
m RZ m ha thng tin trong truyn dn soliton. Yu cu ny c dng
biu din mi quan h gia rng soliton (T
0
) v tc bt (B):
B
0 0
2
1 1
T q T
B

(3.1)
Trong : T
b
l rng khe bit
2q
0
=
0
T
T
B
l khong cch gia 2 soliton ln cn.
Hnh v sau m t dy bit soliton dng m RZ:
Hnh 3.2. Dy bit soliton m RZ. Mi soliton chim mt phn nh
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
T
B
Soliton
1 1 0 1 0 1
33
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ca khe bit sao cho cc soliton ln cn c t xa nhau
Trong n v vt l bin ca xung l:
A(0,t)=
) ( sec
0
0
T
t
h P
(3.2)
P
0
l cng sut nh tha mn iu kin:

2
0
2
0 0
1
T
P L P
D


(3.3)
rng y na gi tr max (FWHM: full width at half maximum)
ca soliton l:
T
S
=2T
0
ln( 2 1+ )

1.763T
0
(3.4)
Nng lng xung ca soliton c bn thu c l:
E
S
=

+

dt t A
2
) , 0 (
2P
0
T
0
(3.5)
Nu gi thit s bit 1 v 0 xy ra bng nhau, cng sut trung bnh ca tn
hiu RZ l:

S
P
=E
S
(
2
B
)=
0
0
0 0
2
2
2 q
P
T P
B

(3.6)
4.1.3 Tng tc soliton
Khong cch T
B
gia cc xung ln cn xc nh tc bit B ca h
thng truyn thng (B=1/T
B
). Vn t ra l cc soliton t gn nhau nh
th no m khng gy ra s tng tc ln nhau gia chng. Nhiu nghin
cu chng t rng tng tc soliton khng ch ph thuc vo khong
cch 2q
0
gia cc soliton ln cn m cn ph thuc vo pha v bin tng
i ca 2 soliton. Nu cc gi tr ny khng c la chn ng, mt s va
chm tun hon gia cc soliton s xy ra.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 34
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Ta c th gii hm NSE bao hm c s tng tc soliton vi iu kin
xung u vo gm mt cp soliton:

[ ] ) exp( ) ( sec ) ( sec ) , 0 (
0 0
i q r h r q h t u + +
(3.7)
Vi r : bin tng i ca 2 soliton
: pha tng i gia 2 soliton ln cn
2q
0
: khong cch ban u ca 2 soliton
Hnh 3.3 miu t tin trnh ca mt cp soliton vi q
0
=3.5 vi cc gi tr
r, khc nhau. Ta thy r rng s tng tc ny ph thuc mnh vo c pha
v bin tng i.
Hnh 4.3. Tin trnh mt cp soliton qua 90 ln chiu di tn sc c s
tng tc soliton vi khong cch bc ban u q
0
=3.5 trong tt c bn
trng hp.

- Vi r=1 (Cc soliton c bin bng nhau)
0 : Cc soliton ht nhau sao cho chng va chm nh k theo
chiu di si.
4 / : Ban u cc soliton hut nhau ri li tch khi nhau.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 35
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
2 / : Cc soliton y nhau ngy cng mnh khi khong cch lan
truyn tng.
Khi thit k h thng iu ny th khng th chp nhn c. N c th
to ra jitter thi gian n ca cc soliton v nh hng n hiu nng h
thng. Mt cch trnh tng tc soliton l tng khong cch soliton
ln lch v v tr soliton nh sao cho cc soliton vn v tr gc
trong khe bit khi truyn dn qua khong cch ln.
Khi q
0
>>1 trong trng hp c bit r=1,

=0 (tc l u(0,t)=sech( 0
q
)
+sech( 0
q +
)), khong cch 2q
s
gia 2 soliton v tr

c a ra bi [3]:
2exp[2(q
s
-q
0
)] =1 + cos[4

exp(-q
0
)] (3.8)
Mi quan h ny cho thy q
s
(

) thay i tun hon vi chu k dao ng


l:


) exp(
2 ) exp( 4
2
0
0
q
q
p

(3.9)
Kt qu ny ng vi q
0
>>1. Mt biu thc ng hn cho mi gi tr q
0
l [3]:


) 2 sinh( 2
) cosh( ) 2 sinh(
0 0
0 0
q q
q q
q
+

(3.10)
Nu
>>
T T D p
L L L ,
l tng khong cch truyn dn. Tng tc soliton
c th khng tnh n v cc soliton c th lch mt cht so vi gi tr ban
u ca n.
V D p
L
>>
T P P T
L
Bq T
L >>

,
_


2
2
0
2
2
0
2
1


2
2
0 2
2
0
2
0
8 4
1

q
e
q
B L
q
P T
<<
(3.11)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 36
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
V d chn q
0
=6 trnh tng tc soliton, suy ra:
634
2
0

q
p
e

V chn
km ps / 1
2
2

v hu ht cc h thng truyn thng soliton u
s dng si dch tn sc. Ta c:
km
s
T e
L B
b
T
. ) ( 4 , 4
298
2
6
2
<<

Nh vy iu kin km
s
T
L B
b
T
. ) ( 4 , 4
2 2
<< c th ng vi L
T
ln hng chc
ngn kilmt. Tuy nhin, khi khong cch lan truyn ln th tc bit li
nh, chng t iu kin ny gii hn n khong cch truyn dn cng
nh tc bit ca h thng soliton.
V vy khi khong cch gia cc soliton rng hn ch tng tc th li
hn ch tc v khong cch truyn dn ca h thng. Mt cch gim
q
0
m vn m bo tng tc soliton nh nh s dng cc soliton ln cn c
bin khc nhau. Nh biu din hnh 3.3 vi s lch cng sut nh gia
2 soliton ln cn l 10% (r=1.1). Lc ny khong cch gia 2 soliton ln cn
khng thay i nhiu hn 10% so vi khong cch ban u q
0
=3,5. Lu
rng cng sut nh ch lch khong 1% so vi gi tr l tng ca n khi
N=1. V s lch nh v cng sut nh khng gy hi n bn cht lan
truyn xung nn s ny c th thc hin trong thc t tng dung lng
h thng.
Ngoi cc yu t trn tng tc soliton cng c th thay i bi cc nhn
t khc nh s lch tn ban u tc ng mnh ln xung u vo.
4.1.4. S lch tn (frequency chirp)
lan truyn nh mt soliton c bn bn trong si quang, xung u vo
khng ch c dng sech m cn phi khng b chirp. Tuy nhin, trong
thc t, cc ngun xung quang ngn u c s lch tn (b chirp) tc ng
ln chng. iu ny c th gy nguy hi n s lan truyn cc soliton v n
lm dao ng cn bng chnh xc gia GVD v SPM. nh hng s lch
tn ban u c tnh ton bng cch gii phng trnh NSE vi iu kin
u vo:
u(0,t)=sech(

)exp(
2
2
iC
) (3.12)
Vi C l h s chirp.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 37
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Dng bc hai ca s thay i pha tng ng vi chirp tn s tuyn tnh
sao cho tn s quang tng theo thi gian vi gi tr C dng.
Hnh 3.4 biu din qa trnh lan truyn xung vi N=1 v C=0.5
Hnh 4.4. Tin trnh xung quang b lch vi N=1 v C=0,5. Khi C=0 hnh
dng xung khng thay i v xung lan truyn nh mt soliton c bn.

Da vo hnh v ta thy hnh dng xung ban u c nn (do C>0). S
nn ban u ny vn xy ra ngay c khi vng mt cc hiu ng phi tuyn.
Sau xung b m rng v cui cng c nn ln th hai. Xung s tin
trin thnh mt soliton qua khong cch lan truyn
15 >
.
Vi gi tr C<0, tin trnh xung xy ra tng t nh trn mc d s nn
ban u khng xy ra trong trng hp ny.
xung tin trin thnh mt soliton yu cu gi tr
C
nh v cc soliton
thng n nh di s dao ng yu. Khi
C
vt qu gi tr nguy him C-
crit
, xung s khng th hnh thnh mt soliton. Th d trong trng hp N=1,
soliton trong hnh 3.4 s khng c hnh thnh nu C tng t 0.5 ln thnh
2.
Gi tr nguy him C
crit
ca h s chirp c th c tnh theo phng php
tn x ngc [4]. N ph thuc vo N v pha trong phng trnh (3.12), tm
c l C
crit
=1,64 vi N=1.
Khi thit k h thng yu cu s lch tn ban u l nh nht c th v
khi hnh dng xung s thay i t v qu trnh hnh thnh mt soliton
cng nhanh hn. iu ny c th cn thit v s dch tn tuy khng nguy hi
vi crit
C C <
nhng mt phn nng lng ca n cng b mt di dng sng
tn sc trong sut qu trnh hnh thnh soliton [3]. V d trong trng hp
C=0.5, ch 83% nng lng xung c chuyn i thnh soliton v con s
ny gim xung ch cn 62% vi C=0.8.
3.1.5 My pht soliton
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 38
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
H thng truyn thng soliton quang yu cu mt ngun quang c kh
nng to cc xung picogiy khng chirp tc lp cao vi hnh dng gn
ging nht vi dng hm sech. Ngun pht c th vn hnh bc sng
gn 1,55
m
, ti suy hao si l nh nht v cc b khuych i quang si
EDFA c th hot ng mt cch hiu qu b suy hao si. Laser bn dn
c s dng chung cho c h thng tuyn tnh v phi tuyn.
C nhiu my pht soliton khc nhau. Trong thi k u, truyn dn
soliton s dng k thut chuyn mch khuych i pht xung quang
picogiy trong khong 20

40ps. V mt nguyn l n s nh thin laser


di ngng v bm n cao trn ngng nh k bi vic cung cp xung
dng. Tc lp li c xc nh bng tn s iu ch v thng xp x 1

10GHz. Nhc im ca k thut ny l cc xung pht b chirp do s thay


i chit sut cm ng sng mang theo h s tng cng rng ph c

.
Tuy nhin xung c th c to ra gn nh khng chirp bng vic cho n
qua mt si quang vi tn sc GVD bnh thng (
2

>0) m nn xung
cng thi gian (ch k thut ny to cc xung vi s lch tn sao cho tham
s C<0).
Trong th nghim chng minh k thut ny, xung quang 14ps tc
lp 3GHz c to ra bng vic cho xung chuyn mch khuych i qua
mt si dch tn sc, duy tr phn cc di 3,7km vi
km ps / 23
2
2

bc
sng 1,55
m
. Mt b khuych i quang si EDFA c s dng
khuych i xung quang ti mc cng sut yu cu cho soliton c bn.
Trong mt th nghim khc mt, cc xung chuyn mch khuych i c
khuych i v nn ng thi trong mt EDFA sau khi qua mt b lc
quang bng hp. Xung quang rng 17ps tc lp 6-24GHz c to
ra.
Laser kha mode cng thch hp cho truyn thng soliton v thng
c a dng hn v dy xung kha mode pht t laser nh vy b chirp t b
chirp hn. S kha mode tch cc thng c s dng bi iu ch dng
laser tn s bng hiu tn s gia 2 mode dc ln cn. Tuy nhin, mt
laser bn dn n c chiu di hc tng i ngn (thng 5mm hoc ngn
hn) lm cho tn s iu ch ln hn 50GHz. khc phc nhc im
ny, mt laser hc m rng c a ra s dng tng chiu di hc cng
nh m rng tn s iu ch. Trong mt cch gii quyt thc t, ngi ta s
dng phn ui heo ni c nh vi my pht quang ln hc m rng
bng vic khc mt cch t si chirp.
Vic s dng cch t si b chirp cung cp mt bc sng n nh n
0,1nm trong khi m ra mt c ch t iu ha m cho php laser kha mode
c tn s iu ch trong khong rng cc gi tr. Mt b lm nng nhit
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 39
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
c s dng iu ha bc sng hot ng qua mt dy 7nm bng vic
thay i bc cch t. Ngun laser nh vy sn xut xung ging soliton c
rng 20ps tc 10Gb/s v c s dng trong nhiu th nghim
truyn dn quang.
Tr ngi chnh ca laser bn dn hc m rng t chnh bn cht ghp ca
n. Mt ngun n khi ca xung picgiy c a dng hn trong thc t
v nhiu nghin cu c thc hin sn xut cc ngun xung nh vy.
Cc laser bn dn n khi vi chiu di hc khong 4mm c th c kha
mode tch cc to dy xung 10GHz. S kha mode th ng ca laser
phn x phn b Bragg n khi (DBR: distributed bragg reflected) cng
to ra cc xung 3,5ps tc lp 40GHz. Mt la chn khc m ra khi
ngi ta tch hp mt b iu ch hp th in vi mt laser bn dn.
Nhng my pht nh vy c s dng chung cho c h thng quang khng
soliton. Chng cng c dng sn xut dy xung da trn bn cht phi
tuyn ca p ng hp th ca b iu ch. Xung khng chirp trong khong
10-20ps tc lp 20GHz c to bng k thut ny. V n nm
1996, tc lp ca laser tch hp iu ch tng n 50GHz. Hiu ng
giam lng t trong b iu ch ging a lng t cng c s dng
sn xut dy xung ph hp vi truyn dn soliton.
Cc laser si n mode ra i, a ra s thay th ngun bn dn d
chng vn s dng cc laser bn dn bm. Mt b khuych i quang si
EDFA c t bn trong mt khe Fabry-Perot (FP) hoc hc vng lm
laser si. C k thut kha mode th ng v tch cc u c s dng
sn xut cc xung quang ngn. S kha mode tch cc yu cu iu ch
hm iu ha bc cao theo khong cch mode dc v chiu di hc tng i
ln(>1m) thng c s dng cho laser si. Cc laser si kha mode iu
ha nh vy s dng mt b iu ch LiNbO
3
trong hc v c dng
trong nhiu th nghim truyn dn soliton. Ngi ta cng c th s dng mt
b khuych i laser bn dn cho s kha mode tch cc sn xut cc
xung ngn hn 10ps tc lp 20GHz. Laser kha mode th ng s dng
mt thit b ging a lng t m hot ng nh mt b hp th bo ha
nhanh hoc s dng tnh phi tuyn si to ra s dch pha m a n mt
b hp th bo ha hiu qu. Tc lp ca laser si nh vy tng i
thp v kh iu khin, lm cho chng khng thch hp vi h thng truyn
thng soliton.
Trong mt th nghim khc, dng xung phi tuyn trong si thay i tn
sc c s dng to ra cc xung soliton cc ngn. tng c bn l
bm mt tia sng lin tc (CW: continuous wave) c s iu ch sin yu vo
mt si nh vy. S kt hp cc hiu ng GVD, SPM v s gim tn sc
chuyn i tn hiu iu ch sin thnh mt dy soliton cc ngn. Tc lp
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 40
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Khong cch, z/L
D
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ca xung th b chi phi bi tn s iu ch sin ban u, thng c to ra
bi vic phch 2 tn hiu quang. Hai laser bn dn phn hi phn b (DFB:
distributed feedback) hoc mt laser si hai mode cng c th c s dng
cho mc ch ny. Nm 1993, k thut ny dn n s pht trin ca ngun
si tch hp c kh nng sn xut dy xung soliton tc lp cao s dng
tn sc rng ca bng vic kt ni cc on si tn sc thp v cao. Mt
laser si lng tn c s dng to ra tn hiu phch v sn xut dy
xung soliton rng 2,2ps tc lp 59GHz. Trong mt th nghim khc,
xung 3ps tc lp 40GHz c to ra s dng mt laser DFB n m
u ra ca n c iu ch bi b iu ch Mach-Zender trc khi t n
trong si thay i tn sc vi dng tn sc rng ca.
Mt phng php n gin khc l to dy xung iu ch pha u ra
mt laser bn dn DFB t sau mt b lc bng thng quang. S iu ch
pha to ra cc di bin FM trn c hai bin ca tn s sng mang v b lc
quang la chn cc gii bin trn mt pha ca sng mang. Thit b nh vy
s to ra mt dy xung n nh rng 20ps tc lp c iu chnh bi
mt b iu ch pha. N cng c th s dng nh mt ngun lng bc
sng bng vic lc cc gii bin trn c hai bin ca tn s sng mang vi
khong cch knh 0,8nm bc sng 1,5
m
. Mt k thut khc li s dng
b iu ch Mach-Zender n, c kch thch bi mt dng d liu in
m NRZ chuyn i u ra CW ca laser DFB thnh mt dng bit quang
m RZ. Nhng xung quang ny mc d khng c dng sech ca mt
soliton nhng chng vn c dng trong h thng soliton v kh nng tin
trin thnh mt soliton ca si nh tho lun trong phn 2.4.2
4.1.6. nh hng ca suy hao si
Nh bit, cc soliton s dng tnh phi tuyn si duy tr rng ca
chng ngay c khi c tn sc si. Tuy nhin thuc tnh ny ch ng khi suy
hao l khng ng k. Cn khi suy hao ln, cng sut nh gim ng k v
s lm suy yu cc hiu ng phi tuyn cn thit chng li nh hng ca
GVD, dn n s m rng xung soliton.
chng II trong khi m phng nh dng mt soliton, chng ta xt
phng trnh lan truyn sng vi gi thit khng tnh n suy hao si. Tuy
nhin, trong thc t suy hao si ng mt vai tr rt quan trng khi thit k
h thng, l mt tham s xc nh khong cch gia b thu v pht v khng
th b qua. Phng trnh NSE khi tnh n c suy hao si c dng:

u
i
u u
u u
i +

2 2
1 2
2
2

(3.13)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 41
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Khong cch, z/L
D
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Vi 2
2
0
/ T I
D

l suy hao si qua chiu di tn sc.
Khi 1 << ta c th coi nh c mt s dao ng nh v nghim phng
trnh (3.13) c tnh xp x [7]:

