Está en la página 1de 17

Wing Chun Kuen Ancestors

Wing Chun Kuen Si Jo (Ancestors) form the bridge between the early founders of legend and the modern masters of the art. Through their, learning of the system, mastering of it, and passing it along, they each brought to it their unique genius and remarkable experiences, helped set the stage for the Wing Chun Kuen practiced in the world today. Chan Wah-Shun (Jiao Chin Wah) Chan Yiu-Min Cheung Bo (Dai Ngao Bo) Cho Chuen Cho Dak-Shing Cho On Cho Shun (Dai Ngan Shun) Chu Chong Chu Chong-Man Dai Dong Fung Dai Fa Min Kam (San Kam, Lok Kam) Dong Jik Fok Bo-Chuen (Kok Bo-Chuen, Seung Do Fok) Fung Siu-Ching Fung Lim (Fei Lo Lim) Fung Sang Jiu Chao Jiu Wan Kwok Gai Lai Hip-Chi Lai Miu-Hin Lao Dat-Sang (Pao Fa Lien) Law Man-Gong Leung Bik Leung Chun Leung Jan (Leung Dak-Wing, Jan Sinsang, Wing Chun Wong) Leung Lan-Kwai Leung Yee-Tai Lok Lan-Goon Lui Yiu-Chai Ng Jung-So Ng Siu-Lo Ngau Shu (San Dai Shu) Ngau Si Saam Chan Sum Nung (Tiet Bei Nung) Tang Suen Tse Kwok-Cheung Tse Kwok-Leung Wai Yuk-Sang Wong Wah-Bo Wong Wah-Saam Yik Kam Yip Kin Yip Man (Man Suk, Man Gung) Yiu Choi (Dai Lik Yiu Choi) Yuen Chai-Wan (Nguyen Te-Cong) Yuen Kay-San (Yuen Kwok-Wu, Yuen Lo-Jia, Ng Suk, Jia Gung)

Wing Chun Kuen Separate Forms

San Sik (Seperate Forms) are typically short sequences encapsulating one or two concepts and techniques. In some cases, San Sik are not formal and vary with almost every practice. There are a few, however, usually set into a specific grouping or ordered sequence, which have become part of the formal curriculum of some Wing Chun Kuen systems. Dai Nim Tao (Gulao/Lee Shing) Fung Ga San Sik (Gulao/Fung Family) Koo Ga San Sik (Gulao/Koo Family) Sae Sup Dim (Gulao/Tam Yeung) Sup Baat San Sao (Yip Man) Sup Saam Sao (Cho/Cho Hung-Choi) Sup Saam Sao (Cho/Ku Choi-Wah) Sup Saam Sao (Cho/Sam Chan) Sup Yee San Sik (Sum Nung) Yee Sup Yee San Sik (Gulao/?)

Wing Chun Kuen Founders

The true Wing Chun Kuen Jong Si (Founding Teachers) remain lost in the mists of time and shrouded in the veils of legend. Over the centuries, many, many, popular folk-tales have sprung up, each dramatic and exciting in its own right, which seek to explain the origin of this great group of styles. Throughout the myriad legends, many individuals, groups, and locations have

come to be linked in one way or another with the founding of the style. These people and places, and their connections to Wing Chun Kuen's genesis, whether real, based on reality, or woven from the fabric of age old stories, have come to be an important part of Wing Chun Kuen's richly textured past. Cheung Ng (Tan Sao Ng, Cheung Hin) Jee Shim Sim Si Leung Bok-Cho (Leung Bok-Lao) Miu Shun Miu Tsui-Fa Ng Mui Si Tai (Lui Sei-Leung) Yat Chum Um Jee (Yat Chum Dai Si) Yim Wing-Chun (Yim Saam-Leung) Yim Yee (Yim Sei, Yee Gung)

Note: Due to the revolutionary activities of the time, many people hid their identities behind nicknames, stage names, and fictitious archetypal characters, or the names of real but unconnected historical figures. Since its very difficult to sort this type of material out, the common legendary names and stories are used for this index.

Wing Chun Kuen Readings Wing Chun Kuen Routines

To Lo (Routines) link San Sik (Separate Forms) together into a progressive training set that builds concepts and techniques as they are practiced. To Lo are, by their nature, formal. This does not, however, prevent them from developing over the generations as succeeding masters take a hand in shaping them each in turn. Baat Jam Do Biu Jee Chum Kiu Luk Dim Boon Gwun (Jee Shim) Luk Dim Boon Gwun (Sum Nung) Luk Dim Boon Gwun (Yip Man) Muk Yan Jong Saam Dim Boon Gwun (Lee Shing) Siu Lien Tao Siu Nim Tao (Yip Man) Yee Jee Seung Do

Wing Chun Kuen Systems

Throughout the history of Wing Chun Kuen, many highly skilled individuals have learned the system, mastered it, and passed along their teachings. Each master brought to Wing Chun some of their own unique insight, experience, and style. As a result, over the generations, several extradordinary interpretations of Wing Chun Kuen have evolved.
Systems are listed by the name of founder unless a nickname (such as Pao Fa Lien for Lao Dat-Sang) or place name (such as Gulao for Leung Jan) are so widely spread as to make them synonimous with the system. Alternatives are listed in brackets. Elements of lineages which are uncertain (possibly legendary or unverifiable) are presented in the listings in italics.

Chan Yiu-Min Weng Chun Kuen Cheung Bo Wing Chun Kuen (Cheung Chut) Cho Ga Wing Chun Kuen (Ban Chung, Malaysian, South East Asian) Fut Sao Wing Chun Kuen (Henry Leung) Gulao Wing Chun Kuen (Leung Jan, Pien San)

Hei Ban Wing Chun Kuen (Leung Kwok-Keung) Hung Fa Yee Wing Chun Kuen (Hung Suen) Hung Suen Wing Chun Kuen Jee Shim Weng Chun Kuen (Wei Yan) Jiu Wan Wing Chun Kuen Lee Shing Wing Chun Kuen

Mai Gei Wong Wing Chun Kuen (Wong Wu-Fong) Pan Nam Weng Chun Kuen Pao Fa Lien Wing Chun Kuen (Lao Dat-Sang) Sum Nung Wing Chun Kuen (Yuen Kay-San, Guangzhou)

Yip Kin Wing Chun Kuen (Malaysian) Yiu Choi Wing Chun Kuen Yip Man Wing Chun Kuen (Hong Kong) Yuen Chai-Wan Wing Chun Kuen (Nguyen TeCong, Vietnamese)

Notes: Listing here does not imply edorsement. Legitimate branches may not yet be present in listings and branches listed may still contain questionable or incorrect information.

