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Cheung Ng

(Tan Sao Ng, Cheung Hin)


Yat Chum
Cheung Ng

Wong WahBo

Leung YeeTai HungGan Biu

DaiFaMin Kam

Lai FukShun GoLo Chung

Law ManGung

Cheung Ng (Zhang Wu), also called Cheung Hin (Zhang Xin), is the only historically verifiable figure (found in histories of the Cantonese Opera and of Foshan) associated with the creation myths of Wing Chun Kuen. Cheung was said to have come from the north, in some accounts from Beijing, in others from Hubei and, in stories of the Pan Nam system, from Hunan. In his youth, he was said to have been involved with the Beijing opera as either a singer or martial lead actor (or, in the Pan Nam accounts, a master of props in the Kwan Si Opera Company.) Most accounts limit his martial skills to undefined Shaolin arts, or, in the Pan Nam version, to a mixture of Kam Gan Jeung (Buddhist Palm), Tong Long Kuen (Mantis Boxing), Tai Gik Kuen (Taijiquan, Great Extremes Boxing), and Ying Jow Pai (Eagle Claw System) from 22nd generation Shaolin Disciple Yat Chum atop Mt. Heng in Hunan. In one account, he nickname of Tan Sao referred to Polio Arm, referring to a partial paralysis of his left arm, and he possessed no real martial skill. Sometime between 1723 and 1736, Cheung moved to Foshan, Guangdong province. This is believed to have been due to his rebellious activities, with some maintaining he included anti-Qing comments in his songs or helped produce plays that expressed dissatisfaction with the administration of the Qing Government. In Foshan, Cheung became known as Tan Sao Ng. Some accounts maintain this was due to his peerless skill with the Shaolin Tan Sao technique while others state that, when he first arrived in Foshan, he survived by begging for money around the Daqiwei docks (in effect, singing songs and spreading his hand out for money). Cheung went on to organize the Red Junk opera performers (also known as the Disciples of the Pear Garden) into an association known as the Hung Fa Wui Goon (Hong Hua Hui Guan, Red Flower Union) and/or King Fa Wui Goon (Qiang Hua Hui Guan, Precious Jade Flower Union) To the opera performers he was said to have taught the traditional 'Eighteen plays of Cantonese Opera'. Cheung remains revered in the opera even until present times where it's said he is revered as the Founding Master and that his contributions earned him a place in Taoist opera heaven, where he along with the God of Chinese Opera, Wai Gong. While it seems more likely that Cheung taught the northern, opera-oriented martial arts to the Red Junk performers rather than anything substantively similar to Wing Chun Kuen, his influence on the Red Junk is undeniable and it is not impossible to imagine that his legacy may have played some part in what eventually became known as Wing Chun Kuen in later generations.

Jee Shim Sim Si

Faat Hoi Jee Shim

Wong WahBo

Leung YeeTai

DaiFaMin Kam

Jee Shim Sim Si (Zhi Shan Chan Shi or Chan (Buddhist) Teacher Jee Sin) is said in legend to have been a Buddhist monk and survivor of the Shaolin Temple. Some stories say Jee Shim was from the Northern temple in Henan. Others maintain he was abbot of the Southern temple located in Fujian. Still others suggest he was originally from the Henan temple and fled south to the Fujian temple when the Northern one was destroyed by the Manchurians in the mid 18th century, only to have to flee again when the Southern temple later met with the same fate. Jee Shim holds great fame in Southern Chinese boxing, stemming, some say, from the Qing dynasty pulp novel Ten Thousand Years Qing which spread the tales of the Ng Jo (Wu Zu or Five Elders) of Shaolin, the five students of Master Faat Hoi. He is generally considered to have taught the founder of Hung Ga Kuen (Hung Family Boxing), Hung Hei-Goon. There are several differing legends that relate how Jee Shim's methods were transmitted to the Red Junk Opera. In one account, in the time between fleeing Southern Shaolin and arriving at the Red Junks, Jee Shim met up with another monk who taught him the methods of the Junk Mast Dummy (a Wodden Dummy that was part of the mast of a boat). As to Jee Shim's arrival on board the Red Junks, there are two common tales. The first, a common folk story, relates that Jee Shim, roaming the south disguised as a beggar, heard of the Disciples of the Pear Garden and went to watch their show. Though he was impressed with their performance, their power and their knowledge, he knew he could improve upon it. and decided to correct them. When the opera was packing up and preparing to head off for a show in Guangzhou, he approached them and asked for passage. At first the opera performers wanted nothing to do with the man they believed to be a simple beggar and told him abruptly to be on his way. Jee Shim decided to teach them a lesson. He came forward and placed one foot on the boat and the other on the dock, and took his stance. The polers thought they would give the foolish old man an impromptu bath, yet try as they might they could not move the boat so much as a foot. Recognizing the beggar as a remarkable man of great skill, they humbly asked to be taken as his students. Jee Shim agreed and The old monk trained Wong Wah-Bo, Leung Yee-Tai, Dai Fa Min Kam, and others in the skills of fighting and in his famed Luk Dim Boon Gwun (Six-and-a-Half Point Pole). They called the system he taught Weng Chun Kuen in order to hide the Shaolin name from the Qing. Another account, typical of the Jee Shim Weng Chun Kuen system, relates that Jee Shim sought refuge by hiding as a cook on the Red Junks of the Guangdong Opera. One day, an extortionist known as Lao Fu Wong (Tiger Wong) came to the opera boats. Tiger Wong demanded money, and threatened to burn down the boats should they fail to deliver. Although the actors of the Red Junks were skilled martial artists, their knowledge was geared towards performance, not fighting, and they were helpless in the face of the brutal extortionist. Just when all was lost, the cook stepped forward to challenge Tiger Wong. The cook, who appeared crazy to all present, was not taken seriously by the bully, who sought to dispatch him quickly. The cook had other ideas, however. The instant Wong touched the cook, he found his fingers broken. Outraged, Wong continued to press the altercation, but continuously found himself seized and controlled by the enigmatic cook. Realizing he had met his match, Wong surrendered, left quickly, and never returned. Turning to the startled opera performers, the cook revealed himself as the abbott, Jee Shim and agreed to their fervent requests for tuition. Jee Shim agreed, and taught the Red Junk members his martial arts, which they called Weng Chun (Always Spring), in honor of the Shaolin hall where Jee Shim had previously taught. Among those who learned his art where Wong Wah-Bo and San Kam (Dai Fa Min Kam). The Yip Man system, on the other hand, maintains Jee Shim's contributions were limited to the Luk Dim Boon Gwun, most often through Leung Yee-Tai It is unknown if Jee Shim was a real person or simply an alias used to cover the activities of an individual who wished to avoid attention. Nevertheless, in terms of the strict Wing Chun Kuen system (as opposed to the distinct Weng Chun Kuen system), the role of Jee Shim in the creation myths seems usually constrained to being the original source of the Six-anda-half Point Pole (and perhaps the wooden dummy and seizing and controlling movements as well.)

Leung Bok-Cho
(Leung Bok-Lao)
Yim Yee

Yim WingChun Wong WahBo


Yik Kam

Leung BokCho DaiFaMin Kam GoLo Chung Law ManGung

Leung YeeTai
Sun FukChun

Leung Bok-Cho (Liang Bochou), also rendered as Leung Bok-Lao (Liang Boliu) was the husband of Yim Wing-Chun and is generally credited with bringing the Wing Chun Kuen system out into the world. There are several different accounts about how Leung Bok-Cho learned Wing Chun Kuen and came to pass it along. A popular folk story holds Leung Bok-Cho was a native of Zhaoqing, Guangdong where he had learned the Choy family boxing from Choy Gao-Yee. After losing a fight to Choy's youngest son, Choy Biu, he travelled to Guangxi province in search of a new teacher. Short on funds, he took shelter at a local hotel which adjoined the Yim family tofu shop. One night, his slumber was disturbed by sounds he recognized as the training of martial arts. Investigating, he was startled to see Yim Wing-Chun practicing the martial arts beneath the light of the moon. He immediately fell in love with her skill and beauty. Wanting to learn the style, Leung convinced Yim Yee to teach him their martial arts. Yim Yee provided him with a place to stay and eventually arranged for Leung to marry his daughter. A few years later, in the early 1800s, when Yim Yee passed away, Leung Bok-Cho was said to have learned the rest of the style from his wife (after having been soundly defeated by her in a friendly test of skills). Leung eventually left and travelled to Foshan to pass on the art. Meeting a scholar named Leung Lan-Kwai, he exchanged with Lan-Kwai and Lan-Kwai's teacher, Wong Wah-Bo, and classmate, Dai Fa Min Kam, his Wing Chun Boxing for their Jee Shim based Weng Chun pole work. Leung later left Foshan to journey north of the river and continue passing on Wing Chun. In the Yip Man system, its said that Yim Wing-Chun's mother died soon after her betrothal to Leung Bok-Cho, a salt merchant from Fujian. After their marriage Yim Wing-Chun taught martial arts to her husband Leung Bok-Cho who in turn passed these techniques on to Leung Lan-Kwai. Another account, from the Sum Nung system, suggests that following the death of Yim Wing-Chun, Leung Bok-Lao named his martial arts Wing-Chun Kuen (Wing-Chun's boxing) in honor and memory of his wife. While in Guangzhou, Guangdong, Leung Bok-Lao went on to teach Wing Chun Kuen to the disciples of the Pear Garden, Wong Wah-Bo, Leung Yee-Tai, Dai Fa Min Kam, and others. The Yiu Kai system has a slightly different version. They maintain that Leung Bok-Lao was a merchant from Shangxi named who had been a student of the Henan Shaolin Temple. In 1810, he came to relax in a hotel. By chance, one day under the light of the moon he saw Yim Yee and his daughter Wing-Chun practicing martial arts beside the tofu grinders. He thought Wing-Chun was beautiful and had excellent technique. He fell in love with her. He stayed and passed by many times to talk with them about martial arts. His first wife had died, and he though Wing-Chun had excellent fighting skills, so he wanted to marry her. He had a friend ask, but Wing-Chun was too embarassed to answer. Yim Yee thought Leung was good-looking, and was a fellow Shaolin follower, so he agreed for his daughter and they were married. After a few years, Yim Yee died and they moved to Shangxi but due to the constant fighting of bandits and soliders, they moved again to north Guangdong (Anhongyuan village). They opened a small business and taught "Wing Chun Kuen" to some students. In about 1815, they moved the school to Zhaoqing and continued teaching. The Red Junk Opera Company would often travel between Zhaoqing and Foshan. Wong Wah-Bo (Mo-Sang), Leung Yee-Tai (Mo-Deng), Ah one named) Kam (Dai Fa Min), and Siu Fook (Siu-Sang) met them and learned Wing Chun. An final version reports that Leung Bok-Cho was from Jiangxi and had studied at the Jiangxi Shaolin temple, becoming a revolutionary and fleeing arrest at the hands of the Qing. In Guangxi, due to their similiar backgrounds, he was taken in by Yim Yee of the Yim Family Tofu Shop, who arranged his marriage to his daughter, Yim Wing-Chun. Following Yim Yee's death, they moved around for a while before finally settling in Zhaoqing, Guangdong. There, Leung Bok-Cho attended a show of the Red Junk Opera. Impressed by the skill of the performers, especially the pole techniques of Wong Wah-Bo in the role of General Kwan, Leung arranged an introduction. Forming a close friendship with several of the troupe, Leung Bo-Cho and Yim Wing-Chun went on to teach Wing Chun Kuen to Wong Wah-Bo, Leung Yee-Tai, Dai Fa Min Kam, and others. One outlandish entry in a French martial arts encyclopedia suggested that Leung Bok-Cho was, in fact, Hung Ga Kuen founder Hung Hei-Goon, who changed his name and his aboard the Red Junks to escape arrest. From the many accounts it is clear that Leung Bok-Cho, whether a real person or an alias used as a cover, is credited in the Wing Chun Kuen creation myths as the who first spread the art (primarily to the Red Junk Opera members.)

Miu Shun

Ng Mui Miu Shun Yim Yee

Miu Shun (Miao Shun) was said to have been a monk in Guangxi province and is sometimes named the link between the fabled nun, Ng Mui and Yim Wing-Chuns father, Yim Yee. This story, common in the Sum Nung and Cho Ga Wing Chun Kuen systems, states that Ng Mui left the Bak Hok Jee (White Crane Temple) in Sichuan's Emei mountains to wonder the countryside. Eventually, she ventured to Guangxi where she taught her newly created Bak Hok Kuen (White Crane Boxing) to Miu Shun. Miu Shun mixed the style with his own techniques, distilling and unifying from both a highly effective martial. Miu Shun later passed along the newly created art to his disciple Yim Yee. In the Cho family version, Miu Shun combined Ng Mui's White Crane Boxing with Emei Sup Yee Jong (Twelve Posts) to create Siu Lien Tao (Little First Training). While accounts of Miu Shun remain, for the large part, marginal, his role in the creation myths, blending the established White Crane Boxing with his own Sichuan system (perhaps Twelve Posts) provides and interesting explination on how the Wing Chun Kuen system developed as it did.

Miu Tsui-Fa

Miu Hin

Ng Mui Miu Shun Yim WingChun Fung SeiYuk

Miu Tsui-Fa (Miao Cuihua) was the daughter of fabled Shaolin ancestor Miu Hin, disciple of Ng Mui, wife of Fong Dak, and mother of legendary Fong Sei-Yuk. Miu Tsui-Fa is occasionally mentioned in Wing Chun Kuen fables as the source of the Seung Do (Double Knives). Accounts are sketchy at best, some saying she passed the skills on to Yim Yee while other indicate Yim Wing-Chun.

