Está en la página 1de 11

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

PHN 1 TNG QUT CHUNG V TNG I 1.1 Lch s hnh thnh

Nm 1878, h thng tng i u tin c thit lp, l mt tng i nhn cng in t c xy dng New Haven. y l tng i u tin thng mi thnh cng trn th gii. Nhng h tng i ny hon ton s dng nhn cng nn thi gian thit lp v gii phng cuc gi rt lu, khng tha mn nhu cu ngy cng tng ca x hi. gii quyt vn ny, nm 1889, tng i in thoi s dng nhn cng c A.B Strowger pht minh. Trong h tng i ny, cc cuc gi c kt ni lin tip ty theo cc s in thoi trong h thp phn v do gi l h thng gi theo tng bc. EDM do cng ty ca c pht trin cng thuc loi ny. H thng ny cn gi l tng i c in v nguyn tc vn hnh n, nhng vi kch thc ln, cha nhiu b phn c kh, kh nng hot ng b hn ch rt nhiu Nm 1926, Erisson pht trin thnh cng h tng i thanh cho. c im ha bng cch tch hon ton vic chuyn mch cuc gi v cc mch iu khin. i vi chuyn mch thanh cho, cc tip im ng m c s dng cc tip xc c dt vng v cc t tnh ca cuc gi c ci tin nhiu. Hn na, mt h thng iu khin chung iu khin mt s chuyn mch vo cng mt thi im c s dng. l cc xung quay s c dn li vo cc mch nh v sau c kt hp trn c s cc s quay c ghi li chn mch ti sinh. Thc cht, y l mt tng i c sn xut da trn c s nghin cu k thut chuyn mch v hon thin cc chc nng ca tng i gi theo tng bc, v vy n khc phc c mt s nhc im ca chuyn mch gi theo tng bc. Tng i in t s u tin c ch to v khai thc vo nm 1965, l tng i tng t lm vic theo nguyn l SPC (Store Program Controller- iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn), v c nhn hiu essn01 do hng Bell System ch to M. Tng i SPC s dng cng ngh k thut chuyn mch knh theo khng gian v mi cuc gi cn mt tuyn vt l (mt mch dy ring) nn sau ngi ta chuyn hng sang cng ngh chuyn mch knh theo thi gian v cng ngh ny cho php s dng mt ng dy cho nhiu cuc gi trn c s phn chia theo thi gian. Tng i SPC c dung lng t 10000 n 60000 thu bao v c th lu lot lng ti l 600 erlangs hay thit lp n 30 cuc gi/giy.

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

Cng M, hng Bell System Laboratory cng hon thin mt tng i s dng cho lin lc chuyn tip vo u thp k 70 vi mc ch tng cao tc truyn d gia cc tng i k thut s. Thng 1 nm 1976, tng i in t s chuyn tip hot ng trn c s chuyn mch s my tnh thng mi u tin trn th gii c lp t v a vo khai thc. 1.2 Phn loi tng i Cn v vo phng php lm vic ca tng i ngi ta chia tng i lm 2 loi: + Tng i nhn cng: c ngi thao tc chuyn mch + Tng i t ng: c iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn Cn c vo cu to ca tng i ngi ta chia lm 2 loi: + Tng i c in: tng i ng k thc hin vic u ni bng cc tip xc c kh s dng cc tip im rle. + Tng i in t: thc hin vic u ni bng cc tip xc in t s dng cc linh kin in t nh: dior, transistor, cng logic,... Cn c vo phng php x l tn hiu ca tng i + Tng i tng t: h thng u ni c chuyn mch lin tc theo thi gian v u ni trong tng i c s dng c nh trong sut thi gian lm vic ca thu bao. + Tng i t ng: tn hiu qua h thng chuyn mch c s ha di dng iu ch xung m PCM v c chu k l 125*10^-6S Cn c vo v tr tng i trong h thng vin thng: + Tng i ni ht: l tng i m cc thu bao c u trc tip vo c t chc trong 1 khu vc a l + Tng i chuyn tip ni ht: l nhng tng i chuyn tip tn hiu thoi gia cc tng i ni ht trong 1 khu vc hoc 1 vng. + Tng i chuyn tip vng( tng i cng) + Tng i quc gia

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

PHN 2 TNG I ALCATEL 4400 CA TRNG CAO NG CNG NGH THNG TIN HU NGH VIT- HN 2.1 Khi nim v Alcatel 4400 Khi nim