Foshan Yongchunquan (Futsan Wing Chun Kuen)

By Yun-choi Yeung
Foshan Yongchunquan is not another kind of Yongchun or Wingchun Kung Fu. It is about Yongchunquan from Foshan, and an attempt to investigate the various technical development of Yongchunquan in Foshan. It is not uncommon for some teachers to follow the Hong Men practice of making their students to take deadly vows not to disclose their secrets to any outsider. Foshan Yongchunquan follows the tradition of Chin Woo Athletic Association, which believes in open teaching, to promote and develop this unique art of fighting once flourished in Foshan. There are many Foshan Yongchunquan Associations around the World affiliated with Foshan Chin Woo Athletic Association's Yongchunquan Research Activity Center. The origin of Yongchunquan is some what perplexing due to historical reasons (Yeung, 1999), however from a technical point of view its development from Shaolin Martial Arts makes very good sense. The followings are identifiable features in Yongchunquan: 1. Yongchunquan is a unique development from Southern Shaolin Martial Arts and is complementary to conventional Shaolin Martial Arts 2. Yongchunquan bears certain similarity to other Southern Shaolin Martial Arts such as Hequan (Crane Boxing), Hongquan (Hong [Family] Boxing) and Nan Tonlongquan (Southern Mantis Boxing) 3. The training method of Yongchunquan resembles the internal training of Shaolin Martial Arts. 4. The routines of Yongchunquan are exercises to supplement traditional Shaolin Martial Arts rather than a unique development of styles 5. The wooden dummy techniques are clearly incorporating all kinds of Shaolin techniques rather than just those in its routines 6. The development of loose hand techniques is encouraged within the system 7. The weaponry of Yongchunquan is accommodating the popular weapons of the region rather than designing its own weaponry 8. The development of sticking hand exercise is unique in Shaolin Martial Arts No one would question the Shaolin origin of Yongchunquan for very simple reason because it looks Shaolin. The hand techniques are very standard Shaolin fists, palms and elbows, etc. The use of Qiao (bridge) hand, which is the fore part of the forearm, which is typically Southern Shaolin (Zhongguo Wushu Baikequanshu, 1998, pp. 229-231). The Erzi Qianyang Ma, in Cantonese it is the "Yeejee Kimyeng Ma", which means two characters clamping the groin stance, which seems a little different but it is identified as a kind of Southern Shaolin stance to protect the groin (Zhongguo Wushu Baikequanshu, 1998, p.186). The turning of the stance to the side also seems to be different but it is a kind of Shaolin footwork called Nian Jiao (Zhongguo Wushu Baikequanshu, 1998, p. 220). It mean roller foot, a Shaolin footwork for ground fighting, which standing like a Chinese character 8, using the heel or the sole as axial to turn inward or outward, or use the front part of the sole as axial to move the heel inward or outward. The body posture of Yongchunquan is consistent with other Southern Shaolin standards of head and neck straight, sinking of elbows, unload the shoulders so to speak, restrain the belly or abdomen, and hold back or restrain the buttocks (Zhongguo Wushu Baikequanshu, 1998, p. 232).

Yijinjing (Zhongguo Wushu Baikequanshu, 1998, p. 367), means the text of reverse tendon, which is the classical Shaolin method of internal training. May be the name has says it all, as it was to stretch the tendons to the extreme by twisting the body into the reverse position. The initial training in the routine Xiaoniantau (little idea or small thought) can be traced back to the methods in the Yijinjing. Some teachers insisted that only at least four years of training in the Xiaoniantau can produce

perfect hands. Of course this does not imply that they will only teach Xiaoniantau for the whole four years but it is the basic training one should practice daily and under constant correction and guidance of the teacher. The teaching methods in Yongchunquan are really focus on the practice of Xiaoniantau, and then the other routines, sticking hand exercises and loose hand techniques. Some teachers do not even bother with dummy techniques and weaponry in fear of the lost of flexibility with students' hands. This is contrary to some teachers, who make their students punching sand-bags and dummies very early in their training program. As this will generate very stiff forearm movements which will be a stumping block for achieving good results in coordinating the total bodily movements. There are many repetitive movements in the routines, and most of the movements are very basic. The purpose is aiming at training rather than a combination of various techniques. The assumption is that some of the movements within these routines are difficult and different routines emphasized different features of Yongchunquan. These routines can be consider as very simple but contain certain difficult features like centerline, springiness in the limbs, springiness of the hip joints and ribcage, etc., which just require practice for a certain period. May be these routines can be learn in four days, but four years to master them, and a life time to polish them. There is a saying in Yongchunquan that "one should seek and improve the skills from the mirror and dummy after the completion of learning from the teacher". In a way the dummy is for the development of skill rather than just a training tool to harden the forearm for example. Most students practiced on the dummy too early in their understudies will have a tendency to move the arms away from the centerline, which created an opportunity for the opponent to slip through. Furthermore, they also have the inclination to tend toward their center of balance, which is easily overbalanced during practice or fighting. The dummy techniques are under constant improvements, and it is not surprise to see different variations. There is also the Northern Mantis Boxing variation, which was developed form the Shaolin Yongchunquan. The Yongchun dummy techniques are basic Shaolin Techniques, but it is difficult for the application of sticking and following. May be this is why attempts are made to develop the bamboo dummy and others with springs, etc. The development of loose hand techniques can be considered to be a favor pastime of the practitioners. Different teachers of Yongchunquan have different developments in loose hand techniques, just like dummy hands. Some schools have gone to the extreme in concentrating on loose hand and dummy techniques rather than routines, may be the development of Yongchun Sticking-hand Competition will facilitate this development. The weaponry of Yongchunquan is very basic, it is for practical application rather than for performance compare to various routines available in other systems of Southern Shaolin Martial Arts. It is not surprise to find that the Six and Half Point Rat Tail Pole has six and a half basic techniques, which is quite sufficient in fighting between boats. There was some improvement by combining these basic techniques and practice in different directions. Some claim to have Tiger Tail Pole and many more, but mostly are favor routines taught in Foshan and nearby regions. The double knives of Yongchunquan consist of only simple practical applications, these techniques have nothing like the fancy butterfly double knives routines in Hongquan for example. The features of the Yongchun knife are the thick bladed like a bone chopping knife, finger protector and a hook. It is not very difficult to workout these features are very useful in close up fighting within confined area like onboard a boat. In fact the pole and knives are unique and popular weaponry amongst the boat people in the Foshan and Zhaoqing regions of Guangdong Province. It was said that teacher should not tell the secret of the knives until he or she is absolutely sure that the student is virtuous because the application is too deadly. May be this is not important any more because more deadly weapons are already in existence. The development of sticking hand techniques is unique in Shaolin, as there is no other Shaolin art has such specific sticking techniques. There were some suggestions that it may be influenced by Taijiquan's pushing-hand exercise since Taijiquan is a much older art than Yongchunquan. It is possible but the techniques and fighting strategies are certainly very different. May be sticking-hand also embraced the idea of stick and follow in initial contact, but the method of neutralization is very different. It is a different set of techniques, such as turning to the side, lifting of the elbow, guarding the centerline with the elbow, etc. These techniques are more mechanical like releasing a spring rather than redirecting a force by different bodily mechanics in generating a circular path. In any case it is rather a foolish attitude to confine a certain art to limited set of techniques, as the ultimate aim of any martial art is fighting to win. This will require the deployment of everything and development of new ideas to achieve that end. Therefore, Foshan Yongchunquan is not only advocating that it is Yongchunquan from Foshan but encouraging the improvement of Yongchunquan by all means. The different schools or branches of Yongchunquan from Foshan are just different developments, their intermix with other arts could be accidental or intentional.

