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Jackie Chan - Unabridged Guide

Jackie Chan - Unabridged Guide

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Complete, Unabridged Guide to Jackie Chan. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : The three co-starred together for the first time in 1983 in Project A, which introduced a dangerous stunt-driven style of martial arts that won it the Best Action Design Award at the third annual Hong Kong Film Awards. ... In the late 1980s and early 90s, Chan starred in a number of successful sequels beginning with Police Story 2, which won the award for Best Action Choreography at the 1989 Hong Kong Film Awards. ... On 18 April 2009, during a panel discussion at the annual Boao Forum for Asia titled Tapping into Asia's Creative Industry Potential, Chan said . . . in the 10 years after Hong Kong's return to Chinese rule, I can gradually see, I'm not sure if it's good to have freedom or not. ... In response to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Jackie Chan and fellow Hong Kong-based celebrities, including American rapper Jin, headlined a special three-hour charity concert, titled Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders, on 1 April 2011 to help with Japan's disaster recovery effort, where Jackie Chan addressed the victims of the earthquake and tsunami by saying: You will not be alone, we will be by your side. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Jackie Chan in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Jackie Chan. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Jackie Chan, Cantopop, California Fitness, Buster Keaton, Bruceploitation, Blooper, Big and Little Wong Tin Bar, Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong, Ash (band), Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders, Around the World in 80 Days (video game), Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film), Arnold Schwarzenegger, Armour of God II: Operation Condor, Armour of God (film), Andy Lau, American Choreography Awards, All in the Family (film), A Touch of Zen, 9th Hong Kong Film Awards, 5th Hong Kong Film Awards, 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards, 26th Hong Kong Film Awards, 25th Hong Kong Film Awards, 24th Hong Kong Film Awards, 21st Hong Kong Film Awards, 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, 19th Hong Kong Film Awards, 1911 (film), 18th Hong Kong Film Awards, 17th Hong Kong Film Awards, 16th Hong Kong Film Awards, 15th Hong Kong Film Awards, 14th Hong Kong Film Awards, 13th Hong Kong Film Awards, 12th Hong Kong Film Awards, 11th Hong Kong Film Awards
Complete, Unabridged Guide to Jackie Chan. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : The three co-starred together for the first time in 1983 in Project A, which introduced a dangerous stunt-driven style of martial arts that won it the Best Action Design Award at the third annual Hong Kong Film Awards. ... In the late 1980s and early 90s, Chan starred in a number of successful sequels beginning with Police Story 2, which won the award for Best Action Choreography at the 1989 Hong Kong Film Awards. ... On 18 April 2009, during a panel discussion at the annual Boao Forum for Asia titled Tapping into Asia's Creative Industry Potential, Chan said . . . in the 10 years after Hong Kong's return to Chinese rule, I can gradually see, I'm not sure if it's good to have freedom or not. ... In response to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Jackie Chan and fellow Hong Kong-based celebrities, including American rapper Jin, headlined a special three-hour charity concert, titled Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders, on 1 April 2011 to help with Japan's disaster recovery effort, where Jackie Chan addressed the victims of the earthquake and tsunami by saying: You will not be alone, we will be by your side. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Jackie Chan in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Jackie Chan. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Jackie Chan, Cantopop, California Fitness, Buster Keaton, Bruceploitation, Blooper, Big and Little Wong Tin Bar, Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong, Ash (band), Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders, Around the World in 80 Days (video game), Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film), Arnold Schwarzenegger, Armour of God II: Operation Condor, Armour of God (film), Andy Lau, American Choreography Awards, All in the Family (film), A Touch of Zen, 9th Hong Kong Film Awards, 5th Hong Kong Film Awards, 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards, 26th Hong Kong Film Awards, 25th Hong Kong Film Awards, 24th Hong Kong Film Awards, 21st Hong Kong Film Awards, 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, 19th Hong Kong Film Awards, 1911 (film), 18th Hong Kong Film Awards, 17th Hong Kong Film Awards, 16th Hong Kong Film Awards, 15th Hong Kong Film Awards, 14th Hong Kong Film Awards, 13th Hong Kong Film Awards, 12th Hong Kong Film Awards, 11th Hong Kong Film Awards

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Dec 24, 2012
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02/05/2016

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9781486427529

Sections

  • Jackie Chan
  • 11th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 12th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 13th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 14th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 15th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 16th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 17th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 18th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 1911 (film)
  • 19th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 2008 Sichuan earthquake
  • 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony
  • 21st Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 24th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 25th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 26th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 5th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • 9th Hong Kong Film Awards
  • A Touch of Zen
  • All in the Family (film)
  • Armour of God (film)
  • Armour of God II: Operation Condor
  • Armour of God 2: Operation Condor
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger
  • Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film)
  • Around the World in 80 Days (video game)
  • Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders
  • Ash (band)
  • Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong
  • Battle Creek Brawl
  • Big and Little Wong Tin Bar
  • Big and Little Wong Tin Bar
  • Blooper
  • Bruceploitation

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Contents
Articles
Jackie Chan 11th Hong Kong Film Awards 12th Hong Kong Film Awards 13th Hong Kong Film Awards 14th Hong Kong Film Awards 15th Hong Kong Film Awards 16th Hong Kong Film Awards 17th Hong Kong Film Awards 18th Hong Kong Film Awards 1911 (film) 19th Hong Kong Film Awards 2008 Sichuan earthquake 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony 21st Hong Kong Film Awards 24th Hong Kong Film Awards 25th Hong Kong Film Awards 26th Hong Kong Film Awards 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 5th Hong Kong Film Awards 9th Hong Kong Film Awards A Touch of Zen All in the Family (film) Armour of God (film) Armour of God II: Operation Condor Arnold Schwarzenegger Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) Around the World in 80 Days (video game) Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders Ash (band) Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong Battle Creek Brawl Big and Little Wong Tin Bar Blooper Bruceploitation 1 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 87 93 97 102 106 111 115 118 121 124 126 130 134 162 165 167 169 175 182 184 185 191

Buster Keaton California Fitness Cantopop

194 205 207

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 215 221

Article Licenses
License 223

Hong Kong Other name(s) 房 仕 龍 (Fong Si-lung) 元 樓 (Yuen Lou) 大 哥 (Big Brother) Actor. 1982) Jaycee Chan (born 1982) Charles and Lee-Lee Chan Bruce Lee Buster Keaton Harold Lloyd Occupation Genre(s) Years active Spouse(s) Children Parents Influences Jackie Chan. MBE[1] (born Chan Kong-sang. entrepreneur. singer. singer. action choreographer. he is known for his acrobatic fighting style. martial artist. He is one of the few actors that did all of his stunts in all of his films. producer. 陳 港 生 . director. . screenwriter. Jackie Chan has been acting since the 1960s and has appeared in over 150 films. use of improvised weapons. In his movies. and stunt performer. 7 April 1954)[2] is a Hong Kong actor.Jackie Chan 1 Jackie Chan Jackie Chan Chan at the 2012 San Diego Comic-Con International. screenwriter. Mandopop. producer. Shandong. action choreographer. Hong Kong English pop. comic timing. comedian. and innovative stunts. J-pop 1959–present Lin Feng-jiao (m. Chinese name Chinese name Pinyin Jyutping Birth name 成 龍 成 龙 (Traditional) (Simplified) Chéng Lóng (Mandarin) Sing4 Lung4 (Cantonese) Chan Kong-sang 陳 港 生 陈 港 生 (Traditional) (Simplified) Chén Gǎngshēng (Mandarin) Can4 Gong2 Sang1 (Cantonese) Ancestry Origin Born Linzi. director. martial artist. stunt director. stunt performer Cantopop. SBS. China British Hong Kong 7 April 1954 Victoria Peak.

All in the Family. Lo had seen Chan's performance in the John Woo film Hand of Death (1976) and planned to model him after Bruce Lee with the film New Fist of Fury. He was nicknamed Pao-pao Chinese: 炮 炮 (literally meaning "Cannonball") because the high-energy child was always rolling around.[10] His stage name was changed to Sing Lung (Chinese: 成 龍 . which features Jackie Chan's first nude sex scene filmed. Chan joined his parents in Canberra in 1976. initially signing to Chu Mu's Great Earth Film Company. having released a number of albums and sung many of the theme songs for the films in which he has starred. the three of them later to be known as the Three Brothers or Three Dragons.[4][5] Chan trained rigorously for the next decade.[12] Due to the commercial failures of his early ventures into films and trouble finding stunt work. It is also the only film he has made to date that did not feature a single fight scene or stunt sequence. in the film Big and Little Wong Tin Bar (1962). where he briefly attended Dickson College and worked as a construction worker. to work as the head cook for the American embassy. he appeared with some of his fellow "Little Fortunes". where he failed his first year. Chan began his adult career in the film industry. At the age of eight. Chan changed his Chinese name to Fong Si-lung (Chinese: 房 仕 龍 ). a film producer in the Hong Kong film industry who had been impressed with Jackie's stuntwork.[3] Since his parents worked for the French ambassador in Hong Kong. gaining the stage name Yuen Lo in homage to his master. As a cultural icon.[6] He eventually became part of the Seven Little Fortunes. in 1975 Chan starred in a comedic adult film. and Chan was sent to the China Drama Academy. a performance group made up of the school's best students.Jackie Chan Chan has received stars on the Hong Kong Avenue of Stars and the Hollywood Walk of Fame. cartoons. Jackie Chan received a telegram from Willie Chan. after an appearance as an extra in another Kung Fu film. also transcribed as Cheng Long. refugees from the Chinese Civil War. in The Love Eterne (1963) and had a small role in King Hu's 1966 film. Come Drink with Me. a Peking Opera School run by Master Yu Jim-yuen. meaning "Little Dragon"). Chan has been referenced in various pop songs. in British Hong Kong. in the late 90s.[10] At the age of seventeen. Chan spent his formative years within the grounds of the consul's residence in the Victoria Peak district. The film was unsuccessful because Chan was not .[11] He received his first starring role later that year.[4] Chan attended the Nah-Hwa Primary School on Hong Kong Island. A Touch of Zen. Chan along with Sammo Hung got the opportunity to train in Hapkido under the grand master Jim Pal Kim.[7] After entering the film industry.[9] In 1971. as Chan Kong-sang.[15] In addition. with Li Li Hua playing his mother. Chan became close friends with fellow group members Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao. in Little Tiger of Canton. An operatically trained vocalist.[15] Film career Early exploits: 1976–1979 In 1976. Chan appeared with Li again the following year. Willie Chan offered him an acting role in a film directed by Lo Wei. after which his parents withdrew him from the school.[8] He began his career by appearing in small roles at the age of five. earning Chan the nickname of "Little Jack" which was later shortened to "Jackie" and the name Jackie Chan has stuck with him ever since. which had a limited release in Hong Kong in 1973. Australia. In 1960. his father immigrated to Canberra. and video games. since his father's original surname was Fong.[13] Jackie Chan also appeared in a sex scene in the film The Shinjuku Incident. whose stage name was Lei Siu-lung (Chinese: 李 小 龍 . which was the only other nude scene that he ever filmed.[16] literally "become the dragon") to emphasise his similarity to Bruce Lee. to Charles and Lee-Lee Chan.[14] A fellow builder named Jack took Chan under his wing. excelling in martial arts and acrobatics. he worked as a stuntman in the Bruce Lee films Fist of Fury and Enter the Dragon under the stage name Chan Yuen Lung (Chinese: 陳 元 龍 ). 2 Early life Chan was born on 7 April 1954. Chan is also a Cantopop and Mandopop star. and Chan eventually attained a black belt.

[27] In 1987. with early successes in the lucrative Japanese market including The Young Master (1980) and Dragon Lord (1982). Chan was impressed by the outtakes shown at the closing credits.[20] Upon Chan's return to Lo Wei's studio. beginning with his first forays into the American film industry in the 1980s. allowing Chan to stay with Golden Harvest. prompting Lo to blackmail Chan with triads. a US-influenced action comedy in which Chan performed a number of dangerous stunts. resulting in little improvement at the box office. and has remained so for over 30 years.[21] including a pyramid fight scene that holds the record for the most takes for a single sequence of scenes with 2900 takes. Chan temporarily abandoned his attempts to break into the US market.[18] Under director Yuen Woo-ping.[24] Over the following two years. which introduced a dangerous stunt-driven style of martial arts that won it the Best Action Design Award at the third annual Hong Kong Film Awards. The film was Chan's biggest domestic box office success up to that point. The three co-starred together for the first time in 1983 in Project A. After the commercial failure of The Protector in 1985. When Willie Chan left the company.[19] Chan then starred in Drunken Master. including one where he does a back flip off a loft and falls to the lower ground. It was named the "Best Film" at the 1986 Hong Kong Film Awards. The Young Master went on to beat previous box office records set by Bruce Lee and established Chan as Hong Kong cinema's top star. inspiring him to include the same device in his future films. Despite being largely ignored by audiences in favour of established American actors like Burt Reynolds." an Indiana Jones-esque character.[17] Back in Hong Kong. and proved to be a breath of fresh air for the Hong Kong audience. the "Three Brothers" appeared in Wheels on Meals and the original Lucky Stars trilogy. shot while he was loaned to Seasonal Film Corporation under a two-picture deal.[25][26] In 1985. blaming Willie for his star's departure.Jackie Chan accustomed to Lee's martial arts style.[28] . The dispute was resolved with the help of fellow actor and director Jimmy Wang Yu. which grossed US$100 million worldwide.[23] Chan produced a number of action comedy films with his opera school friends Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao. During the shooting of Fearless Hyena Part II. Despite the film's failure.[22] and the final fight scene where he performs various stunts. Chan was allowed complete freedom over his stunt work. The film established the comedic kung fu genre. Lo Wei continued producing films with similar themes. His first Hollywood film was Battle Creek Brawl in 1980. grossing over HK $35 million. Lo tried to replicate the comedic approach of Drunken Master. returning his focus to Hong Kong films.[17] Chan's first major breakthrough was the 1978 film Snake in the Eagle's Shadow.[15] He also gave Chan the opportunity to co-direct The Fearless Hyena with Kenneth Tsang. in the film Armour of God. Chan's films began to reach a larger audience in East Asia. he advised Jackie to decide for himself whether or not to stay with Lo Wei. which finally propelled him to mainstream success. With Dragon Lord. producing Half a Loaf of Kung Fu and Spiritual Kung Fu. he began experimenting with elaborate stunt action sequences. Chan made the first Police Story film. Chan broke his contract and joined Golden Harvest. Chan played "Asian Hawk.[18] 3 Success of the action comedy genre: 1980–1987 Willie Chan had become Jackie's personal manager and firm friend. Chan then played a minor role in the 1981 film The Cannonball Run. He was instrumental in launching Chan's international career.

but refused early offers to play villains in Hollywood films to avoid being typecast in future roles. This was followed by Armour of God II: Operation Condor. Jackie's first huge blockbuster success came when he co-starred with Chris Tucker in the 1998 buddy cop action comedy Rush Hour. but did not fare as well in foreign markets.600. For example. Who Am I?. which grossed a total of US $16.[37][38][39] Chan's next release was the third instalment in the Rush Hour series: Rush Hour 3 in August 2007. attaining a cult following in the United States that was rare for Hong Kong movie stars. in Hollywood. brought more awards and domestic box office success for Chan. Chan released his final film for Golden Harvest. He reunited with Chris Tucker for Rush Hour 2 (2001) which was an even bigger success than the original grossing $347 million worldwide. and the villain in the film was played by Yuen Wah. Police Story 4: First Strike.Jackie Chan 4 Acclaimed sequels and Hollywood breakthrough: 1988–1998 In 1988 Chan starred alongside Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao for the last time to date. JCE Movies Limited (Jackie Chan Emperor Movies Limited) in association with Emperor Multimedia Group (EMG). Despite the success of the Rush Hour and Shanghai Noon films. As a publicity stunt. In 1994.[18] His films have since featured an increasing number of dramatic scenes while continuing to succeed at the box office.[34] Chan then helped create a PlayStation game in 2000 called Jackie Chan Stuntmaster. which won the award for Best Action Choreography at the 1989 Hong Kong Film Awards. Fame in Hollywood and Dramatization: 1999–2007 In 1998. After leaving Golden Harvest in 1999.[32] The success of Rumble in the Bronx led to a 1996 release of Police Story 3: Super Cop in the United States under the title Supercop.[35] He continued his Hollywood success in 2000 when he teamed up with Owen Wilson in the Western action comedy Shanghai Noon which spawned the sequel Shanghai Knights (2003). In the late 1980s and early 90s.270.[29] Another sequel. Chan declined and the role was taken by Wesley Snipes. in the film Dragons Forever. a criminal in the futuristic film Demolition Man.[31] Chan finally succeeded in establishing a foothold in the North American market in 1995 with a worldwide release of Rumble in the Bronx. Chan starred in a number of successful sequels beginning with Police Story 2. In 2004 he teamed up with Steve Coogan in the big-budget loose adaptation of Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days.[41] . Jackie also wrote his autobiography in collaboration with Jeff Yang entitled I Am Jackie Chan.[33] grossing US$130 million in the United States alone. grossing only HK$3. examples include New Police Story (2004).[36] In response to Golden Harvest's withdrawal from the film industry in 2003. both of whom were fellow graduates of the China Drama Academy.[30] Jackie Chan rekindled his Hollywood ambitions in the 1990s.[40] However. It grossed US$255 million. Hung co-directed with Corey Yuen. He experimented with special effects with The Tuxedo (2002) and The Medallion (2003) which were not as successful critically or commercially. to which he lent his voice and performed the motion capture. and Police Story 3: Super Cop. which was listed in Time Magazine's All-Time 100 Movies.[18] This film made a star of Jackie Chan. he produced and starred alongside Shu Qi in Gorgeous a romantic comedy that focused on personal relationships and featured only a few martial arts sequences. Sylvester Stallone offered him the role of Simon Phoenix. The Myth (2005) and the hit film Rob-B-Hood (2006). Chan started his own film production company. Chan reprised his role as Wong Fei-hung in Drunken Master II. Chan became frustrated with Hollywood over the limited range of roles and lack of control over the film-making process. for which Chan won the Best Actor Award at the 1993 Golden Horse Film Festival. it was a disappointment in Hong Kong.5 million during its opening weekend.

was completed on 24 August 2007 and the movie was released in April 2008.[52] Chan won the Favorite Buttkicker award at the Nickelodeon's Kids' Choice Awards in 2011 for The Karate Kid. His 100th movie 1911 was released on 26 September 2011. alongside Leehom Wang as a soldier in the Warring States Period in China. Chan started shooting his next Hollywood movie The Spy Next Door at the end of October in New Mexico. singer and actor Jaycee Chan.[55][56][57] Chan is a Buddhist. Spanish. Dustin Hoffman. Chan stars. He is the co-director. Japanese.[53] While at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. and Angelina Jolie. On 22 June 2009. a Taiwanese actress.[47] The film is expected to be the third in the Armour of God series. Etta. Shaolin. a dramatic role featuring no martial arts sequences with director Derek Yee.[45] In November 2007.Jackie Chan 5 New experiments and change in style: 2008–present Filming of The Forbidden Kingdom (released in 2008). kung-fu so he can defend himself from school bullies. and lead star of the movie. Chan had completed shooting the movie and will be released on 12 December 2012. which sees Chan take on the role of a Chinese immigrant in Japan. That same year. a kung fu master and maintenance man who teaches Jaden Smith's character. appearing with Jack Black. 1911 premiered in North America on 14 October. American Sign Language. Jackie Chan married Lin Feng-Jiao (aka Joan Lin). but did not formally acknowledge her as his daughter. and claimed Chan was the father.[62][63] Chan is an avid soccer fan and supports the Hong Kong National Football Team.[54] [50] Personal life In 1982.[51] While Chan has directed over ten films over his career.[48] Because the Screen Actors Guild did not go on strike. he learned boxing from a former professional boxer who had a broken leg. he plays the cook of the temple instead of one of the major characters. he lived in Thailand for a short period of time. Han. something he has not done for a number of years. he left Los Angeles to begin filming The Karate Kid.[60] When he was 9 and 16 years of age.[36] Elaine Ng Yi-Lei had a daughter. and English. He later clarified that he would not be completely retiring from action films. and Thai. and Manchester City. but would be performing fewer stunts and taking care of his body more. The film was released in America on 11 June 2010 and sees Chan's first dramatic American film. he has assisted Anthony Szeto in an advisory capacity for the writer-director's film Wushu. Chan discussed his wishes to direct a film after completing Shinjuku Incident. the two had a son. executive producer. During that time. In Little Big Soldier. released on 1 May 2008. According to his blog. In the film. England National Football Team. Mandarin. Chan announced that he was retiring from action films citing that he was getting too old for the genre. a remake of the 1984 original. in 1999. he plays Mr.[64] . since Jackie Chan's Who Am I? in 1998. Chan received an honorary doctorate from the University of Cambodia.[61] In 2009.[49] In The Spy Next Door.[58][59] He speaks Cantonese. and has a working title of Armour of God III: Chinese Zodiac. Korean. He is the lone survivor of his army and must bring a captured enemy soldier Leehom Wang to the capital of his province. In Chan's next movie.[42][43] Chan voiced Master Monkey in Kung Fu Panda (released in June 2008). Chan plays an undercover agent whose cover is blown when he looks after the children of his girlfriend. The movie featured heavy use of effects and wires.[46] The film was released on 2 April 2009. Dre.[44] In addition. and also speaks some German. Chan's first onscreen collaboration with fellow Chinese actor Jet Li. Chan admitted the affair. The film stars Sammo Hung and Wang Wenjie as father and son. in Beijing. this is his first directorial work in over ten years. Chan began filming Shinjuku Incident.

and ribs on numerous occasions. Chan plays well-meaning. sternum.[66] The dangerous nature of his stunts makes it difficult for Chan to get insurance. girlfriends or families) who always triumph in the end despite the odds. Chan has stated that he deliberately styles his movement to be the opposite of Lee's: where Lee held his arms wide. He came closest to death filming Armour of God. and the numerous imitators who appeared before and after Lee's death. both cheekbones. Despite the success of the Rush Hour series. where his stunt work is contractually limited. prompting him to act with more emotion in his latest films. who was also known to perform his own stunts. where Lee was loose and flowing.[74] Jackie Chan at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival. shooting the scenes so that their faces are obscured. he portrayed a character suffering from alcoholism and mourning his murdered colleagues. many of them have been shown as outtakes or as bloopers during the closing credits of his films. He has stated in interviews that the primary inspiration for his more comedic stunts were films such as The General directed by and starring Buster Keaton. neck.[71] In recent years. ankle. who were typically stern. Chan is tight and choppy. the ageing Chan grew tired of being typecast as an action hero. Chan played an anti-hero for the first time in Rob-B-Hood starring as Thongs. In contrast to Lee's characters. hips. a burglar with gambling problems.[65] Chan and his team undertake many of the stunts performed by other characters in his films.[68] Chan has been injured numerous times attempting stunts.[67] In addition. Chan holds his tight to the body. having shot over 2900 retakes for a complex scene involving a Jianzi game in Dragon Lord. toes. and one version of the movie poster even diagrammed his many injuries. Filmography and screen persona Jackie Chan created his screen persona as a response to Bruce Lee. which emphasizes "no insurance company will underwrite Chan's productions in which he performs all his own stunts".[66] Chan holds the Guinness World Record for "Most Stunts by a Living Actor". slightly foolish regular guys (often at the mercy of their friends. Chan has used the team in all his subsequent films to make choreographing easier. nor understands American humour. Chan has stated that he is not a fan of it since he neither appreciates the action scenes in the movie.[69][70] Promotional materials for Rumble in the Bronx emphasised that Chan performed all of the stunts. which are choreographed by the Jackie Chan Stunt Team. nose. morally upright heroes. when he fell from a tree and fractured his skull. given his understanding of each member's abilities.[15] Additionally.[72] In New Police Story. Over the years. . he holds an unrecognised record for the most number of takes for a single shot in a film. Nice Guy. Chan has dislocated his pelvis and broken his fingers. especially in the United States.[73] To further shed the image of Mr.Jackie Chan 6 Stunts Jackie Chan has performed most of his own stunts throughout his film career. Since its establishment in 1983.

[79] At least 10 of these recordings have been released on soundtrack albums for the films. and concluded on 26 June 2008. to become Chan's "successor" and student in filmmaking. Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao. For the US release. John Woo. Wu Yue and Cheng Pei Pei. The regular judges on the program were He Ping. The films will be entitled Speedpost 206. He performed the song at a ceremony marking the one-year countdown to the 2008 Summer Paralympics. He often sings the theme songs of his films.Jackie Chan 7 Television work In 2000. the theme song played over the closing credits of The Young Master (1980). or to join the Jackie Chan Stunt Team. Ng See Yuen and Yu Rongguang. diving. which ran until 2005. Won't Tell You and Tropical Tornado and will be directed by Xie Dong. Contestants were trained by Jackie Chan Stunt Team members Alan Wu and He Jun and competed in various fields. for the film's soundtrack. Mulan (1998).[82] . He has released 20 albums since 1984 and has performed vocals in Cantonese. the official one-year countdown song to the 2008 Summer Olympics. The series was produced by. Chan recorded and released the song "We Are Ready". the BTV reality television series entitled The Disciple Jackie Chan Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese 龍 傳 龙 传 的 人 的 人 Transcriptions (lit.[73][80] His Cantonese song Story of a Hero (英 雄 故 事 ) (theme song of Police Story) was selected by the Royal Hong Kong Police and incorporated into their recruitment advertisement in 1994. Along with runners up Yang Zheng and Jerry Liau. Production on the first film is due to begin in September 2008. which play over the closing credits. Chan hosted a fictionalised version of himself in the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures. and all three will be co-produced by Chan and his company JCE Movies Limited. Mandarin. Jiang Tao and Cai Rong Hui. skilled in acting and martial arts.[75] In July 2008. In 2007.D. Taiwanese and English. gunplay. including explosion scenes. with 16 contestants remaining. The "Finals" began on 5 April 2008. Wong and the singing voice was done by Donny Osmond. Tu is now set to star in three modern Chinese action films. The winner of the series was Jack Tu (Tu Sheng Cheng). high-altitude wire-suspension. In addition.[81] Chan voiced the character of Shang in the Chinese release of the Walt Disney animated feature. He also performed the song "I'll Make a Man Out of You". "Disciple of the Dragon") concluded. Japanese. All 16 finalists will be given the opportunity to work on the films. the speaking voice was performed by B. He began producing records professionally in the 1980s and has gone on to become a successful singer in Hong Kong and Asia. one of which was scripted by Chan. obstacles courses etc. Chan's first musical recording was "Kung Fu Fighting Man". Amongst those in attendance were Tsui Hark.[76][77][78] Music career Jackie Chan had vocal lessons whilst at the Peking Opera School in his childhood. The aim of the program was to find a new star. the finalists will be given roles in a forthcoming BTV action series. and featured Jackie Chan. car stunts. Guest judges include Stanley Tong.

Chan released one of the two official Olympics albums. Chan appeared alongside Arnold Schwarzenegger in a government advert to combat copyright infringement and made another public service announcement with Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca to encourage people. Chan already had a game of his own.Jackie Chan The day before the Beijing Olympics opened. the farewell song for the 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony. the national anthem of the People's Republic of China. and television shows Tim and Eric Awesome Show.[87][88][89] The comedic value of his films is questioned.[106][107] . Official Album for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games – Jackie Chan's Version. Great Job!. in an advertisement promoting nationalism. Before Stuntmaster. to join the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. a problem that has been widespread for decades.[90] Chan is a cultural icon. especially Asians. The Protector and Burn. Jackie Chan's Action Kung Fu. he said the same thing when Carter was in another room and they all attacked him. a limited series of cars which he personally customised. citing less intensity compared to his earlier films. appearing in public service announcements. who said "What's up.[99] Chan's greatest regret in life is not having received proper education. Mitsubishi cars can be found in a number of Jackie Chan films. my nigga?" to a club of black men. The Tuxedo. some critics stated it can be childish at times. He has been the inspiration for manga such as Dragon Ball (including a character with the alias "Jackie Chun"). Mitsubishi honoured Chan by launching Evolution. Chan's American films have been criticised with regard to their action choreography. so he had to pull out his fighting skills to beat them down and escape.[105] In the United States. and Shanghai Knights criticised the toning down of Chan's fighting scenes. a series of Japanese Jackie Chan games were released on the MSX by Pony. as well as in "Jackie Chan" by Frank Chickens. released in 1990 for the PC-Engine and NES.[85] He has stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and the Hong Kong Avenue of Stars. but in Rush Hour.[103] Furthermore. in an attempt to be "cool" and imitate his partner Carter. which featured a number of special guest appearances.[91] the character Lei Wulong in Tekken and the fighting-type Pokémon Hitmonchan.[98] Chan has always wanted to be a role model to children. along with Andy Lau. Police Story. Chan participated in the opening ceremony.[83] Chan. Leehom Wang's "Long Live Chinese People". based on several of his films (Project A. remaining popular with them due to his good-natured acting style. Furthermore.[104] When Hong Kong Disneyland opened in 2005.[95][96][97] Jackie Chan's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame A number of video games have featured Jackie Chan. As a result.[92][93][94] In addition. In a Clean Hong Kong commercial.[84] 8 Image and celebrity status Jackie Chan has received worldwide recognition for his acting. Heavy Vegetable's "Jackie Chan Is a Punk Rocker". The Protector and Wheels On Meals). he urged the people of Hong Kong to be more considerate with regards to littering. Chan was featured in the arcade fighting game Jackie Chan The Kung-Fu Master. performed "Hard to Say Goodbye". Burn). Liu Huan and Wakin (Emil) Chau.[100] inspiring him to fund educational institutions around the world. He funded the construction of the Jackie Chan Science Centre at the Australian National University[101] and the establishment of schools in poor regions of China. Hollywood. In addition. He has generally refused to play villains and has almost never used the word "fuck" in his films (He's only said that word in two films. In 1995.[102] Chan is a spokesperson for the Government of Hong Kong. Reviewers of Rush Hour 2. he gave a short explanation of the March of the Volunteers. having been referenced in Ash's song "Kung Fu". Jackie Chan has a sponsorship deal with Mitsubishi Motors. Project A 2. Celebrity Deathmatch and Family Guy.[86] Despite considerable box office success in The Northsouth Territories. having won several awards including an Innovator Award from the American Choreography Awards and a lifetime achievement award from the Taurus World Stunt Awards.

"I'm gradually beginning to feel that we Chinese need to be controlled."[115] but refrained from criticising the Chinese government for banning his 2009 film Shinjuku Incident. It's very chaotic." Chan said ". 'if I can get the torch. He warned that he would lash out against anyone planning to stop him from carrying the Olympic Torch. Chinese people aren't pets." Chan however complained about the quality of Chinese goods... a Taiwanese legislator and senior member of the DPP. Although saddened by the news. Hong Kong Legislator Leung Kwok-hung said that Chan "insulted the Chinese people.a Chinese TV might explode.[116] Chan's comments prompted an angry response from some legislators and other prominent figures in Taiwan and Hong Kong. "They know."[119] On 24 August 2010. as they were attempting to spit at him when he arrived at Taipei airport for a charity sponsored by cable TV channel TVBS on 18 June 2008. We want to learn from the rest of the world as well as teach others about our ways and our culture." Chan felt the country was trying to improve and the Olympics is a chance for the country to open up and learn from the outside world and vice versa."[113] Jackie Chan at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival On 18 April 2009. I can gradually see.[118] A spokesman for Chan told reporters that the actor was referring to freedom in the entertainment industry rather than Chinese society at large and that certain people with "ulterior motives deliberately misinterpreted what he said.. "We are not right about everything. such as banning his movies and barring him the right to visit Taiwan.[108] 9 Controversy During a news conference in Shanghai on 28 March 2004. construction continues as of January 2010.in the 10 years after Hong Kong's return to Chinese rule. Chan felt that the protesters were publicity seekers. Chan tweeted about the botched rescue operation on the Manila hostage crisis that left 8 Hong Kong tourists dead. during a panel discussion at the annual Boao Forum for Asia titled "Tapping into Asia's Creative Industry Potential.[111] Chan insisted that his remarks were not intended to insult the people of Taiwan."[109] Chan's comments were criticised by Parris Chang. If we're not being controlled." He also added." he said. he also tweeted "If they killed the guy sooner. He issued a statement on 27 August 2010 . and although it was scheduled to be completed on October 2009. Several anti-Jackie Chan groups were set up on Facebook with tens of thousands of supporters. Work began in July 2008." In addition. who called for the government of Taiwan to take punitive steps against Chan for his comments. in which Democratic Progressive Party candidates Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu were re-elected as President and Vice-President as "the biggest joke in the world. 2004 in Taiwan. Chan reportedly has business interests in the Philippines. saying. They just want to show off on the TV. Chan referred to the recently concluded Republic of China presidential election. they ask why not kill the guy sooner?"[120][121][122][123] Chan's comments caused outrage in Hong Kong."[117] The Hong Kong Tourism Board stated that it had received 164 comments and complaints from the public over Chan's remarks..[110] Some 50 police and security personnel were required to separate protesters from Chan. "If you're too free.Jackie Chan Construction has begun on a Jackie Chan museum in Shanghai. Taiwan is also chaotic. Some fellow actors and directors told local newspapers that they were also upset by his remarks. including China's human rights record and the political status of Taiwan. "They are doing it for no reason. saying."[114] Chan went on to say. I can go on the TV for the world news'. we'll just do what we want. Chan spoke out against demonstrators who disrupted the relay several times attempting to draw attention to a wide-ranging number of grievances against the Chinese government. "Demonstrators better not get anywhere near me. you're like the way Hong Kong is now.[112] Referring to his participation in the torch relay for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. ". Things are getting better in China but we can change and are changing. I'm not sure if it's good to have freedom or not. they will say why not negotiate first? If they negotiate first.

such as old door frames from 2000 years ago. Jackie & Willie Productions[126] (with Willie Chan) and Jackie & JJ Productions. Jackie Chan is also a supporter of the Save China's Tigers project which aims at saving the endangered South China Tiger through breeding and releasing them into the wild. he is currently an ambassador for this conservation project.[135] Chan has many historic artefacts. The first—Jackie Chan-Yaolai International Cinema—opened in February 2010. . a percentage of the profits goes to various charities. non-commercial directors the opportunity to have their films screened. and is claimed to be the largest cinema complex in China. Shanghai and Guangzhou.Jackie Chan apologising for his comments and claiming that his assistant who helped him post the tweets had misunderstood the meaning of his original message.[128][129] In 2004. has outlets throughout Hong Kong.[134] On 10 March 2008. throughout Beijing. or the initials "JC".[131] With each of his businesses. having worked tirelessly to champion charitable works and causes. with 17 screens and 3. Other ventures include Jackie Chan Signature Club gyms (a partnership with California Fitness). with a potential total of 65 cinemas throughout the country proposed. He also hopes to expand into furniture and kitchenware.[124] In December 2012. Chan is a keen philanthropist and a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. suggesting that demonstrators' rights in Hong Kong should be limited. against animal abuse and has promoted disaster relief efforts for floods in mainland China and the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. and a line of chocolates. a cinema chain in China. JCE Movies Limited.500 seats. with plans to open another in Las Vegas. including the Jackie Chan Charitable Foundation.[5][132][133] In June 2006. as well as seven in South Korea and one in Hawaii. Singapore. Kuala Lumpur and the Philippines. cookies and nutritional oatcakes. and is also considering a branded supermarket. citing his admiration of the effort made by Warren Buffett and Bill Gates to help those in need. Chan caused outrage when he criticized Hong Kong as a "city of protest". Chan was the guest of honour for the launch. His sushi restaurant chain. by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. co-run by Hong Kong company Sparkle Roll Group Ltd. 15 further cinemas in the chain are planned for 2010.[130] Chan also has a number of other branded businesses. Chan launched his own line of clothing.[127] Chan has also put his name to Jackie Chan Theater International. he announced the donation of half his assets to charity upon his death. He also owns the Jinricksha Station in Singapore. Australian National University in Canberra. Jackie's Kitchen. Jackie Chan's Cafe has outlets in Beijing. which bears a Chinese dragon logo and the English word "Jackie".[125] 10 Entrepreneurship and philanthropy In addition to his film production and distribution company. Jackie Chan also owns or co-owns the production companies JC Group China. He has campaigned for conservation. of the Jackie Chan Science Centre at the John Curtin School of Medical Research. Chan expressed his hopes that the size of the venue would afford young.

S. Shanghai. the foundation has broadened its scope to include provision of medical services. 11 19 January 2011 Jackie Chan joins U.[137] The concert raised over $3. Jackie Chan and fellow Hong Kong-based celebrities. of the earthquake and tsunami by saying: "You will not be alone. Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts [139] Medical Funding in mainland China (Operation Smile) Medical Donation in Hong Kong (Queen Mary Hospital. Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. In response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[138] Chan also holds guest lectures at the Shanghai Institute of Visual Art of Fudan University.3 million dollars in just three hours for disaster relief. on 1 April 2011 to help with Japan's disaster recovery effort. he is planning to make a film about the Chinese earthquake to raise money for survivors. In addition. Kamal Hassan. Major donation projects of The Jackie Chan Charitable Foundation: • • • • • • • • • The Jackie Chan Gymnasium at Lingnan University The Jackie Chan Challenge Cup Intercollegiate Invitation Tournament The Jackie Chan Family Unit. Mammootty and Kamal Hassan. Over the years. SARS Relief) Support for the Performing Arts Youth Development Programs . Hassan himself reciprocated the desire to work with the action superstar. Jackie Chan was invited for the audio launch of an Indian film. and projects where the major beneficiaries are Hong Kong people or organisations. including Amitabh Bachchan. Chan donated RMB ¥10 million to help those in need. aid to victims of natural disaster or illness. entitled Dasavathaaram (2008) in Chennai (Madras). where he shared the dais with Indian celebrities. and was impressed with the movie Dasavathaaram. urging Chan to keep his promise of working with him on a possible film project.Jackie Chan In April 2008. President Barack Obama for the welcome of President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao to the White House state dinner. Chan was touched by the Indian community's love for him and his films. Hong Kong Girl Guides Association Jockey Club Beas River Lodge The Jackie Chan Whole Person Development Center Renovation of the Bethanie Site. including American rapper Jin. expressing a keen interest in working with the star of the film. Though he did not understand a word of Tamil. we will be by your side". titled Artistes 311 Love Beyond [136] where Jackie Chan addressed the victims Borders. the Jackie Chan Charitable Foundation offers scholarships and active help to Hong Kong's young people through a variety of worthy causes. headlined a special three-hour charity concert. The Jackie Chan Charitable Foundation Founded in 1988.

and other items. and to lend support and encouragement.Jackie Chan 12 The Dragon's Heart Foundation The Dragon's Heart Foundation was founded in 2005 to fulfill the desperate needs of children and the elderly in remote areas of China.Won 2005 Asia-Pacific Film Special Jury Award . Jackie often travels to the remote locations to attend groundbreakings or school openings.Won International Indian Film Academy Awards 2000 Special Award for Global Impact . and has raised millions of dollars to give much-needed educational opportunities for the poor.Won 2001 Favorite Action Team (for Shanghai Noon) .Won Hong Kong Film Awards 1983 Best Action Choreography (for Dragon Lord) . wheelchairs. fees.Won Daytime Emmy Awards 2002 Performer in an Animated Program (for Jackie Chan Adventures) . the Dragon's Heart Foundation has built over a dozen schools.Won 1993 Best Actor (for Zhong an zu) .Won Golden Phoenix Awards 2005 Outstanding Contribution Award . and uniforms. Awards and nominations Jackie Chan awards and nominations Awards and nominations Award Wins Nominations Totals Awards won Nominations 27 33 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • American Choreography Awards[140] 8th American Choreography Innovator Awards .Won Hollywood Film Festival 1999 Actor of the Year .Won Asia-Pacific Film Festival 1993 Asia-Pacific Film Lifetime Achievement Award .Nominated (shared with Hark-On Fung and Yuen Kuni) . provided books. the Dragon's Heart Foundation provides for the elderly with donations of warm clothing.Won Blockbuster Entertainment Awards 1999 Favorite Duo . Since 2005.Action/Adventure (for Rush Hour) .Won Golden Rooster Awards 2005 Best Actor (for New Police Story) . In addition.Won (shared with Chia-Liang Liu) Golden Horse Film Festival 1992 Best Actor (for Police Story 3: Super Cop) .Nominated Cinequest Film Festival 1998 Maverick Spirit Award .Nominated Fant-Asia Film Festival 1997 Best Asian Film (for Drunken Master II) .

Nominated (shared with Jaden Smith) 2011 Favorite Action Star .Nominated 1989 Best Picture (for Rouge) . Tak Yuen) 2007 Best Action Choreography (for Robin-B-Hood) .Won 1990 Best Actor (for Miracles) .Won Shanghai International Film Festival 13 .Won 2011 Favorite Butt Kicker (for The Karate Kid) .Won 2003 Favorite Movie Actor (for The Tuxedo) .Nominated 1997 Best Fight (for Police Story 4: First Strike) .Nominated (shared with Chung Chi Li) 2010 Best Film (for Shinjuku Incident) .Won MTV Movie Awards 1995 Lifetime Achievement Award .Nominated 1999 Best Action Choreography (for Who Am I?) .Won (shared with Chris Tucker) 2003 Best On-Screen Team (for Shanghai Knights) .Nominated (shared with Jackie Chan Stunt Team) 2005 Best Actor (for New Police Story) .Won 1997 Best Actor (for Dragon Lord) .Nominated 1986 Best Actor (for Police Story) . and Hee-seon Kim) 2006 Best Action Choreography (for The Myth) .Nominated 1999 Best Actor (for Who Am I?) .Won 1996 Best Fight (for Rumble in the Bronx) .Nominated Hundred Flowers Awards 2006 Best Actor (for New Police Story) .Nominated (shared with Chris Tucker) 1999 Best On-Screen Duo (for Rush Hour) .Nominated 1996 Best Actor (for Rumble in the Bronx) .Nominated 2002 Favorite Male Action Hero (for Rush Hour 2) .Nominated 1994 Best Action Choreography (for Crime Story) .Nominated 1993 Best Actor (for Supercop) .Nominated (shared with Chris Tucker) 2002 Best Fight (for Rush Hour 2) . Wang Zhong Yan.Nominated 1994 Best Actor (for Crime Story) .Nominated 1986 Best Actor (for Heart of Dragon) .Jackie Chan • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1985 Best Actor (for Project A) .Nominated (shared with Stanley Tong.Won Montreal World Film Festival Grand Prix des Amériques .Nominated 1999 Best Fight (for Rush Hour) .Won 2000 Best Action Choreography (for Gorgeous) .Nominated 2005 Professional Achievement Award .Nominated (shared with Choi Jun Young.Nominated 1996 Best Action Choreography (for Rumble in the Bronx) .Nominated (shared with Chris Tucker) 2011 Favorite On-Screen Team (for The Karate Kid) .Won (shared with Chris Tucker) 2002 Best On-Screen Team (for Rush Hour 2) .Won 2006 Best Original Film Song (for The Myth) .Nominated (shared with Owen Wilson) 2008 Best Fight (for Rush Hour 3) .Nominated 2003 Favorite Male Butt Kicker (for The Tuxedo) .Nominated Kids' Choice Awards 2002 Favorite Male Movie Star (for Rush Hour 2) .Nominated (shared with Chris Tucker and Sun Mingming) People's Choice Awards 2008 Favorite On Screen Match-up (for Rush Hour 3) .Nominated 1986 Best Director (for Police Story) .

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Group. • Major.: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 1-56799-863-1. ISBN 0-8092-2837-8. Harpenden: Pocket Essentials. financialexpress. [139] "Jackie Chan Charitable Foundation" (http:/ / jackiechan. 2003. Today's Superstars: Entertainment. • Fox. Retrieved 1 March 2012.xinhuanet. 100% Jackie Chan: The Essential Companion. com/ files/ JCF_brochure_4. Retrieved 1 March 2012. [137] "Jackie Chan and HK celebrities to raise funds for quake victims in Japan" (http:/ / news. 1997. Leo. Oettel. 22 August 2008. Milwaukee. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. London: Titan Books. 1998. Retrieved 1 March 2012. ISBN 0-8239-3518-3. • Stone. Martial Arts Masters. Jackie Chan: Inside the Dragon.com. Clyde. • Cooper. imdb.The Official Website of Jackie Chan" (http:/ / jackiechan. 2000. 2008. . and John R. Thorsten. and Jeff Yang. Lincolnwood. New York: Ballantine Books. [136] "Japan Earthquake Song Music Video . • Corcoran. New York: Warner. Amy. com/ scrapbook/ 1202363--Japan-Earthquake-Song-Music-Video). The Financial Express. Karen (4 April 2011). com/ latest_full_story. ISBN 978-3-86858-255-0 (German) • Boose. Ill. • Rovin. 1997. Hongkong. xinhuanet. Jackie. Richard. News. Dallas. 1999. .com. The Pocket Essential Jackie Chan. 2009. Jackie Chan. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 1998. Michelle. "Jackie Chan Raises $3. ISBN 1-903047-10-2. New York: Rosen Pub. ISBN 1-84023-888-7. php?content_id=132221) on 8 December 2006. Ill. ISBN 1-84023-491-1.. Der deutsche Jackie Chan Filmführer. • Wong. 2006.: Gareth Stevens Pub. 2002. 25 March 2011. meine Liebe – Ein spezieller Reiseführer. . Jackie Chan. • Gentry. Jackie Chan. 2007. ISBN 0-8368-7648-2. New York: Pocket Books.: Raintree. Wis. Jackie Chan and the Superstars of Martial Arts. Jackie Chan.3 Million in Three Hours for Japan Relief (Exclusive)" (http:/ / www. imdb. Richard. • Moser. Jamie. [138] Chu. Renee. 29 June 2006. ISBN 1-4109-1659-6. Retrieved 1 March 2012. Tex. 1999. pdf) (PDF). The Best of Inside Kung-Fu. 2000. Dan. The Unauthorized Jackie Chan Encyclopedia: From Project A to Shanghai Noon and Beyond. 19 Further reading • Boose. . Thorsten. Berlin: Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf. Pocket essentials. New York: Metrobooks.). Retrieved 1 March 2012. Shaker Media. Raintree Freestyle. ISBN 0-446-67296-3.org. Jackie Chan. (German) • Poolos.: Taylor Pub. [140] "Awards for Jackie Chan" (http:/ / www. 2002. • Witterstaetter. Retrieved 1 March 2012. and Colin Odell. htm). Dying for Action: The Life and Films of Jackie Chan. SaveChina'Tigers. Wade. ISBN 978-3-86858-102-7 (German) • Chan. financialexpress. . ISBN 0-07-138899-0.com. Reuters. and Kathleen Tracy. Chicago. Jackiechan. hollywoodreporter. Curtis F. ISBN 0-345-42913-3. php?content_id=132221). I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action. Jackie Chan's autobiography. Made in Hong Kong: die Filme von Jackie Chan. com/ old/ latest_full_story. More 100% Jackie Chan: The Essential Companion Volume 2. • Le Blanc. org/ node/ 139/ ). . com/ name/ nm0000329/ awards). ISBN 3-89602-312-8. Jeff. The Essential Jackie Chan Sourcebook. . 2004. The Hollywood Reporter. ISBN 0-87833-962-0. ISBN 0-671-00843-9. Little (eds. savechinastigers. • Cooper. John. com/ english2010/ video/ 2011-03/ 25/ c_13798190. Shaker Media. Silke. and Mike Leeder. [135] "Save China's Tigers: Patrons and Supporters" (http:/ / english.Jackie Chan [134] "Jackie Chan looks to bequeath half of wealth" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ jackie-chan-raises-33-million-174410). London: Titan Books. Chicago: Contemporary Books.

com/celebrity/jackie_chan) at Rotten Tomatoes .allrovi.Jackie Chan 20 External links • Official website (http://www.com/) • Jackie Chan (http://www.rottentomatoes.com/name/nm0000329/) at the Internet Movie Database • Jackie Chan (http://www.mhtml?id=3894&display_set=eng) at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase • Jackie Chan (http://www.jackiechan.imdb.hkmdb.com/db/people/view.com/name/p84650) at AllRovi • Jackie Chan (http://www.

11th Hong Kong Film Awards 21 11th Hong Kong Film Awards 11th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 1992 Ceremony for the 11th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1992. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Lee Rock This Thing Called Love Once Upon a Time in China Once a Thief To Be Number One • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees John Woo — Once a Thief Gordon Chan — Fight Back to School Poon Man Kit — To Be Number One Lawrence Lau — Lee Rock Tsui Hark Once Upon a Time in China • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Johnny Mak. Lee Chi Ngai — Alan and Eric: Between Hello and Goodbye Barry Wong. Gordon Chan — Fight Back to School To Be Number One • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Ray Lui — To Be Number One Stephen Chow — Fight Back to School Chow Yun-fat — Once a Thief Andy Lau — Lee Rock Eric Tsang Alan and Eric: Between Hello and Goodbye • • • • . Stephen Siu Winning film Nominees Lee Chi Ngai — This Thing Called Love Chan Man Keung — Lee Rock Barry Wong.

Bill Wong. Ardy Lam. Peter Ngor — Au Revoir Mon Amour Peter Pau — Bury Me High David Chung.11th Hong Kong Film Awards 22 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Cheung Man — Dances with the Dragon Anita Mui — Au Revoir Mon Amour Carol Cheng — Her Fatal Ways 2 Carina Lau — Gigolo and Whore Cecilia Yip This Thing Called Love • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Kwan Hoi San Winning film Nominees Lee Rock • • • • • Ng Man Tat — Fight Back to School Aaron Kwok — Saviour of the Soul Jacky Cheung — Once Upon a Time in China Kent Tong — The Tigers Kent Cheng — To Be Number One Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Carrie Ng — Au Revoir Mon Amour Chingmy Yau — Lee Rock Cecilia Yip — To Be Number One Rosamund Kwan — This Thing Called Love Deanie Ip Dances with the Dragon • • • • Best New Performer Winner Jade Leung Winning film Nominees Black Cat • • • Jackie Lui — Dreams of Glory: A Boxer's Story Chan Tak Hing — Dreams of Glory: A Boxer's Story Sonny Song — Fruit Punch Best Cinematography Winner Peter Pau Winning film Saviour of the Soul Nominees • • • • Gigo Lee. Wilson Chan — Once Upon a Time in China . Chan Tung Chuen. Arthur Wong. Peter Pau. Andrew Lau — Lee Rock Bill Wong. David Chung.

11th Hong Kong Film Awards 23 Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees David Wu Dai Wai — Once a Thief Marco Mak — A Chinese Ghost Story III Poon Hung — To Be Number One Marco Mak Once Upon a Time in China • • • • Poon Hung. Yuen Bun. Cheung Yiu Sing — A Chinese Ghost Story III Once Upon a Time in China • • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Eugene Pao — This Thing Called Love Jonathan Lee. Ken Shima — Sisters of the World Unite Anthony Lun. Kai Kit Wai — Saviour of the Soul Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Yee Chung-Man — Once Upon a Time in China Eddie Ma — Au Revoir Mon Amour Jason Mok — Lee Rock Yee Chung-Man Saviour of the Soul • • • • • Ben Luk — Alan and Eric: Between Hello and Goodbye James Leung. William Chang Suk Ping — A Chinese Ghost Story III Best Action Direction Winner Yuen Cheung Yan. Wong Jim — A Chinese Ghost Story III Wong Jim Once Upon a Time in China • • • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees . Yuen Shun Yee. Ma Yuk Sing. Lau Ka Wing Winning film Nominees Yuen Tak — Saviour of the Soul Jackie Chan Stunt Team — Armour of God II: Operation Condor Lam Moon Wah — Prison on Fire 2 Tony Ching. Terry Chan — Au Revoir Mon Amour Chris Babida — Bury Me Deep Romeo Diaz.

com .11th Hong Kong Film Awards The Twin Bracelets • 似 是 故 人 來 Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Anita Mui • 一 起 走 過 的 日 子 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • — Casino Raiders 2 24 Composer: Wu Wai Lap Lyricist: Leung Mei Wai Singer: Andy Lau 何 日 — Au Revoir Mon Amour Composer: Anthony Lun Lyricist: Wong Jim Singer: Anita Mui 春 風 秋 雨 — Sisters of the World Unite Composer: Jonathan Lee Lyricist: Lam Chun Keung Singer: Sally Yeh Composer: Lowell Lo Lyricist: Leung Mei Wai Singer: Cally Kwong 與 龍 共 舞 — Dances with the Dragon Professional Spirit Award Winner Tu Haiqing. Barry Wong Winning film Nominees N/A N/A External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] References [1] http:/ / www. hkfaa.

My Foot Tony Leung Ka-Fai 92 Legendary La Rose Noire • • • • Tony Leung Ka-Fai — King of Chess .12th Hong Kong Film Awards 25 12th Hong Kong Film Awards 12th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) John Shum Lydia Shum 1993 Ceremony for the 12th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1993. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Cageman • • • • 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Center Stage King of Beggars Once Upon a Time in China II Best Director Winner Jacob Cheung Winning film Nominees Cageman • • • • Tsui Hark — Once Upon a Time in China II Jeffrey Lau — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Gordon Chan — King of Beggars Stanley Kwan — Center Stage Best Screenplay Winner Yank Wong. Jacob Cheung Winning film Nominees Cageman • • • • Chiu-Tai An-ping — Center Stage Sandy Shaw — Justice. Ng Chong Chau. My Foot! Jeffrey Lau — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Chan Kin Chong — King of Beggars Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Jackie Chan — Police Story 3: Supercop Charles Heung — Arrest the Restless Stephen Chow — Justice.

Arthur Wong — New Dragon Gate Inn David Chung — King of Beggars .12th Hong Kong Film Awards 26 Best Actress Winner Maggie Cheung Winning film Nominees Center Stage • • • • • Chingmy Yau — Naked Killer Brigitte Lin — Swordsman II Brigitte Lin — Handsome Siblings Maggie Cheung — New Dragon Gate Inn Anita Mui — Justice. My Foot! Best Supporting Actor Winner Liu Kai Chi Winning film Nominees Cageman • • • • Francis Ng — Handsome Siblings Tony Leung Chiu-Wai — Hard Boiled Anthony Wong Chau Sang — Now You See Love. Now You Don't Deanie Ip — Fight Back to School II Wong Wan Si — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Fung Bo Bo 92 Legendary La Rose Noire • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Koo Ming Wah — Sex Racecourse Athena Chu — Fight Back to School II Sammi Cheng — Best of the Best Xiong Xinxin — Once Upon a Time in China II Anita Yuen The Days of Being Dumb • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Poon Hang Sang Winning film Nominees Center Stage • • • • Lee Tak Sing — Misty Arthur Wong — Once Upon a Time in China II Tom Lau. Now You Don't Donnie Yen — Once Upon a Time in China II Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Teresa Mo — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Teresa Mo — Now You See Love.