[ ] [ ]

'

) 2 exp( 1 )
4
( exp ) exp( sec ) , (
i
h u
(3.14)
T ta thy bin soliton gim theo hm m. V rng soliton t l
nghch vi bin ca n nn rng soliton tng theo hm m vi khong
cch lan truyn tng nh sau:

) exp( ) exp( ) (
0 0 1
z T T T
(3.15)
S tng rng nh vy khng c mong ch v thng gy kh khn
cho truyn dn ng di. Hnh 3.5 miu t s ph thuc ca h s m rng
T
1
/T
0
vo

khi soliton c t trong si c


07 , 0
.
(1): S m rng soliton
khi
1 <<
(2): S m rng xung
trong trong trng hp ko
c mt cc hiu ng
phi tuyn.
(3): S m rng xung
vi
07 , 0

Hnh 4.5. S m rng xung bi suy hao si ( =0,07)
cho soliton c bn
Da vo th ta thy s m rng xung soliton khi c mt cc
hiu ng phi tuyn nh hn so vi trng hp tuyn tnh. Bi vy nh
hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn rt c ch trong truyn thng quang ngay
c khi soliton khng th duy tr hnh dng ca n mt cch hon ho bi suy
hao si.
Trong ng dng ng di, cc soliton c truyn qua khong cch ln
(hng chc nghn km hoc hn) m khng s dng cc b lc in. V vy
chng li nh hng do suy hao si gy ra, cc soliton cn c khuych
i nh k khi phc rng xung ban u, cng sut nh v nng
lng ca chng.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
R
x
R
x
T
x
T
x
Pumping
42
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
T
1
/T
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Khong cch, z/L
D
N=1
(3)
(2)
(1)
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
4.1.7. Khuych i soliton
Nh ni trn chng li nh hng ca suy hao si, cc soliton
c khuych i nh k b chnh xc suy hao si, lm cho xung c
duy tr hnh dng khi lan truyn trong si. S n gin nht cho khuych
i ging nh trong h thng truyn thng khng soliton (hnh 3.6a). Mt b
khuych i quang c t nh k dc theo lin kt si v h s khuych
i ca n c chnh sao cho b chnh xc suy hao si gia hai b khuych
i. Mt tham s thit k quan trng l khong cch L
A
gia cc b khuych
i, khong cch ny thng c tnh ton t gi tr ln nht c th,
gip gim thiu chi ph thit b. Trong h thng quang thng thng, L
A
thng bng 80-100km. Nhng vi h thng truyn thng quang soliton,
khong cch ny b gii hn khong cch nh hn nhiu. l v cc b
khuych i quang ch gip tng th nng lng soliton n mc u vo m
khng khi phc dn soliton c bn. Cc soliton c khuych i s sa
dn rng ca n mt cch ng trong on si sau mi b khuych i.
Tuy nhin, n cng lm mt mt phn nng lng di dng sng tn sc
trong sut qu trnh sa pha. Phn tn sc c th c tch ly n mt
mc ng k qua mt s giai on khuych i v iu ny cn phi c
trnh. Mt cch gim phn tn sc l gim khong cch b khuych
i L
A
sao cho cc soliton khng b o ln nhiu qua khong cch . S
m phng bng s cho thy rng y l trng hp khi L
A
l mt phn nh
ca chiu di tn sc (L
A
<<L
D
). Chiu di tn sc L
D
ph thuc c vo
rng xung T
0
v tham s tn sc vn tc nhm
2

, v c th thay i t 10-
1000km. Bnh thng L
D
< 50km vi h thng 10Gb/s vn hnh bc sng
1,55

m s dng si chun. Vic s dng cc b khuych i tp trung yu


cu L
A
<10km - mt gi tr nh hn gi tr mong i trong thc t khi thit
k. Tuy nhin, L
D
cng c th vt qu 200km khi
km ps / 1
2
2
<
bc
sng hot ng. Khong cch b khuych i t 30-50km l c th t c
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
R
x
R
x
T
x
T
x
Pumping
43
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 4.6. S khuych i tp trung (a) v khuych i phn tn
(b) b suy hao si trong h thng truyn dn soliton
Mt gii php khc l s dng k thut khuych i phn tn m cc
soliton c khuych i dc theo tuyn si truyn dn d liu. Tn x
Raman kch thch c s dng cho mc ch ny t nhng nm 1985. S
khuych i phn tn cng c th t c bng cch kch tp si truyn dn
nh sng vi phn t him erbium. Hnh (3.6b) biu din s khuych i
phn tn m cc laser bm tim nh sng CW trong c hai hng s dng
cc coupler si. Bc sng bm c la chn sao cho n cung cp h s
khuych i bc sng tn hiu. V h s khuych i c phn tn qua
ton b chiu di si, cc soliton c th c khuych i on nhit trong
mt cch nh vy m N c duy tr gn vi gi tr u vo N=1 d c suy
hao si. Tht vy, nu h s khuych i c cn bng chnh xc vi suy
hao si mi im trong si, N vn l 1 v soliton vn duy tr chnh n qua
mt khong cch ty . Tuy nhin, iu ny khng c tha mn trong
thc t v cng sut bm khng n nh dc theo si. Khong cch trm
bm L
A
ph thuc vo suy hao si bc sng bm v nng lng soliton
c th lch mt cht t gi tr u vo ca n. Thng L
A
= 40-50km nu s
lch ln nht ca nng lng soliton c th chu c l 20%. y L
A
c
th vt L
D
nhiu ln, tri vi trng hp khuych i tp trung L
A
<<L
D
.
Cc th nghim trc y v khuych i soliton tp trung vo s
khuych i Raman. Mt th nghim nm 1985 chng minh suy hao si
qua khong cch 10km c th c b bi h s khuych i Raman trong
khi duy tr rng soliton. Hai laser gi mu trung tm c s dng trong
th nghim ny. Mt laser to xung 10ps bc sng 1,56
m
. Khi vng mt
khuych i Raman, soliton b m rng khong 50% v suy hao (T
1
/T
0
=
z
e

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
R
x
R
x
T
x
T
x
Amplifiers
Pumping
Couplers
(a)
(b)
44
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
=1,51 vi z=10km,
km dB/ 18 , 0
). Khi cng sut bm khong 125mW, h
s khuych i Raman l 1,8dB c b cho suy hao si v xung u ra
c nhn dng gn ng vi xung u vo.
Mt th nghim sau c chng minh s truyn dn soliton qua
4000km s dng s khuych i Raman. Th nghim ny s dng vng
lp si 42km m suy hao ca n c b chnh xc bng vic tim vo
nh sng bm CW t laser di mu trung tm
m 46 , 1
. Cc soliton c
cho lu thng nhiu ln dc theo vng lp si n 96 ln m khng tng
rng xung l my, cho thy s khi phc xung qua khong cch 4000km.
Khong cch ny c th ti 6000km. Th nghim ny c chng minh nm
1988 m ra cc kh nng truyn cc soliton qua i dng. Tr ngi chnh
y l s khuych i Raman yu cu cc laser bm pht cng sut
CW>500mW bc sng 1,46
m
. S l kh khn c th t c mt
cng sut cao nh vy t cc laser bn dn v laser di mu trung tm. Cho
n nm 1989, vi s ra i ca cc b lc khuych i quang si EDFA,
kh khn ny c gii quyt. EDFA c th thay th cc b khuych i
thng thng vi nhiu u im:
- Mch n gin, linh hot (khng c mch ti to thi gian, mch phc
hi).
- C cu trc nh, d lp t v c th lp nhiu EDFA trong cng mt
trm lm cho h thng linh hot hn.
- Cng sut ngun nui nh nn khi p dng cho cc tuyn thng tin
quang vt bin, cp c cu trc nh nh hn.
- Gi thnh r, trng lng nh, nng cao khong cch lp v dung
lng
truyn dn.
Cc th nghim sau ny u s dng EDFA khuych i soliton v
cc soliton c th duy tr hnh dng qua khong cch di bt k bn cht
bm ca tin trnh khuych i.
4.2 Thit k h thng soliton
H thng thng tin quang si tc cao thng b hn ch bi tn sc
vn tc nhm m m rng xung v suy hao nng lng. Cc soliton ra i
gip cho ci tin hiu nng h thng, hn ch tn sc duy tr rng xung
nh vic cn bng nh hng ca GVD v hin tng phi tuyn SPM. Tuy
nhin, trong thit k h thng soliton, nhiu yu t gii hn khng trnh
c v cn c xem xt ti gin nh hng ca n. Cc nhn t chnh
gii hn khong cch truyn dn soliton gm suy hao si, tng tc soliton
v jitter timing.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 45
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Khi xem xt vn suy hao si, chng li nh hng ca n ngi ta
s dng cc c ch khc nhau ty thuc vo suy hao trn chiu di tn sc (
D
L
) v khong cch b khuych i L
A
. Nu
D
L
<<1 v L
A
>>L
D
, soliton c
th sa suy hao nng lng on nhit, c ch ny c gi l c ch ta
on nhit v s c tho lun chng k tip. Cn nu L
A
<<L
D
hnh
dng soliton khng b mo nhiu d c suy hao nng lng. Trong h thng
, soliton c th c khuych i hng trm ln m vn duy tr hnh dng
ca n. V tin trnh soliton thng c chi phi bi nng lng soliton
trung bnh trn cc khong khuych i L
A
nn ch vn hnh ny c
gi l c ch soliton trung bnh. Trong phn ny chng ta s xem xt cc vn
cn ch khi thit k h thng truyn thng soliton theo c ch trung
bnh.
4.2.1 C ch soliton trung bnh
S khuych i nh k ca soliton c th c tnh ton bng vic thm
mt s hng khuych i vo phng trnh (3.13) v NSE khi c dng
nh sau [7]:

( ) ( )u m G i u
i
u u
u u
i
A
N
m
A

+ +

1
2
2
2
1
2 2
1


(3.16)
Vi N
A
l s b khuych i;
) exp( , , /
A D D A A
G L L L
l h s
khuych i cn b suy hao si; Hm delta tnh cho bn cht tp trung
ca s khuych i v tr
A
m
; H s 1 G trnh by s thay i bin
trong sut qu trnh khuych i.
V s thay i nhanh ca nng lng soliton c a ra bi s
khuych i tp trung, ta thc hin chuyn i sau:

) , ( ) ( ) , ( a u
(3.17)

) , ( ), ( a
tng ng l hm bin thin nhanh v chm ca

.
Thay vo phng trnh (3.16) ta c:
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 46
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
( )
( ) ( )
( )


1
]
1

+ +

+ +

A
A
N
m
A
N
m
A
m G i
a
a
i a i
a m G i a
i
a a
a a i
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
) ( 1
2
1
) (
2
1
) ( 1 ) (
2
) ( ) (
) (
2
1 ) , ( ) (
0 ) (
2
1 2
2
2
2
+

a i
(3.18)
v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


+
1
]
1

A A
N
m
A
N
m
A
a m G a m G a
a
1 1
1
2
1
1
2
1

(3.19)
s hng cui trong phng trnh (3.19) l tun hon v ch gp
phn ti
A
m
,
) ( a
l hm tun hon ca

. Trong mi chu k
) ( a
gim
theo hm m v tr v gi tr u cui chu k .

) (
2
a
thay i nhanh vi mt chu k
1 <<
A

. V cc soliton tin trin t


qua mt khong cch ngn
A

, ngi ta c th thay th
) (
2
a
bng mt gi
tr trung bnh ca n qua mt chu k. S xp x ny c th c chng minh
bng vic s dng + vi

l soliton trung bnh tha mn hm NSE


chun:
i
0 ) (
2
1 2
2
2
2
> < +

a
(3.20)
v

l mt s dao ng ca

theo
,
tng i nh khi
1 <<
A

. Cng
sut nh u vo P
in
ca soliton trung bnh c la chn sao cho
1 ) (
2
> < a
. Suy ra:
P
in
=
0
1
ln
P
G
G G

(3.21)
Vi G=
A
e

, P
0
l cng sut nh trong si khng suy hao.
Hnh 3.7 miu t tin trnh soliton trung bnh trong c ch soliton trung
bnh qua khong cch 10000km, L
A
=50km. Khi L
D
=200km, rng soliton
c duy tr tt thm ch sau 200 ln khuych i v iu kin
D A A
L L /
<<1 c tha mn. Tuy nhin nu chiu di tn sc gim xung 25km,
soliton b ph hy v n khng lan truyn lu trong c ch soliton trung bnh.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 47
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

Hnh 4.7. Tin trnh soliton trong c ch soliton trung bnh qua khong cch
10000km vi L
A
=50km, a=0,22dB/km v km ps / 5 , 0
2
2
v a) L
D
=200km,
b)L
D
=25km

iu kin
1 <<
A

hay L
A
<<L
D
c yu cu c ch vn hnh trong c
ch soliton trung bnh. S dng L
D
= 2
2
0
/ T
, iu kin tr thnh:
T
0
>>
A
L
2

(3.22)
Tc bit B=
2
2
0
2
2 0
0 0
4
1
2
1
2
1

q
L B
L q
T q
A
A
<< <<
(3.23)
Da vo phng trnh (3.23) ta thy r rng s dng c ch soliton trung
bnh gii hn c v tc ln khong cch bc b khuych i ca mt h
thng soliton.
4.2.2. S khuych i phn b.
iu kin L
A
<<L
D
c p t ln cc soliton c qun l tn sc khi
cc b khuych i tp trung c s dng thc t lm cho kh khn tng
ln p ng c cc tc truyn dn c 10Gb/s. iu kin ny c th
c xem xt khc phc khi s khuych i phn b c s dng. K thut
khuych i phn b vn l mnh hn khuych i tp trung do vic s dng
n cung cp si gn nh khng b suy hao nh s b tn tht cc b ti mi
im dc trn tuyn si. Thc t, k thut ny c s dng vo nm 1985
nh s dng tng ch phn b c cung cp bi s khuych i Raman
khi si quang mang tn hiu c tp trung ti bc sng c chiu di
khong 1,46 micromet nh s dng laser mu trung tm. Thng thng, si
quang truyn dn c th c kch tp nh sng vi cc ion erbium v c
tp trung nh k tng ch khuych i. Mt vi thc nghim m t
rng cc soliton c th c truyn trong cc si quang tch cc trn cc
khong cch tng i di.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 48
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
u im ca s khuych i phn b c th thy trong phng trnh
(9.3.7) m c th c vit di dng cc n v vt l nh sau:

p z g
dz
dp
) ) ( (
(9.3.11)
Nu g(z)=

vi mi z, cng sut nh hoc nng lng soliton duy tr


khng i dc theo tuyn si quang. y l mt trng hp l tng m si
quang thc s khng b tn tht. Thc t, s tng ch c thc hin bng
cch bm tp trung cng sut mt cch nh k vo trong tuyn si quang.
Do cng sut tp trung khng duy tr hng s v cc tn tht si v s suy
yu tp trung, g(z) khng th duy tr khng i dc theo si. Tuy nhin, mc
d cc tn tht si khng th c b ti mi ni bn trong si, chng c th
c b y trn khong cch L
A
c cho:

A
L
L dz z g
A

0
) (
(9.3.12)
K thut khuych i phn b c thit k tha mn phng trnh
(9.3.12). Khong cch L
A
c xem nh l khong cch bc trm khuych
i.
Mt cu hi quan trng l c bao nhiu nng lng soliton bin i trong
mt vng tn tht khuych i. S m rng dung sai nh cng sut ph
thuc vo L
A
v k thut tp trung. S tp trung v pha sau c s dng
cho s khuych i Raman phn b bi v cu hnh cung cp tng ch cao
ni m tn hiu tng i yu. Nu b qua s suy gim tp trung h s tng
ch trong (9.3.11) c tnh l
( ) [ ] z L g z g
A p
exp ) (
0 , p

tnh cho chiu


di tn tht si ti chiu di bc sng tp trung. Phng trnh kt qu c
th c tch phn thu c:

'

1
1
]
1

z
L
z
L z p
A p
p
A

) 1 exp(
1 ) exp(
exp ) (
(9.3.13)
g
0
c chn m bo p(L
A
)=1. Hnh 9.12 cho thy p(z) bin i nh th
no dc theo si quang L
A
=50km s dng
km dB km dB
p
/ 25 . 0 , / 2 . 0
.
Trng hp cho s khuych i tp trung cng c biu din cho s so
snh. Tri vi nng lng soliton bin i vi h s 10 trong trng hp tp
trung, n bin i t hn h s 2 trong trng hp khuych i phn b.
Gii bin i nng lng c th c gim hn nh s dng k thut
tp trung hai hng. H s tng ch g(z) trong trng hp ny c th c
xp x bi