Ng Mui Si Tai
(Lui Sei-Leung)
Faat Hoi Ng Mui Miu Shun Yim WingChun Miu TsuiFa

Ng Mui Si Tai (Wumei Shitai or Nun, Five Plums), was most often said to have been from the legendary Shaolin Temple and to have been one of the fabled five ancestors who escaped the temples destruction. Her true identity was sometimes said to have been Lui Sei-Leung, the Forth Daughter of a Ming general named Lui. In stories where Ng Mui herself created Wing Chun Kuen, such as those of the Yip Man system, it is typically maintained that when the Shaolin Temple was burned, the nun, Ng Mui sought refuge in the distant Bak Hok Jee (Baihesi or White Crane Temple) of the Daliangshan Mountains on the borders of Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. There, she practiced her meditation and martial arts. One day, her practice was interrupted by a snake and a crane, locked in combat. Ng Mui watched the snake and the crane, and came to admire their fighting methods. Observing, Ng Mui began to incorporate the unique strengths and tactics into her already well developed martial skills, creating a remarkable new method. Later, in the village below, she met Yim Yee and his daughter Wing-Chun from whom she often bought bean curd on her way home from the market. At fifteen, with her hair bound up in the custom of those days to show she was of an age to marry, Wing-Chun's beauty attracted the attention of a local bully. He tried to force Wing-Chun to marry him, and his continuous threats became a source of worry to her and her father. Ng Mui learned of this and took pity on Wing-Chun. She agreed to teach Wing-Chun fighting techniques so she could protect herself. Wing-Chun followed Ng Mui into the mountains, and began to learn fighting skills. She trained night and day, until she mastered the techniques. Then she challenged the bully to a fight and beat him. Some versions, by contrast, hold that the above was not the founding of Wing Chun Kuen, but of Bak Hok Kuen (White Crane Boxing). The popular folk stories say Ng Mui went to Yunnan's White Crane Temple where one day she witnessed a fight between a fox and a white crane. The fox lost and Ng Mui used the crane as inspiration create a new style she named Bak Hok Kuen (White Crane Boxing). Ng Mui then journeyed to Guangxi where she met Mui Sun. Mui Sun mixed Ng Mui's Bak Hok Kuen with his own techniques and created the style which would eventually be named Wing Chun. Another old legend states that Ng Mui's art had a different source. The famed Song Dynasty General Ngok Fei (Yue Fei) created several martial arts including Xingyiquan (Form of Intention Boxing), Yingzhaopai (Eagle Claw Style), and Ngok Ga Kuen (Ngok Family Boxing). Ngok Ga spread to several areas, one of which was the Taoist temples on Mt. Emei. There, the priests passed along the art for generations. Two of the disciples who eventually inherited the style were a priest named Bak Mei (White Eyebrows) and a nun named Ng Mui (Five Plums). Bak Mei went on to create the style which came to bear his name, Bak Mei Kuen, and Ng Mui passed along her art to people who eventually named it Wing Chun Kuen (Praise Spring Boxing). Ng Mui is also often named as the founder of many, many other systems, including Mui Fa Kuen (Plum Blossom Boxing), Lung Ying Kuen (Dragon Shape Boxing), Chu Ga Tong Long (Chu Family Mantis), Gao Kuen (Dog Boxing), Bak Hok Kuen (White Crane Boxing), Ng Mui Pai (Five Plums Boxing), and Wing Chun Kuen (Praise Spring Boxing). Also, variations of the stories exist where she is case as a Shaolin nun from Fujian rather than Henan, or as a Taoist from Hebei's Wudangshan. It is unknown if Ng Mui was a real person or simply an alias used to avoid attention from the Qing government. In any event, based on the above, there appear to be two schools of belief as to Ng Mui's role in the Wing Chun Kuen creation myths. In the first, she must be considered the founder who passed along a fairly complete system to Yim Wing-Chun. In the second, she must be considered the primary source who passed down the raw material later shaped by Yim WingChun (or in some accounts Miu Shun) who later founded the art.

Yat Chum Um Jee


(Yat Chum Dai Si)
22nd Shaolin Generation Yat Chum Cheung Ng

Yat Chum Um Jee (Yi Chen Anzhi, Speck of Dust Founder of Convent) is named as the link between the Shaolin Temple and Cheung Ng in the accounts of Pan Nam. She is named as a member of the 22nd, "Yat" generation of Henan Shaolin which included such famed monks as Yat Nim (Yi Nian). According to the Pan Nam accounts, Yat Chum Um Jee was a 22nd generation Siu Lam disciple who founded a temple on Mt. Heng in the province of Hunan in the mid 18th century. There, Yat Chum taught a collection of martial arts to a carefully selected group of students including a man named Cheung Ng ("Tan Sao" Ng). It is suggested that Yat Chums method came from a distillation of Shaolinquan (Young Forest Boxing), Taijiquan (Great Ultimate Boxing), Yingzhaoquan (Eagle Claw Boxing), Jingangzhang (Diamond Palm a.k.a. Buddhist Palm), Qin Na (Joint-Locking), Tonglongquan (Mantis Boxing), etc. In other accounts, Yat Chum was said to have been male and was referred to as Yat Chum Dai Si. While Yat was a generational name of Henan Shaolin and Cheung Ng is a verifiable historical figure, there is currently no supporting information on Yat Chum. Whether Yat Chum was a real person or an alias like those in other creation myths, his/her role in the above stories credits him/her as the principle founder of the art.

Yim Wing-Chun
(Yim Saam-Leung)
Yim Yee Leung BokLao Wong WahBo
Yik Kam

Ng Mui Yim WingChun DaiFaMin Kam


Others

Leung YeeTai
Sun FukChun

GoLo Chung

Law ManGung

Yim Wing-Chun (Yan Yongchun), also known as Yim Saam-Leung (Yim Sanniang or Third Daughter of Yim), the wife of Leung Bok-Cho, is the principle figure in many legends of Wing Chun. In some accounts, Yim Wing-Chun was taught the art that would become known as Wing Chun Kuen by her father, Yim Yee. Other accounts give her more credit, suggesting that from a young age, Yim Wing-Chun learned the Fujian martial arts, including Sae Ying Kuen (Snake Shape Boxing) and Bak Hok Kuen (White Crane Boxing) from her father, a former Siu Lam disciple and revolutionary named Yim Sei. One day, while she was washing clothes by the river, Wing Chun saw a snake and crane fighting. Gaining inspiration from the two animals, she used her new found insight to refine her martial knowlede to better suit herself. One of the most famous stories about Yim Wing-Chun, found in the Yip Man system, holds that the nun, Ng Mui would, on occasion, travel from her refuge in the White Crane Temple in order to get provisions from a nearby Yunnan village. During these visits, she made the acquaintance of a local tofu vender named Yim Yee and his daughter, a young girl named Yim Wing-Chun. One day, while visiting, Ng Mui found the young girl in tears. She soon discovered that a brutal local gangster had come to town and taken a liking to Yim Wing-Chun. He had sworn to return a short time later to claim her as his wife. Ng Mui at first thought to fight the gangster and drive him away, but she realized that to do so would give away her location to the Qing troops who still hunted her. Instead, she decided to take Yim Wing-Chun with her back to the temple and teach her the martial arts so that she would be able to fight for herself. With only a short time until the gangsters return, Ng Mui could not teach Yim Wing-Chun in the usual manner (which some have said took more then a dozen years). So, Ng Mui was forced to teach Yim Wing-Chun only the most simple, direct, and effective of combat skills which she would be able to use in order to defeat the larger, stronger, and more experienced gangster. Yim Wing-Chun practiced very hard and when the gangster returned, she was ready. The gangster was last seen dragging his battered body out of town, never to return. In most stories, in the mid-1810s, she married a man named Leung Bok-Cho. In some accounts, he learned alongside her under Yim Yee until the old man passed away, at which point he continued learning from his wife (following an encounter

where she quite easily proved her fighting skills greatly surpassed those of her husband). In others, Yim Wing-Chun alone taught him her remarkable fighting skills. From the many accounts it is clear that Yim Wing-Chun, whether a real person or an alias used as a cover, is credited in the Wing Chun Kuen creation myths as the principle founder, or one of the principle founders, of the art.

Yim Yee
(Yim Er, Yee Gong)
? Miu Shun Yim Yee Leung BokCho Yim WingChun

Yim Yee (Yan Er), sometimes called by the name Yim Sae (Yan Si), or by the nickname Yee Gung (Er Gong or Grandfather Yee), was Yim Wing-Chuns father. In some legends, he played no other role, but in others, he is an important part of the Wing Chun line. One account, from the Sum Nung and Cho family systems, relates that Yim Yee was a disciple of the Fujian Shaolin temple, member of the Hung Mun society's military Red Pole sect, and disciple of Miu Shun. When their plans were uncovered, Yim Yee was forced to flee with his infant daughter. Seeking refuge in Guangxi province, the Yim's opened a tofu shop and sought to live a normal life. During the day, the two worked in the shop while at night, Yim Yee instructed his daughter, Yim Wing-Chun, in the martial arts. her youth, he instructed her in the martial arts. Another tale suggests that Yim Sei, a disciple of the Fujian Shaolin temple, distilled his knowledge of the revolutionary martial arts and named his style in honor of the place in which he lived, Yongchun (Weng Chun) County, Fujian province. Like most of the founders, Yim Yee may or may not be a real person. His role in the creation myths of Wing Chun Kuen, in either case, ranges from nothing more than being Yim Wing-Chun's father to passing on to her Miu Shun's art.

What's in a Name?
by Rene Ritchie
What's in a name? Fortunately for Wing Chun Kuen, a lot. Unfortunately, for those without knowledge of Cantonese and written Chinese, the poor translations passed along over the years have done a lot to obscure the meanings of our terms. Perhaps early translators lacked the understanding of Chinese, English, and/or Wing Chun Kuen terminology necessary to provide good translations. Perhaps, rather then direct translations, Wing Chun pioneers felt that descriptive names would be easier to understand, and less confusing, for their Western pupils. Whatever the reason, a lot of misconceptions have evolved as to the meanings and relevance of Wing Chun terminology. Personally, I think English speaking students are intelligent enough to understand good translations, and insightful enough to benefit from them. Thus, I'd like to take this first column to introduce some of the basic terminology of Wing Chun Kuen. A few things should be noted at the outset: The terminology of Wing Chun Kuen is Cantonese (although some in the mainland now use Mandarin). While the Cantonese dialect, in written form, is quite similar to the official Zhongwen, (written Chinese) it is pronounced at times quite differently and it does contain written words and meanings uniquely its own. To further complicate matters, while Zhongwen has the official PinYin romanization, there is no standard way to romanize Cantonese. This has led to many different "spellings" for Wing Chun terms over the years. These columna will try to use the most common renderings while staying as close to the sounds of the words as possible, providing PinYin notation as well for ease of reference.

Lastly, Wing Chun Kuen is a living, evolving, art. Thus, some movements have many names, some have no names at all, some names have been lost, and some names have been more recently coined by scholarly modern masters. For this column, we will just explore some of the most common words.

Weng/Wing Chun Kuen


The name of the art itself is a good place to start, since it too suffers from some confusion and misconception. Many seem to translate Wing Chun (Yongchun) as "Beautiful Spring". I have yet to find a reference to Wing meaning "beautiful". It may well be an obscure extension of the term, but probably not a good one to define our art. In actuality, there are two distinct characters used to represent the sound Wing in the art Wing Chun. For the sake of clarity, I will romanize the most common one as Wing and the other as Weng (they are pronounced almost identically, however). Weng (Yong), the first and simplest, means "always, perpetually, forever." Formed from the radical (the component of the character that suggests meaning) Sui (Shui, water) veins flowing perpetually beneath the phonetic (the element of the character that suggests sound) Yat (Yi, in this sense- the surface). This character is often used by systems that trace their origin to the Weng Chun hall of the Siu Lum (Shaolin) temple and the monk, Jee Shim (such as Jee Shim Weng Chun), and Yongchun county, Fujian province. Others, however, such as those in the Chan Yiu-Min line (the son of Chan Wah-Shun) also make use of it, including the Pan Nam system. Wing (Yong), the second, and most common, means to recite, to chant, to sing, or by extension to praise. This character adds the root Yin (Yan, to talk- formed by words issuing from the mouth) beside phonetic Weng (Yong, as described in the previous paragraph). Branches who trace themselves back to the fabled Ng Mui and/or Yim Wing Chun (such as Yip Man Wing Chun, Gulao Wing Chun, Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun, and others) make use of this character. Chun (Chun) indicates "spring, springtime". It is composed of the radical Yat (Ri, the sun) leading Chou (Cao, plants) to Juen (Tun, burst through the surface). Kuen (Quan) literally means "fist, boxing", but is often extended in martial arts to relate "choreographed forms" (such as Fa Kuen, the Flower Fist form) and even "style of boxing" (like Wing Chun Kuen). The radical is Sao (Shou, the hand) that are Huen (Juan, rolled- hands rolling rice grains). As can be seen from the above, the name Wing (Weng) Chun Kuen is deep in meaning. Chun suggests continual renewal while Wing or Weng indicates to praise this, or make it perpetual. This helps show us that Wing Chun is a vibrant art, always changing and growing. It cannot be stiff, mechanical, stagnant, or dead (in concept, teaching, or application). Kuen reminds us that our Wing Chun is not a personal name or a distant place, but a fighting system, a martial art. Thus, it is the job of every Wing Chun student to always make the forms, drills and other seeds of Wing Chun burst forth in living martial application.

Basic Points
Kiu Sao (Qiao Shou, Bridge Arms) is one of the first terms encountered in Wing Chun, and southern Chinese martial arts in general. Kiu (Qiao) means a bridge. It combines the radical Mook (Mu, wood) with the phonetic Kiu (Qiao, high and bent forward).

Sao (Shou) is the hand or arm. In southern Chinese martial arts, the arm is often considered the principal fighting tool, and hence the limb that forms the bridge to the opponent. Kiu Sao is often shortened to simply Kiu or Sao and combined with functional terms to form terms such as Chum Kiu and Tan Sao. Some of the more often seen functional terms include:

Tan (Tan) is often mistranslated as "Palm-Up". This is so common, in fact, that many have come to simply accept it as fact. While perhaps helpful in a generally descriptive way, this mistranslation robs the practitioner of a lot of deeper meaning. Tan, in fact, means to disperse, to spread out. It is formed from the radical variant of Sao (Shou, hand, arm) and Nan (Nan, hard, difficult, famine-(short tailed) birds forced to spread out in search of food when the land is yellow and dry. Tan Sao is one of the principle intercepting tools of Wing Chun. Tan can help us understand the structure that effortlessly disperses incoming force away from the center and spreads out the opponent, cutting them off and making it harder for them to continue. Fook (Fu) is also often erroneously translated as "bridge-on", "bent wrist" or even "monkey". In reality, Fook means to control, to subdue, to tame. It is composed of the altered radical for Yan (Ren- a person) standing over Yao (You-a dog). Fook can give insight into the goal of the technique. Our arm (the person), controls and tames the opponent's arm (the dog). Bong (Bang) is the wing (of a bird), a shoulder. It combines the altered radical for Yuk (Rou, flesh) and Pong (Pang, the limits of three-dimensional space- in this case the side). Since this word defines a thing, rather then an action as most other Wing Chun terms do, some believe there may have originally been a different character or deeper meaning for Bong. Lan (Lan) means to bar, to obstruct, to hold back. It is formed from the altered radical for Sao (Shou, hand) obstructing phonetic Lan (Lan, railing). This Lan is a verb (the noun form of Lan, with the root for wood, represents a railing or banister). It embodies the arms use to obstruct the passage of an opponent's limbs or body. Huen (Quan) is to circle or to corral. It is composed of the radical for Wai (Wei, an enclosure, to contain) surrounding Huen (Juan, to roll). Huen helps describe the techniques ability to both detain an opponent's limb, and to travel around it in order to improve position.