Shirley Chan — Royal Tramp 2 Joseph Chan — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Best Action Direction Winner Yuen Wo Ping Winning film Once Upon a Time in China II Nominees • • • • Stanley Tong. Jack Ah Winning film Nominees Hard Boiled • • • • Marco Mak — Swordman II Marco Mak — Once Upon a Time in China II Wong Wing Ming — Casino Tycoon Poon Hung — New Dragon Gate Inn Best Art Direction Winner Pok Yuk Mok Winning film Nominees Center Stage • • • • James Leung. Chung Yee Fung — Swordman II Eddie Ma — Once Upon a Time in China II Jason Mok — Royal Tramp 2 Yank Wong. Tang Tak Wing. Cheung Yiu Sing — Swordman II Best Original Film Score Winner Johnny Chen Winning film Nominees Center Stage • • • • Richard Yuen — Swordman II Richard Yuen. David Wu Dai Wai.12th Hong Kong Film Awards 27 Best Film Editing Winner John Woo. Alien Sit. Bruce Yu Winning film Nominees Swordman II • • • • Pok Yuk Mok — Center Stage Bruce Yu — Justice. My Foot Yee Chung-Man. Yuen Bun — New Dragon Gate Inn Tony Ching. Sam Wong — Police Story 3: Supercop Tony Ching — Royal Tramp 2 Tony Ching. Kai Kit Wai. Johnny Njo — Once Upon a Time in China II Lowell Lo — 92 Legendary La Rose Noire Joseph Koo — King of Beggars . Yuen Bun. Ma Yuk Sing. Chan Man Ching. Chin Yiu Hang — Cageman Best Costume Make Up Design Winner William Chang Suk Ping.

Johnny Chen Singer: Tracy Huang • Winning film Nominees Center Stage • 只 記 今 朝 笑 • • • • • • • • • • — Swordman II Composer: Wong Jim Lyricist: Wong Jim Singer: Rosanne Lui — C'est la vie.12th Hong Kong Film Awards 28 Best Original Film Song Winner 葬 心 Composer: Johnny Chen Lyricist: Daryl Yao. Delphine Chin Composer: Joseph Koo Lyricist: Wong Jim Singer: George Lam 長 路 漫 漫 伴 你 闖 — King of Beggars Special Commemoration Award • Ng Chor Fan External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] . mon cheri 如 今 才 是 唯 一 Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Lo Ta-yu.

mon chéri • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Lee Chi Ngai — Yesteryou Yesterme Yesterday James Yuen — Always on My Mind Lee Chi Ngai. Chung Oi Fong — Legal Innocence Johnny Mak. Stephen Siu — Lord of the East China Sea Derek Yee C'est la vie. mon chéri • • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Wu Xingguo — Temptation of A Monk Lau Ching Wan — C'est la vie. mon chéri • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Peter Chan. Dick and Hairy Chung Kai Cheung. Jason Lam. James Yuen. mon chéri Jackie Chan — Crime Story Lau Ching Wan — Thou Shalt Not Swear Anthony Wong Chau Sang The Untold Story • • • • .13th Hong Kong Film Awards 29 13th Hong Kong Film Awards 13th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 1994 Ceremony for the 13th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1994. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Crime Story Tom. Dick and Hairy Temptation of A Monk Always on My Mind C'est la vie. Lee Chi Ngai — Tom. Dick and Hairy Clara Law — Temptation of A Monk Cha Yuen Yee — Legal Innocence Kirk Wong — Crime Story Derek Yee C'est la vie. Chan Hing Ka — Tom.

13th Hong Kong Film Awards 30 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Josephine Siao — Always on My Mind Veronica Yip — Roof With A View Josephine Siao — Fong Sai Yuk Carrie Ng — Remains of a Woman Anita Yuen C'est la vie. Arthur Wong — Temptation of A Monk Arthur Wong — Days of Tomorrow Peter Pau The Bride with White Hair • • • • . Dick and Hairy Paul Chun C'est la vie. mon chéri • • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Carrie Ng — C'est la vie. mon chéri • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Elvis Tsui — All Men Are Brothers: Blood of the Leopard Kent Cheng — Crime Story Anthony Wong Chau Sang — Legal Innocence Michael Lee — Temptation of A Monk Lawrence Cheng — Tom. mon chéri • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Jennifer Chan — Thou Shalt Not Swear Cherie Chan — Three Summers Jay Lau — Days of Tomorrow John Tang — Yesteryou Yesterme Yesterday Wu Xingguo Temptation of A Monk • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Bill Wong — Roof With A View David Chung. mon chéri Law Lan — Thou Shalt Not Swear Deanie Ip — Murder Veronica Yip — Love Among the Triad Fung Bo Bo C'est la vie. Peter Ngor — Finale in Blood Andrew Lesnie.

Lee Wai Ming — Temptation of A Monk Bruce Yu — The Heroic Trio Emi Wada. Kai Kit Wai — Days of Tomorrow David Wu Dai Wai — The Bride with White Hair Peter Cheung — Fong Sai Yuk Marco Mak.13th Hong Kong Film Awards 31 Best Film Editing Winner Peter Cheung Winning film Nominees Crime Story • • • • Patrick Tam. Yang Zhanjia. Ng Po Ling — Green Snake Timmy Yip. Tony Wai Winning film Nominees Wong Jim. mon chéri William Chang Suk Ping. Mark Lui — Green Snake Richard Yuen — The Bride with White Hair Chris Babida — C'est la vie. Yuen Cheung Yan. Jackie Chan Stunt Team — Crime Story Best Original Film Score Winner Lau Yee Tat. Yuen Shun Yee. mon chéri Wu Wai Lap — The Heroic Trio Johnny Chen — Love Among the Triad Temptation of A Monk • • • • • . Lee Wai Ming — Temptation of A Monk Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees William Chang Suk Ping. mon chéri Eddie Ma The Bride with White Hair • • • • Timmy Yip. Ku Huan Chiu — Iron Monkey Jackie Chan. The Bride with White Hair • Tenny Cheung • • • • Best Action Direction Winner Corey Yuen. Angie Lam — Once Upon a Time in China III Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Bill Lui — Green Snake James Leung — Days of Tomorrow Yee Chung-Man — C'est la vie. Yuen Tak Winning film Nominees Fong Sai Yuk • • • • Yuen Bun — Once Upon a Time in China III Tony Ching — The Heroic Trio Yuen Wo Ping. Chiu Kwok Chun — The East Is Red Dora Ng — C'est la vie.

bruceleefoundation. Honors. webcitation. Archived (http:/ / www.13th Hong Kong Film Awards 32 Best Original Film Song Winner 女 人 心 Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Lin Xi Singer: Anita Mui • Winning film Nominees 紅 顏 白 髮 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • — The Bride with White Hair The Heroic Trio • Composer: Leslie Cheung Lyricist: Lin Xi Singer: Leslie Cheung — C'est la vie. Achievements and Activities (http:/ / www. mon chéri 新 不 了 情 Composer: Chris Babida Lyricist: Wong Yuk Singer: Wan Fang 世 界 這 麼 好 — Thou Shalt Not Swear Composer: Tony Wai Lyricist: Chan Sau Pok Singer: Children Chorus Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Lin Xi Singer: Anita Mui — The Heroic Trio 莫 問 一 生 Lifetime Achievement Awards • Bruce Lee [1] • Raymond Chow • Lai Man-Wai References [1] Bruce Lee Foundation Awards. Accessed 2009-08-01. cfm?pid=10384). org/ 5io4zr1TH) 2009-08-05.hkfaa. com/ index.com) . External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.

Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees The Final Option Ashes of Time I Have a Date with Spring He's A Woman. She's A Man Stephen Chow — From Beijing with Love Chow Yun-fat — Treasure Hunt Tony Leung Chiu Wai Chungking Express • • • • • Jacky Cheung — To Live and Die in Tsimshatsui . Lee Chi Ngai — He's A Woman. She's A Man Wong Kar-wai — Ashes of Time Wong Kar-wai — Chungking Express Raymond To I Have A Date With Spring • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Eric Kot — Oh! My Three Guys Leslie Cheung — He's A Woman. She's A Man Chungking Express • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Tsui Hark — The Lovers Wong Kar-wai — Ashes of Time Peter Chan — He's A Woman.14th Hong Kong Film Awards 33 14th Hong Kong Film Awards 14th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 1995 Ceremony for the 14th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1995. She's A Man Gordon Chan — The Final Option Wong Kar-wai Chungking Express • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees James Yuen — Twenty Something James Yuen.

She's A Man Eric Kot — Conjugal Affair Power Chan — The Final Option Jordan Chan Twenty Something • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Fung Wai Hung — I Have A Date With Spring Carrie Ng — The Lovers Sandra Ng — The Returning Valerie Chow — Chungking Express Law Koon Lan I Have A Date With Spring • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Mavis Fan — The Private Eye Blues Peter Yung Kam Cheong — The Final Option Jordan Chan — He's A Woman. She's A Man Jordan Chan — Twenty Something Alice Lau I Have A Date With Spring • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Tony Cheung — One Armed Swordsman '94 Arthur Wong — The Returning Christopher Doyle. Andrew Lau — Chungking Express Christopher Doyle — Ashes of Time Peter Pau Treasure Hunt • • • • .14th Hong Kong Film Awards 34 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Joan Chen — Red Rose White Rose Alice Lau — I Have A Date With Spring Hui Fan — One of the Lucky Ones Jacklyn Wu — The Returning Faye Wong — Chungking Express Anita Yuen He's A Woman. She's A Man • • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Law Kar-ying — From Beijing with Love Jordan Chan — He's A Woman.

She's A Man William Chang Suk Ping Ashes of Time • • • • William Chang Suk Pi. Garcia — Chungking Express Anthony Lee. Kwong Chi Leung. Woo Wai Lap. Roel A. Garcia — Ashes of Time Frankie Chan. Chiu Tsang Hei — He's A Woman. She's A Man Johnny Chen — Red Rose White Rose Frankie Chan. Drunken Master II • Jackie Chan Stunt Team • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Wong Jim. Kai Kit Wai Winning film Nominees Patrick Tam. Yuen Tak — The Bodyguard From Beijing Sammo Hung — Ashes of Time Corey Yuen — The New Legend of Shaolin Yuen Wo Ping — Fist of Legend Lau Ka Leung. Mark Lui. She's A Man Eddie Mok — The Great Conqueror's Concubine Pok Yuk Mok — Red Rose White Rose William Chang Suk Ping — The Lovers William Chang Suk Ping Ashes of Time • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Corey Yuen. Roel A. Marco Wan — I Have A Date With Spring . Kai Kit Wai — Ashes of Time Angie Lam — The Rapist Nick Cheung — Drunken Master II Chan Ki Hop — The Final Option Chungking Express • • • • Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees William Chang Suk Ping — Chungking Express Pok Yuk Mok — Red Rose White Rose Yee Chung-Man — He's A Woman.14th Hong Kong Film Awards 35 Best Film Editing Winner William Chang Suk Ping. Cheong Kwok Wing — The Lovers Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Dora Ng — He's A Woman. Raymond Wong Winning film Nominees The Lovers • • • • • Ann Hui.

She's A Man • Composer: Chan Yiu Chuen Lyricist: Lee On Sau Singer: Andy Lau — Twenty Something Composer: Joseph Wong. Clarence Hui Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Sandy Lam 當 愛 變 成 習 慣 — The Private Eye Blues Composer: John Laudon Lyricist: Chan Siu Kei Singer: Jacky Cheung — Red Rose White Rose 玫 瑰 香 Composer: Johnny Chen Lyricist: Johnny Chen Singer: Sandy Lam Lifetime Achievement Award • Mary Wong Cantonese Opera Film Century Award • Yam Kim Fai References • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.hkfaa.14th Hong Kong Film Awards 36 Best Original Film Song Winner 追 Composer: Dick Lee Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Leslie Cheung Winning film Nominees 忘 情 水 • • • • 願 • • • • • • • • • • • — Tian Di He's A Woman.com) .

15th Hong Kong Film Awards 37 15th Hong Kong Film Awards 15th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 1996 Venue Hong Kong Cultural Centre Host(s) Ceremony for the 15th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1996. Law Chi Leung — Full Throttle Jeffrey Lau — A Chinese Odyssey Part 1: Pandora's Box Jeffrey Lau — A Chinese Odyssey Part 2: Cinderella Raymond To — The Umbrella Story Chan Man Keung Summer Snow • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Andy Lau — Full Throttle Steven Chow — A Chinese Odyssey Part 2: Cinderella Chow Yun-fat — Peace Hotel Jackie Chan — Rumble in the Bronx Roy Chiao Summer Snow • • • • . Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Summer Snow • • • • The Day the Sun Turned Cold Full Throttle Fallen Angels Rumble in the Bronx Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Ann Hui Summer Snow • • • • Derek Yee — Full Throttle Wong Kar-wai — Fallen Angels Yim Ho — The Day the Sun Turned Cold Johnnie To — Loving You Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Derek Yee.

.15th Hong Kong Film Awards 38 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Fung Bo Bo — Mother of a Different Kind Chingmy Yau — I'm Your Birthday Cake Cecilia Yip — Peace Hotel Anita Mui — Rumble in the Bronx Josephine Siao Summer Snow • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Chin Kar-lok — Full Throttle Jordan Chan — Heaven Can't Wait Eric Kot — Love in the Time of Twilight Law Kar-ying Summer Snow • • • • Dayo Wong — The Day That Doesn't Exist Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Law Koon Lan — Summer Snow Law Koon Lan — The Umbrella Story Ha Ping — Full Throttle Francoise Yip — Rumble in the Bronx Karen Mok Fallen Angels • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Kelly Chen — Whatever Will Be. Will Be Chan Man Lai — Fallen Angels Allen Ting — Summer Snow Gigi Leung — Full Throttle Francoise Yip — Rumble in the Bronx Eric Moo Those Were the Days. • • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Wong Wing Hang — Peace Hotel Peter Pau — The Phantom Lover Arthur Wong — A Touch of Evil Christopher Doyle Fallen Angels • • • • Andrew Lau — I'm Your Birthday Cake ..

Joseph Wong Wai Nin. Roel Garcia Winning film Nominees Fallen Angels • • • • Cacine Wong. Mung Hoi. Wong Ming Lam — Fallen Angels Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Yee Chung-Man. Raymond Wong Ying Wah — Love in the Time of Twilight Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees . Yuen Tak — My Father is a Hero Bruce Law — Full Throttle Rumble in the Bronx • • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Frankie Chan.15th Hong Kong Film Awards 39 Best Film Editing Winner Kwong Chi Leung Winning film Nominees Full Throttle • • • • Peter Cheung — Rumble in the Bronx Wong Yee Shun — Summer Snow David Wu Dai Wai — The Phantom Lover William Chang Suk Ping. Jackie Chan Winning film Nominees Yuen Bun. Stephen Tung — The Blade Jackie Chan Stunt Team. Sammo Hung Stunt Team — Thunderbolt Corey Yuen. Alfred Yau — Peace Hotel William Chang Suk Ping — Fallen Angels Yank Wong — Summer Snow Ma Poon Chiu — The Christ of Nanjing Ma Poon Chiu The Phantom Lover • • • • Best Costume Make Up Design Winner William Chang Suk Ping. Healthy Poon — Peace Hotel Clarence Hui. Yeung Sin Ling Winning film Nominees Dora Ng — Peace Hotel William Chang Suk Ping — Fallen Angels William Chang Suk Ping — The Blade Eddie Mok — The Christ of Nanjing The Phantom Lover • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Stanley Tong. Ronald Ng — The Golden Girls Chris Babida — The Phantom Lover Wu Wai Lap.

com) .hkfaa.15th Hong Kong Film Awards 完 全 因 你 Composer: Alex San Lyricist: Erica Lee Singer: Cass Phang • Peace Hotel • 情 深 的 一 句 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • — Full Throttle 40 Composer: Chan Chi Hung Lyricist: Andy Lau Singer: Andy Lau 夜 半 歌 聲 — The Phantom Lover Composer: Leslie Cheung Lyricist: Leslie Mok Singer: Leslie Cheung Composer: Mark Lui Lyricist: Chow Lai Mau Singer: Kelly Chen 一 切 很 美 , 只 因 有你 — Whatever Will Be. Will Be 只 愛 你 — Hong Kong Graffiti Composer: John Laudon Lyricist: Erica Lee Singer: Kevin Cheng References • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.

16th Hong Kong Film Awards 41 16th Hong Kong Film Awards 16th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 13 April 1997 Venue Hong Kong Cultural Centre Host(s) Lydia Shum Ceremony for the 16th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 13 April 1997 in the Hong Kong Cultural Centre and hosted by Lydia Shum. sixteen winners in fifteen categories were unveiled. setting the record for the highest number of categories won by a single film. In total. with eleven and nine nominations respectively. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Entrance of the P-Side Big Bullet Police Story 4: First Strike Viva Erotica Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Benny Chan — Big Bullet Derek Yee. The nominees were announced on 24 February 1997. The front runners were Peter Chan's Comrades: Almost a Love Story and Benny Chan's Big Bullet. Law Chi Leung — Viva Erotica Derek Chiu — The Log Shu Kei — Entrance of the P-Side Peter Chan Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Raymond To — Entrance of the P-Side Chung Kai Cheung — Once Upon A Time in Triad Society Chung Kai Cheung — Once Upon A Time in Triad Society 2 Lee Chi Ngai — Lost and Found Cheung Chi Sing — Love and Sex Among the Ruins Ivy Ho Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • • . Peter Chan's Comrades: Almost a Love Story became the biggest winner for the year with nine awards. The event also marked the last time the Hong Kong Film Awards was held while under British colonial rule.

Who's the Man Anita Yuen — Entrance of the P-Side Law Koon Lan — Bodyguards of Last Governor Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Hsu Chi Viva Erotica • • • • Annie Wu — Police Story 4: First Strike Theresa Lee — Who's the Woman.16th Hong Kong Film Awards 42 Best Actor Winner Kent Cheng Winning film Nominees The Log • • • • • Lau Ching-Wan — Big Bullet Leon Lai — Comrades: Almost a Love Story Michael Wong — First Option Jackie Chan — Police Story 4: First Strike Leslie Cheung — Viva Erotica Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Josephine Siao — Entrance of the P-Side Karen Mok — God of Cookery Gong Li — Temptress Moon Sandra Ng — 4 Faces of Eve Maggie Cheung Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Jordan Chan — Big Bullet Jerry Lam — The Log Elvis Tsui — Viva Erotica Anthony Wong Chau Sang — Young and Dangerous 3 Simon Yam — To Be No. 1 Eric Tsang Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Hsu Chi Viva Erotica • • • • • Law Lan — July 13th Theresa Lee — Big Bullet Theresa Lee — Who's the Woman. Who's the Man Kristy Yeung — Comrades: Almost a Love Story Daniel Chan — Entrance of the P-Side .

Shu Kei — Entrance of the P-Side Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Yee Chung-Man — Who's the Woman. Ma Yuk Sing — Dr. Who's the Man Ma Poon Chiu.16th Hong Kong Film Awards 43 Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Arthur Wong — Somebody Up There Likes Me Arthur Wong — Big Bullet Christopher Doyle — Temptress Moon Poon Hang Sang — Shanghai Grand Jingle Ma Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Peter Cheung. Bill Lui Cho Hung — Black Mask Huang Qiagui — Temptress Moon Bruce Yu — Shanghai Grand Yee Chung-Man Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Dora Ng — Who's the Woman. Who's the Man Thomas Chan — 4 Faces of Eve Bruce Yu — Shanghai Grand William Fung. Kwan Mei Po — Black Mask Dora Ng Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Yuen Wo Ping — Black Mask Tung Wai — Shanghai Grand Tony Ching. Cheung Ka-Fai — Police Story 4: First Strike Chan Kei-Hop — First Option David Wu Dai-Wai — Somebody Up There Likes Me Kwong Chi-Leung. Wai and the Scripture Without Words Ma Yuk Sing — Big Bullet Bruce Law — First Option Stanley Tong Police Story 4: First Strike • • • • • . Yau Chi-Wai Winning film Nominees Big Bullet • • • • Peter Cheung.

Peter Kam. Jordan Chan — Who's the Woman. Chiu Tsang Hei. Anita Mui External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] . Who's the Man 有心 人 默 契 — Feel 100%. Clarence Hui — The Age of Miracles Best Original Film Song Winner 風 花雪 Composer: Mark Lui Lyricist: Chow Lai Mau Singer: Kelly Chen • Winning film Nominees 色情 男女 • • • • • • • — Viva Erotica Lost and Found • Composer: Jason Choi Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Karen Mok.16th Hong Kong Film Awards 44 Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Clarence Hui.. Once More • • • Composer: Chan Kwok Wah Lyricist: Erica Lee Singer: Sammi Cheng Composer: Leslie Cheung Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Leslie Cheung.. Duck Lau — Viva Erotica Lau Yee Tat — The Log Peter Kam — Big Bullet Chiu Tsang Hei Comrades: Almost a Love Story • • • • Chiu Tsang Hei.

17th Hong Kong Film Awards 45 17th Hong Kong Film Awards 17th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 26 April 1998 Venue Hong Kong Cultural Centre Host(s) Ceremony for the 17th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 26 April 1998. Szeto Kam-Yuen — Too Many Ways to Be No. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees The Soong Sisters Lifeline Full Alert Happy Together Made in Hong Kong • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Johnnie To — Lifeline Mabel Cheung — The Soong Sisters Ringo Lam — Full Alert Wong Kar-wai — Happy Together Fruit Chan Made in Hong Kong • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Alex Law — The Soong Sisters Johnny Mak Tong Hung — Island of Greed Wai Ka-Fai. 1 Fruit Chan — Made in Hong Kong Raymond To The Mad Phoenix • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Leslie Cheung — Happy Together Lau Ching Wan — Full Alert Tony Leung Chiu Wai Happy Together • • • • Tony Leung Ka Fai — Island of Greed Tse Kwan Ho — The Mad Phoenix . Matt Chow.

Cheung Ka-Fai — Downtown Torpedoes William Chang Suk Ping. 1 Cheung Man Biu — Downtown Torpedoes Mark Lee Ping Bin — Eighteen Springs Christopher Doyle — Happy Together Arthur Wong The Soong Sisters • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Wong Wing-Ming Winning film Nominees Lifeline • • • • Marco Mak.17th Hong Kong Film Awards 46 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Pauline Suen — Island of Greed Hsu Chi — Love Is Not a Game. Lam Nyn Ngai — Full Alert Fruit Chan — Made in Hong Kong Kwong Chi Leung. Wong Ming Lam — Happy Together . But a Joke Jacklyn Wu — Eighteen Springs Carina Lau — The Intimates Maggie Cheung The Soong Sisters • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Chang Chen — Happy Together Eric Tsang — Task Force Poon Chan Leung — The Mad Phoenix Law Kar-ying — Kitchen Jiang Wen The Soong Sisters • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Elaine Kam — The Soong Sisters Theresa Lee — The Intimates Theresa Lee — Downtown Torpedoes Michelle Yeoh — The Soong Sisters Anita Mui Eighteen Springs • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Ruby Wong — Lifeline Nicola Cheung — Cause We Are So Young Ken Wong — Downtown Torpedoes Lam Bo Lun — My Dad Is a Jerk Sam Lee Made in Hong Kong • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Wong Wing Hung — Too Many Ways to Be No.

Cho Wing — Mr. The Soong Sisters • Randy Miller • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees . Yank Wong — Eighteen Springs William Chang Suk Ping — Happy Together Ma Poon Chiu The Soong Sisters • • • • Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Silver Cheung — The Odd One Dies Dora Ng — Downtown Torpedoes William Chang Suk Ping — Happy Together Eddie Mok — Eighteen Springs Emi Wada The Soong Sisters • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Yuen Bun — Island of Greed Yuen Bun — Lifeline Sammo Hung — Once Upon a Time in China and America Jackie Chan Stunt Team. Ken Mak — Downtown Torpedoes Bruce Yu. Nice Guy Tung Wai Downtown Torpedoes • • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Cacine Wong — Too Many Ways to Be No.17th Hong Kong Film Awards 47 Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Lee King Man — Island of Greed Ma Poon Chiu. 1 Carl Wong — First Love: The Litter on the Breeze Ye Xiaogang — Eighteen Springs Peter Kam — Downtown Torpedoes Kitarō.

hkfaa.17th Hong Kong Film Awards 歡樂今 宵 Composer: Dennie Wong Lyricist: Wyman Wong Singer: Leo Ku • Cause We Are So Young • 半 生 緣 — Eighteen Springs • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Composer: Wong Kwok Lun Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Leon Lai Composer: Wu Bai Lyricist: Wu Bai Singer: Andy Lau 48 孤 星 淚 — Island of Greed 一 於 奉 陪 — Young and Dangerous 4 Composer: Duck Lau Lyricist: Richard Lam Singer: Ekin Cheng. Jordan Chan — Kitchen Composer: Yoshihide Otomo Lyricist: Cheng Kwok Kong Singer: Cass Phang 我愛 廚房 Best Sound Design Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Lifeline • • • • Island of Greed Full Alert Downtown Torpedoes The Soong Sisters Professional Achievement Award • Chor Yuen References • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.com) .

Dante Lam Winning film Nominees Beast Cops • • • • Stanley Kwan — Hold You Tight Patrick Yau — The Longest Nite Mabel Cheung — City of Glass Fruit Chan — The Longest Summer Best Screenplay Winner Chan Hing Kai. Yau Nai-Hoi. Yau Nai-Hoi — The Longest Nite Best Actor Winner Anthony Wong Winning film Nominees Beast Cops • • • • • Sonny Chiba — The Storm Riders Lau Ching Wan — The Longest Nite Tony Leung Chiu Wai — The Longest Nite Leon Lai — City of Glass Jackie Chan — Who Am I? . Gordon Chan Winning film Nominees Beast Cops • • • • Alex Law.18th Hong Kong Film Awards 49 18th Hong Kong Film Awards 18th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 25 April 1999 Venue Hong Kong Cultural Centre Host(s) Ceremony for the 18th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 25 April 1999. Chow Yin Han — Expect the Unexpected Szeto Kam-Yuen. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Beast Cops • • • • The Storm Riders The Longest Summer City of Glass Who Am I? Best Director Winner Gordon Chan. Mabel Cheung — City of Glass Fruit Chan — The Longest Summer Szeto Kam-Yuen.

18th Hong Kong Film Awards 50 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Hsu Chi — City of Glass Chingmy Yau — Hold You Tight Fiona Leung — A Hero Never Dies Sandra Ng Portland Street Blues • • • • Anita Yuen — Till Death Do Us Part Best Supporting Actor Winner Patrick Tam Winning film Nominees Beast Cops • • • • Alex Fong Chung-Sun — Your Place or Mine Eric Tsang — Hold You Tight Nick Cheung — The Conman Sam Lee — The Longest Summer Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Hsu Chi — The Storm Riders Kristy Yang — Portland Street Blues Cathy Chui — Beast Cops Amanda Lee — 9413 Hsu Chi Portland Street Blues • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Jo Koo — The Longest Summer Yoyo Mung — Expect the Unexpected Tony Ho — The Longest Summer Daniel Wu — City of Glass Nicholas Tse Young and Dangerous: The Prequel • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Arthur Wong Winning film Nominees Fuyajo • • • • Kwan Pun Leung — Hold You Tight Peter Pau — Anna Magdalena Andrew Lau — The Storm Riders Jingle Ma — City of Glass Best Film Editing Winner Marco Mak. Danny Peng Winning film Nominees Chan Ki Hop — Beast Cops Peter Cheung. Yau Chi Wai — Who Am I? Chan Chi Wai — The Longest Nite Kwong Chi Leung — Hot War The Storm Riders • • • • .

Chiu Tsang Hei — City of Glass Chiu Tsang Hei — Anna Magdalena Yu Yat Yiu.18th Hong Kong Film Awards 51 Best Art Direction Winner Yohei Taneda Winning film Nominees Fuyajo • • • • Bruce Yu — Hold You Tight Bruce Yu — City of Glass Cyrus Ho Kim Hung — The Storm Riders David Pun Chi Wai — Anna Magdalena Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Dora Ng — Anna Magdalena Yohei Taneda — Fuyajo Bruce Yu — City of Glass Lee Pik Kwan The Storm Riders • • • • Bruce Yu. Steven Tsang — A Hero Never Dies Best Action Choreography Winner Jackie Chan Winning film Nominees Who Am I? • • • • Dion Lam — The Storm Riders Bruce Law — Extreme Crisis Tung Wai — Hitman Tung Wai — Hot War Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Dick Lee. Keith Leung — Hold You Tight Lam Wah Chuen. Kenneth Bi — The Longest Summer Chan Kwong Wing The Storm Riders • • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees .

Chan & Walter Afanasieff Lyricist: Andy Lau Singer: Andy Lau 去 年 煙 花 特 別 多 — The Longest Summer Composer: Lam Wah Chuen Lyricist: Lam Wah Chuen Singer: Andy Lau Best Sound Design Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Who Am I? Beast Cops Hot War City of Glass The Storm Riders • • • • References • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.hkfaa. T.18th Hong Kong Film Awards 今 生 不 再 Composer: Dick Lee Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Leon Lai • City of Glass • 風 雲 — The Storm Riders • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Composer: Chan Kwong Wing Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Ekin Cheng Composer: Alan Tam Lyricist: Xiao Mei Singer: Aaron Kwok 52 驚變 — The Storm Riders 你 是 我的 女 人 — A True Mob Story Composer: Kenny G.com) .K.

1911 (film) 53 1911 (film) 1911 Theatrical release poster Traditional Simplified Mandarin Cantonese Directed by Produced by 辛亥革命 辛亥革命 Xīnhài Gémìng San1 Hoi6 Gaap3 Ming6 Jackie Chan Zhang Li Wang Zhebin Wang Tinyun Bi Shulin Wang Xingdong Chen Baoguang Jackie Chan Winston Chao Li Bingbing Ding Wei Written by Starring Music by Cinematography Zhang Li Huang Wei Editing by Studio Yang Hongyu JCE Movies Limited Chang Ying Film Group Corporation Shanghai Film Group Corporation Shanghai Film Studio Beijing Alnair Culture & Media Jiangsu Broadcasting Corporation Jackie Chan International Cinema Culture Holdings Xiaoxiang Film Studio China City Construction Holding Group Hebei Film Studio Tainjin North Film Group Media Asia Films Huaxia Film Distribution Media Asia Distributions (Hong Kong) Huaxia Film Distribution East Film & TV Distribution (China) • • Distributed by Release date(s) 23 September 2011 (China ) [2] 29 September 2011 (Hong Kong ) [1] Running time Country Language 125 minutes China Hong Kong Mandarin English .

Joan Chen and Hu Ge. deaths of the 72 martyrs. Li Bingbing. Chan is also the executive producer and co-director of the film. beginning with the Wuchang Uprising of 1911.[3] The film is a tribute to the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Co-stars include Chan's son Jaycee Chan. It is also Jackie Chan's 100th film in his career. followed by news of the abdication of Emperor Puyi (signed on his behalf by Empress Dowager Longyu) on 12 February 1912. also known as Xinhai Revolution and The 1911 Revolution. This film was selected to open the 24th Tokyo International Film Festival. from 27 April 1911 through military engagements between Revolutionary and Imperial forces.[5] Plot The story closely follows key events of the Xinhai Revolution.[4] Besides starring in it. Winston Chao.1911 (film) Budget US$30 million 54 1911. when Sun Yat-sen steps down and General Yuan Shikai becomes the new provisional president in Beijing on 10 March 1912. to the election of Sun Yat-sen as provisional president of the new Provisional Republic of China. and scenes of political-economic maneuvering. Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jackie Chan as Huang Xing Winston Chao as Sun Yat-sen Li Bingbing as Xu Zonghan Sun Chun as Yuan Shikai Jaycee Chan as Zhang Zhenwu Hu Ge as Lin Juemin Yu Shaoqun as Wang Jingwei Joan Chen as Empress Dowager Longyu Huang Zhizhong as Situ Meitang Jiang Wu as Li Yuanhong Ning Jing as Qiu Jin Jiang Wenli as Soong Ching-ling Mei Ting as Chen Yiying Xing Jiadong as Song Jiaoren Wei Zongwan as Yikuang Hu Ming as Liao Zhongkai Iva Law as Consort Jin Huo Qing as Tan Renfeng Qi Dao as Wu Zhaolin Dennis To as Xiong Bingkun Tao Zeru as Tang Weiyong Wang Ziwen as Tang Manrou Ye Daying as Wu Tingfang Chen Yiheng as Xu Shichang Duobujie as Feng Guozhang Zhang Zhijian as Lin Sen Xie Gang as Tang Shaoyi Liu Zitian as Hu Hanmin . is a 2011 Chinese historical drama film. with focus on General Huang Xing and Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen.

Liaoning. .[4] After half a year of intense production. where a camera rolling ceremony was held.1911 (film) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sun Jingji as Yu Peilun Michael Lacidonia as Homer Lea Gao Bin as Cai Yuanpei Wang Wang as Chen Qimei Zhao Yaodong as Zhang Taiyan Jia Hongwei as Jiang Yiwu Su Hanye as Puyi Nan Kai as Yu Zhaolong Tong Jun as Xiaodezhang Jiang Jing as Yuan Shikai's concubine A Wang Weiwei as Yuan Shikai's concubine B Wang Luyao as Yuan Shikai's concubine C Simon Dutton as Sir John Newell Jordan He Xiang as Fang Shengdong Lan Haoyu as Lin Shishuang Xu Ning as Chen Gengxin Wei Xiaojun as Red Cross Society leader Qin Xuan as Red Cross Society vice leader He Qiang as Ju Zheng Ma Yan as Liu Cheng'en Wang Ya'nan as Yuan Keding Zhang Xiaolin as Tieliang Lü Yang as Liangbi Tan Zengwei as Puwei Jack as Yubei'er Li Dongxue as Zaifeng Liu Guohua as Qing assassin Wang Kan as Ruicheng Xu Wenguang as Zhang Mingqi Zuo Zhaohe as Zheng Kun Wang Jingfeng as Tao Qisheng James Lee Guy (盖 吉 利 Gai Jili) as American representative Maxiu as British representative Canwu as German representative Duluye as French representative Attarian as French representative 55 Production Production started on 29 September 2010 in Fuxin. it wrapped on 20 March 2011 in Sanya.[5] It was released in its original version to theaters across the United States and Canada on 7 October 2011.[6] Release The film was released on 23 September 2011 in China[1] and on 29 September 2011 in Hong Kong.[2] It opened the 24th Tokyo International Film Festival on 22 October 2011. Hainan.

com/db/movies/view. [3] Smith. asp?srctype=m& contid=1575).03. chinesefilms. [6] "HKSAR Film No Top 10 Box Office: (2011. . holds 37/100. com/ ent/ movie_info.mediaasia. it currently holds a 9% "rotten" rating on Rotten Tomatoes. cn/ NEWS/ tabid/ 99/ ID/ 674091/ China-1911-gets-ready-for-debut. hkheadline.com/m/1911/) at Rotten Tomatoes • 1911 (http://www. ticket sales have been poor.com/) (US) • 1911 (http://www.com/movies/movie/v542715) at AllRovi • 1911 (http://www. [2] "辛 亥 革 命 1911" (http:/ / www. 2011-10-08. com/ news/ External links • Official website (http://www.rottentomatoes.com/1911/) (Asia) • Official website (http://www. [7] 1911 (http:/ / www.com/movies/?id=1911.21) JACKIE CHAN AT WAR HAS ADRENALIN PUMPING" (http:/ / hktopten. Ian Hayden (2012). p. . . . ISBN 978-1908215017.[8] The Economist noted that while the film was endorsed by the Chinese government officials.[9] References [1] "'China 1911' gets ready for debut" (http:/ / www.htm) at Box Office Mojo • 1911 (http://www. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 1082881--The-Xinhai-Revolution-Start-of-Filming-Ceremony). rottentomatoes. The Economist. It also noted that the film avoided sensitive topics. . blogspot. 131. economist. International Film Guide 2012. [4] "The Xinhai Revolution Start of Filming Ceremony – The Official Website of Jackie Chan" (http:/ / jackiechan. [5] ""1911" Chosen as Opening Film of Tokyo International Film Festival" (http:/ / www. com/ node/ 21531524). . aspx). indicating "generally unfavorable" reviews. globaltimes.1911 (film) 56 Reception 1911 received generally negative reviews.com/movie/1911) at Metacritic .imdb. metacritic.1911movie. such as on the reforms that led to the 1911 revolution. which uses an average of critics' reviews.metacritic. com/ movie/ 1911) at Metacritic [9] "Commemorating China’s 1911 revolution: From Sun to Mao to now" (http:/ / www. htm).com/title/tt1772230/) at the Internet Movie Database • 1911 (http://www.hkmdb. com/ 2011/ 03/ 20110321-jackie-chan-at-war-has.[7] On Metacritic.boxofficemojo. com/ m/ 1911/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes [8] 1911 (http:/ / www. cn/ 1/ 2011/ 08/ 16/ 101s4426. html).allrovi.mhtml?id=14567&display_set=eng) at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase • 1911 (http://www.

19th Hong Kong Film Awards 57 19th Hong Kong Film Awards 19th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 16 April 2000 Hong Kong Coliseum Ceremony for the 19th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 16 April 2000 in the Hong Kong Coliseum. Laurent Courtiaud. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Little Cheung The Mission Fly Me to Polaris Running Out of Time Ordinary Heroes • • • • Best Director Winner Johnnie To Winning film Nominees The Mission • • • • Sylvia Chang — Tempting Heart Ann Hui — Ordinary Heroes Ringo Lam — Victim Johnnie To — Running Out of Time Best Screenplay Winner Sylvia Chang. Juilen Carbon — Running Out of Time Fruit Chan — Little Cheung Chan Kin Chung — Ordinary Heroes Tempting Heart • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Eric Tsang — Metade Fumaca Anthony Wong — Ordinary Heroes Lau Ching Wan — Victim Francis Ng — Bullets Over Summer Andy Lau Running Out of Time • • • • . Cat Kwan Winning film Nominees Yip Kam Hung — Metade Fumaca Yau Nai-Hoi.

19th Hong Kong Film Awards 58 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Deanie Ip — Crying Heart Loletta Lee — Ordinary Heroes Gigi Leung — Tempting Heart Helena Lo Bullets Over Summer • • • • Cecilia Cheung — Fly Me to Polaris Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Ti Lung The Kid • • • • Tse Kwan Ho — Ordinary Heroes Lam Suet — The Mission Robby — Little Cheung Hui Shiu Hung — Running Out of Time Best Supporting Actress Winner Carrie Ng Winning film Nominees The Kid • • • • Elaine Jin — Metade Fumaca Elaine Jin — Tempting Heart Paw Hee Ching — Ordinary Heroes Josie Ho — Purple Storm Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Fann Wong — The Truth About Jane and Sam Yiu Yuet Ming — Little Cheung Richie Jen — Fly Me to Polaris Cecilia Cheung — King of comedy Cecilia Cheung Fly Me to Polaris • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Ross Clarkson — Victim Peter Pau — Metade Fumaca Jingle Ma. Chan Kwok Hung — Fly Me to Polaris Arthur Wong — Gen-X Cops Arthur Wong Purple Storm • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees Chan Chi Wai — The Mission Chan Chi Wai — Running Out of Time Cheung Ka Fai — Gen-X Cops Tin Sam Fat — Little Cheung Kwong Chi Leung Purple Storm • • • • .

19th Hong Kong Film Awards 59 Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Wong Bing Yiu — Metade Fumaca Mak Kwok Keung — Purple Storm Bruce Yu — Gen-X Cops Man Lim Chung Tempting Heart • • • • Elbut Poon. Ringo Fung — Ordinary Heroes Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Dora Ng Purple Storm • • • • Yee Chung-Man — Tempting Heart Dora Ng — Metade Fumaca Bruce Yu — Gen-X Cops Lee Pik Kwan — A Man Called Hero Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Lee Chung Chi — Gen-X Cops Jackie Chan. Jackie Chan Stunt Team — Gorgeous Cheng Ka Sang — The Mission Dion Lam — A Man Called Hero Tung Wai Purple Storm • • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Lam Wah Chuen. Chu Hing Cheung — Little Cheung Chung Chi Wing — The Mission Chan Kwong Wing — A Man Called Hero Peter Kam — Purple Storm Peter Kam Fly Me to Polaris • • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees .

Phyllis Cheng Wing Yuen — Bullets Over Summer Cheuk Bo Yi — Victim Kinson Tsang — Gen-X Cops Kinson Tsang — A Man Called Hero Kinson Tsang Purple Storm • • • • External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] .19th Hong Kong Film Awards Fly Me to Polaris • 星語心 願 Composer: Peter Kam Lyricist: Ko Suet Nam Singer: Cecilia Cheung • 天 煞 孤 星 — A Man Called Hero • • • • Composer: Chan Kwong Wing Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Ekin Cheng 60 愛 後餘生 — Metade Fumaca Composer: Ng Lok Shing • • Lyricist: Albert Leung • Singer: Nicholas Tse Candle Light — Fly Me to Polaris • • • Composer: Poon Hip Hing Lyricist: Poon Hip Hing Singer: Richie Jen • 泡 沬 童 真 — Little Cheung • • • Composer: Lam Wah Chuen Lyricist: Lam Wah Chuen Singer: Jo Koo Best Sound Design Winner Winning film Nominees Cuson Liu Ka Man.

2008 Sichuan earthquake 61 2008 Sichuan earthquake 2008 Earthquake 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Date Duration Magnitude Depth Epicenter Countries or regions Total damage Max. Wenchuan County in Sichuan province. 2008 >2 minutes 7.[13][14] and occurred at 02:28:01 PM China Standard Time at epicenter (06:28:01 UTC)[15] on Monday. and 374.[9] The earthquake left about 4.643 injured [9] (as of September 22.9 M w 19 kilometres (12 mi) 31°01′16″N 103°22′01″E (Yingxiu. It was the deadliest earthquake to hit China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Wenchuan. May 12. landslide.[3] The earthquake was also felt in nearby countries and as far away as both Beijing and Shanghai—1. which showed a total of 122 earthquakes occurring on the continent. killing an estimated 68.0 Ms[2][11][12] and 7.[17] USGS provided a map of Asia on May 2008. including 68. formation of landslide dams XI MM/CSIS Yes [6] 149 to 284 major over 42. Official figures (as of July 21. 2008 12:00 CST) stated that 69.222 listed as missing. 2008 18:18 CST) [7] [4][5] The 2008 Sichuan earthquake[10] or the Great Sichuan Earthquake was a deadly earthquake that measured at 8. with a focal depth of 19 kilometres (12 mi).9 Mw.056 mi) away—where office buildings swayed with the tremor. The epicenter was 80 kilometres (50 mi) west-northwest of Chengdu.636 in Sichuan province.700 kilometres (1.195 dead (21st deadliest earthquake of all time) [7][8] 18. and .[18] though the number could be as high as 11 million.98 Ms [1] [2] [3] /7.8 million people homeless. which killed at least 240.500 kilometres (932 mi) and 1.000 people. with 18.[16] It is also known as the Wenchuan earthquake (Chinese: 汶 川 大 地 震.176 injured. 2008 in Sichuan province of China. after the location of the earthquake's epicenter.197 were confirmed dead.392 missing 374. pinyin: Wènchuān dà dìzhèn).719 total 69. intensity Landslides Aftershocks Casualties May 12. Ngawa in Sichuan Province)  China Building and infrastructure damage. The large red square near the center of the map depicts the Chengdu quake in the Sichuan province. the capital of Sichuan.[19] Approximately 15 million people lived in the affected area.000 people.

Teruyuki Kato.[1] A USGS map shows that dozens of aftershocks .[3][13] The epicenter was in Wenchuan County. rupture models of the earthquake indicated displacement of up to 9 meters along a fault approximately 240 km long by 20 km deep. lasting for around 2 minutes. USGS seismologist Tom Parsons warned that there is "high risk" of a major M>7 aftershock over the next weeks or months. He pointed out that the shallowness of the epicenter and the density of population greatly increased the severity of the earthquake. a seismologist at the University of Tokyo. the earthquake tremors lasted for "about two or three minutes".42 UTC).[22] The earthquake generated deformations of the surface greater than 3 meters[23] and increased the stress (and probability of occurrence of future events) at the northeastern and southwestern ends of the fault."[25] His data also showed that the earthquake lasted about two minutes and released 30 times the energy of the Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995 in Japan. which registered at 8.000 people. 2008 Standard Time (06:28:01. Starting from Wenchuan. Strong aftershocks. Maximum displacement amounted to 9 meters.0 Ms[2][11][12] and 7. a thrust structure along the border of the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate. in the quake almost 80% of buildings were destroyed. some exceeding magnitude 6. with the majority of energy released in the first 80 sec. said that the seismic waves of the quake traveled a long distance without losing their power because of the firmness of the terrain in central China.. The rupture lasted close to 120 sec.[20] It is the 21st deadliest earthquake of all time. Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. the central government announced that it would spend 1 trillion yuan (about $146. causing new casualties and damage. On November 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale. the first one ripping about seven yards. with its main tremor occurring at 14:28:01. 80 km west/northwest of the provincial capital city of Chengdu. followed by a second one that sheared four yards. the capital of Sichuan province.1 kilometers per second 49° toward north east. According to a study by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA). The [13] focus was deeper than 10 km.2008 Sichuan earthquake the strongest since the 1950 Chayu earthquake in the country.) 62 Earthquake's results The earthquake had a magnitude of 8. China economic rebuild areas ravaged by the earthquake. According to reports from Chengdu.9 Mw. 2008. the earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault. Seismic activities concentrated on its mid-fracture (known as Yingxiu-Beichuan fracture). continued to hit the area even months after the main quake.5 billion) over the next three years to [21] (See also. stimulus program.42 China [15] on Monday May 12. 2008 In a United States Geological Survey (USGS) study. the rupture propagated at an average speed of 3. Map showing the location of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and all the aftershocks following it through May 28. rupturing a total of about 300 km.[24] Japanese seismologist Yuji Yagi at the University of Tsukuba said that the earthquake occurred in two stages: "The 155-mile Longmenshan Fault tore in two sections. preliminary occurred in a small region following the quake.[23] On May 20. which killed over 6.

Jilin and Heilongjiang were physically affected by the quake. no casualties reported.) On the night of May 12. "destructive" and X on MM.[28]  India: Tremors were felt approximately nine minutes after the earthquake in parts of India.1 on Aug 1.[5] (USGS.[34] The intensity was MM III in Taipei.9 MS.[28] • • • • • • • • • • Aftershocks Between 64 and 104 major aftershocks.000 km2 of the affected area shows a maximum liedu of XI on the China Seismic Intensity Scale (CSIS). of which 246 ranged from 4.0 MS to 5.  Mongolia: Tremors were felt approximately eight minutes after the earthquake in parts of Mongolia.1 earthquake on August 30. occupying a total of 2. both in Sichuan Province.9 MS."[6] The latest aftershock exceeding M6 occurred on August 5. residents of Chengdu worried about potential aftershocks and gathered in the street to avoid staying in buildings. the Beichuan liedu-XI zone is about 82 km long and 15 km wide along An County-Beichuan-Pingwu. the strongest aftershock measured 6. 2008. This was also the most distant earthquake known ever to be felt in Hong Kong.0 Ms to 6. See 2008 Panzhihua earthquake for details. described as "very destructive" on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS) from which CSIS drew reference. also placed maximum intensity at XI.419 km2.0 to 6.  Thailand: In parts of Thailand tremors were felt six minutes after the quake. According to Chinese official counts.[31][32] The intensity was MM III in Hanoi. Wenchuan (the town closest to the epicenter of the main quake) and Beichuan (the town repeatedly struck by strong aftershocks including one registering MS 6.[33]  Taiwan: It took about eight minutes for the quake to reach Taiwan.[28]  Nepal: Tremors were felt approximately eight and a half minutes after the quake.[28]  Russia: Tremors were felt in Tuva.0 MS to 4. 2008).[26]  Hong Kong: Tremors were felt approximately three minutes after the quake.[30]  Vietnam: Tremors were felt approximately five minutes after the earthquake in Northern parts of Vietnam. ranging in magnitude from 4. . 34 from 5. "very disastrous". (The Ms 6. were recorded within 72 hours of the main quake. 2008 in southern Sichuan province was not part of this series because it was caused by a different fault.[27][28][29] The intensity reached MM III in Hong Kong. The area with liedu X (comparable to X on EMS. "by 12:00 CST. The Yingxiu liedu-XI zone is about 66 km long and 20 km wide along Wenchuan–Dujiangyan–Pengzhou. and 8 from 6. continuing for about half a minute. using the Modified Mercalli intensity scale (CC). where the tremors continued for one to two minutes. no damage or injuries were reported. Intensities and damage area The map of earthquake intensity published by CEA after surveying 500.4 MS. 2008 there had been 42. Office buildings in Bangkok swayed for the next several minutes.719 total aftershocks.4 MS.2008 Sichuan earthquake 63 Extent of tremors Places ordered by distance from epicenter (or time of propagation) : • •  China (Mainland): All regions except Xinjiang.1.  Macau: Tremors were felt approximately three minutes after the quake.[28]  Pakistan: In parts of Northern Pakistan tremors were felt ten minutes after the quake.[4]) Two south-west-north-east stripes of liedu XI are centered around Yingxiu. November 6.[28]  Bangladesh: Tremors were felt eight and a half minutes after the quake in all parts of Bangladesh.

the Beichuan Fault and the Guanxian-Anxian Fault. This deformation also results in the extrusion of crustal material from the high Tibetan Plateaux in the west towards the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. and 4. The inter-plate relative motion caused large scale structural deformation inside the Asian continent. resulting in a thinning crust of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The epicenter was in the mountains of the Eastern Margin of Qing-Tibet Plateau at the northwest margin of the Sichuan Basin. The magnitude 7. the surface slip on Beichuan Fault was almost purely dextral strike-slip up to about 3 metres (9. China frequently suffers large According to the United States Geological Survey:[37] .144 km2. spanning three provinces and one autonomous region. This earthquake ruptured at least two imbricate structures in Longmen Shan Fault System. the seismicity of central and eastern Asia is a result of northward convergence of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Plate with a velocity of about 50 mm/y. The Longmen Shan Fault System is situated in the eastern border of the Tibetan Plateau and contains several faults. The northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin has previously experienced destructive earthquakes.5 metres (11 ft) vertical.8 ft). In the epicentral area.2008 Sichuan earthquake "disastrous") spans 3. where it was also strongly felt. According to CEA:[13] "The energy source of the Wenchuan earthquake and Longmenshan's southeast push came from the strike of the Indian Plate onto the Eurasian Plate and its northward push. The earthquake’s epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault.3 metres (7 ft 7 in) horizontal. the uplift of its landscape and an eastward extrude. The area affected by earthquakes exceeding liedu VI totals 440. causing a high degree of stress accumulation in the Longmenshan thrust formation. 1933 killed more than 9. According to the British Geological Survey:[38] The earthquake occurred 92 km northwest of the city of Chengdu in eastern Sichuan province and over 1500 km from Beijing." The earthquake occurred as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. resulting in the uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan plateaux and associated earthquake activity. along the Longmen Shan fault.442 km2. 3. Near the Sichuan Basin. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's east-northward movement meets with strong resistance from the South China Block. leading to the violent earthquake of [36] Ms 8. The convergence of the two plates is broadly accommodated by the uplift of the Asian highlands and by the motion of crustal material to the east away from the uplifted Tibetan Plateau. In the area about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northeast of the epicenter.e. The earthquake occurred as a result of motion on a northeast striking thrust fault that runs along the margin of the basin. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau.8 metres (16 ft) horizontal-perpendicular to the fault. This finally caused a sudden dislocation in the Yingxiu-Beichuan fracture. The seismicity of central and eastern Asia is caused by the northward movement of the India plate at a rate of 5 cm/year and its collision with Eurasia.5 earthquake of August 25. against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. 64 Tectonics The extent of the earthquake and after shock-affected areas lies north-east. On a continental scale.300 people. the average slip in Beichuan Fault was about 3.0. while the average slip in Guanxian-Anxian Fault was [35] about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) vertical and 2. occupying an oval 936 km long and 596 km wide.5 metres (11 ft) horizontal-parallel to the fault. i. to the west. Earthquakes of this size have the potential to cause extensive damage and loss of life.

2008 Sichuan earthquake and deadly earthquakes. In August 1933, the magnitude 7.5 Diexi earthquake, about 90 km northeast of today's earthquake, destroyed the town of Diexi and surrounding villages, and caused many landslides, some of which dammed the rivers.

65

Immediate aftermath
Office buildings in Shanghai's financial district, including the Jin Mao Tower and the Hong Kong New World Tower, were evacuated.[39] A receptionist at the Tibet Hotel in Chengdu said things were "calm" after the hotel evacuated its guests.[40] Meanwhile, workers at a Ford plant in Sichuan were evacuated for about 10 minutes.[41] The Chengdu airport was shut down, and the control tower and regional radar control evacuated. One SilkAir flight was diverted and landed in nearby Kunming as a result.[42] Cathay Pacific delayed both legs of its quadruple daily Hong Kong to London route due to this disruption in air traffic services. Chengdu airport reopened later on the evening of May 12, offering limited service as the airport began to be used as a staging area for relief operations.[43] Reporters in Chengdu said they saw cracks on walls of some residential buildings in the downtown areas, but no building collapsed.[44] Many Beijing office towers were evacuated, including the building housing the media offices for the organizers of the 2008 Summer Olympics. None of the Olympic venues were damaged.[31] Meanwhile, a cargo train carrying 13 petrol tanks derailed in Huixian County, Gansu Province, and caught on fire after the rail was distorted.[45]
USGS shake map

The outside of a warehouse in disarray following the earthquake.

All of the highways into Wenchuan, and others throughout Sichuan province, were damaged, resulting in delayed arrival of the rescue troops.[46][47] In Beichuan county, 80% of the buildings collapsed according to Xinhua News.[48] In the city of Shifang, the collapse of two chemical plants led to leakage of some 80 tons of liquid ammonia, with hundreds of people reported buried.[49] In the city of Dujiangyan, south-east of the epicenter, a whole school collapsed with 900 students buried and 50 dead. The Juyuan Middle School, where many teenagers were buried, was excavated by civilians and cranes.[50] Dujiangyan is home of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System, an ancient water diversion project which is still in use and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The project's famous Fish Mouth was cracked but not severely damaged otherwise.[51]

The Miaoziping Bridge of Dujiangyan Wenchuan Expressway was damaged in the earthquake.

2008 Sichuan earthquake Both the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange suspended trading of companies based in southwestern China. Copper rose over speculations that production in southwestern China may be affected,[53] and oil prices dropped over speculations that demand from China would fall.[54] Immediately after the earthquake event, mobile and terrestrial telecommunications were cut to the affected and surrounding area, with all internet capabilities cut to the Sichuan area too. Elements of telecommunications were restored by the government piece by piece over the next number of months as the situation in the Sichuan province gradually improved. Eventually, a handful of major news and media websites were made accessible online in the region, albeit with dramatically pared back webpages.

66

A bank building in Beichuan after the earthquake. A girl was found in the ruins 102 hours (4 days, 6 [52] hours) after the earthquake.

