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TheInternational Chamber shipping of (lcs)isa voluntary organisation comprising natronal the shipowners, associations39 countries, of together representing than 70%of the worlds merchant more tonnage. Established1921'lcS isthe tradeassociation in for the internationar shipping industry, interests its covering


affairs, particularlv safety, desisn conitruction, marine ship and polution prevention

ICShasconsultative status with several inter-governmental organisations, including International the Maritime O r g a n i z a t i otn O ) . ( M

while the adviceqtvenin thisGuide hasbeen developed using the best informa1on avar6ble, is intended it purelyasguidanceto be used the at user's own risk.No responsibrlity accepted Ma4secpublications is by or by the lnternationalChamberof shipping or by any person, firm, corporationor organisationwho or which hasbeen rn any way concerned with thefurnishing informationor data,the of compilation, publkatbn or any translation' supplyor sale thisGuidefor the accuracy of of any informationor advice qivenhereinor for anv omission herefromor from anv consequences whatsoever res-uttin; ;;;rlr;;,i;;;;;r;, from comptiance wtth or adopttonof gurdancecontained thereineven caused a failureto exercise if by reasonable care.

B R I D CP R O C E D U R E SI D E E CU Published by Marisec Publications 12 Carthusian Street London ECIM 6EZ Tel + 4 4 2 0 i 4 1 1B B 4 4 Fax +44207417 B77 B Email Website First edition Second edition Third edition Fourth edrtion publications O Marisec 2007 1977 19 9 0 '1998 2007


Page 6 B B 9 9 10 10

The need for good management bridge procedures of Clarity of purpose Delegationof authority Effectiveorgan isation Motivation




16 16 16

1.1 '|'.2


17 17 1B 1B 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 23 23 23
1 A

Overview Bridge resourcemanagementand the bridge team 1 . 2 . 1 C o m p o s i t i o n t h e n a v i g a t i o n aa t c hu n d e r h e S T C W o d e wl t C of Code 1.2.2 Watchkeeping under STCW the arrangements 1. 2 . 3 R e a s s e s sm a n n i n ge v e ld u r i n g h ev o y a g e ing l s t 1 . 2 . 4 S o l eo o k - o u t l 1. 2 . 5 T h eb r i d g ee a m t 1 . 2 . 6 T h eb r i d g ee a ma n dt h e m a s t e r t 1 . 2 . 7 W o r k i n g i t h i n h e b r i d g ee a m w t t el 1 . 2 . 8 N e wp e r s o n n a n df a m i l i a r i s a t i o n 1 . 2 . 9 P r e v e n t i o nf a t i g u e f 1.2.10 Alcoholconsumption 1.2.11 Use fEnglish o 1 . 2 . 1 2 T h eb r i d g ee a m n dt h ep i l o t t a 1.3 Navigationpolicyand companyprocedures 1 . 3 . 1 M a s t e r ss a n d i no r d e r s 't q

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2

Overview planning Responsibility passage for planning Noteson passage Plan ooraisal a C h a r t s n dp u b l r c a t i o n s a
Tho n:<<:no nlen

24 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 27 28 2B 2B

planning electronic systems Passage navigation and planningin oceanwaters Noteson passage Notes on passageplanning in coastalor restrictedwaters plan Monitoringthe passage V i s u am o n i t o r i nlg c h n i q u e s l e R a d am o n i t o r i ntg c h n i q u e s r e planningand pilotage Passage pl l P r e - a r r r v aa n n i n g Pre-arrival information with exchanoe the oilot

29 29 29 30 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 )/ 35 35 36 37 37 37 38 39 4A 40 40 41 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 44 44
A -

2.7.3 2.1.4 2.8 2.9 2.10

Pilot board on Preparing outward plan the boundpilotage planningand ships'routeing Passage planningand ship reportingsystems Passage planning and vesseltraffic services Passage

3.1 3 . 11 . 3 . 12 3'1.3 3.1.4 3.'.5 1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.5.1 3 . 52 3 5.3 3.5.4 3.6 3 6.1 3.7 3.7.1 3.72 . 3.73 . 3.74 . 3 . 75 .


Overview Master's representative Primary duties In support primary of duties A d d i t i o n a lu t i e s d Bridge attendance Watchkeeping M a r n t a i n i n go o k - o u t al General surveillance W a t c h k e e p i a n dt h e C O L R E G S ng Recording bridge activities Periodic checks navigational on equipment Changing overthe watch C a l l i nt h em a s t e r g Navigation G e n e r a lr i n c i o l e s o Navigation coastal restricted in or waters Navigation a piloton board with At anchor Controlling the speedand directionof the ship Useof the engines Steering control Radiocommunications General Safety watchkeeping GMDSS on ships Logkeeping Testing equipment false of and alerts Pollution prevention Reportrng obligations Emergency situations General Reporting Search rescue and Helicooter ooerations Piracy


46 46 46 46 41

4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2


General Radar Goodradar oractice Radar collision and avoidance

48 48 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 5',] 51 51 52 52

53 53 53 53
\A <A tr,4 tr,4 tr,4 tr,4

55 55 57 57 57 5B 5B 59 59 59 59 59 60 64 64 65 65 67 67 6 68 68 69 69 70 8

4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5 4.5 1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.1.3 4.8 4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.10 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3 4.10.4 4.1'l 4.11.1 4.11.2 4.113 . 4.11.4 4.11.5 4.'|.2 4.12.1 4.12.2 4.12.3 4.12.4 4.'13 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

R a d aa n dn a v i g a t i o n r plotting devices Electronic ArS A I So v e r v i e w A I So p e r a t i o n (S-VDR) (VDR)and SimplifiedVoyage Data Recorder Voyage Data Recorder overview VDRand S-VDR V D Rr e q u i r e m e n t s requirements S-VDR records Preserving Steeringgear and the automaticpilot gear Testing steerirg of control Steering al O t f - c o u r s ea r m Compass system M a g n e t ic o m p a s s c Gyrocompass C o m p a se r r o r s s Rate turn of log measuring Speedand distance measurement Types speed of measurement Direction speed of travelled Recording distance of Echosounders position-fixingsystems Electronic Hyperbolicpositioningsystems satellite system navigation Global position-fixing systems Useof electronic (lBS) Integratedbridgesystems and layout design Workstations, bridge l B 5e o u i o m e n t fn I B S n dt h e a u t o m a t i oo f n a v i g a t i o u n c t i o n s a n U s i n gB S I ECDIS and nauilcalpublications Charts, p a C a r r i a go f c h a r t s n dn a u t i c a lu b l i c a t i o n s e c O f f i c i a l a u t i c a lh a r t s n p a U s e f c h a r t s n dn a u t i c a lu b l i c a t i o n s o systems chartdisplay Electronic charts andelectronic E l e c t r o nci h a r d i s p l as y s t e m s c t y Radiocommunications G M D S Sa d i o c o m m u n i c a t i o n f u n c t t o n s r GMDSequipment S Emergencycommunications c R o u t i no r g e n e r a lo m m u n i c a t i o n s e navigationlights and signallingequipment Emergency

General planningon DPships Operational Navigationin DP mode speedand directionin DP mode Controlling Operation and maintenanceof DP system

71 71 71 72 72 73 73 74 74 75 75

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10

Principles the safe conduct of pilotage for Provisionof information for berth-to-berth passageplanning Master/pilot information exchange Dutiesand responsibilities Preparation for pilotage Pilot boarding Conductof passagein pilotage waters Berthingand unberthing Other matters Standardreferences

7B 79 BO B2 83 B4 B5 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Ship-to-Shore: Master/PilotExchange Shore-to-Ship: Pilot/MasterExchange Pilot Card WheelhousePoster Requiredboarding arrangementsfor pilots to Distress alert and the frequencies use Guidance steeringgear test routines on


BB 90 92 93 94 95 96 97 9B 99 100 101 102 103 B1 92 B3 B4 B5 B6 87 B8 B9 810 811 812 813 814 Familiarisation with bridgeequipment Preparation sea for Preparation arrival in port for Pilotage plan appraisal Passage Navigation in coastalwaters Navigation in oceanwaters Anchoringand anchorwatch Navigation in restrictedvisibility Navigation in heavy weather or in tropical storm areas Navigationin ice Changing over the watch Callingthe master Pre-operational checklist DP

PART - EMERGENCY C CHECKLISTS 106 c1 Main engineor steeringfailure 107 c2 Collision 108 c3 Strandingor grounding 109 c4 Man overboard 110 c5 Fire 111 c6 Flooding 112 c7 Searchand rescue 113 c8 Abandoningship


(ICS) Thisfourth editionof the International of BildgeProcedures Guideis intended to Chamber Shipping practice merchant reflect today, allsectors trades. in and bestnavigational on ships operating As with previous internationally agreed editions, Guide the embraces standards recommendations and (lMO). alsoincludes lt adopted the International helpful bridge and emergency by Maritime Organization for To thrs checklists useby ships'masters navigating and officers. provide additionalvalue utility, new and "search" edition alsoaccompanied a CD version the textwith a is by of function. Aboveall,the Guide with attempts bringtogether goodpractice seafarers the aimof improving to the of protection the marine navigational The safety and of environment. needto ensure maintenance a safe the of principle levels the ship, alsoa fundamental navigational watchat alltimes, by on is supported safemanning a d h e r e td i n t h i sG u i d e . o Following publication the firsteditionof the BildgeProcedures the in became of Guide, 1971 it rapidly , guidance the subject. acknowledged the principal as industry on Today is usedby ships it worldwide, is and referred in the footnotes several Conventions. to IMO Keeping Guide to dateisthusa major the up of responsrbility, an important and example the work whichICSundertakes behalf the international of on of s h i p p i nig d u s t r y . n Thisnew edition rmprovement", whichisone of the keyprinciples thusembraces concept "continuous the of (lSM) withinthe IMOInternational embodied Safety Management Code. Thesuccessful implementation of the lSMCodeis,of course, of the moresignif one icant developments the publication the lastedition, of since andaccount therefore has to Management In beentakenof the needto adhere ISMSafety Systems. addition, new edition reflects requirements the new Chapter (Watchkeeping)the IMO this the of Vlll of (STCW), the latest Convention Standards Training, ication Watchkeeping Seafarers on of Certrf and for and Regulations. changes the Radio to In particular, new edition beenrevised address rncreasing of modern navigation this has to the use electronic into andcharting systems which,on new ships, oftenintegrated the overall are bridge design. Safe navigation the mostfundamental is vital of attribute goodseamanship, isclearly to the protection of and safety lifeat sea.However, increasingly range navigational - mostrecently of of an sophisticated aids (AI5) supplemented the introduction Automatic Systems - now complement coreskills by of ldentification the centuries of navigating officers whichhave developed the previous over precautionary Thisincreased measures sophistication brings own dangers a needfor additional its and against unduereliance technology. formulated on Experience continues demonstrate properly to that bridge procedures mostimportantly, development and, the of..bridge teamwork critical maintainingsafe are to a n a v i g a t i o n aa t c h . wl Forthe firsttime,the topicof Dynamic has Positioning ships alsobeenaddressed, of having become more a widespread heavily and used requiring different techniques competencies conventional from technology, and watchkeeping, with different and together organisational strategies procedures. previously produced Thisnew editionalsoincorporates for /nternattonal Practices Maritime Best Pilotage, ( w Is Ml F In o, b y I C S i t ht h e O i lC o m p a n i e n t e r n a t i o n a a r i n e o r u m O C I M F ) a n d t e r t a n k a n dr e p r o d u c e d lointly w i t ht h e i rk i n dp e r m i s s i o n c


