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5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Cu 1: Chc nng cc thnh phn trong phn h trm gc BSS trong GSM. Tr li: Cung cp mng truyn dn truy cp v tuyn kt ni gia thu bao vi mng ngoi. Qun l cc ng truyn v tuyn Phn h BSS gm hai khi chc nng: b iu khin trm gc (BSC: Base Station Controller) v cc trm thu pht gc (BTS: Base Transceiver Station). Nu khong cch gia BSC v BTS nh hn 10m th cc knh thng tin c th c kt ni trc tip (ch Combine), ngc li th phi qua mt giao din A-bis (ch Remote). Mt BSC c th qun l nhiu BTS theo cu hnh hn hp ca 2 loi trn.

BTS (Base Transceiver Station): trm thu pht gc Mt BTS bao gm cc thit b thu pht: anten, iu ch/gii iu ch, x l tn hiu c th cho giao din v tuyn. C th coi BTS l cc Modem v tuyn phc tp c thm mt s cc chc nng khc. TRAU (Transcoder & Rate Adaptation) l thit b thc hin chuyn i m v thch ng tc . TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS, nhng cng c th t cch xa BTS v thm ch trong nhiu trng hp c t gia BSC v MSC. BTS c chc nng cung cp ng truyn v tuyn Gim st cc trm BTS thng qua chc nng iu khin cng sut ca BTS v MSS Gim st, qun l cc ng truyn v tuyn hay knh truyn BSC (Base Station Controller): b iu khin trm gc -

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Qun l chuyn giao gim ti lu lng cho MSC, qun l ti nguyn v tuyn.

Cu 2: Chc nng cc thnh phn trong phn h chuyn mch NSS trong GSM. Tr li: L trung tm chuyn mch chnh ca h thng Qun l ton b thu bao, lu tr h s c nhn ca thu bao. Lu tr qun l thng tin v tr ca thu bao. Qun l thng tin gia cc thu bao vi nhau ng thi gia cc thu bao vi cc thu bao khc ngoi mng.

MSC (Mobile Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch di ng, c 2 nhim v: o iu phi vic thit lp cuc gi gia cc thu bao bn trong mng o Phi ghp thch ng cc th tc, phng thc truyn dn vi cc mng bn ngoi, gi l tng tc mng(IWF) HLR (Home Location Register): B ghi nh v thng tr o Lu tr thng tin thu bao o Lu tr thng tin v tr thu bao o Nhn thc thu bao xc minh tnh hp php ca thu bao. Thng s nhn thc c cung cp t trung tm nhn thc AuC o 1 HLR qun l khong 500.000 thu bao kt hp vi MSC gi l tng i di ng thng tr. o MSC/HLR: tng i di ng thng tr VLR (Visistor Location Register): B ghi nh v tm tr

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

o Lu tr thng tin c tnh cht tm thi ca thu bao khi di chuyn ra vng phc v thng tr. o Lu tr thng tin v tr tc thi ca thu bao. o L c s d liu cho MSC tham kho o MSC/VLR: tng i di ng tm tr GMSC(Gateway mobile switching center): tng i di ng cng o Phi ghp, thch ng vi cc mng bn ngoi. o i hi nh tuyn cuc gi (tt c cuc gi bn ngoi vo u phi qua GMSC) AuC (Authentication Center): trung tm nhn thc o X l mt m thng qua khi thut ton A8 cung cp chui mt m, mt m ha thng tin khi truyn trn ng truyn v tuyn o Cung cp thng tin nhn thc qua cc thut ton A3 o Thut ton A3: nhn thc A8: to ra kha mt m kc A5: to ra chui mt m mt m ha thng tin khi truyn v tuyn EIR (Equipment Identify Register): b ghi nhn dng thit b o Lu tr thng s IMEI. o Lu tr cc thng tin phn cng ca thit b di ng. o Lin kt vi MSC thng qua ng bo hiu xc minh tnh hp php ca thit b di ng o Danh sch trng: thit b thu bao hp php ng nhp v mng o Danh sch xm: cn xc minh li o Danh sch en: ko hp php

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Cu 3: Cu trc knh phn cp trong GSM.

Mt siu siu khung c chia thnh 2048 siu khung vi thi gian ca mi siu khung l 6,12s. Siu khung li c chia thnh cc a khung, c hai loi a khung: o a khung lu lng: cha 26 khung mang lu lng. 51 a khung ny to nn 1 siu khung. n v lu lng l Erlang. o a khung bo hiu: cha 51 khung mang thng tin bo hiu. 26 a khung ny to nn mt siu khung.