China Mobile had more than 2,300 base stations suspended due to power disruption or severe telecommunication traffic congestion. Half of the wireless communications were lost in the Sichuan province. China Unicom's service in [55][56][57] Wenchuan and four nearby counties was cut off, with more than 700 towers suspended. Initially, officials were unable to contact the Wolong National Nature Reserve, home to around 280 giant pandas.[58] However, China's Foreign Ministry later said that a group of 31 British tourists visiting the Wolong panda reserve in the quake-hit area returned safe and uninjured to the provincial capital. Nonetheless, the well-being of an even greater number of pandas in the neighbouring panda reserves remained unknown. Five security guards at the reserve were killed by the earthquake.[59] Six pandas escaped after their enclosures were damaged. By May 20, two pandas at the reserve were found to be A single door frame bearing a portrait of injured, while the search continued for another two adult pandas that Chairman Mao remained standing in a pile of went missing after the quake.[60] By May 28, 2008, one panda was still debris. missing.[61] The missing panda was later found dead under the rubble [62] of an enclosure. Nine-year-old Mao Mao, a mother of five at the breeding center, was discovered on Monday, her body crushed by a wall in her enclosure. Panda keepers and other workers placed her remains in a small wooden crate and buried her outside the breeding centre. The Zipingpu Hydropower Plant (simplified Chinese: 紫 坪 铺 水 库; traditional Chinese: 紫 坪 鋪 水 庫) located 20 km east of the epicenter was damaged. A recent inspection indicated that the damage was less severe than initially feared, and it remains structurally stable and safe.[63] The Tulong reservoir upstream is in danger of collapse. About 2,000 troops have been allocated to Zipingpu, trying to release the pressure through spillway. In total, 391 dams, most of them small, were reported damaged by the quake.[64]

Casualties

2008 Sichuan earthquake

67

Region Sichuan Mianyang Ngawa Deyang

Deaths 21,963 20,258 17,121

[9]

[65] [66] [67]

Guangyuan 4,822[68] Chengdu Nanchong Ya'an Suining Ziyang Meishan Bazhong Garzê Leshan Neijiang Dazhou Liangshan Zigong Luzhou Guang'an Total Gansu Shaanxi Chongqing Henan Guizhou Hubei Hunan Yunnan Total 4,276 254 15 27 26 20 10 9 8 7 4 3 2 1 1 68,636 365 122 18 2 1 1 1 1 69,180

According to Chinese state officials, the quake caused 69,180 known deaths including 68,636 in Sichuan province; 18,498 people are listed as missing, and 374,176 injured, but these figures may further increase as more reports come in.[9][69] This estimate includes 158 earthquake relief workers who were killed in landslides as they tried to repair roads.[70] One rescue team reported only 2,300 survivors from Yingxiu, out of a total population of about 9,000.[71] 3,000 to 5,000 people were killed in Beichuan county, Sichuan province alone; in the same location, 10,000 people were injured and 80% of the buildings were destroyed. The old county seat of Beichuan was abandoned and preserved as part of the Beichuan Earthquake Museum. Eight schools were toppled in Dujiangyan.[72] A 56-year-old Taiwanese tourist was killed in Dujiangyan during a rescue attempt on the Lingyanshan Ropeway, where due to the earthquake

335 students and left another 546 children disabled.[77] The official tally of students killed in the earthquake was not released until May 7. a group of onlookers examine a collapsed building in the rain. estimated total damages exceed US$20 billion. an international reconnaissance team of engineers was dispatched to the region to make a detailed preliminary survey of damaged buildings.[78] In the aftermath of the earthquake. Swaminathan Krishnan.[9] Experts point out that the earthquake hit an area that has been largely neglected and untouched by China's economic rise. mainly birds.[73] A 4-year-old Taiwanese boy named Chu Shao-wei (simplified Chinese: 朱 绍 维. Another 700 students were buried in a school in Hanwang. pinyin: Zhū Shàowéi) was also killed in Mianzhu City when a house collapsed on him[74] and another Taiwanese was reported missing.[79] 68 Property damage The earthquake left at least 5 million people without housing."[83] Swaminathan Krishnan further added: "There are very strong building codes in China. including 12.[76] Details of school casualties had been under non-governmental investigation since December 2008 by volunteers including artist and architect Ai Weiwei. although the number could be as high as 11 million.[82] Reginald DesRoches. they were not designed. so to speak. many of whom have little or no insurance: "The government should be responsible for providing medical treatment to them. But many of these buildings presumably were quite old and probably were not built . In Mianyang City. which take care of earthquake issues and seismic design issues. traditional Chinese: 朱 紹 維. In the days following the disaster. According to the state-run Xinhua news agency. almost a year after the earthquake. 2009. Presumably. the earthquake killed 5. seven schools collapsed.5 million animals. burying at least 1. Their findings show a variety of reasons why many constructions failed to withstand the earthquake. Sichuan Province’s capital city of 4.[75] Vice Minister of Health Gao Qiang told reporters in Beijing that the "public health care system in China is insufficient. Health care is poor in inland areas like Sichuan province."[83] Rain was among the many problems affecting the area in the aftermath of the earthquake. pointed out that the massive damage of properties and houses in the earthquake area was because China did not create an adequate seismic design code until after the devastating Tangshan earthquake in 1976."[75] The Vice Minister of Health also suggested that the government would pick up the costs of care to earthquake victims." he said.[81] Catastrophe modeling firm AIR Worldwide reported official estimates of insurers' losses at US$1 billion from the earthquake.300 children and teachers died at Beichuan Middle School. At least 7. the Chinese government declared that parents who had lost their only children would get free treatment from fertility clinics to reverse vasectomies and tubal ligations conducted by family planning authorities.700 people.[84] News reports indicate that the poorer.2008 Sichuan earthquake 11 Taiwanese tourists had been trapped inside cable cars since May 13. highlighting the widening gap between prosperous urban dwellers and struggling rural people. DesRoches said: "If the buildings were older and built prior to that 1976 earthquake. In the Sichuan province a million pigs died out of 60 million total. chances are they weren't built for adequate earthquake forces. a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Georgia Tech. It values Chengdu. thousands of school children died due to shoddy construction.[80] Millions of livestock and a significant amount of agriculture were also destroyed. at around US$115 billion.[75] In terms of school casualties. Up to 1. Here. assistant professor of civil engineering and geophysics at the California Institute of Technology said: "the earthquake occurred in the rural part of China. who had been constantly posting updates on his blog since March 2009. many of the buildings were just built. with only a small portion covered by insurance.5 million people. At least 600 students and staff died at Juyuan Elementary School. rural villages were hardest hit.000 school buildings in Sichuan Province collapsed.

and destroying thousands of buildings. causing 1 death.000 homes had been rebuilt. but 1. an aftershock of 6.1 Ms aftershock (5. 69 Later casualties Strong aftershocks continued to strike even months after the main quake.0 Ms (5. such as the one above.7 Mw according to USGS) on August 1. yet another aftershock of 6.7 Mw in Ningqiang County in neighboring Shaanxi Province. the soldiers found it very difficult to get help to the rural regions of the province.[85] making the earthquake one of the costliest natural disasters in Chinese history. resulting in 1 death. 1. according to USGS) on July 23.[90][91][92] As late as August 5. two aftershocks. May 12. respectively.2 Ms earthquake in 1976.000 were under reconstruction. flew to the earthquake area to oversee the rescue work.[93] Government data Executive vice governor Wei Hong confirmed on November 21. 6 serious injuries. 32 injuries.2 M according to USGS) hit Qingchuan.1 M (6. On May 25. which covers the most serious class of natural disasters.[87] The same area suffered two more aftershocks of 5.000 troops and armed police to help [98] However. it caused 2 deaths.2 Mw in Qingchuan County and one 5.8 and 5. due to the with disaster relief work in Wenchuan County. 2008 that 19. On the same day.000 homes. China's Health Ministry said that it had sent ten emergency medical teams to Wenchuan County in southwest China's Sichuan Province. hindered rescue officials' efforts to enter the target region. in Qingchuan County. Premier Wen Jiabao. and more than 90. The National Disaster Relief Commission initiated a "Level II emergency contingency plan". as well as rock slides and a layer of mud coating on the main roads. Sichuan. causing eight deaths. The plan rose to Level I at 22:15 CST. and widespread hill slides blocking roads in the area including a national highway. suffered a 6.4 Ms according to CEA) hit northeast of the original earthquake's epicenter. including Beichuan and Wenchuan.6 and 6.94 million households were still without permanent shelter. led to the collapse of more than 420. He stated that 200. damages to over 1. one 5. China's Chengdu Military Area Command dispatched 50.[99] Persistent rain. with initial relocation of 25 townships. and blocked 25 kilometres (16 mi) of country roads.0 Mw (6.[96] Just 90 minutes after the earthquake.000 people in total were dead or missing in the earthquake.[100] .[94][95] s w Rescue efforts General Secretary and President Hu Jintao announced that the disaster response would be rapid.[88][89] Pingwu County and Beichuan County. Sichuan. who has an academic background in geomechanics.5 Mw. 345 injuries.000 homes and injured 63 people. The government spent $441 billion dollars on relief and reconstruction efforts. some estimates of the economic loss run higher than US$75 billion dollars. and 685. telecommunication interruptions.2008 Sichuan earthquake with any regulations overseeing them. collapse of 707 homes.300 schools had been reconstructed.[97] Soon afterward.065 identified schoolchildren died. two of the most devastated areas. 1000 injuries. also northeast of Wenchuan and close to the epicenter of a 7. rough terrain and close proximity of the quake's epicenter.[86] On May 27. collapse of hundreds of homes and damaging kilometers of highways."[83] Even with the five largest cities in Sichuan suffering only minor damage from the quake.

and civil aviation to over 150. reached the epicenter. bringing the total of number of aircraft deployed in relief operations by the air force. army.[113][114] 70 This elderly woman was rescued and placed on a stretcher after being trapped for over 50 hours.[104] Persistent heavy rain and landslides in Wenchuan County and the nearby area badly affected rescue efforts. along with relief supplies and communications gear. from a motorized infantry brigade under commander Yang Wenyao. northeast of Wenchuan. May 15 and arrived in Chengdu by 20:30 CST. the Red Cross Society of China said that (on May 13) "it was inconvenient currently due to the traffic problem to the hardest hit areas closest to the epicenter. China's Premier Wen Jiabao ordered the deployment of an additional 90 helicopters. a total of over 15."[102] The Red Cross Society of China also stated that the disaster areas need tents.600 troops and militia reservists from the Chengdu Military Region had joined the rescue force in the heavily affected areas. communication in the major town of Wenchuan was partly revived. 15 Special Operations Troops.[115] A rescue team .000 survivors were found. and 300 pioneer troops reached the main town of Wenchuan at about 23:30 CST. and over 300 of the Tibetan villagers were stranded in their demolished village for five days without food and water before the rescue group finally arrived to help the injured and stranded villagers down the mountain. 2008. drinking water and food. were reported ready to join the rescue effort in Sichuan as early as Wednesday. medical supplies. Approval from the PRC Government was sought. and also the evacuation of the injured and reconnaissance of quake-stricken areas. as it had not been possible to reach roads that were completely damaged or places that were blocked off by landslides. such as the object that landed on around 3. while the status of the other this vehicle. that Falling debris. and emergency aid.[110] By May 15. However.[101] Many rescue teams. resulting in China's largest ever non-combat airlifting operation.[105] At the start of rescue operations on May 12.[108] By 12:17 CST.2008 Sichuan earthquake An earthquake emergency relief team of 184 people (consisting of 12 people from the State Seismological Bureau. A direct chartered cargo flight was made by China Airlines from Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport to Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport sending some 100 tons of relief supplies donated by the Tzu Chi Foundation and the Red Cross Society of Taiwan to the affected areas. including that of the Taipei Fire Department from Taiwan. however it recommended donating cash instead of other items. Wenchuan. By 17:37 CST on May 13. hindered rescue workers' progress as [107] inhabitants (around 9. water.[103] Landslides continuously threatened the progress of a search and rescue group of 80 men.300 rescuers they attempted to cross the mountain. and the chartered flight departed Taipei at 17:00 CST. of which 60 were to be provided by the PLAAF. 150 from the Beijing Military Area Command. each carrying about 40 kg of relief supplies. The extreme terrain conditions precluded the use of helicopter evacuation. and 22 from the Armed Police General Hospital) left Beijing from Nanyuan Airport late May 12 in two military transport planes to travel to Wenchuan County.[111] The Chinese Government accepted the aid of the Tzu Chi Foundation from Taiwan late on May 13. as they tried to reach the ethnically Tibetan village of Sier at a height of 4000 m above sea level in Pingwu county.[106] A commander reported from Yingxiu town. and 30 were to be provided by the civil aviation industry. May 14.000) remained unclear. parachuted into inaccessible Maoxian County.[112] China stated it would gratefully accept international help to cope with the quake. The 1. 20 helicopters were deployed for the delivery of food.[109] On the afternoon of May 14. Tzu Chi was the first force from outside the People's Republic of China to join the rescue effort.

which resulted in the formation of "quake lakes" behind the blockages.[114] The Economist noted that China reacted to the disaster "rapidly and with uncharacteristic openness". For example. The most precarious of these quake-lakes was the one located in the extremely difficult terrain at Tangjiashan mountain. 2008.[124] Rescue efforts performed by the Chinese government were praised by the critical western media. rescue groups from South Korea. contrasting it with Burma's secretive response to Cyclone Nargis. more than 200.200 soldiers who arrived on site by foot. an Mi-26T heavy lift helicopter belonging to the China Flying Dragon Special Aviation Company was used to bring heavy earthmoving tractors to the affected location. “This is the first time [that] the Chinese media has lived up to international standards”. No-one survived. Singapore. and it was estimated that 28 of them were still of potential danger to the local people.000 people were evacuated from Mianyang by June 1 in anticipation of the dam bursting. Russia and Taiwan arrived to join the rescue effort. these massive amounts of water were pooling up at a very high rate behind the natural landslide dams and it was feared that the blockages would eventually crumble under the weight of the ever-increasing water mass. where a sluice was constructed to allow the safe discharge of the bottlenecked water.S.[129] potentially endangering the lives of millions of people living downstream.[119] During the weekend.[116] Francis Marcus of the International Federation of the Red Cross praised China's rescue effort as "swift and very efficient" in Beijing on Tuesday.2008 Sichuan earthquake from the ROC Red Cross was also scheduled to depart Taipei on a Mandarin Airlines direct chartered flight to Chengdu at 15:00 CST on May 16. 34 lakes had formed due to earthquake debris blocking and damming rivers. Air Force C-17's carrying supplies. explosive specialists and other personnel to join 1. Downstream. The Internet was extensively used for passing information to aid rescue and recovery in China.000 Chinese troops and medics were involved in the rescue effort across 58 counties and cities. which devastated that country 10 days before the earthquake. the official news agency Xinhua set up an online rescue request center in order to find the blind spots of disaster recovery.[126] Los Angeles Times praised China's media coverage of the quake of being "democratic". which included tents and generators.[125] China's openness during the media covering of the Sichuan earthquake led a professor at the Peking University to say.[120] Xinhua reported 135. As of May 27.[123] On May 31. Five tons of fuel to operate the machinery was airlifted to the site.[128] 71 The "quake lakes" As a result of the magnitude 7. a student proposed a landing spot online and it was chosen as the first touchdown place for the helicopters. Entire [130] villages had to be evacuated because of the resultant flooding.[122] Volunteers also set up several websites to help store contact information for victims and evacuees. But he added the scale of the disaster was such that "we can't expect that the government can do everything and handle every aspect of the needs". accessible only by foot or air. Japan.[118] The United States shared some of its satellite images of the quake-stricken areas with Chinese authorities. a rescue helicopter carrying earthquake survivors and crew members crashed in fog and turbulence in Wenchuan county.[117] On May 16. the US sent into China two U.9 earthquake and the many strong aftershocks. especially in comparison with Myanmar's blockage of foreign aid during Cyclone Nargis.[132] .[127] Rescue efforts also came from Jet Li's One Foundation which saw the martial arts actor Wu Jing assisting in the efforts. many rivers became blocked by large landslides.[121] After knowing that rescue helicopters had trouble landing into the epicenter area in Wenchuan.[131] This operation was coupled with the work done by PLAAF Mi-17 helicopters bringing in PLA engineering corps. as well as China's previous performance during the 1976 Tangshan earthquake.

com and Sohu.[137] Casinos in Macau closed down. the Chinese public held a moment of silence. including "Long Live China".[133] At 14:28 CST on May 19. torch through the country was scaled down.msn. were also blacked out. Cars on [134] Beijing's roads came to a halt. Macao. along with some Hong Kong stations. and many have called it the biggest display of mourning since the death of Mao Zedong. A-Ma Temple. and there was a minute of silence when the next leg started in the south-eastern city of Ruijin on the Wednesday after the quake. in Tiananmen Square. major internet portals. . Even pay television channels. Sina. Beijing. such as Channel V China.[136] After the moments of silence. Chinese video sharing websites youku and Tudou displayed a black background and only videos related to the earthquake were available on the homepage. On May 19. Foreign broadcasts in expatriate communities were suspended for the days of mourning. a week after the earthquake. also displayed banners about the earthquake and the relief efforts. crowds spontaneously burst out cheering various slogans.com. police and fire sirens. The Ningbo Organizing Committee of the Beijing Olympic torch relay announced that the relay would be suspended for the duration of the [135] Donation box for Sichuan earthquake victims.[113] Many websites converted their front page to black and white. cn. The Sichuan earthquake also proved to be a rather sensitive issue in terms of nationalistic fervor in China. showed earthquake footage. 2008. People stood silent for three minutes while air defense.2008 Sichuan earthquake 72 Reactions within China The State Council declared a three-day period of national mourning for the quake victims starting from May 19. May. vessels and trains sounded. and the horns of vehicles. It is the first time that a national mourning period had been declared for something other than the death of a state leader. Other entertainment websites. the PRC's National Flag and Regional Flags of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR were raised at half mast. or had corresponding links to earthquake donations. 2008. and servers for online computer games (such as World of Warcraft) were shut down. while broadcasting non-stop earthquake footage from CCTV-1. The route of the mourning period. with the flag at half mast throughout the mourning period. including various gaming sites. 2008. The Chinese version of MSN. displayed their logo in grayscale. All Mainland Chinese television stations. People spontaneously burst into cheering "China jiayou" and "Sichuan jiayou" afterwards. people mourned for the earthquake victims at Tiananmen Square. limited their homepages to news items and removed all advertisements. 2008.

2008 Sichuan earthquake On the evening of May 18. who stated: . no further outstanding fines would apply. and attended by a wide range of entertainment.[145] So-called "illegal children" under 18 years of age may be registered as legal replacements for their dead siblings. parents of children lost in collapsed schools complained they had yet to receive any reports. if the dead child was illegal. On May 29. citing that after the quake other nearby buildings were little damaged. however. Donations of the evening totalled 1. many families lost their only child when schools in the region collapsed during the earthquake. Singapore and Taiwan. it then saw an erosion in confidence over the school construction scandal.000 inadequately engineered schoolrooms collapsed in the earthquake. CCTV gave the biggest corporate contribution at Y50 million. On May 24. Chinese citizens have since invented a catch phrase: "tofu-dregs schoolhouses" (Chinese: 豆 腐 渣 校 舍).[146] In the aftermath of the quake. searching for clues about why they crumbled.[148][149] In the China Digital Times. a US-based news reporting group that is critical of the Chinese government.[144] Due to China's one-child policy. announced that he wished to produce a film about the earthquake. local officials in Sichuan province have lifted the restriction for families whose only child was either killed or severely injured in the disaster. but as of July 17.5 billion Chinese Yuan (US$208 million).[145] Since earthquake in 2008. many local governments promised to formally investigate the school collapses. who donated $1. Of the donations. Reimbursement would not. Furthermore. censors discouraged stories of poorly built schools from being published in the media and there was an incident where police drove the protestors away. to mock both the quality and the quantity of these inferior constructions that killed so many school children.[138] Almost at the same time in Taiwan.[147] Local officials urged them not to protest but the parents demonstrated and demanded an investigation.57 million to the victims. literary. traditional Chinese: 愛 的 奉 獻). a similarly themed programme was on air hosted by the sitting president Ma Ying-jeou. be offered for fines that were already levied.[142][143] The central government estimates that over 7. Hong Kong. government officials began inspecting the ruins of thousands of schools that collapsed.[139] 73 Collapse of schoolhouses Although the Chinese government was initially praised[140][141] for its response to the quake (especially in comparison to Myanmar's ruling military junta's blockade of aid during Cyclone Nargis). 2008. Hong Kong actor Jackie Chan. CCTV-1 hosted a special four-hour program called The Giving of Love (simplified Chinese: 爱 的 奉 献.[146] Thousands of parents around the province have accused local officials and builders of cutting corners in school construction. some parents go help school by preparing and cooking lunch for students. This kindergarten was among the many schools in the disaster region that suffered heavy structural damage. hosted by regulars from the CCTV New Year's Gala and continual coverage anchor Bai Yansong. Consequently.[150] an article reports a close analysis by an alleged Chinese construction engineer known online as “Book Blade” (书 剑 子 ). 2008 across Sichuan. business and political figures from mainland China.

government departments. The payment amounts varied from school to school but were approximately the same.000) from the county education department. one of the largest in An County. Parents and volunteers who have questioned authorities have been detained and threatened. school managers. Liu had travelled to the Shifang (什 邡) area. there’s not enough capital.. Ye Zhiping. Experts are reviewing the draft. the commission said. But these schools with their 70s-era buildings.000 yuan (US$60. using inferior grade cement. and officials ordered the Chinese news media to stop reporting on school collapses.com reported that the shoddily constructed buildings are commonly called "tofu buildings" because builders cut corners by replacing steel rods with thin iron wires for concrete re-inforcement. etc. parents were offered a package valued at 8. apparently under the propaganda bureau's instructions. has been credited [144] with proactive action that spared the lives of all 2. the National Development and Reform Commission said on May 27 that it had drafted an amendment to improve construction standards for primary and middle schools in rural areas. Because of this.[153] It was also reported that safety checks were to be carried out at schools across China after last month's earthquake.[156] Besides parents. they can’t collect huge fees. In Hanwang. the authorities set up cordons around the schools. and you can imagine what’s left over for the actual building of schools. With construction. 2008. who were mostly living in relief centres.[154] The New York Times reported that "government officials in Beijing and Sichuan have said they are investigating the collapses. One 74 . unlike schools in the cities. During a three-year period that ended in 2007. was detained on June 25. but also acknowledging the earthquake.800 USD in cash and a per-parent pension of nearly 5. will all appraise and reinforce their buildings. performed ceremonies marking the special day. major businesses. so they’re pressed for money. officials pushed parents to sign a document. add in exploitation by government officials. which forbade them from holding protests.. the principal of Sangzao Middle School in Sangzao. 2008 Geoffery York of the Globeandmail. According to the organization Human Rights in China. he oversaw a major overhaul of his school. and using fewer bricks than they should. In an acknowledgment of the weakness of building codes in the countryside. to date."[155] To limit protests. June 1.2008 Sichuan earthquake "."[151] On Children's Day. First.600 USD.[157] On May 15. Liu’s family was later told that he was being investigated on suspicion of the crime of inciting subversion. but some who refused to sign were threatened.because of our nation’s particular brand of education. Liu has been released to serve his RTL sentence outside of the labor camp. our children are fed 20 years of Marxist philosophy with Chinese characteristics—a philosophy that has nothing to say about saving lives…School construction is the worst. The surviving children. money used to widen and strengthen concrete pillars and the balcony railing of all four storeys of his school. officials used other methods of silencing: riot police officers broke up protests by parents. etc. When earthquake prevention standards are raised. He was ordered to serve one year of re-education through labor (劳 动 教 养) (RTL). Furthermore. no-one pays attention to them.323 pupils in attendance when the earthquake happened. He had also expressed his anger at “the shoddy tofu-dregs buildings”(豆 腐 渣 工 程) in a media interview. and put them online. in exchange of money. many parents went to the rubble of schools to mourn for their children. the older school buildings are suffer from inadequate protection while the new buildings have been shoddily constructed."[152] However.[144] The AP reported that "The state-controlled media has largely ignored the issue. launch preliminary inquiries and prepare for possible investigations into professional crime. Schools in poor areas have small budgets and. Liu Shaokun (刘 绍 坤). Reuters reported in June that. taken photos of collapsed school buildings. education officials. a Sichuan school teacher. as well as secure its concrete floors. During that time he obtained more than 400. 2008 for "disseminating rumors and destroying social order" about the Sichuan Earthquake. Chinese prosecutors have joined an official inquiry into ten collapsed schools during May's devastating earthquake to gain first-hand material of construction quality at the collapsed schools. if any at all.

[160] Mainland China By May 14. The association has also collected a total of $26 million in donations so far. donations were made by people from all over mainland China. and the media attention on China. There were also several concerts across the country to raise money for the survivors of the quake.[161] Other multinational firms located in China have also announced large amounts of donations.000 in financial assistance. up sharply from $159 million from May 14. gave $214. one of the country's most popular sports icons. United Daily News reported that the top ten richest people in mainland China had donated a little over 32.[162] The Red Cross Society of China flew 557 tents and 2. Houston Rockets center Yao Ming. at banks. as some of the corrupt government officials have still not been brought to justice. and an additional € 8.[163] The Sichuan Ministry of Civil Affairs said that they have provided 30.5 million yuan (US$4.[170] .500 quilts valued at 788.[166] Many donated through text messaging on mobile phones to accounts set up by China Unicom and China Mobile[167] By May 16.[169] First anniversary On May 12. to remind people of the terrible disaster. with booths set up in schools.000 yuan (US$113.[165] People also donated blood. while the many families who lost their only child. resulting in according to Xinhua long line-ups in most major Chinese cities.2008 Sichuan earthquake local was quoted in the article as saying that "the supervising agencies did not check to see if it met the national standards.000 and $71. providing close to € 40. are still seeking compensation and justice to what had happened. after which it will be frozen in time as a state earthquake relic museum. was sentenced to in prison ostensibly for his writing an article in 2007 in support of the pro-democracy movement in 1989. including $83 million from 19 countries and four international organizations. the Ministry of Civil Affairs stated that 10. The Amity Foundation already began relief work in the region and has earmarked US$143.[168] On May 16 China stated it had also received $457 million in donated money and goods for rescue efforts so far.[18] On May 15. and around gas stations."[158] In January 2010.7 billion yuan (approximately US$1. The government also opened access to the sealed ruins of the Beichuan county seat for three days.[168] Saudi Arabia was the largest aid donor to China.[159] 75 Foreign and domestic aid Because of the magnitude of the quake. On May 14. many parents were warned by the government not to stage a protest under the threat of arrest. China marked the first anniversary of the quake with a moment of silence as people across the nation remembered the dead.6 million) altogether as of May 13. According to the Times.000) to Wenchuan County.000 tents for those left homeless. the Chinese government had allocated a total of $772 million for earthquake relief so far.000.000 worth of relief materials. 2009. drawing accusations of selfishness and callousness from Chinese internet users. However questions still remain. UNICEF reported that China formally requested the support of the international community to respond to the needs of affected families.000 for disaster relief. foreign nations and organizations immediately responded to the disaster by offering condolences and assistance.5 billion) had been donated by the Chinese public. Hong Kong-based English newspaper The Standard reported that writer Tan Zuoren attempted to document shoddy construction that may have led to massive casualties in schools.000 to the Red Cross Society of China.000.[164] Following the earthquake.

Mavrodiev from the Bulgarian Academy of Science showed the possibility to predict the time of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake ±1 day.[177] predicted a 7+ magnitude earthquake to strike Ngawa Prefecture. The effect was "25 times more" than a year's worth of natural stress from tectonic movement. allowing them to move apart.[180][181][182] Some scientists have linked the earthquake to the pressure exerted by the Three Gorges Dam. Using data from the Intermagnet Lanzhou (LZH) geomagnetic observatory. to Wen's office. claiming that during a meeting on April 26. 2008. attention should be paid to the possibility of an earthquake of M ≥ 7.[173][174] In a press conference held by the State Council Information Office the day after the earthquake. ±10 days. and that no prediction notification was received before the earthquake.[172] Several other warnings were also published. and could have increased the direct pressure on it. 2008. who was also said to have predicted the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. although most have subsequently been removed from sites in mainland China. restated that earthquake prediction was a "world problem". deputy director of CEA's Seismic Monitoring Network Center.[184] • Sina.[187] • Yazhou Zhoukan reporter Jiang Xun (Chinese: 江 迅) published a featured article. Researchers have been denied access to seismological and geological data to examine the cause of the quake further. although this is disputed.[183] The controversial role of Geng Qingguo Shortly after the earthquake. precursors.[171] In 2002. geologists Lazo Pekevski from University Saints Cyril and Methodius in Skopje. On the morning of May 15. Macedonia and Strachimir Cht. and postmortems The earthquake was the worst to strike the Sichuan district in over 30 years.[185] The story could be found on some mainstream websites as late as September.[176] Seismologist Gary Gibson from the ES&S Seismology Research Centre in Melbourne. and that this prediction was dismissed by mainstream seismologists. detailing the interview with former researcher at the China Seismological Bureau. claims and debates about pre-existing short-term predictions started to surface in blogs in China and other places.[178] An article in Science suggested that the construction and filling of the Zipingpu Dam may have triggered the earthquake. Sichuan on May 8.[186] • During an interview shown on Hong Kong-based Phoenix Television. . requesting the Office of the Secretary and asking for information regarding the alleged letter from Geng Qingguo. Geng Qingguo told a reporter that he had written a confidential letter to the Chinese premier Wen Jiabao. Chinese geologist Geng Qingguo (Chinese: 耿 庆 国). natural disaster prediction expert Geng Qingguo. as was his 2006 prediction of a severe earthquake in the area.[175] geologist Zhang Xiaodong. in which Geng claimed that a confidential written report was sent to the State Seismological Bureau on April 30. 2008. causing a violent rupture.2008 Sichuan earthquake 76 Predictions. Australia told Deutsche Presse-Agentur that "I had nothing unusual at all that you would regard as precursory. The China Earthquake Administration did not give a clear response."[177] The earthquake also provided opportunities for researchers to retrofit data in order to model future earthquake predictions. a YZZK reporter telephoned the China Earthquake Administration's Chen Jianmin (Chinese: 陈 建 民). Institute of Geophysics. Chinese geologist Chen Xuezhong published a Seismic Risk Analysis study in which he came to the conclusion that beginning with 2003. 2008. and the letter was sent by personal courier to the State Council.com posted on May 13. The government had disregarded warnings about so many large-scale dam projects in a seismically active area. according to reports.[179] The chief engineer of the Sichuan Geology and Mineral Bureau said that the sudden shift of a huge quantity of water into the region could have relaxed the tension between the two sides of the fault. detailing his prediction of the approaching Sichuan earthquake. 2008.0 occurring in Sichuan Province based on statistical correlation study. though not as specific.

gov/ eqcenter/ eqinthenews/ 2008/ us2008ryan/ ) from the original on 17 May 2008. 2008. . . physicstoday. sina. gov. " Large earthquakes are common in fold and thrust belts. html). . 2008. .0 and 4. msnbc. New York Times. com/ id/ 24573168/ ).0~4. Sina. gov. 2008. cn/ 2008-05/ 18/ content_981724. Jordan. May 18.1 struck Wenchuan. org/ web/ 20080517023123/ http:/ / earthquake. org. usgs. cn/ manage/ html/ 8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/ _content/ 08_05/ 30/ 1212117488687. U. usgs. John.0" (http:/ / english. 2008. Retrieved January 24. org/ web/ 20090108162747/ http:/ / blogs. Understanding Earth. nytimes. shtml) (in Chinese).9级8次 , 最 大 震 级 为6.4 Ms (据 地 震 台 网 测 定 , 北 京 时 间2009-01-15 02:23 在 四 川 汶 川(北 纬31. usgs. [7] "Magnitude 7.0 and 6. of which 246 between M4. [2] "Magnitude of SW China earthquake revised to 8. cn/ manage/ html/ 8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/ _content/ 08_09/ 01/ 1220238314350. Retrieved September 7. html). Retrieved July 7. [10] Some early Western reports used the term Chengdu quake.000 deaths. May 12. The text in the latter appears to be an exact copy of the former.9 – Eastern Sichuan. Andrew. July 6. Retrieved July 6. Sichuan Earthquake Administration (SCEA). 8 between M6. sina. This term never picked up widely in [3] "Magnitude 7. [4] "Magnitude 7.000 people. . gov/ eqcenter/ recenteqsww/ Quakes/ us2008ryan. 2009.0~6.9 . org/ web/ 20080730064220/ http:/ / www. cn/ chengdu_earthquake.gov. html) from the original on 8 January 2009.196 fatalities and 18. org. May 12. cea. . 2008.9 – Eastern Sichuan.. May 14. 2008. gov. USGS. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cea. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 2008. Retrieved May 18. CHINA" (http:/ / earthquake. Xinhua News Agency. Another source is "Distributions and statistics of aftershocks of the M8. only updated less frequently. Earthquake. eqsc. "Chengdu Earthquake" (http:/ / chengdu. Archived (http:/ / web.com. 2008. Archived (http:/ / web. 2008. physicstoday. 2008. Retrieved December 10. 2008. [8] Jacobs.9级 地 震 余 震 区 共 发 生 42719次 余 震 , 其 中4. msn. Retrieved September 16. Archived (http:/ / web. Edward Wong. 34 between M5. usembassy-china. gov/ earthquakes/ eqinthenews/ 2008/ us2008ryan/ #summary). . 2008. "The Chengdu earthquake" (http:/ / blogs.东 经103. China" (http:/ / earthquake. php) from the original on 16 September 2008. html) (in Chinese).000 in China" (http:/ / www.9."). gov. Sichuan at 02:23 (CST) on January 15. nytimes. .usgs. cn/ manage/ html/ ff808181126bebda01126bec4dd00001/ _content/ 08_06/ 11/ 1213150920539. Retrieved January 24. 2009. August 29.1级 地 震 。 截 止2009年01月14日 12时 , 汶 川7. com/ id/ 24573168/ ) from the original on 16 May 2008. gov/ eqcenter/ eqinthenews/ 2008/ us2008ryan/ #details). cn/ manage/ html/ 8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/ _content/ 08_05/ 30/ 1212117488687. cn/ c/ 2008-07-06/ 162615881691. Archived (http:/ / web. com/ 2009/ 05/ 08/ world/ asia/ 08china. php#summary). 2003. org/ web/ 20080916235140/ http:/ / www. msn. a recent example is the great Wench-uan earthquake that hit Sichuan. org/ newspicks/ 2008/ 05/ the_chengdu_earthquake. . archive. 2008. com/ 2009/ 05/ 08/ world/ asia/ 08china. archive. com. Retrieved May 20. May 12. killing more than 80. cn/ chengdu_earthquake. 2008.. archive. [9] "Casualties of the Wenchuan Earthquake" (http:/ / news. China and Hong Kong" (http:/ / earthquake. 2008.com. . "China Reports Student Toll for Quake" (http:/ / www. archive. China. 6th Edition by Grotzinger. Huang Yuanxi (May 7.g. html) (in Chinese). htm).2008 Sichuan earthquake 77 Internet video In Chinese:四 川 地 震 早 有 預 警 [188] In Chinese:四 川 大 地 震 蟾 蜍 大 逃 難 [189] Special earthquake program conducted by Hong Kong Phoenix TV anchor-person 曾 子 墨 [190] CNN video:China Earthquake Death Traps: Tofu buildings [191] CNN video on Youtube:Parents seething over the earthquake-triggered collapse of school buildings that killed their children are starting to take action [192] • Tofu Buildings Hong Kong Now TV with English subtitle [193] • • • • • References [1] "Massive quake kills nearly 10. 2008.3. Consulate General Chengdu. 2008. By 12:00 o'clock 2009-01-14 (CST). Physics Today. USGS.9. org/ newspicks/ 2008/ 05/ the_chengdu_earthquake.9. usembassy-china. Sina. usgs. html).379 missing" (http:/ / news. 12. Thomas H.719 total aftershocks. gov.0 Wenchuan earthquake (汶 川8. archive. 2009. Archived (http:/ / web. 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Retrieved May 12. html). 2002–12. com/ zh-tw/ articles/ 2008-05-13/ C1046_23016. cn/ 20080519/ 63308.323. au/ news/ world/ huge-dam-may-have-triggered-sichuan-earthquake-scientists-say/ 2009/ 02/ 03/ 1233423223292. shtml) from the original on 17 May 2008. scientists say" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Note: This article did not attempt to make any predictions about earthquakes in any specific time frame. google. html) (in Chinese). 2009). co. php/ No_precursors_to_Sichuan_quake_top_seismologist_says) from the original on 5 September 2008. China. ilib.

gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images. html) • Web site about the people and the reconstruction since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China (http://www.9 Earthquake (images included) (http://earthobservatory.html) 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony The 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony was held at the Beijing National Stadium. org/2010/2/12/china) – video report by Democracy Now! • "China Quake" documentary produced by Natural History New Zealand (http://www. Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Page (with football player David Beckham making an appearance). the closing ceremony was described by Western media as "much more lighthearted". The Ceremony also included the handover of the games from Beijing to London.cnn. Jackie Chan. • Taiwanese American singer Wang Lee Hom. net/ 2008/ 12/ china-quake-victims-parents-sue/ [193] http:/ / 75.edu/~changli/wenchuan. West Sichuan. 87/ player. Karen Mok. Joey Yung and Nicolas Tse. • Han Hong • Legendary German film composer Klaus Badelt wrote the music for the closing ceremonies. Lighting Designer Durham Marenghi illuminated the handover in Beijing. com/ China-Earthquake-Death-Traps-Tofu-Building/ id/ 2351774324 [192] http:/ / chinadigitaltimes. China (http://quake.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/05/16/ earthquake. • British singer Leona Lewis. it had also become the most-watched U.2008 Sichuan earthquake [191] http:/ / www. swf?videoname=sichuan-quake. There was also a performance organized by the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (LOCOG). handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London. Emil Chau.php3?img_id=18034&rc=3) • Earthquake Details and Facts (http://earthquake.[2] The musical acts included • Chinese mainland singer Wei Wei and Sun Nan singing Beijing Beijing (wo ai Beijing). Singaporean singer Stefanie Sun and South Korean entertainer Rain. with lighting programmed by Tim Routledge (who was in fact hidden in the London Bus) While the opening ceremony was described as an artistic and serious introduction of China's ancient past. Elspeth Hanson as the violinist and Kwesi Edman as the cellist. wenchuan. television event of all time. • Hong Kong singers Andy Lau.com/) • Compilation of BBC Videos Related to the Earthquake (http://news.S.[1] It was directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on August 24.stm) • CNN – Chinese Earthquake Entire Video Archive (http://www. flv 87 External links • MIT Report: Earthquake near Wenchuan. the Mayor of Beijing.usgs. The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture.videoproject.uk) • Lake Formation in the Aftermath of Magnitude 7. Boris Johnson.mit. truveo. also known as the Bird's Nest.video/index.democracynow. "silly" and "fun" than the opening ceremony.nasa. 2008.bbc.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7397838.com/ chinaquake.html) • Sichuan Earthquake Brings World Attention to Chinese Crackdown on Dissidents (http://www. Kelly Chen.co. 209. Guo Jinlong. 119.[5] with over 211 million American viewers tuned in to the Olympics .[3][4] By the end of the 16 days of NBC's coverage of the Beijing Olympics in the United States.co.china-quake.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2008/us2008ryan/ #details) • Sichuan Earthquake Pictures Archive (http://www.

the atmosphere reached its climax. the entire audience counted down from 10. The two heavenly drums met at the center above the stadium. Mass games performance by a troupe of drummers. bocking stilts and some riding on illuminated monowheels. to the Chinese national anthem. From "29" to "11". 2. was sung by a 224-member choir while the flag was raised. The video reviewed the exciting and memorable moments during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. The fireworks burst immediately when the countdown ended. 2. and the resonant sound of the drum seemed to come from far away. The sound of the song was mingled with the drumbeat. Two hundred performers in drum formation lined up. March of the Volunteers. Next. . 4. at 8:00 pm CST. A grand celebration was about to begin. 200 bouncing and flying men ran and did somersaults. the previous all-time record-holder. Both Arabic numerals and numbers written in Chinese characters appeared on the screen with typical patterns of minority ethnic groups as the background. together. The performers beat the heavenly drums in a unique style in magical light. passionate and dynamic. carrying performers who beat drums in unique ways. Two large heavenly drums flew from the north and south. Summoned by the drumbeat. March of the Volunteers. All lights were extinguised in the stadium. and formed four festive passages with the eight drum carts to great the guests. slowly falling down to the Main Stage and were suspended about 5 meters above the stage. 1. including a firework countdown above the National Stadium itself. The flag of People's Republic of China was raised. indicating the 29th Summer Olympics.[5] this is 2 million more than the 1996 Atlanta Games. in a circle. The soldiers then carried the flag. and sang and danced for the heavenly drums. The silver bell dancers changed into radiating wave lines coming through. 1. The heavenly drum and the drum on the ground complemented each other.[5] 88 Sequence of events Opening Sequence • • • • • • Fireworks prelude. Hu Jintao entered the stadium. Orange sparkling fireworks. They were followed by the entrance of British Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife. Sarah. to the flag podium and the Chinese national anthem. The People's Liberation Army prepared the national flag of China. 3.148 silver bell dancers wearing silver bells gathered around the Main Stage. Performers in translucent costumes. in a slow. Introduction of IOC members and Hu Jintao. Guided by volunteers. forming a great circle in the sky which symbolized the success of the Beijing Olympic Games. accompanied by Jacques Rogge. Eight drum carts in different shapes entered the stadium.2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony on NBC according to the Nielsen Media Research. goose-stepping march. 3. A video was played on the large screen in the north and south to explain the theme of the Closing Ceremony. Eight rotating poles swung and crossed. silver bell performers danced in time to the beat of the heavenly drums on the Main Stage to greet the guests. With 60 light wheels shuttling. on the steps of the Main Stage. They danced and beat drums while looking up at the sky. A grand celebration began: 1. highlights of this Olympic Games were shown with countdown numbers on the screen. Accompanied by sound effects. Synopsis The countdown started from "29".

the flag bearers of all delegations entered the stadium. including the flag of Kenya. Then. Count Rogge. to Count Rogge. declaring the Beijing Games "truly exceptional". Finally. After all flags were in position. the President of the BOCOG. The Chinese Flag bearer entered last and stood at the designated place. concluding by thanking everyone. Lowering of the Olympic Flag and singing of the Olympic Anthem. Synopsis At this point. French and concluding in Mandarin. divided into two groups. the Mayor of London. Welcoming of Liu Qi. a women's percussion band and two children percussion players played cheerful music.2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony 89 Entrance of the flag bearers Sequence • Flag bearers enter the stadium. • Athletes gather in the stadium. to the national anthem of the Greece as "Hymn to Liberty". The flag of the United Kingdom was raised to the British national anthem God Save The Queen. Speech by the IOC President. • Athletes enter the stadium. He was very excited as he climbed to the first position. the medal-winning athletes entered the stadium. While the athletes were entering. • Presentation of flowers to twelve volunteers by newly elected athlete representatives to the IOC Athlete Commission. Greece entering first and China entering last symbolizing the first and the most recent Summer Olympics host nations. including the national anthem of Kenya: Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu. Medal ceremony Sequence • Presentation of the final men's marathon medals. and bids (in French) for "the youth of the world to assemble four years from now in London". Speech by Liu Qi in Mandarin Chinese. were raised as the national anthem of Kenya was played. The other group (103-204). All athletes entered from four gates without differentiation of nationality. The entire stadium was in raptures. and His Excellency Count Rogge. He closes the Games. Afterwards. in English. in turn presenting it to Boris Johnson. Synopsis Led by guides and placard holders. Samuel Wanjiru received his gold medal. One group (1-102). the athletes entered the stadium in no particular order. four children led four new members of IOC Athletes' commission to walk together with four persons for the ceremony from Gate 1 to the Main Stage. headed by Greece as per tradition. the IOC President. Fireworks representing the Olympic rings. Speeches and lowering the Olympic flag Sequence • • • • Raising of the Greek national flag. the Mayor of Beijing. Returning of the Olympic Flag by Guo Jinlong. with drumming throughout the precession. Three flags. entered from Gate 3 and also stood along the main stage. entered from Gate 4 in alphabetical order and stood along the main stage. for the gold medallist Samuel Wanjiru. headed by Saudi Arabia. twelve children led twelve representatives of volunteers to walk from Gate 2 to the stage. • • • • Synopsis .

he declared that the 2008 Olympic Games were officially closed.2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony The People's Liberation Army then enter the stadium. They passed the flag to soldiers of the People's Liberation Army. • Appearance by David Beckham. opening ceremony took place there on 12 February 2010. At the center of the field. Shortly thereafter. carrying the Union Flag. the Greek national anthem "Hymn to Liberty" was performed. Finally. two "sports sculpture" performers rise gradually and show different athletic gestures slowly in the air. As the soldiers exited. involving a double-decker bus. During his speech. and slowly folds the painting scroll. An athlete about to leave walks up the boarding ladder and turns around affectionately.[6] A double-decker bus drove around the stadium to the music 'This is London' composed by Philip Sheppard and recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra. • Leona Lewis and Jimmy Page perform "Whole Lotta Love". to a score entitled 'This is London' by Philip Sheppard recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra. • The Olympic Flame was then extinguished. with events during the 2008 Olympics on-screen. the Mayor of London.[7][8] An airport electronic flight screen appeared on the large screen of the Stadium. all dressed as typical London commuters waiting for a bus by a zebra crossing. The Gherkin and the London Eye. Jimmy Page and Leona Lewis then performed the Led Zeppelin classic Whole Lotta Love and David Beckham kicked a football into the crowd of athletes accompanied by violinist Elspeth Hanson and cellist Kwesi Edman. to Count Rogge. the Mayor of Beijing. before eventually stopping and transforming into a privet hedge featuring famous London landmarks such as Tower Bridge. following a recitation of the 16 days of Olympic competition and of the Ancient Greek competition. • 10 year-old Tayyiba Dudhwala steps out of the Double Decker bus in front of the crowd and receives a ball from Erika Tham. just as the flame was about to be extinguished. Special lights cast scenes of the 16 days from the lighting of the holy flame to now onto the track in the air. the President of the IOC. a disabled dance group. the fireworks erupted again. Count Rogge and Liu Qi walked to the main stage from the VIP corridor. The Olympic flag was handed from Guo Jinlong. conveying the noble Olympic spirit. bicycles and commuters. Victoria Pendleton and Jamie Staff cycled around the stadium. The athlete on the boarding ladder looks at the burning flame in the distance. He slowly takes out an exquisite painting scroll and unfolds it. representing the Olympic rings. Eight British Army personnel then entered the stadium." was then staged by the British. the Count praised the Chinese for their warm reception and effort. A huge "holy flame" is lighted at the center of the field (396 "memory tower" performers simulate . 'With a whole Lotta love. the Royal Ballet and Candoco. • Procession of performers on an airport terminal staircase. In the dark. with two "sports sculpture" performers standing on top of it and showing various athletic gestures. • A British modern cultural performance. holding the national flag of Greece. The rim of the bowl changed into a red track. Beckham kicked a ceremonial football into the rows of volunteers. The flag was raised and the British national anthem God Save The Queen was played. In special-effect lighting. the boarding ladder truck with the logo of Beijing Olympic Games is slowly elevated. then walks onto people to return back to the bus. the soldiers slowly lowered the Olympic Flag and held it. While the Greek flag was being hoisted. The Olympic flag was next raised again at the next Winter Olympic games in Vancouver. He also stated that the Beijing Games were "truly exceptional". whilst Olympic Champions Sir Chris Hoy. 90 Presentation of the 2012 Summer Olympics Sequence • Eight minutes of presentation of the 2012 London Olympics. a huge mechanic device — the "memory tower" at the center of the field — rises slowly. Synopsis A demonstration entitled "From London. It featured the urban dance group ZooNation. It was then handed to Boris Johnson.

• Song Surpass It • Song Please Stay. forming a spectacular dance circle. Finally. interacting with the athletes. the 2008 Olympic logo.2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony the flame with their bodies) as the Olympic flame took its final breath. Hong Kong singer Kelly Chen. The top ends of the lucky cloud yarn strips extended towards the sky and changed into a lucky cloud tree symbolizing friendship and joy. • Song "Beijing Beijing. 70 collectors of launched red silk and 200 "memory tower" performers threw the Fuwa lucky cloud yarn strips into the stadium. The closing ceremony ended at 9:55 pm CST. 75 aerobatic performers wearing luminous flight clothes performed elevation and rotation in the air. Guests from Afar". with hurdle runners on top of the pillar. Taiwanese-American singer Wang Lee Hom and Korean singer Rain. 91 Later events Sequence • Performers on a tall pillar (called the memory tower). Two Chinese and foreign singers on the mobile singing performance car went from Gate 1 to the front of the VIP corridor. Red streamers are levitated upward and reveal the performers arranged in the form of Dancing Beijing. 50 male dancers holding Fuwa lucky cloud yarn strips and paper flower launchers and 120 other dancers danced on the Main Stage in tune with the rhythm of the song. flew around the athletes and danced with all athletes in the stadium and 1. Han Xue. Han Xue. Next. At the same time. At this point. . a song full of passion. Two singers on the main stage saing the joyous and passionate song "Surpass It".000 audience members were turned on at the same time. 112 performers of minority ethnic groups. Wǒ Ài Běijīng) by Chinese singer Tan Jing. Performers then re-climb the pillar.046 marshals in tune with the rhythm of the song. there were 50 young singers together. I Love Beijing" (Běijīng Běijīng. acrobats leap from the tower by wire. Taiwanese-American singer Wang Lee Hom and Korean singer Rain sing together "Beijing. • Song The Moon is Bright Tonight. 16 lucky cloud yarn strips slowly rose along the "memory tower" on the main stage. vitality and energy. • Fireworks. Hong Kong singer Kelly Chen. symbolizing the successful conclusion of 2008 Summer Olympics. 600 female performers in festival clothes entered the stadium. I Love Beijing". At the same time. Erhu instrumental. waving arms and symbolizing the Olympic flame. • Fireworks. Farewells back to walking tonight end fun footage conclusion of closing ceremony at 9:55 PM CST. eternally not extinguished. Synopsis The torch lights in the hands of the marshals and the 90. 50 male dancers. the athlete crowds as petals. Beijing. 600 female performers in festive clothes. In the passionate far-reaching music. Then. which is then covered in huge red streamers. and sang "The Flame of Love". Chinese singer Tan Jing. seven singers walked from below the steps to the Main Stage and sang "The Moon is Bright Tonight". innumerable dazzling fireworks were launched from the top of the "bowl rim". The concert section started. • Song The Flame of Love. Guests from Afar. Roses are formed along with athletes below (with pillar as a stigma). Also. Performers group to form Chrysanthemums. During the final song "Please Stay. numerous festival fireworks formed a huge circle of fireworks.

org/ web/ 20080827143022/ http:/ / www.probably the largest live television audience in history" (Bloomberg). "as many as 4 billion" (Washington Post). com/ sports/ la-sp-olyplaschke25-2008aug25. archive. 2008-08-25. Los Angeles Times. bbc.cn) (August 24.org/todaysfrontpages/ default_archive. archive. TV event" (http:/ / web. Archived (http:/ / web. 2008-08-24. latimes.beijing2008. uk/ sport1/ hi/ olympics/ 7578133. . "Beijing Games most-watched U. Archived (http:/ / web. nytimes. org/ web/ 20070427201943/ http:/ / afgen. html?_r=1& em& oref=slogin) from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 2008) (Retrieved on August 24. html?_r=1& em& oref=slogin). This included an estimated 842 million viewers watching on host Chinese broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV). stm). Retrieved 25 August 2008. . com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3i67f2ad037eba0dd6eb8488ef3d2d5377).2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony 92 Television Estimates of the global television audience varied: "around one billion" (Reuters). "2. "The BBC" (http:/ / www. [3] "Olympics Close With a Bang and a Double-Decker Bus" (http:/ / www. co. cn/ ceremonies/ headlines/ n214582074.. org/ web/ 20080828163723/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-08-24. shtml) – The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (en. shtml). london2012. Archived (http:/ / web. beijing2008. "experts estimated . 24 August 2008. org/ web/ 20080828035029/ http:/ / www. References [1] Full Coverage: The Closing Ceremony of the 2008 Olympic Games (http:/ / en. 2008) [2] "The Number Eight And The Chinese" (http:/ / afgen. hollywoodreporter. more than two billion" (Wall Street Journal). http:/ / www. archive. latimes. . com/ documents/ locog-publications/ olympic-ho-guide-web. "Billions. com/ china8. co. uk/ london/ content/ articles/ 2008/ 06/ 17/ adrian_eight_minutes_feature.newseum. .. New York Times.. "nearly 4 billion" (Xinhua.asp?fpArchive=082508) in the Newseum archive of front page images from 2008-08-25.3 billion" (MindShare).7796513. com/ 2008/ 08/ 25/ sports/ olympics/ 25beijing. . pdf [5] [6] [7] [8] External links • 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing Closing Ceremonies (http://www. archive. "estimated 4 billion" (McClatchy). column?page=1) from the original on 28 August 2008.0. The BBC.0. .. exceeding that of the 51-58 percent who watch the network's annual closing ceremonies forms. BBC News. hollywoodreporter. column?page=1). html) from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010. com/ sports/ la-sp-olyplaschke25-2008aug25. "3 billion" (Sky News). .7796513. Retrieved 25 August 2008. with polls ranging from 63 and 69 percent of the Chinese viewing population. "Beijing bids farewell to Olympics" (http:/ / news.S. [4] "China engages in revelry at Olympics' closing ceremony" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). nytimes. Eight minute wonder (17 June 2008). bbc. com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3i67f2ad037eba0dd6eb8488ef3d2d5377) on 27 August 2008. 2008-08-05. com/ 2008/ 08/ 25/ sports/ olympics/ 25beijing. Hollywood Reporter. com/ china8.

The first winner for this category is the Japanese animated feature Spirited Away. Cecilia Yip. Pang Ho-Cheung — You Shoot. Jacqueline Pang and Cheung Tat-Ming. The year's biggest winner was Shaolin Soccer. I Shoot Jimmy Ngai — Lan Yu .21st Hong Kong Film Awards 93 21st Hong Kong Film Awards 21st Hong Kong Film Awards Date 21 April 2002 Venue Hong Kong Cultural Centre Host(s) Eric Tsang Cecilia Yip Jacqueline Pang Cheung Tat-Ming Ceremony for the 21st Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 21 April 2002 in the Hong Kong Cultural Centre and hosted by Eric Tsang. Its director and leading actor Stephen Chow clinched Best Director and a long-awaited Best Actor title after being nominated for the award seven times since 1991. bagging six awards in total. Twenty-three winners in eighteen categories were unveiled. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Beijing Rocks July Rhapsody Love on a Diet Lan Yu Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Ann Hui — July Rhapsody Ann Hui — Visible Secret Johnnie To. The 21st Hong Kong Film Awards also saw the establishment of the Best Asian Film category. open to all non-Hong Kong films commercially released in Hong Kong within the previous calendar year. Tsang Kan Cheong — Shaolin Soccer GC Goo-Bi — Merry-Go-Round Vincent Kok. Wai Ka-Fai — Love on a Diet Stanley Kwan — Lan Yu Stephen Chow Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Ivy Ho July Rhapsody • • • • Stephen Chow.