Conclusion
Hopefully, this column has helped introduce some of the rich content of Wing Chun terminology, and show the importance of its preservation and exploration.

About the Author


Ren Ritchie was first exposed to the martial arts with Judo in 1980. Over the years, he was also exposed to Wushu (Longfist, Bagua, etc.) and other arts. He began studying the Sum Nung system of Wing Chun Kuen under the guidance of Ngo Lui-Kay in 1990. Author of Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen: History & Foundation, co-author of Complete Wing Chun: The Definitive Guide to Wing Chun's History & Traditions, and writer of many articles for Inside Kung-Fu, Martial Arts Legends, Martial Arts Masters, and Wing Chun Today, he is also creator and publisher of the Internet WingChunKuen.Com website and co-administrator of the Internet Wing Chun Mailing List. He works and practices in Eastern Canada.

Wing Chun Grading

Structure
LEVEL ONE GRADE 1 White sash - 1 logo 1. Neutral stance 2. Neutral side stance

3. Wing Chun fist left and right 4. Wing Chun guard left and right 5. Pak Sao (Inward diagonal and parallel armed) a) left b) right 6. Pak Sao punch (Inward diagonal parallel armed) a) left b) right 7. Half front step left and right 8. Roll punch ( three) 9. Shil Lim Tao - opening to form fist 10. Numeric punches 1 to 3 11. Benefit - 1. Improve self discipline 12. The pledge- I believe constant practising of the art of Traditional Wing Chun will enable me to transcend to a higher mental and physical level. I shall show respect for the Art, Grandmaster Cheung, Sifu, Siheng and Sidai. I shall employ my utmost tolerance and consideration when dealing with people and matters in and outside the Academy.

a) half side step (defence) b) half front step (attack) 7. Numeric punches 1 - 5 8. First part of Shil Lim Tao 9. Chinese counting 1 to 10 10. History of Wing Chun in brief 11. Benefits 1 to 3: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self-confidence; 3. Improves self esteem. 12. Principles 1 & 2: 1. Centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time.

LEVEL TWO GRADE 1 Light blue sash - 1 logo 1. Drills: a) Bil Sao and punch b) Half front step and roll punch c) Sidestep - Pak Sao and roll punch 2. Form : Shil Lim Tao to Gum Sao section.

LEVEL ONE GRADE 2 White sash - 2 logos 1. Wing Chun guard - switching a) left to right b) right to left 2. Half side step; Left and Right 3. Half side step Pak Sao (block straight punch); Left and Right 4. Half front step; Left and Right 5. Half front step Pak Sao; Left and Right 6. Larp Sao - on Neutral Stance; Left and Right 7. Half front step - Pak Sao, punch and roll punch; Left and Right 8. Half front step - Larp Sao, punch and roll punch; Left And Right 9. Shil Lim Tao - opening - Tan Sao and Wu Sao 10. Principles of Wing Chun - 1. Guard the Centre 11. Benefits 1 & 2: 1. Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self-confidence.

3. Techniques: a) Grab to arm - flick to eyes, Pak Sao and roll punch b) Against round punch i) Larp Sao punch and roll punch on parallel side ii) Pak Sao punch and roll punch on cross arm side c) Offensive i) Larp Sao punch and roll punch on parallel side ii) Pak Sao punch and roll punch on cross arm side 4. Pledge recital 5. Benefits 1 to 4: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self-confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others. 6. Principles 1 to 3: 1. Centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid fighting force with force.

LEVEL TWO GRADE 0 Light blue sash - no logo 1. Drills for eye 2. Watching elbow drills 3. Full side step 4. Full side step, Pak Sao punch and roll punch 5. Larp Sao punch, Pak Sao punch and roll punch a) half side step (defence) b) half front step (attack) 6. Pak Sao punch, Larp Sao punch and roll punch

LEVEL TWO GRADE 2 Light blue sash - 2 logos 1. Drills: a) Numeric punch with front step b) Tan Sao and roll punch c) Forward and backward full step with roll punch d) Kan Sao and roll punch 2. Form: Shil Lim Tao to Tarn Sao section

3. Techniques a) Low round punch: i) cross leg - Kan Sao and punch with roll punch ii) parallel leg - Kan Sao and punch with roll punch b) Straight punch: i) Larp Sao and punch with roll punch (from side neutral parallel leg) ii) Pak Sao and punch with roll punch (from side neutral cross leg) c) Offensive - with half step forward: i) cross leg - Larp Sao and punch with roll punch ii) parallel leg - Pak Sao and punch with roll punch d) Shoulder grab - eye flick and roll punch 4. Chinese terminology 5. Benefits 1 to 5: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self-confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others; 5. Improves reflexes and co-ordination. 6. Principles 1 to 4.: 1. Centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid fighting force with force; 4. Watch the elbow.

c) Lower round punch - Garn Sao and Garn Sao and punch with roll punch d) Front choke with 2 hands - step back with eye flick, Pak Sao 4. Wing Chun general strategy in combat 5. Benefits 1 to 6: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others; 5. Improves reflexes and co-ordination; 6. Improve eye focusing. 6. Principles 1 to 5: 1. Centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid fighting force with force; 4. Watch the elbow; 5. Use linear striking action.

LEVEL THREE GRADE 1 Medium blue sash - 1 logo 1. Drills: a) Tan and punch b) Bil and front kick 2. Form: Shil Lim Tao to Tan / Kan 3. Techniques: a) against front kick - Pak Sao block, Larp Sao and roll punch b) against Low round - Kan Sao, punch and roll punch c) offensive i) parallel side - step forward, pin elbow with Pak Sao, punch and roll punch ii) cross side - step forward, Larp Sao to pin elbow, punch and roll punch d) self defence techniques: against head lock i) jab to the eye and elbow to the solar plexus ii) bring the arm behind the attacker, grab to the hair or the eye, and strike to the throat 4. Chinese terminology 5. Benefits 1 to 7: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others; 5. Improves reflexes and co-ordination; 6. Improve eye focusing; 7. Improves contact reflexes (Chi Sao). 6. Principles 1 to 6: 1. Protect the centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid

LEVEL THREE GRADE 0 Medium blue sash - no logo 1. Drills: a) Jut Sao / punch and roll punch b) Half front step - Jut Sao / punch and roll punch c) Pak Sao / punch and roll punch d) Pak Sao / punch and roll punch Bil Sao / front kick and roll punch 2. Form: Shil Lim Tao to second Pak Sao 3. Techniques: a) Double round punch - high and low i) parallel arm - Bil Sao and Kan Sao with roll punch ii) cross arm - Pak Sao and Bil Sao with roll punch b) Round punch i) parallel arm - Bil Sao, front kick from half side step (from side neutral) ii) cross arm - Pak Sao, front kick and step forward with roll punch

fighting force with force; 4. Watch the elbow; 5. Use linear striking action; 6. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective.

b) Larp Sao and roll punch c) Head lock - thumb to eye, slip behind d) Low Bon against front kick 4. Benefits 1 to 10: 1. Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others; 5. Improves reflexes and co-ordination; 6. Improves eye focusing; 7. Improves contact reflexes (Chi Sao); 8. Improves speed and power; 9. Improves fitness and relieves stress; 10. Get along better with friends and family. 5. Principles 1 to 8: 1. Protect the centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid fighting force with force; 4. Watch the elbow; 5. Use linear striking action; 6. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective; 7. All exercises in Wing Chun are linked with the development of internal energy (Chi); 8. Uses the same meridian pressure points as treatment of sports injuries.

LEVEL THREE GRADE 2 Medium blue sash - 2 logos 1. Drills: Bon and Larp punch Pak Sao --> Tan Sao Pak and Bil Sao Pak Sao --> Bon Sao --> Larp Sao 2. Form: Shil Lim Two to Bon / reverse palm 3. Techniques: a) Tan Sao against Round punch and roll punch b) Grab from behind - Larp to elbow / kick roll punch c) Pak Sao / Bil Sao against round punch d) Bil Sao / Pak Sao against round punch e) Kan Sao block against front kick and roll punch 4. Benefits 1 to 8: 1 . Improves self discipline; 2. Improves self confidence; 3. Improves self esteem; 4. Improves respect for others; 5. Improves reflexes and co-ordination; 6. Improves eye focusing; 7. Improves contact reflexes (Chi Sao); 8. Improves speed and power. 5. Principles 1 to 7: 1. Protect the centre line; 2. Train to use two arms at the same time; 3. Avoid fighting force with force; 4. Watch the elbow; 5. Uses linear striking action; 6. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective; 7. All exercises in Wing Chun are linked with the development of internal energy (Chi).

LEVEL FOUR GRADE 1 Dark blue sash - 1 logo 1. Advanced Shil Lim Tao - first Stretching - splits 2. Drills: Side kick a) low side kick on neutral b) low round kick on front stance Round kick a) low round kick on neutral b) low round kick on front stance One arm Chi Sao a) roll b) Jut Sao routine and counter Entry techniques: a) parallel side to blind side (opponent stationary) b) parallel side to open side (opponent stationary) 3. Character of Wing Chun 1 : 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force. 4. Strategy 1: 1. Use the centre line, therefore force opponent to use the outside path.

LEVEL FOUR GRADE 0 Dark blue sash - no logo 1. Drills: Kan punch Bil --> Pak and kick Entry technique Bil --> Bil and kick 2. Form: Shil Lim Tao Low Bil Sao - finish 3. Entry Techniques: a) Bon Sao against straight punch

LEVEL FOUR GRADE 2 Dark blue sash - 2 logos 1. Shil Lim Tao - second 2. Drills: Bon Sao --> Larp Sao - roll punch Bon Sao --> Tan Sao --> punch Side kick a) medium side kick from neutral stance b) medium side kick from front stance a) medium round kick from neutral stance b) medium round kick from front stance a) routine b) Pak Sao routine and counter a) cross side to blind side (opponent stationary) b) cross side to open side (opponent stationary) 3. Character of Wing Chun 1 & 2: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second). 4. Strategy 1 & 2: 1. Use the centre line and therefore force the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Control the opponent's blind side.

a) parallel to blind (opponent punch) parallel to opponent (opponent punch) b) cross to blind (opponent punch) cross to opponent (opponent punch) 3. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 3: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time. 4. Strategy 1 to 3: 1. Use the centre line and therefore force the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Control the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance.

LEVEL FIVE GRADE 1 Light brown sash - 1 logo 1. Chum Kil - first part to left 3 palm strike 2. Drills: Side Kick a) high side kick neutral stance b) high round kick neutral stance Chi Sao double a) predetermined routine b) rolling in x 2, out x 2 c) cross side Chi Sao 3. Techniques: a) against front kick Pak b) round double Pak c) side kick - Kan Sao inside and low front kick Counter against jab and cross - Pak (outside) and Tuen High round and low round a) Bil and Jut 4. Wooden Dummy: 1 - 3 movements 5. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 4: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise.

LEVEL FIVE GRADE 0 Light brown sash - no logo 1. Shil Lim Tao - third 2. Drills: Bon Sao / Larp Sao drill with round punches Bon Sao / Larp Sao drill against high and low punches a) medium side kick, front stance step in b) medium side kick, front stance step back a) medium round kick, step in b) medium round kick, step back a) Chi Sao - blindfolded b) blindfolded

6. Strategy 1 to 4: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attacks the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening.

2. Drills: a) high side kick, step to side b) high round kick, step beside a) Tan to Larp b) counter against elbow strike from Bon c) hand touching a) leg block b) double palm and leg break Pak Sao and Kan Sao Bil and Tan Bon and Gum 3. Wooden Dummy: 8 - 10 movements 4. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 6: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee; 6. Simple and easy to learn. 5. Strategy 1 to 6: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow; 6. Pin the arms from the blind side.

LEVEL FIVE GRADE 2 Light brown sash - 2 logos 1. Chum Kil - first part to left Bon Larp 2. Drills: a) high side kick, step in b) high round kick, step in a) Fok to Larp. b) counter against, step forward and palm strike. c) parallel side Chi Sao a) Kan b) Tan and Pak Gum Sao outside and low round kick Pak (inside) and Larp Pak (cross) and Kan (parallel) 3. Wooden Dummy: 4 - 7 movements 4. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 5: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee. 5. Strategy 1 to 5: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore force the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attacks the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow.

LEVEL SIX GRADE 1 Dark brown sash - 1 logo 1. Chum Kil - first and left side second part 2. Drills: a) front kick ball of foot b) side kick snap - low thrust - low c) round kick ball - low instep - low 3. Chi Sao - random

LEVEL SIX GRADE 0 Dark brown sash - no logo 1. Chum Kil - first part, left and right.

4. Wooden Dummy 11 - 14 movements 5. Techniques: Against Round Punch at side stance i) high ii) low Against Front Kick at side stance i) cross (inside) kick Against Side Kick at side stance i) Kan inside (front kick) ii) Kan outside (low round kick) Against Round Kick at side stance i) Pak (cross) and front kick ii) high Bon (parallel) and roll punch Entry Techniques a) parallel b) parallel - opponent steps back 6. Self Defence Attack from behind 7. Cross arm Chi Sao - random 8. History and philosophy 9. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 7: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee; 6. Simple and easy to learn; 7. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective. 10. Strategy 1 to 7: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow; 6. Pin the arms from the blind side; 7. Keep moving. Don't present a steady target for your opponent.

2. Drills: a) front kick heel b) side kick snap - medium thrust - medium c) right kick ball - medium instep - medium 3. Chi Sao 4. Wooden Dummy 15 - 17 movements 5. Techniques: Against Round Punch at front stance, parallel i) high ii) low Against Front Kick at front stance, parallel i) knee block Against Side Kick at front stance, parallel i) step back and cross Against Round Kick at front stance, parallel side i) high Bon and roll punch Entry Techniques a) cross side b) cross side, opponent steps back 6. Self Defence Attack from left side 7. Cross arm Chi Sao - random 8. History and philosophy 9. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 8: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee; 6. Simple and easy to learn; 7. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective; 8. Teaches the treatment of sports injuries.