)) ( ( ) exp( ) (
2 1
z L g z g z g
A p p
+
(9.3.14)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 49
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Cc hng s g
1
, g
2
lin quan vi cng sut tp trung c phun ti hai
u cui. Gi s rng cc cng sut tp trung bng nhau v tnh tch phn
phng trnh (9.3.11), nng lng soliton tm c bin i nh sau:

[ ]
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
z
L
L L z
L z p
A p
A p A p
A

) 2 / sinh( 2
) 2 / sinh( ) 2 / ( sinh
exp ) (
(9.3.15)
Trng hp ny c ch ra trong hnh 9.12 bi ng nt t. R rng, k
thut tp trung hai hng l tt nht v n gim dung sai nng lng xung
di 15%. Gii m p(z) bin i tng vi L
A
. Tuy nhin, n duy tr nh hn
trong trng hp khuych i tp trung. Mt v d, nng lng soliton bin
i bi h s 100 hoc ln hn khi L
A
=100km nu s khuych i tp trung
c s dng bi t hn h s 2 khi k thut khuych i hai hng c s
dng cho s khuych i phn b.
nh hng ca s chch nng lng trn cc soliton ph thuc vo t s
D A A
L L /
, khi
1 <
A

s sa dng li mt t hnh dng soliton xy ra. i


vi
1 >>
A

cc soliton tin trin on nhit vi mt s s bc x ca dng


sng ri rc (c ch ta on nhit). Mt s cc gi tr ca
A

hot ng
phc tp hn xy ra. Thc t, cc sng phn tn v cc soliton c khuych
i cng hng xy ra khi
4
A
. Mt s cng hng c th dn ti hot
ng khng n nh v hn n. V l do ny, trong thc t s khuych i
phn b c s dng vi
4 <
A
.
M hnh ca cc h thng truyn thng soliton s dng s khuych i
phn b yu cu thm vo h s tng ch i vi phng trnh NLS, nh
trong phng trnh (9.3.4). Trong trng hp cc h thng soliton hot ng
ti cc tc bt B> 20Gb/s bi vy T
0
<5ps cng cn phi ni n tn sc
soliton bc ba (TOD) v mt hin tng mi c bit l soliton t dch tn
(SSFS). nh hng ny c pht hin nm 1986 v c th c hiu trong
cc gii hn ca tn x Raman trong xung. Hiu ng tn x dn ti s dch
xung lin tc ca tn s sng mang soliton khi ph xung tr nn rt rng
bi vy cc thnh phn tn s cao ca xung c th truyn nng lng n
cc thnh phn tn s thp ca xung thng qua s khuych i Raman.
S dch tn gy ra bi tn x Raman c th b qua i vi T
0
>10ps nhng
tr nn rt ng xem xt i vi cc soliton ngn (T
0
<5ps). Vi s c mt
ca SSFS v TOD phng trnh (9.3.4) c dng
[ ]

+ +

2
3
3
3
2
2
2
) (
2 2
1
u
u
u
i u g
iL
u u
u u
i
R
D
(9.3.16)
vi tham s TOD 3

v tham s Raman
R

c nh ngha nh sau
0 0 2 3
/ ), 6 /( T T T
R R

(9.3.17)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 50
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
i lng T
R
lin quan vi dc ph h s tng ch Raman v c gi tr
khong 3fs i vi si silica.
Cc kt qu m phng s da trn (9.3.16) cho thy rng k thut
khuych i phn b to ra cc li ch ng xem xt trong cc h thng
truyn thng soliton dung lng cao. Chng hn, khi L
D
=50km nhng cc
b khuych i c t cc khong cch 100km, cc soliton c bn vi
T
0
=5ps c trin khai sau 500km trong trng hp cc b khuych i tp
trung nhng c th truyn lan trn cc khong cch ln hn 5000km khi s
khuych i phn b c s dng. i vi cc rng soliton di 5ps s
dch ph gy ra bi tn x Raman dn ti cc thay i ng xem xt trong
tin trnh soliton khi n hiu chnh h s tng ch v tn sc tri qua bi cc
soliton. May thay, rng bng thng c hn ca cc b khuych i gim
tng dch ph v lm n nh tn s sng mang soliton i vi nh tng ch.
Di cc iu kin c th, dch ph c th tr nn rt ln bi vy n khng
th c b v soliton di chuyn ra ngoi ca s tng ch, mt tt c nng
lng ca n.

4.2.3.Nhiu b khuych i
Cc soliton l mt loi xung quang c bit c kh nng lan truyn qua
khong cch hng chc ngn kilmt m khng gy mo tn hiu. Nh
bit, trong qu trnh truyn dn, tn hiu trsoliton cng b suy hao lm gim
cng sut nh, xung s b m rng m bo ng c tnh ca mt
soliton. trnh tn hiu ny tn hiu ny tn hiu phi c khuych i
nh k b chnh xc suy hao si. Tuy nhin cc b khuych i li sinh
nhiu ASE (amplified spontaneous emission: s pht x t pht c
khuych i) lm nh hng quan trng n h thng.
Mt ph ca ASE ph thuc vo chnh h s khuych i G. hiu
ASE nh hng nh th no ti tin trnh mt soliton, ta xem xt dng
chung nht ca mt soliton c bn [6]:

( ) [ ]
,
_

+ + +

i i i q h u
s
2
) ( exp sec ) , (
2 2
(3.15)
Trong
, , , q
tng ng l bin , v tr, tn s, pha ca xung vo
ti bin
0
nh hng ca ASE lm thay i ngu nhin cc gi tr 4 tham s
, , , q
u ra mi b khuych i. Phng sai ca 4 tham s soliton c
th c tnh ton bng vic xem ASE nh mt s dao ng. Theo thuyt
nhiu lon on nhit pht trin cho soliton, tin trnh ca 4 tham s v s
nhiu lon soliton
) (
s
u
l [5]:
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 51
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

d u u
s s
) ( Im
(3.16)

( ) [ ]

d u q u
s
tanh ) ( Re
s
(3.17)

+

+



d u q u
q
s s
*
) )( ( Im
1
(3.18)

[ ] { }

+



+

d u q q u q
s s
*
2 2
) ( tanh ) ( 1 ) ( Re
1
2
(3.19)
Cc hm trn ng vai tr quan trng trong thit k h thng v chng c
th c thit k vi dng ty ca hm dao ng.
Vi ASE hm dao ng c dng:

) exp( ) , ( ) ( i i in u
s
+
(3.20)
Trong n(
,
) l nhiu ngu nhin, bao gm c s dao ng bin v
pha. Phng sai ca n lin quan n mt ph tp m ASE
S
nh sau:

S
G
sp
N
F
n 2
2

(3.21)

S
G
sp
N
F
n
3
2
2

(3.22)

S
G
sp q
N
F
n
6
2 2

(3.23)

S
G
sp
N
F
n
3
2
6
2
2

,
_

(3.24)
Trong : n
sp
h s pht x t pht.
F
G
=( ) ) ln /( 1
2
G G G
N
S
l s photon c cha trong mt soliton c bn c nng
lng E
S
(N
S
=E
S
/ 0 0 0 0
/ 2 T P
)
S dao ng bin lm gim tn hiu trn tp (SNR) ca dng bit
soliton. S dao ng tn gy ra mt jitter timing nh hng n hiu nng
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 52
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ca h thng truyn thng soliton m gii hn khong cch truyn dn. Vn
jitter timing s c ni n ngay sau y.
4.2.4. Tin trnh thc nghim.
Hnh 4.8. Th nghim thit lp truyn dn soliton 2 b EDFA t sau b
iu ch LiNO
3
hot ng nh mt b tng th cng sut.
Hnh 3.12 biu din mt th nghim s dng b iu ch cng
LiNO
3
tc ng n tn hiu trn dy xung. Dy bit soliton c truyn
qua nhiu on si vi suy hao mi on c b bi mt b EDFA.
Khong cch b khuych i c la chn tha mn iu kin L
A
<<L
D
v
thng t 25-40km.
Trong mt th nghim nm 1991, cc soliton truyn qua 1000km tc
100Gb/s. Cc soliton rng 45ps cho php khong cch b khuych i l
50km trong c ch soliton trung bnh.
T nm 1991 tr i hu ht cc th nghim truyn thng soliton u s
dng cu hnh vng lp si tun hon tit kim chi ph. Cng trong mt
th nghim nm 1991, cc soliton 2,5Gb/s truyn qua c khong cch
12000km s dng vng lp si 75km cha ba b khuych i EDFA, t
cch nhau 25km (hnh 3.13).
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 53
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 4.8. Cu hnh vng lp tun hon truyn dn qua 12000km tc
2,5Gb/s.
Trong th nghim ny, BL=30(Tb/s)km, b gii hn chnh bi jitter
timing cm ng b khuych i. Vn jitter sau c gii quyt bng
cc b lc quang.
4.3. Cc soliton c qun l tn sc.
4.3.1. Cc si gim tn sc.
Mt k thut hp dn c ra nm 1987 p ng hon ton iu kin
kht khe L
A
<<L
D
c p t i vi si qun l suy hao bng cch gim
GVD dc theo tuyn si. Cc si c gi l si gim tn sc (DDF) v
c thit k sao cho gim GVD lm dung ha SPM b gim tri qua bi cc
soliton b lm yu bi cc si suy hao.
V qun l tn sc c s dng kt hp vi qun l suy hao, tin trnh
soliton trong mt DDF c m t bi phng trnh (9.3.6) vi h s o
hm bc hai c mt tham s mi d l hm ca

do cc bin i ca GVD
dc theo chiu di si. Phng trnh NLS c dng nh sau:

0 ) ( ) (
2
1 2
2
2
+

v v p
v
d
v
i

(9.4.1)
vi
) 0 ( / ) ( ) ( , /
2 2
d p u v
, v
) ( p
l gii cc s bin i cng sut
nh c gii thiu bi qun l suy hao. Khong cch

c chun ha
i vi chiu di tn sc,
) 0 ( /
2
2
0
T L
D

, c xc nh nh s dng GVD
ti u vo si quang.
V

ph thuc vo cc h s th hai v ba, phng trnh (9.4.1) khng


phi l mt phng trnh NLS chun. Tuy nhin n c th c gim n
ch ph thuc vo h s th nht nu chng ta gii thiu bin truyn lan mi
nh sau:
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 54
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton


0
'
) ( d d
(9.4.2)
gi tr ny chun ha li phm vi khong cch i vi gi tr cc b ca
GVD. Trong cc h s ca
'

phng trnh (9.4.1) tr thnh



0
) (
) (
2
1 2
2
2
'
+

v v
d
p v v
i


(9.4.3)
Nu dng GVD c chn bi vy d(

)=p(

)=exp(-

). Phng trnh
(9.4.3) gim phng trnh NLS chun thu c vi s c mt ca cc tn
tht si quang. Kt qu cc tn tht quang khng nh hng trn soliton mc
d nng lng b suy gim khi cc DDF c s dng. Cc b khuych i
tp trung c th c t ti mt s khong cch v khng b hn ch bi
iu kin L
A
<<L
D
.
S phn tch trn cho thy rng cc soliton c bn c th c duy tr
trong s b tn tht cung cp cho GVD ca n s gim theo hm m:

) exp( ) 0 ( ) (
2 2
z z
(9.4.4)
kt qu c th d hiu bi lu rng cng sut nh soliton P
0
gim theo
hm m trong si suy hao mt cch chnh xc nh trn. D dng suy ra t
phng trnh (9.1.4) rng yu cu N=1 c th c duy tr mc d suy hao
cng sut, nu c
,
2
gim theo hm m cng mt tc . Sau soliton
c bn duy tr dng v rng xung ca n thm ch trong si suy hao.

4.3.2. Tin trnh thc nghim.
Cc soliton qun l tn sc c th to ra mt s li ch cho h thng
truyn dn soliton, chng hn nh ci thin t s tn hiu trn nhiu, gim
jitter timing.
Cc k thut qun l tn sc c s dng cho cc soliton u nm
1992 mc d lin quan n cc tn nh truyn thng soliton thnh phn v
s phn b tn sc. Trong dng n gin nht ca qun l tn sc, mt phn
tng i ngn ca si b tn sc (DCF) c thm vo nh k i vi si
truyn dn to ra biu tn sc tng t nh c s dng cho cc h
thng khng phi soliton. Mt th nghim nm 1995 nhn thy rng vic
s dng cc DCF gim jitter timing mt cch ng k. Thc t, trong th
nghim 20Gb/s ny, jitter timing tr nn thp khi tn sc trung bnh c
gim ti gn vi gi tr -0,025
km ps /
2
m tn hiu 20Gb/s c th c
truyn vt i dng.
T nm 1996, nhiu th nghim cho thy cc li ch ca cc soliton
qun l tn sc i vi h thng sng nh sng. Trong mt th nghim vic
s dng biu tn sc theo nh k cho php truyn dn lung bt
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 55
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
soliton 20Gb/s trn tuyn si quang 5520km gm cc b khuych i c
t cc khong cch 40km. Trong mt th nghim khc cc soliton 20Gb/s
c th truyn trn khong cch 9000km m khng s dng cc b lc quang
trong ng v vic s dng nh k cc DCF gim jitter timing hn 3
ln. Mt th nghim tp trung vo truyn dn cc soliton c qun l tn
sc nh s dng cc biu tn sc m cc soliton c truyn hu ht thi
gian trong c ch GVD bnh thng. Th nghim 10Gb/s ny truyn cc
tn hiu trn 28Mm nh s dng nh s dng mt vng lp si quay vng
gm 100km si GVD thng thng v 8km si GVD d thng bi vy
GVD trung bnh l d thng (khong
km ps / 1 , 0
2

). Cc bin i nh k
rng xung cng c quan st trong mt vng lp si quang. Mt th nghim
na trong vng lp c hiu chnh to ra gi tr GVD trung bnh
khng hoc ln hn khng mt mc khng ng k. Truyn dn n nh ca
cc soliton 10Gb/s trn 28Mm vn c quan st. Trong tt c cc th
nghim cc kt qu rt ph hp vi cc m phng s.
Mt ng dng quan trng ca qun l tn sc gm nng cp cc mng
mt t ang tn ti thit k vi cc si chun. Mt th nghim nm 1997
s dng cc cch t cho s b tn sc v thc hin truyn dn soliton
trn khong cch 1000km. Khong cch truyn dn di hn c thc hin
nh s dng vng lp si quang quay vng gm 102km si chun vi GVD
d thng (
km ps / 21
2
2

) v 17,3 km ca DCF vi GVD bnh thng (
km ps / 160
2
2

). Chiu di biu S tng i ln trong th nghim ny khi
cc xung 30ps(FWHM) c trin khai trong vng. Cho n nm 1999, cc
soliton c qun l tn sc 10Gb/s c th c truyn trn 16Mm ca si
chun khi cc soliton c cc tiu ha nh chn v tr cc b khuych i
truyn lan.
CHNG V
H THNG SOLITON WDM
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 56
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
tng dung lng h thng m khng cn tng tc bt ng truyn
cng nh dng thm cc si dn quang, ngi ta s dng k thut ghp knh
phn chia theo bc sng. H thng soliton WDM truyn qua cng mt si
vi nhiu dng bt soliton c cc tn s sng mang khc nhau. Trong chng
ny chng ta s nghin cu cc vn lin quan n mt h thng nh vy.
5.1. Cc xung t xuyn knh.
Mt c tnh mi m tr nn quan trng i vi h thng WDM l kh
nng xung t gia cc soliton thuc v cc knh khc nhau v cc vn tc
nhm truyn lan khc nhau. hiu c s quan trng ca cc s xung t
mt cch tt nht, trc ht chng ta tp trung vo s truyn lan cc soliton
chun trong cc DDF v s dng phng trnh (9.4.3) khi tnh n cc nh
hng ca c suy hao v tn sc. B du phy trn

ta c phng trnh:

0 ) (
2
1 2
2
2
+

v v b
v v
i

(1)
vi
) ( / ) ( ) ( d p b
, dng hm ca
) ( b
ph thuc chi tit vo k thut qun
l suy hao v tn sc. nh hng ca s xung t xuyn knh vo hiu sut
ca cc h thng WDM c th c hiu tt nht bng cch xem xt trng
hp n gin nht 2 knh WDM c phn tch bi f
ch
. Trong cc n v
c chun ha, cc soliton c phn tch trong tn s bi 0
2 T f
ch ch

