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BI TON VN TI

I. Bi ton vn ti dng tng qut


1. Pht biu bi ton vn ti
Gi s c ngun pht A gm m a
im pht S
1
,S
2
,,S
m
cng sn xut mt
loi hng ha no vi tr lng tng
ng ln lt l a
1
,a
2
,,a
m
. v ngun thu B
gm n ni tiu th T
1
,T
2
,,T
n
cng thu
mt loi hng ha ni trn vi tr lng
cn thu tng ng ln lt l b
1
,b
2
,,b
n
.
Hay n gin, ta gi :

: l im pht th i
: l im thu th j
: c gi l lng pht th i
: c gi l lng thu th j
: l cc ph vn chuyn mt n v
hng ha t im pht th i n im thu
th j.
ma trn cc ph.

i
S
j
T
i
a
j
b
ij
c
( )
1,
1,
i m ij
j n
C c
=
=
=
Hng ha c th chuyn t mt im
pht bt k n mt im thu bt k.
Yu cu ca bi ton vn ti l :
Hy lp k hoch vn chuyn hng
ha t cc im pht n cc im thu
sao cho tng cc ph vn chuyn l b
nht v tha mn nhu cu thu pht.
Gi x
ij
l lng hng vn chuyn t
im pht th i n im thu th j.
Ta c :

: chi ph vn chuyn lng hng
x
ij
t im pht i n im thu j.

: tng chi ph vn chuyn hng
t cc im pht i n cc im thu j.
ij ij
c x
1 1
m n
ij ij
i j
c x
= =


: lng hng

c chuyn i khi im pht th i.

: lng hng

c chuyn n im thu th j .
1 2
1
n
ij i i in
j
x x x x
=
= + + +

1 2
1
m
ij j j mj
i
x x x x
=
= + + +

Vy ta c m hnh bi ton nh sau :




Vi rng buc :
( )
m n
ij ij
i 1 j 1
f x c x min
= =
=

n
ij i
j 1
m
ij j
i 1
ij
x a , i 1, m
x b , j 1, n
x 0 , i 1, m ; j 1, n
=
=

= =

= =

> = =

2. t bi ton vn ti di dng bng


B
A
T
1
: b
1
T
2
: b
2
T
n
: b
n
S
1
: a
1

x
11

c
11

x
12

c
12
x
1n

c
1n
S
2
: a
2
x
21

c
21
x
22

c
22
x
2n

c
2n

S
m
: a
m
x
m1

c
m1
x
m2

c
m2
x
mn

c
mn
3. Dy chuyn (ng i)
Dy chuyn l tp hp cc tha :
Hai lin tip bao gi cng nm trn mt
dng hoc mt ct.
Ba lin tip khng nm trn mt dng
hoc mt ct.
4. Chu trnh
Mt dy chuyn khp kn c gi l
mt Chu trnh ( hay cn gi l mt Vng).
X X
X X
X X
Dy chuyn ( ng i )
X
X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
Chu trnh ( vng )
X X
X X
X X
II. Phng php tm phng n xut
pht (phng n ban u)
1. Phng php gc Ty Bc
Chn (1,1) l phn phi hng u
tin vi lng hng x
11
= min{a
1
;b
1
}, chn
tip theo nm trong cng dng (nu ct
thu hng) hoc ct (nu dng pht ht
hng) vi chn t trn xung di, t
tri sang phi. Trong khi phn phi hng
ch ti yu cu thu, pht ca cc trm.
V d 1: Cho bi ton vn ti vi :
Ngun pht
Ngun thu
v ma trn cc ph

Tm phng n xut pht (ban u) bng
phng php gc Ty Bc
{ }
A 30, 50, 70 =
{ }
B 20, 40, 60, 30 =
2 3 1 4
C 1 2 4 5
3 1 2 1
(
(
=
(
(

2. Phng php Forgel.
mi dng v mi ct ca ma trn
cc ph ta tnh hiu s gia hai gi tr
cc ph nh nht trn dng (ct) .
Chn dng hay ct c hiu s ln nht.
Phn lng hng ti a c th vo c
cc ph b nht trn dng (ct) chn,
sau loi b dng (ct) nhn
hng.
Thc hin li phng php cho n
khi ch cn li mt dng hay ct duy
nht ( phn phi ht hng)
Lm li VD1 bng phng php Forgel.