About the Author

Yun-Choi Yeung has studied several systems of Wing Chun Kuen over the years, including Yip Man under Greg Choi, Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung under Kwok Wan-Ping, Pien San/Gulao under Sung Chen, and Pao Fa Lien under Leo Man. He works with the Hong Kong Chin Woo, especially in the promotion of Wing Chun Sticking Hands Competition.

Original Wing Chun and the Family Tree

by Terence Niehoff
Not such a very long time ago, many of us in the West thought that all Wing Chun descended from the sole, late Grandmaster of wing chun, Yip Man. However, in recent years, through the research efforts of people like Rene Ritchie and Robert Chu, the opening of Mainland China, and developments in new forms of communication, many different systems, branches, or lineages of wing chun have come to light. Some of these lineages appear very similar to the familiar Yip Man branch; other wing chun systems, however, look completely alien to the casual observer. Yet, all call themselves wing chun. Which lineage is right? What is the correct way to do wing chun? Which branch or lineage truly represents the original, traditional, or true line of wing chun? In my opinion, all the different branches of wing chun are right, true, and original -- and yet none is "the" correct way. Lineage is superficial. Wing chun is a southern chinese martial art that descended from the Red Junk Opera (Hung Suen Hei Ban). And, while there is no conclusive evidence of Wing Chun's earlier history - before Wong Wah Bo, Leung Yee Tai, Dai Fa Min Kam, Go Lo Chung - there is plenty of speculation and myths. We do know, however, that in the last half of the 19th century wing chun moved off the boats and settled in Foshan. From there it grew, spread, and gave birth to a myriad number of modern branches, including - but not limited to - lineages descending from Yip Man, the Cho family, Chan Wah Shun, Ng Chung So, Pan Nam, Sum Nung, Pao Fa Lien, and Gu Lao village. Some of these lineages, like Sum Nung's, Pan Nam's, and Yip Man's that descend from Wong Wah Bo, have variations of the three forms which are normally associated with wing chun. Other lineages, like Gu Lao, have no forms at all. And others, like Cho Ga and Pao Fa Lien have a differing number of forms. Most have only two weapons in their curriculum, the double knives and pole. Some others, like Pao Fa Lien, have numerous weapons. How, and why, did all these variations come into existence? Quite simply, they arose when various wing chun ancestors passed on their personal interpretations, technical innovations, and teaching methods of the same core elements of wing chun to their students and these changes were later promulgated by those students. Thus, while the core or essence of wing chun remained constant, the approach used to pass it on was modified. For example, we can surmise, based on comparing and contrasting lineage curriculums and corroborating oral reports, that as a major platform of chi sao, luk sao did not exist before the time that Yuen Kay-San, Yip Man and Sum Nung trained in Foshan. Immediately after that time, luk sao only appeared in Yip Man and Sum Nung (Yuen Kay-San) lineages. Through similar methods, we can also surmise that Yip Man and his students later developed the modern dan chi sao and chi gerk drills. These innovations were incorporated by Yip Man and his students into their wing chun curriculum and these have differentiated his teaching method from those of his instructors, Chan Wah Shun and Ng Chung So. Yip Man continued to remold his wing chun throughout his teaching career by Stressing the names - sil nim tao (as opposed to sil lien tao) and chum kiu (seeking bridge as opposed to sinking bridge), continually fine tuning the choreography of the three forms, more so the mok yan jong form, and developing and several times modifying his knife form (which he renamed Bat Jaam Doh). Subsequently, Yip's students adopted these innovations into their practice and teaching and a new lineage was born. Some of Yip Man's students carry this tradition on today. Modifying wing chun's curriculum is not something new. Leung Jan, perhaps wing chun's most famous fighter, also clearly passed on his personal interpretation, technical innovations, and teaching methods of the same core elements of wing chun after leaving Foshan and retiring to his home village of Gu Lao. There he taught wing chun without the three forms (as he had taught it in Foshan) by instead transmitting the core "points" of wing chun directly to his students without choreographing them into any fixed sequence. Gu Lao wing chun, as practiced today, eschews forms (although linked sequences of "points" have developed in some lineages) and continues to pass on wing chun in this manner. From the examples of Yip Man and Leung Jan, we can see how looking for a better way to teach, practice, or use wing chun can and has led to innovation. But "original wing chun" does exist today - Not as the monopoly of any particular lineage but rather in is the very core or essence of all legitimate branches of wing chun. An "original lineage" of wing chun does not -and cannot -- exist. For as soon as the art is passed to someone, personal interpretation becomes what defines the unique characteristics of that person's art. Even a photocopy machine is not perfect. As human beings, we cannot replicate, we can only digest, assimilate, and regurgitate. Whatever we touch, we give as much of ourselves as we take from others. While lineages have varied with time, the core of wing chun has remained constant. This core or essence is what defines the art, not the approach taken to pass it along. The principles of wing chun and the threads that bond them together make up