,
thay v=u
1
+u
2
trong (1) v b qua cc h s FWM cc soliton trong mi knh
pht trin theo hai phng trnh sau:
( ) 0 2 ) (
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ +

u u u b
u u
i

(2)
( ) 0 2 ) (
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ +

u u u b
u u
i

(3)
Lu rng hai soliton c truyn cc tc khc nhau do cc tn s
ca chng khc nhau. Cui cng, h s XPM ch quan trng khi cc soliton
thuc v cc knh khc nhau chng nhau trong sut thi gian mt xung t.
iu quan trng l xc nh chiu di xung t L
coll
m hai soliton tng
tc vi nhau trc khi chng tch ra. Ci kh l ch ra c th im bt u v
kt thc mt xung t. Thng s dng 2T
s
cho khong thi gian mt xung
t xy ra, gi s rng xung t bt u v kt thc khi hai soliton chng
nhau ti cc im na cng sut ca chng. V tc tng i ca hai
soliton l
( )
1
0 2
/

T v
ch

, chiu di xung t c cho bi :


L
coll
=
ch
s
Bf q
T v
2 0
28 , 0
) 2 (


(4)
vi T
s
=1,763T
0
v B=1/(2q
0
T
0
)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 57
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
V XPM gy ra mt s dch pha c lp v mt thi gian dn ti dch tn
soliton trong khong thi gian mt xung t. C th s dng k thut b
nhiu hoc phng php mmen tnh ton s dch tn ny. Nu chng ta
gi s rng trc khi xung t hai soliton ging nhau, u
1
, u
2
c cho bi:

[ ]
m m m m m
i i i h u + + + 2 / ) 1 ( exp ) ( sec ) , (
2
(5)
vi
ch m

2
1

vi m=1 v
ch m

2
1

vi m=2. S dng phng php


mmen, dch tn ca knh u tin bin i theo khong cch l:

d u
u
b
d
d 2
2
1
1
) ( (6)
Qu trnh bin i tnh ton cho ta kt qu:

,
_

Z
Z Z Z
dZ
d Z b
dZ
d
ch
3
1
sinh
sinh cosh ) ( 4
(7)
vi Z=

ch

. Phng trnh ny cung cp cc thay i trong tn s soliton


trong sut thi gian nhiu xuyn knh, di cc iu kin tng i tng
qut.
Hnh5.1. (a) dch tn trong khong thi gian xung t ca hai soliton
rng 50ps vi rng knh 75GHz (b) d dch tn sau xung t do cc
b khuych i tp trung L
A
=20 v 40km i vi cc trng hp ng
cong theo trnh t thp hn. Kt qu m phng s c cho bi cc chm
en trn.
Hnh (a) cho thy tn s ca soliton di chuyn chm thay i nh th no
trong khong thi gian xung t ca hai soliton 50ps khi rng knh l
75GHz. S dch tn vt ra ngoi phm vi chiu di mt soliton khi hai
soliton tip cn nhau t ti gi tr cng sut nh xp x 0.6GHz ti im
chng xung cc i va sau gim tr li khng khi hai soliton tch ra. S
dch tn cc i ph thuc vo rng knh
ch
f T f
2
0
2
3 / 1 max
.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Khe bt
Bt c xc

nh l 1
Bin
58
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 1
Amplitde

Timing jitter
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
V vn tc ca soliton thay i theo tn s ca n, xung t c th tng
tc hoc gim tc mt soliton, ph thuc vo s tng hay gim tn s. Ti
u cui ca xung t mi soliton khi phc li tn s v tc vn c ca
n trc khi xy ra xung t, nhng v tr ca n trong khe bit th b thay
i hay jitter timing xy ra.
Nu tt c cc khe bt b chim, cc dch thi khng phi gy ra bi xung
t v tt c cc soliton s b dch cng mt lng nh nhau. Tuy nhin cc
bt 1 v 0 bin i mt cch ngu nhin trong chui bt thc. V cc soliton
khc nhau ca mt knh dch khc nhau, cc xung t xuyn knh bao gm
mt s jitter timing thm ch trong cc si khng suy hao.
CHNG VI
JITTER TRONG H THNG SOLITON
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Khe bt
Bt c xc

nh l 1
Bin
59
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 1
Amplitde

Timing jitter
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 0
Amplitde

ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
6.1. Khi nim jitter timing
Tc bit ca h thng truyn thng l s bit thng tin c truyn qua
trong mt n v thi gian nht nh. B thu quang phi ly mu tn hiu
trung tm mi khe bit v xc nh xem l bit 0 hay 1 da trn bin tn
hiu o c gia khe bit. S hin din ca soliton trong khe bit ngha l
bit c xc nh bng 1, ngc li c xc nh l 0. Chui bit n b thu
phi c tm ng xy dng li d liu gi pha pht. Trong trng
hp l tng (khng c jitter), cc soliton c th n chnh xc gia khe
bit tng ng ca n v s khng c li khi nhn dng bit.

Hnh 6.1. Mt soliton khng b jitter timing, bin nh gia
khe bt
Trong thc t lun lun c s dao ng thi gian n ca cc soliton
pha thu c gi jitter timing.

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng
Khe bt Thi gian
Bt c xc

nh l 1
Bin
60
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 1
Amplitde

Timing jitter
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 0
Amplitde

ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

Hnh 6.2. Jitter timing dch soliton khi im gia khe bt v
gy ra jitter bin pha thu. Nu jitter khng qu
ln pha thu vn c th nhn dng ng bt.
S khc nhau v khe thi gian gia nh ca soliton v im gia khe bit
c gi l jitter timing ca khe . B thu s ly mu tn hiu gia khe
bit tuy nhin bin quan st s nh i nhiu. S khc nhau v bin o
c v bin nh ca soliton c gi l jitter bin ca xung. Nu
jitter khng ln, b thu vn xc nh l 1 (cng sut nh ca xung vn
trong khe bt).
Khi xung di chuyn ra ngoi khe bit, jitter ln, xung s b nhn dng sai.
V vy jitter timing phi nh khng nh hng ti hiu nng h thng.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 61
Bit Slot Time
Amplitde
jitter
Detects 0
Amplitde

Timing jitter
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.3. Mt li xy ra nu siliton dch ngoi khe bit v bin
V bin thu c thp soliton c nhn
dng l 0 hn l 1
6.2. Jitter trong cc h thng soliton.

6.2.1. Jitter timing trong h thng n knh.
Nu cc b khuych i quang b tn tht cho cc si suy hao, mt cu
hi t ra l nhng yu t no hn ch khong cch truyn dn ca mt
tuyn soliton. Cu tr li c cung cp bi jitter timing gy ra bi cc b
khuych i quang. Ngun gc ca jitter timing c th c hiu bi lu
rng mt s thay i trong tn s soliton nh hng ti vn tc nhm
hoc tc ti xung truyn qua tuyn si quang cng tr nn ngu nhin.
T cc tnh ton cho ta cng thc v dung sai cc thng ging v tr xung
soliton gia hai b khuych i c quan h nh sau:

+ +

n
n
z
z
n n n n
q dz z z z q z q
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 1

(1)
) (
n
z q
l v tr ca u ra b khuych i th n. Phng trnh ny cho thy v
tr xung thay i gia hai b khuych i v hai l do. Th nht, dch tn tch
ly
) (
n
z
to ra s dch thi nu GVD khc khng do s thay i vn tc
nhm. Th hai, b khuych i th n dch v tr mt cch ngu nhin bi
mt gi tr n
q
. D dng suy ra i vi trng hp chui N
A
b khuych i
thu c v tr cui cng nh sau


+
A A
N
n
N
n
n
i
i A n f
L q q
1 1
1
1
2

(2)
vi
2

l gi tr trung bnh ca GVD v gp i tng chnh t vic dch tn


tch ly trong phng trnh (1). Tuy nhin jitter timing khng ch ph thuc
vo cc s bin i v tr v thng ging tn s m cn ph thuc vo hm
tng quan cho (
q
) ti cng mt b khuych i. Kt qu c th c
vit nh sau:
( ) ( ) ( )


+ +
A A A
N
n
N
n
A
N
n
A t
n L q n L q
1 1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
(3)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 62
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.4. Jitter timing gy ra bi nhiu ASE l mt hm ca h
thng 40Gb/s c thit k vi DM-soliton (ng nt lin) v soliton
chun.
S dng cc kt qu t cc phng trnh khc ngi ta tnh c jitter
timing ca cc soliton DM l:
1
]
1

+ + +
2
0
2
0
0
2
2
) 1 2 )( 1 (
6
1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( d N N N d C N N C N
E
T S
A A A A A A
m sp
t

(4)
vi tham s d c chun ha lin quan n tn sc tch ly trn mt khong
cch bc b khuych i:

2
2
0
2
2
) (
1
m
A
L
m
T
L
dz z
T
d
A

(5)
Ba h s trong (4) c ngun gc nh sau. H s u tin trong du [] kt qu
t cc thng ging v tr mt soliton trc tip trong mi b khuych i. H
s th hai lin quan ti hm tng quan cho gia cc thng ging tn s v
v tr v c hai cng c to ra bi nhiu ASE. H s th ba ch do thng
ging tn s. i vi mt chui cc tng khuych i N
A
>>1, jitter b thng
tr bi h s cui cng trong phng trnh (5) do
3
A
N
ca n ph thuc v
c xp x bi

A D
T sp
A
sp
m
t
L L E
L S
d N
E
S
T
2
0
3
2 3
0
2
2
3 3

(6)
2
2
/
m D
T L
v
A T A
L L N /
i vi h thng sng nh sng vi tng khong
cch truyn dn L
T
. V s ph thuc bc 3 ca
2
t

vo chiu di h thng
truyn dn jitter timing c th tr nn ph hp vi s phn nh ca khe bit
i vi cc h thng truyn thng khong cch di, c bit ti tc bt xp
x 10Gb/s i vi khe bit ngn hn 100ps. Jitter s lm mt mt cng sut
ln nu khng c iu khin hp l. Hnh v trn cho thy jitter timing
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 63
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
tng vi khong cch L
T
i vi h thng soliton DM 40Gb/s c thit k
nh s dng biu tn sc gm 10.5km si tn sc vn tc nhm d thng
v 9.7 km i vi si tn sc vn tc nhm bnh thng (D=t 4ps/nm.km),
cc b khuych i quang vi n
sp
=1.3 c t cch u nhau 80.8km (4 chu
k biu ) dc theo tuyn si i vi s b suy hao 0.2dB/km .
i vi h thng soliaton c qun l tn sc mt cu hi quan trng
t ra l vic s dng qun l tn sc th c li hay c hi t quan im ca
jitter timing. Jitter timing i vi cc si chun c th c xem xt t cng
thc:

1
]
1

+
2
2
0 2
) 1 2 )( 1 (
6
1
3
d N N N N
Es
T S
A A A A
sp
t
(7)
Vi E
s
l nng lng u vo soliton nhn mnh rng n khc vi
nng lng soliton DM E
0
trong phng trnh (4). Vi mc ch so snh r
rng gia soliton chun v DM chng ta xem xt mt h thng soliton ging
ht ngoi tr biu tn sc c thay bi si n v c
const GVD
2

.
Nng lng E
s
c th c tm nh cng thc 0 2
/ 2 T f E
LM s

, f
LM
l h s
tng ch to ra t qun l suy hao (f
LM

3.8 i vi tng ch ). So snh hai


ng cong trong hnh trn cho thy jitter nh hn ng k so vi cc
soliton DM. Hnh trn cng cho thy cc soliton DM c gim cho khong
cch truyn ln hn. Lu rng phng trnh (7) cng c p dng i vi
cc DDF bi v cc s bin i GVD dc theo si c th tnh n tham s d
nh tnh trn.
i vi cc h thng truyn thng ng di, s lng b khuych i
ln bi vy h s
3
A
N
chim u th trong (7) v jitter timing trong cc
soliton chun c xp x bi

A D s
T sp
t
L L E
L S
T
2
3
2
0
2
9

(8)
So snh (6) v (8) ta thy khi soliton DM c s dng jitter timing c
gim xung ( )
2 / 1
3 /
DM
f . H s 3 c ngun gc ca n trong dng gn vi
Gauss ca cc soliton DM.
tm mt quy tc thit k n gin, chng ta c th s dng phng
trnh (8) vi iu kin
B b
j t
/ <
vi j
b
l s phn on nh ca khe bt bi
mt soliton m khng nh hng bt li cho hiu sut h thng. S dng
B=1/2q
0
T
0
v cng thc tnh E
s
t l khong bt to ra BL
T
cho cc soliton
c tn thy b gii hn bi
BL
T
<
3 / 1
2 0
2
9

,
_

q S
L f b
sp
A LM j
(9)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 64
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
i vi soliton DM h s tng nng lng f
LM
c thay bi f
LM
f
DM
/3.
Gi tr c th chp nhn c ca b
j
ph thuc vo BER c th chp nhn
c v cc chi tit ca thit k b thu; in hnh b
j
<0.1.
6.2.2. Cc loi jitter timing

6.2.2.1 Jitter Gordon-Haus
Nh cp n phn trc, cc b khuych i quang sinh ra nhiu
lm nh hng n c bin v tn s ca cc soliton c khuych i.
S dao ng bin lm gim t l SNR ca dng bit soliton. S gim ny
tuy khng c mong ch nhng cng khng phi l nhn t gii hn chnh.
Thc t, s giao ng tn s nh hng mnh m hn bi s cm ng jitter
timing. Ngun gc ca jitter timing l do s thay i tn s nh hng ti
vn tc nhm hay tc soliton lan truyn qua si. V dao ng bi
nhiu b khuych i nn thi gian truyn soliton qua si cng thay i mt
cch ngu nhin. S giao ng trong thi gian n ca mt soliton b thu
c gi l jitter timing Gordon-Haus [5]. Jitter timing ny sau chuyn
i thnh jitter bin m c th dn ti li nhn dng bt.
Ta d dng tnh c phng sai ca jitter timing bng vic s dng
thuyt nhiu lon soliton. Khi cc dao ng khc vng mt trong si, ta c
th t
0 ) (
s
u
.
T phng trnh (3.27) ta c:

q
d
dq

cui mi b khuych i jitter l
A
q
. V s dch tn ngu nhin
c tch ly qua mi b khuych i nn tng jitter timing cho N
A
b
khuych i l:



A
N
p
p
i
i A
q
1 1

(3.35)
i

l s dch tn cm ng bi b khuych i th i.
Phng sai ca jitter timing l:
3 /
2 2 3
2
2 2


A A GH
N q q
(3.36)
mt soliton c th n ng khe bit c gn pha thu c th nhn
dng ng, jitter thi gian n phi l mt nh ca khe bt, tc l
<
0
T
GH

f
i
/B
vi f
i
l mt phn ca khe bt m cc soliton c th dch chuyn khng nh
hng ti hiu nng h thng.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 65
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Thay
D A A A A T
L N L N L
vi
1
0 0 0 0
1
0 0
) ( ); /( 2 ; ) 2 ( ;


D S
D
A
A
L P T P N T q B
L
L

vo ta c :
( )

0
2
2
0
3
0
0
9
/
Dq h F n
L f
BL
T
L f
BL
T
L f
BL B f T
G sp
A i
T
GH
T i
T
GH
T i
T i GH

,
_

< < <



( )
3 / 1
0
2
9

,
_

<

Dq h F n
L f
BL
G sp
A i
T
(3.37)
Gi tr c th chu c ca f
i
ph thuc vo BER c th chp nhn c
v chi tit thit k ca b thu. Thng
1 . 0
i
f
.
Th d h thng truyn thng soliton vn hnh
1 . 0 , 518 . 3
, 50 , 2 ), /( 1 , / W 3 , / 2 . 0 , 6 , 55 . 1
-1
0


i G
A sp
f F
km L n nm km ps D km km dB q m
Ta c:
km s Tb BL
T
) / ( 48 <
Vi h thng 10Gb/s suy ra L
T
< 4800km.
Vy jitter timing Gorrdon-Haus lm gii hn n tc v khong cch
truyn dn ca cc soliton v l mt tham s quan trng cn ch khi thit
k h thng soliton.
6.2.2.2. Jitter m thanh.
L mt loi jitter timing gp phn hn ch tng khong cch truyn dn,
jitter timing m thanh c ngun gc t s to sng m thanh. S giam hm
trng quang trong li si to ra mt gradien trng trong hng ta trn
ca si. Gredien ny ca trng in lm pht sinh sng m thanh qua in
gio, mt hin tng m to nn s bin thin mt tng ng vi s thay
i vc t trng in ca xung quang. S bin thin mt ny lm thay
i ch s chit sut ca thy tinh, dn n cc soliton khc nhau c vn tc
nhm khc nhau, to ra jitter timing cn gi l jitter m thanh.
V cc soliton lin nhau trn mt khong thi gian ngn (khong 0,1ns
vi B=10Gb/s), sng m thanh c pht sinh bi mt soliton n c th
nh hng ti mi hoc hng trm soliton theo sau n, to ra s tng tc
gia cc soliton. iu ny c chng minh qua nhiu thc nghim.
Nu mt dy bt bao gm ch cc bt 1 sao cho mi soliton chim mt
khe bt, tt c cc soliton c th dch cng mt lc vi cng mt lng qua
s pht x ca sng m thanh, to ra mt s dch ng b ca dy soliton m
khng nh hng n jitter timing. Tuy nhin, v mt dy bt m ha thng
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 66
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
tin bao gm mt chui ngu nhin cc bt 1 v 0, s thay i trong vn tc
nhm ca mt soliton a ra s ph thuc vo s c mt hay vng mt ca
cc soliton trong hng chc khe bt trc . Nh vy, cc soliton khc nhau
thu c vn tc nhm khc nhau, dn n jitter timing. Tri vi jitter
Gordon-Haus c bn cht ngu nhin, jitter m thanh c ngun gc xc nh.
Tnh cht ny lm cho jitter m thanh c kh nng gim nh hng ca n
trong thc t bng vic di chuyn hai ca s tch sng pha thu qua mt
mch theo gii t ng hoc s dng mt s m ha thch hp.
Vi si c din tch li
2
35 m
v tc 2Gb/s, jitter m thanh c
tnh xp x l:

2 2 / 3 2 2 / 1 8
) / 18 , 1 1 ( 10 . 38 , 1 L B D B
acou

(ps) (3.38)
Mc d thng nh hn jitter Gordon-Haus, jitter m thanh cng gp
phn ln ti tng jitter timing ca mt h thng truyn thng soliton, c
bit khi tn sc si ln. V vy jitter timing cng l mt trong nhng yu t
quan trng lm hn ch hiu nng h thng m cn xem xt gim thiu
nh hng ca n.
6.2.2.3. Tn sc mode phn cc.
Trong h thng truyn dn soliton, tt c cc soliton c t vi cng
trng thi phn cc tuyn tnh u vo tuyn si. Tuy nhin khi cc soliton
c khuych i nh k, trng thi phn cc ca chng tr nn ngu nhin
v ASE cng thm vo mi b khuych i lm phn cc ngu nhin. S dao
ng phn cc nh vy dn n jitter timing trong thi gian n ca cc
soliton ring bit qua si kt ni cho phn cc v hai thnh phn phn cc
trc giao di chuyn vi vn tc nhm bng nhau. S tr gia hai thnh phn
phn cc to ra tn sc mode phn cc (PMD: polirazation mode dispersion)
kt hp vi ASE gy ra jitter timing v c tnh l

A
p
S
G sp
pol
L
L D
N
F n
2 2
2
16


(3.39)
T (3.39) ta thy pol

tng tuyn tnh vi khong cch truyn dn L.


ps
pol
38 , 0
vi h thng truyn thng ng di c
. 10000 , / 1 , 0 , 10 . 5 , 2 , 50 , / 2 , 0
5
km L km ps D N n km L km dB
p s sp A

. Mt
gi tr thp nh vy ca pol

th khng nh hng n h thng truyn thng


soliton 10Gb/s vi khe bt rng 100ps. Tuy nhin vi si c gi tr tham s
PMD ln
km ps D
p
/ 1 >
, jitter timing cm ng PMD tr nn quan trng
m nh hng ca n cn c xem xt vi cc ngun jitter timing khc.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 67
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
6.2.2.4. jitter gy ra bi tng tc soliton.
cc i ha tc bt, cc soliton thng c t gn nhau hn. Khi
khng c nhiu b khuych i, cc soliton dch v tr ca n mt cch xc
nh v lc ht hoc y gia chng. V lc tng tc gia hai soliton ph
thuc mnh vo pha v khong cch tng i gia chng- hai yu t u b
dao ng do nhiu b khuych i nn tng tc soliton thay i soliton
jitter Gordon-Haus. Xem xt s dao ng cm ng nhiu ca pha tng i
ca hai soliton ln cn, ta thy jitter timing ca cc soliton tng tc thng
c tng cng bi nhiu b khuych i. Tuy nhin, vi s khc pha u
vo ln gn bng

gia hai soliton ln cn, s ngu nhin ha pha dn n


gim jitter timing.
Mt kt qu quan trng ca s tng tc l thng k jitter timing lch so
vi thng k Gauss c mong ch cho jitter Gordon-Haus khi vng mt
tng tc soliton. S hiu chnh khng Gauss nh vy c th xy ra ngay c
khi tng tc soliton yu (q
0
>5). Chng hin nhin lm tng tc li bt v
cn c tnh ton nh gi ng hiu nng h thng.
Khi cc soliton c ng gi gn nhau, tng tc soliton tr nn rt
quan trng v cn c xem xt. Phng trnh (3.36) khng c s dng
m phng jitter timing trong trng hp ny m cn s dng phng
php m phng bng s nghin cu nh hng ca jitter timing c cm
ng bi tng tc soliton.
Kt lun: Nu khng c iu khin, jitter timing c th gy nhiu hn
ch n khong cch truyn dn ca h thng soliton. nh hng Gordon-
Haus, s to sng m thanh, PDM v tng tc soliton c th gp phn
ln i vi jitter timing h thng v cc phng php khc nhau phi c
trin khai iu khin mi loi nh hng ring .
6.2.3. Jitter timing trong cc h thng soliton ghp knh phn chia theo
bc sng
Ta ni n mt sn ngun gc jitter timing trong phn h thng
soliton n knh, mt s cc ngun khc tr nn quan trng i vi h thng
WDM. u tin, mi s xung t xuyn knh to ra mt s dch v mt thi
gian ca cng cng cho c hai soliton nhng theo hai hng khc nhau,
mc d phm vi dch thi l
2

ch
v gim nhanh vi vic tng ch

, s lng
cc xung t tng tuyn tnh vi ch

. Kt qu cc phm vi dch tng thi


gian l
1

ch
. Th hai, tng cc xung t m hai soliton lng ging trong mt
knh xc nh tri qua th khc nhau r rt. S khc nhau ny tng ln bi
v cc soliton k nhau tng tc vi hai nhm bt khc, b dch bi mt chu
k bt. V cc bt 1 v 0 xy ra mt cch ngu nhin, cc soliton khc nhau
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 68
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
ca cng mt knh b dch bi cc lng khc nhau. Ngun jitter timing ny
l duy nht i vi cc h thng WDM bi v s ph thuc ca n vo cc
phn bt k cn ca knh lng ging. Th ba,cc s xung t c lin quan
nhiu hn hai soliton c th xy ra v nn c xem xt. Trong gii hn ca
khong cch bc knh ln ( c th b qua s chng ph cc xung), cc s
tng tc a soliton c m t tt bi s xung t mt cp.
Hai k thut khc ca jitter timing s c xem xt cho cc h thng
sooliton c thc. Cc s xung t do cc vng tn tht tng ch to nn cc
s xung t khng i xng khi L
coll
tr nn ngn hn hoc c th so snh
vi khong cch bc L
A
. Cc s xung t khng i xng to nn cc dch
tn d tha lm nh hng tt c soliton dc theo tuyn si do mt s thay
i vn tc nhm ca n. K thut ny khng hiu qu v chc chn rng
L
coll
xp x 2L
A
. K thut th hai to nn mt s dch tn d tha khi cc
soliton t cc knh khc nhau chng nhau ti u vo ca tuyn truyn dn,
kt qu to nn mt s xung t khng hon ton. Trng hp ny xy ra
trong tt c cc soliton WDM i vi mt s bt. Chng hn hai soliton
chng hon ton ti u cui u vo ca mt tuyn quang s gy ra mt s
dch tn 4/(3 ch

) v na u ca xung t l khng c mt. Cc s d tha


dch tn xy ra ch trn mt s t cc tng khuych i u nhng gn lin
vi chiu di truyn dn v tr thnh mt ngun quan trng ca jitter timing.
Tng t i vi cc trng hp cc h thng n knh, cc b lc trt
tn s c th gim jitter timing trong cc h thng WDM. in hnh, cc b
lc Fabry-Perot c s dng bi cc ca s truyn dn nh k cho php
lc tt c cc knh mt cch ng thi. i vi s hot ng tt nht, cc h
s phn x gng c gi di 25% gim mn. Cc b lc c tnh
phn x thp loi b t nng lng t cc soliton nhng li hiu qu nh b
lc c tnh phn x cao. Vic s dng chng cho php khong cch bc
knh bng nm ln chiu rng ph ca cc soliton. K thut vt k duy tr
ging nh cc h thng n knh. C th hn cc dch tn s gy ra bi s
xung t c gim bi cc b lc ht tn s soliton chuyn chng v
hng nh truyn dn ca n. Kt qu l cc b lc gim mt cch ng k
jitter timing cho cc h thng WDM. Vic s dng cc b lc cng cho php
tng cc knh trong h thng WDM.
K thut iu ch ng b cng c th c p dng i vi cc h
thng WDM iu khin jitter timing. Tromg mt th nghim nm 1996
lin quan ti bn knh, mi knh hot ng ti 10Gb/s, truyn dn qua cc
khong cch vt i dng t c nh s dng cc b iu ch t cch
nhau 500km. Khi cc b iu ch c t cch nhau 250km, 3 knh mi
knh hot ng 20Gb/s c th c truyn trn cc khong cch vt i
dng. Nhc im chnh ca cc b iu ch l s cn thit gii ghp knh
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 69
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
cc knh ring. Hn na chng yu cu tn hiu xung ng h m c
ng b ha i vi lung bt. Vi l do , k thut iu ch ng b him
khi c s dng trong thc t.
By gi ta ni n nhng tin b ng ghi nhn trong cc th nghim gn
y trong truyn dn d liu soliton quang s ng di [1, 2] ghp knh
phn chia theo bc sng (WDM). Khi c so snh vi cc h thng
soliton n knh thng thng, WDM cho thy kh nng tng dung lng
ca cc thit b truyn thng soliton. Tuy nhin, vic s dng ghp knh
phn chia theo bc sng lm tng s quan trng c tnh l thuyt v thc
hnh. Chng hn, do s phn b theo chu k ca cc b khuych i, mt s
khng n nh cng hng c to ra bi cc gii hn phi tuyn (cc tng
tc trn 4 sng) c th lm suy gim trm trng tn hiu. Vn ny ang l
ti ca cc nghin cu gn y [3, 4]. Trong [3] cho thy vic s dng
c th nh th no ca qun l tn sc sau khi dng tn hao c th lm gim
bt cc nh hng tiu cc ca hiu ng trn bn sng. Vn nghim
trng khc ny sinh trong cc h thng soliton c gy ra bi s dch tn
v s dch chuyn kt hp thi gian n ca xung gy ra bi s tng tc
ca soliton vi nhiu b khuych i, mt nh hng m c pht hin u
tin trong mt nghin cu ni ting ca Gordon v Haus [5]. Nh c ch
ra trong [6, 7], loi jitter ny c th c gim ng k bi cc b lc nh
hng.
Trong cc h thng soliton WDM cng c th c cc nh hng x dch
nh thi nghim trng do xung t soliton khng ng b di s c mt
ca cc b khuych i, thnh phn m gy ra s dch tn vnh cu tn s v
vn tc ca cc soliton [8]. Mecozzi v Haus [9] ch ra rng s c mt
ca cc b lc cho php cc tham s solition khi phc dng gc ca chng,
gi tr khng o ln. Gn y hn, trong h thng hai knh, nh hng
trung bnh ca xung t n c xem xt [10] v jitter timing qun phng
do cc xung t soliton c tnh ton thng qua cc m phng s [11,12].
Tuy nhin, i vi s hiu bit ca chng ta khng c s phn tch theo
thng k tng quan no c to ra m a vo thc t mt s lng ln
cc xung t m xy ra trong si quang, v khng c cc phng trnh phn
tch c bit cho jitter timing gy ra b s xung t. Tng t, khng c
thuyt no tn ti m bao gm cc nh hng lin quan ca cc b lc, qun
l tn sc, v nhiu hn hai knh. Trong [13] vn jitter timing gy ra bi
xung t khi c mt cc b khuych i c nghin cu, v mt phng
php phn tch tm ra cc s x dch thi gian qun phng c gii
thiu. Trong phn ny phng php c ci thin xt n cc nh
hng ca cc b lc v qun l tn sc dng sau mt mt dng. Cc gi tr
c trng c a ra ca cc tham s h thng, chng ta tnh ton nghim
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 70
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
tng qut jitter timing qun phng v t l li bt ca h thng. Cc kt qu
phn tch ny sau c m rng i vi cc h thng a knh v qun l
tn sc. Trong trng hp hai knh v tn sc khng i, cc kt qu ph
hp vi cc m phng s c ni n trong [11, 12]. Cc ng dng h
thng quan trng, chng hn nh s lng cc i cc knh ph hp vi
chiu di h thng c a ra ang c tm hiu.
Ni dung phn ny nh sau: trong phn 1, thng qua cc k thut nhiu
lon soliton, chng ta nhn c t cc phng trnh cn bn cho php
chng ta tnh ton lch tn (phng trnh (10))v s dch thi tng ng
(xem phng trnh (12)) thu c t s xung t n gia hai soliton c
ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng trong si quang khng l tng. Trong
phn 2 chng ta m t phng php m cho php thc hin mt s phn tch
theo thng k ca nh hng tch ly ca mt s lng ln cc xung t m
c th xy ra trong ng truyn dn hai knh. Chng ta a ra cng thc c
th cho nghim jitter timing qun phng (xem phng trnh (18)) v chng
ra s dng cc cng thc ny phn tch t l li bt ca h thng. Trong
phn 3 chng ta khi qut ha cc kt qu trc nghin cu cc h thng
a knh. Chng ta thu c cc c lng cc i cc knh ph hp vi
chiu di h thng mong mun (xem phng trnh (22)). Cui cng, trong
phn 4 chng ta gii thiu qun l tn sc v thu c cc phng trnh
c hiu chnh cho cc s dch thi (xem phng trnh (26)). Chng ta thy
rng s chn la thch hp ca biu tn sc cho php tng ln ng k s
lng cc i cc knh. Khi nim qun l tn sc ti u c gii thiu.
Ni mt cch khi qut, phn ny cha ng mt phng php lun m cho
php nghin cu chi tit jitter timing trong cc h thng soliton WDM a
knh vi cc s bin i ca cc nh hng nhiu lon, chng hn nh s
khuych i, c ch lc v qun l tn sc.
Chng ta lu rng vn tng t rt gn y c nghin cu c
lp bi Mecozzi [14] t mt vin cnh khc. Trong khi cc vn c
nghin cu l tng t, c hai s nghin cu khc nhau trong cch tip cn
s. Thc t, cc kt qu chng ta thu c sau khi thc hin xp x thng
thng hot ng b lc vi mt ng lng lin tc c phn b dc
theo ng truyn, trong khi cng vic ca Mecozzi l gii quyt c th
thuc tnh tp trung ca s phn hi ca b lc. Trong phn ph lc trnh
by ngn gn s so snh gia hai cch tip cn, c t tn l m hnh ca
cc b lc phn b v tp trung. Chng ta nhn thy rng cc kt qu thu
c vi m hnh tp trung th hin s nhiu lon tim cn ca trng hp
phn b cho gii ca cc gi tr tham s m chng ta xem xt.
6.2.3.1.Dch thi gy ra do xung t.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 71
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Trong phn ny chng ta thu c cc phng trnh cho dch thi to ra
t xung t n gia hai soliton trong si quang khng l tng vi s c v
khng c cc b lc. Phng trnh truyn lan c bn cho bin trng
khng xc nh q l phng trnh Schrodinger phi tuyn nhiu lon (NLS)
vi cc gii hn lm tt dn, s khuych i, v c ch lc:

[ ] [ ]q i q z iP q q q z D iq
tt z
t F ) ( ) 2 / 1 (
2
+ + +
(1)
Vi ton t P[z] m t chu k tt dn/ khuych i v F[t] biu din hot
ng lc, c ly trung bnh trong mt ln khuych i v F[t]. Hm D(z)
m t s chn la c th ca tn sc. Trong phn ny chng ta xem xt
trng hp tn sc khng i, tc l chng ta t D(z)=1. Chng ta s lm
vic vi cc si quang c qun l tn sc( tc l D(z) khng phi l hng
s) trong phn 4. M rng s phn hi b lc trong chui Taylor n F[t]
bc 3 c th c vit nh sau:

[ ]
3
3
2
2 0
) ( ) (
f t f t
i i i t F
(2)
Vi f

l tn s nh b lc, 3 , 2

l cc tham s b lc phn b v 0

l h
s tng ch c yu cu khc phc mt mt nng lng do s c mt ca
cc b lc. Cc bin z v t l di khng th nguyn v thi gian tr, c
bnh thng ha vi chiu di tn sc
*
z
v thi im c trng
*
t
:
) /( 2
2 2
* *
D ct z
v
763 . 1 /
*
t
, vi
m 1550
l chiu di bc sng trung
tm, D l tham s tn sc trung bnh,

l rng ti mt na cc i
cng xung v c l tc nh sng trong chn khng. Nu s lc c
thc hin bi b cng hng Farbry-Perot vi cc tham s khng th
nguyn l

[ ]
[ ]
2 * 3
2
*
2 2 2
2
) 3 / 2 ( ) 1 /( ) 1 (
), / ( ) 1 /( 2

ct d R R
z t c d R R
a
+

Vi d l khong cch bc gng, R l phn x gng (tham kho
[15]) v *
/ z l z
a a

l khong cch bc b khuych i khng c th nguyn
(xem di). Gi tr ca d ch ra s phn tch tn s gia cc cc i k nhau
ca cc hm b lc, v c chn bi vy s phn tch ny xy ra cng thi
im vi s phn tch tn s/chiu di bc sng gia cc knh,
) 2 /( /
2
c d
. S phn tch tn s thng da trn rng xung


trong min thi gian (xem phn 3). Vi nm 63 . 0 , gi tr tng ng ca d
l d=1.90nm. i lng R l mt tham s t do cn thit m quyt inh ton
b s lc c ng dng cho tt c cc xung. Vi
ps 20
v khong cch
bc b khuych i l
a
= 25km, chn R=0.045 v d=1.90nm thu c
2 3 2
41 . 0 , 25 . 0
. Nu R=0.083 c s dng, cc gi tr tng ng l
2 3 2
44 . 0 , 50
. (Lu rng D =0.5ps/nm.km v
Km z 94 . 201
*

c s
dng xuyn sut phn ny).
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 72
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Cc nh hng ca s tt dn v s khuych i c m t bi P[z]
trong [16].