Zhang Jian — Lan Yu Arthur Wong Visible Secret • • • • . Without a Baby Lawrence Chou — Merry-Go-Round Zeny Kwok — Glass Tears Charlene Choi — Funeral March Karena Lam July Rhapsody • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Kwen Park Huen.21st Hong Kong Film Awards 94 Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Jacky Cheung — July Rhapsody Andy Lau — Love on a Diet Hu Jun — Lan Yu Liu Ye — Lan Yu Stephen Chow Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Sammi Cheng — Fighting for Love Anita Mui — July Rhapsody Sammi Cheng — Love on a Diet Sammi Cheng — Wu Yen Sylvia Chang Forever and Ever • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Patrick Tam — Born Wild David Lee — From the Queen to the Chief Executive Lam Ka-Tung — Dance of a Dream Simon Yam — Midnight Fly Wong Yat Fei Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Josie Ho — Forever and Ever Kara Hui — Visible Secret Cecilia Yip — The Avenging Fist Su Jin — Lan Yu Karena Lam July Rhapsody • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Niki Chow — Dummy Mommy. Kwong Ting Wo — Shaolin Soccer Peter Pau — Beijing Rocks Henry Chung — Peony Pavilion Yang Tao.

21st Hong Kong Film Awards 95 Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees Kai Kit Wai — Shaolin Soccer David M. The Barbarian Corey Yuen — The Avenging Fist Yuen Wo Ping. Lee Pik Kwan — The Legend of Zu Bruce Yu — Wu Yen William Chang — Lan Yu Yon Fan Peony Pavilion • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Ching Siu Tung — Shaolin Soccer Ching Siu Tung — My Schoolmate. Yuen Shun Yi — The Legend of Zu Tung Wai. Fu Delin — The Legend of Zu Bruce Yu — Wu Yen William Chang — Lan Yu Peony Pavilion • • • • Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Choy Yim Man — Shaolin Soccer William Fung. Kwan Mei Po. Yan Zhanlin Winning film Nominees Man Lim Chung — July Rhapsody Ho Kim Hung. Ku Huen Chiu. The Accidental Spy • Jackie Chan Stunt Team • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Raymond Wong — Shaolin Soccer Henry Lai — Beijing Rocks Mei Lin Mou — Midnight Fly Zhang Yadong — Lan Yu Ho Shung Chi My Life as MuDull • • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees . Richardson — Fulltime Killer Marco Mak — The Legend of Zu William Chang — Lan Yu Kong Chi Leung The Accidental Spy • • • • Best Art Direction Winner Lou Zhongguo. Yuen Bun.

Ronald To.21st Hong Kong Film Awards 終生 美 麗 Composer: Chan Fai Yeung Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Sammi Cheng • Love on a Diet • 踢出個未來 • • • — Shaolin Soccer 96 Composer: Jacky Chan Lyricist: Andy Lau Singer: Andy Lau 回 憶 之 前 , 忘 記 之 後 — Beijing Rocks • Composer: Henry Lai • Lyricist: Alex Law • Singer: Wang Feng Para Para Sakura — Para Para Sakura • • • Composer: Peter Kam Lyricist: Chan Fai Young Singer: Aaron Kwok Composer: Chan San Lie Lyricist: Yiu Him Singer: Sandy Lam • • 明 明 — Peony Pavilion • • • Best Sound Design Winner Winning film Nominees Kinson Tsang — Beijing Rocks Tu Duu Chih — Visible Secret Kinson Tsang — The Accidental Spy Martin Chappell — The Legend of Zu Kinson Tsang Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Visual Effects Winner Frankie Chung. Ting Yuen Tai. Maurice Ng Winning film Nominees Eddy Wong — 2002 Eddy Wong. Thalia Tau — The Avenging Fist Ma Man Yin. Victor Wong. Tang Wai Yuk — The Accidental Spy Eddy Wong. Joe Bauer — The Legend of Zu Shaolin Soccer • • • • Best Asian Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Spirited Away • (Japan) • • • Yi Yi: A One and a Two (Taiwan) Happy End (South Korea) Roots and Branches (China) Shower (China) External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] . Koan Hui. Ken Law. Cheung Chung Wah.

consisting of 103 Chinese films selected by a panel of 101 filmmakers. with films Kung Fu Hustle and 2046 being the year's biggest winners. In conjunction with a hundred years of the Chinese cinema. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees 2046 Breaking News One Nite In Mongkok New Police Story Kung Fu Hustle • • • • Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Wong Kar-wai — 2046 Johnnie To — Breaking News Stephen Chow — Kung Fu Hustle Benny Chan — New Police Story Derek Yee One Nite In Mongkok • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Wong Kar-wai — 2046 Gordon Chan. Chung Kai Cheong — A-1 Derek Yee One Nite In Mongkok • • • • Stephen Chow. Twenty-nine winners in nineteen categories were unveiled. Tsang Kan Cheong. a list of Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures. was also unveiled during the ceremony. Lola Huo. Chan Man Keung — Kung Fu Hustle Lilian Lee — Dumplings .24th Hong Kong Film Awards 97 24th Hong Kong Film Awards 24th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 27 March 2005 Hong Kong Coliseum Carol Cheng Lawrence Cheng The 24th Hong Kong Film Awards ceremony was held on 27 March 2005 in the Hong Kong Coliseum and hosted by Carol Cheng and Lawrence Cheng. critics and scholars.

Lai Yiu Fai. Kwan Pun Leung Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Pun Yiu Ming — Leaving Me Loving You Poon Hang Sang — Kung Fu Hustle Venus Keung Kwok Man — One Nite In Mongkok Christopher Doyle — Dumplings .24th Hong Kong Film Awards 98 Best Actor Winner Tony Leung Chiu Wai Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Stephen Chow — Kung Fu Hustle Alex Fong Chung-Sun — One Nite In Mongkok Daniel Wu — One Nite In Mongkok Jackie Chan — New Police Story Best Actress Winner Zhang Ziyi Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Sylvia Chang — Twenty Thirty Forty Yuen Qiu — Kung Fu Hustle Cecilia Cheung — One Nite In Mongkok Karena Lam — Koma Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Danny Chan Kwok Kwan — Kung Fu Hustle Chim Sui Man — Driving Miss Wealthy Daniel Wu — New Police Story Tony Leung Ka Fai — Dumplings Yuen Wah Kung Fu Hustle • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Bai Ling Winning film Nominees Dumplings • • • • Kate Yeung — Twenty Thirty Forty Maggie Shiu — Breaking News Candy Lo — Six Strong Guys Jenny Woo — Yesterday Once More Best New Performer Winner Tian Yuan Winning film Nominees Butterfly • • • • Jaycee Chan — The Twins Effect II Huang Shengyi — Kung Fu Hustle Race Wong — AB-Normal Beauty Teresa Cheung — Colour Blossoms Best Cinematography Winner Christopher Doyle.

Ho Tsz Leung — Colour Blossoms Best Action Choreography Winner Winning film Nominees Cory Yuen — The Twins Effect II Chin Kar-lok — One Nite In Mongkok Yuen Bun — Throw Down Lee Chung Chi.24th Hong Kong Film Awards 99 Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees William Chang Suk Ping — 2046 David M. Pater Wong — Dumplings Best Costume Make Up Design Winner William Chang Suk Ping Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Lee Pik Kwan — The Twins Effect II Shirley Chan — Kung Fu Hustle Yank Wong Yan Kwai. Jackie Chan Stunt Team — New Police Story Yuen Wo Ping Kung Fu Hustle • • • • Best Original Film Score Winner Peer Raben. Richardson — Breaking News Cheung Ka Fai — One Nite In Mongkok Yau Chi Wai — New Police Story Angie Lam Kung Fu Hustle • • • • Best Art Direction Winner William Chang Suk Ping. Lam Ching — Jiang Hu Man Lim Chung — Colour Blossoms Yee Chung-Man. Shigeru Umebayashi Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Mark Lui — Leaving Me Loving You Raymond Wong — Kung Fu Hustle Peter Kam — One Nite In Mongkok Surender Sodhi — Colour Blossoms Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees . Alfred Yau Wai Ming Winning film Nominees 2046 • • • • Oliver Wong Yui Man — Kung Fu Hustle Yank Wong Yan Kwai. Petra Kwok — Jiang Hu Yon Fan.

Emil Yee — The Twins Effect II Narin Visitsak — AB-Normal Beauty Victor Wong. Andy Lau Singer: Sammi Cheng — Magic Kitchen Composer: Lam Yat Fung Lyricist: Wong Wai Man Singer: Sammi Cheng 調情 Best Sound Design Winner Winning film Nominees • • • • Claude Letessier.24th Hong Kong Film Awards 咁咁咁 Composer: The Pancakes Lyricist: Brian Tse. Tu Duu Chih — 2046 Nip Kei Wing. Franco Hung Winning film Nominees Guillaume Raffi. Rob Mackenzie. Paul Pirola Best Visual Effects Winner Frankie Chung. Sonia Holst. Ho Chi Fai — New Police Story Kung Fu Hustle • • • • Best Asian Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Old Boy • (South Korea) • • • House of Flying Daggers (China) A World Without Thieves (China) Zatoichi (Japan) Quill (Japan) . Nadir Benhassaine. Benny Chan — One Nite In Mongkok Kinson Tsang — Koma Kinson Tsang — New Police Story Steven Kung Fu Hustle Ticknor. Nicolas Bonnell — 2046 Victor Wong. Steve Burgess. Tam Kai Kwan. The Pancakes Singer: The Pancakes • Mcdull. Eddy Wong. Don Ma. Prince De La Bun • 兩 個 人 的 煙 火 — Leaving Me Loving You • Composer: Mark Lui • Lyricist: Albert Leung • Singer: Leon Lai The Attractive One — The Attractive One • • • • • • • • • • • Composer: Ronald Ng Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Joey Yung 100 如 果你 有事 — Yesterday Once More Composer: Lau Cho Tak Lyricist: Albert Leung.

Prince De La Bun Professional Spirit Award • Jackie Chan External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] .24th Hong Kong Film Awards 101 Best New Director Winner Wong Ching Po Winning film Nominees Jiang Hu • • Barbara Wong Chun Chun — Six Strong Guys Toe Yuen — Mcdull.

Chun Tin Nam — 2 Young James Yuen Sai Sang.25th Hong Kong Film Awards 102 25th Hong Kong Film Awards 25th Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 8 April 2006 Hong Kong Coliseum Eric Tsang Teresa Mo Chapman To Ceremony for the 25th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 8 April 2006 in the Hong Kong Coliseum and hosted by Eric Tsang. Alan Mak — Initial D Best Screenplay Winner Yau Nai-Hoi. Lo Yiu Fai — Crazy N' the City Cheung Chi Kwong. with film Election being the year's biggest winner. Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Election • • • • Seven Swords Perhaps Love The Myth Initial D Best Director Winner Johnnie To Winning film Nominees Election • • • • Tsui Hark — Seven Swords Peter Chan — Perhaps Love Derek Yee — 2 Young Andrew Lau. Twenty-five winners in nineteen categories were unveiled. Yip Tin-Shing Winning film Nominees Election • • • • Aubrey Lam. Raymond To — Perhaps Love Derek Yee. Jessica Fong. Susan Chan Suk Yin — Wait 'Til You're Older Best Actor Winner Tony Leung Ka Fai Winning film Nominees Election • • • • Aaron Kwok — Divergence Tony Leung Ka Fai — Everlasting Regret Andy Lau — Wait 'Til You're Older Simon Yam — Election . Teresa Mo and Chapman To.

Lai Yiu Fai.25th Hong Kong Film Awards 103 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Karena Lam — Home Sweet Home Sammi Cheng — Everlasting Regret Sylvia Chang — Rice Rhapsody Zhou Xun Perhaps Love • • • • Karen Mok — Wait 'Til You're Older Best Supporting Actor Winner Anthony Wong Winning film Nominees Initial D • • • • Alex Fong Chung-Sun — Drink-Drank-Drunk Hu Jun — Everlasting Regret Liu Kai Chi — SPL Wong Tin Lam — Election Best Supporting Actress Winner Teresa Mo Winning film Nominees 2 Young • • • • Zhang Jingchu — Seven Swords Su Yan — Everlasting Regret Karena Lam — Ah Sou Maggie Shiu — Election Best New Performer Winner Jay Chou Winning film Nominees Initial D • • • • Fiona Sit — 2 Young Isabella Leong — Bug Me Not! Annie Liu — Ah Sou Michelle Ye — Moonlight in Tokyo Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Venus Keung Kwok Man — Seven Swords Peter Pau — The Promise Cheng Siu Keung — Election Andrew Lau. Ng Man Ching — Initial D Peter Pau Perhaps Love • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Yau Chi Wai Winning film Nominees Divergence • • • • Angie Lam — Seven Swords Wenders Li. Kong Chi Leung — Perhaps Love Patrick Tam — Election Wong Hoi — Initial D .

25th Hong Kong Film Awards 104 Best Art Direction Winner Yee Chung-Man. Bruce Yu. Yuen Shun Yi. Kimiya Masago — The Promise Best Action Choreography Winner Donnie Yen Winning film Nominees SPL • • • • Lau Kar Leung. Shirley Chan — Seven Swords William Chang Suk Ping — Everlasting Regret William Chang Suk Ping. Ku Huen Chiu — House of Fury Best Original Film Score Winner Peter Kam. Xiong Xinxin — Seven Swords Lee Chung Chi — Divergence Jackie Chan. Pater Wong Winning film Nominees Perhaps Love • • • • Eddy Wong — Seven Swords William Chang Suk Ping. Stephen Tung Wai. Pater Wong Winning film Nominees Perhaps Love • • • • Poon Wing Yan. Richard Hung — The Myth Yuen Wo Ping. Alfred Yau Wai Ming — Everlasting Regret Bill Lui Cho Hung — A Chinese Tall Story Timmy Yip — The Promise Best Costume Make Up Design Winner Yee Chung-Man. Stanley Tong Kwai Lai. Lee Pik Kwan — A Chinese Tall Story Timmy Yip. Leon Ko Winning film Nominees Perhaps Love • • • • Kenji Kawai — Seven Swords Joe Hisaishi — A Chinese Tall Story Lo Tayu — Election Chan Kwong Wing — Initial D Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees .

. Chun Tin Nam — 2 Young Stephen Fung — House of Fury Kenneth Bi Rice Rhapsody • • • Best Asian Film Winner Winning film N/A Kekexili: Mountain Patrol (China) Nominees • • • • Howl's Moving Castle (Japan) Three Times (Taiwan) Sympathy For Lady Vengeance (South Korea) Be With You (Japan) .25th Hong Kong Film Awards Perhaps Love Composer: Peter Kam Lyricist: Yiu Him Singer: Jacky Cheung • Perhaps Love • Endless Love — The Myth • • • • Composer: Choi Jun Young Lyricist: Choi Jun Young. Derek Yee. Cecil Cheng Man Ching. Victor Wong — A Chinese Tall Story Wang Danrong... Don Ma Wing On. He Wei — Seven Swords Kinson Tsang — Perhaps Love Eddy Wong.. Before Too Old. Kim Hee-sun 105 下 次 不 敢 — Wait 'Til You're Older Composer: Peter Kam • Lyricist: Andy Lau • Singer: Andy Lau Drifting — Initial D • • • Composer: Jay Chou Lyricist: Vincent Fang Singer: Jay Chou Composer: Joe Lei Lyricist: Joe Lei Singer: Ronald Cheng • • 無 賴 — Dragon Reloaded • • • Best Sound Design Winner Kinson Tsang Winning film Nominees Initial D • • • • Steve Brugess. Victor Wong. Bryan Cheung Winning film Nominees Initial D • • • • Peter Webb — Seven Swords Wendy Choi. Victor Wong — A Chinese Tall Story Frankie Chung Chi Hang. Tam Kai Kwan — The Promise Best New Director Winner Winning film Nominees Mathew Tang Hon Keung — Before Twenty. Roger Savage — The Promise Best Visual Effects Winner Eddy Wong. Wang Zhongyan Singer: Jackie Chan. David Tso — The Myth Eddy Wong.

Best Director. Alive and Jane Zhang. Nick Cheung and Lam Chi-chung. Besides the regular categories. Eason Chan. Twenty-six winners in nineteen categories were unveiled. Over a hundred nominees contested for seventeen categories of awards. with film After This Our Exile being the year's biggest winner. nominee Still Life (China) was withdrawn as it failed to meet the election criteria. with fourteen and ten nominations respectively.25th Hong Kong Film Awards 106 External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] 26th Hong Kong Film Awards 26th Hong Kong Film Awards Promotional poster for the 26th Hong Kong Film Awards ceremony Date Venue Host(s) 15 April 2007 Hong Kong Cultural Center Bowie Tsang Nick Cheung Lam Chi-chung Ceremony for the 26th Hong Kong Film Awards was held on 15 April 2007 in the Hong Kong Cultural Centre and hosted by Bowie Tsang. Awards Below is a complete list of winners and nominees for the 26th Hong Kong Film Awards. which won three major awards in Best Film. In the Best Asian Film category. The front runners were Curse of the Golden Flower and After This Our Exile. The nominees were announced on 1 February 2007. The year's biggest winner turned out to be After This Our Exile. which stipulate that nominees for the category must be released by means of 35 mm film. namely the Century Achievement Award (to Run Run Shaw) and the Professional Achievement Award (to Man Yun Ling). Its young actor Gouw Ian Iskandar also clinched the win for Best Supporting Actor and Best New Performer. The vacancy was filled by I Not Stupid Too (Singapore). Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Exiled Election 2 Curse of the Golden Flower Fearless After This Our Exile • • • • . and Best Screenplay. which includes twenty-six winners and over a hundred nominees in nineteen categories. two special awards were given out this year. The ceremony also featured performances by Jay Chou.

Yip Tin-Shing — Election 2 Felix Chong. Lo Yiu Fai — My Name is Fame Yau Nai-Hoi. Mathias Woo.26th Hong Kong Film Awards 107 Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Johnnie To — Exiled Johnnie To — Election 2 Zhang Yimou — Curse of the Golden Flower Jacob Cheung — A Battle Of Wits Patrick Tam After This Our Exile • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Sylvia Chang. Jessica Fong. After This Our Exile • Tian Koi Leong • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Aaron Kwok — After This Our Exile Tony Leung Chiu Wai — Confession Of Pain Chow Yun-fat — Curse of the Golden Flower Jet Li — Fearless Lau Ching Wan My Name is Fame • • • • Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Teresa Mo — Men Suddenly In Black 2 Rene Liu — Happy Birthday Isabella Leong — Isabella Angelica Lee — Re-cycle Gong Li Curse of the Golden Flower • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Simon Yam — Election 2 Nick Cheung — Election 2 Jay Chou — Curse of the Golden Flower Liu Ye — Curse of the Golden Flower Gouw Ian Iskandar After This Our Exile • • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Zhou Xun Winning film Nominees The Banquet • • • • Kelly Lin — After This Our Exile Isabella Leong — Diary Candice Yu — My Name Is Fame Kristal Tin — The Mother Is A Belly Dancer . Alan Mak — Confession Of Pain Patrick Tam. Theresa Tang — Happy Birthday James Yuen.

Richard Learoyd — Fearless Eric Kong A Battle of Wits • • • • Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Patrick Tam. • Lai Yiu Fai • • Zhao Xiaoding — Curse of the Golden Flower Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees Patrick Tam — After This Our Exile David M. Richardson — Exiled Azrael Chung — Confession of Pain Virginia Katz. Cyrus Ho — After This Our Exile Man Lim Chung — Isabella Timmy Yip — The Banquet Man Lim Chung — Confession of Pain Huo Tingxiao Curse of the Golden Flower • • • • Best Costume and Make Up Design Winner Winning film Nominees Stephanie Wong — Isabella Timmy Yip — The Banquet Man Lim Chung — Confession of Pain Tong Huamiao — A Battle of Wits Yee Chung-Man Curse of the Golden Flower • • • • Best Action Choreography Winner Yuen Wo Ping Winning film Nominees Fearless • • • • Tony Ching — Curse of the Golden Flower Stephen Tung — A Battle of Wits Donnie Yen — Dragon Tiger Gate Jackie Chan. Li Chung Chi. Jackie Chan Stunt Team — Rob-B-Hood .26th Hong Kong Film Awards Nominees Gouw Ian Iskandar After This Our Exile • • • • Huo Siyan — My Name Is Fame Pei Pei — Dog Bite Dog Betty Sun — Fearless Rob-B-Hood 108 Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Mark Lee Ping Bing — After This Our Exile Charlie Lam — Isabella Cheng Siu Keung — Exiled Andrew Confession of Pain • Lau.

Alex Lim Winning film Nominees Re-cycle • • • • Jiang Yanming — The Banquet Angela Barson. Roger Savage — Curse of the Golden Flower Steve Burgess.26th Hong Kong Film Awards 109 Best Original Film Score Winner Peter Kam Winning film Nominees Isabella • • • • Tan Dun — The Banquet Chan Kwong Wing — Confession of Pain Shigeru Umebayashi — Curse of the Golden Flower Kenji Kawai — A Battle of Wits Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees 阿 當 的 抉 擇 — The Heavenly Kings • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Composer: Davy Chan Lyricist: Li Jin Yi Singer: Alive Curse of the Golden Flower • 菊花台 Composer: Jay Chou Lyricist: Vincent Fang Singer: Jay Chou 生 日 快 樂 — Happy Birthday Composer: Chan Fai Yeung Lyricist: Albert Leung Singer: Rene Liu Composer: Tan Dun Lyricist: Fan Xueyi Singer: Zhang Liangying Composer: Jay Chou Lyricist: Vincent Fang Singer: Jay Chou 我用所有報答愛 — The Banquet 霍 元 甲 — Fearless Best Sound Design Winner Nakom Kositpaisal Winning film Nominees Re-cycle • • • • Wang Danrong — The Banquet Tao Jing. Victor Wong. He Wei — A Battle of Wits Richard Yawn — Fearless Best Visual Effects Winner Ng Yuen Fai. Emil Yee. Frankie Chung. Chas Chau. John Leonti. Sze Cheuk Wah — Curse of the Golden Flower Clement Cheng. Eddy Wong — A Battle of Wits Koan Hui — Dragon Tiger Gate .

26th Hong Kong Film Awards 110 Best New Director Winner Winning film Nominees Law Wing-Cheong — 2 Become 1 Patrick Kong — Marriage With A Fool Daniel Wu The Heavenly Kings • • Best Asian Film Winner Winning film N/A Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles (China) Nominees • • • • I Not Stupid Too (Singapore) Death Note (Japan) Crazy Stone (China) The Host (South Korea) Century Achievement Award • Run Run Shaw Professional Achievement Award • Man Yun Ling External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] .

Patrick Tam Kar-Ming. Chan Koon-Chung. Chan Wan-Man. Kam Ping-Hing — Nomad Manfred Wong — Lonely Fifteen Lee Pik-Wah — Once Upon a Mirage Li Han-Xiang — Tiger Killer .[1] Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees Ann Hui Boat People • • • • Nomad Lonely Fifteen Coolie Killer Prodigal Son Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Ann Hui Boat People • • • • David Lai — Lonely Fifteen Patrick Tam Kar-Ming — Nomad Choi Gai-Kwong — Teenage Dreamers Sammo Hung — Prodigal Son Best Screenplay Winner Winning film Nominees Yau Tai On Ping Boat People • • • • Yau Kong-Kin.2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 111 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards Date Venue Host(s) 1983 The ceremony for the 2nd Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1983. Eddie Fong Ling-Ching.

David Chung Chi-Man — Coolie Killer Wong Chung-Biu — Nomad Tong Bo-Sang — Lonely Fifteen Arthur Wong — Life After Life Arthur Wong He Lives by Night • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees Kin Kin — Boat People David Wu Dai-Wai — Coolie Killer Chow Kwok-Chung He Lives by Night • • • • Chow Kwok-Chung — Life After Life Mak Family Editing Group — Lonely Fifteen .2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 112 Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Chan Wai-Man — Crimson Street George Lam — Boat People Leslie Cheung — Nomad Karl Maka Aces Go Places • Sammo Hung Carry On Pickpocket • • Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Sylvia Chang — Aces Go Place Cherie Chung — Eclipse Cora Miao — Boat People Ma Si-San — Boat People Lam Pik-Kei Lonely Fifteen • • • • Best New Performer Winner Ma Si-San Winning film Nominees Boat People • • • • • • • Lam Pik-Kei — Lonely Fifteen Andy Lau — Boat People Chow Sau-Lan — Teenage Dreamers Cecilia Yip — Nomad Pat Ha — Nomad Irene Wan — Lonely Fifteen Irene Wan — Happy Sixteen Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Lai Sui-Ming.

Chiu Chung-Hing — The Miracle Fighters Ma Yin-Tat. Wong Seung-Hoi. Corey Yuen Kwai. Yu Hoi — Shaolin Temple Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Teddy Robin Kwan — Aces Go Places Law Wing-Fai — Boat People Chuk Hang-Him — Soul of the Wind Lam Man-Yi — Nomad Chris Babida Life After Life • • • • Best Original Film Song Winner Winning film Nominees Aces Go Places theme song • • • Composer: Sam Hui Singer: Sam Hui Composer: Nip On-Tat Happy Sixteen theme song Happy Sixteen • Composer: Chan Chau-Ha Lyricist: Lam Chun-Keung Singer: Lo Wan-Na • My Darling.2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 113 Best Art Direction Winner Tony Au Ting-Ping Winning film Nominees Boat People • • • • Yee Chung-Man. William Cheung Suk-Ping — It Takes Two William Chang Suk Ping — Nomad Wong Yui-Man — Life After Life Wong Yui-Man — He Lives by Night Best Action Direction Winner Winning film Prodigal Son Nominees Jackie Chan. Yuen Sun-Yi. Yuen Yat-Choh. Siu Hau — Legendary Weapon of China Yuen Woo-Ping. Mang Hoi — Ninja in the Dragon Den Sammo Hung Kam-Bo. Yuen Cheung-Yan. King Chue. Fung Hak-On — Dragon Lord Corey Yuen Kwai. My Goddess theme song • Lyricist: Peter Lai Bei-Tak • Singer: Alan Tam Till Death Do We Scare theme song • • Composer: Teddy Robin Kwan Lyricist: Raymond Wong Bak-Ming • • • Singer: Alan Tam Once Upon a Rainbow theme song • • Composer: Lam Man-Yi Singer: Lui On-Na . Billy Chan Wui-Ngai • • • • • Lau Kar-Leung. Yuen Biao. Poon Ching-Fuk. Lam Ching-Ying. Brandy Yuen Chun-Yeung.

com) . com/ history/ list_02. Retrieved 2011-9-2.hkfaa. Hong Kong Film Awards Association. html) (in Chinese). . hkfaa. External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards (http://www.2nd Hong Kong Film Awards 114 References [1] "第 二 屆 香 港 電 影 金 像 獎 得 獎 名 單" (http:/ / www.

Tang Wing Hung Winning film Nominees Chiu-Tai An-ping. Vampire Jackie Chan — Police Story Mabel Cheung Illegal Immigrant • • • • Best Screenplay Winner Jamie Luk. Szeto Chuk Hon — Mr. Boo Meets Pom Pom Jackie Chan — Heart of Dragon Jackie Chan — Police Story . Awards Best Film Winner Winning film Nominees N/A Police Story • • • Women Illegal Immigrant Mr. Vampire Love With a Perfect Stranger • • • • Best Actor Winner Kent Cheng Winning film Nominees Why Me? • • • • Chow Yun-fat — Women Michael Hui — Mr. Barry Wong.5th Hong Kong Film Awards 115 5th Hong Kong Film Awards 5th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 1986 Venue The Regent Hong Kong Host(s) Ceremony for the 5th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1986. Vampire Best Director Winner Winning film Nominees Stanley Kwan — Women Sammo Hung — Heart of Dragon Ricky Lau — Mr. Kit Lai — Women Ng See Yuen — The Unwritten Law Alex Law — Illegal Immigrant Wong Ying.

Madam aka Police Assassins Mark Cheng — Cupid One Billy Lau — Mr. Vampire Polly Chan Hong Kong Graffiti • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Bill Wong — Women Abdul Rumjohnn — Infatuation Peter Ngor — Mr. Vampire . Ng Fung Lam — Infatuation Cheung Yiu Chung — Mr. Vampire Cheung Yiu Tsou — Police Story Poon Hang Sang Life and Death • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Winning film Nominees Chiang Kwok Keun. Vampire Cheung Yiu Chung — Police Story Chow Cheung Kan Hong Kong Graffiti • • • Best Art Direction Winner Luk Suk Yuen Winning film Nominees Night Caller • • • • Tony Au — Women William Chang Suk Ping — Infatuation Lee King Man — My Name Ain't Suzie Lam Sai Kan — Mr.5th Hong Kong Film Awards 116 Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Clarence Fok — Let's Make Laugh II Lam Ching Ying — Mr. Vampire Billy Lau — Mr. Vampire Mang Hoi Yes Madam aka Police Assassins • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Elaine Kam — Women Polly Chan — Hong Kong Graffiti Pauline Wong — Night Caller Deanie Ip My Name Ain't Suzie • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Michelle Yeoh — Yes.

Lam Ching Ying — My Lucky Stars Sammo Hung Stunt Team — Heart of Dragon Sammo Hung Stunt Team — Mr.5th Hong Kong Film Awards 117 Best Action Direction Winner Jackie Chan Stunt Team Winning film Nominees Police Story • • • • Corey Yuen. Vampire Jury Award Winner Kent Cheng Winning film Nominees Why Me? • • Terry Tong — Hong Kong Graffiti Jamie Luk — Love With a Perfect Stranger External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] . Mang Hoi — Yes. Vampire • • • Law Wing Fai — Women Lowell Lo — Infatuation Waiorrend Lam — Heart of Dragon Best Original Film Song Winner 誰可相依 Composer: Waiorrend Lam Lyricist: Poon Yuen Leung Singer: Su Rui Winning film Nominees 最 緊 要 好 玩 — Working Class • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Composer: Sam Hui Lyricist: Richard Lam Singer: Sam Hui Composer: Lowell Lo Lyricist: Susan Tang Singer: Lowell Lo Heart of Dragon • 快樂老實人 — Infatuation 誰 能 明 白 我 — The Owl and Dumbo Composer: George Lam Lyricist: Cheng Kwok Kong Singer: George Lam Composer: Anders Nelsson Lyricist: Cheng Kwok Kong Singer: 傑 兒 合 唱 團 鬼 新 娘 — Mr. Vampire Best Original Film Score Winner Melody Bank Winning film Nominees Mr. Madam aka Police Assassins Yuen Biao.

Awards Best Film Winner Winning film N/A Nominees Eight Taels of Gold A Fishy Story All About Ah Long The Killer Beyond the Sunset • • • • Best Director Winner John Woo Winning film Nominees The Killer • • • • Johnnie To — All About Ah-Long Jacob Cheung — Beyond the Sunset Anthony Chan — A Fishy Story Mabel Cheung — Eight Taels of Gold Best Screenplay Winner Jacob Cheung. Chan Kam Cheung Winning film Nominees Ng Man Fai. Wong Chi Yat — Bachelor's Swan Song Alex Law. Wong Man Yu. Philip Cheng Chung Tai — All About Ah Long John Woo — The Killer Lip Wang Fung. Coconut . Mabel Cheung — Eight Taels of Gold Beyond the Sunset • • • • • Best Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Jackie Chan — Miracles Richard Ng — Beyond the Sunset Chow Yun-fat — God of Gamblers Chow Yun-fat All About-Ah Long • • • • • Sammo Hung — Eight Taels of Gold Michael Hui — Mr. Lau Shek Yin. Gordon Chan — The Yuppie Fantasia Derek Yee.9th Hong Kong Film Awards 118 9th Hong Kong Film Awards 9th Hong Kong Film Awards Date 1990 Venue The Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts Host(s) Ceremony for the 9th Hong Kong Film Awards was held in 1990.

Peter Pau — The Killer Bill Wong — Eight Taels of Gold Poon Hang Sang — The Iceman Cometh Peter Pau A Fishy Story • • • • Best Film Editing Winner Fan Kung Wing Winning film Nominees The Killer • • • • Peter Cheung — Miracles Wong Chi Hung — The First Time is the Last Time Chiang Kwok Kuen — My Heart Is That Eternal Rose Poon Hung — The Iceman Cometh .9th Hong Kong Film Awards 119 Best Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Carrie Ng — The First Time is the Last Time Fung Bo Bo — Beyond the Sunset Sylvia Chang — Eight Taels of Gold Sylvia Chang — All About Ah Long Carina Lau — Her Beautiful Life Lies Maggie Cheung A Fishy Story • • • • • Best Supporting Actor Winner Winning film Nominees Paul Chu Kong — The Killer Shing Fui-On — Stars & Roses Wong Kwan Yuen — All About Ah Long Tony Leung Chiu-Wai My Heart Is That Eternal Rose • • • Best Supporting Actress Winner Winning film Nominees Pauline Wong — Web of Deception Meg Lam — The First Time is the Last Time Seung Tin Ngoh — Sentenced to Hang Josephine Koo — A Fishy Story Cecilia Yip Beyond the Sunset • • • • Best New Performer Winner Winning film Nominees Sin Lap Man — The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus Wong Kwan Yuen — All About Ah Long Lung Fong — Casino Raiders Law Chi Wai — Beyond the Sunset Kwong Wah Life Goes On • • • • Best Cinematography Winner Winning film Nominees Christopher Doyle — Her Beautiful Life Lies Wong Wing Hung.

9th Hong Kong Film Awards 120 Best Art Direction Winner Winning film Nominees Eddie Ma — Miracles Luk Chi Fung — A Better Tomorrow III: Love and Death in Saigon Yank Wong — Beyond the Sunset Patrick Tam. Mang Hoi. Yuen Wah. Yuen Tak — The Iceman Cometh Brandy Yuen. Lo Sai Kit — All About Ah Long Lo Ta-yu. Sammo Hung Stunt Team — Pedicab Driver Best Original Film Score Winner Winning film Nominees Lowell Lo — A Better Tomorrow III: Love and Death in Saigon Lo Ta-yu. Eight Taels of Gold • Lo Sai Kit • Best Original Film Song Winner 憑著愛 Composer: Lowell Lo Lyricist: Poon Yuen Leung Singer: Julie Su Winning film Nominees 船歌 • • • • — Eight Taels of Gold Pedicab Driver • 飛 沙 風 中 轉 — Triads: the Inside Story • • • Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Richard Lam Singer: Chow Yun-fat Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Lo Ta-yu Singer: Chyi Yu • 阿 郎 戀 曲 — All About Ah Long • • • Composer: Lo Ta-yu Lyricist: Sam Hui Singer: Sam Hui • 午 夜 迷 牆 — The Black Wall • • • Composer: Wong Ka Kui Lyricist: Paul Wong Singer: Wong Ka Kui External links • Official website of the Hong Kong Film Awards [1] . Eddie Mok — My Heart Is That Eternal Rose Szeto Wai Yung A Fishy Story • • • • Best Action Direction Winner Jackie Chan Stunt Team Winning film Nominees Miracles • • Sammo Hung Stunt Team.

1971 (Hong Kong) 187 or 200 min Taiwan Mandarin A Touch of Zen is a 1971 Taiwanese wuxia film directed by King Hu. this version has a combined run time of 200 minutes.[1] The original Taiwanese release was in two parts in 1970 and 1971 (filming was still ongoing when the first part was released) with the bamboo forest sequence that concludes Part 1 reprised at the beginning of Part 2. Yang. Plot The story is largely seen through the eyes of Ku. A stranger arrives in town wanting his portrait painted by Ku. Although filming began in 1969. .[2] Its running time of over three hours makes it an unusually epic entry in the wuxia genre. A Touch of Zen was not completed until 1971. with a tendency towards being clumsy and ineffectual. who is a well-meaning but unambitious scholar and painter. In November 1971 both parts of the film were combined into one for the Hong Kong market with a run time of 187 minutes. claiming the Technical Grand Prize award. is befriended by Ku and together they plot against the corrupt Eunuch Wei who wants to eradicate all trace of her family after her father attempts to warn the Emperor of the eunuch's corruption. but his real objective is to bring a female fugitive back to the city for execution on behalf of the East Chamber guards. The fugitive. The film won significant critical acclaim and became the first Chinese language action film ever to win a prize at the Cannes Film Festival.A Touch of Zen 121 A Touch of Zen A Touch of Zen Film poster Traditional Simplified Mandarin Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Starring 俠女 侠女 Xiá Nǚ King Hu Hsia Wu Ling-fung King Hu Hsu Feng Shih Jun Pai Ying Roy Chiao Wu Ta-chiang Lo Ming-tao Music by Cinematography Hua Hui-ying Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language King Hu Wing Chin-chen Union Film International Film Production Union Film (Hong Kong) November 18.

where she has given birth to a child by Ku and become a nun. an image suggesting the Buddha and enlightenment. Hsu is killed and Yang and Abbot Hui are badly injured (the latter bleeding golden blood). 122 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hsu Feng as Yang Hui-ching Shih Jun as Ku Shen-chai Pai Ying as General Shih Roy Chiao as Abbot Hui Yuan Tien Peng as Ouyang Nin Cho Kin as Magistrate Miao Tian as one of Mun Ta's advisors Cheung Bing-yuk as Shen-chai's mother Sit Hon as General Lu Ting-yen Wang Shui as Mun Ta Han Ying-chieh as Chief Commander Hsu Hsien-chen Man Chung-san as Lu Chiang Liu Chu as one of the Magistrate's men Go Ming as one of the Magistrate's men Liu Chik as Mun Ta's guard Goo Liu-sek as Yang Lin Cheung Wan-man as Tao Lung Tse Chung-mau as royal messenger To Wai-wo as Mun Ta's guard Chen Shih-wei as Mun Ta's guard Hao Li-jen as woodcutter Sammo Hung as Commander Hsu's bodyguard Ng Ming-choi as East Chamber guard Billy Chan as East Chamber guard Lam Ching-ying as East Chamber guard Shan Mao as guard Lung Fei as guard Yeung Sai-gwan as monk Kei Ho-chiu as monk Poon Yiu-kwan as East Chamber guard Cheung Yee-kwai as East Chamber guard . This is plan to use a supposedly haunted site to play tricks on the guards to make believe they are prey to the undead. She tells Ku that their destiny together has ended and gives Ku their child. In the aftermath. Ku is unable to find Yang. Later.A Touch of Zen One of the unique aspects of the film is that Ku is a non-combatant all the way through the film and only becomes involved when he sleeps with Yang. when Ku and the child are tracked down by Hsu Hsien-Chen. Upon doing so. but instead becomes confident and assertive. He tracks her down to the monastery of the saintly and powerful Abbot Hui Yuan. he insists on being part of it – and even comes up with a fiendish "Ghost Trap" for the East Chamber guards. Ku walks through the carnage laughing at the ingenuity of his plan until the true cost of human life dawns on him. the evil commander of Eunuch Wei's army. After the battle. presumably Abbot Hui. whom he is told has left him and does not want him to follow her. The film famously ends with the injured Yang staggering towards a silhouetted figure. seen meditating with the setting sun forming a halo around his head. In the ensuing battle. Yang and Abbot Hui come to Ku's rescue. and when Yang's plight is revealed. he is no longer the naïve bumbling innocent.

References [1] king hu biography (http:/ / hkcinemagic.allrovi. February 20. pages 157-163. Stephen (2007).com. moody tone which enhances the sense of fantasy.sover. Macmillan. Elsewhere.A Touch of Zen • • • • • Lau Yau-bun as East Chamber guard Chiu Hing-chun as soldier Jimmy Lung as monk Moon Chuk-wa Jackie Chan (uncredited stuntman) 123 Significance The film has been hailed for its cinematography. festival-cannes." open-ended finale. html). and enlightenment. with its strong thematic focus on Buddhism. Hong Kong University Press. com/ siteanglais/ atsuihark/ kinghubio. ISBN 978-962-209-815-2. and special effects. Lynn T. The film was awarded the Technical Grand Prize and nominated for the Palme d'Or at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival. External links • A Touch of Zen (http://www. A Touch of Zen was on an influence on many films. Retrieved 2009-05-04. com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/ id/ 2184/ year/ 1975. have been interpreted as a battle between good and evil or as a parable about Buddhist religious virtues. The final battles between Hsu and Hui.com/movies/movie/v156581) at AllRovi • A Touch of Zen (http://www. "Sexing Warrior Women. ISBN 978-1-4039-7427-3. The film makes strong use of symbolism throughout and is famous for its "abstract. Peter. and the use of lens flares are associated throughout with Buddhism and Abbot Hui's convent.mhtml?id=5270&display_set=eng) at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase • Review by Dennis Schwartz (http://www.com/db/movies/view.htm) . the sun. and Tison Pugh (editors). festival-cannes.com/title/tt0064451/) at the Internet Movie Database • A Touch of Zen (http://www. and Gender in "Medieval" Cinema. htm) [2] Teo. The motif of spiderwebs is often used to symbolize the tangled and sinister nature of the East Chamber and the evil Eunuch and the manipulative nature of Yang. editing. Images of nature. Race. King Hu's A Touch of Zen. the film employs a dark.[3] Featuring stunning settings and backdrops.imdb." Located in: Ramey. including Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger. the evils of worldliness.net/~ozus/atouchofzen. ISBN 1-4039-7427-6.hkmdb. ifrance. as well as its unusually thoughtful approach to the genre. Hidden Dragon and Zhang Yimou's House of Flying Daggers. . which involve a number of mystical events. Further reading • Lorge. [3] "Festival de Cannes: A Touch of Zen" (http:/ / www. 2007. Class.

50 All in the Family (Chinese: 花 飛 滿 城 春 . Cast • • • • Jackie Chan Sammo Hung Dean Shek James Tien Overview Chan plays a rickshaw driver. his attentions are soon swayed by Spring Lady. In 2006.All in the Family (film) 124 All in the Family (film) Hua Fei Man Cheng Chun Directed by Produced by Written by Starring Mu Zhu Raymond Chow Ken Suma Jackie Chan Sammo Hung Linda Chu James Tien Dean Shek Distributed by Golden Harvest Release date(s) 8 February 1975 Country Language Box office Hong Kong Cantonese HK $1. Between them. The reunion brings old rivalries to the surface. so calls his family to his bedside. but as Lin-tze is happily married to Chang Hsun. his three sons divide Mr Hu's belongings. leaving their mother and sister with nothing. a rickshaw boy. the other one being in Shinjuku Incident. After his death. Little Tang is in love with Lin-tze.[1] . The sister starts a rumour that her mother is actually very rich. It is the only film Chan has starred in where there wasn't a single fight or stunt sequence. pinyin: Hua Fei Man Cheng Chun) is a 1975 Hong Kong adult comedy film. he is too busy to care. the three sons quickly return home and vie for their mother's favor in the hope of getting the money from her. On hearing the rumour. Information Times quoted Chan's response to an article in the Hong Kong media regarding the film. and has an eye on Little Tang. Although Ma discovers the affair. the sister and mother come up with a plan to get revenge.710. Ma. Plot A family gathers to be with its dying father.062. directed by Mu Zhu and produced under Golden Harvest productions. Spring Lady is tiring of her husband. It contains one of only two sex scenes which Chan has done. Mr Hu is dying.

asp?id=1163) • Hua Fei Man Cheng Chun (http://www. External links • All in the Family (film) at HKcinemamagic. even Marlon Brando used to be exposed in his movies. .Česko-Slovenská Filmová Databáze. but I don't think it's a big deal. ” References [1] "Hua Fei Man Cheng Chun" (http:/ / www.com/title/tt0080897/) at the Internet Movie Database ." he said. "The porn movie at that time was more conservative than the current films.imdb. The Hong Kong made movie. cz/ film/ 11386-hua-fei-man-cheng-chun/ ).All in the Family (film) 125 “ "I had to do anything I could to make a living 31 years ago." Chan said.hkcinemagic. Hong Kong citizens tipped local media that Chan was in the porn movie "All in the Family" in 1975. with a porn movie star who was famous at that time.com (http://www. directed by Zhu Mu. CSFD . was defined as a comedy. csfd. Retrieved 2007-08-29.com/en/movie.

Golden Harvest Media Asia Dimension Films • • • Release date(s) August 16.S version) Hong Kong . 1999 (United States) Running time Country 97 minutes 88 minutes (U. 1986 (Japan) January 21. 1987 (Hong Kong) September 14.Armour of God (film) 126 Armour of God (film) Armour of God Hong Kong film poster Traditional Simplified Mandarin Cantonese Directed by Produced by Written by 龍 兄虎弟 龙 兄虎弟 Lóng Xiōng Hǔ Dì Lung4 Hing1 Fu2 Dai6 Jackie Chan Eric Tsang Leonard Ho Chua Lam Jackie Chan John Sheppard Eric Tsang Jackie Chan Alan Tam Lola Forner Rosamund Kwan Michael Lai Tang Siu Lam Starring Music by Cinematography Peter Ngor Cheung Yiu Cho Bob Thompson Stephen Poon Au Kam Hung Arthur Wong Raymond Lam Fai Tai Andrew Lau Jimmy Leung Jimmy Leung Cho Wai Kei Lam Lai Hung Poon Hang Sang Chan Lok Yee Danny Lee Yau Tong Editing by Studio Distributed by Peter Cheung Golden Harvest Goldenway Films Ltd.

with an Indiana Jones-style theme. Jackie and Alan are chased and a car chase ensues. Since Lorelei is under a spell. Plot Jackie aka Asian Hawk (Jackie Chan) used to perform in a band with his friends Alan (Alan Tam) and Lorelei (Rosamund Kwan) before he was kicked out of the band by Alan. The waiter said that the kidnappers buy food and take some women on board. and starring Chan. and Jackie starts moving around Alan. and it turns out that it was not the Armour of God. When Jackie and Alan meet.Armour of God (film) Language Cantonese English German French HK $35. Alan. but Jackie says that it would have not saved Lorelei. he leaped onto a tree from a ledge. Alan walks around the marketplace carrying a bag that tricks the kidnappers. and May bring Lorelei back to their place. comedy and stunts. the kidnappers knew something suspicious about the people. Jackie decides to aid Alan in rescuing Lorelei from the evil religious cult that has stolen her in hopes of Asian Hawk delivering the last three pieces of the Armor to them as they have the other two. and tries to blend in with the people on board. . Alan. and May decide to go into the kidnappers' place. At the beginning of the film. Alan out of desperation (although unwillingly) tells Jackie of an evil cult which has kidnapped Lorelei and demands the Armour of God as ransom.408 127 Gross revenue Armour of God (Chinese: 龍 兄 虎 弟) is a 1986 Hong Kong martial arts action adventure comedy film written and directed by Jackie Chan. Jackie. Soon. Alan gets fed up with Jackie. one of the kidnappers approaches Alan and shows Alan a picture of Lorelei. With this information. Lola Forner and Rosamund Kwan. Soon. Jackie. Alan asks a waiter what the kidnappers do. At this. Jackie. but. Alan follows the kidnappers. Jackie is shown trying to sell the Armour of God via auction. and May starts the quest of bringing the whole set of the Armour of God. Jackie goes back to his hotel where he discovers a big stack of messages from Alan informing Jackie of his arrival. Alan. the kidnappers had a bunch of men hiding. The film was followed by the sequel Armour of God II: Operation Condor in 1991. Although unexpected. Alan Tam. Jackie sees the opportunity to remind Alan about their past failed friendship. Jackie bursts into action and fights the first two kidnappers. Jackie steals a sword from an African tribe that is one of the five pieces of a valuable armour known as the Armour of God. Jackie and Alan chase the first two kidnappers. they manage to get away. The trio goes to the marketplace where the kidnappers will be. The film features Chan's regular kung fu. He has a secretly placed an artificial bidder whose job is to increase the bids by bidding a few hundred dollars more than the highest bidder. but the branch he grabbed snapped. Soon. Jackie decides to find out about Alan and Lorelei and goes to the kidnappers' place. Chan came the closest he has ever been to death in this film during a relatively routine stunt. Later. who wanted Lorelei for himself. she gave Alan the same injection as herself and stole the three pieces of the Armour of God. the kidnappers give Lorelei an injection that will put her under a spell for three days and bring back the Armour of God back to the kidnappers' place. thinking it is the Armour of God. During the course of the film. Eventually. Alan starts to worry about Lorelei and the Armour of God. sending Chan plummeting and cracking his skull. Soon. the armour manages to get an astronomical bid by May Bannon. One of the kidnappers opened Alan's bag. Jackie is able to convince May Bannon and her father to borrow the three pieces with the promise that Jackie would return with all five to May's father.469. Alan is still a successful singer and Lorelei is a renowned fashion-designer. May has a sniper rifle and will watch Jackie and Alan do. Happy with his grand fortune.

Austria. despite being released before Operation Condor. Armour of God II: Operation Condor (1991) did receive a theatrical release under the simplified title Operation Condor. and slight hearing loss in one ear. Slovenia and also in Graz.Lorelei Bozidar Smiljanic . he escapes while the kidnapper's place explodes. one scene called for him to jump from a wall to a tree branch. Jackie spots a hot-air balloon with Alan. 128 Production • While shooting the famous hot air balloon jump. with a rating of 75% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. Armour of God did not get a theatrical release. As a result. Trnje (near the then-unfinished building of Croatian Radio Television).[3][4] Versions In the United States.Armour of God (film) In the kidnappers' place. After taking all of his dynamite from his Jacket.Count Bannon Ken Boyle . Lorelei and May inside. The film received positive reviews. For the shot of him jumping off the cliff the crew had to rig him up to a wire because Jackie was not experienced in BASE jumping.[1] • During filming.[2] • This film was shot mostly in former Yugoslavia: in Zagreb (Dolac Central Market. filled by a plastic plug.Alan Lola Forner . Chan was flown to the hospital and was in surgery 8 hours later. Predjama Castle near Postojna. they will not attack Jackie. Jackie frees them and ambushes the kidnappers. Jackie reveals a jacket full of dynamite underneath his jacket.[5] The film's sequel. including: .May Bannon Rosamund Kwan . instead of jumping off a cliff as is seen in the movie. Jackie finds the Armour of God in a different room and the leader of the kidnappers starts to attack Jackie with his women. Nine minutes of cuts were made to the Miramax version.408 in its theatrical run. Upper town. the branch broke and he fell 15 feet to the ground below.Grand Wizard John Ladalski . and Jackie uses a smoke signal. Armour of God was subsequently released direct-to-video by Miramax Films.witch doctor Boris Gregoric .Jackie's representative at auction Mars (extra) (uncredited) Reception At the Hong Kong box office. On his second jump. After defeating the kidnappers' leader of his women. Jackie Chan actually skydived out of a plane and landed on top of the balloon. Armour of God was Chan's biggest hit up to that point and broke all records in Hong Kong.Jackie aka Asian Hawk (doubled by Mars) Alan Tam . His head hit a rock. cracking his skull and shooting a piece of bone up into his brain. Since the leader and his men are afraid of fire. Cast • • • • • • • • • • Jackie Chan . A new musical score was created for this release. Jackie jumps off the ledge he is standing and lands on the balloon and the movie ends. the leader has all of his men attack Jackie. he now has a permanent hole in his head. but the title was somewhat confusingly changed to Operation Condor 2: The Armor of the Gods. who are "killing machines".Lama Robert O'Brien . Jackie finds Alan and Lorelei tied up.469. grossing HK $35.Miramax Films also Re-redited and re-titled as The Armour Of God. and English dubbing (with the participation of Chan) was also recorded. Croatia.

com/ 1994-03-12/ entertainment/ ca-32994_1_jackie-chan). . . dvdtalk. Retrieved 2011-01-30. Kevin (1994-03-12). "Jackie Chan And Babes Fight Nazis" (http:/ / www. [5] "Armour of God Series (Region 3)" (http:/ / www. Danny Yuen) References [1] "Jackie Chan's Craziest Moments" (http:/ / www. • The scene in which May (played by Lola Forner). 129 Awards and nominations • 1988 Hong Kong Film Awards • Nomination: Best Action Choreography (Jackie Chan Stunt Team. Empire.imdb. an allusion to '70s Cantopop band The Wynners. empireonline. • Jackie's dream sequence. • An extended version of the slapstick sequence in which Alan (played by Alan Tam) hides in May's room. com/ features/ jackie-chans-craziest-moments/ 8. Lau Kar-wing. "MOVIE REVIEW : 'Armour of God': Chan as an Adventurer for Hire" (http:/ / articles. Anita (1997-07-18). empireonline. asp). Los Angeles Times. com/ 1997/ 07/ 18/ movies/ jackie-chan-and-babes-fight-nazis. nytimes. latimes. The scene also includes Lorelei (while under the cult's spell) attempting to seduce Jackie. Retrieved 2012-05-29. .allrovi. com/ reviews/ 19187/ armour-of-god-series/ ). These same cuts were evident in the Spanish Region 2 release. External links • Armour of God (http://www. Retrieved 2012-05-30.Armour of God (film) • The concert scene of Jackie's band. Retrieved 2012-05-30. asp).com/title/tt091431/) at the Internet Movie Database • Armour of God (http://www. 'The Losers'. . Australia and the rest of Europe are uncut. Empire. [4] Thomas. The New York Times. disguised as a prostitute. com/ features/ jackie-chans-craziest-moments/ 8. [3] Gates. Retrieved 2011-01-30. encounters a monk who wants to sleep with her.com/movies/movie/v2860) at AllRovi . DVD Talk. [2] "Jackie Chan's Craziest Moments" (http:/ / www. . html?ref=jackiechan). but DVD releases in Hong Kong.

and Morocco. It was filmed primarily in Madrid. in that it features Chan's character Condor ("Asian Hawk" in the US release) battling against a former Nazi to retrieve gold from an abandoned base deep in the Sahara Desert. It was produced by Golden Harvest / Paragon Films.The Armour of the Gods). . directed by and starring Jackie Chan. Spain. While the opening scenes where Asian Hawk went Powered paragliding was shot in Tagaytay City over Taal Lake. This film is even more akin to the Indiana Jones movies than Armour of God. It is the sequel to his hit Armour of God. (also known in the United States as Operation Condor 2 . Philippines. The movie is succeeded by Armor of God III: Chinese Zodiac.Armour of God II: Operation Condor 130 Armour of God II: Operation Condor Armour of God 2: Operation Condor Hong Kong film poster Traditional Simplified Mandarin Cantonese Directed by Produced by Written by Starring 飛鷹計劃 飞鹰计划 Fēi yīng jǐ huá Fei1 jing1 gai3 waak6 Jackie Chan Raymond Chow Leonard Ho Jackie Chan Edward Tang Jackie Chan Carol Cheng Eva Cobo de Garcia Shoko Ikeda Chris Babida Music by Cinematography Arthur Wong Distributed by Golden Harvest Media Asia Dimension Films Hong Kong: 7 February 1991 United States: 18 July 1997 106 min. Batangas. The scene where he stole the gem from the cave tribe and escaped by zorbing was shot in Mount Macolod in Cuenca. Jackie escapes his persecutors in a zorb-like sphere. (Hong Kong) 92 min. Cavite.) Hong Kong Cantonese Release date(s) Running time Country Language Armour of God 2: Operation Condor (Chinese: 飛 鷹 計 劃). is a 1991 Hong Kong martial arts-action film. (U. In one scene.S.

so at his insistence she travels with them to the Sahara Desert. Ada. Ada. and Elsa come across a girl named Momoko. having done “all that for nothing". they are caught by the two Arabs. “Jackie” (Jackie Chan) sneaks into a set of ruins to gather several colored jewels. Elsa decides to join Jackie on his quest to find the gold. The three of them fall through the sand and into an underground area. They leave the next day. raiders attack their camp and take Ada and Elsa hostage. He is caught by a number of tribesmen.Armour of God II: Operation Condor 131 Plot Treasure hunter/mercenary Asian Hawk. she is stopped by a group of men who demand her water. he must marry a rather rotund priestess. Jackie. are said to be also searching for the gold. Jackie fights them off. However. stranding them in the desert. but they are eventually driven away by a gun-toting Elsa. by drinking the “holy water. learning that they were the ones who attacked Jackie’s and Ada’s camp. where he works/freelances. they enter an area that is deemed forbidden. he realizes that. find the meaning of life. much to the delight of the tribesmen. a man in a wheelchair interrogates the hotel manager. he discovers the location of Elsa. strangely. He then saunters away. after some prodding on his behalf. again. while gathering information with Ada. Ada. She recognizes a necklace one man is wearing as hers. who is traveling through the desert to. She remembers where she’d seen in and leads Elsa. thereby saving Elsa in the process. They bid her adieu and enter the ruins. they begin to . During their trek through the desert. who demand they lead them to the base. demanding to know where they went. Jackie successfully fights them off. Inside the desert ruins. He is then told that. he dropped the jewels. Jackie sneaks in. their entry closed off by a collapsing wall.” a terrible fate has befallen him. but all of them mysteriously disappeared. simply. but during that day. the granddaughter of the Nazi commander who hid the gold away. They make their way back to the camp but find everyone in their consort killed off. but when he fills his canteen with water running down the rocks. who. much to Ada’s discontent. One day. he is teamed up with a no-nonsense desert expert named Ada. but the head of the UN believes her to be of possible help. and. so Jackie is to be sent out to locate the base and acquire the gold for the UN. Jackie and Momoko follow their trail to a desert market. As they pick through the wreckage of the camp. Amon and Tasza. other counties the world over would be fighting over themselves to get it first. As they attempt to make their way back to the camp. As they get their bearings. and the four of them escape their clutches. They hid the gold in a secret base in the Sahara Desert. and Jackie to it. However. Jackie is accosted by a group of mysterious men who want to take the key from him. as Momoko makes her way back through the desert. Momoko drives their "jeep" (a disguised Mitsubishi Montero/Pajero) into a sand bank. they are attacked by a group of armed men who demand the key and the map to the base. They lodge in a rustic hotel where. However. horrified. they are led astray. cascading down a mountainside to safety. upon looking at a picture of Elsa’s grandfather at the desert base. during his escape. now known as “Asian Condor” or. Jackie. Jackie then returns to the UN building. and Elsa are attacked by desert tribesmen and. That night. However. Jackie. and is told the story of a group of Nazi officers who had amassed a king’s ransom in gold bars from other counties during World War II.. makes his escape from the ruins in a huge inflatable zorb. If word got out that all the gold stolen during the war was still in the base. allow him to take the jewels. who ends up shooting the whole hotel up in the process. who wants nothing less than total cooperation from him (something he chides at). during their escape. He sneaks into her house but find that she is being attacked by two Arabs (in truth are actors who are given Russian accents for the role in the English dub version) who. He is then given a key to unlock the vault where the gold is expected to be. the tribesmen respond angrily. As he escapes his zorb. recognizes a statue in the picture. essentially. before they depart. He tries to bid on them. Momoko. but his cover is blown and the three of them escape.. finding Ada and Elsa being auctioned off as sex slaves. He escapes without too much harm.