LEVEL SIX GRADE 2 Dark brown sash - 2 logos 1. Chum Kil - first and left and right, second part

10. Strategy 1 to 8: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow; 6. Pin the arms from the blind side; 7. Keep moving. Don't present a steady target for your opponent; 8. Use elbow in close quarters, use palm or fist in the next distance; use kick with front foot on further distance; use rear foot in furthest distance.

6. Self Defence Attack from right side 7. Cross arm Chi Sao - random 8. History and philosophy 9. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 9: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee; 6. Simple and easy to learn; 7. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective; 8. Teaches the treatment of sports injuries; 9. Principle of using two arms extended to Butterfly Swords. 10. Strategy 1 to 9: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow; 6. Pin the arms from the blind side; 7. Keep moving. Don't present a steady target for your opponent; 8. Use elbow in close quarters, use palm or fist in the next distance; use kick with front foot on further distance; use rear foot in furthest distance; 9. Use entry technique.

LEVEL SEVEN GRADE 0 Black sash - no logo 1. Chum Kil - first and second part 2. Drills: a) front kick whole foot top of foot b) side kick snap - high thrust - high c) round kick ball - high instep - high 3. Chi Sao - random 4. Wooden Dummy 18 - 20 movements 5. Techniques: Against Round Punch at front stance i) high - Jut and kick ii) low - Gum and kick Against Front Kick at front stance, cross i) Kan and roll punches Against Side Kick at front stance, cross i) Kan Sao and roll punches Against Round Kick at front stance, cross side i) double Pak and knee break Entry Techniques a) parallel - punch while moving in b) parallel side - opponent steps back and kicks

LEVEL SEVEN GRADE 1 Black sash - 1 logo

1. Chum Kil left and right Tuen Larp Sao 2. Kicks: a) front and low side kick b) low round and high round 3. Chi Sao a) single handed blindfold i) predetermined ii) random 3. Techniques against: a) side kick b) round kick 4. Entry techniques: opponent step side round kick

5. History and philosophy and theory. 6. Cross Arm Chi Sao blindfold 7. Self defence: against knife overhead 8. Character of Wing Chun 1 to 10: 1. Developed by a woman. Suited for people who don't want to use brute force; 2. Uses straight punches (can achieve up to 8 punches per second); 3. Teaches you to use two arms at the same time; 4. Develops contact reflexes by Chi Sao exercise; 5. Teaches watching the leading elbow and knee; 6. Simple and easy to learn; 7. Uses pressure points to make striking techniques more effective; 8. Teaches the treatment of sports injuries; 9. Principle of using two arms extended to Butterfly Swords; 10. Internal Kung Fu using efficient Chi breathing. 9. Strategy 1 to 10: 1. Uses the centre line and therefore forces the opponent to use the outside path; 2. Controls the opponent's blind side; 3. Attack the opponent's balance; 4. Attack the opening; 5. Trap the leading elbow; 6. Pin the arms from the blind side; 7. Keep moving. Don't present a steady target for your opponent; 8. Use elbow in close quarters, use palm or fist in the next distance; use kick with front foot on further distance; use rear foot in furthest distance; 9. Use entry technique; 10. Be calm, have confidence in yourself, let your reflexes guide you.

5. Entry techniques: opponent steps to side, side kick 6. Cross Arm Chi Sao blindfold 7. Self defence: against knife slash

LEVEL EIGHT GRADE 0 Grey sash - no logo 1. Chum Kil right Bil to finish 2. Kicks: a) high side and low side b) high side and low round 3. Chi Sao - two armed blindfold, random 4. Techniques against: a) spinning crescent kick b) low sweeping kick 5. Entry techniques: opponent steps to side, spinning back kick 6. Cross Arm Chi Sao blindfold 7. Self defence: against knife jab

LEVEL SEVEN GRADE 2 Black sash - 2 logos 1. Chum Kil left Bil - double palm strike 2. Kicks: a) low side and high side b) high round and low round 3. Chi Sao two armed blindfold, predetermined 4. Techniques against: a) spinning back kick b) hammer kick

LEVEL EIGHT GRADE 1 Grey sash - 1 logo 1. Bil Jee to elbow strike, first part 2. Kicks: alternate - front side, front round 3. Entry techniques a) deal with side-on fighter b) deal with opponent switching feet 4. Chi Sao - 2 arms at random 5. Four self defence techniques

6. Wing Chun history 7. Wing Chun philosophy

6. Buddhism

LEVEL 9 GRADE 1 Light Green Sash - 1 logo LEVEL EIGHT GRADE 2 Grey sash - 2 logos 1. Bil Jee - Grun Sao section Bil Jee application 2. Kicks: alternate - round and side 3. Techniques: a) deal with front foot fighter b) deal with opponent moving around Against spinning crescent kick 4. Chi Sao a) cross arm random b) two arm random 5. Self defence against weapons: knife 6. Confucianism 1. Forms a) Shil Lim Tao b) Chum Kil c) Bil Jee 2. Kicks 3. 108 Wooden Dummy techniques with partner 4. Techniques against kick and punch; a) High gate b) Middle gate c) Low gate 5. Self defence techniques against a) Unarmed attack b) Short weapon c) Long weapon 6. Chi Sao 7. Sparring 8. History 9. Theory 10. Philosophy 11. Terminology

LEVEL NINE GRADE 0 Light Green sash - no logo 1. Bil Jee whole form and applications 2. Kicks: alternate - side and round 3. Entry techniques a) deal with back foot fighter b) deal with opponent moving back and forth Against circular punch from above 4. Chi Sao a) cross arm random b) two arm random 5. Self defence against stick LEVEL 9 GRADE 2 Light Green Sash - 2 logos 1. Forms a) Shil Lim Tao b) Advanced Shil Lim Tao c) Chum Kil d) Bil Jee 2. Combination kicks and punches 3. 108 Wooden Dummy techniques a) with partner b) in the air c) with one legged Wooden Dummy 4. Techniques against any kick and punch combination.

5. Self defence techniques against a) Knife b) Stick c) Sword d) Cricket bat, baseball bat etc. e) Pool cue 6. Chi Sao 7. Sparring 8. History 9. Theory 10. Philosophy 11. Terminology

(Ohara Publications) "Wing Chun Dragon Pole" by William Cheung (Ohara Publications) "The Wing Chun Way" Vol I & II Video Tapes (The Hawk Company)

Technique Drills 1. Pak --> Bil (R) (R) Pak --> Tan (R) (R)

LEVEL TEN INSTRUCTOR Gold Sash Written 1. Thesis on all Wing Chun forms 2. Thesis on Chi Sao and its applications 3. Analysis of Footwork and kicks 4. Analysis of hand techniques 5. Analysis of the five stages of combat 6. History and philosophy of Wing Chun (Minimum of 4 months' training) Practical 1. 108 Wooden Dummy techniques 2. 36 advanced combat techniques 3. Three two minute round sparring test 4. Random Chi Sao 5. Chinese terminology of all techniques 6. Certificate from National Kung Fu Accreditation Scheme References: "Chi Power" by William Cheung (Ohara Publications) "The History and Philosophy of Kung Fu" by Earl C. Medeiros (Tuttle Publications) "Advanced Wing Chun" by William Cheung (Ohara Publications) "Chinese Creeds and Customs" by V.R. Burkhardt (SCMP Publications) "Wing Chun Bil Jee" by William Cheung (Unique Publications) "Tang China" by Edmund Capon (Macdonald Orbis) "Wing Chun Kung Fu/Jeet Kune Do - A Comparison" Vol I by William Cheung (Ohara Publications) "Wing Chun Butterfly Swords" by William Cheung

Pak --> Bon (R) (L) Pak --> Kan (R) (L) Pak --> Larp (R) (R)

2. Bil --> Pak --> Kick (R) (R) Bil --> Bil --> Kick (R) (L) Bil --> Bon --> Kick (R) (R) Bil --> Grun --> Low kick (R) (R) Bil --> Kan --> Kick (R) (L) Bil --> Low --> Punch Kan (R) (R)

3. Bon --> Larp --> Roll punches (R) (L) Bon --> Tan --> Punch (R) (R)

Bon --> Kick (cross arm) (R) 4. Larp --> Punch --> Larp punch (inside) (R) Larp --> Pak --> Kick Larp --> Bon --> Low kick Larp --> Bil --> Kick

Bil --> Bil --> Kick (R) (L) Bil --> Lau - Pak (R) (L)

6. Inside to Outside Pak (cross arm) --> Pak (R) (L)

5. From Inside to Outside Larp Sao --> Kan (R) (L) Larp Sao --> Tuen (R) (L) Larp Sao --> Lau - Pak and punch (R) (R)

Pak (cross) --> Kan (R) (R) Pak --> Pak --> Tuen (R) (L) (R) Pak --> Larp (R) (R)

7. Inside to Outside Bil --> Kan (R) (L) Bil --> Tuen (R) (L) Bon (cross inside) --> Larp (R) (R) Bon (parallel) --> Yuen - Pak (R) (R)

CHINESE TERMINOLO GY
Counting in Chinese
Yut Yee One Two

Sarm Say Ng Look Chut Bart Gou Sub

Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten

Chinese Phrases
Jeun Bai Jeun Geung Woo Wia Sifu Sihing Ready Attack Defence Teacher Senior

Sidi Hia Ng Goi Door Jeh Jo-on Marn-on Ng-on

Junior Yes Sorry Thank you Good morning Good night Good afternoon

Fok Sao Grun Sao Gum Sao Jut Sao Kan Sao Kuen Fut Sao Pak Sao Shil Lim Tao Tan Sao Wu Sao Dai Geung Po Pai Geung Jarn Ma Bil Sao

Movement and Exercise


Bart Chum Dao Bil Gee Bon Sao Chi Sao Chong Chum Kil Eight-chop broadswords (butterfly swords) techniques Finger thrusting form Wing arm Sticky hand exercise Wooden dummy Bridge seeking form

Bridge-on arm Tan and Bon deflection block Pinning hand Jerk hand Splitting block Fist Swinging arm Slapping block Little idea form Palm-up arm Protecting arm Reverse palm strike Double palm strike Elbow Stance Stretching deflection block

WING CHUN BUTTERFLY SWORDS


The staff is the forerunner of all weapons; the spear is for fighting multiple opponents and the principles of the broadsword are the foundation of all sharp edged weapons. - Classical Works of Ancient Chinese Weapons
There were two types of broadsword - one was used by mounted men and the other by soldiers on foot. Belonging to the first category are: Ma Dao - saber; Tai Cham Dao - big chopper; and Green Dragon Shading the Moon Dao, or Kwan Dao broadsword. The other types are: Goosefeather broadsword; Big Ring broadsword; Hand broadsword; and Butterfly Sword, etc. As a matter of fact there are no less than 40 kinds of broadsword. However the butterfly swords are the most effective of all.

The Saber

The ma dao (saber) was the weapon of the cavalry men. It was used in China since the Spring and Autumn Warring Period (722-484 B.C.) and the Warring State Period (403-222 B.C.). The weapon, used by the famous general of the Warring State Period, Lien Po, was precisely a big bronze saber. His subordinates also used this kind of weapon. Later the saber was subjected to improvement and refinement. By the time of the Three Kingdoms (A.D. 225-265) the saber had been greatly improved in its making along with the refinement in its techniques. The famous general in the period of the Three Kingdoms, Ma Teng, when serving as a military governor of the Kan Su Province, formed a cavalry of strong and courageous men who were skillful with the use of sabers. His cavalry defeated many times the invaders from the tribes in the western region, and rendered distinguished service to his country. In the admiration of General Ma Teng, all the nomad tribes in the region took up the weapon and improved it until it became a characteristic weapon of their own cavalries. The legend of this weapon spread to the West where the saber-rattling cavalries of Genghis Khan fought their way to as far as Europe. On the other hand, the Japanese brought the saber back to their home islands where it was passed down from generation to generation to become the weapon of the Japanese samurai. The saber is similar to the samurai sword of Japan in shape, only the hilt of the former is longer to suit the need of the mounted soldier. When the Manchurians invaded China in A.D. 1644, their main weapon was their dragoons well-versed in saber techniques. But toward the late part of the Ching Dynasty (A.D. 1644-1911), the saber was generally replaced by firearms.

The Big Chopper


Tai jarm dao (big chopper) was also a weapon used by the mounted soldiers, especially by tall, strong military commanders. The original weapon was nine feet long, of which one third was the long, wide and thick blade. The weapon was very heavy because of the thick blade. Its long handle was made of hardwood or rod iron, and therefore its weight varied considerably. The characteristic uses of the big chopper are chopping, blocking, sweeping, slashing and jabbing. Because of its wide blade, the weapon can be used to shield attacks with arrows and stones, a feature that makes it very useful in charging. Famous generals of ancient times, like Lien Po of the Warring State Period, and Wong Chun and Choy Yan of the Three Kingdom Period, were well-known for their skill in the use of the big chopper.

The Green Dragon Shading the Moon Broadsword


The green dragon shading the moon broadsword is a weapon created by Kwan Gung, the most famous general of the Three Kingdom Period (A.D. 225-265). It is similar to the big chopper in appearance, but actually is greatly different. The green dragon shading the moon broadsword has a long but narrow blade, at the tip of which is a hook. On the back of the blade are small knives projecting like the teeth of a saw. Therefore the weapon is also known as the "cold bright saw." This broadsword can also be used not only for chopping, blocking, sweeping and slashing but also naturally thrusting, back sawing and reverse jabbing which is a typical strike of a spear. The weapon is very difficult to handle because of its heavy weight, therefore unless endowed with the unusual gift of power and strength one can hardly manage the weapon. Kwan Gung, the originator of this weapon, was a genius of martial arts. Armed with the green dragon shading the moon broadsword, he jabbed Yen Leng, chopped Man Chou and killed Wong Hung at such a lightning speed that the goblet of wine poured for him before the engagement was still warm when he returned from the battle. There has never been anybody who could compare with Kwan Gung's feat of forcing his way through five passes, killing six commanders of the garrisons. Kwan Gung headed the list of the five Tiger Generals of the Three Kingdoms Period because of his fearless powers and virtue. Out of admiration for Kwan Gung they called the green dragon shading the moon broadsword "kwan dao" for short. In the early Sung Dynasty (A.D. 960-1128) a great general called Yang Yip in charge of the defense of the northern borders was also highly acclaimed for his skill with the kwan dao. His encounters with the famous General of the Liao State, Jemu Holi, was recorded in many historical works. Jemu, who was in command of an

army attempting to invade China, had never met a rival in his many battles. His axe, denoted by its 110 pounds in weight, was called "hill chopping axe." Confident of his kung fu, Yang Yip was not to be deterred. He wielded a kwan dao to meet the enemy commander. Jemu brought down his axe with all his might toward Yang Yip's forehead. Yang raised his kwan dao to block the onslaught. Having neutralized the attack, Yang thrust his kwan dao toward Jemu's chest. In a panic the enemy commander pressed down his axe against Yang's kwan dao. Yang pulled back his kwan dao along the enemy's axe handle. Jemu roared in agony and lost hold of his weapon. In pulling back his kwan dao, Yang cut off the enemy's four fingers with the hook at the tip of the kwan dao. When Yang thrust forward the second time, he toppled Jemu from the horse and killed him. All the soldiers of the Liao army were amazed by Yang Yip's unusual powers and took flight. The heroic name of Yang's family spread far and wide after the battle.