this core. It is found in the commonality of all legitimate wing chun lineages. Thus no lineage, teacher, or style possesses a monopoly on what uniquely makes up wing chun -- they are all merely branches off the same trunk. The trunk is the core of wing chun and the branches, however spartan or decorative, are just means to lead one to the trunk and then the roots. And it is this trunk or core of wing chun that can take one to the realm of functionality. In essence then, lineage can be viewed as nothing more than a teaching curriculum - not to be revered, nor inspired by divine intervention, but formulated and created by people. It is some individual's method or process of systematically passing on core information of wing chun and presumably taking a person from point X to point Y. Some might argue that their lineage has a more effective teaching method, and thus their lineage is "superior." We need to realize, however, that what works well for one person may not do so for another -- and not all teaching methods work equally well for all persons. So questions about which lineage is "superior" or "correct" are essentially meaningless. All anyone can do is look for individual results and keep in mind that what works well for one person may not for another. The value of a particular lineage is ultimately personal; the training method must serve the individual and not the other way round. It's value does not depend on these superficial differences (of forms, chi sao platform, etc.) but rather how well it transmits the core elements of wing chun to that particular individual. In other words, the results or attributes of the training are most important, not necessarily the way a curriculum is arranged or its stylistic and artistic differences. A person can train under the "best" style or teacher, but if he lacks cultivation (the gung in Gung Fu), it will avail him nothing. There are therefore no superior lineages, but rather, superior individuals within those lineages. The essential thing in martial arts is their functionality, not their performance aspects. Wing chun stresses function, not show. Putting aside marketing claims, self-promotion, and myths -- all show -- one should view the branches and one's own wing chun from the standpoint of function. If one's lineage permits him or her to grasp the core of wing chun and they can truly make it alive, then they possess original wing chun regardless of lineage. If they don't have this core or can't make it functional, then they don't have wing chun.

About the author

Terence Niehoff has been involved in Wing Chun Kuen since 1982. Establishing his foundation in the Leung Ting Wing Tsun and William Cheung Traditional Wing Chun systems, he became a student of Robert Chu in 1998 and has been following the Chu Sau Lei method ever since. Niehoff works and practices in Missouri.

Combat Perception
by Mike Parriski Situational Awareness
Here's a test: the next time you are at the local mall, observe people and their interaction with their surroundings. What you will find is that people in general are oblivious to others outside of either their direct vision or their "comfort zone," which is the area in which someone may feel that you are "too close." Now while you are watching the "cattle," pay attention and you will see the "wolves." Malls are ripe pickings for those with the criminal mindset and guile, and the "cattle" are easy prey. Why is this important? As a fighter, you should always be aware of your surroundings and be aware of possible threats. Notably, this should be a subconscious effort on your part and should never cease when awake. Or will you become another victim? An aware fighter should never be surprised when violence escalates. This concept that is part of Combat Perception is called Situational Awareness. Briefly stated, situational awareness is the ability to be cognizant of possible violent threats at all times, especially when in a public place. In defensive firearms training, this has been further defined into a set of color-coded Combat Conditions (see below). Each color defines a conditional state that defines your level of awareness and eventually your reaction to a threatening situation. The first condition, White, is what you will find at the mall. Most people wander through life only aware of themselves or a nearby loved one with no perception beyond that closed circle. Statistics call these people crime victims. As a fighter, if you are awake, you should never be in Condition White. The second condition, Yellow, is the most important, and the condition that the fighter will maintain when awake or conscious of his environment. Remaining in this condition should be a subconscious effort and could be considered analogous to using a channel scanner. As you listen to the scanner and page though each channel, you only stop at the

one in which you wish to listen. You are aware of the other channels, but they didn't contain the information for which you were looking. Apply this to our mall scenario. As you walk through the mall, you are aware of those people that pass you, are behind you, beside you, or in front, but you will only consciously note those that may be suspicious or threatening. As an example, the rough looking person who you passed at Waldenbooks has followed you to three stores so far. Unless you were in Condition Yellow, you would have never noticed. We'll take this a little further in the next conditions. As an aside, I will later explain "how" you knew this character was suspicious. Condition Orange is the next condition and the threat of bodily harm escalates. A trained fighter who finds himself in this condition will be physically and mentally prepared for combat instantly. Continuing our mall scenario, the shady person who has been following you from store to store is now following you as you leave the mall. Perhaps it is coincidence, but the fighter who is in Condition Orange has his mindset prepared for a confrontation. It is far easier to go from Condition Orange to Red, than from Yellow to Red. The last condition is Red and it implies combat. When this condition occurs, you are involved in a violent conflict. Based on the situation, the combatant, and your mindset, you will respond accordingly. To finish our mall scenario, our shady character approaches you as you reach to unlock your car door. "Hey, bud," he says, "you got any spare change?" As he speaks, you see his hand begin to slide to the rear of his pants. Instantly, you are catapulted from Condition Orange to Red and you subdue him. This is fortunate as you later find he had a knife concealed in the waistband of his pants. Had our mall scenario occurred with a normal Condition White person, we may have had a robbery, kidnapping, rape, or even murder. The fighter should never be surprised or unaware and should be reactive with the authority that he can control the situation. Of course, our scenario did not involve multiple opponents, but that is irrelevant, as the aware person will know ahead of time to flee!

Visual & Auditory Cueing

Part of Combat Perception is Visual and Auditory Cueing, which is the use of sight and sound to develop an understanding of the threat level of a combatant. As mentioned in my previous article on Mindset, this is an essential part of knowing your enemy's strengths and weakness. One caveat: this is by no means an absolute as a trained fighter will be able to fool his opponent. Those familiar with the study of body language will find themselves adept at visually identifying clues that constitute a real or possible threat. Everyone, by their stance, body movement, even voice, defines their particular personality and usually, intentions. Most try, without success, to hide their "true self" behind a faade, but the fighter is able to discern whether a threat is credible or merely false bravado. He will be aware of subtle actions, change in voice timbre, even complexion, and will be able to ascertain these with a glance. What are these visual and auditory cues? With the exception of the most overt threats, this is often a point of contention for many instructors in the martial arts. Each style tends to define specifics to be aware of and those to avoid; thus, I will only cover generalities for which I am familiar. Feel free to add what can be used and delete what is not applicable. Nevertheless, visual and auditory cueing can be further subdivided into two categories: Observational and Pre-conflict. Observational cues are those that one will see and hear while in Condition Yellow. These can include something as simple as noticing several youths rough-housing to someone spouting obscenities at you or attempting to goad you from a distance. As a fighter, your perception of these disturbances will either cause you to escalate your condition to Orange or maintain Yellow. Of course, observational cues are a precursor to a serious threat-these cues merely identify that the possibility of violence has been noticed and awareness has occurred. Pre-conflict cues are those that are perceived the moment before combat, and as a fighter, your combat condition has risen to Orange. Since this column is for a Wing Chun audience, I will attempt to describe this as it is related for a Wing Chun fighter. Notably, the Wing Chun fighter should apply this in the reverse and refrain from giving his opponent pre-conflict cues. Foremost, the assumption is that violence is imminent and you will have to either defend yourself or some other person. Let us suppose that you are standing across from your opponent. Through observational cues such as cursing and threatening advances, you have moved to Condition Orange and are preparing for combat. The first thing you notice is your opponent's size. He is rather muscular and stands approximately a head taller. Next you notice his hand positioning: he is bringing his hand's in front of him and gesturing for you to "bring it on." You next track his foot position and stance and discern that this, combined with his hand movements, has identified him as an untrained fighter. Furthermore, he again attempts to goad you with verbal assaults.