Ada. The base then begins to explode and cave in on itself. they learn that. they are overpowered and are forced to open the base vault. Before they can do anything else. but due to the power of the fan and the subsequent burst of wind that sends the four of them flying through the ventilation duct. eventually. As they fight.. leaving Adolf behind. activating the fan in different ways. the wheelchair-bound man suddenly enters the base. Jackie sums it all up pretty nicely. though. He demands Jackie and his company to lead them to the gold so he can claim it for himself. that his henchmen plan on keeping the gold for themselves. amazed.Elsa Shôko Ikeda . the hard way. After reading through the commander’s log. Jackie gives him the bar. As they continue on through the desert.Jackie / Asian Hawk / Condor Carol Cheng (aka Do Do Cheng) . thereby keeping the knowledge of the gold a secret. but as they do. upon sealing the gold away. the 18th soldier who defied his commander. Jackie. but will also use the base’s ventilation system to send them to safety through wind power. he locks his men into the vault. As a result. but don’t realize that they are all completely lost in the desert. Adolf intends to stay behind and die in the ensuing blast. but only 17 corpses are found. Ada laments this.” Amon then forces them to find water. but had his legs broken and crippled in the process. they accidentally drop the cases of gold.. save for two who chase Jackie through the base into an underground hangar complete with a gigantic fan. As Jackie makes for it. as they fight over it. flanked by the same men who’d been attacking Jackie time and again. including himself. the commander and his men were to poison themselves. They pursue him and the three girls all throughout the base in one fight sequence after another until. They begin to search. who had apparently been murdered (Jackie finds a knife in his back). He had had 18 men in his company. having found the canteen to be empty. Elsa and Momoko take as much gold as they can carry and ready themselves for their escape. but Jackie reminds her that at least they are still alive. As they learn this. he was the one who’d killed Elsa’a grandfather (his name was on the knife).Duke Scapio / Baron Bannon Jonathan Isgar .Adolf (as Aldo Brel Sánchez) Bozidar Smiljanic . Adolf and the girls try to help him by hitting various buttons and switches. but Jackie fights his attackers off. Ada falls over and drops a single gold bar onto the sand.Amon Aldo Sambrell .Tasza . With that knowledge.Ada Eva Cobo de Garcia . They are successful in unlocking it and find an almost endless supply of gold bars. The men are overjoyed and begin to grab as much as they can carry. but he doesn’t want it. stopping them in their tracks. they want water instead. burying the gold under a huge collapsing sand dune. a disheveled Amon shoots at them. in the end: “It just goes to show what we truly need or want. Adolf then learns. The man in the chair claims to be Adolf. Jackie throws his canteen to them and watches. including Elsa’s grandfather. they plan out their escape. wanting to be “with his friends”. 132 Cast • • • • • • • • Jackie Chan . The skeletal remains of the Nazis are found as well. Elsa accidentally hits a button triggering a self-destruct sequence.Momoko Daniel Mintz .Armour of God II: Operation Condor investigate their new area and realize that they have actually found the Nazi base. having been led there by a captive Momoko.

The VHS was released in 1993. on track to a modest US $10. Chan Is in Top Form in Reworked 'Condor'" (http:/ / articles. deseretnews. Retrieved 2012-05-29.Armour of God II: Operation Condor 133 Jackie Chan Stunt Team • Benny Lai • Ken Lo • Mars Reception The reception was positive.731. suntimes. latimes. . com/ article/ 700000102/ Armour-of-God-II-Operation-Condor. "New Films Help Pump Up Weekend" (http:/ / articles. Retrieved 2012-05-29. • In 1991. [3] "Operation Condor" (http:/ / www. but it wouldn't be released theatrically until 1997 under the title Operation Condor. On 1. Retrieved 2011-01-30. In its Hong Kong theatrical release.523 North American screens in its opening weekend. nytimes. References [1] "Armour of God II: Operation Condor" (http:/ / www. this film grossed HK $39. The DVD was anamorphic and included the Cantonese-language soundtrack and English subtitles. Kevin (1997-07-18). • An uncut export version of the film was released in the UK by Entertainment In Video. . "MOVIE REVIEW. Los Angeles Times. The New York Times. Los Angeles Times. or US $15 million. com/ 1997/ jul/ 18/ entertainment/ ca-13713).711. Retrieved 2012-05-29. .088 per screen). This version was released on DVD in 1999. . com/ 1997/ jul/ 22/ entertainment/ ca-14964). Dimension Films acquired the US rights.405. Retrieved 2012-05-29. [6] "Armour of God Series (Region 3)" (http:/ / www. [2] Thomas. com/ library/ film/ condor-film-review. Retrieved 2012-05-29. dll/ article?AID=/ 19970718/ REVIEWS/ 707180302/ 1023). . Chicago Sun Times. latimes. . It had a Cantonese soundtrack and ran at approximately 106 minutes. html).048.751 ($3. html).[6] • In 2004. [4] "Operation Condor" (http:/ / rogerebert. Deseret News.[1][2][3][4] Box office Chan said in his biography the movie cost HK $115 million. the most expensive Hong Kong film at the time. com/ reviews/ 19187/ armour-of-god-series/ ). it grossed US $4.[5] Awards and nominations • 1992 Hong Kong Film Awards • Nomination: Best Action Choreography Versions The film was originally released in Hong Kong in 1991. dvdtalk. IVL released an uncut version in Hong Kong. Elaine (1997-07-22). DVD Talk. . [5] Dutka. com/ apps/ pbcs. and the DVD in 2001. with a newly commissioned English dub/score and removing 15 minutes of footage.394 final gross.

Armour of God II: Operation Condor 134 External links • Armour of God II: Operation Condor (http://www.imdb. 2003 – January 3.com/title/tt0099558/) at the Internet Movie Database • Fei ying gai wak (http://www. 2011 Lieutenant Cruz Bustamante Mona Pasquil (acting) John Garamendi Abel Maldonado Gray Davis Jerry Brown Personal details Born Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger July 30. 38th Governor of California In office November 17. Austria Citizenship Austria United States Republican Maria Shriver (1986–2011) Gustav Schwarzenegger (father. 1947 Thal.allrovi. deceased) Preceded by Succeeded by Political party Spouse(s) Relations .com/movies/movie/v143566) at AllRovi Arnold Schwarzenegger Arnold Schwarzenegger Schwarzenegger in January 2010. deceased) Aurelia Jadrny (mother.

Early life Schwarzenegger was born in Thal. Gustav served in World War II. German: [ˈaɐnɔlt ˈalɔʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənˌʔɛɡɐ]. investor. 1989) Christina (b. According to Schwarzenegger.Arnold Schwarzenegger Children Katherine (b. 1922–1998). businessman. 2003. Meinhard. to serve a full term as governor. 1945 – Gustav was 38. and it was announced that he had separated from Maria Shriver.[5] His parents were the local police chief. and Aurelia was 23-years-old. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17. businessman. Olympia contest seven times. both of his parents were very strict: "Back then in Austria it was a very different world. Kennedy.[6] Gustav served with the German Army as a Hauptfeldwebel of the Feldgendarmerie and was discharged in 1943 after contracting malaria. They were married on October 20." which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Gustav Schwarzenegger (1907–1972). 1947) is an Austrian and American former professional bodybuilder. 2007. He won the Mr. Schwarzenegger completed his second term as governor. 2003. 1997) Alma mater Santa Monica College University of Wisconsin–Superior Profession Religion Signature Website [2] Bodybuilder. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. the rod was not spared. to serve the remainder of Davis's term.[10] His favoritism was "strong and blatant.[4] In 2011. if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents. who was California State Treasurer at the time. He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" and the "Styrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days. defeating Democrat Phil Angelides. Austria. and politician. Schwarzenegger served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011. actor. 2006. he was first elected on October 7. Schwarzenegger was then re-elected on November 7. actor. 1997) Joseph Baena (b."[8] Schwarzenegger had a good relationship with his . a small village bordering the Styrian capital Graz. in California's 2006 gubernatorial election."[7] He grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday. 1991) Patrick (b.[11] Schwarzenegger has said his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems. his wife for the last 25 years. and was christened Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger. Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15.[8][9] Gustav had a preference for his older son. 1993) Christopher (b. politician [1] Roman Catholic 135 Personal website Military service Service/branch Austrian Armed Forces Years of service 1965 Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (  /ˈʃwɔrtsənɛɡər/. "Arnie" during his acting career and more recently "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "The Terminator" – one of his best-known movie roles). Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. as a niece of the late Democrat US President John F. in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. investor. over Arnold. and a member of the influential Kennedy family.[3] As a Republican. and Aurelia (née Jadrny. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his second term on January 5. after he voluntarily applied to join the Nazi Party in 1938. born July 30.

I was hit with belts. died in a car accident. he has given at least three versions of why he was absent from his father's funeral. I want to be somebody.[5] At the age of 14. I want to be rich. The first real movie I saw." In 1961. I grew up with Steve Reeves. which came up with no evidence of atrocities despite Gustav's membership in the Nazi Party and SA. when his football (soccer) coach took his team to a local gym. and every time someone said.[5] Meinhard had been drinking and was killed instantly. Schwarzenegger would pay for Patrick's education and help him to immigrate to the United States. Schwarzenegger was apparently in the middle but stood out for his "cheerful. good-humored and exuberant" character."[17] Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz. My father had wanted me to be a police officer like he was. Every time I got hit. Therefore. he replied: "I was very young. Schwarzenegger did not attend his funeral. he said. Schwarzenegger recalled that one of the highlights of his youth was when the family bought a refrigerator.[10] Schwarzenegger's father's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. but I'd been participating in sports. Later.[11] In an interview with Fortune in 2004. his first serious girlfriend. I became a rebel. he and the film's producer said this story was taken from another bodybuilder for the purpose of showing the extremes that some would go to for their sport and to make Schwarzenegger's image more cold and machine-like in order to fan controversy for the film. Austria Kurt Marnul. when it was usually closed. and Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen. They didn't want to create an individual.[12] In later life. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've ever been fortunate enough to achieve. "My own plan formed when I was 14 years old. but I remember my father taking me to the Austrian theaters and seeing some newsreels. that I distinctly remember. so I felt that although I was slim. and whose will could not be broken. It was all about conforming. which was the German-Austrian mentality. his brother.[13] At school. because I'm going to move out of here. Schwarzenegger played several sports.[18] Barbara Baker. so that he could train. was a John Wayne movie."[7] In 1971. Steve Reeves.. I was well-developed. who invited him to train at the gym in Graz.[8] He picked up his first barbell in 1960. It was just the way it was.[19] Over time. Schwarzenegger met former Mr. and the couple had a three-year-old son.[8] Money was a problem in their household.Arnold Schwarzenegger mother and kept in touch with her until her death. heavily influenced by his father.' I said. officially started his competitive career. Schwarzenegger claimed that he did not attend his father's funeral because he was training for a bodybuilding contest. I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I didn't do it. for years.[14][15] Schwarzenegger has responded to a question asking if he was 13 when he started weightlifting: "I actually started weight training when I was 15. 'this is not going to be for much longer. Meinhard. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible.[11] As a boy..[7] When Reeves died in 2000. he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer.[11] Gustav died the following year from a stroke. So was the kid next door. studied psychology at 15 (to learn more about the power of mind over body) and at 17. where he also frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park. "It would make me sick to miss a workout.[11] Meinhard was due to marry Erika Knapp. when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager. Many of the children I've seen were broken by their parents. Patrick. I was one who did not conform. he chose bodybuilding over football as a career. has said he informed her of his father's death without emotion and that he never spoke of his brother."[7] However.'" 136 . My mother wanted me to go to trade school. like soccer."[16] During a speech in 2001. 'you can't do this.[5] In Pumping Iron. at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start Olympic lifting.[5] He was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends."[7] When Schwarzenegger was asked about his first movie experience as a boy. Schwarzenegger commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record. his official website biography claims: "At 14. Schwarzenegger told how he suffered what "would now be called child abuse" at the hands of his father:[6][20] "My hair was pulled.

under a training program devised by Bennett.[15] He went AWOL during basic training so he could take part in the competition and spent a week in military prison: "Participating in the competition meant so much to me that I didn't carefully think through the consequences. concentrated on improving the muscle definition and power in his legs.[21][22] Also in 1966.S." He won another bodybuilding contest in Graz. Universe title was my ticket to America – the land of opportunity. who "overcame a thick Austrian accent and transcended the unlikely background of bodybuilding to become the biggest movie star in the world in the 1990s".[5] After taking English classes at Santa Monica College in California. he won the Junior Mr. who became his friend and mentor. a professional wrestler who designed the original Gold's Gym logo in 1973. Olympia title in New York. Bennett invited him to stay in his crowded family home above one of his two gyms in Forest Gate. From 1970 to 1974.[16] Immigration law firm Siskind & Susser have stated that Schwarzenegger may Ronald Reagan in 1984.[26] LA Weekly would later say in 2002 that Schwarzenegger is the most famous immigrant in America. and saw bodybuilding as the avenue through which to do so. at Steirer Hof Hotel (where he had placed second). one of the judges at the 1966 competition. Schwarzenegger had the opportunity to meet childhood idol Reg Park. where he graduated with a degree in international marketing of fitness and business administration in 1979.[25] Schwarzenegger also became good friends with professional wrestler "Superstar" Billy Graham.S. attending business school and working in a health club (Rolf Putzinger's gym where he worked and trained from 1966–1968). and would go on to win the title a total of seven times. Field.[16] He would go on to win the title a further three times. becoming the youngest ever Mr. "The Mr. Universe competition. have been an illegal immigrant at some point in the late 1960s or early 1970s because of violations in the terms of his visa.[15] Schwarzenegger then flew back to Munich.Arnold Schwarzenegger 137 Early adulthood Schwarzenegger served in the Austrian Army in 1965 to fulfill the one year of service required at the time of all 18-year-old Austrian males. Universe title."[17] Schwarzenegger made his first plane trip in 1966. one of Schwarzenegger's weight training partners was Ric Drasin. As Schwarzenegger had little money. not having the muscle definition of American winner Chester Yorton. speaking little English.[23] The training paid off and. "I'm going to become the greatest actor!" Move to the U. Universe at the age of 20. training for four to six hours daily. where I could become a star and get rich. under Joe Weider. he earned a BA by correspondence from the University of Wisconsin–Superior. England. attending the NABBA Mr. who dreamed of moving to the U. was impressed with Schwarzenegger and he offered to coach him. Staying in the East End of London helped Schwarzenegger improve his rudimentary grasp of the English language. returning in 1968 to London to win his next Mr. he captured his first Mr. and Schwarzenegger. at age 23. Schwarzenegger won the title for the first time. California.[5][15] There he trained at Gold's Gym in Venice. in 1967. Yorton's leg definition had been judged superior.[24] realized his dream by moving to the United States in September 1968 at the age of 21. Schwarzenegger's autobiography/weight-training guide Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder was published and became a huge success. a friend in Munich at that time.[24] In 1977. London. Schwarzenegger. He was voted best built man of Europe. Universe competition in London. which made him famous. Europe contest.[27] Schwarzenegger with President .[5][16] During his army service.[16] He frequently told Roger C. Los Angeles. In 1970. since the age of 10.[16] Charles "Wag" Bennett.[16] He would come in second in the Mr.

78 m) to 6 ft 2 in (1. Universe.88 m) 250 pounds (113 kg) Professional Career Pro-debut Best win NABBA Mr. Seven Times Predecessor Sergio Oliva ('69). Olympia. 1970–1975. Austria Height Weight [28] [16] 5 ft 10 in (1.Arnold Schwarzenegger 138 Bodybuilding career Arnold Schwarzenegger Personal Info Nickname Born The Austrian Oak July 30. 1980. 1968 IFBB Mr. Styria. Frank Zane ('79) Successor Active Franco Columbu ('76. Olympia 2nd 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1980 Powerlifting [29] Competitor for International Powerlifting Championships . '81) Retired 1980 Competition record Men’s Bodybuilding Competitor for Mr Universe (amateur) 1st 1967 Mr Universe (pro) 1st 1st 1st 1968 1969 1970 Mr. 1947 Thal.

Arnold Schwarzenegger
1st 1966 +80 kg

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German Powerlifting Championships 2nd 1st 1967 1968 +80 kg +80 kg

Graz-Paradise Keller Powerlifting Championships 2nd 1967 Men's Weightlifting Competitor for Styrian Junior Weightlifting Championships 1st 1964
[29]

+80 kg

German Austrian Weightlifting Championships 1st 1965

Schwarzenegger is considered among the most important figures in the history of bodybuilding, and his legacy is commemorated in the Arnold Classic annual bodybuilding competition. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent face in the bodybuilding sport long after his retirement, in part because of his ownership of gyms and fitness magazines. He has presided over numerous contests and awards shows. For many years, he wrote a monthly column for the bodybuilding magazines Muscle & Fitness and Flex. Shortly after being elected Governor, he was appointed executive editor of both magazines, in a largely symbolic capacity. The magazines agreed to donate $250,000 a year to the Governor's various physical fitness initiatives. The magazine MuscleMag International has a monthly two-page article on him, and refers to him as "The King".
[5] One of the first competitions he won was the Junior Mr. Europe contest in 1965. He won Mr. Europe the following [5][16] year, at age 19. He would go on to compete in, and win, many bodybuilding contests. His bodybulding victories included five Mr. Universe (4 – NABBA [England], 1 – IFBB [USA]) wins, and seven Mr. Olympia wins, a record which would stand until Lee Haney won his eighth consecutive Mr. Olympia title in 1991.

Schwarzenegger official height of 6'2" (1.88 m) has been brought into question by several articles. In his bodybuilding days in the late 1960s, he was measured to be 6'1.5" (1.87 m), a height confirmed by his fellow bodybuilders.[30][31] However, in 1988 both the Daily Mail and Time Out magazine mentioned that Schwarzenegger appeared noticeably shorter.[32] Prior to running for Governor, Schwarzenegger's height was once again questioned in an article by the Chicago Reader.[33] As Governor, Schwarzenegger engaged in a light-hearted exchange with Assemblyman Herb Wesson over their heights. At one point Wesson made an unsuccessful attempt to, in his own words, "[s]ettle this once and for all and find out how tall he is"[34] by using a tailor's tape measure on the Governor. Schwarzenegger retaliated by placing a pillow stitched with the words "Need a lift?" on the five-foot-five inch (165 cm) Wesson's chair before a negotiating session in his office.[35] Bob Mulholland also claimed Arnold was 5'10" (1.78 m) and that he wore risers in his boots.[36] The debate on Schwarzenegger's height has spawned a website solely dedicated to the issue,[37] and his page remains one of the most active on CelebHeights.com, a website which discusses the heights of celebrities.[30] Men's Health magazine has estimated his height at 5'10".[28] Schwarzenegger continues to work out even today. When asked about his personal training during the 2011 Arnold Classic he said that he was still working out a half an hour with weights every day.[38] • Competition Weight: 235 lb (107 kg) (top 250 lb (113 kg)) • Off Season Weight: 255 lb (116 kg) (top 260 lb (118 kg))

Arnold Schwarzenegger

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Powerlifting/weightlifting
During Arnold's early years in bodybuilding, he also competed in several Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting contests. Arnold won two weightlifting contests in 1964 and 1965, as well as two powerlifting contests in 1966 and 1968.[29] In 1967, Schwarzenegger competed in and won the Munich stone-lifting contest, in which a stone weighing 508 German pounds (254 kg/560 lbs.) is lifted between the legs while standing on two foot rests. Personal records • • • • • • Clean & press – 264 lb (120 kg)[29] Snatch – 243 lb (110 kg)[29] Clean & jerk – 298 lb (135 kg)[29] Squat – 215 kg (470 lb)[29] Bench press – 200 kg (440 lb)[29] Deadlift – 310 kg (680 lb)[29]

Mr. Olympia
Schwarzenegger's goal was to become the greatest bodybuilder in the world, which meant becoming Mr. Olympia.[5][16] His first attempt was in 1969, when he lost to three-time champion Sergio Oliva. However, Schwarzenegger came back in 1970 and won the competition, making him the youngest ever Mr. Olympia at the age of 23, a record he still holds to this day.[16] He continued his winning streak in the 1971–74 competitions.[16] In 1975, Schwarzenegger was once again in top form, and won the title for the sixth consecutive time,[16] beating Franco Columbu. After the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, Schwarzenegger announced his retirement from professional bodybuilding.[16] Months before the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, filmmakers George Butler and Robert Fiore persuaded Schwarzenegger to compete, in order to film his training in the bodybuilding documentary called Pumping Iron. Schwarzenegger had only three months to prepare for the competition, after losing significant weight to appear in the film Stay Hungry with Jeff Bridges. Lou Ferrigno proved not to be a threat, and a lighter-than-usual Schwarzenegger convincingly won the 1975 Mr. Olympia. Schwarzenegger came out of retirement, however, to compete in the 1980 Mr. Olympia.[5] Schwarzenegger was training for his role in Conan, and he got into such good shape because of the running, horseback riding and sword training, that he decided he wanted to win the Mr. Olympia contest one last time. He kept this plan a secret, in the event that a training accident would prevent his entry and cause him to lose face. Schwarzenegger had been hired to provide color commentary for network television, when he announced at the eleventh hour that while he was there: "Why not compete?" Schwarzenegger ended up winning the event with only seven weeks of preparation. After being declared Mr. Olympia for a seventh time, Schwarzenegger then officially retired from competition.
Schwarzenegger presented awards at the USA Weightlifting Hall of Fame in 2011 in Columbus, Ohio. In photo: 1987 world champion American Karyn Marshall.

Arnold Schwarzenegger

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Steroid use
Schwarzenegger has admitted to using performance-enhancing anabolic steroids while they were legal, writing in 1977 that "steroids were helpful to me in maintaining muscle size while on a strict diet in preparation for a contest. I did not use them for muscle growth, but rather for muscle maintenance when cutting up."[39] He has called the drugs "tissue building."[40] In 1999, Schwarzenegger sued Dr. Willi Heepe, a German doctor who publicly predicted his early death on the basis of a link between his steroid use and his later heart problems. As the doctor had never examined him personally, Schwarzenegger collected a US$10,000 libel judgment against him in a German court.[41] In 1999, Schwarzenegger also sued and settled with The Globe, a U.S. tabloid which had made similar predictions about the bodybuilder's future health.[42]

Acting career
Arnold Schwarzenegger

Schwarzenegger in July 2003 Other names Arnold Strong Arnie Actor, director, producer 1969–2004, 2010–present (acting)

Occupation Years active

Schwarzenegger wanted to move from bodybuilding into acting, finally achieving it when he was chosen to play the role of Hercules in 1970's Hercules in New York. Credited under the name "Arnold Strong," his accent in the film was so thick that his lines were dubbed after production.[15] His second film appearance was as a deaf mute hit-man for the mob in director Robert Altman's The Long Goodbye (1973), which was followed by a much more significant part in the film Stay Hungry (1976), for which he was awarded a Golden Globe for New Male Star of the Year. Schwarzenegger has discussed his early struggles in developing his acting career. "It was very difficult for me in the beginning – I was told by agents and casting people that my body was 'too weird', that I had a funny accent, and that my name was too long. You name it, and they told me I had to change it. Basically, everywhere I turned, I was told that I had no chance."[7] Schwarzenegger drew attention and boosted his profile in the bodybuilding film Pumping Iron (1977),[14][15] elements of which were dramatized. In 1991, Schwarzenegger purchased the rights to the film, its outtakes, and associated still photography.[43] Schwarzenegger auditioned for the title role of The Incredible Hulk, but did not win

audiences had an appetite for action films. and then with the 1992 telemovie Christmas in Connecticut. Schwarzenegger starred in the promotional video "Carnival in Rio". It was followed by the action thriller Eraser (1996).[15] Schwarzenegger's roles reflected his sense of humor. which went on to earn over $150 million domestically. Schwarzenegger led a cast which included future Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura (Ventura also appeared in The Running Man and Batman & Robin with Schwarzenegger) and future candidate for governor of Kentucky Sonny Landham. Kindergarten Cop (1990) reunited him with director Ivan Reitman. Schwarzenegger appeared with Kirk Douglas and Ann-Margret in the 1979 comedy The Villain.[44] In 1983. another successful film. Freeze. In 1984. and Red Heat (1988). first with a 1990 episode of the TV series Tales from the Crypt. Lou Ferrigno got the part of Dr. he made his third appearance as the title character in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines. His alternative-universe comedy/thriller Last Action Hero featured a poster of the movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day which. he made the first of three appearances as the eponymous character and what some would say was the [14][15][45] signature role in his acting career in director James Cameron's science fiction thriller film The Terminator. this time for Best Actor – Musical or Comedy. In 2003. Mickey Hargitay. the last of his three collaborations with Ivan Reitman and again co-starring Danny DeVito and also for the second time featuring Pamela Reed. although it was not as successful as its predecessor. a comedy with Danny DeVito also proved successful. later followed by the action films The 6th Day (2000) and Collateral Damage (2002) both of which failed to do well at the box office. This was his final film before taking time to recuperate from a back injury. Following The Terminator. based on the Philip K. 142 Schwarzenegger's commercial peak was his return as the title character in 1991's Terminator 2: Judgment Day. separating his roles from more serious action hero fare."[5] His next film project.[14] This was followed by a sequel. His next film. which was the highest-grossing film of 1991. entitled "The Switch". That same year the comedy Junior (1994) was released. the National Association of Theatre Owners named him the "International Star of the Decade. Raw Deal (1986). Schwarzenegger's film career and box office prominence went into decline. Schwarzenegger's breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982. Following the critical failure of Batman & Robin. Later. where he played the villain Mr. In 1993. and saw Schwarzenegger. He made a number of successful films: Commando (1985). The Running Man (1987). had Sylvester Stallone as its star.[44] During the 1980s. Twins (1988). He returned with the supernatural thriller End of Days (1999). "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". This film brought Schwarzenegger his second Golden Globe nomination. in the fictional alternate universe. and did not do well at the box office. appearing opposite Jamie Lee Curtis. with both Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone becoming international stars.Arnold Schwarzenegger the role because of his height. reunited with James Cameron. the comedy drama True Lies (1994) was a popular spy film. Conan the Destroyer in 1984. In 1980 he starred in a biographical film of the 1950s actress Jayne Mansfield as Mansfield's husband. Total Recall (1990) netted Schwarzenegger $10 million and 15% of the gross. Howard Langston. Schwarzenegger had a brief foray into directing. who directed him in Twins. He has not directed since. Footprints and handprints of Arnold Schwarzenegger in front of the Grauman's Chinese Theatre . and was a science fiction script directed by Paul Verhoeven. the 1993 self-aware action comedy spoof Last Action Hero was released opposite Jurassic Park. which was a box-office hit. David Banner's alter ego. Schwarzenegger made Red Sonja in 1985. the Christmas comedy Jingle All The Way (1996) with Arnold playing the main character. Dick short story. In Predator (1987). and the comic book-based Batman & Robin (1997).

Schwarzenegger announced that he was reading several new scripts for future films. written by Randall Wallace. including sequels to The Terminator and remakes of Predator and The Running Man.[46] His film appearances after becoming Governor of California include a 3-second cameo appearance in The Rundown (a. Schwarzenegger voiced Baron von Steuben in Episode 24 ("Valley 143 Arnold Schwarzenegger's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame Forge") of Liberty's Kids.k. where he appeared onscreen with action star Jackie Chan for the first time. 2011.[50][51] On March 6."[57] However.[59] Schwarzenegger appeared in The Expendables 2 (2012). alongside [47] but it was later revealed that although he would Roland Kickinger. Schwarzenegger reportedly said he was flattered. In 2005.[60] He has reportedly signed to star in The Last Stand as a dishonored Los Angeles cop.[53][54][55][56] On May 20. Forum Stadtpark. in a scene alongside Stallone and Bruce Willis. 2011. the Daily Star reported on May 29 that Schwarzenegger had been offered $40 million to star in two Terminator films. Schwarzenegger inspired the character and co-developed it with Stan Lee.a. where he made a cameo appearance. Schwarzenegger would have voiced the Governator. at the Arnold Seminar of the Arnold Classic.[58] On July 11.[61][62] . "Governor Schwarzenegger is focusing on personal matters and is not willing to commit to any production schedules or timelines.. just weeks after leaving office in California. and his image would be inserted into the movie from stock footage of the first Terminator movie. appear briefly he would not be shooting new footage. who would have produced the series. Return to acting In January 2011.[52] The character was later revealed to be the Governator. in which he had a larger role than in the first film. star of the comic book and animated series of the same name.Arnold Schwarzenegger In tribute to Schwarzenegger in 2002. Schwarzenegger had been rumored to be appearing in Terminator Salvation as the original T-800 model.[48][49] Schwarzenegger appeared in Sylvester Stallone's The Expendables. he appeared as himself in the film The Kid & I. and that he was "packaging" a comic book character. Schwarzenegger denied his involvement. and in the 2014 film The Legend of Conan. a local cultural association. reprising his role as Conan the Barbarian. proposed plans to build a 25-meter (82 ft) tall Terminator statue in a park in central Graz. Schwarzenegger's entertainment counsel announced that all movie projects currently in development were being halted. based on a true story. and the 2004 remake of Around the World in 80 Days. it was announced that Schwarzenegger is considering a comeback film despite his legal problems. but thought the money would be better spent on social projects and the Special Olympics. one of them being the World War II action drama With Wings as Eagles. Welcome to the Jungle) with The Rock. Schwarzenegger revealed that he was being courted for several films. 2011. Schwarzenegger at the Paris premiere of The Expendables 2 in August 2012.

W. I heard Humphrey saying things that sounded like socialism. ‘What are you going to do?’ I thought about it but decided I wasn’t going to do it. who dubbed him "Conan the Republican". Schwarzenegger appeared in Stop the Madness. lowering the taxes and strengthening the military. I remember watching the Nixon-Humphrey presidential race on TV. Schwarzenegger was a Red Cross ambassador (a ceremonial role fulfilled by celebrities). an anti-drug music video sponsored by the Reagan administration. I just thought [en route to the Tonight Show]. getting the government off your back. He later served as Chairman for the California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Governor Pete Wilson. What the fuck is that? All these people are asking me. remember I arrived here with empty pockets but full of dreams. I told Leno I was running." I said. "I think about it many times. I told everyone I wasn’t running. I’ll announce that I am running. Why would I go away from that and jump into something else?"[66] Vice President Dick Cheney meets with Schwarzenegger for the first time at the White Governor of California Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy in the 2003 California recall election for Governor of California on the August 6. 2003 episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. At the 2004 Republican National Convention. Bush. accompanying then-Vice President George H. "What party is he?" My friend said. The presidential campaign was in full swing. as he has become more left-leaning since his election. Listening to Nixon speak sounded more like a breath of fresh air. He was talking about free enterprise. Bush at a campaign rally.[5] He was nominated by George H. A friend of mine who spoke German and English translated for me. I wasn’t running. on which he served from 1990 to 1993. It’ll be so funny. I House.[15] According to Schwarzenegger. W. Schwarzenegger gave a speech and explained why he was a Republican:[63] I finally arrived here in 1968. ‘What’s your plan? Who’s on your staff?’ I didn’t have a plan. Schwarzenegger was asked if he thought of running for office. Yet. "Then I am a Republican. What a special day it was. Schwarzenegger said. The possibility is there.[65] Between 1993 and 1994. full of desire. which I had just left."[66] The Hollywood Reporter claimed shortly after that Schwarzenegger sought to end speculation that he might run for governor of California. He first came to wide public notice as a Republican during the 1988 Presidential election. recording several television/radio public service announcements to donate blood. I said. full of determination. who are generally considered to be a liberal and Democratic-leaning community. "He's a Republican. I didn’t have a staff. This will freak everyone out. In an interview with Talk magazine in late 1999.Arnold Schwarzenegger 144 Political career Early politics Schwarzenegger has been a registered Republican for many years. He replied. As an actor.[64] Schwarzenegger's first political appointment was as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. his political views were always well known as they contrasted with those of many other prominent Hollywood stars. I said to my friend. I . In 1985. he did not decide to run until the day of the announcement: The recall happens and people are asking me." And I have been a Republican ever since. And two months later I was governor. "I'm in show business – I am in the middle of my career.[66] Following his initial comments. I told Maria I wasn’t running. political analysts have identified Schwarzenegger as a liberal. But then I heard Nixon speak. because I feel it inside.

[68] On October 7. Schwarzenegger then went against the advice of fellow Republican strategists and appointed a Democrat. and appeared in only one debate on September 24.9% for Angelides. received 31% of the vote.0% of the vote compared with 38. a margin of well over one million votes. the recall election resulted in Governor Gray Davis being removed from office with 55. as his governorship would be term-limited by that time. 2003. "[H]e's becoming a Democrat [. Schwarzenegger won the election by about 1. Schwarzenegger was equally entrenched in what he considered to be his mandate in cleaning up gridlock.[71][72] . 2006. Schwarzenegger defeated Democrat Cruz Bustamante. Bush meets with Schwarzenegger after his successful election to the California Governorship As soon as Schwarzenegger was elected governor. but later he began to feel the backlash when powerful state unions began to oppose his various initiatives. His nearest rival. Key among his reckoning with political realities was a special election he called in November 2005.6% of the vote to choose a successor to Davis. His candidacy immediately became national and international news. in the 2006 elections. In total. In recent years. not even to the center. fellow Republican Tom McClintock. H]e's running back.[69] Schwarzenegger's early victories included repealing an unpopular increase in the vehicle registration fee as well as preventing driver's licenses being given out to illegal immigrants. breakfast. Schwarzenegger called the Democratic State politicians "girlie men". Despite a poor year nationally for the Republican party. Susan Kennedy. see above) and "The Running Man" (the name of another one of his films).3 million votes. 2003. Schwarzenegger ran for re-election against Democrat Phil Angelides. Jr.. and others. as his Chief of Staff. 145 President George W. This turned out to be false. the California State Treasurer. with media outlets dubbing him the "Governator" (referring to The Terminator movies..4% of the Yes vote in favor of a recall. It was rumored that Schwarzenegger might run for the United States Senate in 2010.Arnold Schwarzenegger wasn’t running until I went on Jay Leno. Schwarzenegger was elected Governor of California under the second question on the ballot with 48. held on November 7. Schwarzenegger accepted personal responsibility for the defeats and vowed to continue to seek consensus for the people of California. determined to build a winning legacy with only a short time to go until the next gubernatorial election. After hearing a speech by Schwarzenegger at the 2006 Martin Luther King. no runoff election was required.[67] Schwarzenegger had the most name recognition in a crowded field of candidates. but he had never held public office and his political views were unknown to most Californians. I would say center-left". Schwarzenegger won [70] re-election with 56. San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom said that. Under the regulations of the California Constitution. Schwarzenegger declined to participate in several debates with other recall replacement candidates. Schwarzenegger gradually moved towards a more politically moderate position. in which four ballot measures he sponsored were defeated. Bustamante. and calling the recall election "Total Recall" (yet another Schwarzenegger starrer). He would later comment that "no one could win if the opposition raised 160 million dollars to defeat you". Building on a catchphrase from the sketch "Hans and Franz" from Saturday Night Live (which partly parodied his bodybuilding career). Schwarzenegger was the second foreign-born governor of California after Irish-born Governor John G. Willie Brown said he would start a drive to recall the governor. many commentators have seen Schwarzenegger as moving away from the right and towards the center of the political spectrum. Downey in 1862.

000 dangerous 146 . claims he plotted his political rise from an early age using the movie business and bodybuilding as building blocks to escape a depressing home. but he says. in November 2004.[73] He holds Austrian citizenship by birth and has held U.S. despite being good friends with candidates Rudy Giuliani and Senator John McCain. President George W. Schwarzenegger remained neutral throughout 2007 and early 2008. Schwarzenegger is a dual Austria/United States citizen. Schwarzenegger was in the Center in San Diego."[10] Schwarzenegger has said that it was With Schwarzenegger and Senator Dianne Feinstein never his intention to enter politics. Schwarzenegger launched an intensive campaign[79] against Proposition 66.[75] Schwarzenegger's endorsement in the Republican primary of the 2008 U. Giuliani dropped out of the Presidential race on January 30. Sargent Shriver is husband to Eunice and father-in-law to Schwarzenegger.[77][78] Governor Schwarzenegger played a significant role in opposing Proposition 66. October 2007 policy. not the large mass of followers."[24] Eunice Kennedy Shriver was sister of John F. "It's Rudy's fault!" (in reference to his friendships with both candidates and that he could not make up his mind). it is revealed that a constitutional amendment passed which allowed Schwarzenegger to run for President. Schwarzenegger did not accept his governor's salary of $175. he was able to win the 2007 European Voice campaigner of the year award for taking action against climate change with the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme with other US states and possibly with the EU.[80] He stated that "it would release 26. This amendment would have required the third felony to be either violent or serious to mandate a 25-years-to-life sentence.[76] In its April 2010 report.[10] Leigh portrays Schwarzenegger as obsessed with power and quotes him as saying. In The Simpsons Movie (2007). "I married into a behind him. Being Austrian and thus European. he endorsed McCain. Schwarzenegger's endorsement was thought to be a boost for Senator McCain's campaign. Schwarzenegger during his visit to Naval Medical and endorsed McCain. largely because of a poor showing in Florida. I was exposed to the idea of being a public servant and Eunice and Sargent Shriver became my heroes. ten years before his first run for political office). he is portrayed as the President.000 per year. joking. July 2010 audience at a Republican debate at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California.S. 2008.[74] Because of his personal wealth from his acting career. citizenship since becoming naturalized in 1983. Presidential election was highly sought. I think it is because I saw leaders use 100% of their potential –I was always fascinated by people in control of other people. The following day. In the last week before the ballot. who wrote an unofficial biography on Schwarzenegger. both spoke about their concerns for the environment and economy.Arnold Schwarzenegger Wendy Leigh. Later that night. about reaching out to help people. Progressive ethics watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Schwarzenegger one of 11 "worst governors" in the United States because of various ethics issues throughout Schwarzenegger's term as governor. He cannot run for president as he is not a natural born citizen of the United States. Demolition Man (1993. You get together with them and you hear about wildfires and firefighting efforts in California. Kennedy. "I wanted to be part of the small percentage of people who were leaders. and in the Sylvester Stallone movie. a proposed amendment of the Californian Three Strikes Law. and mother-in-law to Schwarzenegger. Bush comments on political family.

2006 Schwarzenegger signed a bill creating the nation's first cap on greenhouse gas emissions. A fifth woman claimed Schwarzenegger tried to take off her bathing suit in a hotel elevator."[85] Richardson claimed they tried to tarnish her reputation by dismissing her allegations that Schwarzenegger touched her breast during a press event for The 6th Day in London.[87] Schwarzenegger signed another executive order on October 17. from the Austrian Green Party. trust me. and the last said he pulled her onto his lap and asked her about a sex act.Arnold Schwarzenegger criminals and rapists". allegations of sexual and personal misconduct were raised against Schwarzenegger. shall be deprived of his citizenship. Schwarzenegger explained his actions by referring to the fact that his only duty as Governor of California was to prevent an error in the judicial system.[85] A joint statement read: "The parties are content to put this matter behind them and are pleased that this legal dispute has now been settled. in which Schwarzenegger discussed attending sexual orgies and using substances such as marijuana.[81] Within the last five days before the election. 147 Allegations of sexual misconduct During his initial campaign for governor.[86] She claimed Walsh and Main libeled her in a Los Angeles Times article when they contended she encouraged his behavior. and his publicist. Schwarzenegger said. refineries and manufacturing plants are allowed to release into the atmosphere. dubbed "Gropegate". In an interview with GQ magazine in October 2007. They plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by issuing a limited amount of carbon credits to each power plant in participating states. his top aide. who is in the public service of a foreign country. The two bills are part of a plan to reduce California's emissions by 25 percent to 1990s levels by 2020. In 2005. news reports appeared in the Los Angeles Times recounting allegations of sexual misconduct from several individual women. Environmental record On September 27. a fourth said he placed his hand under her skirt on her buttock. "[Marijuana] is not a drug. Schwarzenegger issued an executive order calling to reduce greenhouse gases to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. Peter Pilz. if he heavily damages the reputation or the interests of the Austrian Republic. Any power plants that exceed emissions for the . Sheryl Main. six of whom eventually came forward with their personal stories. Sean Walsh. demanded that parliament revoke Schwarzenegger's Austrian citizenship. This came after an interview in adult magazine Oui from 1977 surfaced. The law set new regulations on the amount of emissions utilities. 2006 allowing California to work with the Northeast's Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative.[83] Schwarzenegger is shown smoking a marijuana joint after winning Mr. Olympia in the 1975 documentary film Pumping Iron." British television personality Anna Richardson settled a libel lawsuit in August 2006 against Schwarzenegger. This demand was based on Article 33 of the Austrian Citizenship Act that states: A citizen. Schwarzenegger also signed a second global warming bill that prohibits large utilities and corporations in California from making long-term contracts with suppliers who do not meet the state's greenhouse gas emission standards.[81] Schwarzenegger admitted that he has "behaved badly sometimes" and apologized.[85] Code Pink protesting against Schwarzenegger Citizenship In 2005. My drug [84] His spokesperson later said the comment was meant to be a joke.[84] was pumping iron.[73] Pilz claimed that Schwarzenegger's actions in support of the death penalty (prohibited in Austria under Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights) had indeed done damage to Austria's reputation. It's a leaf. but also stated that "a lot of [what] you see in the stories is not true".[82] Three of the women claimed he had grabbed their breasts.

3 -0.[90] In 2011.874 31. the governor has taken steps at his home to reduce his personal carbon footprint. well before his career in Hollywood.247 2. Schwarzenegger became a "prolific goal setter" and would write his objectives at the start of the year on index cards.5 242.[92][93][67] Schwarzenegger and Columbu used profits from their bricklaying venture to start a mail order business. Schwarzenegger was invited to open the 2009 SAE World Congress in Detroit. The plan took effect in 2009.[89] In respect of his contribution to the direction of the US motor industry.9 +7. He has also installed solar panels to heat his home.157 55.[19] By the age of 30.161.[91] 148 Electoral history California Gubernatorial Recall Election 2003 Party Candidate Votes % ±% Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger 4.732 39. on April 20. selling bodybuilding and fitness-related equipment and instructional tapes. Schwarzenegger and fellow bodybuilder Franco Columbu started a bricklaying business. Arnold Schwarzenegger founded the R20 Regions of Climate Action to develop a sustainable.[94][95] . like starting a mail order business or buying a new car – and succeed in doing so.000.0 205.850.5 1. His financial independence came from his success as a budding entrepreneur with a series of successful business ventures and investments. low carbon economy. Bricklaying business In 1968.284 48. He would later go on to invest in a number of real estate holding companies.206.6 Democratic Cruz Bustamante Republican Tom McClintock Green Peter Miguel Camejo 2.724.376.[88] In addition to using his political power to fight global warming. Schwarzenegger has adapted one of his Hummers to run on hydrogen and another to run on biofuels.3 Democratic Phil Angelides Green Peter Miguel Camejo 3.[5][92] Real estate investing Schwarzenegger rolled profits from the mail order business and his bodybuilding competition winnings into his first real estate investment venture: an apartment building he purchased for $10. Schwarzenegger was a millionaire.995 2.287 13. The business flourished thanks to the pair's marketing savvy and an increased demand following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake.8 California Gubernatorial Election 2006 Party Candidate Votes % ±% Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger 4.5 Business career Schwarzenegger has had a highly successful business career.[10][24] Following his move to the United States. 2009.Arnold Schwarzenegger amount of carbon credits will have to purchase more credits to cover the difference.

. Ohio.. for example.. It is a festival that hosts thousands of international health and fitness professionals which has also expanded into a three-day expo. Kennedy Tennis Tournament in August 1977.[19] Although Baker claims that when she first met him. and talks of a turbulent and passionate love life.[101] Schwarzenegger talked about Barbara in his memoir in 1977: "Basically it came down to this: she was a well-balanced woman who wanted an ordinary. and that was very attractive . Les Wexner and Warren Buffett.[11] .S—their first date was watching the first Apollo Moon landing on television. In 1998. solid life. an English teacher he lived with until 1974. he had "little understanding of polite society" and she found him a turn-off. an investment firm. and went on to have a relationship with both women until August 1978. when Moray (who knew of his relationship with Shriver) issued an ultimatum.. Sue Moray.[102] Baker published her memoir in 2006.. claiming he wanted to focus his attention on "new US global business ventures" and his movie career. the couple led an open relationship: "We were faithful when we were both in LA . a Beverly Hills hairdresser's assistant. he sold his restaurant. He also owns a movie production company called Oak Productions. Inc..[97][98] Schwarzenegger said the company had not had the success he had hoped for. I even learned a thing or two from Planet Hollywood. and hated the very idea of ordinary life. such as when to get out! And I did!"[17] He has significant ownership in Dimensional Fund [99] Schwarzengger is also the owner of Arnold's Sports Festival. and athletic" but claims towards the end of the relationship he became "insufferable – classically conceited – the world revolved around him". a joint publishing venture with Simon & Schuster. would visit the beach all day.[103] The couple first met six to eight months after his arrival in the U. Schwarzenegger and his wife opened a restaurant in Santa Monica called Schatzi On Main. Schwarzenegger actually contributed to the tell-all book with a foreword. Schwarzenegger met Barbara Outland (later Barbara Outland Baker).[103] Schwarzenegger has made it clear that their respective recollection of events can differ.[96] Planet Hollywood investment Schwarzenegger was a founding celebrity investor in the Planet Hollywood chain of international theme restaurants (modeled after the Hard Rock Cafe) along with Bruce Willis. adventurous. and now." colloquial for "honey" or "darling" in German. Schatzi literally means "little treasure. from Milton Friedman to Donald Trump..[103] Although Baker.. painted an unflattering portrait of her former lover. which he started in Advisors. He has talked about some of those who have helped him over the years in business: "I couldn't have learned about business without a parade of teachers guiding me.[19] They shared an apartment in Santa Monica for three and a half years. He just had this huge determination to prove himself. at times.[103] Baker claims.[100] Personal life Early love life In 1969. According to Moray. and Fitness Publications. and also met with Baker for three hours. or have barbecues in the back yard."[101] Baker has described Schwarzenegger as "[a] joyful personality. and having little money.[97] Other ventures and investments He also invested in a shopping mall in Columbus. 1989 and is held annually in Columbus. totally charismatic."[19] Schwarzenegger met his next paramour. I'll go to my grave knowing Arnold loved me.Arnold Schwarzenegger 149 Restaurant In 1992. Ohio. "He's as much a self-made man as it's possible to be—he never got encouragement from his parents. entitled Arnold and Me: In the Shadow of the Austrian Oak. we were free to do whatever we wanted. and I was not a well-balanced man. Schwarzenegger severed his financial ties with the business in early 2000.. on Venice Beach in July 1977. his family."[11] Schwarzenegger met Maria Shriver at the Robert F. Sylvester Stallone and Demi Moore. but when he was out of town. she says. his brother. that she only learned of his being unfaithful after they split.

Schwarzenegger and estranged wife Shriver described it as "scary. 1997."[127] KNX 1070 radio reported that he bought a new. 1997. Christina Maria Aurelia Schwarzenegger (born July 23.[119] Fifty-year-old Baena. the boy was never told that Schwarzenegger was his father. In the statement. Mildred Patricia 'Patty' Baena.[128] Baena separated from her husband.[120] The pregnant Baena was working in the home while Shriver was pregnant with the youngest of the couple’s four children. John Baptist Riordan performed the ceremony at St. on July 17. and filed for divorce in 2008. about 112 miles (180 km) north of Los Angeles.[125] and he was photographed teaching the boy how to play golf and swinging him playfully above his head. Monica's Catholic Church. Kaufman has earlier handled divorce cases for celebrities such as Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon.[130] Schwarzenegger has consulted an attorney.[112] Marital separation On May 9. 1989 in Los Angeles). Rogelio." Christopher had been in intensive care after suffering a collapsed lung and broken bones in the accident. in Hyannis. Massachusetts. and he was unaware of the fact until it was revealed by the press.[131][132] Schwarzenegger will keep the Brentwood home as part of .Arnold Schwarzenegger 150 Marriage and family On April 26.[121] Baena's son with Schwarzenegger. Francis Xavier Catholic Church. of Guatemalan origin.[116][117][118] "After leaving the governor's office I told my wife about this event. Shriver and Schwarzenegger's children unexpectedly accompanied Schwarzenegger to the lovechild's baptism. In a joint statement. Idaho and Hyannis Port. with Shriver moving out of the couple's Brentwood mansion. which occurred over a decade ago. Massachusetts.[122] was born on October 2. Schwarzenegger married television journalist Maria Shriver. in 1997. The Rev. Joseph.000-square-foot (1. four-bedroom house. 2011." and that "he is expected to make a full recovery.[110] They attended St.[113][114][115] On May 16. Kennedy. in 1998. the Los Angeles Times revealed that Schwarzenegger had fathered a son more than fourteen years earlier with an employee in their household.[106] and Christopher Sargent Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 27.[129] Baena's ex-husband says that the child's birth certificate was falsified and that he plans to sue Schwarzenegger for engaging in conspiracy to falsify a public document. 1997 in Los Angeles). was employed by the family for 20 years and retired in January 2011.[126] Schwarzenegger has taken financial responsibility for the child "from the start and continued to provide support. in Bakersfield. a serious crime in California.[104] They have four children: Katherine Eunice Shriver Schwarzenegger (born December 13. 2011. China Son in accident Schwarzenegger's 13-year-old son Christopher Schwarzenegger was seriously injured in a boogie-boarding accident in Malibu. Schwarzenegger did not mention that he had confessed to his wife only after Shriver had confronted him with the information." Schwarzenegger said in a statement issued to The Times. a few months after Joseph's birth. 1991 in Los Angeles).[125] Despite Schwarzenegger's interactions with the child.[107] Schwarzenegger lives in a 11.[123] Shriver gave birth to Christopher on September 27. 1986. 1993 in Los Angeles). with a pool.[105] Patrick Schwarzenegger (born September 18. Shriver and Schwarzenegger separated after 25 years of marriage. in 2010 for Baena and their son.[108][109] The divorcing couple currently own vacation homes in Sun Valley.[124] Schwarzenegger found ways to spend time with this child: in one instance.000 m2) home in Brentwood. niece of President John F. which she had done after confirming with the housekeeper what she had suspected about the child.[111] Schwarzenegger with his wife Maria Shriver at the 2007 Special Olympics in Shanghai. 2011. Bob Kaufman.