The Hand Broadsword


Most ancient Chinese martial artists fought on foot, therefore the hand broadsword, dai dao, was the most suited to their need for a weapon. Dai dao has a long and narrow blade whose length varies according to the stature of its user. When the user holds the hilt of a dai dao in his hand at waist level and points the blade vertically upward, the tip of the blade should be at the height of his eyebrows. That is the standard length of the dai dao. Its weight also varies according to the strength of its user, thus the weapon is tailored to meet the individual needs of each warrior, and therefore it is easy to handle. The dai dao can be used for slashing, lunging, chopping, stabbing, blocking and close-quarter fighting. An ancient saying of the dai dao, "A dai dao is like a tiger - it sees red the moment is strikes." It can also mean that once a dao is drawn from its scabbard, a life and death struggle must ensue. There have been many expert users of dai dao in China. The most popular figure was Mo Chong, a hero of the Sung Dynasty (A.D. 900-1279) who pummelled a fierce tiger to death with his bare fists. The "blood-splashingdao techniques" created by Mo Chong are still exercised by Yee Long Moon up to now. A story in the ancient Chinese saga "Water Margin" vividly describes Mo Chong's superb skills in the use of the dai dao:
When Mo Chong surrendered himself to the government after killing his sister-in-law and her adulterer to avenge their poisoning of his brother, he was banished to Meng-chou Prefecture. Shih Yen, son of the official there, was very kind to Mo Chong. When the latter learned that Shih Yen was robbed of his entire chain of restaurants by Chiang Chung, a local bully and kung fu expert, Mo Chong, in a rage, set off for the restaurant to settle accounts with Chiang Chung. With his bare fists Mo Chong defeated Chiang Chung, who was a giant, and his numerous followers, and restored the restaurants to their rightful owner. But Chiang Chung was unreconciled to his defeat. He bribed Prefect Chang of the district to arrest Mo Chong and banish him to a farther place. When Mo Chong, in a pillory, was led to an uninhabited mountain, he found himself waylaid by Chiang Chung's henchmen who joined with the escorts in an attempt to murder him. Mo Chong used his miraculous strength to break out of the pillory. He kicked the two escorts into the valley and subdued the henchmen. After learning of the conspiracy he snatched one of the henchmen's dai dao and sneaked back into Prefect Chang's residence. He found Chiang Chung and Prefect Chang drinking happily in celebration of his murder. When they saw Mo Chong suddenly appear, they all drew their swords and summoned dozens of guards to protect them. Mo Chong, with his dai dao, like the fish in the water, felled a dozen guards in no time, and expelled the rest. Then he made straight for Chiang Chung and the official who were also experts in kung fu. Nevertheless, Mo Chong, with his superior skill, fell on them like a tiger and killed them all.

This was indeed a mastery of dai dao technique.

Goosefeather Broadsword
The goosefeather broadsword is also known as golden back broadsword with rings. It is very thick in its back and its blade is big and wide. Five to nine rings are attached to its back, the number varying according to the length of the blade. When being wielded, the rings collide with the back of the blade to emit a series of ringing sounds which resemble the calls of a flock of wild geese in flight. At the same time, the shape of the blade is like half of a goosefeather, therefore, it was called the goosefeather broadsword. Pai Tai-Kuan, a swordsman of the Ching Dynasty (A.D. 1644-1911) was a great master of this weapon. Pai TaiKuan once single-handedly broke into four stockades and killed seven ringleaders in the Chin Mountains, which brought him fame all over China. Martial artists described the marvels of Pai Tai-Kuan's broadsword

techniques: "The sound of his goosefeather broadsword startles even the toughest enemy. When the broadsword ceases ringing, the enemy's head is already on the ground." It shows how powerful Pai Tai-Kuan's broadsword was.

The Butterfly Sword


The butterfly sword is a weapon used primarily by martial artists of southern China. The blade length of the weapon is equal to the fist and the forearm, and a guard is fixed to its hilt to protect the hand. The special length of the blade is designed to allow for better maneuvering. For instance, if the blade is longer than the length of the fist and the arm, it could not be able to be rotated inside the arms. However, the shape of the butterfly sword and the way of its use differs in northern China. With the northern Chinese butterfly sword, the footwork of the user in kicking is stressed; but the butterfly swords in southern China are used chiefly in close-quarter fighting because of their short length, with emphasis placed on precision and the coordination of both swords at the same time. One modern adept of hung gar style, Wong Fei Hung, was especially noted for his skill with this weapon.

Wing Chun Eight Slash Butterfly Swords


Wing Chun eight slash butterfly swords are also called Wing Chun bart jarm dao. The name bart jarm dao was derived from the initial intention of the originator who designed the striking technique mainly aiming for the wrist, elbow, knee and ankle. The purpose was to main the opponent rather than to kill since the wing chun bart jarm dao was originated from the Shaolin temple and used by the monks and nuns of the temple in their travels. They frequently carried sums of money donated by their worshippers. Often they would be met by bandits who intended to rob them. The monks were prepared for this, and they were equipped with butterfly swords hidden in the side of their boots. When they were confronted by the bandits, they would pull out the swords to defend themselves. Since their religion did not allow them to slaughter anyone, their initial target was to maim their opponents on the wrists, knees and ankles. In the Ching Dynasty (A.D. 1644-1911), China was ruled by the Manchu invaders. It was a time when 90 percent of the Chinese, the Hons, were ruled by the ten percent minority, the Manchus. When all weapons were outlawed by the Manchu Government, the Manchus gained full control of China. They enforced many unjust laws on the Hons. For instance, all the female Hon infants were made to bind their feet so that when they grew up they would be restricted in their movement and they would have to be dependent upon their parents or their husband. They restricted the work opportunity of the Hons. The Hons were unable to hold office in the government higher than a certain level. They placed heavy tax burdens on the country so that they could have complete economic control of the Hon people. Kung Fu training was also banned for the Hon people. However, the Manchu Government adopted the Hon culture. They respected the Shaolin Temple as a Buddhist sanctuary. The Hons began training a revolutionary army in the art of kung fu, using the Shaolin temple as the secret training place. In the traditional Shaolin system it would take 15 to 20 years to train a kung fu master. The need to develop a new and more effective style of kung fu became critical when some of the existing kung fu masters surrendered to work for the Manchu Government. Five of the Shaolin grandmasters planned to develop a new form, one which would have a shorter training time and would be more effective than all the other systems developed before. The five teachers met to discuss the merits of each of their particular systems of kung fu and chose the most efficient training method from each system. They developed the principle and the training program of wing chun that would take only five years to master. They called this system Wing Chun, its name meaning "hope for the future." However, before this new system could be put into practice, the Shaolin temple was raided and burned by the Manchus. Ng Mui, a nun, was the only survivor of the original group of five. She passed her knowledge onto a young orphan girl whom she named Wing Chun.

Along with the development of the wing chun system, the butterfly sword (bart jarm dao), was chosen as the only weapon in the wing chun system because the length of the bart jarm dao made it easy to conceal. It could be used as a extension of the arms, and they were the most deadly and effective weapons of all. This was because the bart jarm dao system emphasized the training of coordinating the two swords, the training of the eyes, wrist and footwork. The principle was based on the fact that every defense was accompanied by a counter attack, and every attack was accompanied by a trapping, parrying or immobilizing move of the other sword. Plus, it was designed to use the ingenuity of the wing chun footwork to its fullest extent, making it the champion of all weapons.

Chan Wah-Shun
(Jiao Chin Wah, Ngau Ching Wah, Wah Gung) 1849 - 1913 Leung Jan Chan WahShun Lui YiuChai Chan YiuMin Lai MiuHin Ngau Chan Ngau Hong Lee JitMan Lai HaoPo JawTing HungDai Chan SikHao Ho HanLui Ho Kin Lai HipChi Yip Man Chan HungDai Chan Wah-Shun (Chen Huashun) originally worked as a moneychanger (someone licensed to convert currency denominations) and was hence known by the nickname Jiao Chin Wah (Zhaoqian Hua, Moneychanger Wah). His stall was located in the marketplace close to Leung Jans pharmacy and from time to time he would catch glimpses of the famous doctor teaching Wing Chun Kuen. Eventually, Chan Wah-Shun was able to secure training under Leung Jan and went on to become one of his most prized students, winning many challenge fights, earning the nickname Ngau Ching Wah (Niujing Hua, Bull Wah). Chan Wah-Shun later gave up the money changing business to work as an osteopath. He was said to have begun teaching Wing Chun in the late 1800s, in some accounts as early as 1877 (the pulp novel, Martial World Orthodox Systems: Wing Chun suggesting that when Leung Jan passed away, Chan Wah-Shun carried on the instruction of junior students such as Ng Siu-Lo and Ng Jung-So) and by the 1910s, he was, according to Yip Man traditions, reportedly teaching out of the Ancestral Temple of the Yip family in Foshan's Song Yuan (Mulberry Gardens). During his career, which according to Yip traditions spanned 36 years, he reportedly trained 16 disciples. The earliest of these disciples included the Ng brothers, Siu-Lo and Chung-So, as well as Lui Yiu-Chai, Ngau Hong, and his own son, Chan Yiu-Min (and Yiu-Min's wife Lai Miu-Hin, although whether or not she was formally counted as one of the disciples is unknown). Other students were said to include Ho Han-Lui (in alternate accounts listed as a student of Leung Jan), Lee Jit-Man, Ngau Jaw-Ting, Lai Hao-Po (in alternate accounts listed as a student of Fung Siu-Ching), Chan Hung-Dai, Chan Sik-Hao and sometimes Yiu Choi (more often listed as a student of Ng Jung-So). Shortly before his retirement, Chan Wah-Shun accepted his final disciples, Lai Hip-Chi and Yip Man. Ng SiuLo Ng JungSo

In 1911, Chan Wah-Shun, known by then as Wah Gung (Hua Gong, Grandfather Wah) retired from teaching (according to Pan Nam system accounts, suffering a stroke and becoming partially paralyzed) and returned to his home village in Shunde county where he passed away two years later.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man and Ng Jung-So Wing Chun Kuen and Chan Yiu-Min (incl. Pan Nam) Weng Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Wu Association, and New Martial Hero and Leung's Publications.

Chan Yiu-Min
(Chut Sang Gwun Wong, Kwai Sao Min) 1884 - 1932 Chan WahShun Chan YiuMin Chan GaLiemChan GaWing Chan GaSun Others Jiu Chao

Chan Yiu-Min (Chen Rumian), sometimes rendered as Chan Yiu-Kam (Chen Rujin) was the son of Chan Wah-Shun and learned both Weng Chun Kuen* and herbal medicine from his father. He married a woman named Lai Miu-Hin, who reportedly also studied under his father, becoming highly skilled in the martial arts. Said to be most famous for his abilities with the six-and-a-half point pole, Chan Yiu-Min earned the title of Chut Sang Gwun Wong (Qi Sheng Gu Wang, King of the Pole of Seven Provinces) by defeating all challengers in a great tournament. The trophy, an engraved pole as thick as an arm, was said to have been hung above the door of his own school. According to the Chan family, Chan Yiu-Min was also known by the nickname Kwai Sao Min (Gui Shou Mian, Ghost Hand Min). Chan Yiu-Min taught several students during his career, including his sons Chan Ga-Wing, Ga-Chai, and GaLim. He also taught Jiu Chao and, in some accounts, Jiu Wan as well.
Notes: Unlike some of his classmates, Chan Yiu-Min seems to have exclusively used the Weng Chun (always spring) rather than Wing Chun (praise spring) characters to identify the name of the system. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Chan Yiu-Min and Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Wu Association, New Martial Hero magazine and Leung's Publications.

Cheung Bo
(Dai Ngao Bo)

1889 - 1956 Wai YukSang Cheung Bo Cheung Hon Cheung MoGan Others Wong GotChuen Sum Nung

Cheung Bo (Zhang Bao) was born in 1899 and early on studied the Hung Kuen system. An avid fighter, one day he lost an encounter to a Wing Chun Kuen boxer named Dr. Wai Yuk-Sang and became Wai's student. Cheung was often called Dai Ngao Bo (Da Niu Bao, Big Bull Bo) due to his size and strength. He worked as a Dim Sum chef at the Tin Hoi restaurant on Kuaizi (Chopstick) street in Foshan and developed a fierce reputation as a fighter. He taught wing chun kuen from his home, from the Koi Yee Union, and from the restaurant. Among Cheung Bo's students were his third son Cheung Hon, his seventh son Cheung Mo-Gan (known as Ah Chut), as well as Wong Got-Chuen and Sum Nung (whom he arranged to continue studying under his good friend Yuen Kay-San).
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Sum Nung Wing Chun Kuen (esp. Sum Nung (incl. picture) and Cheung Chut), and Foshan Jing Wu. Special thanks to KLP.

Cho Chuen
18?? - 19?? Cho DakShing Cho Chuen Panyu Students Cho Chuen (Cao Quan) was born at then end of the 19th century. The son of Cho Dak-Shing, he learned Wing Chun from his father in their native village of Panyu. When Cho Dak-Sing later passed away, Cho Chuen succeeded him and continued his family's tradition of teaching Wing Chun Kuen.
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Cho family Wing Chun. Special thanks to Hendrik Santo

Cho Dak-Shing
???? - ???? Yik Kam Cho Shun Cho DakShing

Cho Chuen

Cho On

Cho Dak-Shing (Cao Desheng), according to the accounts of the Cho Hung-Choi branch, learned Wing Chun from his father, Cho Shun (known as Dai Ngan Shun, or Cross-Eyed Shun) in their native Panyu village in Guangdong. In some accounts from the Lao Suen-Yin branch, he was said to have studied directly under Yik Kam of the Red Junk Opera. Cho Dak-Shing later taught the art to his sons Cho Chuen and Cho On.
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Cho family Wing Chun. Special thanks to Hendrik Santo

Cho On

189? - 198? Cho DakShing Cho On Cho HungChoi Lao SuenYuen

Cho On (Cao Dean) was born at then end of the 19th century. The relative of Cho Dak-Shing, he learned Wing Chun from in their native village of Panyu. In the late-1920s/early-1930s he lived in Hong Kong for a short time where he worked as a Dim Sum chef and taught some Wing Chun Kuen. He later went to Penang, Malaysia where he worked as a cook and by the 1940s was teaching the Wing Chun Kuen system of his family to select students. Among his students were Cho Hung-Choi and Lao Suen-Yuen. Cho On passed away in the 1980s at over 90 years of age.
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Cho family Wing Chun. Special thanks to Y. Wu and Hendrik Santo.