Mi khung gm 8 khe thi gian (time slot). Thi gian: (nh trn hnh)

Cu 4: Cu trc cm bnh thng NB trong GSM. - Cm bnh thng (NB): mang thng tin TCH v cc knh iu khin tr RACH, SCH v FCCH.

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Cc bit Start v Stop lun l 0,0,0 gip b cn bng xc nh bt u v kt thc cm. Data: chui d liu c mt m ha gm 57 bit(data hoc voice). Flag(1): phn bit d liu ca thu bao l lu lng hay iu khin bo hiu o Flag(1)=0: lu lng o Flag(1)=1: iu khin bo hiu Flag(2): bo hiu lu lng l Data hay Voice: o Flag(2)=0: Data o Flag(2)=1: Voice Chui training: s dng cho b cn bng knh hay c lng knh truyn. My thu v my pht u c lu tr sn Cc bit Start v Stop lun l 0,0,0 gip b cn bng xc nh bt u v kt thc cm. Khong bo v Guard(8,25 bit) l mt khong trng cho php my pht dch ln hay dch xung trong gii hn do khuyn ngh GSM qui nh, trnh chng chp gia cc khe thi gian ln cn.

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Cu 6: Trnh by khi m ha ngun theo nguyn l c quan pht m.


Lc c quan

Xung kch thch pht m thanh gn nh khng thay i ( h thng dng ) (thanh qun)

Trong 10ms->30ms m

Bin : 6bit/5ms

Xung

Tn s : 39bit/5ms

47bit/5ms

Pha : 2bit/5ms

188bit/20ms Lc DC

fs=1/3f8000 A/D s +

mu/s

Phn on 20ms. 160 mu/20ms.

Tin nhn tn s
Tin x l

188bit

2080bit

LPC

Chng nhiu
MUX 188bit

+
-

LPF

LPC: Linear Prediction Code N,b N=7bit/5ms LTP: Long Term Prediction b=2bit/5ms 36bit/20ms RPE: Regular Pulse Excitation 36bit/20ms Nguyn l hot m ha khi theo c quan pht m
Phn nh LPC

+ LT 36bit P + 36bit = 260bit/20ms

Tc 13kbps

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

LPC l b lc o theo c quan pht m lc bc 8. S bit tng trng cho h s lc l 36bit trong mt khi tuyn tnh c mc ging nhau rt ln. ngi ta a n khi LTP bng cch chia cc khi 20ms thnh cc on tuyn tnh nh 5ms v ly hiu s sai bit. nh vy cc h s b lc LTP bao gm N( s mu, b (h s khuch i). ng vi s bit N=7bit,b=2bit/5ms. 7. Trnh by nguyn l hot ng khi tri ph chui trc tip trong k thut CDMA. H thng DSSS t c tri ph bng cch nhn tn hiu ngun vi mt tn hiu gi ngu nhin c tc chip (Rc = 1/Tc, Tc l thi gian mt chip) cao hn nhiu tc bit (Rb = 1/Tb, Tb l thi gian mt bit) ca lung s liu cn pht. Lung s liu cn truyn l x c tc l Rb c nhn vi mt m tri ph c c tc l Rc c lung u ra l y c tc l Rc ln hn rt nhiu so vi tc Rb ca lung vo.

iu kin trc giao ca m tri ph l: 1. Tch hai m ging nhau bng 1: cici =1 2. Tch hai m khc nhau s l mt m mi trong tp m: cicj = ck 3. Nu c s bit 1 bng s bit -1 trong mt m hay: (2.2)

Trong N l s chip v Ck l gi tr chip k trong mt m. tm hiu r hn v h thng DS-CDMA, ta xt s khi ca mt h thng DS-CDMA in hnh. s ny, c k tn hiu ca cc ngi s dng khc nhau pht ng thi ti my thu. Mi tn hiu pht c gn mt ch s k, trong k =

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

1, 2, ..,K. Dng sng s liu dk(t) vi thi gian bit Tb giy. Dng sng tri ph ck(t) tun hon v c tc cao hn nhiu so vi tc bit s liu. Ta coi rng thi gian 1 bit s liu (Tb giy) cha ng 1 chu k (N chip) m tri ph sao cho tc chip = N/Tb = 1/Tc; trong Tc l thi gian chip.