- - n , '

Theassistance expertsrom ICS in of f member national shipowners' associationsthe preparation thisGuide of s gratefully acknowledged. are from organisations, Specialthanks alsodueto colleagues othermaritime (IMPA), particularly International given Pilots'Association who have willingly timeandexpertise. the Maritime I guidance the subject. to on to ensure that the BridgeProcedures Guidecontinues offerthe bestpossible into Suggestions comments and from several maritime administrations alsobeenincorporated thislatest have e o ro n . t part procedures, It rsrmportant stress an essential of bridge organisationadherence correct which to that is to when should out in clear set language operational the requirements methods and that should adopted be navigating. Bridge fhis Procedures Guideshould therefore seenas an attemptto codifythesebest be practices provide framework operators, masters, can and a uponwhrchowners, officers pilots work and performance. together achieve to consistent reliable and will watchat alltimes, Seafaring never withoutitsdangers, the maintenance a safenavigational be but of preparation passage plans, at the heart goodoperating practice. the ICS lf Bildge andthe careful of are of Procedures it its Guidecanhelpencourage suchgood practices, will havecontinued serve primary to purpose,

A u g u s2 0 0 7 t

Feedback comments welcome thisnew edition: and are on


to means that the shipis not exposed Safe importance safenavigation. navigation to ICS the attaches utmost margins. withinacceptable the danger andthat at alltimes shipcanbe controlled unnecessary lt and control, communication management. command, requires effective At alltimes, safenavigation systems, status navigational of and manning, the operational of the demands the situation, level bridge that es t h e s h i p e n g i n ea n da u x i l i a r ia r ea l lt a k e ni n t oa c c o u n t . s s who are people, and together with management teamwork, that control ships, and it istherefore It is people out to carry mustbe competent of performance. with the control ships People entrusted the keyto reliable theirduties. prevent of chains that monitoring checking and to and People makemistakes so rt is necessary ensure also it has and,oncea mistake beendetected, is human be from developing. Mrstakes cannot predicted error premise, compoundingsimple errorof judgement. thus a to the nature seek f it circumstances original to to ports. Detailed planning conducted assess safest mosteconomical routebetween sea the and is to Passage appropriate portapproaches pilotage to particularly coastal and areas, needed ensure are plans, in waters, plan Equipment fail can for the the margins safety. of Once completed, passage becomes basrs navigation. planning alsonecessary. is can so andthe unexpected happen, contingency Posittoning using anyDynamic conducted and to comments apply equally manoeuvring operations Theabove of (DP) a mustbe the subject a in manoeuvres and around worksite of Ship capability the ship. "escape" manoeuvres. plan and contingencies approprtate operational covering comprehensive practices. at Watchkeeperssea working of elements goodbridge and are Ergonomics gooddesign essential alsobe radar. They should the the as needto be ableto keepa look-out, wellas monitor chartand observe or Whenboarding disembarking awareness. withoutlosing situational the using VHF ableto communicate particularly and helm instrumentation, to pilots, be it handling tugsor berthing, should possible monitor of limitations any should provided explain be to Bridge notes wings. indicators, the bridge from engine pointing the appropriate needto be taken. remedies that out that sited, equipment hasbeenbadly procedures good management bridge combines: of ln summary, of o clarity purpose; as to authority appropriate; o the ability delegate organisation; o effective others. and to o motivation, the ability mottvate .r


plan lf morethanone person involved navigating, isessentialto is in it agree passage andto the The communicate consrstently withoutambiguity way the voyage the oblectives to be achieved. are and process starts with company instructions the ship, encompassed the Safety to as by Management System (SMS) Existing local supported master's orders and reinforced discussion bridge by and orders. by standing pilotage guided legislation the to accordingly. should alsobe ascertained enable master be to passage should plan Before waters, ship's a ensure dangers noted that are approaching coastal pilotage and plan,pilotage waterlimits out that andsafe identified. Withinthe broad should carried in the knowledge be and of the shipcanbe controlled withinthe established limits, thatthe actions the pilotcanbe monitored. safe Inthisrespect, exchange information enable clearer morepositive will a working relationshipbe to early of and planshould sufficient Where isnot practicable, ships this be establishedgoodtimebefore pilotboards. in the the made without delay. to enable pilot be embarked a safe the to and commencementpilotage of causing undue

of of Themaster the ultimate has responsibility the safety the ship.Delegation authority the officer for of to procedures reflect ability with the watch(OOW) should undertaken accordance agreed in and the and be experience the watchkeeper. of the in Similarly, whena pilotboards, master the maydelegate conduct the shipto the pilot,bearing mind of from that pilotage legislation varies from country country from region region. to and to Pilotage range can pilotage pilotage voluntary in to wherethe responsibility the for optional that isadvisory nature compulsory conduct the navigation the shipis placed of of uponthe pilot. Themaster for of in In cannot abrogate responsibility the safety the shipand remains command all times. at responsibility the Panama Canal whereunique arrangements apply, istakenby the pilotfor the safe n a v i g a t i o n t h es h i p . of Where master the delegates conduct the shipto the pilot,it will be because considers the pilot of he that the h a ss p e c i a l ik n o w l e d g e h i p h a n d l i n k i l l a n dc o m m u n i c a t i ol nn k s i t ht h e p o r t .I n d o i n g o ,t h e m a s t e r st sg s i s w s s, they The mustcontinue monitor pilot's to intentions to.ensure aresafeand reasonable. OOWsupports the the master monitoring progress the shipalid checking the requirements advised the pilotare by by the of that correctly carried out.Whereproblems occur whichmayadversely affect safety the ship, master the of the mustbe advised immediately. Theprocess delegation be the cause misunderstanding so it is recommended a clear and of can of and that positive statement intention madewhenever handing overand receiving conduct the ship. of of be goodpractice, Whennavigating the master the bridge, isconsidered when it isascertained it is with on it that role. safe do so,to encourage OOWto carry the navigation, the master to out with maintarningmonitoring a the provide continuity rested Thewatchsystem watchkeepers, the watchchangeover give should a of but can rise errors. to routines procedures monitor shipsposition to avoid to and the Consequently, and the possibility mistakes watchand procedures for of mustbe builtinto boththe organisation the navigational of the change overof navigational watch. positive Therisks associated navigation with reporting all times, at self-verification, verification at demand procedures. course handover regular The and checks instrumentation bridge of and that the shipisfollowing with the traffic intervals and compass errors mustbe displayed checked, and together situation, regular at and at every course change watchhandover. and



plan Preparingpassage and carrying the voyage a necessitate bridge out that resources appropriately are phases the voyage. allocated according the demands the different to of of Depending uponthe level activity of likely be experienced, master to the mayneedto ensure availability the of adequately rested back-up the navigational for watch. Where equipment concerned, is errors occur a variety reasons poorequipment can for of and may calibration be significant. the case integrated In of it that systems, is possible the failure onecomponent of couldhave unpredictable consequences the system a is rmportant ensure for as navigational to that electronic equipment carefully is synchronised the appropriate with chartdatum.Failure achieve maintain to or accurate synchronisation alignment beenthe cause groundings. and has of It istherefore essential navigational that information always is cross-checked wherethereis doubt and, position, is always prudent assume position concerning ships the it to a that isclosest danger to and proceed accord lv. inq

Motivation comes romwithrnand cannot rmposed. is,however, responsibilitythe master f be It the of to create conditions whichmotivation encouraged. the in is A valuable asset anyorganisationteamwork thisis enhanced recognising strengths, in is and by the competence limitations the people and of withina team,andorganising work of the bridge the teamto take bestadvantage the attributes each of of teammember. Working isolation in whencarrying critical out operations carries riskof an errorgoingundetected. the Working together sharing and information a professional enhances bridge way in the teamandthe master/pilot relationship Training bridge in resource management f urther can support this

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Automatic ldentrfication System AMVER Automated Mutual-Assistance Rescue Vessel System: worldwide a voluntary system operated
u e x eL r r q r v ctl o q r n n o r l S A R a n d t o m a k e

DOC D o c u m e n tf C o m p l i a n cs s u etd t h e s h i p o ie o operator under ISMCode the DP D y n a m iP o s i t i o n i n g : a b i l i t o f a s h i p o c the y t pre-set position maintain automatically a and heading using own propellers thrusters her by and DPO Dynamic Positioning Operator, usually bridge a watchkeeper DSC D i g i t aS e l e c t i v e l l i n g : t e c h n i q uu s i n g i g i t a l l Ca a e d codes whrchenable radio a station establish to contact with, andtransfer information another to, station groupof stations or EBL Electronic Bearing Line: radar feature a ECDIS Electronic ChartDisplay Information and System ECS
Floalrnnta ( nirT \\/qrpm

i n f o r m a t i o n a i l a b t o a l lR C C s av le ARCS Admiralty Raster ChartService: raster electronic produced the United charts by Kingdom Hydrographic Office ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aid ASF Additional Secondary Factor: corrections be to applied when plotting Loran positions charts C on to takeintoaccount variations the conductivity in pass of the earth surface s overwhichthe signals ATA plotting Automatic Tracking electronic Aid: device for radars