3. Phng php cc ph b nht.
Chn u tin l c cc ph b
nht trong bng phn phi mt lng
hng ha nhiu nht.
c chn tip theo s nm trong
cng dng hoc ct vi va chn v
cng c cc ph b nht trong cc cn
li. Trong khi chn ta cng ch ti yu
cu thu pht ca cc trm.
Lm li VD1 bng Pp cc ph b.
III. Phng php th v
Cho bi ton vn ti vi :
Ngun pht
Ngun thu
v ma trn cc ph
Bi ton cn bng Thu Pht
{ }
1 2 m
A a , a , , a =
ij
C c , i 1, m , j 1, n
(
= = =

{ }
1 2 n
B b , b , , b =
m n
i j
i 1 j 1
a b
= =
=

Ni dung phng php th v
Bc 1:
Lp phng n xut pht ( bng mt
trong ba phng php : gc Ty Bc,
Forgel, cc ph b )

Nu s chn bng m + n 1 th
phng n xut pht l khng suy bin.
Nu s chn nh hn m + n 1 th
phng n xut pht gi l suy bin, khi
ta phi b sung thm cc (loi)
c phng n xut pht khng suy
bin, nhng c b sung vo phi
khng to thnh chu trnh vi cc
chn.
Bc 2:
Lp h phng trnh cc chn (i, j)
c dng u
i
+ v
j
= c
ij
H phng trnh trn c m + n - 1
phng trnh v m + n n s nn h v
s nghim. gii h phng trnh trn
ta cho 1 gi tr ty cho bin t do ( nn
chn bin t do l bin xut hin nhiu
nht trong h phng trnh)
Bc 3:
Tnh cc c lng cc khng chn
A
ij
= u
i
+ v
j
- c
ij
Nu A
ij
s 0 khng chn (i, j) th p/a
ang xt l p/a ti u ( thut ton dng ).
Nu - A
ij
> 0 khng chn (i, j) th
ta s tm mt p/a tip theo tt hn p/a ang
xt. ( cch tm bc 4 ).
Bc 4:
Gi s A
ks
> 0 (ln nht)
Khi ta chn (k,s) lm xut pht
lp mt chu trnh i qua cc chn ca
p/a trc v di chuyn mt lng hng u
theo chu trnh .(chu trnh ny l duy
nht)
Lp li bng mi v tip tc thc hin li
thut ton.
Quy tc vn chuyn hng trong chu
trnh
(k,s) ng vi A
ks
>0 c chuyn n
mt lng hng + u v cc tip theo
chu trnh ln lt l: - u; + u; - u;; - u.

Chn u > 0 sao cho mt trong nhng
trong chu trnh c lng hng bng 0 v
cc cn li c lng hng dng.
Suy ra : u = min{u
ij
> 0 / x
ij
- u
ij
= 0}
Ch :
S vn chuyn hng ha trong chu
trnh c th lm cho phng n mi tr
nn suy bin, tc nhin khi ta li b
sung thm cc c phng n khng
suy bin.
V d 2: Cho BTVT vi ngun pht, thu
ln lt l :

v ma trn cc ph
a/Tm p/n xpht X
0
bng Pp cc ph b.
b/ Dng Pp th v ktra P/n X
0
ti u
cha? Nu X
0
cha ti u, hy tm P/n
ti u.
{ } { }
A 80, 50, 20 ; B 30, 70, 20, 30 = =
2 3 1 4
C 1 2 4 5
3 1 2 1
(
(
=
(
(

V d 3: Cho Bi ton vn ti, vi
Ngun pht :
Ngun thu :
v ma trn cc ph :

Tm phng n vn chuyn c tng chi
ph vn chuyn b nht.
{ }
A 170, 200, 180 =
20 18 22 25
C 15 25 30 15
45 30 40 35
(
(
=
(
(

{ }
B 130, 160, 120, 140 =