[ ]

+

+
n
a
z
nz z e z P ) ( ) 1 (
0

(3)
Vi
*
z
l h s tt dn khng th nguyn v z
a
=l
a
/z
*
l khong cch
bc b khuych i khng th nguyn,
) (z
l hm delta Dirac. Gi tr
thc nghim c trng l i vi

v l
a
l
1
046 . 0 / 20 . 0 2

km km dB
v l
a-
=25km. Vi
ps 20
nhng gi tr ny to ra 62 . 4 v z
a
=0.12. Thng
thng chng ta thay i t l bin [ ] ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 / 1
t z u t z g t z q , vi hm g(z)
biu th vng tng ch/ tn tht nng lng nh k v s bin i trn t l
chiu di ca khong cch b khuych i - c so snh nh hn so vi
khong cch tn sc, bi v z
a
<<1. l g(z) l hm tun hon

[ ] ) ( 2 exp ) (
2
0 a
nz z a z g
, a a
z n z nz ) 1 ( +
(4)
i lng
2
0
a
( biu din t s gia cng sut xung sau mt b khuych
i v cng sut trung bnh ) bi vy c chn l gi tr trung bnh ca g(z)
thng nht trn mt vng khuych i, tc l

[ ] ) 2 exp( 1 / 2
2
0 a a
z z a

thay [ ] ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 / 1
t z u t z g t z q phng trnh (1) tr thnh

[ ]u t i u u z g u z D iu
tt z
F ) ( ) ( ) 2 / 1 (
2
+ +
(5)
trong trng hp l tng g(z)=1 v
0
3 , 2 , 0

.
Chng ta s thy c s th v trong trng hp c ngha vt l khi
cc soliton c tch bit rng trong vng tn s. u tin chng ta gii
quyt vi hai soliton: trng hp nhiu soliton c bn n mt cch tng
t v s l ch ca phn 3. Chng ta phn tch u nh sau

) ( ) , ( ) , ( ~ ) , (
2 1
O t z u t z u t z u + +
(6)
(tham kho [17,18]), vi
[ ] ) ( ), exp( S sec
0 j
z z t A S i h A u
j j j j j j

v
2 / ) (
2 2
z A t
j j j

, vi S
j
c chn sao cho hai soliton xung t ti
z=z
0
. Chng ta gi s rng A
j
v j

l cc hm bin i rt chm ca z v
i vi c tnh khuych i chu k z
a
. Thm na, chng ta thc hin tiu
chun ha A
j
n mt s ng nht v thit lp gi tr ban u
0 :
1 2
>
bi vy khong cch tn s khng th nguyn l 2 v
1 / 1 << (tham kho [17, 18]). Cng vi khong cch chiu di bc
sng vt l gia cc knh l
) / (
*
2
ct
. Thay u vo trong (5) v phn
tch cc knh tn s- tc l m rng trong vng ln cn ca cc tn s
2 1
,
to ra hai cp phng trnh cho cc knh soliton. C th, u
1
tha mn
[8]

[ ]
1 1
2
2
2
1 , 1
F ) 2 )( ( ) 2 / 1 ( u t i u u u z g iu
z
+ + +
(7)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 73
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
phng trnh cho u
2
thu c mt cch n gin nh hon i u
1
v u
2
trong
(7).
Nu khng c s nhiu lon, phng trnh NLS nhn vo v hn s cc
i lng khng i. Hai i lng u tin trong s tng ng l nng
lng tng W v tn s trung bnh M. Vi mi xung hai i lng ny c
nh ngha nh sau [8]

dt u
j
2
j
W
(8a)

[ ]
j
*
W / ) / ( Im dt u t u M
j j j


(8b)
vi du * biu th s kt hp phc tp (sau tt c cc s nguyn l khong
+
ngoi tr cc gii hn tch phn c th c a ra). C th, khi
phng trnh c th cho u
1
v u
2
c s dng, W
j
=2A
j
v M
j
= j

.
Thuyt nhiu lon soliton cho ta thu c dung sai (chm i vi chu k
b khuych i) ca cc i lng A
j
v j

bng cch ly o hm theo z


ca phng trnh (8) v s dng cc phng trnh pht trin cho u
1,2
(tham
kho [8]). Sau , s dng phng trnh c th cho u
1
v u
2
v yu cu W
j
l
hng s quyt nh tng ch c mong i:
[ ] 3 / 1 ) (
2
2 0
+
f

.
Tng t, xc nh phng trnh M
2
v thay cc phng trnh u
1,2
to ra
phng trnh vi phn cho (xem [10,12]):

) ( ) 3 / 4 ( ) ( ) (
3 0 f
z z f
dz
d
z g
dz
d

(9)
vi
[ ] ) 2 ( csc ) 2 sinh( ) 2 cosh( 2 ) / 2 ( ) (
3
z h z z z z f
din t s dch tn trong
min xung t l tng. Mc d phng trnh (9) ni ting trong phn ny,
cc kt qu phn tch khc r rt so vi cc nghin cu trc v jitter timing.
Chng ta nhc li rng nhiu nh ca cc b lc hc cng hng Fabry-
Perot c ly trng vi tn s soliton khng nhiu lon. Bi vy, t khi
chng ta nghin cu s tin trin ca cc soliton trong knh 2, ta thit lp tn
s b lc f

n gi tr khng nhiu lon ca


2

, tc l
) (
f

, vi s
thun tin chng ta ly t u cui bn tri ca si quang l

( tt
nhin, nu chng ta mun nghin cu soliton trong knh 1chng ta s t
) (
f

). Xem xt gii hn u tin bn l phi ca phng trnh (9) l


s bt buc chng ta thu c phng trnh vi phn c bn bc mt m c
th c ly tch phn mt cch chnh xc thu c:

1
]
1


'
0
'
'
' '
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 4 ( exp ) ( dz z z f
dz
d
z g z z z
z

(10)
vi
). ( ) ( ) ( z z
S d dch tn c nh ngha l
) (
. Khi c
mt cc b lc, ngay lp tc chng ta thy
) (
=0. Khng c cc b lc
chng ta thay

dz z z f z g ) ( ) ( ) (
0
'
.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 74
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
S dch tn
) (z
gy ra mt s dch thi gian n, thng qua s ghp
cp trc tip gia tn s sng mang soliton v vn tc nhm ca n. l,
s dch thi ti v tr xc nh L trong si quang c xc nh bi



L z
z
L
z
z z f
dz
d
z g e dz dze dz z t ) ( ) ( ) (
0
'
'
' ) 3 / 4 ( ' ) 3 / 4 (
'
2 2

(11)
Sau mt ln ly tch phn phng trnh (10) to ra cng thc tin li sau
trong gii hn L :

dz z g z z f z t
f
) ( ) ( ) 4 / 3 ( ) (
'
0 2 0

(12a)
(Lu rng tch phn m to ra s dch thi khi c mt cc b lc l ging
tch phn to ra d dch tn trong trng hp khng c cc b lc). Trong
mt gii hn khi chiu di cc b lc
2

loi b kt qu phng trnh (10),


i vi L ln:



dz z z f z g z z dz z g z z f dz z z f
dz z g z z f z L z t
nf
) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ) ( )( ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
'
0 0 0
'
0 0 0

(12b)
vi cc s hng nh theo hm m c loi b. S hng u tin l s ng
gp chnh, trong khi s hng th hai l s dch tn trong trng hp l tng
(g=1). Ta thy mt s th v l khi xem xt s ng gp chnh trong (12b)
(ch gi li s hng u) i vi L ln ta thu c mi lin h n gin

[ ] ) ( 4 / 3 /
0 2
z L t t
nf f

(13)
cho php mt s so snh trc tip ca jitter timing to ra t cc xung t vi
s c v khng c mt cc b lc.
Cc tch phn trong phng trnh (12) c th c tnh ton khng my
kh khn. V g(z) l hm tun hon, tt c cc tch phn lin quan n g(z)
c th c vit di dng cc s hng ca chui Fourier. Cc h s Fourier
l

... 2 , 1 , 0 ,
0
/ 2 2
2
0
t t

+
m
i m z
z
dz e
z
a
g
a
a
z
z iz m z
a
m
z
z

(14)
V vy chng ta thay (4) v trong (12a) v s dng phng trnh (14), cng
vi tch phn

) 2 / ( csc ) 4 / ( ) (
2 2 2 4 4 2 / 2
a a
z iz n
z n h z n dz z f e
a

tham kho [8]. Trong cch ny, sau khi sp xp li cc h s trong tng,
chng ta c th biu din
) (
0
z t
f

l mt chui sin Fourier:



[ ]


1
0 2 0
/ 2 sin ) 4 / 3 ( ) (
m
m a m f
z z m a z t
(15a)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 75
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
vi

[ ]
) 2 / ( csc ) / (
, arg ,
2 2 3 3 4 5
a a m
m m m m m
z m h m z c
g g c a



v vi

[ ] [ ]
a m
a a m
z m g
m z z g

+
/ arctan arg
, ) ( ) ( /
2 2

(Lu rng trong cc cng thc trc, lin quan n s gp phn bc


chnh, tc l gi tr khng b nhiu lon). Trong trng hp khng c cc b
lc, thay (4 ) vo (12b) v s dng
2
/ 1 ) (

dz z f
ta c

[ ] [ ]
2
1
0
1
0 0 0
/ 1 / 2 cos / 2 sin ) ( ) (

m
m a m
m
m a m nf
z z m b z z m a z L z t
(15b)
vi

) 2 / ( ) 2 / 3 ( /
2
a a m m
z m h m z a b
v h(x)=(2/3)xcoth(x)-1. Trong c hai trng hp dch thi ph thuc vo v
tr ca im xung t 0
z
lin quan ti cc b khuych i, v mt thc t
quan trng khi tnh ton cc trung bnh thng k.
Phng trnh (15) cng vi (13), l cc kt qu nn tng ca phn ny.
Trong cc phn sau chng ta m rng cc cng thc ny c c nguyn
l chung cho php chng ta thu c jitter timing v t l li bit ca h thng
soliton WDM trong cc tnh hung th v v mt vt l khc.
6.2.3.2.S phn tch thng k ca dch thi.
Tip theo chng ta tp trung vo phn tch thng k s dch thi trong
mt ng truyn dn soliton WDM. Chng ta mun tnh ton s dch tn
tng i trong thi gian n ca hai soliton k nhau trong mt knh xc
nh trc. V cc li ch c th, xem xt soliton trong knh 2 ti cc v tr n
v (n+1) dc theo lung d liu. Chng ta gi s rng khi soliton th n trong
knh 2 ang tng tc vi mt soliton trong knh 1(ti v tr z
n
) soliton th
(n+1) trong knh 2 cng tng tc vi soliton bn cnh trong knh 1 (tai v
tr z
n+1
). V cc soliton cnh nhau trong mt s knh xc nh c phn tch
bi khong cch chiu di b khuych i in hnh, gi tr ca im xung
t z
0
nh hng tng t so vi cc xung t ln cn. Bi vy s dch thi
tng i gia soliton th n v (n+1) trong knh 2 l mt nh hng ca s
tng tc vi cc soliton trong knh 1, c a ra bi ([13,19])

) ( ) (
1 1 , n n n n n
z t b b t
+ +
vi b
n
c th l 0 hoc 1 ph thuc vo m ha bt k ca d liu trong mt
knh: y b
n
=1 ch s c mt ca mt soliton trong knh 1, trong khi b
n
=0
ng khng c soliton no c mt. S dch thi tng i tng gia hao
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 76
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
soliton ln cn trong knh 2 c c bi ly tng trn ton b cc dch thi
tng i do xung t xy ra trn ton b chiu di h thng:


N
n
n n
z t b t
1
) (
(17)
vi n n n
b b b
+1

v N l tng cc xung t m c th xy ra trong mt si


quang ca chiu di tng L (di dng cc thnh phn ca z
*
). Mt khong
cch c bnh thng ha tin li l khong cch cc tiu m mt soliton
trong knh 2 s truyn lan gia mi xung t lin tc,
) 2 /( T z
s vi T l
chu k bit khng th nguyn (cng c gi l ca s thi gian). Nh
thng l chng ta gi s rng khong cch ca 5 rng xung gia cc
xung ln cn trong cng mt knh l
*
/ 5 t T
. Vi z
s
cho trc tng s cc
xung t trong si quang thu c l N=L/z
s
. Cng theo cch thng thng
chng ta a ra chiu di xung t z
c
ca hai knh l khong cch gia cc
im ca si quang ni im na cng sut ban u ca soliton trong mt
knh chng nhau v mt thi gian vi im na cng sut cui cng ca
soliton trong knh khc (xem [8]). Sau *
/ t z
c

, tc l z
s
lin quan vi
chiu di xung t bi mi lin h z
s
=(5/2)z
c
. Chng ta cng lu rng
L=N
a
z
a
vi N
a
l tng s cc b khuych i c mt trong h thng. V vy
tng cc s xung t cng c th c biu din l N=(2/5)(z
a
/z
c
)N
a
vi cc
h s ca cc i lng c th nguyn, t s khng th nguyn z
c
/z
a
l z
c
/z
a
=
) /( 2
a
l D
.
V tng s cc xung t dc theo si quang l ln (thng ln hn 100),
trong phng trnh (17) chng ta xem b
n
v
) (
n
z t
l cc bin ngu nhin c
lp. Vi b
n
l s ngu nhin xut pht t s m ha bt k ca s liu trong
knh 1; vi
) (
n
z t
n xut pht t tnh bt k ca v tr im xung t cng
vi v tr ca cc b khuych i. Chng ta gi s rng mi s xung t
c m t bi mt gi tr ngu nhin ca z
n
. Kt qu l cc gi tr ca
) (
n
z t
cng s l ngu nhin ( tt nhin ngoi tr trng hp l tng khi n l
khng i v bng 1/
2
). Gi s mt chui ngu nhin cc bt b
n
, vi phn
n
b
nhn gi tr 0 vi xc sut v cc gi tr 1 t vi xc sut . V vy
chng ta c [13, 20]
0 ) ( ) (
n n n n
z t b z t b
; nh vy, s dch thi trung
bnh tng i chnh xc bng 0. Hn na,
2 / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2 2
n n n n n
z t z t b z t b
. Cui cng, v
t
l tng ca mt
s lng ln ca cc bin ngu nhin c lp nh, s thng k ca n c
m t bi phn b Gaussian. Dung sai ca dch thi tng l tng ca cac
dung sai thnh phn. V
) (
0
z t
tun hon theo z
0
, cc trung bnh trn z
n
c
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 77
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
chuyn qua mt chu k b khuych i. Sau , s dng phng trnh (15a)
chng ta c
0 ) (
f
n
z t
v
2 / ) 4 / 3 ( ) (
2
2
2
2
a z t
f
n

, vi nh ngha

1
2
2
m
m
a a
Bi vy,
2
) (
n
z t
khng ph thuc vo n, khng ging nh trng hp
khng c cc b lc [13]. V th, s dng
( ) 2 / 1
2

n
b
chng ta thu c
dung sai ca dch thi tng l

( ) ) / ( ) 8 / 3 ( 2 / ) (
2
2
2
1
2 2
s
N
n
f
n
f
z L a z t t

(18a)
Mt s phn tch tng t c th c thc hin thu c s c
lng c ci thin khi khng c cc b lc. Trong trng hp ny chng
ta s dng phng trnh (15b). D phc tp hn do s c mt ca cc tch
cho, cc s tnh ton cng thc hin phn ln l ging theo cch trc. Do
s khc pha gia cc h s trong hai chui Fourier trong (15b) tt c cc gi
tr trung bnh ca cc tch cho dn ti gi tr khng v kt qu cui cng l

( ) ) 2 /( 1 ) 4 / ( ) 2 / 1 / )( 1 / ( ) 12 / 1 (
4
2 2
2
+ + + +
s s s s
nf
z L b z L z L Lz a t
(18b)
vi vic s dng
6 / ) 1 2 )( ! (
1
2
+ +