Cho Shun
(Dai Ngan Shun) 18?? - ???? Yik Kam Cho Shun Saam Chan Cho

DakShing Cho Shun (Cao Shun), known as Dai Ngao Shun (Da Yan Shun, Cross-eyed Shun) was a member of the Red Junk Opera company who played the part of Siu Mo or the "Little Martial". The Cho family of Panyu village (near Shunde and Foshan) had been practitioners of southern fist systems, such as Choy Lai Fut, for many years. During his time in the opera, however, Cho Shun (and in some accounts, his brothers) lost repeatedly in matches with Wing Chun Kuen practitioner Yik Kam and Cho Shun ultimately went on to become his student. Cho Shun passed the art on to his son, Cho Dak-Shing. He also taught Sam Chan who lived in a nearby village.
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Cho family Wing Chun. Special thanks to Hendrik Santo.

Chu Chong

1896 - 1999 Lao DatSang Chu Chong Chu WingJee Chu Ping Mok PoiOn

Chu Chong (Zhu Zhong) was born around 1896 and began learning Wing Chun at a young age from Lao DatSang (known by the nickname Pao Fa Lien) in the city of Foshan. During the 1940s, Chu Chong moved his family to Sham Sui Po in Hong Kong where he worked as an osteopath and taught Wing Chun Kuen until the 1960s when he retired and took only private students. In addition to his two sons, Chu Wing-Jee and Chu Ping, Chu Chong passed his art onto Mok Poi-On. Chu Chong passed away in 1999 at an age of 106.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pao Fa Lien, and Hong Kong Jing Wu Association. Photo courtesy Derek Frearson.

Chu Chong-Man
(Chu Yee-Sheung, Wing Chun Tiet Kuen, Mo Dik Chu)

???? - 19?? Ngau Shu Chu ChongMan Mok Poi-On Others Wei Yan Dong Jik

Chu Chong-Man (Zhu Songmin), originally named Chu Yee-Sheung (Zhu Yixiang) learned a variety of martial arts as a youth in Foshan including the Wing Chun Kuen of his neighbor, Ngau Shu (a student of Leung Jan). His primary focus was Weng Chun Kuen, however, which he learned from Dong Jik (a student of Fung Siu-Ching). Chu later moved to Macao where became known as Chu Mo Dik (Zhu Wubi, Chu the Peerless) and Weng Chun Tiet Kuen (Yongchun Tie Quan, Iron Fist of Weng Chun) and taught students including Mok Poi-On. Chu joined forces with other grand-students of Fung Siu-Ching such as Lo Siu-Wan (and Lo's student Wei Yan) at the docks of Dai Duk Lan, where they researched and preserved the Weng Chun art.
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Jee Shim Weng Chun and New Martial Hero.

Dai Dong Fung


???? - ???? Henan Shaolin DaiDongFung Tse KwokLeung Tse KwokCheung Leung BoCho

Dai Dong Fung (Dadongfeng or Great East Wind) was the pseudonym of a man who, in some accounts, was said to have been a monk who fled the destruction of Henan Shaolin Temple to Qingyuan, Guangdong Province in order to escape arrest at the hands of the Qing. In other accounts, he was named as one of the Red Junk Opera performers who learned the Wing Chun Kuen system from Leung Bo-Cho. In Qingyuan, he reportedly met and passed his Wing Chun Kuen on to Tse Kwok-Leung and Tse KwokCheung.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pao Fa Lien Wing Chun and Hong Kong Jing Wu. Special thanks to YYC.

Dai Fa Min Kam


(San Kam, Lok Kam) ???? - ???? Jee Shim Wong WahBo Fok BoChuen DaiFaMin Kam Fung SiuChing Lok LanGoon Leung BoLao

Dai Fa Min Kam (Dahuamian Jin, Painted Face Kam), also known by the name San Kam (Xin Jin, New Kam), was a member of the Red Junk Opera in the mid 1800s who played the roles of the Dai Fa Min (sometimes said to have beem the clown-like Chao). Aside from his training in the crowd-pleasing martial techniques of the opera, Kam was said to have learned the Weng Chun Kuen system of Jee Shim and the Wing Chun Kuen system of Leung Bok-Lao (sometimes also from Yim Wing-Chun or through his senior classmate, Wong Wah-Bo). Kam's most famous student was his on-board apprentice, Fung Siu-Ching. In the Sum Nung system, He was also said to have taught Fok Bo-Chuen of Foshan. According to the Pan Nam system, Kam was also known as Lok Kam (Lu Jin) and, when he retired during the latter part of the 19th century, he was invited to retire in Jinju village, Sanshui county by Lok Lan-Goon. In exchange for his teaching the family, the Lok's cared for Kam until he passed away.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Sum Nung, Jee Shim, and Pan Nam Weng Chun and New Martial Hero magazine.

Dong Jik
18?? - 19?? Fung SiuChing Dong Jik Chu ChongMan Dong Jik (Deng Zhi) began studying the Hung Kuen system early in life alongside his younger brother, Dong On. When he was 18 years of age he met and became impressed with his father's friend, Fung Siu-Ching, and began studying Weng Chun. When his father retired, Dong took over the family business, a ceremonial decoration store Among Dong's students was Chu Chong-Man (in some accounts said to have been his nephew), whom he taught first in Foshan and later in Macao where he eventually passed away.

Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Jee Shim Weng Chun Kuen and New Martial Hero.

Fok Bo-Chuen
(Kok Bo-Chuen, Seung Do Fok) 18?? - 19?? Law ManGong Wong WahBo Fok BoChuen Yuen ChaiWan Yuen KaySan DaiFaMin Kam

Fok Bo-Chuen (Huo Baoquan), said to have been known by the nickname Seung Do Fok (Shuang Dao Huo, Double Knife Fok) due to his skill with the weapons, was a Foshan student of Red Junk Opera performers Wong Wah-Bo and Dai Fa Min Kam. In alternate accounts, Kok Bo-Chuen (Hao Baoquan) was said to have learned from Opera performer Law ManGung. In a variation from the Yiu Choi Wing Chun branch, this occured in Jinjiao, Guangxi. During the end of the Qing dynasty, Fok Bo-Chuen worked as an Imperial constable in Foshan and gained a great reputation for his profound Wing Chun skills and great depth of martial arts knowledge. During the early years of the 1900s, he was engaged to teach Wing Chun Kuen to Yuen Chai-Wan and Yuen Kay-San by their wealthy merchant father.
Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Sum Nung and Yuen Chai-Wan Wing Chun and Wulin.

Fung Lim
(Fei Lo Lim) 192? - present? Wong WahSaam Fung Lim Fung Sang Fung Family Lee Ding

Fung Lim (Feng Lian) was born, roughly, in the early 1920s in Gulao village, Heshan county. As a youth, he studied Fujian Siu Lam (Shaolin) martial arts but later became the student of fellow villager, Wong Wah-Saam and learned Leung Jan's Gulao teachings. Blending his knowledge, Fung was said to have come up with a harder and more fierce system which came to be known as Pien San (Side Body) Wing Chun Kuen.

Fung Lim, sometimes referred to as Fei Lo Lim (Fat Lim) passed along his skills to his son, Fung Sang, as well as to other members of his family and to fellow villagers such as Lee Ding. Although no longer actively practicing or teaching Wing Chun, reports maintain that Fung Lim, now over 70 years of age, has retired in the city of Guangzhou.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Gulao Wing Chun and New Martial Hero and Wulin.

Fung Sang
19?? - ???? Fung Lim Fung Sang Lee Shing Fung Family Others Koo Siu-Lung

Fung Sang (Feng Sheng) learned his families branch of Gulao Wing Chun Kuen from his father, Fung Lim as a youth in Gulao village. He later moved to the city of Guangzhou and continued his studied with his father's classmate, Koo Siu-Lung. Combining his father's Siu Lam influenced system with what he learned from Koo Siu-Lung, Fung Sang is often named as the founder of the modern Pien San (Side Body) branch of Gulao. In addition to teaching his childern, Fung Sang is also said to have taught Lee Shing and others the Side Body approach.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Gulao Wing Chun Kuen and New Martial Hero and Wulin magazines.

Fung Siu-Ching

18?? - 19?? DaiFaMin Kam Fung SiuChing Dong On Tang Suen Lo YingNam Lo KaiTam Yuen Fung Ting Yuen KaySan Ma JungYiu Lo HaoPo ChaiWan Chiu Sao KwongPo Ngau Si Leung Yan GanHeung Dong Jik

Fung Siu-Ching (Feng Xiaoqing) was a Shunde native who, as a youth, apprenticed at the Dragon & Phoenix Embroidery Shop where he met and became apprenticed to Red Junk Opera performer Dai Fa Min Kam (sometimes referred to as San Kam). Fung travelled with the Red Junks, learning Weng Chun Kuen, until Kam retired. In his 20s, Fung Siu-Ching went to Foshan where his friend, named Dong, established a training place for him. There, Fung taught Dong's sons, Jik and On, as well as their friend, Tang Suen. Later, Fung was said to have returned to Guangzhou where he worked as an Imperial marshal and was also said to have served as a guard for the Sichuan governor near the end of the Qing dynasty. During this time, he was also said to have passed on his art to his son, Fung Ting. Late in life, when he was almost 70 years of age and on the verge of retirement, he was invited by Yuen KaySan, Ma Jong-Yiu, Ngau Si, Lo Hao-Po, and others to teach them while living at the Yuen Family Estate in Foshan's Mulberry Gardens. Fung Siu-Ching remained there until he passed away at the age of 73.
Notes: Some accounts maintain Fung was originally from the north, anywhere from Hunan to Hubei provinces and that he had previous martial experience in systems from Hung Kuen to Ying Yee Kuen (Xingyiquan). Compiled from written and oral accounts of Jee Shim, Sum Nung and Yuen Chai-Wan Wing Chun Kuen, and New Martial Hero.

Jiu Chao

1902 - 1972 Chan YiuMin Jiu Chao Jiu Wan Wong Jing Gao Jeung Kwok Sing Pan Nam

Jiu Chao (Zhao Jiu) learned Hung Ga boxing and other systems before studying Weng Chun Kuen* and osteopathy from Chan Wah-Shun's son, Chan Yiu-Min. Several accounts suggest he worked in law enforcement for a time alongside his junior martial uncle, Yip Man and took the opportunity to practice with him as well. Among his students were several other members of the Jiu family, including his nephew, Jiu Wan, as well as Wong Jing, Gao Jeung, Kwok Sing, Pan Nam, and others. Jiu Chao passed away in Zhongshan in 1972.
Note: Unlike some of his classmates, Chan Yiu-Min seems to have exclusively used the Weng Chun (always spring) rather than Wing Chun (praise spring) characters to identify the name of the system. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen and Foshan Jing Wu

Jiu Wan

???? - 197? Chan YiuMin Jiu Chao Jiu Wan Tai Lung Chow HungYuen Others Jason Lau Francis Fong Yip Man

Jiu Wan (Zhao Yun) first learned Wing Chun Kuen in Foshan under his uncle Jiu Chao (or in some accounts his cousin, Jiu Tong). Some accounts also suggest he received instruction from Jiu Chao's teacher, Chan YiuMin, as well. Later, Jiu Wan established his own Wing Chun school in Foshan before moving to Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, some reports indicate he continued his studies under Yip Man. Amongst Jiu Wan's students were movie star Tai Lung (Tam Fu-Wing), Chow Hung-Yuen, Jason Lau, Francis Fong, and others.
Note: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Jiu Wan Wing Chun Kuen. Special thanks to Dan Lucas.

Kwok Gai

1889 - Present Chan JiuHung Lao DatSang Kwok Gai Foshan Students Kwok Gai (Guo Jie) was born around 1899 and and first began studying his family's martial arts as a child. During the 1910s, he learned some Wing Chun Kuen and Mok Ga Kuen from Chan Jiu-Hung and Wing Chun Leung KaiMing

Kuen from an osteopath named Leung Kai-Ming. Roughly a decade later, when he was 24 years old, he continued studying under Lao Dat-Sang (Pao Fa Lien) alongside his brother, Kwok So. Kwok Gai moved away a few years later but continued practicing. Later, he taught a few students. Retired now, he remains active promoting the martial arts through the Foshan Jing Wu Association.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pao Fa Lien (esp. Mok Poi-On and Man Jee-Chiu), and Leung's Publications. Special thanks to Derek Frearson (photo).

Lai Hip-Chi

1898 - 1970 Chan WahShun Ng JungSo Hui SamCho Lui YiuChai Lai HipChi Lo Huen Yim Man Yeung Sang Pan Nam Lok's Nephew

Lai Hip-Chi (Li Xiechi) was born in 1898 to a wealthy merchant family that ran a pawn-shop in Foshan. At the age of 13, he began learning Wing Chun from Chan Wah-Shun, becoming the money-changer's second to last student and live-in apprentice. Lai Hip-Chi followed Chan until the old money-changer retired back to Chan village some 6-9 months later. Lai Hip-Chi then continued his studies under one of Chan Wah-Shun's senior disciples, Lui Yiu-Chai (and in some accounts under Ng Jung-So as well). At about the age of 20, Lai Hip-Chi attended a Pawn-Shop Association meeting where he met the nephew of Lok Lan-Goon of Jinzhu village, who was already in his 70s. Lok's nephew had learned Weng Chun Kuen from his uncle, a student of Dai Fa Min Kam. From Lok, Lai Hip-Chi learned historical and technical information about the art. Lai Hip-Chi went on to teach Wing Chun to Hui Sam-Cho, Lo Huen, Yim Man (in some accounts named as a grand-student of Ngau Hong), Yeung Sang, Pan Nam (who had previously studied under Jiu Chao, a disciple of Chan Yiu-Min), and several others. In 1970, Lai Hip-Chi, persecuted by the Communist regime, was tied up and left to die on the streets.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen. Special thanks to Eddie Chong (photo).