What is your response? That will depend on the style of Wing Chun in which you have trained. You can either adjust your position to a strong, rooted fighting stance or stand normally with your hands raised in a defensive and possibly, submissive manner. Personally, I prefer the second choice. Why? As mentioned earlier, I do not want to give any information about my abilities. Also, if my opponent is lulled into complacency and believing an easy victory is at hand, I will maintain an element of surprise. As I stand there, I have fully "sized-up" my opponent and will react explosively to prevent my self (or others) from being harmed. Here are some final comments on visual and auditory cueing. All I described above happens nearly instantly and no conscious thought should go into cueing. Furthermore, visual cuing does not imply tunneling, in which you focus on one area while neglecting your surroundings. Given our above opponent, with tunneling you would have failed to notice his buddy trying to sneak around and attack from behind. A Wing Chun fighter should never focus on any particular object or place before or during combat, but should instead maintain a full 180 perspective. Once contact is made, the Wing Chun fighter can easily determine striking points by sensitivity alone and use his eyes and ears to constantly scan his surroundings for additional threats. Finally, an advanced lesson for practicing this is to hold a conversation with someone while sparring with another. Ideally, your body will function reactively and proactively while receiving input from the five senses.

Environmental Awareness
Quite simply, environmental awareness is the perception of your physical environment. Although this seems rather simplistic or redundant, many fighters fail due to their inability to adjust for and make allowances for environments that are outside the sterile kwoon. Furthermore, this area of Combat Perception ties into the rule "Adapt to Your Environment" and is a must to become an exceptional fighter. The Wing Chun fighter will instantly adapt his fighting methodology when violence is about to occur. Yes, a strong, rooted, shifting punch is fine in the gym, but is nearly impossible while wearing new Nike's and standing on fresh asphalt. Regardless of surfaces, weather, or any other environmental extremes, the trained fighter will use a methodology best suited for the current conditions. Also, the fighter's arsenal may be limited due to the environment. Kicks on an icy surface are probably not the best recourse. With that in mind, the fighter will have to focus on upper body motions only while attempting to maintain stability. I cannot emphasize enough the importance of fighting methodologies that are environmentally adaptive. A subdivision of the physical environment is sociological, such as crowded gatherings. In many areas where witnesses are present, a degree of "fairness" is often perceived by the observers. That kick in the groin, while excellent for stopping the attack, has just enraged several "good-ole boys" who do not consider that fair fighting. A Wing Chun fighter should be able to conceal the lethality and stopping power of his attacks behind a faade of common fisticuffs. Also, when fighting in crowded area, the chance of hitting a bystander increases greatly. To avoid creating an additional opponent (as well as legal liability), the Wing Chun fighter should have assessed the crowded area and chosen one or several methodologies that best suit the current situation.

Let me reiterate that Combat Perception (and all of its facets) is an instantaneous discipline. No conscious thought should be used, even if the likely opponent is a considerable distance away. The mind and body should function as a reactive machine, incorporating the above precepts by subconscious will. Of course, your mindset will be a factor that determines your level of awareness, but the good Wing Chun fighter will be prepared in advance for all circumstances.

NoAwareness-condition white
Theonlytimeyoushouldbeinthisconditioniswhenyouareasleep.In conditionwhite,youarecompletelyunawareofyoursurroundings. Unfortunately,90%ofpeoplegothroughlifeinthisconditionatalltimes; thus,theyeasilybecomecrimevictims.

AwareofYourSurroundings- condition yellow

Inconditionyellow,youareawareofyoursurroundingsandthepeople andeventstakingplaceinthem.Wheninteractingin apublicplace,you shouldatalltimesbeinconditionyellow,alerttothepossibilityofan

escalationofconditions.Conditionyellowwillhelpyouavoidbecoming a crimevictimeit'snotparanoia,justgoodcommonsense.

ThreatPossible- condition orange

Whenconditionsescalatetoorange,yourealize athreattoyouor someoneelsemayoccur.Atthisstage,youshouldbepreparedfor possibleconfrontation,escapetheareawhereconflictmayoccur(while maintainingawarenessforadditionalthreats),orseekassistancefrom a non-threateningagent(police,bystander,etc.).

AttackImminent- conditionred
Conditionredimpliesanattackwillimmediatelyoccurorisoccurring. Wheninthiscondition,youareforcedtodefendyourselforsomeone else.Tobeinthisconditionisextremelydangerous. Sometimes When We Touch
by Hendrik Santo
"You ask me if I love you And I choke on my reply I'd rather hurt you honestly Than mislead you with a lie For who am I to judge you In what you say or do .." - Dan Hill

Someone said "real" Wing Chun Kuen was not taught to the non Hung Mun secret society members. Someone said Wing Chun Kuen was a creation from Shaolin's Ever Lasting Hall. Someone said Wing Chun Kuen...... Sometimes, I think we create a fantasy realm about Wing Chun Kuen. Similar to the realm of a Digimon cartoon show or a TV soap opera. We love to do that. Maybe its because we don't know how to deal with the present world. Maybe its because we don't like the present world we live in. Maybe we want to escape to this fantasy realm, thinking that there, we can be better than we are, a hero perhaps Since we are just humans, facing a difficult world, we have to deal with lots of imperfections including the fact that we are imperfect. Often we need a break to distance ourselves from the scene. Often we need a fantasy to boost our energy. We cannot live in a fantasy world, however. We cannot take a vacation forever (and even if we wanted to, nature won't let us.) An unsolved problem is always an unsolved problem. The power of change is in this instant not in the past or future. We live in a high tech, materialistic, fast pace era. This era often confuses us. What is the value of life? How do we measure success? What is number one? Are we happy? It is said that application of Chaan (inquiry) Fut (Buddha) Sau (hand) is, externally, to inquire the enemy's momentum and, internally, to inquire one's own Buddha nature. It is said that the function of Siu (Small) Jee (Character) Jong (Posture) is, externally, to subdue the enemy and, internally, to subdue one's own heart's demons (greed, hatred, and ignorance).