Coast Earth Stationmaritime namefor an INMARSAT shore-based linking station shipearth stations with terrestrial networks communication COLREGS Convention the lnternational on Regulations for P r e v e n t i n g l l i s i o n s S e a 1 9 1 2 a sa m e n d e d Co , at , COSPAS-SARSAT A satellite system designed detect to distress beacons transmittrng the frequency on 406 Mllz DATUM A datumisa reference system specifying for positions the earth's on surface. Each datumis associated a particular with reference spheroid that canbe different size, in orientation relative and position from the spheroids associated other with horizontal datums. Positions referred different to datums differby several can hundred metres DGPS (see Differential Global Positioning System GNSS)

EGC partof the INMARSAT Enhanced Group Call: system that complements NAWEX the system supply to SafetyNET similar and information broadcast services ENC Electronic Navigational Chart EP Estimated Position EPA plotting Electronic Plotting Aid:electronic device for radars EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon: a device transmits that distress alerting signals usually viasatellites FPSO/FGSO Floating Production, Storage and Offloading/Floating Storage Gas Offloading production ship/vesselunit:an oil/gas or facility GLONASS (see Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS)



GMDSS Maritime Global Distress Safety and System: global a communications service based uponautomated systems, bothsatellite terrestrial, provide and to distress alerting promulgation maritime and of safety information mariners for GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System: worldwide a position timedetermination and system includes that oneor moresatellite constellations receivers and GOC General Operator's Certificate:GMDSS radio a operator's certificate useon ships for trading b e y o n d M D S S e a r e a 1 .T h i s s n o w u s u a l l y G A A i qualificationsdeck incorporated the STCW into of officers the operational at level. GPS (see Global Positioning System GNSS) HF H i g hF r e q u e n c y HPR Hydroacoustic Position Reference:PRS a often used in conjunction DP, with configured sea-floor with acoustrc transponders IAMSAR Internatronal Aeronautical Maritime and Search published threevolumes and Rescue Manual: in jointly ICAO by and IMO

INMARSAT International Mobile Satellite Organization: operator a system geostationary for of of satellites worldwide mobile communications services and whichsupports GMDSS tsF l n t e r n a t i o n ah i p p i nF e d e r a t i og l : b a l no Sl g (sister employers' organisation shipowners for organisation ICS) of ISM Code International Management Safety Code ITU International Telecommunication Geneva Union: based United Nations intergovernmental body LL International Convention LoadLines, on 1966,as amended LSA LifeSaving Appliance(s) MARPOL International Convention the Prevention for of Pollutron from 5hips, 1973, modified the as by Protocol 1918, amended of as MF Medium Frequency MMSI Maritime Mobile ldentity: Service 9-di9it ITUidentification number allocated ships to operating DSC MOB Man Overboard MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre: alternative namefor RCC favoured certain by administrations MSr Maritime Safety Information: navigational and meteorological warnings, forecasts other and urgent safety-related messages broadcast shrps to NAVAREA Oneof 16 areas intowhichthe world's oceans havebeendivided the dissemination longfor of range navigational meteorological and warnings under WWNWS the

Integrated Bridge System

International Aviation Civil Montreal Organization: based United Nations intergovernmental body

lnternational Hydrographic Organization: Monaco based intergovernmental body tLo International Labour Organization: Geneva based United Nations intergovernmental body, responsible seafarers' for employment standards

International Maritime Organization: London based United Nations intergovernmental responsible body, for the safety lifeat sea, of including navigational rules, the protection the marine and of envjronment

NAVTEX Teiegraphy system broadcasting for marine weather forecasts, navigational warnings, alerts SAR and otherwarnings urgent and information ships to in coastal (up waters to 400 nautical mjles) under tne WWNWS NBDP printing Narrow-Band Direct telegraphy for used radiotelex NAVTEX and NOAA National Oceanrc Atmospheric and Administratron: Untted States producer electronic of raster charts

SAR Search Rescue/lnternational and Convention on Maritime Search Rescue, and 1979,asamended SART Search Rescue and Transponder: a portable radar transponder usein survival for craft, which t r a n s m i th o m r n g i g n a lis t h e 9 G H zb a n d s s n SENC System Electronic Navigational Chart: database a that comprises data,ENC ENC updates other and dataadded the mariner by that isaccessed and by, d l s p l a y e d ,t h e E C D T S on

Officer the Watch of PRS Positron Reference System: navigational a sensor (e.9. DGPS) usedin conjunction a Dp system with RCC Rescue Co-ordination Centre: unitresponsible a for promoting efficient the organisation SAR of services for co-ordinating conduct SAR and the of operations withina SAR region RCDS Raster ChartDisplay System RENC Regional Electronic Navigational Co_ordinating Chart Centre: supplier official of chart data RNC Raster Navigational Chart ROC Restricted Operator's Certificate:GMDSS a radio operator's certificate useon ships for trading only i n G M D S S e a r e aA j A R/T Radio Telephony S-57Edition3 IHO's latest transfer standard digital for hydrographic for usewith ECDTS data SafetyNET INMARSAT service promulgating to ships for MSI jt on the hrghseas; includes shore-to-ship relays of distress alerts andcommunications SAR for co-ordination

ShipEarth Station: shipborne satellite communrcatron station, used exchanging for messages shore with subscribers ships and SMCP Standard phrases. Marine Communication an updated version SMNV of that includes phrases that have beendeveloped cover mostimportant to the safety-related of verbal fields communications SMNV Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary: adopted by IMOfor communications board on shipasweil asfor thosebetween shipandshore SMPEP pollution Shipboard plan Marine Emergency

Safety Management System under ISMCode the SOLAS International Convention the Safety Lifeat for of 9 e a , 1 9 7 4 , sa m e n d e d a SOPEP Shipboard pollution plan Oil Emergency STCW International Convention Standards Trarning, on of Certification Watchkeeping Seafarers. and for 1 9 7 8 a sa m e n d e d , STCWCode Seafarers' Training, Certification Watchkeeprng and Code, appended the STCW to Convention 5-VDR Simplified Voyage DataRecorder


t t
TMC Transmitting Magnetic Compass UM5 S U n m a n n eM a c h i n e r yp a c e d VDR Voyage DataRecorder VRM Marker: radar feature Varrable Range a VT5 Vessel Traffic Services WEND Navigational ChartDatabase WorldElectronic WGS84 1984datum WorldGeodetic System WMO based Geneva WorldMeteorological Organization: body intergovernmental United Nations WWNWS Warning Service: World-Wide Navigational with established IMO in collaboration IHOfor by warnings ships to the dissemination navigational of WWRNS terrestrial Navigation System: World-Wide Radio systems have that andsatellite radio-navigation of by beenaccepted IMOascapable providing position to information an unlimited adequate n u m b eo f s h i p s r XTE Cross Track Error

?qfl "i


principles safemanning, General of with consistent those agreed lMO,should used by be to establish levels manning the of that areappropriate anyship. to At alltimes, ships needto be navigated safely compliance the COLREGS also ensure in with and to that protection the marine of environment not compromised. is An effective bridge organisation should manage efficiently allthe resources areavailable that to goodcommunication teamwork. the bridge and promote and Theneedto maintain proper a look-out determine basic should the composition the of navigational watch. There are,however, number circumstances conditions could a of and that influence anytimethe actual at watchkeeping arrangements bridge and manning levels. Effective bridge resource teammanagement and should eliminate riskthat an erroron the part the of one person couldresult a dangerous in situation. Thebridge organisation should properly policy be supported a clear by navigation incorporatrng procedures,accordance the ship's shipboard operational in with Safety Management System as reouired the ISMCode. bv


1.2.1 Composition the navigationalwatch under the STCW of Code
In determining whether composition the navigational the of watchis adequate ensure to that a proper look-out be maintained can continuously, master the should takeintoaccount relevant all factors including following: the o visibility, of weather state andsea; density, otheractivities o traffic and in occurring the areain whichthe shipis navigating; o the attention necessary when navigating or neartraffic in separation schemes otherrouteing or measures, withinindustrially or controlled work zones; o the additional workload caused the nature the shipsfunctions, of by immediate operating requirements anticipated and manoeuvres; for o the fitness dutyof anycrewmembers callwho areassigned members the watch, on as of i n c l u d i nc o m p l i a n c e t h a p p l i c a bw o r k h o u rr e g u l a t i o n s ; g wi le o knowledge and confidence the professional of in competence the ship's of officers crew; and o the experience eachOOW, of andthe familiarity that OOWwith the ship equipment of s procedures manoeuvring and capability; o activities takingplace board shipat anyparticular on the time,including radiocommunication activities, the availability assistance be summoned and of to immediately the bridge to when neceSsa rv:

'..{tf,} *;

o the operational status bridge of instrumentation controls, and including alarm systems; o rudder and propeller control andshipmanoeuvring characrerrsrrcs; o t h e s i z e f t h e s h i p n dt h e f i e l do f v i s i o n v a i l a bfl r o mt h e c o n n i n g o s i t i o n , o a a e p o the configuratlon the bridge, the extent of to that suchconfiguratron mightinhibit member a of the watchfrom detecting sightor hearing external by any development; o if working an active mode, needfor a dedicated, in DP the competent DPO be in charqe to of the positioning the shipandthe operation the Dpsystem; of of o anyotherrelevant procedure guidance standard, or relating watchkeeping to arrangements and fitness duty. for

1.2.2 watchkeeping arrangements underthe srcw code

Whendeciding composition the watchon the bridge, the of whichmayinclude appropriately qualified ratings, following the factors, interalia,mustbe takenintoaccount: o the needto ensure that the bridge never unattended; is left o weather conditions, visibility whether and thereisdaylight darkness; or o proximity navigational of hazards whichmaymakeit necessary the OOWto carry for out a d d i t i o n a lu t i e s ; d o useandoperational condition navigational suchas radar electronic of aids position-indicating or devices, systems theirassociated DP position and reference systems, anyotherequipment and affecting safenavigation the ship; the of o whether shipisf ittedwith automatic the steering anyform of dynamic or positioning ability; o whether thereareradio duties be performed; to o u n m a n n em a c h i n e sy a c eU M S ) c o n t r oasa r m a n di n d i c a t o ps o v i d eo n t h e b r i d q e , ll, d rp ( s d rr procedures theiruseand limitations; for o anyunusual demands the navigational on watchthat mayarise a result special as of operational circu mstances.

