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Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn

CHNG 1: KNH TRUYN V TUYN


1.1 Gii thiu chng
Cc phng tin thng tin ni chung c chia thnh hai phng php thng
tin c bn, l thng tin v tuyn v thng tin hu tuyn. Mng thng tin v tuyn
ngy nay tr thnh mt phng tin thng tin ch yu, thun tin cho cuc sng
hin i.
Trong mng thng tin v tuyn ngoi ngun tin v nhn tin th knh truyn l
mt trong ba khu quan trng nht, v c cu trc tng i phc tp. N l mi
trng truyn thng tin t my pht n my thu. V th chng ny tm hiu cc
thng tin v knh truyn: l, cc hin tng nh hng n knh truyn, cc
dng knh truyn v cc m hnh knh truyn c bn. Ngoi ra chng ny cn gii
thiu khi qut v h thng thng tin v tuyn.
1.2 Khi nim v h thng thng tin v tuyn
Hnh 1.2 th hin mt m hnh n gin ca mt h thng thng tin v tuyn.
Ngun tin trc ht qua m ho ngun gim cc thng tin d tha, sau c
m ho knh chng cc li do knh truyn gy ra. Tn hiu sau khi qua m knh
c iu ch c th truyn ti i xa. Cc mc iu ch phi ph hp vi iu
kin ca knh truyn. Sau khi tn hiu c pht i my pht, tn hiu thu c
my thu s tri qua cc bc ngc li so vi my pht. Kt qu tn hiu c gii
m v thu li c my thu. Cht lng tn hiu thu ph thuc vo cht lng
knh truyn v cc phng php iu ch v m ho khc nhau. Do ngy nay cc
k thut mi ra i nhm ci thin cht lng knh truyn ni ring v mng v
tuyn ni chung, mt trong nhng k thut l MC-CDMA.
Trang: 1
Ngun tin
Knh tin
Nhn tin
Hnh 1.1: S khi chc nng h thng truyn tin
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
1.3 Knh truyn v tuyn
1.3.1 Gii thiu
Cht lng ca cc h thng thng tin ph thuc nhiu vo knh truyn, ni
m tn hiu c truyn t my pht n my thu. Khng ging nh knh truyn
hu tuyn l n nh v c th d on c, knh truyn v tuyn l hon ton
ngu nhin v khng h d dng trong vic phn tch. Tn hiu c pht i, qua
knh truyn v tuyn, b cn tr bi cc to nh, ni non, cy ci , b phn x, tn
x, nhiu x, cc hin tng ny c gi chung l fading. V kt qu l my
thu, ta thu c rt nhiu phin bn khc nhau ca tn hiu pht. iu ny nh
hng n cht lng ca h thng thng tin v tuyn. Do vic nm vng nhng
c tinh cua knh truyn v tuyn la yu c u c ban co th chon la mt ca ch
thich hp ca c cu truc cua h thng, kich thc cu a cac thanh phn va ca c thng s
ti u cua h thng.
Hin tng fading trong mt h thng thng tin c th c phn thnh hai
loi: Fading tm rng (large-scale fading) v fading tm hp (small-scale fading).
Trang: 2
Ngun tin
M ho knh
(Channel coding)
M ho ngun
(Source coding)
Tn hiu ch
(Destination)
Gii m ho knh
(Channel decoding)
Gii m ho ngun
(Source decoding)
iu ch
(Modulation)
Knh v tuyn
(Channel)
Gii iu ch
(Demodulation)
{ }
k
a
{ }
,
k
a
M hnh knh
(Discrete channel)
Hnh 1.2: M hnh h thng thng tin v tuyn
Vt
phn
x
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
Fading tm rng din t s suy yu ca trung bnh cng sut tn hiu hoc
suy hao knh truyn l do s di chuyn trong mt vng rng. Hin tng ny chu