Chaan Fut Sau is the first technique of Yik Kam's Siu Lien Tau set. Siu Jee Jong is a set within the Ermei Twelve Postures (a wholesome Buddhist martial art system).
They have alots of similarities.... I think "inquiring one's Buddha nature and subduing one's own heart's demons" are important for daily living. It leads us to live in this instant, to inquire and accept who we really are, to subdue our greed, hatred, and ignorance, and to face reality and learn to handle ourselves and our environment.

"At times I understand you And I know how hard you try I've watched whil love commands you And I've watched love pass you by At times I think we're drifters Still searching for a friend A brother or a sister But then the passion flares again.... "

About the Author

Hendrik Santo began learning the Wing Chun Kuen of Cho Hung-Choy in Malasia in the 1970s. Since then, he has spent much time researching both the nature of the art and the nature of Buddhism.

Wing Chun's Punching Methods

by Patrick Gordon.
The southern Chinese Martial Art of Wing Chun Kuen, is predominantly known as a striking style. What isn't widely known is that it contains many different hand striking methods within its arsenal. Wing Chun utilizes three methods of striking with the hand. There is the fist, the palm and the fingers. My si-fu, Augustine Fong once told me, the development of the fist takes one year, the palm takes five years, while the fingers take ten years. This article will examine the many different striking methods of the Wing Chun Kuen. There are eight basic punches within the lineage of Augustine Fong / Ho Kam Ming. These eight punches can all be found within Wing Chun's three hand forms. The fists may be drilled within single-person techniques or done in an exercise conveniently called "eight punches exercise". They may also be practiced in two person drills or within Chi Sau (sticky hand) practice. Chi Sau is to be used as a laboratory for developing all of your punching methods, not to mention all of aspects of the art. When I say "basic" punches, I mean to say there are eight punches but with many different methods of applying them. Any hand technique may be utilized as a strike, which may be applied in a variety of ways. With this in mind, there is a limitless amount of hand striking methods hidden within the Wing Chun style; it is up to you to discover them. As a beginner, you will first begin to practice "Chair Kuen" or pulling punch. This punch should be practiced in the air, which will teach you to relax the arm and fist between motions. It is very important that you hold no tension in the arm or shoulder; you must learn to develop the ability to fully release energy. Do not hold the shoulder back; let it come forward, but not too much. This practice will help to stretch the muscles and tendons as well as develop flexibility in the joints. It is also important not to hyper extend the elbow, just push it forward. As you progress, you will learn many different ways in which to practice this exercise in order to refine your skills, such as timing, footwork, body-unity and controlling you motions. This exercise will develop relaxation, endurance, timing, structure and release of power, while developing rooting power in your stance. Shortly after you start to become proficient in air punching, you will be introduced to the wall bag, a canvas sack filled with mung beans or pellets of some sort, mounted on the wall. The wall bag is not for pounding on, but should be for focusing and distancing yourself. Start this exercise by standing in "Yee Gee Kim Yeung Ma", Wing Chun's basic training stance, and begin lightly tapping the bag with the straight punch and eventually, the other punches. Later, you may practice this exercise with mobile stances. Wall bag training should not be done as nearly as much as air punching, because it can lead to the habit of over using your muscles, which may develop stiffness in your techniques. This exercise will develop a strong fist, solid punch, timing, structure, distancing, body-unity and most importantly, mental focus.

Eight Fists
The most used and recognized Wing Chun punch is the pulling vertical punch "chair kuen". It is said that all other punches are a variation based on this simple yet very important punch. The proper structure is by holding the fist vertical, the whole fist should make contact with the intended target, with the bottom three knuckles emphasized. By holding the fist in a vertical position, the muscles in the arm are kept in their most relaxed and natural position. This position also considers the skeletal structure of the arm. Basically, the skeletal alignment is very strong structurally while the muscles are being kept relaxed, allowing for fast punches with the explosive release of energy into the opponent. The punch explodes forward like a bullet. The elbow is forced inward and down by keeping the fist vertical, this position promotes trapping, a method used in conjunction with the attacking hand. The elbow should work like a piston pushing and pulling the fist to its proper placement, along the elbow line. The rear elbow's position also helps to defend against mid level body attacks. Even though this punch travels in a straight line, it contains drilling movement, without this the punch is dead, not to mention there a greater possibility of damaging the elbow. This punch is considered an uprooting technique because of the rising path it travels. It