Lai Miu-Hin
188? - 197? Chan WahShun

Lai MiuHin Chan GaLiem Chan GaWing Chan GaSun

Lai Miu-Hin (Li Miaoxin) was born sometime in the 1880s and was the wife of Chan Yiu-Min and the daugherin-law of Chan Wah-Shun. She learned Weng Chun Kuen* and medicine from her father-in-law, alongside her huband. Reportedly very knowledgeable in Weng Chun, Lai Miu-Hin was said to have helped her husband Chan YiuMin teach several students, including her sons Chan Ga-Wing, Ga-Chai, and Ga-Liem. Lai Miu-Hin passed away at the age of 89.
Note: Unlike some of his classmates, Chan Yiu-Min seems to have exclusively used the Weng Chun (always spring) rather than Wing Chun (praise spring) characters to identify the name of the system. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Chan Yiu-Min and Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Wu Association, New Martial Hero magazine, and Leung Ting.

Lao Dat-Sang
(Pao Fa Lin) 186? - 193? Tse GwokLeung Lao DatSang Chu Chong Ngao JaiYee Others Kwok Gai Kwok So Tse GwokCheung

Lao Dat-Sang (Liu Dasheng) was the servant (and later, in some accounts, became the adopted son) of Tse Gwok-Leung and his brother Gwok-Cheung. He began learning their system of Wing Chun Kuen at the age of 9 and continued for almost ten years. At the age of 18, Lao moved to Foshan to took a job as a cashier. Soon, he became an apprentice at the Tong Yu Jeung Cosmetics Shop and learned how to make pao fa, or the planed wood chips boiled to make an old form of hair tonic. When his apprenticeship was over, he opened his own pao fa stall and, in some accounts, taught Wing Chun Kuen at night to a few students. Due to the fact that he worked making pao fa, and that people often mistook (or in some accounts deliberately teased him by mistaking) the charater 'dat' in his name with the character 'lien', he came to be known as Pao Fa Lien (Wood Planer Lien). Although he didnt show off his skills, he eventually became known for the high quality of his martial arts but was said to have been forced to spend several decades in exile after killing a man named Pan in a knife duel. At an advanced age Lao returned to the city and began teaching a few students. The first was said to have been a rich overseas Chinese from the U.S.A. Others included Chu Chong, Ngau Jai-Yee (who also studied the Gulao

system). Lao Dat-Sang's last disciples, adopted when he was already over 70 years of age, were Kwok Gai and Kwok So.
Notes: In an alternate account, the Pao Fa Lien system was said to have been handed down from a man named Lee who was skilled in Wing Chun, Tai Gik (Taiji), and Hung Kuen, rather than the Tse brothers. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pao Fa Lien Wing Chun Kuen and New Martial Hero magazine and Leung's Publishing.

Law Man-Gung
San Kuen Law 18?? - ???? Leung BoLao Law ManGung Fok BoChuen Law Man-Gung (Luo Wengong), known as San Kuen Law (Shen Quan Luo, God Fist Law) is sometimes named as one of the Red Junk Opera performers who learned the Wing Chun Kuen system from Leung BokLao alongside Wong Wah-Bo, Dai Fa Min Kam, and the others (or, in one variation, in Guangxi before Leung moved to Guangdong to teach the opera performers.) In both accounts, Law Man-Gong reportedly passed on his Wing Chun Kuen knowledge to Fok Bo-Chuen (sometimes rendered as Kok Bo-Chuen).
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yiu Choi & Hung Fa Yi Wing Chun Kuen and Wulin magazine & Leung's Publishing.

Leung Bik
18?? - 19?? Leung Jan Leung Bik Yip Man son-in-law

Leung Bik (Liang Bi) in some accounts was said to have been the eldest son of Leung Jan and the one who achieved the highest skills in Wing Chun Kuen under the famed doctor. In most stories, following Leung Jan's death, Leung Bik lost a fight with Chan Wah-Shun, one of his father's best students, and was forced to leave Foshan. In one account, he left for another province while in the Yip Man branch, it was said he moved to Hong Kong.

In Hong Kong, he reportedly met and taught a lesson to a young Yip Man and later accepted Yip as his student and taught him the deeper aspects of the art. In addition to Yip Man, some in the Yip branch maintain Leung Bik also taught his own son-in-law.
Notes: According to some of Yip Man's early students and descendants, Leung Bik was either a real person with no connection to Yip Man used by Lee Man in Hong Kong to create more interest in the system, or an entirely fictional character. According to others, both he and his connection to Yip Man were very real. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man Wing Chun Kuen.

Leung Chun
18?? - 19?? Leung Jan Leung Chun ??? ???

Leung Chun (Liang Chun) in some accounts was said to have been the second son of Leung Jan and the one who achieved the highest skills in medicine under the famed doctor. In stories of the Pan Nam system, Leung Chun was said to have been born with severe learning difficulties and passed away at a very young age (falling from a window, in some accounts). While Leung Chun is not known to have had any students, there are a couple of groups which claim descent from him, including one from ??.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man, Pan Nam, and Leung Chun Wing Chun Kuen.

Leung Jan
(Leung Dak-Wing, Jan Sin Sang, Wing Chun Wong) 1826 - 1901 Wong WahBo Leung Jan Chan WahShun Ngau Shu Leung Kay Leung Wah Lo Kwai Fung Wah Leung Bik Leung Chun Leung Suen Leung Jee Leung Yuen Leung Ko Wong WahSaam Leung BakCheung Yik Ying Yim Sei Leung YeeTai

Leung Jan (Liang Zan), said in the Gulao Wing Chun system to have been originally named Leung Dak-Wing* (Liang Derong), was born in 1826, the second son of a Foshan herbalist and took over the family pharmacy (known variously as Wing Sang Tong, Jan Sang Tong, ang Hong Sang Tong in different accounts over the years) on Kuaizi street after his father passed away. Because of his occupation (in some accounts because of the name of his shop) he came to be called Jan Sin Sang (Zan Xiansheng, Mr. Jan) or more simply rendered, Jan Sang (Zan Sheng) by the locals. Leung Jan began learning Wing Chun during the 1850s under Red Junk Opera performer/poler Leung Yee-Tai and later continued under Wong Wah-Bo (or in accounts of the Pan Nam system, beginning with Wong and continuing with Leung when Wong went back to the opera.) In one account of the Yip Man family, he also exchanged pole techniques with Fung Siu-Ching at a local smoke-house. Leung Jan gained great fame in the last quarter of the 19th century for his fighting ability, and remained popular well into the 20th century when pulp novels and later movies began to circulate, spreading the name of the Wing Chun Wong (Yongchun Wang, King of Wing Chun) and vaulting him into folk-hero status among the local populace. Accounts of Leung Jan's family vary greatly. In some, he had one son who died in an accident at a young age. In most versions, he was said to have had two sons, Leung Bik and Leung Chun. In others, he had three sons (with the addition of Leung Suen), or even up to five sons (with the addition of Leung Jee, Leung Yuen, and Leung Ko). Their learning of Wing Chun Kuen also varies greatly amongst the differing accounts, from none to all of them gaining some degree of proficiency. Leung Jan's most well known student was Chan Wah-Shun who carried on his classes and reputation in Foshan. His other students consisted mainly of the wealthy owners of local businesses and inclued Leung Kay (Lao Man Kay, Rascal Kay), Leung Wah (Muk Yan Wah, Wooden Man Wah), Lo Kwai (Chu Yuk Kwai, Butcher Kwai, sometimes rendered as Chan Kwai), Fung Wah, and pharmacy employee Ngau Shu (San Dai Shu, Big Mountain Shu), among others. At the age of 73, Leung Jan retired back to his native village of Gulao, Heshan county, where he taught Wing Chun Kuen to a few local students, such as Wong Sum-Wah, Yik Ying, Leung Bak-Cheung, and Yim Sei before passing away at the age of 76.
Notes: There are differing explinations for the change in Leung Jan's name. In one, he chose the name Jan, thinking it sounded more professional for an osteopath. In another, the hand-written sign for 'Wing' on his shop was so often misread as 'Jan' that he eventually began to answer to that name. Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man & Gulao Wing Chun Kuen, Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Wu Association, and New Martial Hero & Leung's Publishing.

Leung Lan-Kwai
???? - ???? Leung BokCho Leung LanKwai Wong WahBo Leung Lan-Kwai (Liang Langui) was said in some stories to have been a wealthy scholar from Guangzhou and in other's an osteopath from the Foshan or Zhaoqing region. Although he is absent from tales of other branches,

the Yip Man system maintains he learned Wing Chun Kuen from Leung Bok-Cho (in some accounts in Guangxi, in others in Guangdong) and taught the art to Red Junk Opera actor Wong Wah-Bo. In another story, Leung Lan-Kwai was a Red Junk actor himself and Weng Chun Kuen student of Wong WahBo who exchanged with Leung Bok-Cho for knowledge of the Wing Chun Kuen system and later introduced Leung Bok-Cho his fellow performers.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man Wing Chun Kuen.

Leung Yee-Tai
???? - ???? Leung BoCho Wong WahBo Leung YeeTai Leung Jan Leung Yee-Tai (Liang Erdi) was the stage name of a member of the Red Junk Opera in the mid-1800s. In some accounts, Leung was a poler (someone who used a long pole to help push and direct the boat when in narrow waters) and/or part-time prop-master while in others he was a full member who played the role of Mo-Deng, or the "female" martial ar lead (since females were not permitted in the opera at the time, males would play their roles in "drag".) In addition to his opera role, which would have required extensive knowledge of the more dynamic fist and weapon routines of Northern Opera, Leung was said to have learned the Weng Chun Kuen of Jee Shim. Later, Leung reportedly studied the Wing Chun Kuen system under Leung Bok-Cho (becoming his second student, according to the Cho Wing Chun system.) In some accounts, Leung Yee-Tai also studied under Yim WingChun as well. In accounts of the Yip Man system, he was said to have learned from Wong Wah-Bo instead, trading his knowledge of the six-and-a-half point pole for knowledge of Wing Chun Kuen. When he left the opera, Leung Yee-Tai settled in Foshan and taught his knowledge to Leung Jan (either by himself or in conjunction with Wong Wah-Bo).
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man and Pan Nam Weng Chun.

Jee Shim

Lok Lan-Goon
(San Kam) 18?? - 19?? DaiFaMin Kam Lok LanGoon

Lok's Nephew

Others

Lok Lan-Goon (Lu Languan) was a wealthy native of Jinju village, Sanshui county and had practiced several systems of martial arts before meeting Red Junk Opera performer Dai Fa Min Kam. Impressed with Kam's skills and knowing the actor was retiring from the opera, Lok invited him back Jinju, offering to care for him and his family in exchange for lessons in Weng Chun Kuen. In a slightly different account, Lok Lan Goon was a fellow performer alongside Dai Fa Min Kam, taking the name San Kam (Xin Jin, New Kam), after his teacher. (in most accounts, however, San Kam was a nickname of Dai Fa Min Kam, not Lok Lan-Goon.) Lok Lan-Goon later taught his nephew and other members of his family.
Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen and Wulin.

(Luong Vu-Te) 18?? - 19?? Chan WahShun Lui YiuChai ? Lui Yiu-Chai (Lei Ruji) was a Hung fist practitioner who operated a produce store in Foshan. After losing a fight to Chan Wah-Shun, Lui became the money-changer's third student. When Chan Wah-Shun began winding down his career in the early 1900s, Lui, like his classmates Ng Jung-So and Chan Yiu-Min, began to help in the teaching of the junior students. Lui was said to have especially helped Lai Hip-Chi in learning Wing Chun Kuen. One account suggests that following Chan Wah-Shun's death in 1911, Lui Yiu-Chai moved to Vietnam where he taught some Wing Chun Kuen (perhaps known there as Luong Vu-Te).
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen & Vietnamese Wing Chun Kuen and Leung's Publishing.

Lai Hip-Chi

Ngau Si
18?? - ???? Fung SiuChing Ngau Si Wai YukSang

Ngau Si (Ou Shi), also romanized as Au Si, was said to have been either the owner or manager of a butcher shop on Kuaizi (Chopstick) street in Foshan who learned from Fung Siu-Ching while Fung was teaching out of the Yuen Family Estate on Songyuan street. Among Ngau Si's students was Nationalist Army doctor Wai Yuk-Sang.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Sum Nung Wing Chun Kuen and Wulin magazine.

Ng Jung-So
18?? - 19?? Chan WahShun Ng JungSo Leung FookCho Ng YaatFay Others Yiu Choi Yip Man

Ng Jung-So (Wu Zhongsu), said to have been a scholarly man of slight stature, began learning Wing Chun alongside his brother, Ng Siu-Lo, under Chan Wah-Shun right at the beginning of the money-changer's teaching career, officially becoming his second student. A slightly different account maintains the Ngs actually started off under Leung Jan himself and continued under Chan when the famed doctor retired. Early on, Ng was said to have owned a ceramics shop. Later, in 1936, after being introduced to future student Yiu Choi by his friend, Yuen Chai-Wan (who was departing for Vietnam), Ng went into business with him and his brother, operating a smoke and gaming house on Shilutou. There, Ng taught nightly classes to over a dozen students, including Yiu Choi. Ng reportedly closed his teaching career in the mid-1940s and went to live with the Yiu family, staying with them until he passed away at the age of 72. In addition to Yiu Choi, Ng's students included his son, Ng YaatFay, Leung Fook-Cho, and others.
Note: There is some confusion surrounding the dates associated with Ng Jung-So. According to the commong Yip family dating (where Chan Wah-Shun taught for 36 years), Ng would have had to have been born during the 1860s, if not earlier (to have begun learning in 1875), meaning he would have died during the 1930s. According to the Yiu family dating, Ng was likely born in the 1880s, if not later, since he was reportedly almost 50 years of age in 1936 when he met Yiu Choi, and would have died during the 1950s. According to annother source, Ng may have lived as late as the 1960s or 70s. Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man, Ng Jung-So, and Yiu Choi Wing Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Wu Association, and Leung's Publishing.

Ng Siu-Lo
18?? - 1??? Chan WahShun Ng SiuLo

? Ng Siu-Lo (Wu Xiaolu), although he began study at the same time as his brother Ng Jung-So, was considered to have been Chan Wah-Shun's first student. In alternate accounts, it was suggested that both he and his brother actually began learning with Leung Jan and continued with Chan Wah-Shun when Leung Jan retired.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man and Ng Jung-So Wing Chun Kuen.

Saam Chan
???? - 197? Cho Shun Saam Chan Cheung WeiPo Cho HungChoi

Saam Chan (Shen ), learned Wing Chun Kuen from Red Junk Opera performer Cho Shun, who had retired back to Panyu and was teaching out of the Luen Yee school. Sam had studied, initially, in order to protect his village (which was nearby Panyu). Saam Chan later moved to Malaysia and began teaching a few students including Cheung Wei-Po. He also passed down historical knowledge and some weapons sets to Cho Hung-Choy (who had previously learned from Cho On and Cho Chuen).
Notes: Compiled from the oral and written accounts of Saam and Cho family Wing Chun Kuen. Special thanks to Hendrik Santo.