nh hng bi s cao ln ca a hnh (i ni, rng, cc khu nh cao tng) gia
my pht v my thu. Ngi ta ni pha thu c b che khut bi cc vt cn cao.
Cc thng k v hin tng fading tm rng cho php ta c lng suy hao knh
truyn theo hm ca khong cch.
Fading tm hp din t s thay i ng k bin v pha tn hiu. iu ny
xy ra l do s thay i nh trong v tr khng gian (nh khong na bc sng)
gia pha pht v pha thu. Fading tm hp c hai nguyn l - s tri thi gian
(time-spreading) ca tn hiu v c tnh thay i theo thi gian (time-variant) ca
knh truyn. i vi cc ng dng di ng, knh truyn l bin i theo thi gian v
s di chuyn ca pha pht v pha thu dn n s thay i ng truyn sng.
C ba c ch chnh nh hng n s lan truyn ca tn hiu trong h thng di
ng:
+ Phn x xy ra kh sng in t va chm vo mt mt bng phng vi kch thc
rt ln so vi bc sng tn hiu RF.
+ Nhiu x xy ra khi ng truyn sng gia pha pht v thu b cn tr bi mt
nhm vt cn c mt cao v kch thc ln so vi bc sng. Nhiu x l hin
tng gii thch cho nguyn nhn nng lng RF c truyn t pha pht n
pha thu m khng cn ng truyn thng. N thng c gi l hiu ng chn
(shadowing) v trng tn x c th n c b thu ngay c khi b chn bi vt
cn khng th truyn xuyn qua.
+ Tn x xy ra khi sng in t va chm vo mt mt phng ln, g gh lm cho
nng lng b tri ra (tn x ) hoc l phn x ra tt c cc hng. Trong mi
trng thnh ph, cc vt th thng gy ra tn x l ct n, ct bo hiu, tn l.
1.3.2 Cc hin tng nh hng n cht lng knh truyn
1.3.2.1 Hin tng a ng (Multipath)
Trong mt h thng thng tin v tuyn, cc sng bc x in t thng khng
bao gi c truyn trc tip n anten thu. iu ny xy ra l do gia ni pht v
Trang: 3
cc trng hp cn li
=
Vt
phn
x
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
ni thu lun tn ti cc vt th cn tr s truyn sng trc tip. Do vy, sng nhn
c chnh l s chng chp ca cc sng n t hng khc nhau bi s phn x,
khc x, tn x t cc to nh, cy ci v cc vt th khc. Hin tng ny c gi
l s truyn sng a ng (Multipath propagation). Do hin tng a ng, tn
hiu thu c l tng ca cc bn sao tn hiu pht. Cc bn sao ny b suy hao, tr,
dch pha v c nh hng ln nhau. Tu thuc vo pha ca tng thnh phn m tn
hiu chng chp c th c khi phc li hoc b h hng hon ton. Ngoi ra khi
truyn tn hiu s, p ng xung c th b mo khi qua knh truyn a ng v ni
thu nhn c cc p ng xung c lp khc nhau. Hin tng ny gi l s phn
tn p ng xung (impulse dispersion). Hin tng mo gy ra bi knh truyn a
ng th tuyn tnh v c th c b li pha thu bng cc b cn bng.
1.3.2.2 Hiu ng Doppler
Hiu ng Doppler gy ra do s chuyn ng tng i gia my pht v my
thu nh trnh by hnh 1.4. Bn cht ca hin tng ny l ph ca tn hiu thu
c b x lch i so vi tn s trung tm mt khong gi l tn s Doppler.
Gi thit gc ti ca tuyn n so vi hng chuyn ng ca my thu l
n,
khi
tn s Doppler ca tuyn ny l [5]:
( )
n 0 D
cos f
c
v
f
n
(1.1)
Trong f
0
, v, c ln lt l tn s sng mang ca h thng, vn tc chuyn
ng tng i ca my thu so vi my pht v vn tc nh sng. Nu
n
= 0 th tn
s Doppler ln nht s l:

0 max D,
f
c
f
v
(1.2)
Trang: 4
cc trng hp cn li
=
Che khut
Trm di ng
Truyn thng
Khc x
Tn x
Phn x
Tn x
Trm gc
Hnh 1.3: Hin tng truyn sng a ng
Vt
phn
x
Tuyn 1
v

1
Tuyn 2
) (
2
t
) (
1
t
Trm pht
Hnh 1.4: Hm truyn t ca knh
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
Gi thit tn hiu n my thu bng nhiu lung khc nhau vi cng ngang
hng nhau khp mi hng, khi ph ca tn hiu tng ng vi tn s Doppler
c biu din nh sau[5]:

(1.3)

Ph tn hiu thu c biu din li hnh 1.5
Mt ph tn hiu thu b nh hng bi hiu ng Doppler do Jake tm ra nm
1974. V c gi l ph Jake. ngha ca ph tn hiu ny c gii thch nh
sau: Gi thit tn hiu pht i tn s sng mang f
0
, khi tn hiu thu c s
khng nhn c chnh xc trn tn s sng mng f
0
m b dch i c v hai pha
vi dch l f
D,max
nh hnh 1.5. S dch tn s ny nh hng n s ng b
ca nhiu h thng.
Trang: 5
2
max
0
1

,
_

f
f f
A
0
cc trng hp cn li
nu
=
Hnh 1.5: Mt ph ca tn hiu thu
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
1.3.2.3 Suy hao trn ng truyn
M ta s suy giam cng sut trung binh cu a tin hiu khi truyn t ma y phat
n may thu. S giam cng sut do hin tng che chn va suy hao co th khac
phu c bng ca c phng phap iu khin cng sut.
1.3.2.4 Hiu ng bng rm (Shadowing)
Do nh hng ca cc vt cn tr trn ng truyn, v d nh cc to nh cao
tng, cc ngn ni, i, lm cho bin tn hiu b suy gim. Tuy nhin, hin
tng ny ch xy ra trn mt khong cch ln, nn tc bin i chm. V vy,
hiu ng ny c gi l fading chm.
1.3.3 Cc dng knh truyn
Ty theo p ng tn s ca knh truyn v bng thng ca tn hiu pht m ta c.
+ Knh truyn chn lc tn s v knh truyn khng chn lc tn s.
+ Knh truyn chn lc thi gian v knh truyn khng chn lc thi gian.
1.3.3.1 Knh truyn chn lc tn s v knh truyn khng chn lc tn s
Mi knh truyn u tn ti mt khong tn s m trong khong , p ng
tn s ca knh truyn l gn nh nhau ti mi tn s (c th xem l phng), khong
tn s ny c gi l Coherent Bandwidth v c k hiu trn hnh 1.6 l f
0
.
Trn hnh 1.6a, ta nhn thy knh truyn c f
0
nh hn nhiu so vi bng thng
ca tn hiu pht. Do , ti mt s tn s trn bng tn, knh truyn khng cho tn
hiu i qua, v nhng thnh phn tn s khc nhau ca tn hiu c truyn i chu
Trang: 6
Hnh 1.6a: Knh truyn chn lc tn s (f
0
<W)
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
s suy gim v dch pha khc nhau. Dng knh truyn nh vy c gi l knh
truyn chn lc tn s.
Ngc li, trn hnh 1.6b, knh truyn c f
0
ln hn nhiu so vi bng thng
ca tn hiu pht, mi thnh phn tn s ca tn hiu c truyn qua knh chu s
suy gim v dch pha gn nh nhau. Chnh v vy, knh truyn ny c gi l knh
truyn khng chn lc tn s hoc knh truyn fading phng.
1.3.3.2 Knh truyn chn lc thi gian v Knh truyn khng chn lc
thi gian
Knh truyn v tuyn lun thay i lin tc theo thi gian, v cc vt cht trn
ng truyn lun thay i v v tr, vn tc, lun lun c nhng vt th mi xut
hin v nhng vt th c mt i Sng in t lan truyn trn ng truyn phn
x, tn x qua nhng vt th ny nn hng, gc pha, bin cng lun thay i
theo thi gian.
Tnh cht ny ca knh truyn c m t bng mt tham s, gi l coherent
time. l khong thi gian m trong , p ng thi gian ca knh truyn thay
i rt t (c th xem l phng v thi gian).
Khi ta truyn tn hiu vi chu k k hiu (symbol duration) rt ln so vi
coherent time th knh truyn c gi l knh truyn chn lc thi gian. Ngc
li, khi ta truyn tn hiu vi chu k k hiu (symbol duration) rt nh so vi
Trang: 7
Hnh 1.6b: Knh truyn khng chn lc tn s (f
0
>W)

p(r)
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
coherent time th knh truyn l c gi l knh truyn khng chn lc thi
gian hay phng v thi gian.
1.3.4 Cc m hnh knh c bn
1.3.4.1 Knh theo phn b Rayleigh
Trong nhng knh v tuyn di ng, phn b Rayleigh thng c dng
m t bn cht thay i theo thi gian ca ng bao tn hiu fading phng thu
c hoc ng bao ca mt thnh phn a ng ring l. Chng ta bit rng
ng bao ca tng hai tn hiu nhiu Gauss trc giao tun theo phn b Rayleigh.
Phn b Rayleigh c hm mt xc sut[4],[14]:

'

<

,
_

) 0 ( 0
) 0 (
2
exp
) (
2
2
2
r
r
r r
r p

(1.4)

Vi l gi tr rms (hiu dng) ca in th tn hiu nhn c trc b tch
ng bao (evelope detection).
2
l cng sut trung bnh theo thi gian.
Xc sut ng bao ca tn hiu nhn c khng vt qua mt gi tr R
cho trc c cho bi hm phn b tch ly:

,
_

2
2
0
2
exp 1 ) ( ) ( ) (

R
dr r p R r P R P
R
r
(1.5)
Gi tr trung bnh r
mean
ca phn b Rayleigh c cho bi:

2533 . 1
2
) ( ] [
0

dr r rp r E r
mean
(1.6)
V phng sai
2
r
(cng sut thnh phn ac ca ng bao tn hiu):
[ ]
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2
4292 . 0
2
2
2
) ( ] [

,
_

dr r p r r E r E
r
(1.7)
Gi tr hiu dng ca ng bao l 2 (cn bc hai ca gi tr trung bnh
bnh phng). Gi tr median ca r tm c khi gii phng trnh:
Trang: 8

p(r)
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn


median
r
median
r dr r p
0
177 . 1 ) (
2
1
(1.8)
V vy gi tr mean v median ch khc nhau mt lng l 0.55dB trong trng
hp tn hiu Rayleigh fading. Ch rng gi tr median thng c s dng trong
thc t v d liu Rayleigh fading thng c o trong nhng mi trng m
chng ta khng th chp nhn n tun theo mt phn b c bit no. Bng cch s
dng gi tr median thay v gi tr trung bnh, chng ta d dng so snh cc phn b
fading khc nhau (c gi tr trung bnh khc nhau). Hnh 1.7 minh ha hm mt
xc sut Rayleigh.
1.3.4.2 Phn b Ricean
Trong trng hp fading Rayleigh, khng c thnh phn tn hiu n trc tip
my thu m khng b phn x hay tn x (thnh phn light-of-sight) vi cng sut
vt tri. Khi c thnh phn ny, phn b s l Ricean. Trong trng hp ny, cc
thnh phn a ng ngu nhin n b thu vi nhng gc khc nhau c xp
chng ln tn hiu light-of-sight. Ti ng ra ca b tch ng bao, iu ny c nh
hng nh l cng thm thnh phn dc vo cc thnh phn a ng ngu nhin.
Ging nh trong trng hp d sng sin trong khi b nhiu nhit, nh hng ca tn
Trang: 9
Hnh 1.7: Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Rayleigh
0

2 3 5 4
p(r)
/ 6065 . 0
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
hiu light-of-sight (c cng sut vt tri) n b thu cng vi cc tn hiu a
ng (c cng sut yu hn) s lm cho phn b Ricean r rt hn. Khi thnh phn
light-of-sight b suy yu, tn hiu tng hp trng ging nh nhiu c ng bao
theo phn b Rayleigh. V vy, phn b b tr thnh phn b Rayleigh trong trng
hp thnh phn light-of-sight mt i.
Hm mt phn b xc sut ca phn b Ricean:

'

<

,
_

0 0
) 0 , 0 (
) ( 2
0
2
) (
2
2
2 2
r
r A
Ar
I e
r
r p
A r

(1.9)
A: Bin nh ca thnh phn light-of-sight.
Io: L hm Bessel sa i loi 1 bc 0.
Phn b Ricean thng c m t bi thng s k c nh ngha nh l t
s gia cng sut tn hiu xc nh (thnh phn light-of-sight) v cng sut cc
thnh phn a ng:
2
2
2
A
k (1.10)
Hay vit di dng

dB:
dB
A
dB k
2
2
2
log 10 ) (

(1.11)
k xc nh phn b Ricean v c gi l h s Ricean.
Khi A

0, k 0 ( dB) thnh phn light-of-sight b suy gim v bin ,
phn b Ricean tr thnh phn b Rayleigh. Hnh 1.8 m t hm mt xc sut
ca phn b Ricean.
Trang:10
Chng 1: Knh truyn v tuyn
1.4 Tng kt chng
Chng 1 nu ln cc hin tng nh hng n cht lng ca knh
truyn, l hiu ng a ng, hiu ng Doppler, suy hao ng truyn v hiu
ng bng rm, t y mun ci thin cht lng knh truyn th cn phi khc phc
cc hin tng ny, do vy m nhiu k thut ra i.
Chng 1 cn cho ta bit cc dng knh truyn trong h thng thng tin di
ng. V cho ta bit hai m hnh phn b knh, l Rayleigh v Rice. Tuy nhin
k thut MC-CDMA c kt hp t k thut CDMA v k thut OFDM, do vy
chng sau s tm hiu v cc k thut ny.
Trang:11
p(r)
k = dB
k = 6 dB
Hnh 1.8: Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Ricean:
k =dB (Rayleigh) v k = 6 dB. Vi k >>1, gi tr trung bnh
ca phn b Ricean xp x vi phn b Gauss