Schwarzenegger engaged in a light-hearted exchange with Assemblyman Herb Wesson over their heights. after the pilot reported smoke coming from the cockpit. in 1988 both the Daily Mail and Time Out magazine mentioned that Schwarzenegger appeared noticeably shorter.Arnold Schwarzenegger their divorce settlement and Shriver has purchased a new home nearby so that the children may travel easily between their parents' homes.88 m) has been brought into question by several articles.[61][134] In the aftermath of Schwarzenegger's infidelity scandal. said Officer Jason Lee. He was released from the St. In his bodybuilding days in the late 1960s. actress Brigitte Nielsen came forward and stated that she too had an affair with Schwarzenegger while he was in a relationship with Shriver.[148] Bob Mulholland also claimed Arnold was 5'10" (1.[144] Schwarzenegger's private jet made an emergency landing at Van Nuys Airport on June 19. an aortic valve with only two leaflets (a normal aortic valve has three leaflets). he was measured to be 6'1.[142] Schwarzenegger tripped over his ski pole and broke his right femur while skiing in Sun Valley. Schwarzenegger apparently opted against a mechanical valve. 2006. 2001.78 m) and that he wore risers in his boots.[36] The debate on Schwarzenegger's height has spawned a website solely dedicated to the issue. At one point Wesson made an unsuccessful attempt to."[135] 151 Accidents and injuries Schwarzenegger was born with a bicuspid aortic valve. the only permanent solution available at the time of his surgery. but he didn't.[32] Prior to running for Governor. he broke six ribs and was hospitalized for four days after a motorcycle crash in Los Angeles.[136][137] Schwarzenegger opted in 1997 for a replacement heart valve made of his own transplanted tissue. Idaho.[30] Men's Health magazine has estimated his height at 5'10".5" (1.[37] and his page remains one of the most active on CelebHeights.[141] Schwarzenegger did not obtain his motorcycle license until July 3.[146] As Governor. Schwarzenegger retaliated by placing a pillow stitched with the words "Need a lift?" on the five-foot-five inch (165 cm) Wesson's chair before a negotiating session in his office. and our affair carried on. while Schwarzenegger was riding his Harley Davidson motorcycle in Los Angeles. another driver backed into the street he was riding on. While his son and the other driver were unharmed. he underwent a 90-minute operation in which cables and screws were used to wire the broken bone back together. 2009. "No citations were issued". "Maybe I wouldn't have got into it if he said 'I'm going to marry Maria' and this is dead serious. 2006. John's Health Center on December 30. a Los Angeles Police Department spokesman. 2006. with his son Patrick in the sidecar. with his family on December 23. because it would have sharply limited his physical activity and capacity to exercise.[140] On January 8. causing him and his son to collide with the car at a low speed.[30][31] However. requiring 15 stitches. 2006.[135] saying.87 m). "[s]ettle this once and for all and find out how tall he is"[147] by using a tailor's tape measure on the Governor. in his own words.[28] .com. Schwarzenegger's height was once again questioned in an article by the Chicago Reader. a height confirmed by his fellow bodybuilders.[139] Schwarzenegger saved a drowning man's life in 2004 while on vacation in Hawaii by swimming out and bringing him back to shore. They will share custody of the two minor children.[138] On December 9. according to a statement released by the governor's press secretary. No one was harmed in the incident. medical experts predicted he would require heart valve replacement surgery in the following two to eight years as his valve would progressively degrade.[61] However. a website which discusses the heights of celebrities.[145] Height Schwarzenegger official height of 6'2" (1.[61] Schwarzenegger has filed amended divorce papers remedying this. 2006.[133] Schwarzenegger came under fire after the initial petition did not include spousal support and a reimbursement of attorney's fees. he claims this was not intentional and that he signed the initial documents without having properly read them. the governor sustained a minor injury to his lip.[143] On December 26.

he founded the Inner City Games Foundation (ICG) which provides cultural.Arnold Schwarzenegger 152 Book Schwarzenegger's "tell all" book.[154] California took delivery of the first H2H (Hydrogen Hummer) in October 2004. After the election. it has been estimated that his net worth has been approximately $400 million.[157] Schwarzenegger believes that quality school opportunities should be made available to children who might not normally be able to access them.000. Schwarzenegger took part in the Vancouver Olympic Torch relay.[156] In 2007. that it is classified as a large truck and U.[158] He has also been involved with After-School All-Stars. He handed off the flame to the next runner. and gained a U. was released on October 1. On February 12.300 lb (2.[153] Schwarzenegger once said of his fortune. and real estate holdings worldwide.[155] Arnold Schwarzenegger has been involved with the Special Olympics for many years after they were founded by his ex-mother-in-law. Sebastian Coe. 2010. so a more accurate estimation of his net worth is difficult to calculate.[159] ASAS is an after school program provider. Maria Shriver. I now have $50 million. Schwarzenegger spent $38 million of his own money on a private Gulfstream Jet. Total Recall.000 cost. based on tax returns he filed in 2006.S.000.900 kg) and 7 feet (2. After the Stanley Williams execution and street protests in Schwarzenegger's hometown. 6. and founded the Los Angeles branch in 2002. educating youth about health.[158] ICG is active in 15 cities around the country and serves over 250. fitness and nutrition. 2012 (the day before his illegitimate son's birthday).[160] Honors Schwarzenegger's home town of Graz had its soccer stadium named The Arnold Schwarzenegger Stadium in his honor. privately controlled companies. .1 m) wide. "I've made many millions as a businessman many times over.[151][152] Over the years as an investor. He devotes one chapter called "The Secret" to his highly publicized scandal. and set a deadline of two days to remove his name.[150] After separating from his wife. The majority of his book is about his successes in the three major chapters in his life: bodybuilder.[149] Net worth Schwarzenegger's net worth had been conservatively estimated at $100–$200 million. he signed an executive order to jump-start the building of hydrogen refueling plants called the California Hydrogen Highway Network. Schwarzenegger was the official spokesperson for the Special Olympics which were held in Shanghai. educational and community enrichment programming to youth."[17] Activism He bought the first Hummer manufactured for civilian use in 1992.000 children in over 400 schools countrywide. It is the home of both Grazer AK and Sturm Graz.S. The conversion was reported to have cost about US$21. bonds. "Money doesn't make you happy. Schwarzenegger said "to spare the responsible politicians of the city of Graz further concern. Department of Energy grant to help pay for its projected US$91. During the Gubernatorial Recall campaign he announced that he would convert one of his Hummers to burn hydrogen. particularly in light of declining real estate values owing to economic recessions in the United States and Europe. I withdraw from them as of this day the right to use my name in association with the Liebenau Stadium". and even as high as $800 million. in 2011. he invested his bodybuilding and movie earnings in an array of stocks. a model so large. In June 1997.[158] In 1995. Eunice Kennedy Shriver. Graz officials removed Schwarzenegger's name from the stadium in December 2005."[10] He has also stated. and his seven years as Governor of California. In response.[161] It is now officially titled UPC-Arena. but I was just as happy when I had $48 million. high profile celebrity. China. a box-office. fuel economy regulations do not apply to it. several local politicians began a campaign to remove his name from the stadium.

or most difficult.[162] The trail is categorized as a black diamond. Arnold (2012). 2007. declaring "This belongs to him. Arnold Schwarzenegger. Thal 145. New York: Bloomsbury. The mayor sent Schwarzenegger the enameled sign. Governor Arnold: A Photodiary of His First 100 Days in Office. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-671-25613-5. B. 1977 [165] at time. • Saunders. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. • Brandon. True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger: From Pumping Iron to Governor of California (rev. United States: Simon & Schuster. Karen (2004). New York: Simon & Schuster.). August 1977 [164] at thesmokinggun. Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder. (2005). • Sexton. Tauris. London: I. ISBN 978-0-671-24301-2. Officials proclaimed "A Day for Arnold" on July 30. Why Arnold Matters: The Rise of a Cultural Icon. New York: Simon & Schuster. • Schwarzenegger. ed.com • Excerpts from Time Out (London) interview. ISBN 978-1-84983-971-6. ISBN 978-0-7432-6266-8. Arnold Schwarzenegger. Susan (2000).[163] 153 Bibliography • Schwarzenegger.). ISBN 978-1-883845-95-7. ISBN 978-0-671-22879-8. Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women. Austria. ISBN 978-0-8225-1634-7. Schwarzenegger. • – with Bill Dobbins (1981). • – with Douglas Kent Hall (1977). Total Recall. San Diego: Lucent Books. Colleen A. Arnold (1977). New York: Simon & Schuster. • Blitz. • Zannos. Md. "Arnie": Schwarzenegger and the Movies. The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (rev.: Mitchell Lane. Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men. • Andrews. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-58234-465-2. No one here will ever be assigned that number again". Arnold: Developing a Mr. Interviews • Interview in Oui magazine. named after Schwarzenegger in 2001. ISBN 978-0-684-84374-2.Arnold Schwarzenegger The Sun Valley Resort has a short ski trail called Arnold's Run. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-59018-539-1.com • Schwarzenegger Interview [166] on The Hour with George Stroumboulopoulos Film • • • • Footage of Arnold Schwarzenegger winning Mr Universe. Andy (2004). Universe Physique. • – with Bill Dobbins (1998). and Louise Krasniewicz (2004). 1969 [167] "Arnold Schwarzenegger – Hollywood Hero" DVD ~ Todd Baker "Pumping Iron" (25th Anniversary Special Edition) DVD ~ George Butler Arnold Schwarzenegger [168] at the Internet Movie Database . Michael. Dave (2008). the number of the house where Schwarzenegger was born. for its terrain. People in Thal. Arnold Schwarzenegger. • Borowitz. Nigel (2003). Childs. ed. ISBN 978-0-465-03752-0. • – with Douglas Kent Hall (1979). celebrated Schwarzenegger's 60th birthday by throwing a party.

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com/) AB 43 Project • Arnold Schwarzenegger (http://www.com/speeches/convention2004/arnoldschwarzenegger2004rnc.gov/) official California government site Arnold Schwarzenegger (http://www.ontheissues.com/) official website Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (http://gov38.org/Arnold_Schwarzenegger.com/) official constituency site Arnold Schwarzenegger Museum (http://www.htm) AmericanRhetoric. 2007 • Archive of Correspondence pertaining to Governor Schwarzenegger and same-sex marriage (http://www.com/) official museum site Arnold Schwarzenegger (https://twitter.com/name/nm0000216) at the Internet Movie Database • Collected news and commentary (http://topics.dmoz.Arnold Schwarzenegger 161 External links • • • • • Arnold Schwarzenegger (http://www.life.com/guest/view/6018) on Charlie Rose programs • Appearances (http://www.ca.htm) AmericanRhetoric.com/politics/Arnold_Schwarzenegger_topic. audio.org/identities/lccn-n79-85101) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Profile (http://www.com/people/685/000022619) at Notable Names Database • Arnold Schwarzenegger: Wild Years (http://www.nytimes. September 24. html) at The Washington Post • Collected news and commentary (http://www.c-spanvideo.guardian.co.nndb.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/s/ arnold_schwarzenegger) at The New York Times • Collected news and commentary (http://www. video of Governor Schwarzenegger's 2004 Republican National Convention Address (http:/ /www.nga.com/gallery/60601/ arnold-schwarzenegger-wild-years#index/0) – slideshow by Life magazine • Complete text.htm) at On the Issues • Campaign contributions (http://www.worldcat.com/speeches/arnoldschwarzeneggerunitednations.imdb.com/Schwarzenegger) on Twitter • Biography (http://www.washingtonpost.phtml?uc=4450) at FollowTheMoney.org/database/uniquecandidate.charlierose.americanrhetoric.arnieslife.followthemoney.joinarnold. signab43.uk/world/arnold-schwarzenegger) at The Guardian • Works by or about Arnold Schwarzenegger (http://www.org • Appearances (http://www.com • Complete text and audio of Governor Schwarzenegger's Speech to the United Nations on Global Climate Change (http://www._Arnold/) at the Open Directory Project .org/person/4501) on C-SPAN programs • Appearances (http://www.schwarzenegger.com.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.org/Arts/People/S/Schwarzenegger.americanrhetoric.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/ ?vgnextoid=1dac224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD) at the National Governors Association • Issue positions and quotes (http://www.

To evade the police. was released a month after the movie. California) June 16. he is accompanied by his Chinese valet. and after succeeding with the help of Passepartout.Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) 162 Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) Around the World in 80 Days Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Frank Coraci Bill Badalato Hal Lieberman David Titcher David Benullo David Goldstein Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne Jackie Chan Steve Coogan Cécile de France Trevor Jones David A. The film is set in 19th-century Britain and centers on Phileas Fogg (Steve Coogan). 2004 (Los Angeles. It stars Jackie Chan. For comedic reasons. If he wins he will become Minister of Science in Lord Kelvin's place.895 [1] [1] Around the World in 80 Days is a 2004 American comedy adventure film based on Jules Verne's novel of the same name.178. a corrupt officer hired by the Royal Academy of Science to stop them. taking the pseudonym Passepartout. Stewart Based on Starring Music by Cinematography Phil Meheux Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Tom Lewis Walden Media Walt Disney Pictures • • June 13. Passepartout (Jackie Chan). in particular William Thomson. they head to the Royal Academy of Science. an inventor. Fogg is insulted by the other "brilliant minds". Phileas is trying to break the 50-mph speed barrier. During the trip. who believes that everything worth discovering has already been discovered. Steve Coogan and Cécile de France. based on the movie. if not he will destroy his lab and never invent anything again. 1st Baron Kelvin. he becomes the valet for Phileas Fogg. and his efforts to circumnavigate the globe in 80 days. . here reimagined as an eccentric inventor. A Game Boy Advance video game with the same name. the film intentionally deviated wildly from the novel and included a number of anachronistic elements. 2004 (United States) [1] 120 minutes United States English $110 million $72. Phileas is pressured into a bet to see whether he can travel around the world in 80 days. There. taking a carriage and leaving London after a confrontation with Inspector Fix. Phileas and Passepartout start their journey around the world. Plot A Chinese man robs the Bank of England.

He travels to San Francisco and is tricked out of his money. ending the wager. where a crowd greets them. leaves China alone. Disguised as women they evade the police but are attacked by Fang's warriors. Fang had previously given it to Kelvin in exchange for military assistance in China. The Prince orders Monique to stay as his seventh wife while the men are ordered to leave. The three friends are victorious. In the desert they find the Wright brothers and the three inventors discuss the flying machine. A policeman takes them through a building he claims is a shortcut. She learned that he had sold her arsenal to Fang in exchange for jade mines in China thanks to one of his aides. he misses it to help Lau Xing. He orders the British colonial authorities in India to arrest both. Monique. who is nearby listening. of which he is one. but Kelvin scoffs at them. A battle against Fang and her minions commences in the workshop where the Statue of Liberty was constructed. and the clock strikes noon. ending in Fang being knocked out by Monique. she convinces them to take her with them. They reach London. Passepartout is attacked by warriors sent by General Fang. They depart in a hot-air balloon. and is travelling with Phileas to get there quickly. Though Phileas could have gotten the boat. but if Phileas wins the bet Lord Kelvin will not have the means to help them. and Phileas' next stop is New York City. The statue is destroyed but the three travellers escape. but it is an ambush. Pretending to take Phileas to a convention with Thomas Edison. In the process he insults Queen Victoria. Monique learns that Passepartout is trying to return the Jade Buddha back to his village. Monique. Phileas. When Monique learns of Phileas's ambition. moments later he is joined by the martial arts masters of the "Ten Tigers of Canton". Using the changed Wright brothers' plans. chased by Fang's warriors.Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) Passepartout and Phileas journey to Paris. who is after the Jade Buddha that he stole. Lord Kelvin proclaims himself the victor. Lau Xing. At first he fights alone and is defeated. making it impossible for them to reach their ship. especially Phileas. Whilst on the Orient Express. whose name is revealed to be Lau Xing. Passepartout sees notice of the price on his head and warns his companions. The Buddha is returned to the village temple. 163 . Phileas feels he has lost. where the machine falls apart and they crash in front of the Royal Academy. They spend several days there and are attacked by the Black Scorpions. Lord Kelvin sends police to stop them from making it to the top step of the Royal Academy of Science. Phileas realizes he is one day early thanks to crossing the international date line. but vows revenge on all of England. There. They travel to Turkey. but the other two say they may still make it if they catch the next ship. He is found by Lau Xing and Monique. a would-be impressionist. Phileas finds the brothers' plans brilliant but suggests a few changes. Monique and Passepartout. Phileas. The men blackmail Prince Hapi into releasing Monique using a prized but apparently flimsy "The Thinker" statue of the Prince. unhappy that his companions used him. Monique keeps his secret in exchange for him convincing Phileas to let her travel with him. Kelvin is arrested. The Tigers drive the Black Scorpions from the village and free the Westerners. Fix and other ministers attest to Kelvin's unfair methods and his bullying nature. Using Inspector Fix and a sextant as weapons. victorious in his bet. Passepartout leads him to an art school where Phileas meets Monique La Roche. He ascends the stairs of the Academy and kisses Monique. Phileas builds a plane while the ship's crew builds a catapult to launch it into the sky. they defeat their assailants and flee to China. are held captive. Passepartout leads his friends to his village where they are happily greeted. Lord Kelvin learns that Phileas has been involuntarily abetting a thief's escape. Fang's minions made arrangements with Lord Kelvin to take Lau Xing's village and tap the jade reserves underneath it. Lau Xing challenges the leader of the group to a fight. They board an old ship and Phileas convinces the captain to let him build a plane out of the ship's old wood in exchange for a new ship. where they are greeted by Prince Hapi.

.[2] While some reviewers criticized it for having little to no resemblance to the novel it is based on. with Rotten Tomatoes giving it a 31% "Rotten" rating and Metacritic a 49/100.Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) 164 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jackie Chan as Passepartout / Lau Xing / Tiger #1 Steve Coogan as Phileas Fogg Cécile de France as Monique Laroche Jim Broadbent as Lord Kelvin Roger Hammond as Lord Rhodes David Ryall as Lord Salisbury Ian McNeice as Colonel Kitchener Kathy Bates as Queen Victoria Arnold Schwarzenegger as Prince Hapi Owen Wilson as Wilbur Wright Luke Wilson as Orville Wright Rob Schneider as San Francisco Hobo John Cleese as Grizzled sergeant Richard Branson as Balloon Man Ewen Bremner as Inspector Fix Sammo Hung as Wong Fei Hung / Tiger #2 Karen Mok as General Fang (as Karen Joy Morris) Daniel Wu as Bak Mei Robert Fyfe as Jean Michel Adam Godley as Mr. others such as Roger Ebert praised it for its visual style and for being "goofy fun".[3] The film was nominated for two Razzie Awards . Sutton Macy Gray as Sleeping French Woman Ken Lo as French Inspector / Black Scorpion (uncredited) Will Forte as Young French Policeman Bobby Maggie Q as Female Agent (as Maggie M. Quigley) Phil Meheux as London Hobo Michael Youn as Art Gallery Manager Frank Coraci as Angry Dapper Pedestrian Mark Addy as Steamer Captain Don Tai as Ho / Tiger #9 Mars as Bak Mei's Henchmen (uncredited) Johnny Cheung as Bak Mei's Henchmen (uncredited) Han Guan Hua as Black Scorpion (uncredited) Reception Around the World in 80 Days was met with mixed to negative reviews.Worst Remake or Sequel and Worst Supporting Actor (Arnold Schwarzenegger).

. It follows almost the same plot as the movie and follows most the locations and events seen in the movie. Retrieved 2011-10-29. Retrieved 2012-10-23. . Pictures" (http:/ / www.go.com. The film finally turned a profit in DVD sales. Rogerebert. Retrieved 2011-10-29. External links • Official website (http://disney. This side scrolling game features digitized characters and graphic. com/ m/ around_the_world_in_80_days/ ). Box Office Mojo. rottentomatoes. [2] "Around the World in 80 Days Movie Reviews. box office and $72 million worldwide. and a password save.imdb.Around the World in 80 Days (2004 film) 165 Commercial performance With production costs of about $110 million and estimated marketing costs of $30 million. com/ movies/ ?id=aroundtheworldin80days. multiplayer Around the World in 80 Days is a 2004 video game for the Game Boy Advance based on the movie with the same name starring Jackie Chan. 2004 October 15. [3] "Around the World in 80 Days :: rogerebert. Rotten Tomatoes.com :: Reviews" (http:/ / rogerebert. making it a box office bomb. suntimes.com/disneyvideos/liveaction/80days/main_flash.com/title/tt0327437/) at the Internet Movie Database Around the World in 80 Days (video game) Around the World in 80 Days North American box art Developer(s) Publisher(s) Platform(s) Saffire Hip Games Game Boy Advance NA EU Release date(s) • • July 5. .S.suntimes. htm). boxofficemojo.html) • Around the World in 80 Days (http://www. 2004 Mode(s) Single-player. it earned $24 million at the U. com/ apps/ pbcs.[1] References [1] "Around the World in 80 Days (2004)" (http:/ / www. dll/ article?AID=/ 20040616/ REVIEWS/ 406160301/ 1023). .

. html). com/ games/ platforms/ gba/ aroundtheworldin80days). gameboy. com/ articles/ 529/ 529237p1.Around the World in 80 Days (video game) 166 Reception Reception Aggregate scores Aggregator GameRankings Metacritic Score [1] 37. Retrieved 2011-05-07. with an average of 40 out of 100 from Metacritic.[2] IGN refers gameplay elements as "a slobberknocker" and stated that fighting with boss characters are "just slugfests. archive. "Around the World in 80 Days Review" (http:/ / ie. . [2] "Around the World in 80 Days" (http:/ / apps. IGN. gameboy. org/ web/ 20110713004424/ http:/ / ie. ."[3] References [1] "Around the World in 80 Days" (http:/ / www. gamerankings. Archived (http:/ / web. based on nine reviews. . [3] Nix (July 8. com/ gba/ 920659-around-the-world-in-80-days/ index. Game Rankings. html). html) from the original on 13 July 2011. ign. Metacritic. metacritic. com/ articles/ 529/ 529237p1.5 out of 10 The game received generally unfavorable reviews. Retrieved 2011-06-12.75% [2] 40 out of 100 Review scores Publication IGN Score [3] 3. some of which may prove too difficult to brawl through for young gamers even though the rest of the game is a cakewalk. ign. 2004). Retrieved 2011-06-12.

not counting other fund raisers.[4][8][9][10][11][12][13] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jackie Chan Andy Lau Hacken Lee Masatoshi Nakamura (中 村 雅 俊) Jaycee Chan Gillian Chung Charlene Choi Aaron Kwok Kay Tse G.E.000 to 10. The list is incomplete. Carol Cheng.[1] Converted into US Dollars. Lawrence Cheng. Agnes Chan. The event was telecasted live. the charity concert raised approximately 2.[5] Broadcast More than 150 donation hotlines were available.[5] Broadcast was available on major stations in HK. Taiwan.[3][4] Japan's consul general Yuji Kumamaru and his wife also attended and sat in the front row seat. People's Republic of China.M AKB48 Miriam Yeung Kwon Sang-woo George Lam Edmond Leung Bosco Wong Angelababy Chrissie Chau Wonder Girls • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Shirley Kwan Judy Ongg Raymond Lam Donnie Yen Joey Yung Sen Masao (千 昌 夫) Alan Tam Kenny Bee The Wynners Agnes Chan Richie Ren Coco Lee Prudence Liew Andy Hui Michael Tse Myolie Wu Jonathan Lee Joyce Cheng Khalil Fong • • • • • • • • • • • • Sammi Cheng Jade Kwan Juno Mak Elanne Kong Virginia Lok (樂 易 玲) Bennett Pang (彭 健 新 ) Mr. The concert event lasted 3 hours featuring 300 local and overseas artists.[2] Preparation The name of the event 311 came from 11 March. Singapore.[3] On 24 March about 100 celebrities at RTHK recorded the theme song "Succumb not to sorrow" (不 要 輸 給 心 痛). the day that the earthquake occurred. Sylvia Chang. About HK$18 million were raised in this event alone.[6] Event was hosted by Eric Tsang. including some from Japan.000 people in attendance.[7] Participants The following are some of the participants at the concert. Malaysia. Theresa Fu Jonathan Wong (王 梓 軒) Lionel Richie (from remote) Tony Leung (from video) Park Jin Young .Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders 167 Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders (愛 心 無 國 界 311燭 光 晚 會) was a major fund raising campaign held in Hong Kong for the victims of the Japan 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Japan. There were about 8.31 million dollars. The event was organized by the Hong Kong Performing Artistes Guild and began at 7pm on 1 April 2011 at Causeway Bay Victoria park.

com/ world/ special/ ribendizhen/ content-2/ detail_2011_03/ 26/ 5387289_0.ifeng. [9] Post Store. Asia Pacific Arts. . Big5. com/ 2011/ 04/ 01/ AFKfjtHC_photo. ifeng. tvb. 2009-07-21. Specials. edu/ article@apa?artistes_311_love_beyond_borders_raises_funds_for_japan_16598.Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders 168 Other similar event On 20 March 2011 a much smaller scale fund raising campaign called "全 城 關 愛 日 本 大 地 震" was held in HK. The Standard. [13] "「 愛 心 無 國 界 311燭 光 晚 會 」 詳 情 " (http:/ / www. [5] "Star-studded cast gets in tune for Victoria Park show to help victims" (http:/ / www. . [7] "愛 心 無 國 界 311燭 光 晚 會 . . [10] "300藝 人 心 連 心 為 日 本 加 油 . "The Washington Post" (http:/ / www. tvbchannel. cc/ cnt/ entertainment/ 20110402/ 00282_001. . monstersandcritics.com" (http:/ / programme. 2011-04-04. com. hk/ news_detail. [6] "311燭 光 晚 會 : 港 日 媒 體 聯 盟 知 名 藝 人 薈 萃" (http:/ / big5. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2011-04-04. on. html). com/ event/ special/ aixinwuguojie311zhuguangwanhui/ ziliao/ detail_2011_04/ 01/ 5508192_0.tvb.mingpao. ifeng. com/ cfm/ News. washingtonpost.com. aspx). thestandard.[14][15] Many of the participants have also worked closely in Japan's industry. 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2011-04-04. html) (in (Chinese)). News. Retrieved 2011-04-04. com/ variety/ artistes311/ episode/ 20110401/ ). shtml).每 集 內 容 .tvb. [14] "香 港 發 起 "全 城 關 愛 日 本 大 地 震"籌 款 義 賣 活 動" (http:/ / big5. [3] South China Morning Post. [12] 作 者 : 大 A. Retrieved 2011-04-04. scmp.sina.hk. htm). . entnewsmag. Big5. shtml). com/ portal/ site/ SCMP/ menuitem. "視 頻 : 眾 星 雲 集311燭 光 晚 會 籌 款1859萬 港 幣-娛 樂 新 聞-新 浪 新 聞 中 心 " (http:/ / news.com. [11] "翁 倩 玉 感 激 中 國 救 日 本" (http:/ / specials. Retrieved on 2011-04-03. sina.artistes311.com. com/ gate/ big5/ news. com/ love-without-borders-311-candlelight-vigil-details. html). php?option=com_content& view=article& id=4447:2011-03-20-18-39-28& catid=111:2010-03-13-05-19-27& Itemid=479) External links • Official site (http://www. . . . TVB Channel.ifeng. Epochtimes. [8] "300藝 人 同 心 籌 二 千 萬 賑 災" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2011-04-04. com/ news/ asiapacific/ news/ article_1630247. [2] ""Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders" raises funds for Japan" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. .com. News. tw/ article/ 20110403/ 4317359. [15] (http:/ / www. epochtimes. asp?pp_cat=30& art_id=109512& sid=31787440& con_type=1). com. Retrieved 2011-04-04. . com.on." Songs of hope as Japan aid tops HK$100m. " SCMP (http:/ / www. Programme. ifeng. html). com/ b5/ 11/ 4/ 2/ n3216517p.com. hk/ news/ 15/ 1/ 1/ 2063904/ 1. ifeng.東 方 日 報" (http:/ / orientaldaily.org/layers/main) . cfm?SpecialsID=242& News=819b724a860929ac4c93d3cacc1339ec819f542ecad367e48c9215e85a) (in (Chinese)).tw. Participants include: • • • • Ivan Wang (王 友 良) Marie Zhuge (諸 葛 梓 岐) Yan Ng Vangie Tang • • • • Wylie Chiu (趙 碩 之) Philip Wei (韋 雄 ) Yip Wai-ting (葉 慧 婷) Rico Kwok (郭 力 行) • • • • Carisa Yan (甄 穎 珊) from Freeze Chow Wing-hang (周 永 恆) 4anda Venus Yiu (姚 嘉 兒) • • • • JuJu Chan Renee Lee (李 蘊) Alice B Rednoon References [1] "Action hero Jackie Chan and friends raise money for Japan" (http:/ / www. The Washington Post.cc. mingpao. sina.com.sina.com. Retrieved 2011-04-04. Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 2011-04-04. usc. Orientaldaily. . 2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/ ?vgnextoid=41bafb34ed11f210VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD& ss=Hong+ Kong& s=News). [4] "大 紀 元 | 組 圖 : 愛 心 無 國 界 演 藝 界 送 暖 日 本 災 民" (http:/ / www. . php/ Action-hero-Jackie-Chan-and-friends-raise-money-for-Japan). html). . Retrieved 2011-04-04. com/ gate/ big5/ phtv. com/ index.

At that time. They created three demo tapes that year – Solar Happy in June. "Jack Names the Planets". County Down. they released their compilation demo tape. which featured an assortment of songs from the other tapes. ash-official. In 1993 the band recorded the Garage Girl demo tape. com Members Tim Wheeler Mark Hamilton Rick McMurray Past members Charlotte Hatherley Russell Lissack Ash are an alternative rock band that formed in Downpatrick. "Get Out". Northern Ireland in 1992. and the Home Demo in November. These tapes featured their earliest material and the first recordings of some songs that were later on their 1994 release. Shed in September. including "Intense Thing".Ash (band) 169 Ash (band) Ash Ash performing at the O2 ABC in Glasgow in 2010 Background information Origin Genres Downpatrick. Trailer and 1977 (1992–1998) Ash officially formed in 1992. Cosmic Rays." because they were so young when recording their early material. "Obscure Thing. as well as some new tracks including "Petrol". The . which featured "Jack Names the Planets" and "Intense Thing" taken from Shed. Downpatrick musician Ray Valentine recorded Ash's demos at his studio. Trailer. reportedly having taken their name from the first word they liked in the dictionary. the band were known as "Genuine Real Teenagers. Wheeler and Hamilton were in a Iron Maiden cover band called Vietnam who formed in 1989. The band has sold 8 million albums worldwide. Following Garage Girl. Northern Ireland Alternative rock Years active 1992–present Website http:/ / www." and their future single. Prior to this. History Band beginning. Pipe Smokin' Brick later that year.

A limited edition version of the album was released in the UK on the band's own Deathstar label. recorded at the Triple J Studios in Australia. Taverner put up the money so that they could press 1. Ash left school and released their breakthrough singles "Kung Fu" (featured over the end credits of Jackie Chan's North American breakthrough film. and "There's a Star" .Ash (band) demo tapes had not gained much attention yet and the band were still playing small shows at local clubs. which saw considerable success. The band had offered two other tracks that were cut. which made the soundtrack but was cut from the movie due to time constraints. written by Jed Shepherd and directed by Alexander Marks included star roles by Chris Martin (Sherbet Bones) and Jonny Buckland (Agent Ford) of Coldplay as a pair of FBI agents hired to track down a . "A Life Less Ordinary".[1] On 17 February 1997. The band retreated to Wheeler's parents' house. Ash in Bangkok. A note for Stephen Taverner attached to the video said. 1996 saw them release the singles "Goldfinger" and "Oh Yeah" either side of their album 1977. followed shortly afterwards by the singles collection Intergalactic Sonic 7″s with the bonus disk entitled Cosmic Debris. Ash released "Jesus Says" the following month the second album proper. which featured two of Ash's songs. a live album. Q magazine named Ash as No. As a result they recruited Charlotte Hatherley who had previously been with the band Nightnurse and she made her gig debut at a few small gigs a week before appearing at the V Festival in 1997. Thailand 1999 170 Charlotte Hatherley.000 7″ copies of "Jack Names the Planets" on his own LaLaLand record label. The movie Angus was released. "Candy". Stephen Taverner came across the Garage Girl demo tape. The track "Lose Control" from that album was featured in the video game Gran Turismo. Ash released their mini album. Ash released Live at the Wireless. The single "Shining Light" won the "Best Contemporary Song" award at the 2002 Ivor Novello awards. "Girl From Mars" and "Angel Interceptor". 2 of its "50 Bands To See Before You Die"." and served to introduce Ash to American audiences. Taverner subsequently became the band's full-time manager. The single "Shining Light" was released in January 2001. In September 1998. "Jack Names the Planets" and "Kung Fu. was shot while the band were on tour in America but some scenes were also shot in the UK. Tim Wheeler disappeared for a short while following the commercial and critical failure of Nu-Clear Sounds. Nu-Clear Sounds. The film. drug and sex fueled video for Numbskull. In 1999. it was leaked to the music and tabloid press that Ash were working on a horror film described as a 'teen slasher'. "I've killed Bambi". Nu-Clear Sounds and Free All Angels (1998–2004) During their time touring with Weezer. called Slashed. but in early 1994. In 1995. along with "Pansy Division's Deep Water". In 2003. this was not to be the case. Ash nearly became bankrupt as they prepared to release possibly their last album. featured on the soundtrack to the Ewan McGregor / Cameron Diaz film of the same name. Subsequent singles released from Free All Angels were "Burn Baby Burn". He eventually emerged in New York making the self-deprecating. Ash felt the limitation of a three-piece band. The stress of near non-stop touring of 1977 and Nu-Clear Sounds began to affect the band's mentality. A new single "Envy" was released. Trailer. They received some airplay from Steve Lamacq on BBC Radio 1 and so followed up their debut single with "Petrol" and "Uncle Pat" on their new label Infectious Records. to play and write songs in the same garage where the band began. in October 1994. "Sometimes". The screenplay. blood. and in November "Wildsurf". followed by the number one album Free All Angels in April. Rumble in the Bronx). Luckily. which only included seven songs. The first single that she appeared on.

through Warner Bros. In an interview in July 2007.[5] With the return to their original three-piece line-up. Wheeler hinted that the eventual album was likely to be more retro sounding than any of their previous material. Meltdown was released in the US on 8 March 2005. On 20 January 2006.Ash (band) supernatural serial killer. Also Ash playing a gig in Dublin in 2007 featured is their cover of the Buzzcocks song "Everybody's Happy Nowadays" featuring Chris Martin on backing vocals. . including the Isle of Wight Festival on 9 June 2007. were issued as singles in June and September. An official statement reads: "After 9 years Ash and Charlotte Hatherley have mutually agreed to part company."[3] Twilight of the Innocents. Tim Wheeler received a companionship (an honorary degree) from LIPA (Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts). The band teamed up with Lucasarts for a new Star Wars game entitled Republic Commando. Hatherley left the band after nine years leaving only the original members remaining. this led to the band performing at London Roundhouse on Friday 5 September and Saturday 6 September 2008. Starcrossed and "Renegade Cavalcade" were later released as singles from the album. In early 2007. Two further songs from the album. respectively.[2] The film was never generally released to the public. the other band members suggested they asked Hatherley to leave as they "wanted to be a three-piece. Both shows sold out and the band went on to release a 3-disc special edition version of the album. Ash announced a full-length UK tour for February and March. taken from the album Meltdown is the first licensed music to be used in anything Star Wars-related. On 19 February 2007 Ash released the first song from their new album. Other star performances include that of Moby. This new material was a download-only sneak preview track called "I Started A Fire". On 12 June 2007 Ash revealed that Twilight of the Innocents would be their last album. The music video for the song debuted on MTV2 on 11 March 2007. the band had been mainly performing material from albums 1977 and Twilight of the Innocents. NME reported that Ash were in a New York recording studio and had twenty seven "rough" songs. but Wheeler stated that they were hoping to test out their new songs "in tiny New York bars" once the album was complete. featuring remastered and re-edited versions of the tracks. The tour was a warm-up for their album release in June and their summer festival appearances. 171 Meltdown and Hatherley's departure (2004–2006) On 29 June 2004. A to Z Singles & Second Greatest Hits (2006–present) On 6 June 2006. Records imprint Record Collection. The decision is completely amicable and they wish each other the very best for the future". which reached number five in the UK. with the advent of the download the emphasis has reverted to single tracks". "Clones". titled Twilight of the Innocents. Burnout 3: Takedown and Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition. 1977. "Meltdown" and "Orpheus" are featured on the popular British movie. as well as tracks from Trailer and live performances from the time of its release. "Polaris" and "End of the World". The song "Vampire Love" was featured in American Pie Presents: Band Camp. At the same time Hatherley also wrote and recorded her solo side project album Grey Will Fade.[4] The release of "You Can't Have It All" coincided with an in-store gig and signing session at Virgin Megastore in Belfast. Dave Grohl and Ash themselves. which saw the band perform 1977 in its entirety. James Nesbitt. Shaun of the Dead as well as appearing on the in-game soundtracks for the video games NHL 2005. No shows were planned for the remainder of 2006. Also in 2005. The first physical single "You Can't Have It All" was released on 16 April 2007. Ash released Meltdown. They also denied that they were splitting and instead stated that they would only release singles from now on as "(t)he way people listen to music has changed.

The band have stated that whilst there are no immediate plans to tour with the material written and recorded with Hatherley still in the band.[7] each of which will be available to win in different competitions being run through the band's website.[14] In April 2010 Bloc Party guitarist Russell Lissack joined the band for their UK tour and has since continued to tour with them worldwide throughout 2010. It's a cover of a song called “Washington Parks” by I think Happy Monster but it's pretty sweet. to preview new tracks and start promoting their new material. no limits to where or what it’ll sound like. and in June 2010 they headlined the John Peel Stage on the last night of Glastonbury Festival. On 16 April 2009. Ash made their first appearance in South Africa to support local rock group The Parlotones on the South African leg of their world tour. London. It won't be too long until it's out and it's for a charity in England called the Multiple Sclerosis Society. In September 2010.[10] In August 2011 Ash collaborated with We Are Scientists to release a cover of the song "Washington Parks" by British songwriter Robert Manning. and that there was a possibility they may at some point tour with Hatherley again."[13] 172 Line-up The band set out as a three piece originally. bassist Mark Hamilton stated. The concept of the song is that if you listen to it on headphones or stereo the musicians of Ash are on the left channel and all the We Are Scientists guys are playing it in the right channel. later recruiting Hatherley as a second guitarist. The three band members hand created 178 sleeves each for the physical singles. along with a handful of warm-up shows.[8] In August 2009 they played at the Hevy Music Festival in Folkestone. "never say never". including locally popular MK. the band stated they had been writing and recording new tracks. known as the A to Z singles series.[15] In June 2011 LaFaro drummer Alan Lynn stood in for Rick McMurray (who was having a baby) for a short European tour. We're playing the same song essentially but in different ways. whilst Mark provides backing vocals occasionally in studio. A few of the songs are barely recognisable as Ash which is pretty exciting to see how people react when they hear them. I'm not playing the same bass line as Mark and Rick isn't playing the same drum pattern as Andy. After nine years in the band.[12] Chris Cain from We Are Scientists said in an interview "We actually recorded a single [with Ash] which is going to come out soon. "we’re just taking track at a time and seeing what happens.[11] raising money and awareness for Multiple Sclerosis and The MS Society. and that playing together again was a possibility in the future. Free All Angels and Nu-Clear Sounds has not since been played. Ash announced they were to play a one-off gig at Bloomsbury Ballroom. after the departure of Hatherley has taken over a lot of her backing vocal duties. one every fortnight for the rest of 2009. Hatherley was asked to leave so that the band could once again return to a three piece.[6] The first single to be released was announced on 30 April titled "Return of White Rabbit". in NME in June 2009 Hatherley also commented on the split stating her and Wheeler were regularly talking. part 2"."[6] A number of track titles were also revealed including "Neon. . On 18 May it was announced that the band would be releasing 26 singles. What's interesting especially is that not only do we have a unison feel going on but you can also take off one headphone and hear one band and vice versa.Ash (band) In late 2008. Ash made an appearance on the South African Idols and have also [9] appeared on various South African radio and television stations. The song was recorded between London and New York by the two bands and join a project already boasting releases from Ed Hardcourt and Emmy the Great. An additional date was also added at the same venue a few days later.[3] McMurray. while various singles and material from the albums Twilight of the Innocents and 1977 have made up the majority of material performed recently. I think Keith and Tim sing the same thing but in a different sort of harmony. In June 2011. but not live. Ash announced that a greatest hits record was in the works. Without a second guitarist some of the material from Meltdown.

NME. aspx?categoryid=3n& id=7784cd87-3cc2-4360-9fbd-31b89863e0b6). "Ash: We are way better than The Beatles" (http:/ / www. [5] "Ash deny they're splitting" (http:/ / www.uk.uk.co. bbc. shtml). xfm. uk/ northernireland/ atl/ news_specific40270. [6] Gordon. The first series of singles were released every fortnight and consisted of 26 singles. com/ music/ st/ TSOGT/ Title. [4] "Ash Download on Monday" (http:/ / www. co. backing vocals (1992–present) Former members • Charlotte Hatherley – guitar. [7] "Ash on a high" (http:/ / www. ash-official. Teenage Wildlife. Retrieved 2009-06-11. com/ news/ ash/ 28918). "Ash Interview" (http:/ / www. archive. Across the Line (radio show). . html). teletext. . noizemakesenemies. . co. it was confirmed that Charlotte Hatherley would return for a set of special shows. uk/ planetsound/ news/ 112123b58df2424fec84232bbe6dca57/ Exclusive+ -+ Ash+ on+ a+ high.Ash (band) In September 2011. piano. . lead guitar. thelondonpaper. Kim (3 July 2007). 12 June 2007. [2] Everitt. backing vocals (1997–2006. "X-clusive: Ash Slashed Film Guest Stars Revealed!" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 10/ ash-interview. Retrieved 2011-10-24. celebrating the release of their 'Best of Ash' album. [3] Taylor Bennett. The London Paper. . co. html) from the original on 7 October 2008. com/ cs/ Satellite/ london/ videos/ article/ 1157148104807?packedargs=suffix=SubSectionArticle). co. Retrieved 2011-10-24. aspx). com/ details. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 18 May 2009. Xfm. BBC Online. . co. The shows will include the four piece playing the Free All Angels album in its entirety and a "Best of" set. Retrieved 2011-10-24.[16] 173 Band members • Tim Wheeler – lead vocals.rhythm guitar (2010–present) • Alan Lynn . synthesizer (1992–present) • Rick McMurray – drums. Archived (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2008-09-19. plus additional tracks for those who paid for the entire series in advance. percussion. . . 5 December 2002. uk/ article. nme. Noize Makes Enemies. 2011) Touring members • Russell Lissack . Mark (1 July 2003).co. Ash Official. . Teletext. Retrieved 2011-10-24. [8] "Download 'Return of The White Rabbit' Free – A–Z Series" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 10/ ash-interview. html). noizemakesenemies. • A-Z Series (2009/2010) References [1] "The Sound of Gran Turismo" (http:/ / www. teenagewildlife. percussion (2011) Discography Studio albums • • • • • • Trailer – October 1994 1977 – 6 May 1996 – Platinum (BPI) Nu-Clear Sounds – 5 October 1998 – Platinum (BPI) Free All Angels – 23 April 2001 – Platinum (BPI) Meltdown – 17 May 2004 – Platinum (BPI) Twilight of the Innocents – 2 July 2007 Single format The band announced in 2007 with the release of Twilight of the Innocents that they would be switching to single format for further releases. org/ web/ 20081007145630/ http:/ / www.drums. piano/keyboards (1992–present) • Mark Hamilton – bass.com. asp?id=4739). Rob.

net.com) The Ash Files (http://www. June 2009. . blogspot.audioscribbler. Chad. nme. Retrieved 2011-10-14. [12] Manning. [11] "Ash and We Are Scientists team up for charity song – audio" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-10-24. Examiner.peterhill. Retrieved 2011-10-24. "Q&A: Ash" (http:/ / iheartau. moderated by the band themselves Ash Photography (http://www. Music for MRI. 11 August 2011. com/ 2011/ 08/ ash-we-are-scientists-washington-parks. com/ news/ ash--2/ 58574).carling. 2010-07-19. theparlotones. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 174 External links • • • • Official Ash Site (http://www. 16 March 2010. . ash-official. NME.com. [16] Peck.com) – Ash live recordings resource.com/music/festival/) & Leeds festival (http://www. . Ken. .htm) • Twilight of the Innocents interview (http://www. NME. NME. com/ news/ ash/ 50240). .carling. [13] Grand-Pierre.co.co. aspx?categoryid=3n& id=c246ca8c-e054-4c6c-8018-431bd8f6d041). AU Magazine. net/ index.com.ash-official. NME. com/ details.uk/interviews/ ashnewc07. Ash Official. "'Free All Angels' Interview with Rick McMurray" (http:/ / www.ashfiles.Ash (band) [9] "The Parlotones official website" (http:/ / www. [14] "Interview with Charlotte Hatherley". "Ash & We Are Scientists – Washington Parks RELEASED NOW" (http:/ / bobertmanning. Theparlotones.com "Bloc Party's Russell Lissack to join Ash for UK tour" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 06/ q-and-a-ash/ ).com. Robert.htm) .com. Retrieved 2011-10-24.net/photos/main-archive/ash) Ash at Reading festival (http://www. com/music/festival/carling_weekend/) • Ash interview (Oct 2007) on Record Overplayed webzine (http://www. [10] Hendicott. [15] NME. html). "An Exclusive Interview with Chris Cain of We Are Scientists". nme. James (8 June 2011). php?w=news_view& id=24916). Retrieved 2012-05-01.uk/features/ash1.recordoverplayed.

Patrick Ho (Secretary of Home Affairs). and Cheng Yu Tung (Chair of New World Group). the Leisure and Cultural Services Department of the Hong Kong government and the Hong Kong Film Awards Association. is located along the Victoria Harbour waterfront in Tsim Sha Tsui. The opening ceremony was presided over by a number of government and industry figures including Henry Tang (Financial Secretary). the Group announced it would spend HK$40 million to build the Avenue of Stars. It honours celebrities of the Hong Kong film industry.Wade–Giles .Jyutping Sing1gwong1 Daai6dou3 . In 2003. in which the privately-funded Avenue was handed over to the Hong Kong SAR government as public property. At opening. 27 April 2004. Hong Kong Avenue of Stars. modelled on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hong Kong. a project supported by the Hong Kong Tourism Board.[1] History In 1982.Avenue of Stars. Manfred Wong (Director/Actor). . Stephen Ip (Secretary for Economic Development and Labour). Selina Chow (Chair of Hong Kong Tourism Board).Yale Romanization Syīnggwāng Dàhdàu The Avenue of Stars (Chinese: 星 光 大 道).IPA Xīngguāng Dàdào Hsingkuang Tatao [ɕíŋkwɑ́ŋ tɑ̂tɑ̂ʊ] Cantonese (Yue) . Hong Kong Chinese 星光大 道 Transcriptions Mandarin . the New World Group built a promenade along the waterfront around the New World Centre in Tsim Sha Tsui East. the avenue honours an initial 73 inductees elected by the Hong Kong Film Awards Association and the readers of City Entertainment. Hong Kong 175 Avenue of Stars. Kowloon. Tourism Commission. The hand prints and autograph of director John Woo Martial artist and movie star Bruce Lee's sculpture The avenue was open to the general public on 28 April 2004 with an opening ceremony held the previous day.Hanyu Pinyin .

which Republic of China encompassed until the end of the last civil war. a 4. a number of attractions exist including the Museum of Art. It is a good place to go to see the glamorous stars of HK. The promenade commands a stunning panoramic view across Victoria Harbour. Some plaques contain hand prints and autographs of the stars set in cement. # 1. Florence Lim Butterfly Hu Sir Run Run Shaw (1907-) 5. Chief Executive of South China Film Industry Workers Union. 4. founder of TVB actress started with Ji Nan Film Company and later with TVB and RTV. but most of the plaques only contain celebrities' names as they are now deceased. Hong Kong This was then re opened in 2012 for a special film 176 Description The Avenue of Stars is the eastern node of several tourist attractions along the Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront. Set into the promenade are plaques honouring the celebrities. Space Museum. 3.  Republic of China  Republic of China Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong actress actress Hong Kong media mogul. At night it is a popular viewing place for the Symphony of Lights display. but from mainland China. The Avenue of Stars on a sunny day A large replica of the 2008 Summer Olympics torch will be on permanent display here. the story of Hong Kong's one hundred years of cinematic history is told through inscriptions printed on nine red pillars.  Canada  Republic of China Ningbo. Entering from Salisbury Garden. Cultural Centre and the Clock Tower. Wong Man Lei Place of Birth  Japan Residence Hong Kong Genre silent film actor. Along the 440 metre promenade. Lifetime Achievement Award of the Hong Kong FilmAwards (1995) married to Lai Man Wai star from 1924 to 1960s Notes Hong Kong . List of stars Note: People in the list who were born before 1949 in Republic of China are not from modern day Taiwan.5 metre bronze statue of Bruce Lee was erected along the Avenue of Stars in 2005. later as producer and director Vancouver.5-metre-tall replica of the statuette given to winners at the Hong Kong Film Awards greets visitors. In addition to the promenade and New World Centre. A 2.Avenue of Stars. Name Lai Man Wai (1893–1953) 2.

Hong Hong Kong Cantonese opera star opera star 1940 and 1950s.  Republic of China 11. 2009) Li Li Hua Kong Bai Guang (1921–1999) Beijing. Pak Suet Sin (April 1.  Republic of China 7. Tang Wing Cheung Kong Pak Yin Zhou Xuan (August 1. 1918(1918-08-01) September 22. 18. 9. 1915 January 13. Shek Kin (January 1. 21.  Republic of China Hong Hong Kong Hong Kong actress singer and film actress retired 1964 Hong Hong Kong Cantonese opera star Hong  Canada actor  Republic of China Guangzhou. Ng Wui  Republic of China Hong Kong Hong Kong  Republic of China singer and actress Hong Kong actor and co-founder of Union Film Enterprise Ltd. 1926-) Hung Sin Nui . Lo Duen Kong Griffin Yue Feng Kwan Tak Hing 27 June 1905 . later joined TVB and retired 1982 Greatest Individual Achievement Award given by the Cultural Ministry of the People’s Republic of China Opera King of Charity Hong Kong actor and Huangmei opera star actor Taicang. 1912  Republic of China 20. 29.5 January 1967) Tso Tat Wah (September 15. 25. Zhu Shi Lin (27 July 1899 . later with RTV Chinese opera star Malaysia singer and actress Kong Hong Hong Kong actress Hong Hong Kong film and TV actor Hong Kong opera star Hong Hong Kong director Hong Hong Kong actor star 1930s and 1940s. 1913-June 3. Li Tit Kong Wu Pang Kong Yam Kim Fai December Nanhai. 14. 2007) 8. Hong Kong 6.Avenue of Stars.  Republic of China 23. Hong Kong Hong Hong Kong actor and scriptwriter Lifetime Achievement Award of the Hong Kong Film Critics’Association (1998) Lifetime AchievementAward by the Film Directors' Guild (1991) Hong Kong actor Hong Kong film director 177 16. 10. Ng Cho Fan Kong 13. 1957) Cheung Ying Kong 17. 15. 22.28 June 1996) Cheung Wood Yau Kong 12. Hong Kong actor died in Canada 1984 24. Lifetime Achievement Award by the Film Directors'Guild (1995) directed 58 Wong Fei Hung films  Republic of China Changzhou. starred in over 100 films and directed over 200 films. 19.

 Republic of China 28. Roy Chiao Patricia Lam Fung Kong Chang Cheh (February 10. 1997) Ivy Ling Po (March. Hong Kong 26.  Republic of China cinema owner actor interpreter for the US Army during the Korean War 44. producer director died of heart attack in 1996 retired 1964 Hong Hong Kong actor. 27. 1936) Li Han Hsiang (March 7.Avenue of Stars. Beijing. screenwriter. 40. 1932-)  Republic of China 33. 1931-January 14. 43. 1926-December 17. Tang Bik Wan Kong Fong Yim Fun Kong Miranda Yang (February Shanghai. 1939) 45.  Republic of China Jinxi.  United States Hong Kong Cantonese opera star later wutg TVB. Guangzhou.  Republic of China Shantou. 32. 2002) Chor Yun Kong King Hu (April 29.  Republic of China Kuala Lumpur. 1923-June 22. Linda Ching (Lin Dai) Kong Woo Fung Kong You Min . moved to Canada 1975 30. 38. 42. 35. 1947-)  Republic of China Hong Kong actress and singer . 31. 41. director Hong Hong Kong actress took her own life in 1964 Hong Kong actress and producer Hong Hong Kong Hong Hong Kong Cantonese opera star/actress Chinese opera Hong Hong Kong/San Francisco. 29. Leung Sing Po Kong Tang Kei Chen  Republic of China Hong Kong radio anchor and radio actor/comedian.  Republic of China  Republic of China/ Kong Hong opera star director  Republic of China Hong Hong Kong Hong Kong  United States Hong Hong Kong retired 1967 and died 1976 film director actor Hong Kong Guangdong. 13.Lucialla Yu Ming Patrick Tse Yin (August 9. Hong Kong Connie Chan (January 1. 34. Hong Kong /  Canada Hong Kong Hong Kong Cantonese operat star and actress Hong Kong film and TV actor. 1996) Loke Wan Tho (14 June 1915-June 20. 36. award MBE 1976 Chinese opera Hong Hong Kong writer and director founded Kong Ngee Co 178 37. 1964) 39. Chun Kim Kong Yu So Chow Beijing.

Josephine Siao Fong Fong (March 13. 1946-) David Chiang Kong 51. 60.  Republic of China 50. 1943)  Republic of China 49. Tommy Ti Lung (August 3. actor director Founder of Jeet Kune Do. 59. 61. 55. Jimmy Wang Yu (March Wuxi. Hong Kong 46. Bruce Lee Ng See Yuen Kong Michael Hui Kong Sam Hui Kong Brigitte Lin Ching Hsia Sammo Hung Kam Po Kong Jackie Chan Kong John Woo Kong Yuen Wo Ping Kong Ann Hui On Wah Kong Tsui Hark Kong Chow Yun-fat Kong Leslie Cheung Kong Andy Lau Kong Hong Hong  Hong Kong/  Canada Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Cantopop singer and film actor Cantopop singer and film actor deceased Hong  Hong Kong TV and film actor Hong  Hong Kong director Hong  Hong Kong Hong Hong Hong  Republic of China Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong  Hong Kong Hong Hong Kong Hong Hong Kong comedian. producer. Hong Hong Kong film and TV actress Hong Kong actress 179 52. Leonard Ho Kwong Cheong Raymond Chow Kong 53. 62. director and screenwriter actor Suzhou. 54. voted Greatest Martial Artist of All Time Hong Kong Hong Hong Kong Hong Kong publicity officer and production officer at Shaw Brothers film director later Vice Chairman at Golden Harvest Xinhu. 1947) Fung Bo Bo Kong 48. 63. 56. 57. 65.Avenue of Stars. Hong  Canada actor Hong Kong Hong Kong actor.  Republic of China 47. 64. director and screenwriter actor and Hong Kong pop singer actress Hong Kong actor Hong Kong film actor film director director and martial arts choreographer director  United States Hong Hong Kong Hong Kong martial artist. . 66. 58. 28.

71. 78. Tony Leung Chiu Wai Kong Michelle Yeoh Choo Kheng Wong Kar Wai Kong Stephen Chow Kong Ms Tsz Law Lin Kong Lam Kar Sing Wong Tin-Lam Kong Bow Fong Kong Lau Kar Leung Kong Shek Wai Fu Chi Grace Chang  People's Republic of China Hong Kong 83. 85.Avenue of Stars. Anita Mui Kong 70. producer. director. 87. TVB MC Hong lyricist and writer deceased Hong choreographer Hong actor Hong Hong Kong actor Thailand actress and singer Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong  Canada Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong scriptwriter. 80. Patsy Kar Ling actress retired and living in Bangkok . Jet Li  People's Republic of China 68. 74. 81. 79. 89. 86. 77. 72. Maggie Cheung Kong Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong/  Singapore Hong Kong/  Hong Kong/  United Kingdom 69. 88. and actor actor film and TV actor TV and film actor film actress director director and film actor actress Cantopop singer and film actress deceased TV and film actress film actor 180 82. Hong Kong 67. 73. actor and presenter film and TV actor. 84. director. 75. 76. Kwan Shan Kong Lo Wai Kong Tong Kai Kong Nee Kwong James Wong Kong Karl Maka Kong Eric Tsang Kong Hong Hong producer.

production designer and art director film actor TV and film actor film actress 181  Republic of film actress China Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong  Singapore Cantopop singer and film actor TV and film actor TV and film actor. Cantopop singer 102. 95.discoverhongkong. 96.com. com/ hong-kong/ play/ 9-hong-kongs-best-and-worst-tourist-traps-535602) CNN Go.pdf) • Video on The Avenue of Stars (http://www. Cantopop singer film actress 101.com/eng/touring/ hkwalks/ta_walk_walk3.com/eng/touring/ hkiidistricts/ta_dist_ytmk4. cnngo. 94.avenueofstars.com/pnweb/PDF/Decease_E_bio.com/cheap-flights/the-avenue-of-stars) .hk) • Short descriptions from Hong Kong Tourism Board website (http://www. 92. 97. Retrieved 2012-03-03 External links • Avenue of Stars official website (http://www. Gong Li  People's Republic of China  People's Republic of China  United States Hong Hong Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong TV and film actor Kong Hong Hong Hong Hong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong/  Hong Kong film editor.jhtml) • Profiles of 35 deceased film professionals commended for their achievements in the history of Hong Kong cinema (http://partnernet.Avenue of Stars.hktb. 93. William Chang Suk Ping Kong 91. 27 October 2010.fibcool. 99.for better or worse" (http:/ / www. Hong Kong 90. Tony Leung Ka Fai Kong Anthony Wong Chau Sang Cecilia Cheung Kong Lai Pak Hoi Kenneth Tsang Kong Sylvia Chang Jacky Cheung Kong Lau Ching Wan Kong Aaron Kwok Kong 100. Cantopop singer TV and film actress. 98. Leon Lai Hong Kong/  Hong Kong Hong Kong TV and film actor. Yvonne Chan Reference [1] DeWolf.jhtml#route04) • Details from Hong Kong Tourism Board website (http://www. Christopher "9 Hong Kong tourist traps -.discoverhongkong.