Sum Nung
(Tiet Bei Nung)

1925 - present Yuen KaySan Cheung Bo Sum Nung Foshan Many

Students

Guangzhou Students

Sum Nung (Cen Neng) was born in South America but returned to China with his family at around the age of 5. In Foshan, he worked at the Tin Hoi Restaurant where, in 1938, he met and began learning Wing Chun from Cheung Bo. In 1941, Cheung Bo introduced Sum Nung to Yuen Kay-San, and Sum Nung became Yuens disciple. Sum Nung developed a great reputation for the quality of his Wing Chun and in 1943 began teaching in Foshan at the Deep Village Temple to students such as Sum Jee. In the late 1940s he moved to the city of Guangzhou where he taught Wing Chun to members of several local Workers Unions before beginning work as an osteopath in a local clinic. Eventually, due to his power in application, Sum gained the nickname Tiet Bei Nung (Tie Bi Neng, Iron Arm Nung). Over the years, he quietly taught carefully selected students. Sum Nung has gone on to train many outstanding students who have helped preserve and spread his style around the world. Some of his many students (with apologies, far to many to list here) include Sum Jee, Cheung Chut (the son of Cheung Bo), Ngok Jin-Fen, Leung King-Chiu (Leung Dai-Chiu), Dong Chuen-Kam, Ngo Lui-Kay, Kwok Wan-Ping, Lee Chi-Yiu, Wong Wah (Tom Wong) and many, many others.
Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Sum Nung Wing Chun Kuen, New Martial Hero and Wulin magazines, and the Foshan and Guangzhou Jing Wu.

Tang Suen
18?? - 19?? Fung SiuChing Tang Suen Tang Yik Meng ? Leung Sheung Chu ChongMan

Tang Suen (Deng Suan) was a schoolmate of Dong Jik who began learning Weng Chun Kuen from Fung SiuChing when Fung taught from the Dong home in Foshan. Tang taught police officers in Guangzhou for a time and was said to have been among the very first to teach Weng Chun in Hong Kong (albiet briefly). After Hong Kong, he taught again in Guangzhou and then returned to Foshan. Tang Suen eventually married a second wife, named Meng, who had previously mastered the Sun Chow Baat boxing and taught her Weng Chun. Together, they both later taught their son, Tang Yik. Tang Suen was also said to have given an introduction to Weng Chun to a young Leung Sheung (who later went on to study with Yip Man in Foshan).
Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Jee Shim Weng Chun Kuen and New Martial Hero

Tse Kwok-Cheung
18?? - 1???

DaiDongFung Tse KwokCheung Lao DatSang Tse Kwok-Cheung (Xie Guozhang) was a civil mandarin during the Qing dynasty who learned Wing Chun Kuen from Dai Dong Fung alongside his brother, Tse Kwok-Leung in Qingyuan, Guangdong. With his brother, Tse Kwok-Cheung passed on his Wing Chun Kuen to their servent (and in some accounts, their adopted son), Lao Dat-Sang (Pao Fa Lien.)
Notes: Compiled from written and oral accounts of Pao Fa Lien Wing Chun Kuen, Hong Kong Chin Woo, and New Martial Hero.

Wai Yuk-Sang
???? - 19?? Ngau Si Wai YukSang Cheung Bo Wai Yuk-Sang (Wei Yusheng) learned Wing Chun Kuen from Ngau Si, the Kuaizi (Chopstick) street butcher. An alternate account suggests he may, instead, have learned from the his brother. Wai Yuk-Sang originally worked as a doctor for the Nationalist Army. Among his students was Cheung Bo, whom he defeated in a fight and subsequently agreed to teach. Wai also taught medicine, including to Cheung Bo's student Sum Nung. Later in life, Wai converted to Taoism, becoming a priest and teaching hei gung (breathing work) in an effort to make up for the negative karma associated with the martial arts.

Wong Wah-Saam
1866 - 194? Leung Jan Wong WahSaam Fung Lim Koo Siu-Lung Fung Chun Others

Wong Wah-Saam (Huang Huasan) was a native of Gulao, Heshan, Guangdong. He began learning Wing Chun Kuen for self-defense at the age of 23 when a retired Leung Jan returned home to the village.

Wong Wah-Saam's students included Fung Lim, Koo Siu-Lung, and Fung Chun (when Wong was already 76 years of age).
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Gulao/Pien San Wing Chun Kuen, Wulin Magazine, Hong Kong Chin Woo, and Leung's Publishing.

Yik Kam
???? - ???? Leung BokLao Yik Kam Cho Shun Yik Kam (Yi Jin, Changing Gold) was an actor in the Red Junk Opera who played the role of Cheung Tan, the proper woman. According to Cho family Wing Chun Kuen traditions, he was the third student, after Wong Wah-Bo and Leung Yee-Tai. Yik Kam is said to have first began teaching Wing Chun Kuen following an encounter where he bested three young brothers, originally from Panyu village. One of the brothers, Cho Shun, was an actor and, after witnessing Yik Kam's skill, sought to become his student.

Yip Kin

???? - 1968 So KoiMing Yip Kin Yip FukChok Wong YanSang Cho Family

Yip Kin (Ye Jian) was said to have been a Hung Kuen and/or Bak Hok (White Crane) practitioner who learned some Weng Chun Kuen and/or Wing Chun Kuen from his wife and/or father-in-law (his teachers typically reported to have been Red Junk opera performer So Koi-Ming and/or a man named Chan Tan-Kin.) In the 1930s, Yip Kin moved from Guangdong to Malaysia where he picked up elements of the Cho family system and began spreading his own system to students such as Wong Yan-Sang and his own son, Yip FookChok. Yip Kin passed away in 1968.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Kin Wing Chun Kuen. Special thanks to Y. Wu.

Yip Man
(Man Suk, Man Gung)

1893 - 1972 Chan WahShun Ng JungSo Foshan Students Yip Man Many HongKong Students Leung Bik

Yip Man (Ye Wen), sometimes rendered as Ip Man, was born Yip Gei-Man (Ye Jiwen) to a wealthy merchant family in Foshan in 1893*. He began learning Wing Chun Kuen sometime between 1906 and 1911* under Chan Wah-Shun who was said to have been teaching out of the Yip Family Ancestral Temple at the time. The old money-changer was nearing the end of his career and much of Yip Man's hands on instruction fell to seniors (most prominently Ng Jung-So), especially after Chan suffered a stroke in 1908 and retired. Most accounts suggest that, following Chan's death in 1911, Yip went to Hong Kong to attend St. Stephans College where met and apprenticed himself to his martial uncle, Leung Bik, polishing his skills to a very advanced level. Some of Yip Man's students, however, maintain that this was simply a story created by Yip Man's friend, Lee Man, for promotional purposes and that he refined his skills instead through hard work and personal insight in Foshan. There are also accounts of Yip Man exchanging with friends such as Chu ChongMan, Cho On, and/or Yuen Kay-San. Although Yip Man developed an extraordinary reputation for his great Wing Chun Kuen skill, he did not teach for many years. In 1942, however, his resources grew severely depleated under the Japanese occupation and in order to repay a kindness, he took on some students in Yongan including Chow Ywong-Yiu, Kwok Fu, and Lun Gai. In November, 1949, Yip fled the Communist rise in China to Macao. He soon ventured over to Hong Kong where, in 1950, he began teaching his Wing Chun Kuen to members of the Restaurant Workers Union. To many of his students, his friendly nature and demeanor led him to be called Man Suk (Younger Uncle Man) in the early years and Man Gung (Grandfather Man) later on. Over his long career in Hong Kong, he taught many, many, outstanding students (with apologies, far to many to list here) who have gone on to teach generations of excellent students in their own right and have spread his style of Wing Chun Kuen around the world. Among some of Yip Mans most famous students were/are, Leung Sheung, Lok Yiu, Tsui Seung-Tin, Wong Shun-Leung, Cheung Chuk-Hing (William Cheung), Lee Siu-Long (Bruce Lee), Ho Kam-Ming, Moy Yat, Leung Ting, and many, many others.

Note: Although the 1893 birthdate, provided by Yip Man's son, Yip Chun, must be regarded as the official date for reference purposes, there is a second set of dates which come from a variaty of sources, including some of Yip Man's students. These dates mention Yip Man being born closer to 1898 (although some say as early as 1895). Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yip Man Wing Chun Kuen.

Yiu Choi
(Dai Lik Yiu Choi) 1890 - 1956 Chan WahShun Ng JungSo Yiu Choi Go Bing Yiu Kai Fok Joy Yuen ChaiWan

Yiu Choi (Yao Cai) first began learning Wing Chun Kuen from Yuen Chai-Wan in roughly 1820 and studied under him until Yuen moved to Vietnam in 1936. Just before he left, Yuen introduced Yiu Choi to his friend, Ng Jung-So, to continue his studies. In some stories, it is suggested Yiu might also have received some instruction from Chan Wah-Shun as well. Yiu Choi and his brother owned and operated smoke and gambling houses and later opened one on Shilutou and offered space there for Ng Jung-So to hold his nightly classes. Ng taught from the club for roughly a decade and when he retired, Yiu moved him into his home and cared for him for roughly a decade more until he passed away. Known as "Dai Lik" (Big Strong) due to his natural power, Yiu Choi taught Wing Chun Kuen to his son, Yiu Kay, as well as to students such as Go Bing and Fok Joy.
Notes: Compiled from oral and written accounts of Yiu Choi Wing Chun Kuen, Foshan Jing Mo, and Leung's Publishing.

Yuen Chai-Wan
(Yuen Lo-Sei, Dao Pei Chai, Nguyen Te-Cong)

1877 - 1960 Fok BoChuen Fung

SiuChing Yuen ChaiWan Yiu Choi Ngo SiQuy Others Nguyen DuyHai Luc VinhKhai

Yuen Chai-Wan (Ruan Jiwan) was the forth son of a Foshan Fireworks merchant and was thus also known as Yuen Lo Sei (Yuen the Forth). Due to a childhood illness, he was also referred to as Dao Pei Chai (Pock Skin Chai). Yuen first learned Wing Chun Kuen under Fok Bo-Chuen and later continued his studies with Fung SiuChing. In Foshan, Yuen Chai-Wan taught students such as Yiu Choi. In 1936 he was invited to teach Wing Chun in Vietnam, at the Nanhai and Shunde Expatriates Associations and moved to Hanoi, where he was known by the Vietnamese pronounciation of his name, Nguyen Te-Cong, and founded his first school. In 1955 he relocated to Saigon where he established a second school. Among his students in Vietnam were Nguyen Duy-Hai, Ngo SiQuy, Luk VinhKhai, and others. Yuen Chai-Wang passed away in 1960 at the age of 84.
Notes: Other accounts have Yuen Chai-Wan exchanging with or under Leung Jan and Chan Wah-Shun. Compiled from written and oral accounts of Yuen Chai-Wan and Yiu Choi Wing Chun Kuen, the Yuen family, and the Foshan and Guangzhou Jing Wu.

Wing Chun Kuen Ancestors


Wing Chun Kuen Si Jo (Ancestors) form the bridge between the early founders of legend and the modern masters of the art. Through their, learning of the system, mastering of it, and passing it along, they each brought to it their unique genius and remarkable experiences, helped set the stage for the Wing Chun Kuen practiced in the world today.

Chan Wah-Shun (Jiao Chin Wah) Chan Yiu-Min Cheung Bo (Dai Ngao Bo) Cho Chuen Cho Dak-Shing Cho On Cho Shun (Dai Ngan Shun) Chu Chong Chu Chong-Man Dai Dong Fung Dai Fa Min Kam (San Kam, Lok Kam) Dong Jik Fok Bo-Chuen (Kok Bo-Chuen, Seung Do Fok) Fung Siu-Ching Fung Lim (Fei Lo Lim) Fung Sang Jiu Chao

Jiu Wan Kwok Gai Lai Hip-Chi Lai Miu-Hin Lao Dat-Sang (Pao Fa Lien) Law Man-Gong Leung Bik Leung Chun Leung Jan (Leung Dak-Wing, Jan Sinsang, Wing Chun Wong) Leung Lan-Kwai Leung Yee-Tai Lok Lan-Goon Lui Yiu-Chai Ng Jung-So Ng Siu-Lo Ngau Shu (San Dai Shu) Ngau Si Saam Chan Sum Nung (Tiet Bei Nung) Tang Suen Tse Kwok-Cheung Tse Kwok-Leung Wai Yuk-Sang Wong Wah-Bo Wong Wah-Saam Yik Kam Yip Kin Yip Man (Man Suk, Man Gung) Yiu Choi (Dai Lik Yiu Choi)

Yuen Chai-Wan (Nguyen Te-Cong) Yuen Kay-San (Yuen Kwok-Wu, Yuen LoJia, Ng Suk, Jia Gung)

Note: This page is devoted to the Wing Chun Kuen ancestors who began teaching the art prior to 1950. If you know of any Wing Chun Kuen ancestors not currently listed above, please contact us. We will make every effort to include them in a future update (if appropriate and subject to editing and/or compilation, should we receive multiple submissions).

Ngau Shu
(Dai San Shu) 18?? - ???? Leung Jan Ngau Shu ChungBiu Yui Chu ChongMan ?

Ngau Shu (Ou Shu), also romanized as Au Shu and known by the nickname San Dai Shu (Big Mountain Shu), originally worked in a Siu Lap (barbeque) shop on Kuaizi (Chopstick) Street in Foshan. Hearing of Leung Jan's reputation, he wanted to study Wing Chun Kuenbut due to his low social status was unable to gain introduction. Not giving up, Ngau hung about and tried to make friends with the staff. Eventually, he managed to get a job at the pharmacy and was allowed to watch Leung Jan's classes. Through practicing what he observed, he came to impress Leung Jan and was accepted as a student. In some accounts, he had a falling out with Leung Jan after showing up Chan Wah-Shun and Leung Bik in front of other students. Other accounts maintain Ngau Shu then went on to further his studies in Wing Chun Kuen from an unknown instructor of another branch in Dongguan. Ngau Shu later passed on his Wing Chun Kuen to his cousin, Chun Biu Yui (Watchmaker Yui) and his neighbor, Chu Chong-Man (who went on to study with Dong Jik.)
Notes: Compiled from New Martial Hero Magazine, and Leung's Publishing.