1 , 2 . 3 R e a s s e s s i n ga n n i n gl e v e l sd u r i n g t h e v o y a g e m
At anytimeon passage, maybecome it appropriate review manning to the levels a navigational of watch. Changes the operational to status the bridge of equipment, prevailing the weather andtraffic conditions, nature the waters whichthe shipis navtgating, the of in fatigue levels workload and on the bridge amongthe factors are that should takenintoaccount. be A passage through restricted waters may, example, for necessitate a helmsman manual for steering, calling master a back-up and the or officer support bridge to the team.lf the shipis engaged operations in necessitating manoeuvring control using then it is usually DP, necessary to deploy one or moreadditional officers act exclusivelythe capacity Dpo. to in of



1 . 2 . 4 S o l el o o k - o u t
Under STCW the in circumstances,the solelook-out daylight Code, OOWmay, certain the be in (s s c o n d i t i o ns e e e c t i o3 . 2 . 1 . 1 ) . n lf solelook-out guidance watchkeepingto be practised anyship, is on clear should givenin the be procedures shipboard operational manual, supported master's by standing orders appropriate, as a n dc o v e r i na sa m i n i m u m . g what circumstances look-out watchkeeping commence; o under sole can watchkeeping o how solelook-out should supported; be what circumstances look-out o under sole watchkeeping mustbe suspended. It is alsorecommended on eachoccasion, that, before watchkeepinq solelook-out commences the master should satisf that: be ied rest o the OOWhashadsufficient priorto commencing watch; wo o i n t h el u d g e m e n tf t h e O O W t h e a n t r c i p a t e d r k l o a dsw e l lw i t h i nh i sc a p a c i t y m a i n t a ia o , i n o proper look-out and remain full control the prevailing in of circumstances; assistance the OOWhasbeenclearly o back-up to designated; o the OOWknows who will provide back-up assistance,what circumstances in mustbe back-up c a l l e d n dh o w t o c a l li t q u i c k l y ; a personnel aware response o designated back-up are of times andanylimitations their on movements, areableto hearalarm communication from the bridge; and or calls al o a l le s s e n t ie q u i p m e n tn da l a r m o n t h e b r i d g e r ef u l l yf u n c t i o n a l . a s a

1 . 2 . 5 T h e b r i d g et e a m
Thebrrdge teamisestablished that the mosteffective canbe madeof available so manpower use in orderthat established procedures followed, is minimised ships navigated work are risk and are personnel have safely. ship's All who bridge navigational watchduties be partof the bridge will team.Themaster and pilot(st, necessary, needthe support the team,whrch as will of will comprise the OOW, helmsman look-out(s) required. a and as TheOOWis in charge the bridge of andthe bridge teamfor that watch,untilrelieved. It is important the bridge that teamworkstogether closely, withina particular both watchand across watches, since decisions madeon onewatchmayhave impact another an on watch. T h eb r i d g ee a ma l s o a sa n i m p o r t a n to l ei n m a i n t a i n i n g m m u n i c a t i o nis ht h e e n g i n e o o m t h r co w t r a n do t h e ro p e r a t i na r e a o n t h e s h i p . g s

1.2.6 The bridgeteam and the master

It should clearly be establrshedthe company's in Safety Management System the master that has the overriding authortyand responsibilitymakedecisions respect safety to with to and pollution prevention. master The not by should be constrained a shipowner charterer or fromtakingany ar d e c i s i ow h i c h i n h i sp r o f e s s i o n a l l u o g e mi en e,c e s s afr yr s a f e a v i g a t i o in ,p a r t r c u l i n n , snt o n n severe weather reduced or visibilitv.

Thebridge have clear be teamshould a understanding the information should routinely of that reported the master, the requirements keepthe master to fullyinformed, of the to of and (see be 813). circumstances whichthe master under should called bridge checklist Whenthe master arrived the bridge, decisron takeovercontrol the bridge his of from has on to (s s n t h e O O Wm u s tb e c l e a a n du n a m b i g u o us e e e c t i o 3 . 2 . 7 ) . r Themaster Such should consider benefit the OOWretaining the of control navigation. action of mayprovrde couldstrengthen bridge teamasthe master moreeffective support and the m o n i t o r i nig t h i sr o l e . n

1 . 2 . 7 W o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e b r i d g et e a m
1 . 2 . 71 . A s s i g n m e no f d u t i e s t Duties should clearly be assigned, limited thoseduties to that canbe performed effectively, and prioritised clearly Team members should asked confirm be to that theyunderstand tasks the and duties assigned to them. Thepositive reporting events whileundertaking tasks is the on and duties oneway of monitoring performance bridge and in of teammembers detecting deterioration watchkeeping any performance. Co-ordination and communication personnel co-ordinate Theability ship's of to activities communicate with and effectively each port otheris particularly durrng vital situations. routine passages, emergency During sea personnel approaches pilotage, bridge and the team mustalways work asan effective team. A bridge teamwhichhasa planthat is understood iswell briefed, and with all members goodsituational supporting eachother, have will awareness. members then be ableto lts will anticipate dangerous arising recognise development a chain errors, and of thus situations the of enabling the themto takeaction break sequence. to All non-essential activity distractions watchkeeping or to be should avoided. phones members the brrdge Caution should exercised be regarding useof mobile the by of team (see section .4). 3.1

l 1 . 2 . 8 N e w p e r s o n n ea n d f a m i l i a r i s a t i o n
personnel are There obligations are the for who under ISMCodeand the STCW Convention ship's new to a particular to recerve specif familiarisation ic in safety matters. ISMCodealso The ship ship requires in to training needs support the SMS be both identif and implemented. of ied Forthosepersonnel have direct who involvement shipoperations aswatchkeeping, in a such a period time mustbe allocated themto become reasonable for of acquainted the equipment with procedures be that theywill be using andanyassociated procedures. familiarisation ship The must covered writteninstructions the company required provide the master. in is that to to


of equipment for one-to-one training new An officer mustbe responsible the bridge for and (ts e e r i d g e h e c k l i s t1 ) T h i s p e r s o n n e n,a c o m m o na n g u a g ed e a l ls u p p o r t eb y c h e c k l i s s b B . c il l i, y d ail a , g t s r e s p o n s i b i sipy c i f i c ailny l u d en a v i g a t i o n a d s sf i t t e d i n c l u d i nb u t n o t l i m i t e do E C D I S , l te lc videos computer based Self-teaching manuals, or ECS, ARPA, Radar AlS, and Echo Sounder. ship. programmes examples othertraining methods on that couldbe used board are of training

1.2.9 Prevention fatigue of

musttake Codestipulates bridge that teammembers In orderto prevent fatigue, STCW the '10 lf are tn mandatory periods. periods at least hours any24 hourperiod required. the rest Rest of periods, of thoseperiods 6 mustbe for at least consecutive restistakenin two separate one period 10 hours 6 maybe reduced not lessthan consecutive to However, minimum of hours. the provided anysuchreduction than doesnot extend beyond two days, and not less hours that day 70 hours restis provided during eachseven period. (lLO) to ILO TheInternational Labour Organization in its Convention 180,whichissubject port for day of restperiod seafarers anyseven period 77 hours. in state control, stipulatesminimum a following adoptron 2006of the ILO in Thisstandard likely be morewidely is enforced the to M a r i t i m L a b o uC o n v e n t i o n . e r publication Maritime guidance available the ISF 2006- a ILO Labour Convention Detailed is in as are lndustry. IMO and ILOworkhourrequirements complicated, are The Guidefor the Shipping ISF workhour records. hastherefore individual seafarers' the mandatory requirements maintain to produced tlSF to comply. computer software Watchkeeper) helpshipoperators - Guidance Fatigue. gurdance mitigation management on IMOhaspublished regarding fatigue and

1 . 2 . 1 0A l c o h o lc o n s u m p t i o n
governments prescribemaximum of for TheSTCW a bloodalcohol level O.0B% to Codeadvises p t el wi 4 t an c s h i p ' p e r s o n n d u r i n g a t c h k e e p i n g dt o p r o h i b ia l c o h o l o n s u m p t i o n t h i n h o u r s r i o r o s w mayhavemore flag and commencingwatch.Port a states, stateadministrations companies policies. stringent ( b a Ml F e em T h eO i lC o m p a n i e n t e r n a t i o n aa r i n e o r u m O C I M F ) h a s t a b l i s h a d a x i m u m l o o d l c o h o l Is level 0.04o/o. of

' 1 . 2 . 1 1 s eo f E n g l i s h U
English is that of TheSTCW Coderequires OOWto haveknowledge writtenand spoken the publications, informat and messages on meteorological charts, nautical adequate understand to and and with and operations, adequate communicate otherships to concerning ship's the safety (s I t d C oh c o a ss t a t i o n sn 2 0 0 1 ,I M Oa d o p t e dh e S t a n d a rM a r i n e o m m u n i c a t i P n r a s e S M C P ) w h i c h t (SMNV). Vocabulary replace Standard Marine Navigational the between Communications Communications withinthe bridge teamneedto be understood. w h s e r m u l t i l i n g uta la mm e m b e r s ,n d i n p a r t i c u l a ri t h r a t i n g s ,h o u l d i t h e b e i n a l a n g u a gte a ti s e a s c o m m o no a l l r e l e v a n tr i d g ee a mm e m b e ro r i n E n g l i s h . t b t

Whena pilotis on board, same ruleshould applyFurther, whena pilotiscommunicating to the parties external the ship, request the pilotalways to suchastugs,the shipshould that communicates English a language canbe understood the bridge. in or that on Alternatively, the pilotshould asked explain communicationsthe bridge be to his to team,so that the shipis aware o f t h e p i l o t s n t e n t i o n s a l lt i m e s( S e e O L A C h a p t eV R e g u l a t i o n ' 1 4 . 4 . ) i at S S r

1 . 2 . 1 2T h e b r i d g et e a m a n d t h e p i l o t
W h e na p i l o ti so n b o a r d s h i p , ew i l l t e m p o r a r ji oy nt h e b r i d g ee a ma n ds h o u l d e s u p p o r t e d l i a h t b (see accordingly section 3.3.3).


policy. should Every shipowning management should havea safety management lt or company provide practical guidance concerning navrgation include clear safe a statement emphasising and the master's authority. company The should establish the SMS in has that the master the overriding prevention authority the responsibilitymakedecisions respect safety and with to to and pollution andto request company's the assistance maybe necessary. guidance as The should cover: procedures; o allocation bridge watchkeeping and responsibilitiesnavigational for of duties planning execution; o procedures voyage for and publication procedures; o chartand nautrcal correction o procedures ensure navigation to that all essential equipment mainandauxiliary and machinery a r ea v a i l a bae df u l l yo p e r a t i o n a l ; ln o advice concerning emergency responses; procedures; o shipposition reporting procedures; o accident nearmiss and reporting o recording voyage of events; o procedures familiarisation for and handover crewchanges; training at o a recognised for training system identifying special needs; person o company contacts, including designated the under ISMCode. the

1 . 3 . 1 Master's standing orders

procedures Shipboard operational manuals supported standing instructions based uponthe by policy company's navigation should form the basis command control board. of on and Master's standing orders should writtento reflect master's particular be requirements the own and particular the ship,hertradeandthe experience the bridge the circumstances to of teamcurrently on ooaro. (afot,, tho Standing orders and instructions should operate withoutconflict 167ithin <hin'< Management System.