starts at the height of the sternum and drills upward until the motion completes at shoulder height, thus, uprooting the opponent if properly placed. When the fist is in the rear position, do not bend the wrist, keep it in the same position as it would be when extended. Drilling punch "joung-lo kuen" is a mid level punch that travels down the centerline and stops with the elbow about a fist away from the practitioners own body with palm facing upward. This punch drills forward and makes contact with the entire fist, while focusing on the front two knuckles because of the angle of the fist. This punch has forward energy with a slight upward drill; it may also be used similar to a boxer's uppercut. Don't extend this punch; keep it close to the body and bring your body to the target. Low punch "chaap kuen"is a straight punch focused at a low-level area. The entire fist makes contact while the focus is on the first two knuckles. The angle of the fist is almost horizontal. A low vertical punch would make contact with the index finger first, putting the wrist in a vulnerable position. While practicing this punch, it should be aimed forward, not to the floor. Again, like all the punches, there must be drilling motion within this punch. Inside whipping punch "ngoi faan kuen" is a straight punch that starts with a small circle which travels to a straight line. This punch travels on the centerline and is used to move around something in its path with a circular movement. The elbow must not float outward from the side of the body otherwise this punch would become a back-fist, which is not a Wing Chun punch. The elbow must be behind the fist to power it forward. The entire fist will make contact with the lower three knuckles emphasized. A whipping type of energy should be used with is punch. Outside whipping punch "hoi faan kuen" is very similar to the inside whipping punch except that it circles to the outside of the centerline and proceeds back to the centerline. This punch also uses a whipping motion and is used to move around something that is blocking its intended target. Keep the circles very small for both the inside and outside whipping punches otherwise you will open yourself up for an attack. Again, the entire fist makes contact with the lower three knuckles emphasized. Inside diagonal punch "ngoi doi gok kuen" appears similar to a boxers hook except that the whole body turns, drilling the punch into the center, ending with the fist on the centerline. This fist can be used when a straight line cannot. The fist is at the height of the sternum when practicing in the air, while the angle of the fist is in between being horizontal and vertical (palm facing yourself). The elbow is out slightly, while sunk. The entire fist makes contact with this punch. Outside diagonal punch "hoi doi gok kuen" travels from the opposite shoulder and heads in a straight line to the centerline. This punch cuts inward to find or create an opening in an opponent's structure. This fist can be used when you do not have the centerline. Quite often, outside facing footwork is used with this punch. The entire fist makes contact with the lower three knuckles emphasized. Hammer fist "chour kuen" makes contact with the bottom side of the fist. In order to structurally support the fist, the thumb must be placed on top of the index finger rather than on the side. This fist may be applied in any angle needed, high or low. Any type of chopping motion may be replaced with the hammer fist. There is a Wing Chun maxim, which states "strike when you should, do not strike when you shouldn't". This sounds very simple, yet it has a lot of different meanings. To name a few; don't close the gap with a punch, only punch when you have the proper distance to make contact. Use you stance to move your structure to the correct distance before you strike. Even then, you shouldn't punch unless you have the proper line to do so, otherwise, you are just hoping to get in a cheap shot. Hold your attacks back until you have all the elements to land the perfect punch. One well placed properly timed punch may be the only one you have to throw. You could also look at this maxim as, only strike when you have no other way out, otherwise, walk away from a possible conflict. There are many more meaning to discover within this as well of all Wing Chun maxims. The Wing Chun practitioner should be aware of the saying "the shortest distance between two points is a straight line" however; a straight line may be obstructed. In this case, the puncher would have to create a line in which to attack, by using a number of methods according to their opponents or their own structure. Therefore the Wing Chun fighter may be able to use circular lines in preference to the usual straight-line attack. Circular and straight lines go together, just as Yin and Yang go together. Nothing in Wing Chun is done purely straight, just as nothing is purely circular. The first form in Wing Chun "Siu Lim Tao" teaches your arms to work together, independent of the body. With proper timing, structure and relaxation, you can gain a lot of power just through your arm motions alone. But using just the arms to strike is a sign of lower level understanding, although you should also be able to disconnect your arm movements not only from one another, but also from the body. This skill is very useful when one hand or the entire body is trapped; the free hand may

work on its own to save the situation. As you progress in your Wing Chun studies, you should learn to strike using your entire body for maximum power. In order to incorporate the whole body in punching, you must be aware of distancing, lines of attack and defense, body unity, timing, structure as well as mobile stances. Another factor to consider when using the fist is can the fist structurally endure its own power upon impact with the target? There are many small bones within the hand and wrist, which may be damaged or broken without conditioning and proper alignment of the fist. It is said, use the fist on soft targets, while the palm takes care of hard ones. Yin and Yang balance, hard takes care of soft and vice versa. Wall bag training helps with the structure of the fist as well as some toughening of the skin, muscles, tendons and bones. The practitioner may also practice iron palm training for strengthening the hands. Conditioning the hands the Wing Chun way is to do it lightly over a long period of time, you don't want to damage your hands by pushing yourself to hard. This type of training should also been done with "Dit Dat Jow" an alcohol based lineament filled with a number of Chinese herbs with properties for prevention of damaging blood vessels, muscle, tendons and bone. There are many other aspects to cover when discussing the fist, such as triangles, different powers, inside verses outside, lines, etc. This brief article should give you a general idea on Wing Chun's fist methods. For the practitioner, with time and patience as well as proper instruction, your punching ability will develop the Wing Chun way.

About the Author

Patrick Gordon is a Wing Chun teacher in Ottawa, Ont, Canada. His si-fu is Wing Chun Master, Augustine Fong of Tucson, Arizona.

520. XXVIII , . , - . , , -. , -, . , - , , . -, , . , , , , - . , , , . : . , , . , , , , , , . , . , . : - , - , . . . , , . , , , , - , . , , . , . , -. , , , - ". . .

300 . . 10% , , , . , . , , , , . , . , , , . . . , , . . . , - . , , 10 15 . , , , 5-7 , , . - . , , , . , . , . , 1720 . . , . . , . , . , , : -. ", - ", - ", - -" - 5 ".

, - ( ), . . , , , . . , . . , , , ". . , . , . , , , . , , , . , . , , . , . , . , , , . , , . , . , , , , . , . 1726 . , . , , . - , . , , - , . - , , , . .

, , , , , , , . , . 5 : ( ), , , . , 5 : , , , , , 5 : , , , , . , , , , , , . , . , . , , , . , , . . , , . . . , . . T. . , , " ". . . . , ". : , , , . ", , .

4000- . , , , , . . , . . , , 1939 . , . , . . , , . . . , . , . - - . , , . . , . , , . . , , . , . . . WING CHUN KUNG FU

Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Wing Tchun, Ving Chun of Ving Tsun. All different ways of spelling one martial art that originates from the south-east of China. It is always the phonetic translation to western writing of these two characters. Written in this manner the meaning is: "In praise of Spring." Wing Chun in Canton is sometimes written in this manner. The writing and pronounciation differ slightly from ours and have the meaning 'Forever Spring' In the Mandarin dialect (North China) Wing Chun is pronounced as Yong Chun, but the characters stay the same. The spelling Wing Chun is the most used. Just as with many things in life in reality there are only two sorts of Wing Chun namely good and bad. The spelling itself is never a guarantee either way. The greatest part of Wing Chun outside of China is the Wing Chun of Grandmaster Yip Man. In Hong Kong Wing Chun was made famous by the fights Wong Shun Leung and J. Wang Kiu fought in the early fifties against many masters of other kung fu styles. The results of these fights, which were often attended by the Hong Kong press, were responsible for the swift spreading of Wing Chun in Hong Kong. One of those inspired by these fights brought fame to Wing Chun abroad was Bruce Lee, a student of Wong Shun Leung. Wing Chun is a very sober martial art. Not based on a mere collection of movements, but on a very logical set of scientific principles. The Wing Chun techniques are not meant to be beautiful, but are all based on the practical use in a fighting situation. This very logical and efficient martial art is very suited as a means of self defense for both men and woman. In Wing Chun emphasis is placed on hand techniques which are supplemented with the legs. This means that leg techniques are seldom applied while the legs are doing nothing. As a child we use our hands as a tool or as a weapon, you have to learn to use your legs or feet for this purpose. For this reason it is logical to place emphasis on hand techniques. (Superfoot Wallace)

Family Tree
We do not claim that this tree is exhaustive. Since the Shaolin Wing Chun Kung Fu style appeared about 300 years ago and has given birth to a great number of schools throughout the world, it would be nearly impossible to build such a tree. Nevertheless, we tried to include the characters we believe to be the most important in regards with the history of the style. The building of a tree such as this one requires a great deal of research. The biographies of Nam Anh, Ho Hai Long and Nguyen Te Cong are accessible by clicking on their names. In time, additional information will be available for every master. Meanwhile, you have access to certain details by leaving your cursor for a moment on top of any name.