N N n
N
n
. H s u tin trong (18b) l thnh
phn chnh, trong khi thnh phn th ba (khng ph thuc vo chiu di h
thng L) biu din jitter timing gy ra do s xung t trong mt si quang l
tng v h s th hai trong (18b) thu c t h s th hai trong (15b) tc
l t cc nh hng lin quan ca hai tch phn cui cng trong (12b). Ni
chung, ch tnh thnh phn chnh ta c

( )
s
nf
z L a t / ) 12 / 1 (
3
2
2

(18c)
l kt qu c trong [13]. T t l ca (18a) v (18c) chng ta nhn c

( ) ( ) ) 4 /( 3 3
2
2 2
L t t
nf f

(19)
l kt qu cho php so snh trc tip h s jitter timing qun phng (rms)
trong cc h thng c v khng c cc b lc.
Trong hnh 1 chng ta v th jitter timing vi th nguyn rms ( ps)
( )
2
t
so vi chiu di tng ca si quang cho h thng hai knh: a) khng
c cc b lc, gi li tt c cc h s trong (18b); b) h thng c mt cc b
lc, phng trnh (18a). Trong c hai trng hp chng ta v th cc
ng cong vi z
c
/z
a
=2, 1.4, 0.7 cho
ps 20
, l
a
=25km v
25 . 0
2

. Lu
rng t nay v sau, chng ta chuyn i cc i lng khng th nguyn
thnh cc n v vt l bng cch nhn chng vi cc h s t l thch hp.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 78
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Ni chung, jitter timing rms c chia t l bi t
*
= 11.34ps v chiu di si
quang bi z
*
=201.94Km thu c vi cc i lng khng th nguyn
tng ng. Kt qu thu c t nhng hnh ny l c mt s gim cng
trong jitter timing gy ra do xung t khi c mt cc b lc. Kt qu phn
tch ny ph hp vi cc m phng s c trnh by trong [11, 12]. Gi tr
ca
( )
2
t
(ps) ti 10000km l mt hm ca z
c
/z
a
c biu din trong
hnh 2. Lu rng z
c
/z
a
cc i xp x 0.6. c tnh bin i ca
( )
2
t
c
th c gii thch bi lu rng, khi xung t c phn b trn nhiu b
khuych i, tc l vi cc gi tr z
c
/z
a
ln, cc ng gp ca cc b khuych
i bt u trit tiu nhau. Ngc li, vi cc gi tr z
c
/z
a
nh s xung t
xy ra qu nhanh lm cho cc b khuych i b nh hng ng k. (xem
tham kho [8] trong trng hp khng c cc b lc).
Bt u t cc gi tr t sau phn b Gauss, t l li bt c mong i
ca h thng soliton c xc nh bi (xem tham kho [21])

( )
1
]
1


2
t 2 rT/ erfc BER
(20)

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 79
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.5. Dch thi cn qun phng trong h thng WDM hai knh
vi
: 25 . 0 , 25 ), . /( 5 . 0 , 20
2
km l km nm ps D ps
a
a) khng c cc b lc; b)
c cc b lc. ng nt t: z
c
/z
a
=2.0; ng nt lin: z
c
/z
a
=1.4; ng
nt chm gch; z
c
/z
a
=0.7.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 80
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.6. Dch thi cn qun phng 10000km l hm ca chiu
di xung t: a) khng c cc b lc b) c cc b lc. Cc gi tr ca
2
, , ,
a
l D
ging nh trong hnh 1.
Vi erfc(x) l hm b li v r l tham s o nhy ca b thu c
nh ngha bng cch gi s rng s dch thi gian cc i b thu chu c
l rT. Ging nh jitter timing, t l li bit c mt nh cho z
c
/z
a
xp x 0.6.
Bi vy chng ta c th ni rng [8] gi tr z
c
/z
a
= 2 c xem l ph hp
vi gii hn ca vng an ton cho truyn dn s liu. Gii hn ny ph
thuc vo z
c
s hn ch nhiu khong cch tn s cc i c th gia cc
knh, v v vy s lng cc i cc knh trong h thng WDM (xem
di). Tuy nhin, vi s c mt ca cc b lc t l li bit cho mt h thng
hai knh l lun thp hn
10
10

, thm ch i vi cc gi tr ca r thp c 0.2,


v lun c
40
10

nu r=0.4. T nghin cu ny chng ta c th hy vng rng


vi cc b lc hn ch ban u c th c khc phc ng k, v mt s
lng ln cc knh khng li trong h thng soliton WDM ng di l c
th tr thnh hin thc. Mt phn tch chi tit cc kt qu ny, trng hp
nhiu soliton, v cc lin quan h thng ca s phn tch s l ch ca
phn tip theo.
6.2.3.3. Jitter timing trong cc h thng soliton a knh.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 81
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Cc kt qu thu c trong phn trc c th c khi qut ha i vi
trng hp khi c mt nhiu hn hai knh. l mt s ng ni khi trong
trng hp l tng cc tng tc soliton l theo hai kiu (xem[17,18]).
Chng ta gi s rng s tng t l ng i bc nht khi cc h s nhiu
lon c tnh n. Sau dung sai tng trong thi gian n tng i ca
cc soliton k cn trong knh th j l tng ca cc dung sai thu c t cc
tng tc vi cc knh J-1 khc, J l tng s cc knh. Bi vy, jitter timing
qun phng tng mi knh j l

( ) ( )



J
j k k
jk j
t t
, 1
2 2
(21)
vi
( )
jk
t
2

thu c t (18a) hoc (18b), c thay th bi


2 /
k j jk

. Lu rng nh mt h qu, z
c
tr thnh
) /(
*
t z
jk
jk
c

.
Trong cc bin c th nguyn,

c thay th bi k j jk

to ra
jk jk
ct ) / (
2
* .
Cc chiu di bc sng knh thu c l
[ ] 2 / ) 1 (
min
+ + J j
j

, vi
m 550 . 1
l bc sng trung tm. Do khong phn cch bc sng tr
thnh min
) ( k j
jk , vi
min

c ch nh do yu cu (l mt chun)
m cc knh k nhau c phn tch bi 5 rng ph. i vi cc xung
dng sech,
c / 575 . 1
2
min

. Ni chung i vi
ps 20
,
nm 63 . 0
min

. Ta
c khong cch phn tch tn s khng th nguyn l
6 . 5 , ) ( ) / 2 ( 2
min min
2
*
k j ct
jk

. i vi l
a
=25km gi tr ny
to ra
) /( 08 . 5 / /
*
k j z t z z
a jk a
jk
c

, iu c ngha l cc knh ln cn
c m t bi cc gi tr tng i ln ca z
c
/z
a
, v t s ny gim vi s
tng khong cch phn tch tn s.
V s lng knh tng ln, t l li bt ca h thng tng khng ch do s
lng s xung t tng, m cn bi v cc knh ngoi cng chu s xung t
mnh, m c m t bi cc gi tr ca z
c
/z
a
gn vi gi tr nh 0.6. Mt
cch khc xem xt nh hng ny l lu rng h s a
m
c nh ngha
trong phn trc suy gim theo hm m i vi cc gi tr rt nh ca .
Bi vy, khi khong cch phn tch tn s gia hai knh tng, chng ta
hy vng rng a
m
s tin gn gi tr cc i ca chng. nh hng ny c
minh ha trong bng 1 i vi h thng soliton WDM in hnh 8 knh.
Bng 1. Tng jitter timing v t l li bit trong mi knh ca h thng
8 knh vi
25 . 0 , 25 ), . /( 5 , 0 , 20
2
km l km nm ps D ps
a

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 82
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
chng ta a ra jitter timing tng tri qua bi cc soliton trong mt knh xc
nh l kt qu ca cc xung t vi cc soliton trong tt c cc knh khc,
thu c nh s dng (21) cng nh (18a) hoc (18c). (Khng c s khc
nhau no ng k c nhn ra trong trng hp khng c cc b lc nh s
dng s c lng chnh xc hn bi (18b). Bi vy c th thy cc knh
ngoi cng mang li hiu sut ti nht.
S dng cc cng thc thu c trong phn trc cho jitter timing tng
chng ta c th son ra mt c lng cho khong cch cc i ca truyn
dn khng li c th t ti c vi chiu di h thng mong mun. Thc
t, v erfc(x)<
9
10

vi 3201 . 4 x , nu chng ta yu cu t l li bt ca h
thng nh hn
9
10

phng trnh (20) a ra mt iu kin i vi h s dch


nh thi qun phng:
( ) r t
rms
1763 . 0
. Chng hn, vi r=0.4 v
ps 20

jitter timing rms cc i trong cc n v c th nguyn gy ra cho h thng
c th l 6.55ps. Chung hn, c t l li bt tng thp hn
9
10

trong mt
h thng a knh th cn thit jitter timing trong mi cc knh ring thp hn
0.1637
r
. Hoc, trong cc n v th nguyn, jitter timing rms cc i nh
hn 0.818
r
. Ln lt cc iu kin trc t ra mt gii hn trn i vi
chiu di h thng. Vi cc b lc chng ta c, s dng phng trnh (18a),
max
. 0 . 37 / max
2 2
2
; 1
2
,... 2 , 1
r L z a
J
j k k
jk
c
jk
J j

1
]
1


Thay
) /(
*
t z
jk
jk
c

ta c chiu di
cc i khng th nguyn:
I j j
f
r L
... 2 , 1 ,
2 2
2 max
max / 2 . 65


(22a)
vi


J
j k k
jk
jk j
a C
; 1
2
(tt nhin, gii hn tng ng cc n v c th
nguyn t c bng cch nhn (22) bi n v chiu di z
*
). Khng c cc
b lc, s ng gp chnh rt ra t (18c), vi cng cc i s,

3 / 1
... 2 , 1
3 / 2
max
max / 79 . 4
j
J j
nf
C r L

(22b)
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 83
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Trong c hai trng hp chiu di cc i b gii hn bi knh c ton
b jitter timing ln nht. Tng s lng cc knh, C
j
tng ng tng trong c
hai trng hp bi v tng theo k c chuyn qua mt s lng ln cc
knh v bi v cc knh c thm vo duy nht l cc knh ngoi cng
trong min tn s, v tng tc mnh hn vi tt c cc knh khc.
Cc gi tr to ra cho chiu di h thng cc n v vt l c v trong
hnh 3 so vi tng s cc knh, i vi
4 . 0 , 25 . 0 , 25 , 20
2
r km l ps
a

.

Hnh 6.7. Chiu di cc i ca chiu di truyn dn khng li i
vi mt s knh cho trc: a) khng c cc b lc; b) c cc b lc. Cc
ng nt lin: r=0.4; cc ng nt chm gch: r=0.2. Cc tham s h
thng l ging nh trong hnh 1
Nh c mong i chiu di cc i ca s truyn dn khng li gim
nhanh khi s lng cc knh c tng ln. Cng lu rng L
max
ph thuc
mt cch rt n gin vo nhy b thu r v chiu di b lc
2

, m c
ngha l cc kt qu tng ng vi cc gi tr khc ca nhng tham s ny
c th thu c bng cch thay i t l n gin.
i vi mt s chiu di L c nh, phng trnh (22) cng c th c
s dng thu c mt gii hn trn mt s lng cc knh c php.
Cho 10000km l khong cch gii hn cho truyn thng vt i dng
chng ta thy rng, i vi r=0.4 ch h thng 4 knh cho hiu sut tha mn
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 84
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
trong trng hp khng c cc b lc. Thm ch vi cc b lc nh hng
(vi
25 . 0
2

) s lng cc i cc knh c gii hn n 9 (r=0.2 gim
xung n 7). Mt kt qu tt hn c th thu c nu c ch lc mnh hn
c trin khai: i vi
5 . 0
2

gii hn trc tng ln n 21 knh. Khi
chng ta bt u xem xt phn tip theo, tt c nhng c lng ny s c
ci thin ng k bng cch thm vo s qun l tn sc.
6.2.3.4.Jitter timing trong cc h thng c qun l tn sc.

S gim jitter timing gy ra do xung t trong h thng hai knh vi s
qun l tn sc nhng khng c cc b lc c nghin cu v mt l
thuyt v v mt s [23, 24, 25]. Qun l tn sc cng c a ra xem
xt cc nh hng c ch trn jitter Gordon-Haus trong nghin cu v mt
thc nghim gn y [22]. Thng thng, cc phng php phn tch c
trnh by trong cc phn trc c th iu chnh d dng c mt ca qun
l tn sc. Chng ta quay tr li phng trnh (5), ni m by gi chng ta
cho php tn sc D l mt hm ca z. V s chun ha (tham kho [23, 25]),
chng ta thc hin s thay i t l

z
dz z D z
0
) ( ) (
, vi D(z) c chun ha
gi tr trung bnh ca D(z) l duy nht trong mt chu k khuych i, tc
l


a
z
a
dz z D z
0
1 ) ( ) / 1 (
. S chn la ny cho php mt s so snh trc tip vi
trng hp tn sc khng i v m bo rng a a
z z ) (
. Tuy nhin lu
rng s bin i t z n

c th o ln ch nu D(z) lun l duy nht mt


du; y chng ta xem xt trng hp D(z) l dng. Phng trnh bin
i theo u by gi tr thnh

[ ] )) ( ( / t F )) ( ( ) 2 / 1 (
2

z D u i u u z G u iu
tt
+ +
(23)
vi G(z)=g(z)/D(z). i vi bc nht chng ta vit nghim ca (23) di
dng
2 1
~ u u u +
vi 2 , 1
u
c dng

( ) [ ] [ ] 2 / ) ( exp sec
2 2
0

j j j j j j j
A t i t hA A u
vi
) (
0 0
z
. Bi vy, by gi cc soliton bin i theo

ch khng phi
l theo z. S thay i v hnh thc dng nh c mt h qu quan trng v
sau.
Chng ta p dng cc phng php quan trng trong cc phn trc cho
trng hp tn sc khng i. C th l, chng ta xy dng cc phng trnh
vi phn cho nng lng xung v tn s trung bnh vi cc th tc sau tng
t nh c s dng trong phn 2. S bin i ca tn s trung bnh by gi
c cho bi
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 85
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

)) ( ( / ) 3 / 4 ( ) ( )) ( (
) (
2 0

z D f
d
d
z G
d
d


gii phng trnh ny thng thng vit li cc h s ca bin z. D
dng thc hin bi lu rng
: ) ( dz z D d

2 0
) 3 / 4 ( ) ) ( ( ) (
) (
z f
dz
d
z G
dz
d
(24)
Chng ta lu rng phng trnh bin i i vi
) (z
l rt ging vi
trng hp ca tn sc khng i. Chnh xc hn, phng trnh (24) ging
phng trnh (9), rng: i) g(z) c thay bi G(z) v ii) cc soliton by
gi l cc hm ca

thay v z, l i s ca f. Ging nh chng ta lm


vi (9), chng ta gii (24) mt cch chnh xc (nh s dng tnh n gin
ca h s tch phn khi phng trnh c vit di dng cc h s ca bin
z), v chng ta thu c:

[ ]
'
0
'
'
' '
2
) ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 4 ( exp ) ( dz z f
dz
d
z G z z z
z


(25)
sau (nh trong (11-12)) chng ta ly tch phn
) (z
nhn c (sau
khi tch phn cc thnh phn)

d z G
d
d
f z t
f
)) ( ( ) ( ) 4 / 3 ( ) (
0 2 0 (26a)
v chng ta thc hin s thay th ngc tr li (tc l t z n

) a ra
kt qu dng n gin hn. Trong gii hn
0
2

chng ta c s thay th
i vi thnh phn chnh (xem (12b)):

d z G
d
d
f z L z t
nf
)) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0 0 (26b)
So snh cc phng trnh (26) v (12) chng ta thy rng ch c s thay
i t trng hp tn sc khng i l z
0
c thay th bi 0

v cc h s
Fourier g
m
ca g(z) c thay bi cc h s Fourier G
m
ca G(z(

)) (xem
(28) di). Tt nhin, s la chn l tng ca tn sc s c dng u thon
dn dng hm m m kt hp mt cch chnh xc vi dng ca g(z) (tc l
D(z)=g(z)), trong trng hp chng ta c G(z)=1, v tt c cc h s Fourier
tr h s u tin u bng 0. Tuy nhin, tuy nhin vic ti to li hm m l
tng l khng thc t, v phi s dng n mt s xp x bc thang
(stepwise). Trong k thut ny khong cch b khuych i c chia thnh
cc khong S c nhn dng bi cc im cui z
0
,z
1,
z
2
...z
s
(vi z
0
=0, v
z
s
=z
a
), v gi s tn sc l gi tr khng i D
s
trong mi khong con
s s
z z z
1 . Chui cc im trung gian z
s
, v mt s la chn ph hp cho
cc gi tr D
s
t c bi yu cu gi tr trung bnh ca G(z) l duy nht
trong mi khong con, tc l
[ ] : 1 ) ( ) /( 1
1
1

s
s
z
z
s s
dz z G z z
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 86
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

a
s s
s
s
z
z z
s s
a
z
z
z
s s
s
e
e e
z z
z
dz e
z z
a
D

2
2 2
1
2
1
2
0
1
1
1
(27)
(tham kho trong [25]). Lu rng s chn la ny m bo rng gi tr
trung bnh ca D(z) l duy nht trn mt chu k khuych i, tc l
1 ) ( ) / 1 (
0

a
z
a
dz z D z
. Cc h s Fourier ca G(z(

)) sau c tnh bng cch


phn chia thnh cc tch phn trong cc khong con S:



a
a
z
S
s a
s m z mi
a
m
iD m z
q
a d e z G
z
G
0
1
, 2
0
/ 2
2 2
)) ( (
1



(28)
vi s lin h
g(z)dz ))d G(z(
c s dng; cc h s s m
q
, c nh ngha
nh sau:

[ ] [ ] ) 2 ( exp ) 2 ( exp
1 1 , s s s s s m
im z im z q
,
vi

s
z
a s
dz z D z
0
) ( ) / 2 (
, trong khi a
0
c nh ngha trong phn 2.
Lu rng G
0
=1, bi v gi tr trung bnh ca
)) ( ( z G
l duy nht trong mt
vng khuych i, tc l


n
z
a
d z G z
0
1 )) ( ( ) / 1 (
.
Mi s thay i t g
m
n G
m
c thc hin, tt c cc th tc c
gii thiu phn trc c th vn c s dng i) tnh ton cn qun
phn jitter timing, ii) t l li bt v iii) c lng chiu di h thng cc
i. Ni cch khc, cc phng trnh (18-20) v (21-22) vn thch hp khi
a
m
c thay bi a
m
H
m
, vi cc i lng H
m
biu din h s bin i ca
cc h s Fourier, v c tnh bi

2
1 ,
,
2
1 ,
,
2
2 2
1
) 2 ( ) 2 (

,
_

,
_

+




S
s s m
s m
S
s s m
s m
z
a
m
m
m
d d e
m z
g
G
H
a

(29
vi

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
2 2
,
, , ,
, , ,
) 2 ( ) 2 (
, Re 2 Im 2
, Im 2 Re 2
s a s m
s m s s m a s m
s m s s m a s m
D m z d
q D m q z
q D m q z



+
+

Trong trng hp c bit xp x hai bc, ch tham s t do ca qun l
tn sc l t s ca chiu di trung gian z
1
n chu k khuych i z
a
,
a
z z /
1

. Ta c gi tr ca tn sc l

[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ]
a a a
a a a
z z z D
z z z D


sinh ) 1 /( ) 1 ( sinh exp
), sinh /( sinh ) 1 ( exp
2
1


inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 87
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Trong hnh 4 chng ta v h s suy gim u tin H
1
v mt hm ca
a
z z /
1

i vi s xp x hai bc cho trng hp l
a
=25, 50, 75km. Cc
ng cong kt qu ng lu l tng t nh trong cc trng hp hot
ng ca dch thi l mt hm ca khi c mt cc b lc; hoc mt cch
tng ng i vi hot ng ca s d dch tn trong trng hp khng
c cc b lc (tham kho [25]. Cng lu rng h s suy gim tng t p
dng khng ph thuc vo s c mt hay khng cc b lc, tham kho
phng trnh (19)). Thc t, cc tiu ca ng cong
) (
1
H
i vi l
a
=50km
t c ti 3418 . 0 , l gi tr chnh xc ph hp i vi gi tr l-
min
=17.09km nh ni trong [25]. Kt qu n tng ny l mt s ch th
rng, trong cc tng c cha trong cc phng trnh (17) v (18), mt
mnh h s u tin thng l thu c mt s xp x rt tt c kt
qu chnh xc cho jitter timing. Ni chung, iu ny xy ra khi khong cch
phn tch tn s gia cc knh l khng qu ln. Tuy nhin, i vi cc gi
tr rt ln (tc l cc gi tr nh ca t s
) /
a c
z z
nhiu h s hn trong
chui Fourier xut hin, v gi tr ti u ca khng th c tm thy
im xut pht c bn ca ch phn trc.
Trong hnh 5 chng ta so snh kt qu jitter timing ps cho h thng hai
knh vi s xp x hai knh, v vi
25 . 0 , 25 , 20
2
km l ps
a ti mt gi tr
in hnh
: 4 . 1 /
a c
z z
a) khng c cc b lc; b) c cc b lc. Trong c hai
trng hp chng ta biu th cc kt qu trong 3 tnh hung saU: i) khng
qun l tn sc; ii) Khong cch bc si quang bng chiu di bc trong
cc n v thc (tc l 5 . 0 ); iii) gi tr ca m to ra cc tiu ca H
1
(
416 . 0 ).
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 88
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.8. Hot ng ca h s H
1
c nh ngha trong (29) l mt
hm ca . ng nt lin: l
a
=25km; ng nt t: l
a
=50km; ng nt
chm t l
a
=75km. Cc cc i xy ra mt cch tun t i vi
2814 . 0 , 3148 . 0 , 4263 . 0
.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 89
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.9. Cn qun phn jitter timing trong h thng hai knh WDM
vi
4 . 1 /
a c
z z
; a) khng c cc b lc; b) c cc b lc. ng nt lin:
khng c qun l tn sc; ng nt t:
; 5 . 0
ng nt chm gch:
. 416 . 0 Cc gi tr ca
2
, , ,
a
l D
ging nh trong hnh 1. i vi 416 . 0
gi tr ca rms
t
ti 10000km l
2
10 . 416 . 1

ps hoc
3
10 . 484 . 1

lc mt cch tun
t i vi trng hp khng c v c cc b lc.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 90
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.9. Cn qun phn jitter timing 10000km l mt hm ca
chiu di xung t: a) khng c cc b lc; b) c cc b lc. ng nt
lin: khng c qun l tn sc; b) ng nt t:
; 5 . 0
cc ng nt
chm gch: gi tr m to ra cc tiu cho rms
t
, c nh ngha v mt
s cho mi gi tr ca a c
z z /
. Cc gi tr ca
2
, , ,
a
l D
ging nh trong hnh
2.
Hnh 6.9 biu din jitter timing rms 10000km l mt hm ca a c
z z /
cho
cc h thng c v khng c cc b lc trong 3 trng hp sau: i)Khng c
qun l tn sc (tc l
0
); ii)
; 5 . 0
iii) gi tr ca

m to ra s suy
gim cc i, c xc nh r v mt s cho mi gi tr ca a c
z z /
. Lu
rng, trong khi h s suy gim rt ln ng vi
5 . 1 /
a c
z z
, v vi cc gi tr
nh hn ca a c
z z /
(v ni chung gn nh, gi tr c xc nh ti
3 . 0 /
a c
z z
) h s suy gim tr nn tng i nh. Nh chng ta ni, iu
ny l v i vi cc gi tr nh ca t s a c
z z /
nhiu h s trong chui
Fourier gp phn quyt nh gi tr ca jitter timing. Bi vy, mc d vic
cc tiu ha v mt s ca rms
t
l mt hm ca c thc hin, nhng
vic to ra h s suy gim khng c mong i l rt ln, bi v mt biu
tn sc hai bc n gin khng c cc tham s t do cc tiu
ha cc h s Fourier tng ng.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 91
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Mt s suy gim ln trong jittet timing cng c thy khi gii quyt vi
trng hp a knh.
Bng 2: jitter timing tng trong mi knh ca h thng a knh vi
qun l tn sc. Biu tn sc hai bc vi 5 . 0 c s dng. Cc
tham s h thng c cng gi tr nh trong bng 1.
Mt v d , trong bng 2 chng ta biu din s so snh cc kt qu lin quan
ging vi h thng 8 knh trong bng 1, trong trng hp ny chng ta thm
s xp x hai bc vi
5 . 0
. Trong hnh 7 chng ta biu din cc c
lng ca chiu di h thng cc i vi cc n v c th nguyn i vi
mt s cc knh (cho
4 . 0 , 25 . 0 , 25 , 20
2
r km l ps
a

), tng t i vi 3
trng hp c m t trong hnh 5. Cc s thay i ny l ng k. Ni
chung, chng ta thy rng mt h thng m khng c cc b lc v s qun
l tn sc thch hp cho ta cc hiu sut m trong cc trng hp c th so
snh vi hiu sut ca h thng c cc b lc m khng c qun l tn sc.
Tuy nhin, s c mt ca cc b lc vn c cn thit nu mt s lng
ln cc knh c mong mun.
S dng cng mt phng php c m t trong phn 3, chng ta cng
c th c lng s lng cc i cc knh cho truyn dn khng li ln ti
10000km. Vi biu tn sc hai bc
4 . 0 , 5 . 0 r
s lng cc i cc
knh tng t 4 n 9 trong trng hp khng c cc b lc; vi trng hp
c b lc v qun l tn sc s cc knh tng t 9 n 39. Nu
416 . 0

c s dng, s lng cc i cc knh tng ln hn 9 v 41 knh theo
tun t cho trng khng c v c cc b lc. (Vi r=0.2 v
416 . 0
s
lng cc knh tng ng l 7 v 17). Cc c lng ny c tm tt trong
bng 3.
Cn mt h qu khc ca nhng kt qu ny l s qun l tn sc c
th cho php khc phc mt s hn ch h thng. Chng hn, vi l
a
=50km
v s xp x hai bc vi 315 . 0 (l gi tr m
) (
1
H
t cc tiu khi
l
a
=50km), s truyn dn khng li l c th i vi 4 v 11 knh cho cc
trng hp theo th t khng c v c cc b lc ( Khng c qun l tn sc
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 92
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
s lng cc knh tng ng c th l 2 v 3). Mt s s chn la tham s
c cho trong bng 3.
Hnh 6.10. Chiu di cc i ca truyn dn khng li vi s lng
cc knh c nh trc trong mt h thng c v khng c qun l tn
sc: a) khng c cc b lc; b) c cc b lc. Cc ng nt lin: khng c
qun l tn sc; cc ng nt t:
5 . 0
; cc ng nt chm gch:
416 . 0 . Cc gi tr ca
2
, , ,
a
l D
ging nh trong hnh 3, r=0.4.
Bng 3: S lng cc i cc knh truyn dn khng li, vi
) . /( 5 . 0 km nm ps D v cc s chn la khc ca cc tham s h thng cn li.
No DM c ngha l tn sc khng i; DM i vi biu tn sc hai
bc vi
416 . 0
.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 93
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Chng ta kt thc phn ny bng lu rng, khi jittet timing c xem
xt, mt biu tn sc ti u nh sau. Nh chng ta thy, i vi mt
s khong cch c cho trc c mt tng ng s lng cc i cc knh
N
max
ph hp vi truyn dn khng li. Ni chung, i vi biu tn sc
hai bc, con s ny s ph thuc vo gi tr c th c chn cho . Trong
hnh 8 l th s lng cc i cc knh N
max
l hm ca bi yu cu
truyn dn khng li trn khong cch c 10000km (trin khai cc gi tr
chun c s dng trc cho cc tham s h thng, tc l
4 . 0 , 25 . 0 , 25 , 20
2
r km l ps
a

). Hnh 8 cho ta thy r mt s lng cc
i cc knh N
M
=43 i vi
450 . 0
M

. Chng ta cng lu rng
416 . 0
M

, s tng ng sau cng cc tiu ha h s suy gim cho h s


Fourier u tin, tc l
) (
1
H
(hnh 4). Nguyn nhn ca s khc bit ny l
khi s lng cc knh trong h thng ln, cc knh u ra c m t bi
cc gi tr ca a c
z z /
m to ra s gp phn lm cc i jitter timing (Hnh
6). Nh thy trc, i vi nhng knh ny nhiu h s Fourier l c
ngha quyt nh i vi gi tr kt qu ca jitter timing. Thc t, chng ta
c lng rng, vi 40 N , tt c 5 h s Fourier u tin ng gp mt
cch ng k i vi jitter timing. Ni chung, chng ta cng lu rng, hm
) (
m
H
c m gi tr cc tiu v v tr cc tiu ca nhng hm ny l khc
nhau. Bi vy, ch gim h s Fourier u tin l khng cn hiu qu na, v
mt iu c th mong i l mt s lng cc bc ln hn s c yu cu
t c s gim ng k jitter timing gy ra do s xung t. Trong
trng hp ny hot ng ca h thng a knh (v bi vy s chn la ti
u ca biu tn sc) c th khc mt cch r rt so vi hot ng tng
ng ca h thng hai knh.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 94
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
Hnh 6.11. S lng cc i cc knh cho truyn dn khng li trn
khong cch 10000km l mt hm ca tham s trong biu tn sc hai
bc. Cc gi tr ca
r l D
a
, , , ,
2

ging nh trong hnh 7. ng nt lin l
mc ng cong ca b mt th hai chiu ca L
max
l mt hm ca N v
,ng vi L
max
=10000km.
6.3.Cc kt lun.
Phn ny chng ta pht trin v s dng mt phng php phn tch
nghin cu jitter timing gy ra do xung t trong h thng soliton WDM.
Cc c trng ca s nghin cu ny l nh sau: i) thu c cng c phn
tch dch thi trong h thng c v khng c cc b lc. ii) hot ng lc
c c lng nh s dng phng php thng thng chuyn i sang
ng lng lin tc. iii) S phn tch ngu nhin c pht trin thu
c dch thi rms m gy ra mt s lng ln cc xung t. iv) trin khai
cng c phn tch t l li bt, khi nim truyn dn khng li c gii
thiu v c nghin cu cho h thng soliton WDM hai knh. v) cc h
thng WDM a knh c nghin cu bi cc s m rng thch hp ca
phng php hai knh. vi) khi nim qun l tn sc c gii thiu trong
ng cnh ca jittet timing gy ra do s xung t. C h thng hai knh v a
knh c nghin cu cho cc gi tr in hnh ca cc tham s h thng, so
snh cc kt qu ca biu tn sc hai bc vi trng hp tn sc khng
i. vii) cc tiu ha h s suy gim u tin
) (
1
H
ca cc h s Fourier g
m
m t s ph hp vi cc kt qu trc ca h thng hai knh [25]. S
nghin cu h thng a knh, khi nim biu tn sc ti u c tm
hiu. viii) s dng cc gi tr thng thng ca cc tham s h thng (
25 . 0 , 25 ), . /( 5 . 0 , 20
2
km l km nm ps D ps
a
) chng ta nhn thy rng truyn
dn khng li trn khong cch 10000km l c th trong cc trng hp
sau: a) 4 knh m khng c cc b lc v khng c qun l tn sc; b) 9
knh m khng c cc b lc nhng c qun l tn sc; c) 9 knh c cc b
lc nhng khng c qun l tn sc; d) 43 knh vi s c mt ca cc b lc
v qun l tn sc ti u.
Thng thng, khi mt s lng ln cc knh c nghin cu, nhiu
nhn t m chng ta b qua l rt ng xem xt. V cc vn khc: tn sc
bc ba, cc gii hn va chm, tn x Raman, nhiu b khuych i, v nh
hng ca trt tn s b lc. Tng t, qun l tn sc s cn c phn
tch nhiu hn tm ra cc cch hiu qu gim cc s khng n nh cng
hng ca hiu ng trn bn sng.
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 95
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
KT LUN CHUNG
S ra i ca h thng Soliton l 1 cha kha gii quyt bi ton
truyn dn tc cao v ng di, khng nh l 1 trong nhng cng ngh
ca tng lai vi nhng u im ni tri l:
- Cc Soliton hnh thnh t s cn bng gia GVD v SPM c kh
nng duy tr rng xung qua khong cch lan truyn ln.
- Soliton c bn c xung u vo b dch pha trong qu trnh lan
truyn trong si nhng bin khng i lm cho n tr nn l
tng vi truyn thng quang.
- C kh nng n nh chng li s nhiu lon. V vy cc Soliton
c bn tuy yu cu 1 dng c bit v cng sut nh ring song n
c th c hnh thnh ngay c khi cc gi tr lch khi iu
kin l tng nh kh nng t sa cc tham s ca mnh.
- H thng Soliton khng cn s dng cc b lp in, gim chi ph
lp t.
- S dng cc b khuch i quang si EDFA c nhiu u im lm
cho mach n gin d lp t.
- C kh nng kt hp nhiu knh c cc bc sng khc nhau trong
1 si n mt tng dung lng v tc truyn dn.

Soliton c nhiu u im nh c tnh duy tr c hnh dng khng i
trn ng truyn. Song u thu vn c th thu sai cc bt tn hiu do cc bt
ny n sai v tr ca n m nguyn nhn chnh l jitter.
Vn v jitter cn phi nghin cu cn thn c cch iu khin hp l
nhm hn ch kh nng tn hiu thu b gim cht lng. Nhiu phng php
m phng bng thc nghim thc hin rt thnh cng cho kt qu gn vi
thc t to iu kin cho vic nghin cu c hiu qu hn.
Nhiu kh khn trong vn trin khai h thng soliton trong thc t.
Trong jitter ng mt vai tr quan trng. Mc d vy h thng soliton
ang ha hn mt tng lai ti sng.

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 96
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 97
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton
inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 98
ti tt nghip: Jitter trong h thng truyn dn Soliton

inh S Thc Ch- D2001VT Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng 99