My pht DSCDMA
d1(t) c1(t) d2(t) c2(t)

Lp1,1 cos(2fct +1) Lp2,2 cos(2fct +2)

n(t)

r(t)

dk(t) ck(t)

Lpk,k cos(2fct +k)

My thu tng quan(bonus) ( r(t)


ck(t) 1

d'k(tk) -1

cos(2fct +rk)

Hnh 2.12. H thng DSCDMA: My pht v my thu tng quan

V th tc chip (k hiu l Rc) gp N ln tc bit (Rb= 1/Tb), dng sng ca tri ph chui trc tip l:

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Sj(t) = dk(t)cj(t)

cos(2fct + j)

C rng bng tn truyn dn gn bng B = 1/Tc = N/Tb, ln gp N ln rng bng truyn dn cn thit thng thng i vi BPSK. Cu 8: Trnh by nguyn l hot ng khi gii tri ph chui trc tip trong k thut CDMA. Ti pha thu lung y c thc hin gii tri ph khi phc li lung x bng cch nhn lung ny vi m tri ph c ging nh pha pht: x=yc x, y v c k hiu tng qut cho tn hiu vo, ra v m tri ph; x(t), y(t) v c(t) k hiu cho cc tn hiu vo, ra v m tri ph trong min thi gian. Nu ta xt mt h thng gm K ngi s dng c xy dng trn c s CDMA, th sau tri ph cc ngi s dng ny s pht vo khng gian tp cc tn hiu y nh sau:
y yi ci xi
i 1 i 1 K K

(2.1)

Hnh 2.2 xt qu trnh gii tri ph v lc ra tn hiu hu ch ti my thu k trong mt h thng CDMA c K ngi s dng vi gi thit cng sut pht t K my pht nh nhau ti u vo my thu k. Hnh 2.2a cho thy s gii tri ph DSSS. Hnh 2.2b cho thy ph ca tn hiu tng c pht i t K my pht sau tri ph, hnh 2.2c cho thy ph ca tn hiu ny sau gii tri ph ti my thu k v hnh 2.2d cho thy ph ca tn hiu sau b lc thng thp vi bng thng bng Rb.

5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Hnh 2.2. Qu trnh gii tri ph v lc tn hiu ca ngi s dng k t K tn hiu. Ta xt qu trnh x l tn hiu ny ti mt my thu k. Nhim v ca my thu ny l phi ly ra xk v loi b cc tn hiu khc (cc tn hiu ny c gi l nhiu ng knh v trong h thng CDMA chng c pht trn cng mt tn s vi xk). Nhn (2.1) vi xk v p dng quy tc trc giao ta c:
xk xk ci xi
i 1 i k K

(2.2)

C th : Xt my thu th 1 (Cn gi l my thu ch nh): y l my thu m ti ng tn s mong mun n s tch sng ra. My thu ny nm trong cuc lin lc. S khi minh ha: (Phn hnh ny Nga s v tay v s b sung cho mi ngi khi nhn ti liu.)

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5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

Vi : =

: Sng mang ch nh ca my thu ch nh cn tch ra. Nhiu MAI (Sng mang ca cc thu bo khc nh hng ln sng mang mnh) N(t): Nhiu AWGN

+ (MAI) + (AWGN) Suy ra:

Vy: My thu ch nh s dng tnh t tng quan.

Thnh phn th nht trong (2.2) chnh l tn hiu hu ch cn thnh phn th hai l nhiu ca cc ngi s dng cn l nhiu ca cc ngi s dng khc c gi l MAI (Multiple Access Interferrence: nhiu a ngi s dng). loi b thnh phn th hai my thu s dng b lc tng quan trng min thi gian kt hp vi b lc tn s trong min tn s. C th: My thu th k (k ): My thu lin quan n nhiu a ngi s dng ( nhiu MAI) Gi s trng hp xu nht ca tch sng a truy cp l: Cc sng mang c cng tn s v pha. Lc ny, ti ng ra b tch sng ca my thu ch nh th nht s nh hng bi nhiu MAI ca cc thu bao khc. =

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5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