, d b s t S t a n d i no r d e r s h o u l d e r e a d y a l lo f f i c e ru p o nl o i n i n gh e s h i p a n ds r g n e a n dd a t e d g b on for A copyof the orders should available the bridge reference be accordingly. 1 . 3 . 1 . 1 Bridgeorder book f n na l n a d d r t i otn g e n e r a lt a n d i no r d e r s ,p e c i f 'ic s t r u c t i o ms yb e n e e d e do r s p e c i a l s o s g msta nces. circu of writein the bridge orderbookwhat isexpected the OOW, At dailyintervals, master should the mustbe the These orders with particular reference hisrequirements during hours darkness of to signed eachOOWwhengoingon watch by

planning necessary support bridge Passage is to the teamand ensure that the shipcanbe ports navigated safely from berth-to-berth between throughriskassessment hazards of and plan waypoint selection. passage should The cover ocean, coastal pilotage and waters Theplanmayneedto be changed port during voyage; example, destination maynot the for the havebeenknownor mayalter, rt maybe necessary amend planfollowing or to the consultation with the pilot. lf the planis changed during voyage, bridge the the teamon each watchshould consulted be and planis understood. briefed ensure to that the revised plan Thepassage should to establish mostfavourable aim the route whilemarntaining appropriate margins safety of and safepassing distances offshore. Whendeciding uponthe route, the following factors amongst are those that should takenintoaccount: be o the marine environment; o the adequacy reliability charted and of hydrographic alongthe route; data o the availability reliability navigation coastal and of aids, marks, lights and radar conspicuous targets fixingthe shipalongthe route; for o anyrouteing constraints imposed the ship, by e.g.draught, typeof cargo; o areas hightraffic of density; o weather forecasts expected and current, tidal, wind,swell andvisibility conditions; o areas whereonshore couldoccur; set o s h i p p e r a t i o nh a tm a yr e q u i r a d d i t i o n a e a r o o m ,. g .t a n kc l e a n i no r p i l o te m b a r k a t i o n ; o ts e sl e g o regulations asships' such routeing and schemes shipreporting systems; o the reliability the propulsion steering of systems board. and on Theintended priorto departure voyage should planned be using appropriate available and corrected charts and publications. master The should check thatthe tracks down aresafe, laid and the chiefengineer should verify hassufficient waterand lubricants the that the ship fuel, for intended voyage pr I n a d d i t i o n h e d u t yo f t h e m a s t etro e x e r c i s e o f e s s i o n a l j u d g e mn tn te l i g h to f c h a n g i n g t, ieh circumstances remains basic a requirement safenavigation. for


In mostdeepseaships, iscustomary the master delegate taskof preparing it for to the the passage to the officer plan responsible navigational for equipment publications.otherships, and In the master mayplanthe voyage himself. lrrespectivewho carries the taskof passage planning, remains responsibilitythe of out it the of plan master ensure to that the passage provides basis safenavigation the intended the of for voya9e.

Whileresponsibility the planin pilotage waters rests for with the master, piloton boarding, the or practicable, plancanbe before if of should advise master anylocal the circumstancesthat the so (see updated section 2.7). Whileresponsibility the planin pilotage for waters rests with the master, necessary any (see amendments takeplace may subsequent the Master/Pilot to Exchange section 2.7).


I n a c c o r d a n wet h I M OR e s o i u t i o n8 9 3 ( 2 1 ) u i d e l i n eo r V o y a g P l a n n i n t h e r e r ef o u r ci 4. G fs e g, a distinct stages the planning achievement a safepassage: in and of o Appraisal, o Planning; o Executron; o Monitorinq.

2 . 3 . ' l P l a na p p r a i s a l
planning commence, charts, publications otherinformation Before can the for and appropriate the voyage needto be gathered will together and studied. passage A is in appraisal checklrst included t h i sG u i d e sb r i d q e h e c k l i s t5 . a B c

2.3.2 Charts and publications

ns e O n l y f f i c i a l a u t i c a lh a r t a n dp u b l i c a t i o s h o u l d e u s e d o r p a s s a gp l a n n i n g ,n dt h e ys h o u l d o n c s b f a be fullycorrected the latest notices mariners radionavigation to to available and warnings. Any missing needed the intended {or charts and publications voyage identified from the should be (see chartcatalogue obtained and before shrp the sails 4.1'l). section planning for plotting Forcoastal prlotage point(orwaypoint), and and eachcourse alteration large passage planning openwaterlegs, largest scale charts should used. ocean be For and the scale charts that areappropriate should used. be

plan 2.3.3 The passage

plan Thepassage should incorporate following the details: trackshowing truecourse eachleg; o planned the of o legdistances; changes required route; o anyspeed en points manoeuvres; o aborVcancellation for critical whereappropriate; o wheeloverpositions eachcourse for alteration, for whereappropriate; o turn radius eachcourse alteration, margins eachleg,whereappropriate. for o maximum allowable off-track

At anytimeduring voyage, shipmayneedto leave planned temporarily short the the the leg at notice. Marking the chartrelatively waters on shallow and minimum clearing distances critical in seaareas onetechnique is quickly what whichwill assist OOWwhen having decide the to to extent deviate to withoutjeopardising andthe marine safety environment. However, using in this technique, should takennot to obscure care be chart features. paper On charts, onlypencil should beused. plan Thepassage should position also takeintoaccount needto monitor ship's the the alongthe route, tdentify contingency actions waypoints, allowfor collision at and avoidance linewrththe in COLREGS. plan Appropriate details the passage maybe copied that the plancanbe readily of so referred to p a t t h e m a i nc o n n i n g o s i t i o n .

planningand electronic 2.3.4 Passage navigationsystems Planningusing electronic chart displaysystems planning be undertaken Passage can either paper on charts using electronic or an chartdisplay (ECDIS) (ENC), and information system displaying electronic navigational charts sublect the to (RCDS) approval the flagstate of administration. Raster chartdisplay systems displaying raster n e n a v i g a t i o n a l a r t ( R N C ) c ab e u s e d o r p a s s a gp l a n n i n ig c o n j u n c t i o ni t h p a p e c h a r t s .S e e ( ch s f r n w section 4.'i . planning Whenpassage using ECDIS, navigating the officer should aware be that a safety contour canbe established Thecrossing a safety around ship. the of contour, attempting enter by to water whichistoo shallow attempting cross boundary a prohibited specially or to the of or defined area suchasa traffic separation zone, will be indicated automatically the ECDIS by whilethe routeis both beingplanned executed. and planning Whenpassage particular needs using combination electronic paper a of and charts, care points to be takenat transition between areas electronic paper of and chartcoverage voyage The pilotage, involves distinct coastal ocean and waterphases. Planning withinanyone phase the of voyage should undertaken or be usin.oithor:llolortrnnir all paper charts rather thana mixture of charttypes Where passage planned paper a is using charts, careshould takenwhentransferring details be the of the planto an electronic In chartdisplay system. particular, navigating the officer should ensure that: o positions transferred and areverified electronic are to, on, charts an equivalent of scale that to paper position originally plotted; of the charton whichthe was o anyknowndifference chartdatumbetween in that usedby the paper chartandthat usedby positions; the electronic chartdisplay system applied the transferred is to o the complete passage asdisplayed the electronic plan on chartdrsplay system checked is for accuracy completeness and before is used. it Transferring route plansto other navigationaids Caremustbe takenwhentransferring routeplans electronic to navigation suchas GPS, aids since position the ship's plans that rscomputed the navaid likely be in WGSB4 by is to datum.Route sentto the GPS monitoring for cross trackerrors musttherefore of the same be datum.

; -1-



Similarly, the case radars, in routes displayed the radar of and maps will be referenced the on to position the ship.Caremusttherefore takento ensure of be that maps and plans transferred or to, prepared the radar created the same ttypically GPS) or^, are in datumasthe navaid a whichis positions the radar. connected andtransmitting to, to,


passages, following Whenplanning ocean the should consulted: be planning routeing providing scale o small ocean and charts rnformation ocean winds, on currents, i c el i m i t s t c , ; e projection great o gnomonic ocean charts plottrng for routes, whenappropriate; circle (LL) o the loadlinezonechart ensure to that the LoadLine Rules complied with; are showing relevant any routeing schemes. o charts ships' Anticipated meteorological may conditions havean impact the ocean routethat isselected. on For example: passage ocean may o favourable currents offerimproved overall speeds offsetting extra any distance travelled; o iceor poorvisibility limitnortherly southerly may or advance highlatitudes; in o requirements ballast for waterexchange cause routeselected be amended viewof may the in to forecast antrcipated or conditions; maycallfor certain o the presence seasonal of tropical stormactivity waters be avoided an to and allowance madefor searoom. Details weaiher of routeing for services ships contained lists radio are in of signals in Volume and D (WMO)Publication 9. Long-range of the WorldMeteorological Organrzation No. weather warnings broadcast the SafetyNET are on Service alongwith NAVAREA navigationalwarnings as partof the World-Wide (WWNWS). Navigational Warning Service Landfalltargets to be considered identifred to theirlikely need and as radar andvisual ranges and, in respect lights, of theirrising and dipping ranges the arcs/colourssectored and lights. of


Bycomparison openwaters, with margins safety coastal restricted in of or waters be critical, can as the timeavailable takecorrective to action likely be limited. is to Themanoeuvring characteristics shipandanylimitations peculiarities the shipmay of the or that problems have, including reliability with its propulsion steering and systems, influence may the routeselected through coastal waters. shallow In waterparticularly, allowance should madefor be reduced (see underkeel clearance caused shipsquat, by whrchincreases shipspeed with section 3.3.2).