776. (Chinese: 殺 手 壕) also known as Battle Creek Brawl.743 Hong Kong: HK $5. is a 1980 martial arts film which marked Jackie Chan's first attempt to break into the American movie market. Jessup Editing by Distributed by George Grenville Hong Kong: Golden Harvest United States: Warner Bros.Battle Creek Brawl 182 Battle Creek Brawl The Big Brawl Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Written by Starring Robert Clouse Raymond Chow Fred Weintraub Robert Clouse Jackie Chan José Ferrer Kristine DeBell Mako Rosalind Chao Lalo Schifrin Music by Cinematography Robert C.530 Release date(s) Running time Country Language Box office The Big Brawl. The film is set primarily in Chicago. The Big Brawl was a flop and led to Chan being advised to try supporting roles such as the Japanese racing car driver in Cannonball Run. a Chinese American martial artist. Chan later made another attempt to break into the American market with 1985's The Protector. as he single handedly takes on the Mafia. The film featured an appearance from Lenny Montana. which suffered the same fate as this film.527. Illinois in the 1930s (although it was shot in Texas) and follows Chan's character. . who had famously played Luca Brasi in The Godfather. It was directed by Robert Clouse and featured much of the crew from Enter the Dragon. It wasn't until 1995 with Rumble in the Bronx that Chan was able to bring his signature humor mixed with impressive stunt-work to American audiences. United States: 10 September 1980 Hong Kong: 16 October 1980 95 mins Hong Kong United States English United States: US $8.

1980 on 231 North American screens. [2] Battlecreek Brawl. As the mob exits.com/title/tt0080436/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Big Brawl (http://www. The Big Brawl and The Protector (1985). Chan had to perform the typical American fight sequences involving punches.[2] In his autobiography "I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action". . Jackie Chan's character. In effect. it grossed US $1. Jerry Kwan leads a very easy-going life with his girlfriend.743. in which he works together with his stunt team and the actors (and actresses) involved in the films he's involved in. and one day.792 per screen). all the way to the end of the action scene. Jackie Chan interview (DVD featurette) (DVD). unbeatable winner from previous battles who kisses his opponents after they are defeated.[1] In an interview with Chan on the region 2 DVD.Battle Creek Brawl 183 Plot Set in Chicago in the 1930s. 1979.527.108. Hong Kong Legends.com/movies/movie/v5383) at AllRovi . he is threatened by the mob to pay a part of his profits. In his early US films. UK. They focus on Jackie's speed and agility as he must fight very tough opponents. In its opening weekend. December 31. Reception The movie received negative receptions from critics. Retrieved 2012-05-31. Jackie gets help from a kung-fu teacher and uncle who trains for the Battle Creek Brawl. Variety. and ended its run with US $8. His father owns a restaurant. kicks and taking few takes. He answers back by taking them on and eventually catches the eye of the mob for his unique and talented fighting abilities. who were expecting an Enter the Dragon-sized hit.allrovi. Jackie enters the scene and rushes out the door to catch up with them. Chan quote's "No one will pay money to see Jackie Chan walk!" The reason he believes this film failed because he wasn't given a chance to direct the action scenes the way he wants it for the film. It wasn't until Rumble in the Bronx (1995) that Chan was allowed to use more of his preferred action style. one of them including Billy Kiss. Also is allowed to get as many takes until its right for the film. Box office The Big Brawl opened on August 29. 2001 (DVD). bulky. there was one scene in the production in which Robert Clouse is not interested in Chan's idea which is to flip out of the car and had wanted him to just walk from the car to his father restaurant. he is forced to join the Battle Creek Brawl fight in Texas. variety. but was a disappointment to distributor Warner Brothers and Jackie Chan.imdb. Chan discusses the differences between Chinese and American styles of action. the big. 1980 (film). com/ review/ VE1117789217?refcatid=31). External links • The Big Brawl (http://www. References [1] "The Big Brawl" (http:/ / www. and his family. Nancy (Kristine DeBell). Its box office performance was less disastrous than reputed to be.025 ($4. The mob promises to return his brother's fiancèe and give him the prize money as long as Jackie wins the tournament.

Sammo Hung: Played an unknown kid. The film is notable for being Jackie Chan's film debut.Big and Little Wong Tin Bar 184 Big and Little Wong Tin Bar Big and Little Wong Tin Bar Starring Jackie Chan Sammo Hung Li Hua Li Release date(s) 1962 Country Language Hong Kong Cantonese Big and Little Wong Tin Bar (Chinese: 大 小 黄 天 霸) is a 1962 Hong Kong film. However. He fights someone older and then sings. one clip from this film is one of the only copies. with no known copies remaining. Unidentified kids: Played singing kids and fights a man. Li Hua Li: Played Li Li-Hua. The film is now considered a lost film.[1] Cast • • • • • Jackie Chan: Played a singing kid and fights a man. There were 3 scenes involving Jackie and some kids. Unidentified Man: Played a man fighting kids. Plot A kid learns martial arts in order to become a Kung Fu warrior. Footage Jackie showed a little clip in an interview in 1961. Filming Information • • • • Country: Hong Kong Language: Cantonese Video: 35 mm film Black-and-white Sound Mix: Mono . Some footage of this film is shown in Jackie Chan: My Story.

Schaefer produced a long-running series of Pardon My Blooper! record albums in the 50s and 60s which featured a mixture of actual recordings of errors from television and radio broadcasts. Monsters. com/ title/ tt0124296/ Blooper A blooper. in which the definition of a blooper is thus given by the record series' narrator: "Unintended indiscretions before microphone and camera. containing a mistake made by a member of the cast or crew. It also refers to an error made during a live radio or TV broadcast or news report. BBC Radio 2 heard of this small revolution in transmitting what were previously strictly private and personal broadcasters' collections for internal enjoyment at Christmas parties. coupled with re-creations. com/ watch?v=R4TiIo1mrgs [2] http:/ / www. feels that with clanger slots. He subsequently produced/presented a half-hour show on that station called "So you want to run a radio station. usually a deleted scene. usually in terms of misspoken words or technical errors. The 'Blooper' term originates from wartime censorship. NBC's short-lived "behind-the-scenes" series Behind The Mike (1940–41) occasionally featured reconstructions of announcers' gaffes and flubs as part of the "Oddities in Radio" segment. is a short sequence of a film or video production.000 clips from over four decades of world-wide English-speaking broadcasting. Radio) somewhat nervously producing the series.) Humorous mistakes made by athletes are often referred to as bloopers as well.which was used to cross out unacceptable parts of documents and letters by the 'blue-person'. Jonathan Hewat. Currently. youtube. and movie studios had been producing so-called "gag reels" of outtakes (usually for employee-only viewing) since the 1930s. Fake bloopers are in the animation films A Bug's Life. Toy Story 2. was by no means the first to undertake serious study and recording of broadcast erratum. and is short for "Blue Pencil" . The term blooper was popularized in the 1950s in a series of record albums entitled Pardon My Blooper. also known as an outtake or boner. who has a personal collection of 3. The success of this series led to a further five series on Radio 2. imdb. especially on TV. and Rush Hour." Bloopers are often the subject of television shows or are occasionally revealed during the credit sequence at the end of comedy movies. however.. Schaefer also transcribed many reported bloopers into a series of books that he published up until his death in 1979. (Jackie Chan and Burt Reynolds are both famous for including such reels with the closing credits of their movies. and Valiant." This was nominated for a Sony Award. the word "boner" had been the common term for such errors previously) was popularized in America by television producer Kermit Schaefer in the 1950s. Inc. as well as a small number of programmes (called 'Bloopers') on BBC Radio 4. Schaefer. particularly in baseball. Jonathan Hewat was the first person in the UK to broadcast radio Bloopers [on a Bank Holiday Show on BBC Radio Bristol at the end of the 1980s]. being taken over by Dennis Norden . They commissioned a series of six fifteen-minute programmes called 'Can I take that again?' with the legendary Jonathan James Moore (then Head of BBC Light Entertainment. The "blooper" in pop culture Origins The collecting of bloopers (and the coining of the term. Prominent examples of films with bloopers include: Cheaper By the Dozen.Big and Little Wong Tin Bar 185 External links • Big and Little Wong Tin Bar [2] at the Internet Movie Database References [1] http:/ / www.

before the latter was changed to show wall-to-wall clips with voiceover by Neil Morrissey. As often happens. With the coming of DVD in the 1990s. he then sold cassettes of bloopers to raise money for the British Wireless for the Blind Fund. The show is now known as The Lighter Side of Sports and is still in production today. The BBC's answer to the show. lecturer Jonathan Hewat started collecting bloopers and producing short radio programmes of them on BBC Local Radio.[1] . and TV's Naughtiest Blunders. out-take. Outtake TV now appears in occasional one-off specials. The former also singled out certain TV personalities as they related some of their most hair-raising moments. The ABC Network aired Foul-Ups. During the 1982-83 season. TV producer Dick Clark revived the bloopers concept in America for a series of specials on NBC called TV's Censored Bloopers. much in the same way as It'll Be Alright on the Night. they are no longer sufficiently unusual to warrant transmitting as complete programmes. The latter has also been criticised for being used as a simple schedule filler.involving the subtleties of language . hosted by Paul O'Grady. The success of both Clark's and Norden's efforts led to imitators on virtually all American and Australian TV networks. This led to a weekly series which ran from 1984 through 1992 (co-hosted by Clark and Ed McMahon) and was followed by more specials that appeared on ABC irregularly until as recently as 2004. or otherwise. Both were presented by Steve Penk at one stage. Special Weakest Link themed editions were common during Robinson's tenure. 186 TV shows featuring "bloopers" Comedian Dick Emery showcased his own out-takes as an epilogue entitled A Comedy of Errors to his BBC shows in the mid 1970s. Some of the earliest clips in the Hewat collection go back to Rudy Vallee corpsing with uncontrollable giggles during a recording of 'There is a Tavern in the Town' and one of the very earliest OBs (Outside Broadcasts) of the Illumination of The Fleet. but this time hosted by Anne Robinson. These specials (along with a record album of radio bloopers produced by Clark in the mid-1980s) were dedicated to the memory of Kermit Schaefer. In the UK.are usually considerably funnier than the visual (TV) ones which so often involve endless clips of people falling over. often with ridiculously titled editions (e. ITV has also produced two other shows. as well as scores of home video releases. whilst the latter was set aside for more risqué mistakes.g. In 1985 a relatively unknown producer named Steve Rotfeld began compiling stock footage of various sports-related errors and mistakes and compiled them into a program known as Bob Uecker's Wacky World of Sports. Auntie's Sporting Bloomers. the blooper shows went on hiatus until 2007. also presented by Wogan). presented by Terry Wogan (and its spin-off sporting-mistakes show. still hosted by Clark. and hosted by Denis Norden (replaced by Griff Rhys Jones in 2008) showed out-takes from film and TV. TV Nightmares. which has been running on ITV since 1977. and was replaced by Outtake TV. many American productions are aired to fill gaps in prime time schedules. Bleeps & Blunders hosted by Steve Lawrence and Don Rickles in direct competition with the Clark TV series. ran until approximately 2001. when John O'Hurley hosted a Dick Clark Productions-packaged special for the ABC. "All New TV's Naughtiest Blunders 18"). before a series was commissioned and subsequently broadcast on BBC One in 2004. again for the BWBF. which lasted until 2009. Auntie's Bloomers. Radio Bloopers . Rufus Hound took over in 2010. it is now common for major film releases to include a "blooper reel" (also known as a "gag reel" or simply "outtakes") among the bonus material on the disc. After Clark suffered a stroke. The later British show It'll be Alright on the Night.Blooper and then by Terry Wogan and several others. which began as a series of one-off specials in 2002. The collection was finally released as two CDs. whether live.

g. Unanticipated incidents (e.. had him leading a cow onto the stage. Where actors need to memorize large numbers of lines or perform a series of actions in quick succession. the same name as an American Fascist leader from the 1930s. often miss cues." • "Remember when we were young. a skit involving Red's "country bumpkin" character "Clem Kadiddlehopper". a prop falling or breaking). The famous old chestnut of show business "Never work with children or animals" demonstrates two other causes of out-takes: Children. The effect is especially pronounced when the film setting is before the modern era (e. Examples One of the earliest known bloopers is attributed to 1930s radio broadcaster Harry Von Zell. deliver the wrong lines or make comments which are particularly embarrassing.g. Forgotten lines. The out-takes of this scene.Blooper 187 Causes Bloopers are usually accidental and humorous. mobile phones have been a new source of bloopers with them frequently going off. but frequently involves doorknobs (and doors) not working or breaking. aired after the credits of the show. In recent years. when we were young." [Laughter] On an episode of The Red Skelton Show in the 1950s. when we were kids. who accidentally referred to then-US President Herbert Hoover as "Hoobert Heever" during an introduction. when we were young . or Deliberate sabotage of an actor's performance by a fellow actor (to evoke laughter). when we were kids. this blooper is rarely seen in recent films but commonly used in fake bloopers for animations. with some actors expressing extreme annoyance while others enjoy the stress relief brought on by the unexpected event.. corpsing). Reportedly it was upon hearing of this mistake that Kermit Schafer was inspired to begin collecting bloopers. A third type of blooper is caused by failure of inanimate objects. generally involving bodily functions. and we'd play with water balloons? You'd throw them all over the place and they'd burst and water would go everywhere". The reaction to bloopers is often intensified in the stressful environment of a movie or television set. [Pause] That's two all over the places. as well as props working in ways they should not work. However. and Skelton resorted to the use of the . Similarly. Ancient Greece or Rome).[2] A similar situation occurred decades later when then-new president Gerald Ford was introduced as "Gerald Smith". animals are very likely to do things not in the script. presenters and contestants who may have forgotten to turn them off or put them in silent mode. the cow defecated on-stage during the live broadcast. when we were kids. and we'd play with water balloons? You'd throw them all over the place and they'd burst and water would go all over the place. hosted by former cricketer Mike Whitney. Whereupon the audience laughed uncontrollably. "Remember when we were young. props and sets being improperly prepared. One famous out-take from Australian television is from the gameshow Who Dares Wins. This can be as simple as a sound effect being mistimed or a microphone not working. as in a slip-of-the-tongue or Freudian slip. mistakes can be expected. although the exact circumstances of the event have been debated. when we were kids.. especially those who have no acting experience." • "Remember when we were young. Similarly. or switch a name or word without realizing it. Several seconds into the skit. feature Whitney delivering the line in the following ways: • "Remember when we were young. newsreaders have only a short time to deliver a large amount of information and are prone to mispronounce place names and people's names. and we'd play with water balloons? You'd throw them all over the place and they'd burst and water would go everywhere everywhere. when we were kids. Some common examples include: • • • • Uncontrollable laughter (called in television and acting circles. Many of them belong to actors. The scene involved Whitney introducing a challenge by throwing a water balloon from hand to hand and delivering the line.

. A much-bootlegged recording of Bing Crosby has him singing to a recording of a band playing "Wrap Your Troubles In Dreams". the much distributed recording of the incident was a fabrication. Keen. "Sang the wrong melody. With sound effects providing the sound of horses' hoofs galloping and guns firing. apparently." a clear example of how unintentional double-entendre can translate into blooper material. and Jane Russell. America's favorite comedian.. "We interrupt this program to bring you a bulletin from the Mutual newsroom in New York! According to an announcement from Moscow radio. "Well. we'll play it back/ See what it sounds like. Keen.) A popular story among Texas broadcasting circles has it that a station manager's late change in programming from Les Brown's orchestra to a religious programme marking the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur led to the staff announcer's billboard urging his listeners to "Stay tuned for the dance music of Yom Kippur's Orchestra. . "You have bad breath too!" and finally. New York children's radio show host "Uncle Don" Carney supposedly delivered the ad-libbed line "Are we off? Good." At this point. that oughta hold him for a little while. it's like in psychiatry. Keener Than Most Persons". the remarks went to air." all the while breaking out in fits of uncontrollable laughter trying to get the line right. that's fate after all/ Life's really funny that way. "Why didn't you think of that earlier?"." Realizing the shortened music. especially it became popular after the release of Schaefer's records. Trace. Guy Madison spoke the line "Cut him off at the pass.com. that oughta hold the little bastards" after signing off on his show one night. Carney himself would tell the story of his blooper. according to the debunking website Snopes. I knew that would happen one night. .well. Bill!" In a similar vein. and the network cut to a commercial. Lavrenti Beria.. However.) An episode of the radio drama Mr. enthusiastically promised: "Bob Hope. Loser of Traced Persons." confusing a slang term for infection with syphilis with "white-clad. {pause} she gives Pet-Ritz Pies!" He followed up with. "Castles may tumble. has just been executed! We now return you to Wild Bill Hickok.." The announcer of a radio ad for the 1948 Bob Hope film The Paleface.. which costarred buxom actress Jane Russell. I'm goin' off my nut!" This recording was first made available to the public by Kermit Schaefer in Volume 1 of his Pardon My Blooper album series for Jubilee Records in the late 1950s." (Many gentile DJ's have urged their Jewish listeners to "Have a happy Yom Kippur!") A radio commercial for A&P food stores ended with the announcer excitedly blurting out ". a radio ad for children's bedding cashing in on same had the line ". friends.what a pair!" 188 . A public-service announcement urging young women to volunteer as nurses during a critical shortage thereof ended with the appeal "Volunteer to be one of America's white-clapped angels of mercy. As a discredited urban legend has it. Tracer of Lost Persons was presumably introduced as "Mr. not only did the alleged incident never happen. former head of the Soviet secret police.. with scenes of Davy Crockett in action on the mattress. {long pause} Get it out of your system!" Red then finally broke into laughter. He begins. she's a great cow! Not only does she give milk.Blooper ad-lib.and be sure to visit your nearby A & Food P Store!" In much the same vein was an ad for instant tea as came out in the end "Instant White Rose. when he realizes that the master tape had not been fully rewound. Hey Hey!/ They cut out eight bars. During the Davy Crockett mania of the mid-1950s." (Bob and Ray once did their own parody of this program under the title "Mr. the dirty bastards/ I didn't know which eight bars he was gonna cut/ Why don't somebody tell me these things around here?/ Holy Christ. saying "Boy. hot or cold — Orange Tekoe Pee" and a bakery advertising itself as having "the breast bed and rolls you ever tasted.[3] (The alleged incident was even parodied in the 1993 Simpsons episode "Krusty Gets Kancelled".. eventually leading to the show's cancellation and "Uncle Don"'s disgrace.. and ad-libbed vocals to the truncated music. Andy Devine (as Jingles) was delivering the line "Well. On the Wild Bill Hickok radio series in the early 1950s. he ad-libs. a newsflash caused an unexpected blooper when it broke into the show. thinking his studio microphone was switched off. Jingles!" Whereupon an announcer interrupted with.

cartoon director Bob Clampett produced a short "blooper" film (for the studio's annual in-house gag reel) of Looney Tunes character Porky Pig smashing his thumb with a . making actual blunders of this sort impossible. the latter was at one point reissued to theatres with a major selling feature being the addition of extra "bloopers". Avery. who plays the supposedly emotionless Mr. Star Trek: The Original Series produced many famous out-takes. before realizing the line was "It must have been stolen" and correcting himself. For example. in the first season episode "This Side of Paradise". a recreation was created as the original recording was not preserved. in which guest actress Diana Muldaur recited the line. responds. breaking into laughter when. instead of saying the line "The plants act as a repository". Many of these involved malapropisms on the part of the cast. Smith appears in the shot and. One famous example shows actor Leonard Nimoy. the movie Shrek has actual bloopers that were released on DVD. It must been stolen". Smith would reference black culture in setting up mistakes made by the rest of the cast. in one case. in an exaggerated accent. fifth (except for one episode) and sixth seasons. In another out-take. don't fail me now!" Another sitcom. also showcased outtakes over its closing credits. Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. causing blurred characters or the characters bodies going through objects. ending in most cases with the correctly delivered line. so here we leave Don Quixote. trip". Going back decades earlier. usually with the actor or actors requiring several tries to get a line right. Many theatrical motion pictures feature bloopers during the end credits. "It must been stolen. "Well. Similarly there were also mishaps while filming in exterior. bursting into laughter when one "sneezes" during a dramatic sequence. Sr. Additionally. Like other blooper recordings distributed by Schaefer. As an homage to its inspiration. says "The plants act as a suppository". often lampooned by Will Smith. jackass -. though blooper reels were not shown during the closing credits of the show during the first. "We've come to the end of an eventful. The makers of another computer-animated film. These bloopers are technical errors within the system.. in 1939 Warner Bros. leading to debate over whether the event actually happened. sitting on his ass — a word that could refer either to the buttocks or to the animal. Hee Haw often showed bloopers in the show itself. A third example begins with the third season episode "Is There in Truth No Beauty?". likewise also created a faux blooper reel showing the characters playing practical jokes and. series star William Shatner breaks character during a scene and starts complaining about the food served in the studio commissary." 189 Contemporary examples The American sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air had a tradition of airing outtakes over the closing credits. many Jackie Chan movies end with footage of failed stunts. Feet. such as a bush or the crown Lord Farquaad wears... with aircraft flying over supposedly alien planets. Spock." — a reference to the then-topical issue of drug-induced hallucinations or "trips". An example of this is when Uncle Phil (James L.until tomorrow at the same time. People bumping into supposedly automatic doors when the backstage personnel mistimed opening them was a common accident depicted.Blooper A Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio announcer's station-identification message once allegedly came out "This is the Dominion Network of the Canadian Broadcorping Castration. However. however. and other mishaps. these scenes are in fact staged to provide additional audience enjoyment. which were shown to the delight of fans at gatherings over the years and have been extensively bootlegged. Pixar also has a tradition of including blooper-like material during the end credits of such films as Toy Story 2 and A Bug's Life.. A radio adaptation of Don Quixote over the BBC had one episode ending with the announcer explaining where "I'm afraid we've run out of time. "I don't know what you've been taking.) comments. the silverware's obviously not in the house. Since Pixar's films are painstakingly computer-animated. some episodes featured a tag scene over the credits in lieu of a blooper reel. Chan was inspired to do this by Burt Reynolds' films of the early 1980s (in particular Smokey and the Bandit II and The Cannonball Run) that also featured end-credits bloopers. to which Shatner replies. blown dialogue. Home Improvement." in turn coining an oft-used sarcastic term for the public broadcaster. the closing-credits blooper reel for Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy actually featured one outtake from Smokey and the Bandit II.

which was intended as a practical joke. Leonard Nimoy was not happy that Roddenberry showed the show's blooper reels to fans at conventions in the early 1970s. In the mid-1990s. While many do not mind the extra publicity offered by such material being shown to the public and others simply enjoy seeing the mistakes. causing him to spit it all over the car and co-star Lea Thompson. Or it might be a piece of clothing. and wrote a letter to Roddenberry asking him to stop. author Phil Farrand published a series of Nit-Picker's Guides books in . such as minor injuries suffered by the cast. is sometimes blamed for Sellers' failure to win that year's Academy Award for Best Actor (for which he was nominated). an actor may have forgotten to remove his wristwatch and it was caught on film. Alternative definition The term "blooper" is often applied to describe continuity errors and other mistakes that have escaped the notice of film editors and directors and have made it into a final. televised or released product. In the 2007 film Underdog (film) in the end credits the super hero Underdog mistakes his lines. these are film errors. Among his other issues with Star Trek's producer Gene Roddenberry. and not "bloopers" since they did not occur in outtake footage or a live broadcast. or in a film taking place in ancient Greece. The Internet Movie Database website uses the term goofs instead. The fishing television series Bill Dance Outdoors has produced four videos (two VHS and two DVD) focusing entirely on bloopers occurring during production of the show and associated commercials. These NG's would usually feature hosts forgetting their words by mistake and admit they make mistakes on occasion. Director Hal Ashby's decision to include a blooper reel of star Peter Sellers in his 1979 film Being There. accidents during filming (including falling into the water.[4] The television show. Roddenberry's answer was to send Nimoy a blooper reel of his own should he have wished to show it at conventions. which stands for no good/not good. Some of the outtakes shown on these videos would sometimes be shown over the end credits. In Asia. Strictly speaking. being impaled with a fish hook. had various bloopers in television specials but unreleased bloopers were leaked containing cast members using profanity to express their mistakes in a family-friendly program. that change for one shot then change back with no explanation. usually various mishaps that occur on the show. has received mixed response by actors and directors. in a film taking place in the Old West. especially on recent DVD releases. Sellers had reportedly urged Ashby not to include the outtakes in the final edit of the film. however. as well as practical jokes played on the host by his guests and film crew (and vice versa). which (unknown to him) had real alcohol in it. would sometimes air bloopers titled NG's. which is broadcast in a live-like format. or equipment malfunctions). a viewer might spot a twentieth century vehicle driving in the distance of one shot. such as shoes. for example. The Discovery Channel series MythBusters will often keep some bloopers included in the actual episodes. One blooper for Back to the Future. In a final blooper he gets his line right but the police car's door falls off. He felt actors needed to be free to make mistakes without expecting that they would be shown to the public. other actors complain that out-takes are demeaning to themselves and/or the craft and refuse to allow them to be made public. Fox taking a drink from a prop bottle. 190 Acceptance of out-takes The proliferation of out-takes/gag reels/blooper reels. to no avail. variety shows. where these errors are subsequently identified by viewers.Blooper hammer and cursing. or various other accidents and malfunctions. Full House. often showing various mishaps such as missed lines (which sometimes take several takes to finally deliver correctly). featured Michael J. For example. which are usually quite spectacular and/or embarrassing when they do occur.

(黃 建 龍 )). Movie makers in mainland China.Blooper which he collected continuity errors and other on-screen "bloopers" from various Star Trek series that had been identified by either himself or fans. . Bruce Lie. asp).uk. Retrieved February 21.A. Lee Bruce. [3] "That Oughta Hold the Little Bastards" (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=o8Ie3_H_uY8). Retrieved 2012-06-22. Retrieved March 8.[2] Marketing In a tactic similar to deceptive marketing.org.uk" (http:/ / www. Bruce Thai. many Hong Kong studios feared that a movie without their most famous star in it would not be financially successful. Bruce Ly (real name Binhslee). who started his movie career as an extra and stunt artist in some of Bruce Lee’s movies. many actors assumed Lee-like stage names. 2009. Bruce Li (黎(Lí)小 龍 from his real name Ho Chung Tao (何 宗 道)). 191 References [1] "blind. 1973. youtube. Hong Kong and Taiwan hired a great number of Bruce Lee look-alike actors to star in many cheap knock-off martial arts movies to cash in on his success after his death. com/ radiotv/ radio/ bastards. blind. When Enter the Dragon became a box office success worldwide. Bruce Liang (also known as Bruce Leung). Youtube. [2] "Harry von Zell and Hoobert Heever" (http:/ / www. Bruce Le (呂(Lǔ)小 龍 from his real name Wong Kin Lung). blind. with actors who looked like Lee changing their stage names to sound similar to “Bruce Lee. Lea.com. such as New Fist of Fury (1976). Bruce Lei. This tactic was very successful in the mid-1970s when many of Bruce Lee’s earlier films such as Fist of Fury and The Big Boss were being released in “Chinese” theaters in America after Bruce’s death. org.com. so some studios decided to play on Lee’s sudden international fame by making movies that vaguely sounded like Bruce Lee starring vehicles. Brute Lee. snopes. Myron Bruce Lee. often with alternate and confusing names. [4] "Porky Pig Sonofabitch" (http:/ / www.com. com/ radiotv/ radio/ vonzell. . Retrieved 2012-06-22. External links • A film clip of Warner Brothers "Break Downs" and "Blow Ups" 1936-1947 (http://archive. It was only when he made some comedically themed movies for another studio that he was able to gain box-office success. At the time of Lee’s death. Bronson Lee. and Dragon Lee were hired by studios to play Lee-styled roles. . snopes. . uk/ ). The Beginning The Hong Kong action cinema scene was shocked when Bruce Lee died in a Hong Kong hospital on July 20.[1] “Bruceploitation” is a portmanteau of the name “Bruce” and exploitation. Actors After his death. Bruce K. asp). was also given roles where he was promoted as the next Bruce Lee. some of these films were advertised as genuine Bruce Lee movies when in fact they were not. Bruce Lai. The Vietnam-era M79 grenade launcher also has the nickname "Blooper" due to its distinctive firing noise. . Bruce Chen.[3] Jackie Chan.” such as Bruce Li and Bruce Le.org/details/ Breakdowns_Blowups_1936-1947) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more] Bruceploitation Bruceploitation is a cultural phenomenon mostly seen in the 1970s after the 1973 death of martial artist and actor Bruce Lee. he was Hong Kong’s most famous martial arts actor. snopes. Snopes. 2009.org.

in Japanese comic books. was deliberately created by them drawing inspiration from Bruce Lee and Max Rockatansky. such as Bruce Lee’s Secret (a farcical rehash starring Bruce-clone Bruce Li in San Francisco defending Chinese immigrants from thugs).” physical appearances. famously satirized the phenomenon of Bruceploitation in his 1978 film. most notably. or manga. Kenshiro. They Call Me Bruce? and Bruce’s Fist of Vengeance. in Masashi Kishimoto’s Naruto manga. Others told the life story of Bruce Lee and explored his mysteries. Others simply told crazy stories such as The Clones of Bruce Lee (where clones of Bruce Lee portrayed by some of the above actors are created by scientists) or The Dragon Lives Again (where Bruce Lee fights James Bond and Dracula in Hell). Comic Books The comic book medium also gave birth to several characters inspired by Bruce Lee. such as his fighting style and battle cries. Enter the Fat Dragon. Exit the Dragon. and iconic battle cries and yells similar to those of Bruce Lee. the main character is Kenshiro’s uncle. Return of the Fists of Fury or Enter the Game of Death. • • • • • • • • Fei Long—Street Fighter series Kim Dragon—World Heroes series Jann Lee—Dead or Alive series Marshall Law—Tekken series Forrest Law—Tekken series Liu Kang—Mortal Kombat series Kenshiro—Fist of the North Star series Rock Lee—Naruto series . actor/director Sammo Hung.[4] from the Mad Max film franchise. but retaining all mannerisms inspired by Lee. Others. Although Kenshiro’s appearance initially resembled more that of Lee in the first chapters of the manga.Bruceploitation 192 Movies Some of the movies were simply rehashes of Bruce Lee’s classics. named Kenshiro Kasumi. Enter Two Dragons. Enter the Tiger (where Bruce Li is asked by Bruce Lee to replace him after his death). in Hokuto no Ken’s prequel Souten no Ken. clothing. Return of Bruce. Additionally. who is also modeled after Lee’s physique and mannerisms in the same way as his nephew. Similarly. Enter Another Dragon. blending it with Mel Gibson’s likeness. he became more similar to Gibson in physique in the rest of the work. featured Lee imitators but with a plot having nothing to do with Bruce Lee. known to western audiences as Fist of the North Star. although he is rarely credited. such as Bruce Lee Fights Back from the Grave. such as Re-Enter the Dragon. Video games Many video games have characters based on Bruce Lee. the main character. One of Lee’s fight choreographers. Video game characters synonymous with Bruce Lee are usually spotted by fighting techniques and signature “jumping stance. In Tetsuo Hara and Buronson’s influential manga Hokuto no Ken. the characters Mighty Guy and Rock Lee were modeled by him after Bruce Lee.

co. Bruce Lee’s influence on Hong Kong action cinema remained strong. dvdtalk. bworldonline.htm) by Dean Meadows • Here Come the Kung fu Clones (http://www. this could be looked at as Yiploitation. Retrieved 2010-12-17. Ho Chung Tao. Rebirth However in the recent years.Bruceploitation 193 End of a trend Bruceploitation ended in Chinese cinema after Jackie Chan broke out of the mould to make a name for himself after the success of the kung-fu comedies Snake in the Eagle’s Shadow and Drunken Master. Business World Online. Bruceploitation continued in the US in a somewhat muted form since the 1970s.clonesofbrucelee. it primarily focuses on a particular Lee-a-like. Yip Man. However. php?id=9678). Another factor was the beginning of the Shaw Brothers film era in the late ’70s. Due to constant production of various movies and TV shows. Retrieved 2010-12-17. [2] "Bruce Lee Lives On" (http:/ / www. Films such as Force-Five. 2007-03-23. authors of Hokuto no Ken External links • Brucesploitation (http://www. Since the end of the trend. .php/Brucesploitation) @ THE DEUCE: Grindhouse Cinema Database • Clones of Bruce Lee (http://www.grindhousedatabase. [4] http:/ / www. DVD Talk. but the actors began establishing their own personalities. In May 2010 a book about Bruceploitation was published by Carl Jones. No Retreat. Touch of Death told a fictional life story of the star. Fist of Fear. com/ entertainment/ hollywood/ news/ 2007/ 03/ bruce_lee0323). com/ reviews/ 3421/ true-game-of-death/ ).uk/) • The Bruceploitation Trilogy (http://www.co. . establishing him as the new king of Hong Kong martial arts cinema. entitled Here Come the Kung Fu Clones. No Surrender. com/ titles/ fistofthenorthstar/ interview.com/index. wired. and the films generally began to take a more comedic approach. [3] "Lee remembered for more than movies" (http:/ / www. References [1] "True Game of Death" (http:/ / www. and The Last Dragon used Bruce Lee as a marketing hook and the genre continues to be a source of exploration for fans of the late Little Dragon and his doppelgangers.com/articles/2003-04-27-01. but also explores the actors and movies among the best and worst the genre has to offer. . the trend has seemingly returned due to the sudden surge of popularity of Bruce Lee’s teacher.amazon.kungfucinema. Retrieved 2010-12-17. advfilms.uk/Here-Come-Kung-Fu-Clones/dp/0956012310) by Carl Jones . html Interview to Buronson and Tetsuo Hara. Wired News. starting with movies such as Five Deadly Venoms. com/ weekender/ content.

arguably. Buster Keaton (his lifelong stage name) was recognized as the seventh-greatest director of all time by Entertainment Weekly. Kansas. However. 1933–1936) Eleanor Norris (m. producer and writer 1898–1966 Jackie Chan. his death) Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton (October 4. [when] he worked without interruption on a series of films that make him. United States Died Cause of death Lung cancer Occupation Years active Influenced Spouse(s) Actor. Los Angeles. Donald O'Connor Natalie Talmadge (m. earning plaudits like an Academy Honorary Award in 1958. 1921–1932) Mae Scriven (m. United States February 1. deadpan expression.[3] In 1999. producer and writer. California.[1] He was best known for his silent films. director.Buster Keaton 194 Buster Keaton Buster Keaton Born Joseph Frank Keaton October 4. 1966 (aged 70) Woodland Hills. the greatest actor-director in the history of the movies. in which his trademark was physical comedy with a [2] consistently stoic. and perhaps the greatest film ever made."[2] Unfortunately. Critic Roger Ebert wrote of Keaton's "extraordinary period from 1920 to 1929. remarried and successfully revived his career to a degree as an honored comic performer for the rest of his life. the American Film Institute ranked Keaton the 21st-greatest male star of all time. 1895 – February 1. he later recovered in the 1940s. earning him the nickname "The Great Stone Face". the greatest Civil War film ever made. 1966) was an American comic actor. Orson Welles stated that Keaton's The General is "the greatest comedy ever made. 1895 Piqua. 1940-1966. filmmaker."[4] . his career declined afterward with a dispiriting loss of his artistic independence when he hired on to MGM which fueled a crippling alcoholism that ruined his family life.

A suitcase handle was sewn into Keaton's clothing to aid with the constant tossing. who disapproved of the parents' union. and occasionally. "That was a real buster!" According to Keaton. the stagehand. ask his wife!" According to one biographer. The young Keaton would goad his father by disobeying him. "I don't know. and the elder Keaton would respond by throwing him against the scenery. Several times I'd have been killed if I hadn't been able to land like a cat. It's a knack. left for New York. Keaton was made to go to school while performing in New York. in those days. Later. which may be apocryphal. The act evolved as Keaton learned to take trick falls safely. By the time he was 21. he was rarely injured or bruised on stage.[8] Keaton acquired the nickname "Buster" at about eighteen months of age. Keaton stated that he learned to read and write late. The act was mainly a comedy sketch.[5] 195 Early life in vaudeville Keaton was born Joseph Frank Keaton[6] into a vaudeville family. Keaton began performing with his parents in The Three Keatons.Buster Keaton A 2002 worldwide poll by Sight & Sound ranked Keaton's The General as the 15th best film of all time.[7] According to a frequently-repeated story. Keaton said that he was never hurt by his father and that the falls and physical comedy were a matter of proper technical execution. Noticing that this drew fewer laughs from the audience."[10] Decades later." with the overall act being advertised as "'The Roughest Act That Was Ever in the History of the Stage. the small town where his mother. he adopted his famous deadpan expression whenever he was working. Kansas. a native of Vigo County. Keaton told the Detroit News: The secret is in landing limp and breaking the fall with a foot or a hand. and was taught by his mother. Myra Keaton (née Myra Edith Cutler). and The Navigator. However. arrest..[10] so Keaton and his mother. Myra. It is said that. Myra played the saxophone to one side. Buster Keaton was always able to show the authorities that he had no bruises or broken bones. Keaton was a rising star in the theater. where Buster Keaton's career swiftly moved from vaudeville to film. but only attended for part of one day. which performed on stage and sold patent medicine on the side. I started so young that landing right is second nature with me. He was named "Joseph" to continue a tradition on his father's side—he was sixth in a line bearing the name Joseph Keaton[6]—and "Frank" for his maternal grandfather. it was Keaton's father who began to use the nickname to refer to the youngster.[11] The act ran up against laws banning child performers in vaudeville. Buster Keaton was born in Piqua. his father's alcoholism threatened the reputation of the family act.[6] His father was Joseph Hallie "Joe" Keaton. Imitators of our act don't last long. Jr. This knockabout style of comedy led to accusations of child abuse. including during a 1964 interview with the CBC's Telescope. aware of the situation with the Keatons. or even into the audience. Keaton retold the anecdote over the years. Three other Keaton films received votes in the magazine's survey: Our Hospitality.[12] Although he did not see active combat. the word "buster" was used to refer to a spill or a fall that had the potential to produce injury. After the infant sat up and shook off his experience. because they can't stand the treatment. Keaton told interviewer Fletcher Markle that Harry Houdini happened to be present one day when the young Keaton took a tumble down a long flight of stairs without injury. then pointed to the boy's mother. Despite tangles with the law and a disastrous tour of music halls in the United Kingdom. Delaware. Houdini remarked. happened to go into labor. He first appeared on stage in 1899 in Wilmington. After this. Indiana. Joe Keaton owned a traveling show with Harry Houdini called the "Mohawk Indian Medicine Company".[10] Keaton claimed he was having so much fun that he would sometimes begin laughing as his father threw him across the stage.[13][14] . Keaton changed his middle name to "Francis". when one official saw Keaton in full costume and makeup and asked a stagehand how old he was. Sherlock. In 1914. while Joe and Buster performed on center stage. he served in World War I. saying. during which time he suffered an ear infection that permanently impaired his hearing. into the orchestra pit.[9] At the age of three. He was eventually billed as "The Little Boy Who Can't Be Damaged.

Joe Keaton disapproved of films."[18] Keaton even inspired full academic study. from longing to mistrust. so vividly expressive of inner life. recalling the freewheeling days of making slapstick comedies. Sherlock Jr. Keaton broke his neck when a torrent of water fell on him from a water tower. the facade of a two-story building toppled forward on top of Keaton. A scene from Steamboat Bill Jr. combined physical comedy with Keaton's love of trains. Comedy director Leo McCarey. Keaton's loss of independence as a filmmaker coincided with the coming of sound films (although he was interested in making the transition) and mounting personal problems. Keaton later claimed that he was soon Arbuckle's second director and his entire gag department. It was too dramatic for some filmgoers expecting a lightweight comedy.. It was based on a successful play. In 1920. thanks to a single open window which passed directly over him. including an epic locomotive chase. During his first meeting with Arbuckle. His distributor. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). The stunt required precision. by subtle inflections. he asked to borrow one of the cameras to get a feel for how it worked.. and the window only offered a few inches of space around Keaton's body. Cops (1922). and his career in the early sound era was hurt as a result. Buster Keaton Comedies. Keaton's most enduring feature-length films include Our Hospitality (1923). "All of us tried to steal each other's gagmen. His large deep eyes are the most eloquent feature. said. the film's storyline reenacted an actual wartime incident. The New Henrietta. Keaton's character emerged unscathed. Keaton and Arbuckle became close friends. because he thought up his best gags himself and we couldn't steal him!"[15] The more adventurous ideas called for dangerous stunts.[19] Aside from Steamboat Bill Jr. including One Week (1920). United Artists. from puzzlement to sorrow.[16] The film critic David Thomson later described Keaton's style of comedy: "Buster plainly is a man inclined towards a belief in nothing but mathematics and absurdity . Schenck gave him his own production unit. Schenck. (1924). Keaton's writers included Clyde Bruckman. Joseph Mitchell and Jean Havez. The Cameraman (1928). and Buster also had reservations about the medium. After Keaton's successful work with Arbuckle. performed by Keaton at great physical risk. and The General (1927). Keaton endured this treatment for two more feature films. and The Electric House (1922). Though it would come to be regarded as Keaton's proudest achievement. (1928). in which Keaton had his first starring role in a full-length feature. even while noting it had a "few laughs". He made a series of two-reel comedies. the film received mixed reviews at the time. insisted on a production manager who monitored expenses and interfered with certain story elements. With this rough understanding of the mechanics of the moving pictures. He was hired as a co-star and gag man. but the most ingenious gags were generally conceived by Keaton himself. Seven Chances (1925). he returned the next day. Then. set during the American Civil War. and Keaton was never entrusted with total control over his films again. During the railroad water-tank scene in Sherlock Jr. making his first appearance in The Butcher Boy. The Playhouse (1921). his first starring role being in The Saphead (1920). under the title "The Lamb" with Douglas Fairbanks playing the lead.[21] . Employing picturesque locations.Buster Keaton 196 Silent film era In February 1917. The Saphead was released. which had already been filmed once. where Arbuckle was under contract to Joseph M. but he did not realize it until years afterward. Keaton met Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle at the Talmadge Studios in New York City. and then exchanged his independent setup for employment at Hollywood's biggest studio. required Keaton to run into the shot and stand still on a particular spot. The General.[20] It was an expensive misfire."[17] Gilberto Perez describes "Keaton's genius as an actor to keep a face so nearly deadpan and yet render it. dismantled and reassembled it. The Navigator (1924). The sequence became one of the iconic images of Keaton's career. like a number that has always been searching for the right equation. with merely a stare he can convey a wide range of emotions. Fairbanks recommended Keaton to take up the role for the remake five years later. and reviewers questioned Keaton's judgment in making a comedic film about the Civil War. because the prop house weighed two tons. camera in hand. asking for work. But we had no luck with Keaton. since the film was to have a comic slant. Keaton then moved to full-length features.. He took the camera back to his hotel room. Look at his face — as beautiful but as inhuman as a butterfly — and you see that utter failure to identify sentiment.

whose emphasis on slapstick made most of these films resemble White's Three Stooges comedies. (Thirty years later. The actors would phonetically memorize the foreign-language scripts a few lines at time and shoot immediately after. both Keaton and Durante had cameo roles in It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World. taken as a whole.) In the first Keaton pictures with sound. During this period. he was obliged to adhere to dialogue-laden scripts. and What! No Beer? The latter would be Keaton's last starring feature. He realized too late that the studio system MGM represented would severely limit his creative input. When the series lapsed in 1937. The films proved popular. but continued to perform and made some of his most financially successful films for the studio. tighter remake of Keaton's little-viewed 1935 feature The Invader. Pest from the West. The high point in the Educational series is Grand Slam Opera. featuring Buster in his own screenplay as an amateur-hour contestant. Columbia Pictures hired Keaton to star in ten two-reel comedies."[23] These Columbia films are his final starring series for any film studio. with Keaton complaining about having to shoot lousy films not just once. and one in either French or German. With Charlotte Greenwood in one of his first Educational Pictures Upon Keaton's return to Hollywood. running for two years. Speak Easily. Le Roi des Champs-Élysées. The Passionate Plumber. Keaton's Columbia shorts rank as the worst comedies he made. and providing material for Red Skelton. For instance. he made a screen comeback in a series of 16 two-reel comedies for Educational Pictures.[23] The final entry was She's Oil Mine. He also stopped directing. MGM tried teaming the laconic Keaton with the rambunctious Jimmy Durante in a series of films. He also helped and advised Lucille Ball in her comedic work in films and television. with many of the gags supplied by Keaton himself.[22] Columbia Pictures In 1939. 1928. . one in Spanish. Keaton's personal favorite was the series' debut entry. Spite Marriage. In 1934. the studio refused his request to make his early project. a veteran director for Mack Sennett. he and his fellow actors would shoot each scene three times: one in English. including the Marx Brothers films At the Circus (1939) and Go West (1940). Moviegoers and exhibitors welcomed Keaton's Columbia comedies. it was directed not by White but by Del Lord. The director was usually Jules White. However. The Invader (released in America as An Old Spanish Custom in 1936). as a sound film and after the studio converted. he made one other film in Europe. an assessment he concurred with in his autobiography. but three times. Keaton returned to MGM as a gag writer. a business decision that he would later call the worst of his life. which was his first project under contract with MGM. as MGM wanted badly to protect its investment. 1931s Parlor. and Keaton swore he would never again "make another crummy two-reeler. Bedroom and Bath dangerous scenes. Keaton was so depleted during the production of 1933's What! No Beer? that MGM fired him after the filming was complete. despite the film being a resounding hit. proving that the comedian had not lost his appeal. Most of these are simple visual comedies.Buster Keaton 197 Sound era and television Keaton signed with MGM in 1928. a shorter. Keaton accepted an offer to make an independent film in Paris. This is discussed in the TCM documentary Buster Keaton: So Funny it Hurt. MGM did allow Keaton to direct his last originally developed/written silent film The Cameraman. However. Keaton was forced to use a stunt double during some of the more "talkies".

he successfully recreated one of the stunts of his youth. was less well received. Keaton said he canceled the filmed series himself because he was unable to create enough fresh material to produce a new show each week. Culpepper. About this time. he also appeared on NBC's The Martha Raye Show. 'I'll show you'. Limelight was the only time in which the two would ever appear together on film. In 1949. The Buster Keaton Show. 1950s and television In 1950. and held the awkward position in midair for a moment before crashing to the stage floor. Critics rediscovered Keaton in 1949 and producers occasionally hired him for bigger "prestige" pictures. comedian Ed Wynn invited Keaton to appear on his CBS Television comedy-variety show. Kinescopes were made for distribution of the programs to other parts of the country since there was no transcontinental coaxial cable until September 1951. Keaton also appeared in a comedy routine about two inept stage musicians in Charlie Chaplin's Limelight (1952). Keaton played his first television dramatic role in "The Awakening". who kept his films from being televised (and therefore became lesser known to today's audiences). He also appeared in the early television series Faye Emerson's Wonderful Town. The Misadventures of Buster Keaton. G. Sunset Boulevard (1950).. Keaton also had a small bit part as Jimmy. Presents. in which he propped one foot onto a table. a minor publicity film produced in 1922. which allowed the program to be broadcast nationwide. which was televised live on the West Coast. Throughout the 1940s. and now he was taking life a little easier. In 1954. recalling the vaudeville of The Playhouse. was fashioned from the series. He had cameos in such films as In the Good Old Summertime (1949). and he said. Mad. The appearance is all the more touching since it was Keaton's last public appearance. appearing near the end of the film It's A Mad. Jr. He opened his jacket and he was all bruised. I've Got a Secret host Garry Moore recalled. Keaton had a successful television series. An attempt to recreate the first series on film as Life with Buster Keaton (1951). Mad World (1963). Jimmy assisted Spencer Tracy's character. So that's how he did it—it hurt—but you had to care enough not to care.Buster Keaton 198 1940s and feature films Keaton's personal life had stabilized with his 1940 marriage. Mad. . With the exception of Seeing Stars. and Around the World in Eighty Days (1956). which was broadcast live on a local Los Angeles station. in storing his police car in a shoreline garage. "I asked (Keaton) how he did all those falls. A theatrical feature film. Keaton's periodic television appearances helped to revive interest in his silent films in the 1950s and 1960s. Keaton was given more screen time in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966). At the age of 55. Captain C. then swung the second foot up next to it. abandoning Columbia for the less strenuous field of feature films." Keaton pretending to have his foot stuck in the railroad tracks of a train ride at Knott's Berry Farm in 1956 Unlike his contemporary Harold Lloyd. Keaton played character roles in both "A" and "B" features. an episode of the syndicated anthology series Douglas Fairbanks. Keaton also appeared on Ed Wynn's variety show. The Ed Wynn Show.

Keaton warmed up to the rest of the cast with his "utterly delicious sense of humor". In 1964. which doubled for the Mississippi River setting of Twain's original book. including a popular series of silent ads for Simon Pure Beer made in 1962 by Jim Mohr in Buffalo." 199 episode. playing a lion tamer in a 1960 adaptation of Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. in an episode ("A Day in the Park") filmed in color but initially televised in black and white. by means of a special helmet. Keaton was surprised by Ralph Edwards for the weekly NBC program This Is Your Life. Keaton accepted the role of mute King Sextimus the Silent in the national touring company of Once Upon A Mattress. this featured him sitting on a park bench. Brown in the final episode of ABC's circus drama.[25] Actor Paul Peterson. which included both silent and sound sequences. "Once Upon a Time". then back. according to Fritzi Burr. Keaton appeared in the episode "Think Mink" of ABC's Mr. The half hour program. Harvey Korman played a policeman in the scene. single sheet. I never saw anything like it before or since. Now You Don't". 1957. and entertained them by singing vaudeville songs. The Lucy Show. a successful Broadway musical. In August 1960. Keaton returned to MGM for the final time. creating difficulties in communication. In 1963." recalls in the book "The Fall of Buster Keaton" (2010. That same year. he starred in The Twilight Zone episode "Once Upon a Time". NY in which he revisited some of the gags from his silent film days. After a few days. Keaton also found steady work as an actor in TV commercials. which also promoted the release of the biographical film The Buster Keaton Story with Donald O'Connor. His skills were amazing. who played opposite him as his wife Keaton as a time traveler in The Twilight Zone Queen Aggravaine. The Greatest Show on Earth. November 1961. and during rehearsals. reading a newspaper. The program was titled "A Very Merry Christmas". she fielded questions directed at her husband. Keaton appeared with Joan Blondell and Joe E. starring Jack Palance. summarized Keaton's life and career up to that point. Smith Goes to Washington sitcom.[27] In 1961. Scarecrow Press) that Keaton "put together an incredible physical skit.[26] In 1960. He returned to the program in 1965 in the episode "Now You See It.[24] In December 1958. When the tour landed in Los Angeles.Buster Keaton On April 3. who traveled from 1890 to 1960. a gag first seen in his 1921 short The High Sign. Keaton invited the entire cast and crew to a spaghetti party at his Woodland Hills home. Keaton played time traveler Mulligan.[28] . Keaton was a guest star as a hospital janitor who provides gifts to sick children in a special Christmas episode of The Donna Reed Show on ABC. he appeared on Lucille Ball's CBS television show. starring Fess Parker. which he gradually unfolded into a huge. Much of the film was shot on location on the Sacramento River. a regular on "The Donna Reed Show. Eleanor Keaton was cast in the chorus. The 1958 episode has been included in the DVD release of Donna Reed's television programs.

for his appearance in the 1965 film Sergeant Deadhead. performing gags similar to those in films he made 50 years before. he travelled from one end of Canada to the other on a motorized handcar. Also in 1965.000-square-foot (930 m2) home in Beverly Hills. also made for the National Film Board. which was later owned by James Mason and Cary Grant. Joseph Schenck. Keaton said. he dated actress Kathleen Key. The couple had two sons. and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini). co-starring alongside with the famous Italian comedian duo of Franco Franchi and Ciccio Ingrassia. Wearing his traditional porkpie hat.[31] After attempts at reconciliation. the relationship began to suffer. he run past the end of a firehose into a six-foot-high flip and crash. During the 1920s. When director Norman Taurog balked. In 1965.Buster Keaton At the age of 70. He played the central role in Samuel Beckett's Film (1965). "I took a lot of pratfalls to build that dump. called Buster Keaton Rides Again. sister-in-law of his boss. James (1922–2007) and Robert (1924–2009). "I won't hurt myself. whose last name she had changed to Talmadge. Pajama Party. he traveled to Italy to play a role in Due Marini e un Generale. Natalie divorced Keaton in 1932. The film is also notable for being Keaton's last silent screen performance. directed by Alan Schneider. Keaton's last film appearance was in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966) which was filmed in Spain in late 1965. Keaton spent $300. Keaton with fellow comedian Joe E. and sister of actresses Norma Talmadge and Constance Talmadge. Brown in a The Railrodder was made in tandem with a behind-the-scenes 1962 episode of Route 66. according to his autobiography.[30] According to Keaton's autobiography. taking his entire fortune and refusing to allow any contact between Keaton and his sons. although Thames Television said [29] his increasingly ill health did force the use of a stunt double for some scenes. As he had done in the past. Keaton married Natalie Talmadge. Keaton lapsed into a period of alcoholism. With the failure of his marriage. He amazed the cast and crew by doing many of his own stunts." Mason found numerous cans of previously . Natalie turned him out of their bedroom and hired detectives to follow him. Keaton was reunited with them about a decade later when his older son Keaton with family in 1922 turned 18.[21] In 1926. She co-starred with Keaton in Our Hospitality. I've done it for years!" Keaton also starred in three other films for American International Pictures (Beach Blanket Bingo. Bedroom and Bath. Keaton starred in a short film called The Railrodder for the National Film Board of Canada. Keaton later said. Keaton's "Italian Villa" can be seen in Keaton's film Parlor. Norm. documentary about Keaton's life and times. but after the birth of Robert. 200 Personal life In 1921. expressing concerns for Keaton's health. Keaton suggested that.000 to build a 10. Keaton also provided gags for the four AIP films in which he appeared. and the loss of his independence as a filmmaker. Her extravagance was another factor in the breakdown of the marriage.