ALCATEL 4400 l h thng thng tin thoi, mt th h mi da trn khi nim "Crystal". Cu trc phn mm da trn m hnh Client/Server, v c iu khin bi h iu hnh LINUX. Cu trc phn cng da trn cng ngh ACT. Cng ngh ACT ACT l mt khi c cu trc kiu tinh th, bao gm nhiu nt, mi nt c th xem nh mt board c lin kt trc tip vi nhau thng qua cc giao tip chun, to thnh cc ng li. Ti a c 28 board, v mi board c th ni c ti a 27 ng truyn dn n cc board khc nhau. Hn na mi board c mt b x l, chuyn mch, ph tr, cp ngun ring, v trao i vi trung tm c s d liu ca my ch thng qua s iu khin ca CPU chnh. Nh cng ngh ny m h thng ALCATEL 4400 khng xy ra trng hp tt nghn ng thng tin, linh hot cho vic truyn dn thng tin. Mt khc, nh m d dng cho vic m rng dung lng v m rng mng. Gi c hp l i vi dung lng nh (t 50 ngi s dng ) v i vi cc loi dch v thng thng. H tr cc loi dch v mi ng : voice mail , voice guider , paging, mobile/DECT,....... Thch hp vi mng chuyn mch gi v cc mng bng rng

Hnh 2.1: Cu trc mng tinh th ca ALCATEL 4400

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

2.2 Cu trc phn cng Tng i ALCATEL 4400 c kt cu theo kiu modul v chia thnh nhiu ngn nh : ngn ngun, ngn thu bao, ngn iu khin, ngn trung k, ngn d phng, t u dy.

Hnh 2.2: Phn cng ca tng i ALCATEL 4400


2.3

Chc nng cc khi Khi ngun

2.3.1

Cung cp ngun cho h thng hot ng v lun c cp in.

Hnh 2.3: Khi ngun tng i ALCATEL 44000

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

2.3.2 Board iu khin CPU Board CPU l phn t trung tm v c chc nng: + Qun l cc chc nng chung ca h thng v iu khin cc ng dng ca n. + To ra cc tn hiu ng b, cc thng bo + Cho php download qu trnh x l v d liu ti mi giao tip tron h thng. + Cung cp cc giao tip: music on hold t ngoi, b to tone cho cc trung k NDDI + Cung cp 4 giao din V24 v 1 ng TCP/IP Ethernet cho vic truy cp h thng. + Trao i vi cc giao din khc thng qua b iu khin vo ra cua n. + C th c ni ti mt b iu khin ty chn vo/ra gi l IO2 khi h thng yu cu c cc giao din logic v vt l V24 b sung. Hnh 2.4: Board CPU Cu trc CPU bao gm: + 01 b vi x l Intel 32 bit. + 01 b nh RAM v EPROM c 12 n 64 byte. + 01 a cng. + 01 giao din bt ng b V24. + 02 giao din TCP/IP Ethernet. + 01 giao tip music on hold. + Cc kt ni ti khung phn b v mi trng bn ngoi (cnh bo, chuyn tip cc ng trung k, music on hold t ngoi). + 01 b chuyn i DC/DC cp ngun cho CPU board. + 01 giao tip vi ACT.

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

2.3.3 RMAB board RMAB board c chc nng: + Cung cp cc giao din cho vic bo dng h thng ni b hoc t xa. + Kim tra vic truy cp cho php. + Cho php truy cp phn cng ca CPU t xa. + Mt b nhn cnh bo ca CPU. + Mt b ra lnh. + T ng quay s hoc tr li. 2.3.4 eUA board eUA l board dng giao tip vi cc thit b s, bao gm cc u cui s, adaper v cc trm iu khin. c im ca eUA board l: + Cung cp cc dch v thoi thng thng, s liu hoc cc ng dng truyn thng bng hp mt cch ng thi. + rng bng (bng thng) ca giao tip l 256 Kb/s (30B+D) trn mt my in thoi chun. rng bng c chia thnh 4 knh 64 Kb/s, trong cc knh B1, B2, B3 uc chuyn dng cho cc thng tin trong dng mch v truyn ti cc tn hiu thoi hoc s liu. + Knh D th 4 c ch nh truyn ti cc thng tin bo hiu. + Cc giao din UA cng m bo vic cp cho cc u cui m kt ni ti n. + Mi board c t 32(UA32) hoc 16(UA16) thit b ng dy s. Hnh 2.6: eUA board Hnh 2.5: RMAB board