-- -4-


Ships' routeing schemes, restricted a'eas and reporting systems alongthe route, wellasvessel as (see traffic services, should takenintoaccount be sections 2.9 and 2.'10). 2.8, gale Coastal weather bulletins, including warnings, coastal and navrgational warnings broadcast by coast radio stations NAVTEX require and may changes be madeto the routeplan. to


It is important that,when navigation planned is through coastal restricted or waters, due consideration is given ensuring the progress the shipcanbe monitored to that of effectively. Therefore, routeplanshould, possible, readily the if position be available the mainconning at so that continuous monitoring be performed can easily. Of particular importance the needto monitor position the shipapproaching wheel is the of the overposttion the endof a track, at andchecking the shipissafely the newtrackafterthe that on alteration course. of plan Thepassage should include details regarding required the frequency position-fixing, of regardless whether not electronic of or navigation systems used, are andshould alsoinclude position othermeans, details regarding cross-checking ship's the by including whenelectronic navigation systems used. are Distinctive features posrtion chart should used monitoring ship's be for the visually, radar by and by echosounder, therefore partof the passage plan. and these needto be an integral

2.6.1 Visual monitoringtechniques

Ahead, transits provide leading alongwhicha shipcansteer can a line safely. Abeam, transits provide ready a check usewhen alterrng for course. anchor, At several transits be used can to m o n i t otrh e s h i o ' o o s i t i o n . s Bearing lines alsobe used can A effectively.headmark, a bearing of a conspicuous line or object lying ahead the trackline, on canbe used steer ship, to the whileclearing bearings be used can to c h e c kh a ta s h i oi s r e m a i n i n oi t h i na s a f e r e a . t w a

2 . 6 . 2 R a d a rm o n i t o r i n gt e c h n i q u e s
Whenradar conspicuous targets available, are effective canbe madeof radar use clearing bearings a n dr a n g e s . with goodathwartship Ships trackcontrol useclearing can bearings monitor advance a to the of shiptowards wheeloverposition, a whileparallel indexing be used check can to that the shipis maintaining trackand not drifting portor starboard. details radar to For on and navigation, refer t o s e c t i o 4 . 2 . 3 f t h i sG u i d e . n o


wi w n i T h i s e c t i o s h o u i d e r e a d n c o n l u n c t i o ni t h s e c t i o 3 3 . 3( N a v i g a t i o nt h a p i l o t o nb o a r d ) s n b pilotage). andsection (Maritime 6

p 2.7.'l Pre-arrivallanning
pilotage team plan of waters andthe roles the brrdge be covering A preliminary should prepared person nel. Certificate of Exemption eveni{ the master the shiphasa Pilotage A planshould be prepared still for the port. portentryin the event problems should arising, of Planning anchoring the port,or aborting for off in features will assist that alsoidentify charted Theplanshould be included partof the plan. as y ft p r o g r e s s d i n c l u d c o n t i n g e n c ye a s u r en t h e e v e n o f p r i m a re q u i p m e n a i l u r e , m is t e monitoring an poorvisibility etc c on t T n T h eP i l o C a r d h o u l d l s o e u p d a t e d . h eC a r d o n t a i nrs f o r m a t i o n d r a u g ha n ds h i p ' s p e e d t a b s a sf t a c n t h a ti s l i a b l eo c h a n g e st h e l o a d i n g o n d i t i oo f t h e s h i pc h a n g e s ,sw e l la sa c h e c k l i o t ( 4 a e q u i p m e nh a t i sa v a i l a b ae dw o r k i n g s e e n n e x 3 ) . tt ln

2 . 7 . 2 Pre-arrival information exchangewith the pilot

with the pilotbefore of take It is recommended a pre-arrival that exchange information place waters particularly local of has knowledge the pilotage where the master limited boarding, ETA before pilot's will the 24 An information initiated the shipapproximately hours by exchange p l a n n i ntg t a k ep l a c e o t ho n t h e s h i p n da s h o r e .h e T a o b a l l o ws u f ifc i e ntti m ef o r m o r ed e t a i l e d t t be e x c h a n g ei l la l s o l l o w o m m u n i c a t i o n st w e e nh e s h i pa n dt h e p i l o ts t a t i o no b e f r r m l y w a c Master/Pilot Exchange Shore-to-Ship and Ship-to-Shore established before embarkation. (see A1 for PiloVMaster Exchange formscanbe used thispurpose annexes andA2). the of a detail the formscanvaryfrom ship These formsareintended onlyto provide basis; exact to recommended keep from portto is nevertheless to ship, tradeto trade, indeed or preliminary information thatwhichisstrrctly to and information exchange a minimum, limitthe to PiloVMaster lf the in the necessary assist planning pilotage. appropriate, Shore-to-Ship to routeplan. by Exchange form canbe supported a graphical pilotage can hours, whichtimecircumstances in can ln certain areas, passage lastfor several the withinany Thepreferred of working way changes the plan. to altersignificantly necessitating
nrln+ran viluro9E orEo -1.^ Lor r or)w \v/ o rr\ /y r h o t rv r a o n usL rvqsr < I n ii lln tL ) . P u

procedures, local information regarding navigational exchange Themaster the pilotshould and This and, berthing. information and andthe ship's characteristics asappropriate, conditions rules process generally for of that continues the duration the pilotage be exchange should a continuous


2 . 7 . 3 P i l o to n b o a r d
passage will needto be discussed the pilotassoonashe comes board. plan Thepilotage with on A n ya m e n d m e ntto t h e p l a ns h o u l d e a g r e e d , n da n yc o n s e q u e n tc a la n g eis i n d i v i d u a l s b a ih n pilotage brrdge teamresponsibilities before made, commences passage should discussed all members the bridge plan Thepilotage be with of teampriorto the pilotboarding vessel. master pilotwill effectively the The should advise bridge the teamthat the be a new member the ship's of bridge team,who maynot be familiar with the vessel's equipment or handling characteristics. master The should emphasise the presence a pilotaboard that of the vessel doesnot release bridge the teamfrom theirrespective dutres responsibilities. or Wherepre-arrival exchange not takenplace, has extra timeandsearoom mayneedto be allowed pilotage (see in orderto discuss planfullybefore the commences section (see Thepilotshould handed Pilot be the Card(see annex 43) andshownthe Wheelhouse Poster provides summary shipmanoeuvring annex A4).TheWheelhouse Poster a of information. A m a n o e u v r i n g o k l ec o n t a i n i nm o r ed e t a i l e id f o r m a t i o n a ya l s o e a v a i l a boe t h e b r i d g e . bo t g n m b ln There be circumstances a debrief will when between oneof the bridqe teamandthe pilotcouro identify improvementsthe conduct f uturepilotage in of operations.

2.7.4 Preparing the outward bound pilotage plan

Afterberthing before pilotdeparts ship, opportunity and the the the should takento discuss be passage with the pilot,bearing mindthatthe precise of plan the outward boundpilotage in way working withinanypilotage pilotsHowever, outward area canvarybetween pilotisthe the individual whomthe relevant with place Master/Pilot exchange takes andwith whom the outward p e b o u n d r l o t a gp l a ns h o u l d e d i s c u s s e d da g r e e d . b an


Ships'routeing measures beenintroduced a number coastal have in of waters to: o reduce riskof collision the between in ships areas hightraffic of densities; o keepshipping awayfrom environmentally sensitive areas; sea o reduce riskof grounding shallow the in waters. Theuseof ships' routeing measures plan. should form partof the passage Ships' routeing measures be adopted internationally lMO.Such can by schemes recommended are for useby,and maybe mademandatory all ships, for, certain categories ships, ships of or carrying certain cargoes. Mandatory ships' routeing schemes should always usedunless shiphas be the compelling safety reasons not followrng for them. IMO routetng provisions to their schemes be shownon charts will with a noteof anypertinent as use.Fuller details maybe described Sailing in Directions. IMO publication The Routeing Ships' contains descriptions eachscheme anyrules full of and applyrng, thispublication produced but is primarily the benefit administrations. not keptup to dateas regularly nautical for lt is of as publications, whichshould always consulted the latest be for information.

include: systems in used routeing Elements of streams of at aimed the separation opposing measure scheme a routeing separation o traffic lanes; traffic by traffic establishing traff in limits whichone-way ic flowsareestablished; withindefined ic o traff lane- areas in are in lanes whichships proceeding traffic to zoneor line- a means separate o separation sea f rom adjacent areas lanes traffic rn directions orderto separate opposite or opposite nearly nr tn ceneratc diffprent lanes; traffic
v , r v JLvu'

limits; lanewithindefined traffic zoneanda ctrcular pointor circular o roundabout a separation of boundary a traffic the sea zone- a designated areabetween landward traffic o inshore coast; and scheme an adjacent separation which in of width,for the convenience ships transit, route- a routeof undefined o recommended buoys; by is oftenmarked centreline of for surveyed clearance seabottomand o deepwaterroute a routewhichhasbeenaccurately articles; submerged passage ships of and for designated the continuous expeditious sea o archipelagic lane- sealanes waters; archipelagic through andwithin caution with particular mustnavigate whereships area o precautionary - an area maybe recommended; flow of traffic of whichthe direction or hazardous it is is navigation particularly to o area be avoided an areain whicheither or by be and casualties whichshould avoided all ships, by to important avoid exceptionally classes ships. of certain


via so of states that theycankeeptrack, by has Shipreporting beenintroduced a number coastal systems Shipreporting waters. passing theircoastal through of radar transponder, ships or radio, course, suchastheirpositton, aboutships, information or to used gather exchange aretherefore for may passing the traffic, information be used to In and cargo. addition monitoring speed pollution. of purposes search rescue prevention marine and and of plan. form a partof the passage should systems Theuseof shipreporting to will systems be required be by internationally lMO.Such can systems be adopted Shipreporting cargoes. certain carrying or of categories ships ships certain usedby all ships, to and systems report of with the requirements shipreporting comply of Themaster a shipshould as leaving upon maybe required A that all authority information is required. report the appropriate may or reports information be required and of the wellason entering area the system, additional reports. earlier to update of but Directions, lists and in Sailing to may requirements be referred on charts Shipreporting G in are systems contained Part of the Details IMO adopted of provide details. full signals radio (2002edition). Routeing Ships' IMO publication


AISis used coastal by authorities otherships gather and to information regarding ship's a AIS characteristics, and passage. such, maybe considered be a constant cargo As to shrpreporting systemlt isessential bothstatic that and dynamic dataprogrammed AISequipment into remains accurate asto avoid so false transmittinq data.(See section 4.3.)