Legends say that during the Qing Dynasty, Yim Wing Chun and her husband, Leung Bok Chao taught the 2nd generation of Wing Chun Kuen. These second-generation students worked undercover as a Cantonese Hung Suen Hei Ban (Red Boat Opera troupe) by day. By night, they enaged in anti-Qing revolutionary activities. They were affiliated with many anti-Qing groups including the Tien Dei Wui (Heaven and Earth Society). Their goal was "Fan Ching Fook Ming", meaning "to overthrow the Ching (Manchurian government) and restore the Ming (Han dynasty)" to the throne of China. In this, Wing Chun Kuen was their art of choice. They could hide knives in their loose fitting garments and assassinate Qing officials in the narrow alleys of Southern China. As an Opera Troupe, they moved about freely at any time without suspicion. The second-generation students of Yim Wing Chun included Wong Wah Bo, Leung Yee Tai, Dai Fa Min Kam, Gao Lo Jung, Hung Kam Biu, and Leung Lan Kwai. Many of these Opera members had training in Shaolin boxing and pole techniques, acrobatics, and knowledge of two man sets. They were master choreographers, performing every night the Opera was in a town.

At the time, Yim Wing Chuns art consisted of simple, direct, economical moves and was conceptual in content. Training consisted of some 40 or so repetitive techniques that could be practiced solo, with a partner, or on a dummy, empty handed or with knives. It is speculated at this point in the history of Wing Chun Kuen development, there were no set forms, as it was the goal of this training to be applied immediately to serve the purpose of self defense or assassination. Wong Wah Bo and Leung Yee Tai eventually retired from the opera to the town of Foshan where they accepted a pupil named Leung Jan. Leung Jan was born in Gulao, a small village in Heshan county (which at the time included Foshan), but had moved to Foshan in order to establish his pharmacy, the Jan Sang Tong (Mr. Jan's Hall). There are several differing stories about how Leung Jan, known locally as Jan Sin Sang (Mr. Jan) came to have two teachers. One version tells that Wong Wah Bo began the young doctors training bu later left Foshan to return to the opera. Leung Jan then completed his training under Leung Yee Tai. An opposing story relates that Jan Sin Sang first studies under Leung Yee Tai and one day accompanied his teacher to a birthday party. The party was in honor of Wong Wah Bo (his instructor's senior classmate's) 50th birthday. At the party, Wong Wah Bo took an immediate liking to the young doctor and offered to help him learn the art of Wing Chun Kuen. A third version holds that Wong Wah-Bo himself was a Gulao native and, taking a liking to his fellow villager, began Leung Jan's initiation into Wing Chun Kuen. Leung studied the original art of Wing Chun Kuen and later studied the art in set forms choreographed by the Opera members. He later become the subject of pupular novels written by the likes of Au Soy Jee, including the famed "Jan Sing-Sang" (Mr. Jan). These spread his reputation for success in Gong Sao (Talking Hands a real match) and his title of "Wing Chun Wong" ("King of Wing Chun") throughout surrounding areas. This has continued into modern times with movies such as "Prodigal Son" and "Warrior's Two". As Leung Jan's name spread, he began to attract students and eventually began to teach out of his pharmacy. Among those who learned his skills were said to have included his sons Leung Bik and Leung Chun, and friends such as Chan Wah Shun (known as "Jiao Chin" Wah due to his occupation as a money-changer), "Muk Yan" Wah (so known due to his "Wooden Man" like arms), Lo Gwai (called "Chu Yuk" in reference to his occupation as a butcher), Fung Wah, Lee Yeung Ying, and others. When Leung Jan reached the age of 73, he left his Foshan tradition in the able hands of Chan Wah Shun and others and retired back to his native village of Gu Lao. While there, he noticed that some of his fellow townspeople valued the martial arts and so took on a few local students, teaching them his synthesis of Wing Chun. Instead of focusing on the Wing Chun forms choreographed by the Opera members, he focused his training on the short routines, pole techniques and double knife techniques. Before passing away at the age of 76, Leung Jan passed along his legacy to Gu Lao village students such as Wong Wah Sum, Yik Ying, Leung Bak Cheung, and Yim Yee. Wong Wah-Sum passed down the art to two famous local families, the Fung family and the Koo family. Fung Lim, known for his large size, was the patriarch of the Fung family and had prior experience in Shaolin boxing. He combined his knowledge and passed it down to his son Fung Sang (often named as the founder of Pien San, the "Side Body" branch of Gu Lao Wing Chun), Fung Joi, etc. Fung Sang's students included Lee Shing, who later gained fame spreading the Yip Man style of Wing Chun in Europe. The patriarch of the Koo family, Koo Siu-Lung, also taught Fung Sang when the latter moved to the provincial capitol of Guangzhou, as well as Lee Ding. Yim Yee's students included Tam Yeung. When Tam Yeung learned the art in Gulao village, it cost a small fortune to study each point, so precious were they considered. Tam passed the art on to pupils such as Kwong Jong Yuen who brought the art to New York city where he taught Robert Chu (Chu Sao Lei). Over the generations, the Gu Lao core movements were combined into various numbering schemes in an effort to organize them and aid into retention. Kwan Jong Yuen's branch preserves the art in 40 seed techniques. A Gulao branch in China combines several movements together into a 22 Separate Techniques system. some of Fung Sang's

followers (such as the Lee Shing lineage) maintain a 12 set series of Gulao while the descendants of Mui Ching (Henry Mui, who brought Fung Sang's branch to Boston) organize them into 2 longer routines.