The past of the past
• Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the same party too, but they didn’t see each other. • When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had gone home. • Subj + HAD + past participle • He had gone home.
PAST PERFECT vs. PAST SIMPLE
• 1st: we ate at the cafeteria • 2nd: we went to class
• We _________ at the cafeteria before we __________ to class. • We had eaten at the cafeteria before we went to class.
• 1st: Diego ate dinner • 2nd: Ana came over
• Diego (eat) ________ dinner already by the time Ana (come)________ over. • Diego had already eaten dinner by the time Ana came over.
• 1st: someone broke into our flat • 2nd: we got home
• When we (get)_______ home last night, we found out that somebody (break)__________ into our house. • When we got home last night, somebody had broken into our house.
• 1st: he saw the film • 2nd: he didn’t want to go to the cinema
• Peter (not/want) ________to go to the cinema with us because he (see) already_______the film. • Peter didn’t want to go to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film.