(VTS) particularly portsandtheirapproaches, Vesseltraffic havebeenintroduced, services in to monitor with regulations to optimise and shipcompliance local trafficmanagement. canonly VTS be mandatory withinthe territorial of a coastal seas state. plan. VTSrequirements ships form partof the passage on should This should include references to the specific radio frequencies mustbe monitored the shipfor navigational other that by or w a r n i n g s ,n da d v i c e n w h e nt o p r o c e e id a r e a s w h e r e t r a f f i c f l io we g u a t e d . n a o sr VTSreporting requirements be marked charts, fullerdetails be foundin Sailing may on but will D i r e c t i o n s dl i s t s f r a d i o i q n a l s an o s

(oow) J oFTHE WATcH

3 . 1 . 1 M aster'srepresentative



Under STCW the representative is primarily Code, OOWisthe master's the and responsibleall at f t i m e s o r t h es a f e a v i g a t i o n t h e s h i p n df o r c o m p l y i nw i t ht h e C O L R E G S . n of a g As the master's representative, OOWis in charge the bridge the of andtherefore charge the in of ln bridge teamfor that watch,untilproperly relieved. compliance shipboard with operational procedures master's and the watchmanning standing orders, OOWshould ensure that bridge levels at alltimes are for circumstances conditions. safe the orevailrno and

3.1.2 Primary uties d

In orderto maintain safenavigational a watch,the primary duties the OOWwill involve of w a t c h k e e p i nn a v i g a t i o n dG M D S Sa d i o a t c h k e e p i n g . g, an r w Watchkeeping T h ew a t c h k e e p i n g t i e s f t h e O O Wi n c l u d e a i n t a i n i n g o o k - o ua n dg e n e r a lu r v e i l l a no fe m du o al t s c t h e s h i p c o l l i s i oa v o i d a n c n c o m p l i a n c e t h t h e C O L R E GrS ,c o r d i nb r i d g e c t i v i t i ea n d , n ie wi e g a s, periodic making checks the navigat on onalequipment use.Procedures handing in for overthe watchand calling support the bridge for on should in place be and understood the OOW by Navigation plan Thenavigational duties the OOWarebased of uponthe needto execute passage safely the a n dm o n i t otrh e p r o g r e s s t h e s h r p g a i n s t a tp l a n . of a th Radiocommunications qualified personnel During distress incidents, of the GMDSS one should designated have be to primary passenger person haveno responsibility radiocommunications. for On ships, that can otherduties durinq distress a situation.

3.1.3 In support primary of duties Controlling the speedand directionof the ship TheOOWwill needto be conversant the means with and bestpractices controlling speed of the and direction the ship,handling of and characteristics stopping distances. OOWshould The not h e s i t a tte u s eh e l m e n g i n eo r s o u n d i g n a l l i n g p a r a t u s a n yt i m e . o , s s ap at Pollutionprevention, reportingand emergency situations TheOOWalsoneeds be fullyconversant shipboard to with obligations regard pollution with to prevention, reporting emergency The and situations. OOWshould knowthe location allthe of safety equipment the bridge on and how to operate that equipment.

3 . 1 . 4 A d d i t i o n a ld u t i e s
There mayalsobe a number additional for of duties the OOWto undertake whileon watch. General communications, monitoring, monitoring control machinery, the cargo the and of and supervision control shipsafety and of systems typical are examples.

Under circumstances no should additional duties interfere with the exercise primary of duties. phones otherpersonal Mobile or electronic devices should usedonlyunder be circumstances approved the master. potential by The distraction personnel the bridge to on caused the useof\ by phones otherelectronic mobile or devices should considered be when determining shipboard policy.

3.1.5 Bridgeattendance
TheOOWshould leave bridge not the unattended. However, a shipwith a separate in chartroom, the OOWmayvisit that roomfor shortperiods timeto carry necessary of out navigational duties afterf irstensurinq it issafeto do so. that

3 . 2 . ' l M a i n t a i n i n ga l o o k - o u t
In compliance the COLREGS, with look-out a proper mustbe maintained alltimes serve at to the ourooses of: o m a i n t a i n i n g o n t i n u o u s a t e f v i g i l a n cb y s i g h t n d h e a r i n g ,sw e l la sb y a l lo t h e r v a i l a b l e ac st o e a a a i m e a n s , i t h r e g a r do a n ys i g n i f i c a c h a n g en t h e o p e r a t i ne n v i r o n m e n t ; w t nt g o f u l l ya p p r a i s i nh e s i t u a t i oa n dt h e r i s k f c o l l i s i o s t, r a n d i na n do t h e r a n g e rts n a v i g a t i o n ; tg n o n g d o o detecting persons, ships aircraft distress, or in shipwrecked wrecks, debris and otherhazards to navigation, to allowprecautions securrty and for reasons, especrallyareas in with a knownrisk of piracy armed or attack. Full attention look-out to duties mustbe givenby the bridge teamon watch.Section 3.2.6 ( C h a n g i no v e r h ew a t c h )n c l u d e sd v i c ee g a r d i n g e n e e d o a l l o ws u f f i c i e nitm e ,d u r i n g h e g t i a r th t t t hours darkness, the vision oncoming of for of watchkeepers adjust ambient to lightconditions. to During hours darkness, isessential the wheelhouse the of it that environment shipboard and procedures support maintenance adequate the of nightvision watchkeepers look-outs. for and An effective wheelhouse chartroom and blackout should maintained; be lighting usedin suchareas should of low intensity coloured Theuseof blackout be and red. curtains heavy or drapes help will to preserve darkness integrity when it is not possible to otherwise fully exclude conventional artificial light Decklighting should considered be carefully avoid to adversely affecting nightvision from the wheelhouse, if suchlighting even onlyaffects restricted a sector the horizon. of It should notedthat evenmomentary be exposure brightlightcancompletely to destroy night vision period, ability maintain effective and,during subsequent the readjustment the to an lookout will be impaired. Consrderation should given fittingcut-out be to switches doorsleading to intowheelhouses chartrooms that on opening and so suchdoors adjacent conventional white lightsources momentarily are switched off. Whilesteering, helmsman a should be considered be the look-out, not to except small in ships with an unobstructed all-round viewat the steerino oosition.

w r n c s s w d O n s h i p s i t hf u l l ye n c l o s eb r i d g ea n da l lw i n d o w s l o s e d ,o u n d e c e p t i oe q u i p m e n t i l ln e e d sounds the on that all audible adlusted ensure to and continuously correctly to be in operation on clearly the bridge. opendeckcanbe heard 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 S o l el o o k - o u t provided on eachsuch that in the the Code, OOWmaybe the solelook-out daylight Under STCW occasion: withoutdoubtthat it issafe and has assessed it hasbeenestablished o the situation beencarefully with a solelook-out; to operate to: includinq, not limited but factors, has o full account beentakenof all relevant of o state weather o visibility density o traffic of to o proximity dangers navigation schemes; in separation when navigating or neartraffic necessary o the attention i w o si lv le o a s s i s t a nic em m e d i a t ea y a i l a b t o b e s u m m o n etd t h e b r i d g e h e na n yc h a n g en t h e situation requires. so guidance how theyshould practices to be followed, on clear are lf solelook-out watchkeeping (see procedures 1.2.4). section manual operational operate needto be givenin the shipboard will

3.2.2 Generasurveillance l
and itsday-to-day awareness aboutthe shrp of a TheOOWneeds maintain highlevel general to operations. wherepossible, to decks monitor, watchoverthe ship's a Thismayinclude maintaininggeneral w h g p e o p l e o r k i n g n d e c k n da n yc a r g o r c a r g o a n d l i ne q u i p m e nS p e c i a la t c h k e e p i n g t o w o a or wherethereisthoughtto be a riskof piracy armed in may arrangements be appropriate waters attack. or radio aerials antennae, of out Whenever work is beingcarried on deckin the vicinity radar post an b oy h s o u n d i g n a l l i n g p a r a t uts ,e O O Ws h o u l d e p a r t i c u l a r l b s e r v a n t ds h o u l d s ap controls. notices the equipment on warning appropriate

and the COLREGS 3.2.3 Watchkeeping Lights,shapes and sound signals of the not Compliance onlyconcerns conduct with the COLREGS. TheOOWmustalways comply and lights and shapes the but rules, alsodisplaying correct and vessels under steering sailing the a s m a k i n gh e c o r r e cst o u n d n dl i g h t i g n a l s t for shut deliberately down,but available immediate A vessel ng off a portwith herengines drift "vessel undercommand" defined rule3(f)of the by as not a restart, not,for example, is COLREGS,

Caution should always observed be whenapproaching othervessels. Vessels not be displaying may t h e i rc o r r e cl t g h to r s h a p e i g n a l s ,r i n d e e dh e i r i g n a lc o u l d e b a d l y o s i t i o n e d do b s c u r e d i p s o t s s b an by the ship's structure whenapproached certain from In directions. seaareas wheretraffic flow is . regulated, as portapproaches traffic such and separation schemes, maybe possible anticipate it to movements from certain shiptypes. these In circumstances, prudent allowextra it is to searoom, as longasit issafeto do so Collisionavoidanceaction In general, early and positive action always takenwhenavoiding should be collisions once and, action beentaken, OOWshould has the always check makesure to that the action takenis having the desired effect. VHFradio purposes. should be used collisron not for avoidance Valuable timecanbe wasted positive attempting makecontact to identification be difficult since may and,oncecontact has b e e nm a d e m i s u n d e r s t a n d im g sa r i s e . , n ay A t t e m p t t o a v o i d o l l i s i ob y c o m m u n i c a t i u s i n g I Se q u i p m e n th o u l d e a v o i d e d . c c i d e n t s c n ng A s b A investigations shownthat suchattempts have waste time,distract attention the OOWand the of oftenfarlto establish effective communication. Collision avoidancedetection ln clear weather, riskof collision be detected the can early taking requent by f compass bearings of an approaching vessel ascertain to whether not the bearing steady the vessel on a or is and is collision course. Carehowever mustbe takenwhenapproaching large very ships, ships under tow or ships close at range. appreciable An bearing change maybe evident under these circumstances but in facta riskof collision stillremain. may In restricted visibility, conduct vessels specifically of is covered the COLREGS.these by In conditions, radar, in particular plotting, be used and electronic radar can for effectively assessing riskof collision. OOWshould The takethe opportunity carry radar plotting practice clear to out in visibility whenever is possible. it Fordetails concerning useof radar collision the for avoidance, to section refer 4.2.2of thisGuide.