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

2.3.5 eZ board Cho php kt ni ti cc thit b analog nh: cc my in thoi, fax nhm III, cc u cui videotext. c im ca eZ board l: + Giao din Z l 1 thit b analog c tr khng phc tp, hon ton thng sut cho cc thng tin thoi m cung cp c giao thc bo hiu phn tp v DTMF Q23. + Giao din ny m bo vic cp ti u cui m c kt ni ti n v c coi nh l mt b pht c in p ra ln nht l 42V v dng ln nht l 65MA. + Mc bo hiu chung l 100MA. + Mi mt board bao gm 12 hoc 24 giao din u cui tng t. 2.3.6 PCM board Cho php u ni ti mng chuyn mch ring v cng cng bng cc knh nh bo hiu knh kt hp v m thp phn, M R2, m MF Q23. c im ca PCM board l : + Dng cho thng tin thoi, kt ni s liu trong dng mch mc 64Kbits/s. + Gm 3 mc: mc 1(mc vt l) da trn UIT 703, mc mc khung) da trn UIT G704, mc 3(lp bo hiu) da trn UIT G732. + M ha v gii m HDB3. + 30 knh PCM dnh ring cho thng tin. + 1 knh (TS 16) dnh ring cho bo hiu. + 1 knh (TS 0) dnh ring cho cc dch v khc nh nh dng khung, cnh bo v ng b. + u ni vi 2 i cn xng, 120 m, hoc cp ng trc c phch cm DIN hoc BNC, 75 m. + Bo v qu p v nhiu in t. + Th connector vng loop back. + Cp ngun t xa.
7

Hnh 2.7: eZ board

2(

Hnh 2.8: PCM board

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

+ Mi board gm 1 giao tip PCM. 2.3.7 NDDI board Board giao tip trung k mng cung cp cc giao tip tng t trn 2 dy a/b, gia tng i v mng chuyn mch cng cng, board ny cng cung cp cc chc nng cho nhn tin. Mi mt giao tip c th c nh hnh nh mt giao tip trunk NDDI hoc giao tip my nhn tin. Board ny iu khin cc trao i vi tng i xa nh: + Dng mch vng. + Quay s + Pht hin o ngun c im ca NDDi board l: + u ni bng 1 cp my in thoi chun. + Dng quay s. + B thu xung tnh cc l mt board con ty chn(PR board). Board NDDI c th c 2 board con. B thu xung tnh cc m bo vic pht hin cc xung tnh cc c gi t tng i cng cng di dng 50Hz, 12Hz hoc 16Hz. Hnh 2.9: NDDI board + C th truyn dn tn hiu thoi v tn hiu s. + Bo v li qu p v nhiu in trng. + Hin th trng thi ca cc trunk trn 8 n. + Mi board c 8 ng trunk NDDI. + Trn mi board con c 4 b thu xung tnh cc.
2.3.8

Khi giao tip

C chc nng: + Giao tip vi ACT. + Giao tip vi CPU board. + Trao i bo hiu vi CPU board. + Chuyn mch. + D tm m v m a tn
8

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

2.3.9

Khi thu bao

Cha cc thu bao, cc thu bao c sp xp theo mt quy lut nht nh.

Hnh 2.10: Khi thu bao


2.3.10 Khi d phng

Dng khi h thng c chuyn xy ra i vi khi thu bao v cng sp xp theo quy lut.

Hnh 2.11: Khi d phng

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

PHN 3 U IM V DCH V CA TNG I ALCATEL 3.1 u im Mi board c mt b vi x l, chuyn mch, ph tr, cp ngun ring v trao i vi trung tm c s d liu, ca my ch thng qua s iu khin ca CPU chnh nn h thng tng i ALCATEL 4400 khng xy ra trng hp nghn ng thng v linh hot trong vic truyn dn thng tin. Mt khc cng ngh ny cn gip d dng hn trong vic m rng dung lng v m rng mng. ALCATEL l tng i va v nh nn thch hp vi cc c quan, khch sn, t chc y t va v ln, ng thi nh cng ngh ACT nn rt thun tin cho vic hot ng, vn hnh v bo dng. 3.2 Cc dch v ca tng i ALCATEL Nh cu trc ACT m ALCATEL 4400 c th cung cp cc loi dch v khc nhau thng qua cc nt giao tip(cc board) nh: + Thng thoi gia 2 thu bao bt k, c th l thu bao s, thu bao tng t hoc thu bao IP Phone. + Dch v truyn s liu, FAX, telex, + Thoi v tuyn DECT. + C th ni ra mng in thoi cng cng PSTN hoc mng ISDN hoc cc mng c nhn. + H tr giao tip VoIP. + Mt s cc dch v b tr nh: Fax, Voice mail, Call by name, Automated attendant, Automated assistant, + Tt c cc dch ny u c qun l trc tip hoc t xa thng qua cc giao thc chun, v b x l ca CPU.

10

KHO ST V TNG I ALCATEL 4400

KT LUN Sau qu trnh tm hiu v quan st trc tip, bi kho st ny ca mnh em trnh by c mt s kin thc c bn cng nh cu trc, chc nng cc thnh phn trong tng i Alcatel 4400 ca trng cao ng cng ngh thng tin hu ngh VitHn. Do nhng hn ch v kin thc v thc tin nn trong qu trnh lm bi kho st ny khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Mong c v cc bn thng cm !

11