= T trn ta thy gim nhiu MAI th hm tng quan cho ca chui m cng nh cng tt. Trong thc t chui m c tng quan cho ln v chui m c s chui c lp khng nhiu Khng c nhiu chui PN tri ph cho cc user khc nhau. Cu 9: Trnh by k thut tri ph trong h thng 3G W-CDMA UMTS. Gm 2 bc: nh knh v ngu nhin ha: nh knh: o Thin tri ph bng cch nhn tn hiu ngun vi mt tn hiu gi ngu nhin c tc chip (Rc=1/Tc, Tc l thi gian mt chip) cao hn nhiu tc bit (Rb=1/Tb, Tb l thi gian mt bit) ca lung cn pht.Tri ph trc tip ny vi chui m tri ph c tc Rc=3,84Mchip/s.

o nh knh s dng chui Wash c tnh cht trc giao, phn bit cc knh vt l ca mt user hay l ca mt node B. o Ta thy OFDM ng dng rt tt c nh nhng qua v tuyn th tnh cht trc giao b ph v, do chu nh hng mnh ca doppler, fading. D ta phi thm bc ngu nhin ha - Ngu nhin ha: o Nhn vi chui tri ph c tnh cht tng quan cho nh, t b nh hng bi mi trng fading v dopler. o Tc tri ph khng i 3,84Mchip/s o S dng chui gold c tng quan cho nh v s lng nhiu. o Gip phn bit gia cc UE v node B vi nhau. o Gip UE c tnh cht mnh m khi truyn trong mi trng v tuyn.

(V tri ph chui trc tip trnh by cu 7,8 nn cu 9 ch th ny thi?) 10. nng cp t GSM/GPRS ln W-CDMA, chng ta cn thc hin nh th no? SV nu kin c th.

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5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

C hai gii php nng cp GSM ln th h ba : Mt l b hn h thng c, thay th bng h thng thng tin di ng th h ba Hai l nng cp GSM ln GPRS v tip n l EDGE nhm tn dng c c s mng GSM v c thi gian chun b tin ln h thng 3G W-CDMA. Gii php th hai l mt gii php c tnh kh thi v tnh kinh t cao nn y l gii php c a chung nhng nc ang pht trin nh nc ta. V th y tui chn gii php ny trnh by cho mi ngi xem xt Giai on u ca qu trnh nng cp mng GSM l phi m bo dch v s liu tt hn, c th h tr hai ch dch v s liu l ch chuyn mch knh (CS : Circuit Switched) v ch chuyn mch gi (PS : Packet Switched). thc hin kt ni vo mng IP, giai on ny c th s dng giao thc ng dng v tuyn (WAP : Wireless Application Protocol). WAP cha cc tiu chun h tr truy cp internet t trm di ng. H thng WAP phi c cng WAP v chc nng kt ni mng.

Trong giai on tip theo, tng tc s liu c th s dng cng ngh s liu chuyn mch knh tc cao (HSCSD : High Speed Circuit Switched Data) v dch v v tuyn gi chung (GPRS : General Packet Radio Protocol Services). GPRS s h tr WAP c tc thu v pht s liu ln n 171.2Kbps. Mt u im quan trng ca GPRS na l thu bao khng b tnh cc nh trong h thng chuyn mch knh m cc ph c tnh trn c s lu lng d liu s dng thay Trong giai on tip theo, tng tc s liu c th s dng cng ngh s liu chuyn mch knh tc cao (HSCSD : High Speed Circuit Switched Data) v dch v v tuyn gi chung (GPRS : General Packet Radio Protocol Services).

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5n5Group

Cu hi v tr li n tp Truyn thng di dng

GPRS s h tr WAP c tc thu v pht s liu ln n 171.2Kbps. Mt u im quan trng ca GPRS na l thu bao khng b tnh cc nh trong h thng chuyn mch knh m cc ph c tnh trn c s lu lng d liu s dng thay v thi gian truy cp. Dch v GPRS to ra tc cao ch yu nh vo s kt hp cc khe thi gian, tuy nhin k thut ny vn da vo phng thc iu ch nguyn thu GMSK nn hn ch tc truyn. Bc nng cp tip theo l thay i k thut iu ch kt hp vi ghp khe thi gian ta s c tc truyn d liu cao hn, chnh l cng ngh EDGE. EDGE vn da vo cng ngh chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi vi tc ti a t c l 384Kbps nn s kh khn trong vic h tr cc ng dng i hi vic chuyn mch linh ng v tc truyn d liu ln hn. Lc nay s thc hin nng cp EDGE ln W-CDMA v hon tt vic nng cp GSM ln 3.

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