Keaton thought that he was recovering from bronchitis. The singular event that triggered Mae filing for divorce in 1935 was her finding Keaton in flagrante delicto with the infamous Leah Clampitt Sewell on July 4 the same year in a hotel in Santa Barbara. which won two Emmy Awards and was directed by Kevin Brownlow and David Gill. from emphysema and lung cancer. Influence and legacy Keaton has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: 6619 Hollywood Boulevard (for motion pictures). and helped to salvage his career. Keaton was awarded The George Eastman Award by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. Jacques Tati is described as "taking a page from Buster Keaton's [39] playbook. the films were quickly transferred by Raymond Rohauer to safety film before the original cellulose nitrate prints further deteriorated. Keaton escaped a straitjacket with tricks learned during his vaudeville days. In a British television documentary about his career. caricaturist Al Hirschfeld penned a series of silent film stars for the United States Post Office. he married his nurse. he was never told that he was terminally ill or that he had cancer. is considered a much more accurate telling of Keaton’s story. it was again at great financial cost to Keaton. desiring to return home. aged 70. however. by Sidney Sheldon (who also directed the film). Eleanor Keaton died in 1998. according to the TCM documentary So Funny it Hurt. who was 23 years his junior.[36] Despite being diagnosed with cancer in January 1966. Among the discovered films was Keaton's long-lost classic The Boat. 201 Death Keaton died of lung cancer on February 1. during an alcoholic binge about which he afterwards claimed to remember nothing (Keaton himself later called that period an "alcoholic blackout"). that silent film comedians such as Laurel and Hardy and Keaton "looked like their caricatures". but contained many factual errors and merged his three wives into one character.[37] His Speak Easily costar. Hedda Hopper.Buster Keaton "lost" Keaton films in the house in the 1950s.000 worth of damage from a fire in the nursery and dining room in 1931.[42] .[35] In 1940.[34] When they divorced in 1936. was vaguely based on his life. starred Donald O'Connor as Keaton.[40] In 1994. The Buster Keaton Story. Movie Star A 1957 film biography. Keaton was restless and paced the room endlessly." Buster Keaton. The 1987 documentary. Mae Scriven. and his wife and children escaped unharmed. Confined to a hospital during his final days. and 6321 Hollywood Boulevard (for television). Keaton married Eleanor Norris (1918–1998). died the same day. staying at the home of Tom Mix until the following morning. She has been credited with saving his life by stopping his heavy drinking. and even played cards with friends who came to visit at their house the day before he died. The screenplay. [38] . The marriage lasted until his death. 1966. Keaton was not at home at the time.[33] Keaton was at one point briefly institutionalized.[41] Hirschfeld said that modern film stars were more difficult to depict. In 1933. given In 1955. they appeared regularly in the Cirque Medrano in Paris as a double act.[32] The house suffered approximately $10. Between 1947 and 1954. in Woodland Hills. his widow Eleanor told producers of Thames Television that Keaton was up out of bed and moving around. including Rudolph Valentino and Keaton. Buster Keaton: A Hard Act to Follow. She came to know his routines so well that she often participated in them on TV revivals. aged 80. California. Scriven herself would later claim that she didn't know Keaton's real first name until after the marriage. Most of the story centered on his drinking problem.

Retrieved February 17. Alfred A. he told an interviewer that in making "this particular pork pie". com/ thismonth/ article/ ?cid=161352). 1924. Keaton said he was lucky if he used only six hats in making a film. "Buster Keaton: Comedian. 2005. kansastravel.Piqua. 2010. com/ apps/ pbcs. Busterkeaton. February 2. htm). References [1] Obituary Variety.[44] Keaton in music In 1987 Italian singer-songwriters Claudio Lolli and Francesco Guccini wrote a song. Soldier" (http:/ / www.?. The DVD Journal. htm). .com. Retrieved February 17. "The Narrative-Machine: Buster Keaton’s Cinematic Comedy. Kansas" (http:/ / www. org/ directors2. sensesofcinema. 767. 1966. Keaton estimated that he and his wife Eleanor made thousands of the hats during his career. [4] Orson Welles interview. Marion (1997). 16. busterkeaton. html). [2] Roger Ebert: The Films of Buster Keaton (http:/ / rogerebert.sensesofcinema. tcm. sensesofcinema. [15] Maltin. Keaton. org. 1978 [16] "Reviews : The General/Steamboat Bill Jr" (http:/ / www. Comedian Richard Lewis stated that Keaton was his prime inspiration. Lewis was particularly moved by the fact that Eleanor said Lewis' eyes looked like Keaton's. Da Capo. html). [11] "Buster Keaton" (http:/ / archive. com/ bio1. com/ contents/ directors/ 02/ keaton.[44] The hats were often destroyed during Keaton's wild film antics. htm). The Great Movie Comedians. October 13. California State Military Museum. [18] Perez Gilberto 'The Material Ghost—On Keaton and Chaplin' 1998 [19] Trahair. 2010. Busterkeaton. . dll/ article?AID=/ 20021110/ REVIEWS08/ 40802001/ 1023). ISBN 0-306-80802-1. [6] Meade. Keaton observed that during his silent period. http:/ / www.com. html). org/ busterkeatonmuseum. such a hat cost him around two dollars. bfi. Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase. in costume. [3] Greatest Film Directors and Their Best Films (http:/ / www. htm). p. circa 1939. "Buster Keaton Museum . worldwar1. . . Retrieved November 18.Buster Keaton Keaton's physical comedy is cited by Jackie Chan in his autobiography documentary Jackie Chan: My Story as being the primary source of inspiration for his own brand of self-deprecating physical comedy. from the Kino Nov 10. Have you Seen. they cost almost $13. 2009 Blu-Ray edition of The General [5] "bfi:Sight & Sound: Top ten" (http:/ / www. [14] Master Sergeant Jim Ober. 2004. Deleuze’s Recursion Function and the Operational Aesthetic". shtml).com.. Bell Publishing. stiffening the brim with sugar water. he "started with a good Stetson and cut it down". filmsite. Leonard. com/ reviews/ b/ busterkeatondf. David. Retrieved February 17. p. at the time of his interview. [12] "PART II:The Flickers" (http:/ / www. 2008. com/ partii. page 63. 1966. [9] Telescope: Deadpan an interview with Buster Keaton. busterkeaton. . com/ 2004/ 33/ keaton_deleuze/ . org/ Keaton. . "My Career at the Rear / Buster Keaton in World War I" (http:/ / www. 1964 interview of Buster and Eleanor Keaton by Fletcher Markle for the CBC. Jett. com/ dbc/ buster. Lisa. militarymuseum. . about his work in Italy on the film Due Marini e un Generale Keaton seated. 2010. In 1964.[43] 202 Pork pie hats Keaton designed and modified his own pork pie hats during his career. [7] Keith Stokes. . [8] Turner Classic Movies website (http:/ / www. Archive. and spoke of having a close friendship with Keaton's widow Eleanor. suntimes.com. uk/ sightandsound/ topten/ index. he said. dvdjournal. [13] Martha R. [17] Thomson. Retrieved February 17. some were given away as gifts and some were snatched by souvenir hunters. Kansastravel. Knopf Publishing. worldwar1. Retrieved February 17. 2010. 2010. wearing his signature pork pie hat.org. February 1.. [10] "PART I: A Vaudeville Childhood" (http:/ / www. html).

ucla.Buster Keaton [20] "Moving Pictures: Buster Keaton’s ‘General’ Pulls In To PFA. buster-keaton. July 18. David. . com/ howto. Retrieved February 17. [27] Bosley Crowther (August 4. 1949). htm). 284. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.imdb. Donald W. html [40] Severo.. February 2." [37] Turner Classic Movies. Barnes • Robinson. 2010. 203 Further reading • Agee. [34] "Buster Keaton's Second Wife Sues Him for Divorce" (http:/ / news.edu. . . org/ issue/ 2006-11-10/ article/ 25592?headline=Moving-Pictures-Buster-Keaton-s-General-Pulls-In-To-PFA). New York Times. Knopf. "Famed Caricaturist Al Hirschfeld Dies". "Buster Keaton. 20.Showtimes . [35] Dardis. 2010. Keaton was 70.com. 2009.com. com/ movie/ review?res=9E04E6D7163CEF3ABC4C53DFBE66838B679EDE). eastmanhouse.. 2006" (http:/ / www. [24] "Series Details" (http:/ / www. David. Tom. p.Trailer . . 1960). [41] Associated Press. 2005 [32] "The House Next Door: 5 for the Day: James Mason" (http:/ / www. . Richard. 2010. . a-1video. [38] http:/ / www. com/ thismonth/ article/ ?cid=161352).com. 2010.com" (http:/ / www. "Buster Keaton Month". 139.Cast . Thehousenextdooronline. net/ lucille_the_life_of_lucille_ball_18269. Obolensky. 1966. nytimes. com/ ).com. Marion (1997). the poker-faced comic whose studies in exquisite frustration amused two generations of film audiences. James. Tcm. interviewed in 1964 at the Movieland Wax Museum by Henry Gris" (http:/ / www.S. 2003. [33] "Mrs. [42] Leopold. Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase. Watz. Retrieved February 17. A-1video. . tcm. reprinted in Agee on Film (1958) McDowell. com/ learning/ general/ onthisday/ bday/ 1004. Us. Lloyd. ucla. The Great Funnies: A History of Film Comedy (1969) E.. .com" (http:/ / movies. "Comedy's Greatest Era" from Life (September 5. 2010. "Buster Keaton" from The Parade’s Gone By (1968) Alfred A. cinema. com/ newspapers?nid=1955& dat=19350718& id=RwoxAAAAIBAJ& sjid=teEFAAAAIBAJ& pg=2071. Berkeleydaily. com/ title/ tt0564206/ ). Buster Keaton. 2008. Buster (with Charles Samuels). Buster-Keaton. Retrieved February 17. Kalton C. thehousenextdooronline. ISBN 0-89950-181-8. Cinema. World of Laughter: The Motion Picture Comedy Short. Rudi. Publishers.org. html). 2010. nytimes. Retrieved February 17. edu/ calendar/ calendardetails. html). Retrieved February 17. My Wonderful World of Slapstick (1960) Doubleday. Retrieved February 17. [26] Meade. Ted. October 2011. Hirschfeld's Hollywood (http:/ / books.com.S. busterkeaton. Keaton. htm). January 11. aspx?details_type=2& id=373). Buster Keaton (1967) A. Barnes • Brownlow. Kevin. com/ movie/ 86310/ The-Buster-Keaton-Story/ overview). (1976) University of California Press • McCaffrey. php [39] http:/ / www.3248409). google. 2010. McFarland & Company. [29] Buster Keaton: A Hard Act to Follow. Edward.Friday November 10. 4 Great Comedians: Chaplin. com/ films. Polly Anderson. "The Buster Keaton Story . August 24. Langdon (1968) A. 70. 1930.13081). [21] "Buster-Keaton. Retrieved February 17. Category: Arts & Entertainment from The Berkeley Daily Planet . 1935. Dutton . . p. Chap. [28] "Buster Keaton" (http:/ / www. [22] http:/ / kathleenbrady. berkeleydaily. David.NYTimes. com/ newspapers?id=gCkbAAAAIBAJ& sjid=C0sEAAAAIBAJ& pg=4219. Children Rescued from Blaze" (http:/ / news. [25] ""The Donna Reed Show" A Very Merry Christmas (1958)" (http:/ / us. Buster Keaton (1969) Indiana University Press. Retrieved 7 May 2012. google. Thames Television. Poker-Faced Comedian of Films. Reading Eagle.P. 1910-1930 (1966) University of Oklahoma Press • Lebel. Busterkeaton. htm [23] Okuda. Jean-Patrick. (2000) Modern Library • Keaton. com/ 2009/ 08/ 5-for-day-james-mason. Movies. Buster Keaton: The Man Who Wouldn't Lie Down. Keaton. Retrieved February 17. [43] TCM voice-over. . January 20. [31] McPherson. nytimes. in association with British Film Institute • Robinson. com/ books?id=L-D7ZvwQUIAC). The Pittsburgh Press.com. Inc. com/ buster. ISBN 0-306-80802-1. Retrieved February 17. p. . jacquestati. Keaton (1966) The Macmillan Company ISBN 0-02-511570-7 • Lahue. Da Capo. imdb. google. New York Times. Edward (1986). "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1960)" (http:/ / movies. 1987 [30] "Buster Keaton Profile" (http:/ / www. 3. org/ museum/ awards. [44] "How To Make A Porkpie Hat. The Columbia Comedy Shorts. .com.nytimes." (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 4. Buster Keaton: Tempest in a Flat Hat. died of lung cancer today at his home in suburban Woodland Hills. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 2010. . 1996 [36] "Buster Keaton. 2010. (1982) Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-80178-7 • Blesh. Dies on Coast.

Leonard. • Keaton. 1979) University of Chicago Press • Kerr. Keaton's Silent Shorts: Beyond the Laughter (1996) Southern Illinois University Press • Horton. Slapstick!: The Illustrated Story (1987) Angus & Robertson Publishers • Edmonds. Selected Short Subjects (first published as The Great Movie Shorts. The Look of Buster Keaton (1983) St. Buster Keaton's Sherlock Jr.Buster Keaton's Silent Shorts (2013) Scarecrow Press • Oderman. Edward. Noel.). (2004) Limelight Editions • Benayoun. A – Z of Silent Film Comedy (2003) B. Andy. Richard J. Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase (1995) HarperCollins • Rapf. 1972) Crown Books. Daniel. and Green. James L. The Fall of Buster Keaton: His Films for MGM.). American Silent Film (1978) Oxford University Press • Maltin. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian (2005) McFarland & Co. Buster Keaton: Interviews (Conversations with Filmmakers Series) (2007) University Press of Mississippi • Brighton. Robert. Arbuckle and Keaton: Their 14 Film Collaborations (2006) McFarland & Co. Jim. The Best of Buster: Classic Comedy Scenes Direct from the Films of Buster Keaton (1976) Crown Books • Yallop. Tony. Catherine. • McPherson. (revised 1983) Da Capo Press • Gilliatt. The Silent Clowns (1975) Alfred A. Marion. Elizabeth (eds. (1990) Da Capo Press ISBN 0-394-46907-0 • Anobile. Abrams ISBN 0-8109-4227-5 • Mitchell. Gary L.Buster Keaton • Durgnat. The Complete Films of Buster Keaton (1993) Carol Pub. William K. Walter.T. Martin's Press • Staveacre. "Buster Keaton" from Unholy Fools: Wits. Comics. Keaton: The Silent Features Close Up (1977) University of California Press • Everson. Tom. and Columbia (2010) Scarecrow Press • Neibaur. Stuart and Weis. The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies (1973. Stuart. Silent Echoes: Discovering Early Hollywood Through the Films of Buster Keaton (1999) Santa Monica Press • Knopf.. Raymond. Educational Pictures. Glenn. and Bodily Coping (2009) Wiley-Blackwell 204 . Gabriella. (ed. James L. Joanna E. Disturbers of the Peace (1973) Viking • Mast. Leonard.. "Self-Help with a Smile" from The Crazy Mirror: Hollywood Comedy and the American Image (1970) Dell • Maltin. • Neibaur. The National Society of Film Critics on Movie Comedy (1977) Grossman/Viking • Moews.. Knopf. The Theater and Cinema of Buster Keaton (1999) Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-00442-0 • Keaton. David. Eleanor. Keaton: The Man Who Wouldn't Lie Down (1979) Scribners. Physical Humor. (1997) Cambridge University Press • Bengtson. Penelope. 2nd ed. Batsford Ltd. Andrew. Frame-Up!: The Shocking Scandal That Destroyed Hollywood's Biggest Comedy Star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (1992) Avon Books • Kline. Buster Keaton: The Persistence of Comedy (2008) Gambit Publishing ISBN 978-0-9675917-4-2 • Carroll. The Day the Laughter Stopped: The True Story of Fatty Arbuckle (1976) St.. Imogen Sara. James L. Comedy Incarnate: Buster Keaton. The Great Movie Comedians (1978) Crown Books • Dardis. Keep Your Eye on the Kid: The Early Years of Buster Keaton (2008) Roaring Brook Press (An illustrated children's book about Keaton's career) • Smith. Martin's Press • Byron. Gerald. John. Buster Keaton: Tempest in a Flat Hat (2005) Newmarket Press ISBN 1-55704-665-4 • Neibaur. Group • Meade. Buster Keaton: A Bio-Bibliography (1995) Greenwood Press • Oldham. and Terri Niemi. Robert. Buster. Buster Keaton Remembered (2001) Harry N.

Quarry Bay.jsp?participantId=99741) at the TCM Movie Database • The International Buster Keaton Society (http://www.com/ISBN/ 9780810887411) California Fitness California Fitness is a wholly owned subsidiary of 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide which has around 400 clubs serving more than three million members.[1] California Fitness Tsim Sha Tsui club Clubs • Mainland China (2) Beijing (The Place). Central. Wan Chai.actorscolony. Neibaur and Terri Niemi (https://rowman. Whampoa • Singapore (4) Bugis. of Washington/Sayre collection) • Buster Keaton's Silent Shorts (1920-1923) by James L.washington. The mission of the company is to help members live better through fitness.edu/cdm4/item_viewer. Novena Square. Raffles . Currently.php?CISOROOT=/ sayrepublic&CISOPTR=928&CISO) (Univ. Orchard. Tuen Mun Town Plaza.com) • Buster Keaton Museum (http://kansastravel.com/PKeaton. California Fitness launched Hong Kong’s first human-powered exercise machines designed to power a gym building in 2007. Mongkok Pakpolee.com/name/nm36/) at the Internet Movie Database • Buster Keaton (http://tcmdb.html) (includes rare images of BK smiling and laughing) • Buster Keaton as a child performer (http://content. Singapore and China. The first California Fitness club was established in 1996 in the business district of Hong Kong near Lan Kwai Fong.lib.com/2011/08/five-easy-clips-buster-keaton/) • Buster Keaton Photo Galleries (http://silentgents. there are 16 clubs in Hong Kong.Buster Keaton 205 External links • Buster Keaton (http://www.org/busterkeatonmuseum.imdb.com/participant/participant.htm) • Buster Keaton and the Muskegon Connection (http://www. Tsim Sha Tsui. Mongkok.busterkeaton. Shanghai (Infiniti Plaza) • Hong Kong (10) Causeway Bay. Megabox.com) • Buster Keaton in Five Easy Clips (http://provocativepenguin.

California WOW Xperience is still frequently confused with California Fitness. California WOW Xperience shut down seven of its eight Thailand branches. com/ national/ Club-members-sign-complaints-30188899. com/ hk/ en/ node/ 539) Winning Partnership – Jackie Chan Teams Up with California Fitness to open New Blockbuster Signature Health Clubs 15 March 2005 [3] (http:/ / www. group exercise studios. californiafitness. a totally separate company. filed complaints against the company in hopes of being refunded. Jackie Chan[2] and Yao Ming[3] . Despite company changes. In 2012.[4] 206 Products. californiafitness. There were two California Fitness-Yao Ming Sport clubs in Mainland China which were re-branded as normal California Fitness in 2010. • Three former Malaysian clubs were acquired by Celebrity Fitness in 2009.[7] References [1] (http:/ / inhabitat. californiafitness. com/ news/ local/ 290566/ california-wow-faces-bankruptcy-suit) California WOW faces bankruptcy suit 26 April 2012 [7] (http:/ / www. or. In August 2012. to create signature clubs in the region. to Unveil New Beijing Club 11 April 2007 [4] (http:/ / www. In August 2008. was established when Thailand and Korea locations were spun off from California Fitness in early 2000s. • Six former Taiwan clubs were acquired by World Gym in September 2010. nationmultimedia. • The Thai and Korean chains were spun off into California WOW Xperience in early 2000s. com/ hk/ en/ node/ 28088) California Fitness Refocuses on Key Markets in Asia 29 September 2010 [5] http:/ / www. html) Club members sign complaints 23 August 2012 . The Foundation for Consumers along with 100 former customers have filed a lawsuit against California WOW Xperience which is now awaiting a court order. California WOW Xperience found itself entangled in a financial dispute and was sued in Thailand's Bankruptcy Court by Bangkok Bank Plc. all California Fitness clubs have free internet access (wifi or in-club kiosks). free weights. Most of its clubs have steam and sauna rooms and there is an outdoor swimming pool in one of its Hong Kong clubs. th/ set/ companyprofile. The company faced much criticism for continuing to sign up customers at the various branches until their date of closing. Yao Ming. with the California Fitness founder Eric Levine as the CEO. As a result.California Fitness Beginning in 2005. com/ 2007/ 03/ 08/ human-powered-gyms-in-hong-kong/ ) Inhabitat » Human-powered gyms in Hong Kong 8 March 2007 [2] (http:/ / www. California Fitness partnered with two fitness superstars. set. cross-membership agreements between California WOW Xperience and California Fitness and 24 Hour Fitness were terminated. com/ hk/ en/ node/ 589) World's Leading Health Club Company Appoints Basketball Superstar. more than 200 members. many of whom found themselves unable to travel to California WOW Xperience's single remaining Thailand branch to make use of longterm or lifetime memberships. bangkokpost. services and facilities In addition to cardio and resistance equipment. there are a total of four California Fitness-Jackie Chan Sport clubs in Asia (two in Hong Kong and two in Singapore). do?symbol=cawow [6] (http:/ / www. California WOW Xperience California WOW Xperience (SET: CAWOW [5]). Currently. which sought the repayment of a 72 million baht loan including 4 million [6] baht in interest.

Thailand.[2] Beginning in the 1950s. mostly due to her career longevity. It is sometimes referred to as HK-pop. The baby boomer generation at the time preferred British and American exports. electronic music.[2] Artists like Zhou Xuan (周 璇) acted in films and recorded popular songs. Singapore • California Fitness (http://www.[2] 1960s: Cultural acceptance By the 1960s. . Hong Kong. It is categorized as a subgenre of Chinese popular music within C-pop. Western culture was at the time equated with education and sophistication. massive waves of immigrants fled Shanghai to destinations like North Point in Hong Kong. In 1949 when the People's Republic of China was established by the Communist Party. those who preferred Cantonese music were considered old-fashioned or uneducated.[1] History 1920s: Shanghai origins Western-influenced music first came to the Republic of China in the 1920s.California Fitness 207 External links China. rock and roll.californiafitness. short for "Hong Kong popular music". Connie Chan Po-chu is generally considered to be Hong Kong's first teen idol. and Tam Ping-man (譚 炳 文) were among the earliest artists releasing Cantonese records. Josephine Siao is also another artist of the era. including jazz. Cheng Kum-cheung and Chan Chai-chung (陳 齊 頌) were two popular Cantonese singers who specifically targeted the younger generation. many first generation Cantopop artists and composers hail from Shanghai. Indonesia. Tang Kee-chan (鄧 寄 塵). and in the Guangdong province of mainland China.[4] and Elvis.[2] Conversely. Boasting a multinational fanbase especially in Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia. Cantonese music in Hong Kong was still limited largely to traditional Cantonese opera and comic renditions of western music. specifically to Shanghai. and was possibly the first Chinese pop star. Cantopop songs are almost invariably performed in Cantonese. one of the first actions taken by the government was to denounce pop music as pornography. Cantopop draws its influence not only from other forms of Chinese music. rhythm and blues. Singapore. but from international styles. Johnny Mathis and The Beatles were popular.com/) Cantopop Cantopop (Chinese: 粵 語 流 行 音 樂) is a colloquialism for "Cantonese popular music". Cheng Kuan-min (鄭 君 綿). as well as Mandarin music.[3] As a result. Hong Kong remains the most significant hub of the genre. Western pop music and others.

the songwriter Joseph Koo. 1990s: Four Heavenly Kings era In the early 1990s. The other was more western style music largely from Polydor Hong Kong. Aaron Kwok and Leon Lai dominated music. The most successful Chinese female recording artist.Cantopop 208 1970s: Rise of television and the modern industry Local bands mimicked British and American bands. Priscilla Chan. a minor singer who had never sung Cantopop before. Jenny Tseng was a notable addition from Macau. and popular Cantonese songs became TV theme songs. Andy Lau.[7] . Sally Yeh. Samuel Hui. Sandy Lam. signed onto Polydor in 1972. namely Jacky Cheung. Sammi Cheng and Faye Wong emerged as contenders. Samuel Hui continued to dominate the charts and won the Centennial Best Sales Award in the first and second IFPI Gold Disc Presentations twice in a row in 1977 and 1978.[2] The Wynners and George Lam also amassed a big fan base with their new style. Shirley Kwan also made her mark with 難 得 有 情 人 . the Cantopop stars Alan Tam. with some of the biggest soundtracks coming from films such as A Better Tomorrow.[5][6] New talents such as Beyond. Chan left Hong Kong to pursue her studies at Syracuse University while the rest left Hong Kong amid the uncertainty surrounding the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The industry used Cantopop songs in TV dramas and movies. TV. the lead singer of the band Lotus formed in the late 1960s. Sandy Lam.[2] Other groups that profited from TV promotion included the Four Golden Flowers. the "Four Heavenly Kings" (四 大 天 王). advertisements and cinema. Polydor became PolyGram in 1978. There are also Japanese songs with Cantonese lyrics. Cantopop soared to great heights with artists. Leslie Cheung. Samuel Hui. and others either retired or lessened their activity. Sandra Lang. was invited to sing the first Cantonese TV theme song "The Yuanfen of a Wedding that Cries and Laughs" (啼 笑 姻 緣). Hong Kong entrepreneurs' ingenious use of the then new Laserdisc technology prompted yet another explosion in the market. producers and record companies working in harmony. This song was a collaboration between songwriters Yip Siu-dak (葉 紹 德) and the legendary Joseph Koo. Cantopop stars such as Anita Mui. Soap operas were needed to fill TV air time. Notable singers from the era include Liza Wang and Paula Tsui. Establishment of Basic Law and language ordinances made the adoption of Mandarin official. "Queen of Mandarin songs" Teresa Teng also crossed over to Cantopop. She achieved commercial success with her original Cantonese Hits under the Polygram Label in the early 1980s. Three of the most famous TV soap opera singers were Jenny Tseng. Sally Yeh. also starring Hui. 1980s: Beginning of the Golden Age During the 1980s. Sponsors and record companies became comfortable with the idea of lucrative contracts and million-dollar signings. The star of TV theme tunes was Roman Tam. Leslie Cheung.[2] Around 1971. As Cantopop gained large followings in Chinese communities worldwide. Liza Wang and Adam Cheng. The sovereignty handover created a culturally challenging atmosphere for the industry. During the late 1990s. It was ground-breaking and topped local charts. and Danny Chan quickly became household names. and coverage in magazines. Alan Tam. Priscilla Chan. The song that made him famous was the theme song to the movie Games Gamblers Play. Two types of local Cantonese music appeared in the market nearly concurrently in 1973: one type cashed in on the popularity of TVB's drama series based on the more traditional lyrical styles.

They are composed under verse-chorus form and are generally monophonic. Alfred Hui. Major companies that drove much of the HK segment included Gold Typhoon Music Entertainment (EMI.Cantopop 209 2000s At the turn of the century. The musicians soon gave up traditional Chinese musical instruments like zheng and erhu fiddle in favor of western style arrangements.E. Some of the successful performers of the era are G. Cantopop songs are usually sung by one singer. A transitional phase also took place with many overseas-raised Chinese artists such as Nicholas Tse and Coco Lee gaining recognition. Kary Ng. East Asia Entertainment and Amusic and Emperor Entertainment Group. Other events include the street fight between Gary Chaw and Justin Lo. The decade has also been dubbed a People's singer era (親 民 歌 星). Practically all early Cantopop songs feature a descending bassline. Sugar Club. Mr. Leo Ku. Soler.[9] A number of incidents also took place. synthesizer. was handed to Raymond Lam with his unpopular song “Chok”. Eason Chan.[13] As well as Jill Vidal and Kelvin Kwan drug-trafficking to Japan. and bass guitar. the 11 JSG award was again controversial since one of the biggest awards..[11] and The Guardian. and Rubberband. accompanied by piano.M.[8] The deaths of stars Leslie Cheung and Anita Mui in 2003 rocked the industry. Janice Vidal. Kenny Kwan and Renee Li. The largest was the Edison Chen photo scandal involving Edison Chen and high-profile female celebrities like Gillian Chung. Mag Lam. C AllStar and Khalil Fong. Miriam Yeung. The scandal garnered the attention of international media including CNN[10] and MSNBC. Sunboy'z. who were impossible to approach. This is as opposed to the 1990s and previous era Big-card singers (大 牌 歌 星). Ivana Wong. Gold Label). Cantonese was still dominant in the domain of C-pop. The new era also saw an explosion of bands such as at17. In January 2012. Bobo Chan and Cecilia Cheung caught in sexual acts with explicit photos uploaded online. Hotcha. sometimes with a band. Twins.[14] 2010s The first major award of the decade 09 JSG award was a highly controversial one with the on-going HKRIA tax case. Some of the most successful performers of the era include Joey Yung. as most performers promote frequently in public. . Characteristics Instruments and setups Early Cantopop was developed from cantonese opera music hybridized with western pop. Universal Music Group.[12] The scandal raised a number of questions regarding legal issues and netizen's online rights that went far beyond the usual music discussion. Record of the Year. Twins at the height of the group's popularity In 2005 Cantopop began a new upswing. The case was reportedly solved in early 2012 though. As a result Cantopop is no longer restricted to Hong Kong. drum set. but has become part of a larger Pan-Chinese music movement. guitar. Many artists later ended up going solo such as Stephy Tang.

Lyrics Romanized in Jyutping seoi4 ling6 ngo5 dong1 maan5 geoi2 zi2 sat1 soeng4 naan4 zi6 gam1 mong6 gwan1 nei5 nang4 gin3 loeng6 daan6 gok3 maan6 fan1 gan2 zoeng1 gaai1 jan1 gan1 nei5 jyu6 soeng5 seoi4 ling6 ngo5 dat6 jin4 cung1 mun5 waan6 soeng2 Covers of foreign compositions Since the 1970s. Others include . 2. in which every last word of a phrase is rhymed. Modern Chinese lyrics The second type is less formal. Historically the practice is done for business reasons of filling up albums and re-capitalizing on songs with a proven record. according to some reports. "Snowing" (飄 雪) by Priscilla Chan. their success can also be gauged by their income. Classical Chinese lyrics The first type is the poetic lyrics written in literary or classical Wenyan Chinese. The lyrics written in colloquial Cantonese make up the majority with compositions done in modern written Chinese. and fewer songs contain lyrics. Since the 1980s. Songs written in this style are usually reserved for TV shows about ancient China. 3. The last word of every phrase ends with '–oeng'. Relatively few Cantopop songs use truly colloquial Cantonese terms. Songs like "Tomorrow sounds like today" (明 日 話 今 天) by Jenny Tseng. Industry Cantopop stars Usually talent is secondary to the success of a Cantopop singer in Hong Kong. James Wong and Lo Kwok Jim. as it is one of the characteristic of mainstream music similarly mirrored in the United States and Japan. "Life to seek" (一 生 何 求) by Danny Chan. and "Can't afford" (負 擔 不 起 ) by Jade Kwan were originally composed outside of Hong Kong. those that followed have more stock phrases for reference. and many albums glory themselves as "cover-free". the image sells the albums. Most of the time.[15] Many artists however begin with financial hardships. Chinese cover versions of many Western music and Japanese traditional and pop compositions have been made. though the rights borrowed varies country to country. Matching Cantonese lyrics to Western music was particularly difficult because the Western musical scale has 12 semi-tones. Publicity is vital to an idol's career. The following is an example from the song "Impression" (印 象) by Samuel Hui. For example Yumiko Cheng owed her company thousands of dollars. Chinese original lyrics 1. Most songs share an overriding characteristic. Cantopop maintained the Cantonese Opera tradition of matching the musical notes with tones of the language.Cantopop 210 Lyrics Cantonese is a pitch sensitive tonal language. The word carries a different meaning when sung in a different relative pitch. By definition hybrids are still considered Cantonese songs due to Cantonese lyrics. though some big names like Roman Tam stayed true to traditional techniques. Outside of the music sales. 4. as one piece of news could make or break a future. Almost all modern Cantopop stars go into the movie business regardless of their ability to act. In the past. 4. TV shows filmed under modern contexts will utilize songs written with these lyrics. Many critics disapprove this practice of covering foreign music as lack of originality. 3. 誰令我當 晚舉止失常 難自禁望君你 能見諒 但覺萬分緊張皆因 跟你 遇上 誰令我突然充滿幻想 1. increasing numbers of singers have departed from this tradition. For example. Sammi Cheng earned HK$46M (around US$6M) from advertisement and merchandise endorsements in one month alone. 2. hence pure Cantopop stars are almost nonexistent. They immediately expand to the Mandarin market once their fame is established. Through the work of pioneers like Sam Hui.

Even in its early form. since most stars tend to sing songs with similar topics with emphasis on "maudlin love ballads". meanwhile. In the late 1990s. Warner and BMG were established in Hong Kong since the 1970s. Cantopop featured many songs edited or inspired by English or Cantonese opera songs. As TV drama themes lost favor in the mid-1980s. there are still many sideline musicians like Beyond (who emerged from the "band fever" of the 1960s) and Tat Ming Pair whose songs reflect the darker. Renowned legendary lyricist Wong Jim wrote his 2003 thesis on the subject. Artists Male This list is incomplete. Manchi Records (文 志) and Capital Artists in the past have become successful local labels. EMI. Wing Hang Records (永 恆). less-expressed side of society.[19] However. which persisted during the 1980s golden era.[16] 211 Labels PolyGram. market power soon drifted to the multi-national labels.Cantopop Elanne Kong crying in public with only HK$58 left. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Albert Au Kenny Bee Danny Chan Daniel Chan Eason Chan Jackie Chan Jaycee Chan Jordan Chan Jason Chan Sammul Chan William Chan Pak Ho Chau Edison Chen • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Adam Cheng Ekin Cheng Kevin Cheng Ronald Cheng Hins Cheung Julian Cheung Ryan Lau Alfred Hui Jacky Cheung Leslie Cheung Louis Koo Louis Cheung Benji Chiang Endy Chow Alex Fong Khalil Fong • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Andy Hui Ken Hung Kelvin Kwan Kenny Kwan Leo Ku Aaron Kwok Roger Kwok Leon Lai Bowie Lam Chet Lam George Lam Jan Lamb Andy Lau • • • • • • • • • • • • Wilfred Lau Gene Lee Hacken Lee Tony Leung Don Li Gallen Lo Justin Lo Lowell Lo Douglas Low Juno Mak Dennis Mak Pong Nan Deep Ng • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ron Ng Edwin Siu William So Alan Tam Roman Tam Patrick Tang Alex To Nicholas Tse Wong Cho Lam Deric Wan Dave Wang Philip Wei Xiong Chris Wong Paul Wong Bosco Wong Anthony Wong James Wong • • • • • Charles Ying Shawn Yue Samuel Hui Yip Sai Wing MC Jin Edmond Leung • Michael Kwan • Wakin (Emil) Chau • Steven Cheung • Raymond Lam • . Sales are tracked at the IFPI HK Annual Sales Chart. Local record companies such as Crown Records (娛 樂 唱 片). Sony. China and Taiwan had nurtured their own local industries posing serious competition to Cantopop.[17] Criticism Unoriginality Cantopop has been criticised as being bland and unoriginal. there was a shortage of creative talent due to the rising demand for Chinese songs.[18] One critic portrays the Cantopop industry in this period as "favoring smiling saccharine pap over actual substance" while Chinese academic Stephen Cheung described Cantopop as 'the worst thing to have come out of China since the plague'.

Cantopop 212 Female This list is incomplete.E. Cherry Ho Denise Ho Paisley Hu Deanie Ip • • • • • • • • • • • Prudence Liew • Jessica Hsuan • Stephanie Cheng • Annabelle Louie • Bands • • • • • • • • • • • • 2R 4ando(son) AMK At17 Benji and Lesley Beyond Bliss Dear Jane Dry E-Kids Echo EO2 • • • • • • • • • • • Grasshopper kolor Krusty I Love You Boy'z The Jade Band LMF Mister (Mr) MP4 Online Ping Pung PixelToy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Purple Nine Raidas Rubberband Royals Shine Sky Softhard SohBim Soler Square Swing tonick Tai Chi Tat Ming Pair • • • • • • • • The Pancakes The Raiders The Wynners VEGA YLK Organization Zarahn Zzzsh Zen • 24 Herbs Major awards .M. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bobo Chan Connie Chan Chelsia Chan Flora Chan Kit Chan Priscilla Chan Vincy Chan Kelly Chen Joyce Cheng Sammi Cheng Yumiko Cheng Cecilia Cheung Teresa Cheung Lesley Chiang Mandy Chiang Maggie Fu • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Charlene Choi Gillian Chung • • Grace Ip Elanne Kong Ella Koon Kellyjackie Jade Kwan Shirley Kwan Susanna Kwan Gigi Lai Vivian Lai Mag Lam Sandy Lam Winnie Lau Coco Lee Eunix Lee • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tiffany Lee Cathy Leung Gigi Leung Toby Leung Rain Li Candy Lo Mimi Lo Karen Morris Anita Mui Kary Ng Yan Ng Cass Phang • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fiona Sit June Tang Stephy Tang Vangie Tang Teresa Teng Kay Tse Jenny Tseng Kate Tsui Paula Tsui Janice Vidal Jill Vidal Liza Wang Emme Wong Faye Wong • • • • • • • • • • • Ivana Wong Linda Wong Bianca Wu Myolie Wu Sally Yeh Charlie Yeung Miriam Yeung Frances Yip Veronica Yip Joey Yung Ivana Wong AMA Huen Ning Isabella Leong • Rachelle Chung • Sherman Chung • Linda Chung Niki Chow Vivian Chow Renee Dai Theresa Fu Fiona Fung G.

1 FM 1430 AM.9 FM. 95.3 FM and internet stream media 90. 96.6 FM. 96.4 FM. 95. (proprietary receivers) (proprietary receivers) Frequencies and Platform . 88.3 FM. and Internet live streaming (channel 2) 1480AM when it is not doing the news and talkshows 1450 AM 1430 AM 1400 AM 1320 AM 1470 AM.8 FM. Cantopop radio stations Station CRHK Radio 2 RTHK Radio 2 Chinese Radio New York WNWR KEST KMRB KVTO CHMB Fairchild Radio Fairchild Radio Fairchild Radio Music FM Radio Guangdong SYN FM 2AC 澳 洲 華 人 電 台 2CR Location Hong Kong Hong Kong New York Philadelphia San Francisco Los Angeles San Francisco Vancouver Vancouver Toronto Calgary Guangdong Melbourne Sydney Sydney Melbourne 90.Cantopop 213 Award IFPI Gold Disc Presentation Year started 1977 Origin Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards 1978 Jade Solid Gold Top 10 Awards CASH Golden Sail Awards Ultimate Songs Awards Metro Hit Music Awards 1983 1987 1988 1994 A record chart which includes all genres of C-pop is the Global Chinese Pop Chart. 96.Cantopop show as part of Asian Pop Night. 99.7 FM 93.3 FM 94. 96.0 FM. 96.7 FM .3 FM.9 FM.9 FM 94.

com) • www. html). 163. Msnbc. Keane. net/ cd/ scolar/ html/ finalreport_en.hkmusic.tofu-magazine. Hong. Media in China: Consumption. html) • Hong Kong Vintage Pop Radio (http://www. ifpihk. pg 113 [9] 星 星 同 學 會 episode 3 [10] "Celebrity Sex Scandal" (http:/ / edition. • Pop Saves Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2010-01-02.com. [13] Orientaldaily. htm). [15] Anhui news. hk/ record/ 281511?ln=es) [19] Lovehkfilm. and more. . in Tofu Magazine #2 (http://www." 是 星 就 不 愁 沒 錢 鄭 秀 文 一 個 月 賺1022萬.co. [2004] (2004) Business Guide to the Greater Pearl River Delta. asp?id=13906).vinylparadise. ." 四 大 天 王. [2000] (2000) World Music: The Rough Guide. cnn. Mark.html) . com)'s review of Heavenly Kings (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2010-12-27. com/ archive/ 2008/ 02/ 14/ 665099. com/ article/ 080927/ 4/ 8fzi. . ISBN 962-209-563-1. gs. html).com (http:/ / www. [7] "Action Plan to Raise Language Standards in Hong Kong" (http:/ / cd1. xinhuanet. Simon.fightclub. emb. downloads. news). co. cnn). " IFPIHK (http:/ / www. photos. hkedcity.Cantopop 214 References [1] China Briefing Media. Retrieved 2008-02-15.com (http:/ / www.html) article • [音 乐 评 论][粤 语 流 行 四 十 年] (http://web. Retrieved 2008-02-15.hkvpradio. Trillo. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 [3] Wordie." 鄭 希 怡 : 江 若 琳 得$58不 慘.blogspot. shtml). anhuinews. a satire of the industry starring Daniel Wu External links • C-Pop Fantasie (http://www.com (http:/ / ent.jp/5080. on.com. 2008-02-05." 四 大 天 王. hk/ breaking_news_detail. Retrieved 2008-02-11. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.com. Old Hong Kong . "China riveted by stolen sex photos of Hong Kong stars" (http:/ / www. The Standard. Content and Crisis. html). English & Mandarin songs.com (http:/ / hk. CNN.com (http:/ / entertainment. Central. hong.cc.c-pop.com. lovehkfilm. kong. com/ reviews_2/ heavenly_kings. hku. ISBN 988-98673-1-1 [2] Broughton. Jonathan (2008-02-13). htm). Retrieved on 2010-01-02. . " Anhui news.Volume One. Standing Committee on Language Education and Research. com/ video/ #/ video/ world/ 2008/ 02/ 05/ lustout. Retrieved on 2010-12-27.com. msnbc. Yin. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. Stephanie. org/ www/ public/ dcm/ dis_dcmcontent.com.infoseek.hp. " Yahoo.pk/text/t-45118-p-1.com/viewthread-3694. cc/ cnt/ news/ 20090924/ 00174_001.net/newVersion/pages/popshk. (http://www. [17] IFPI HK Annual Sales Chart. Routledge Mass media policy. pdf). ISBN 0-7007-1614-9. [2002] (2002). news. com/ system/ 2003/ 02/ 18/ 000247633. com/ edit/ 020111/ 020111_111393. " Xinhuanet. com/ jdwt/ 2007-05/ 29/ content_10156535.htm) Disc index • 香 港 樂 壇25年 的 發 展 (http://ent. Retrieved on 2010-01-03. Trea.mysongspage. 2008-02-14. uk/ world/ 2008/ feb/ 13/ china.cc (http:/ / orientaldaily. " 163. msn. Richard. Michael. ISBN Volume One 962-7283-59-2 [5] Xinhuanet. yahoo. James. [14] "Prison break as Wei Si admits heroin charge" (http:/ / www. [16] Yahoo. lib. The rise and decline of Cantopop : a study of Hong Kong popular music (1949-1997)/粵 語 流 行 曲 的 發 展 與 興 衰 : 香 港 流 行 音 樂 研 究 (1949-1997) (http:/ / prdlaarchive. guardian. mysongspage.cn: Cantopop song listings (in chinese) (http://www. sex. Jason (2002).e077. com. lyrics and chords for Cantonese. aspx). lovehkfilm. [18] Wong. [6] 163. [12] Watts. Hong Kong: Text Form Asia books Ltd.com/LPCollec. Rough Guides Publishing Company. Ellingham. php?langsel=0& catid=3& rkey=salesaward& awardyear=2006). London: The Guardian. Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island." International Federation of Phonographic Industry. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 24 April 2009.Online resource for c-pop. providing lyrics.net/) ." 側 田 曹 格 肉 搏 街 頭. [First published 1987] (republished & reduced 2003).com) blog • Lee HC's 黑 膠 樂 園 (http://www.htm) Disc index • Come back to love (http://comebacktolove. thestandard. " Orientaldaily. [11] "Sex scandal rocks Hong Kong" (http:/ / worldblog. big5.hkmusic.on. [8] Donald. China Briefing Media Ltd. [4] Wiltshire.on.cn) • www.com) • 香 港 50-80年 代 粵 語 流 行 曲 唱 片 目 錄 (http://robokon1234567. video shows.

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Fortdj33. Nyttend. Drbreznjev. RockMagnetist. Miniwikiorg. Danbarnesdavies.P. Rucha58.org/w/index. AlexHe34. Ὁ οἶστρος. Steveboswell. Jevansen. J Milburn. Lwebdan. Mr pand. Papercutbiology. Axeman89. Wisekwai 17th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. FrankRizzo2006. Rickyrab. Black Falcon. Piotrus. Parichayadindahaechhuva. Mikenorton. Joestudent78. Butapest. Philip Trueman. Mugunth Kumar. Smithe26. Aecis. Alangarr. Yuanyelele. Courcelles. Lambda. Edcolins. Juliancolton. Frietjes. Robertson-Glasgow. Neo-Jay. Joseph Solis in Australia. Hoising. Cirala28. The Thing That Should Not Be. Yitzhak1995. Hello32020. Jaerik. Maork. Mifter. LilHelpa. Shaunenglish. CapitalR. Caran Varr. Eugen Simion 14. 17 anonymous edits 19th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. Owencunn. OhanaUnited. Bathrobe. Troy 07. Bender235. Republic of Hong Kong. Gerrit. Joseph Solis in Australia. ChrisGualtieri. Modernist. Nigholith. J82554l. Sepulwiki. TinyBric. WikiLaurent.wikipedia. Tmangray. Bovineboy2008. 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JustAGal. Friendlyad. Tushaaa. Chesdovi. Balanek. Heavenly Dragon. Danang S. Date delinker. Yerpo. Wisekwai 16th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. Martarius.Anthony. Zuzhengshi. Plastictv.Jr. Mr. Johnny B. Angry bee. Toddy1. JustAGal.wikipedia.org/w/index. Ayrton Prost. Celeritas. Zimmy1984. JNW. SkyWalker. Jonyyeh. Martarius. Prowikipedians. Wikipelli. DOSGuy. Shrigley. Tikiwont. Dwibby. Manupa. LinDrug. Addshore. Vanisheduser12345. Mendaliv. Rror. Gilliam. ProhibitOnions. 2 anonymous edits 1911 (film)  Source: http://en. Got Milked. Chien53. Plastictv. Cenarium. MER-C. Colinoncayuga. Nagy. InfernoXV. JeepdaySock. Swamilive.C. Werdnawerdna. Falcorian. Perfectblue97. Drummerdude243. Rich Farmbrough. Goudzovski. Scarian. Xgu. Useight. Dcljr. Dcljr. Haha169. Absurd. Morio. Rich Farmbrough. Shortstack2012. LadyEditor. Lightmouse. Inwind. Flowary. Ceranthor. Olivier. Gingekerr. Dingar. Lava100100. Dawnseeker2000. Laa Careon. FreplySpang. Xkgieio09. Benlisquare.Article Sources and Contributors 11th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. 歐 馬 克. HongQiGong.Yau. Shanghaisharpie. Lou1986. Andrewlp1991. JSpung. Polisher of Cobwebs.php?oldid=464134444  Contributors: Alpha Centaury. Pixeltoo. Bartledan. W3bbo. Art LaPella. Ottawa4ever. Bcoom14.bell. Toldhours. Jx-10. Lou-86. PhnomPencil. Jim1138. Ohnoitsjamie. Dcljr. Mkativerata. Theodoranian. ASDFGH. Lonelydarksky. J. Tesscass. Wisekwai. GoldDragon. Briaboru. Luwilt. NAHID.php?oldid=524715126  Contributors: Annelid. Sharkface217. Martarius. 3 anonymous edits 15th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. WikiDao. AMRDeuce. Flora.php?oldid=495503757  Contributors: After Midnight. PatrikR. Mervyn. TheSoundAndTheFury. Staka. Insanity Incarnate. Tesscass. Python eggs. Ukexpat. Jacwuhan. Dcljr. A3RO. Marc87. DARTH SIDIOUS 2.delanoy. Killy-the-frog. DaronDierkes. EoGuy. Gollenaiven. Anetode. Pacifica007. Plastictv. Mnmmichael4. AI009. Date delinker. Wtmitchell. UnitedStatesian. JIP. 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GoingBatty.org/w/index. Arkestra. WAS 4. Ixfd64. Munford. Sphilbrick.

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Andrzejbanas. Bbsrock. Faradayplank. Zosch. Bobo192. Boobnoob. BuddhaInside. Everyking. Garion96. Arakunem. Thegreat100. Thegreat100.carey. Bz2. Don4of4. Bobmack89x. GoodDay.php?oldid=505544134  Contributors: Antandrus. Alex756. Elcobbola. Archfalhwyl. Baiter. Fuhghettaboutit. Soangry. Func. Cardinal90. Dysprosia. Wiki alf. DHN. Facts707. Exxolon. Gogo Dodo. Bratant. Feitclub. DrkBlueXG. Clarknova. Hectorthebat. ESkog. Avb. Date delinker. Wisekwai A Touch of Zen  Source: http://en. Gram123. Dgies. Bootkinero. Formeruser-81. Piet Delport. Davud363000. Beano. Bradtcordeiro. Gilliam. Bbrezic. Ashman1992. GWST11. Cornrobo. CatherinewithaK. B. Plastictv. Josquius. Elomis. Dabnag. Dbfirs. Eruption360. Burgundavia. JaGa. Deor. Dr who1975. FaithLehaneTheVampireSlayer. Alientraveller. Aristeo.php?oldid=528315137  Contributors: $dollarz$. Checco. AdamT303. Brewski190. ChaChaFut. Hoising. Ulric1313. Native truth. Gbrandt. Arnoldlover. Xcryinginrainxx. Bilderbear. Christian Storm. Hoising. 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Joe Bryan Baker. Cgingold. Atropos. Big Brother 1984. Genie. Decorativeedison. Danleary25. Anajenta. Fvw. Asdfjklk.org/w/index. Edward303. Jagged 85. Brendanmccabe.triksters. Garcia. Gaius Cornelius. CieloEstrellado. Democracy to information. Skier Dude. Cb6. Hyokano. BorgHunter.Article Sources and Contributors 24th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. ChristTrekker. Corvus cornix. Fconaway. Dalgetty. MrCheshire. AliveFreeHappy. Dismas. LadyEditor. Frietjes. Connormah. Apoc2400. Bryan Derksen. Filastin. Garzo. Brentdax. DarkFalls. East718. DancingPenguin. Jackiechanfan. Adrian. Albennink.tk. Cantus. Andrewlp1991.118.wikipedia. Ed Poor.wikipedia. Cjosefy. 0612. Tassedethe. Ben76266.php?oldid=515436591  Contributors: Date delinker. GDallimore. Andrea99. Wisekwai. CarbonCopy. Woohookitty. Bam050196. Thegreat100. Amt1018. Wikitumnus. Danaimband. Flockmeal. Geo. Byelf2007. Darth Borehd. Comicsubversion. Epbr123. BattleshipMan. Connor. Blanchardb. Neo-Jay. Addict 2006. Felix Wiemann. 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Asbestos. Doradus. Airportmatt. Crazy Ivan (usurped). Cresix. Erud. Arbero. Basshuntersw. Dugwiki. Evenios. Centrx. Hasek is the best. Clovis Sangrail. Jackie Stuntmaster. Duinemerwen. MattMauler. Cburnett.php?oldid=521142416  Contributors: Aspects. Gram123. Darkcat21. Gadfium. FrankRizzo2006. Benjwong.xxx. Alphius. Alex2706. DJ Clayworth. FrYGuY. Billy Bob Bluxo. Darth Goku. Cubsimba. CaritasUbi. RyanGerbil10. Cuchullain. Alpta. Dcljr. MJ for U. Aspects. Hasek is the best. Fys. Ayrton Prost. Buck15wikiPDa93. Darth Panda. Citizen Dick. Lg16spears. Doomzaber. CyclopsScott. Foobarnix. Cognition. Genocidal massacre rapist. Gabimitica. CapitalLetterBeginning. Taikage. EdDalton. Ageekgal. AEriksson. MasashiInoue. DFS.dhillon92. AaronS. Tue2011tue. Gaul. Caltas. GoingBatty. Adolf2000. DavidHoag. Dbalic. Bobgat.org/w/index. FrankEldonDixon. 40 anonymous edits All in the Family (film)  Source: http://en. Deathphoenix. Catsue. Charleenmerced. Date delinker. Freeups. Benny JR Ewing. Bill Thayer. Foxj. Butterboy. Sugar Bear. Digitalme. Nilssonb. Average Earthman. All. Avnjay. Ark30inf. CyberRaptor. Beyond the Grave. Coolkider. Beginning. Chrishmt0423. DragonflySixtyseven. Cryptophile. WhisperToMe. Bt8257. Evan1975. G unit soljah. Earlmusic91. Danalog. Comatmebro. Kwamikagami. DavidOaks.org/w/index. ColdFusion650. Gentgeen. Closedmouth. ALANFISHERCHEATS. Coasttocoast. AndyPhillips. Michael C Price. Colonel Warden. Cypriot stud. Tassedethe 5th Hong Kong Film Awards  Source: http://en. Flameusera. Hullaballoo Wolfowitz. Daipenmon. Aspects. Danleary25. GTBacchus. Calbear22. Ann Stouter. Errabee. Dangerous-Boy. Chachacha333. Falsedan. Girolamo Savonarola. Cathy. Ike-bana. 13 of Diamonds. Certes. Daniel5127. 19. 5aret. After Midnight. B00P. Ask123. DoubleBlue.php?oldid=448030356  Contributors: Cattus. 69 anonymous edits Armour of God II: Operation Condor  Source: http://en. Vladar86. Zurd. Allan Browner. Brother Officer. Wool Mintons. Bobbis. Enochlau. Lonelydarksky. 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EpochDarkleaf. Elf-friend. Graham87. ANGELUS. Floaterfluss. DellusMaximus. Kowloonese. Critter beach. Card. Afluent Rider. Deadflagblues. All Hallow's Wraith. Bobby4thepack. Benjwong. Fbb fan. Causa sui. Fokkie. 51 anonymous edits Arnold Schwarzenegger  Source: http://en. Chris the speller. Adolphus79. JustAGal. Dputig07. Misza13.plrd. Graham87. Enchanter.org/w/index. Acetic Acid. Bencey. Dwanyewest. Zrf. Rich Farmbrough. Brazilfantoo. MadMoovz.. Bachrach44. Millahnna. Deltabeignet. Derek Ross.K. CComMack. FrankWilliams. CompletelyAnonymous. Dysepsion. Feeeshboy. Friedfrogz. Bonafidesatan. Damnreds. BillC. Edton. Gildos. Neelix. Ashprez82. Cnguyen. Antandrus. Excirial. CL. Delirium. 72Dino. JustAGal. Chilaxe. Maximus Rex. Japanese Searobin. 217 . Calatayudboy. CutOffTies. Doremo. Adultnature1989. AssociateAffiliate.php?oldid=521854119  Contributors: A2656671. Da Vynci. Agilemongoose. Donmike10. Djcastel. Crevaner. Khazar2. DreamGuy. Peter Grey. Tamariki. Gram123. 24. Esrever. 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