3.2.4 Recording bridge activities

It is important a proper, that formalrecord navigational of activities incidents, and whichareof importance safety navigation, keptin appropriate to of is logbooks. Paper records from course recorders, sounders, echo NAVTEX receivers should etc. alsobe retained at least the duration the voyage, for of suitably dateandtime marked practicable. if In orderto allowthe ship's actual trackto be reconstructeda laterstage, at sufficient information position, concerning course speed and should recorded the bridge be in logbook using or approved electronic means. positions All marked the navigational on charts alsoneedto be retained untilthe end of the voyage

3 . 2 . 5 P e r i o d i c h e c k s n n a v i g a t i o n ae q u i p m e n t c l o Operationalchecks Operational checks navigational on equipment should undertaken be when preparing sea(see for bridge checklist B2)andpriorto portentry(see bridge checklist B3).


passages before restricted also waters, is important to it Afterlengthy ocean and entering coastal c h e c kh a tf u l le n g i n e n ds t e e r i nm a n o e u v r a b i il sta v a i l a b l e . t a g i y Routinetestsand checks h T h eO O Ws h o u l d n d e r t a kd a i l y e s t s n dc h e c ko n t h e b r i d g e q u i p m e nitn c l u d i ntg e a s e , u e t following: pilotis in use(see o manual at oncea watchwhenthe automatic steering should tested least be annex 7): A be and at oncea watch, o gyroand magnetic compass errors should checked recorded least alteration; wherepossible, afteranymajorcourse and o compass repeaters regularly, including repeaters mounted the bridge, off should synchronised be position. roomandat the emergency suchas in the engine control steering Checks electronic on equipment boththat the piece equipment functioning is Checks electronic on should confirm of equipment properly that it is successfully to to and communicating anybridge system whichit is connected. provide useful Built-in facilities test health check the functional on state the piece of of a frequently. equipment should used and be Electronic to settings important equipment systems should checked ensure be that configuration - havenot changed. pieces equipment for correct interfacing between of performance, from electronic Toensure adequate information equipment should always be information from different independent sources. compared verifred and against Checkingorders Rudder Goodpractice requires OOWto check that orders being followed correctly. also the are provide OOWwith an immediate for the check on angle and engine rpm indicators, example, whether helmand engine followed. movement orders being are

3.2.6 Changingover the watch (seebridge checklist812)

TheOOWshould handoverthe watchif thereis anyreason believe the relieving not to that officer is unfitto, or istemporarily hisduties lf in anydoubt,the OOW unable carry to, out effectively. s h o u l d a l l h em a s t e r . c t lllness the effects fatigue, couldbe reasons the relieving why officer unfit is or of alcohol drugs or for duty. Before mustbe satisfied to the shipsposition, and takingoverthe watch, the relieving officer as its as confirm intended track, course speed, engine and and controls appropriate, wellas noting as anydangers navigation to expected be encountered to duringhiswatch. Therelieving teamfor the new officer should alsobe satisfied all othermembers the bridge that of watcharefit for duty,particularly regards theiradlustment nightvision. Although time the as to varies individuals eyesight adjust for to completely from f ull artificial to allowan light between thc effertive njohttime look-orrt timp renrrirsf, ShOuld be UndereStimated. nOt VariOuS faCtOrS individual in manycases nightvision not be achieved less full will in affect adlustment times, but (see fitted than 15 minutes section 3.2.1). Watchkeepers look-outs and who usespectacles with

photo-chromatic (light-sensitive) should aware lenses be that when UV lightis removed reduced or the lenses not clear do completely somedarkening and effectis retained alltimes. at Theability of a watchkeeper look-out perform or to theirduties effectively whenwearing spectacles with fitted photo-chromatic lenses should considered be carefully. lf a manoeuvre otheraction avoid hazard takingplace the moment OOWrsbeinq or to a is at the relieved, handover should deferred be untilsuchaction beencomoleted. has

3.2.7 Calling he master t

TheOOWshould notify the master, accordance standing in with orders the bridge or orderbook, when in anydoubtasto what action takein the interests safery. to of Guidance specific on circumstances calling master otherback-up for the or support should be givenin the shipboard procedures, operational supported standing bridge by and orders, as appropriate. Situations wherethe master should always called listed bridge be are in checklist 813 TheOOWwill continue be responsible the watch,despite presence the master the to for the of on bridge, untilinformed specifically the master assumed responsibility, thisrs that has that and mutually understood. factthat the master takencontrol the bridqe The has on should recoroeo be in the log book.

3.3.1 General principles
It ls important the OOWexecutes passage as prepared monitors proqress that plan the and the of the shiprelative that plan. to Deviatingfrom or leavingthe passage plan lf the OOWhasto makea temporary deviation fromthe passage for anyreason, plan the OOWshould return the planassoonas it issafe do so.Consideration to to should given be to re-plotting course the nextwaypornt avoid the to potentially to confusing encounters large and alterations course. of lf the OoW hasto leave passage - a reporting icemay, example, plan the of for require an alteration course the OoW should of prepare proceed and alonga new temporary trackclear of anydanger. the firstopportunity, OOWshould At the advise master the actions the of taken. The planwill needto be formally amended a briefing and madeto the othermembers the bridqe of team. Monitoringthe progress the ship of Goodnavigational practice demands the OOW: that o understands capabilities limitations the navigational and systems the and of aids beingused, a n dc o n t i n u a lm o n i t o rts e i rp e r f o r m a n c e ; ly h o uses echosounder monitor the to changes waterdepth; in o uses deadreckoning techniques check position-fixes; to

thrs of sources informatron: is particularly posrtion-fixes independent using o cross-checks are or position-fixing such systems, asGPS Loran-C, usedasthe whenelectronic important position the ship; of primary the means fixing of in position-fixing i.e. methods, landmarks electronic navigation to support aids o uses visual in openwaters; navigation areas celestial and coastal chart electronic including navigational equipment, on overreliant automated o doesnot become information; navigational of visual use failing makeproper to rhereby sysTems, position. the to ship o plotshistorical trackforward identify projected/anticipated position-fixing systems from electronic 3.3.'1.3 Plottingpositions position-fixing positions fromelectronic whentakinggeographical should exercised be Care (see 3). section 4.9'3 ontocharts these like and plotting systems GPS i b T h eO O Ws h o u l d e a r n m i n dt h a t : position-fixing WGSB4) usedby the electronic fromthe datum(usually o if the chartdatumdiffers theyareplotted before co-ordinates to to system, datumshiftwill have be applied the position a for datumshiftdoesexist a lt be on the chart. should notedthat,wherean appreciable providing datumshift positions" note latitude longitude and particular chart, "satellite-derived a v a l u ew i l la p p e ao n t h e c h a r t ; s r under areas: may dataisveryold,accuracy be poorin certain source wherethe survey o on charts using on not totally positron-fixing the in particular OOWshould rely circumstances these navigational and radar increase useof visual the wherepossible, systems should, and electronic off safedistances the land. to techniques maintain

waters 3.3.2 Navigationin coastalor restricted

planntng coastal in 2.5 on with be This section should readin conjunction section - Notes passage (See 86.) checklist waters. alsobridge or restricted on scale charts large out be should carried on the mostsuitable rule,navigation As a general navigation All intervals. relevant be of board, andthe position the shipshould f ixedat frequent positionand radar Visual theyareused. identified the OOWbefore by marks should positively be possible whenever be should used techniques fixingand monitoring s s n sg t b I n c o a s t a l w a t e t h e O O Ws h o u l d e a w a r e h a ts h i p s ' r o u t e i n c h e m e(s e e e c t i o 2 . 8 ) a n d rs, (see stations andvesseltraffic radio reports be madeto coast to requiring systems shipreporting m s e c t i o n2 . 9a n d2 . 1 0 ) a ye x i s t . s is also characteristrcs and conditions manoeuvring stability draught, of Knowledge the ship's on effect the squatmayhavea critical water, shallow As important. the shipenters to varies proportion in effect in Squat an of manoeuvrabilitythe shipand cause increase draught. is On reduce speed reduced. boardinformation as andwill therefore speed the square the ship's of conditions. for loading characteristicsindividual squat be to should used confirm phase the passage of waters the teamfullyunderstanding coastal Theimportance allthe bridge of ca t o p l a n a sw e l la su n d e r s t a n d itn g i ri n d i v i d u r o l e s n dt h o s e f t h e i rc o l l e a g u e s ,n n o b e , he al a stressed stronolv. too

z{f} ";

3.3.3 Navigation ith a pilot on board w

This section should readin conjunction section - Passage be with planning pilotage, 2.7 and and with reference section - Maritime to 6 oilotaoe. Responsibilities O n c e h e p i l o th a se m b a r k ea n dh a sa r r i v e o n t h e b r i d g et,h e p i l o t i l l . l o i t h e b r i d g ee a m T h e t d d w n t . pilothasa specialised knowledge navigation local of in pilotage waters. Depending local on laws, the master maydelegate conduct the shipto the pilot,who directs navigation the the of the of shipin close co-operation the master with and/or is important the responsibilities the that of the pilotandthe master agreed clearly are and understood that the pilotcanbe integrated so e a s i l iy t ot h e n o r m ab r i d g e a n a g e m e tn t a ma n dt h a ta n yp o t e n t i a l c o n f liisa v o i d e d . h o u l d n l m e ct S conflict arise, bothparties have responsibilityresolve in a professional a to this manner with the priority safety navigation the vessel. the conduct the vessel deleqated overriding of of of lf of is from the master the pilot,thisshould formalised recorded. to be and Thepresence a pilotdoesnot relreve master the OOWof theirduties of the or and obligations for the safety the ship.Bothshould prepared exercise rightnot to proceed a point of be to their to wherethe shipwouldnot be ableto manoeuvre wouldbe in anvdanqer. or Pilotembarkation/disembarkation Forinformation pilotboarding on arrangements, to annex refer A5. Master/pilotinformationexchange boarding(seebridgechecklist on 84) Theprelrminary pilotage passage prepared advance the shipshould discussed plan in by be and agreed with the pilotimmediately boarding. after There should sufficient be timeandsearoom to allowthisto happen safely. Wherelackof timeor searoom doesnot allowthe planto be discussed the bareessentials fully, should covered be immediately the restof the discussion assoonas it issafeto do so, and held On a longpilotage passage, maybe appropriate review it to and update planin stages. the Monitoringthe pilotage Thesafeprogress the shipas planned of should monitored be closely alltimes. at This also will include trackmonitoring regular and fixingof the position the ship,particularly each of after course alteration, monitoring and underkeel clearance. Verbal orders fromthe pilotalsoneedto be checked confirm to that theyhavebeencarried out correctly. will include This monitoring boththe rudder angle and rpm indicators when helmand engine orders given. are It is recommended communication that between pilotandthe bridge the teamis conducted the in E n g l i slh n g u a go r a l a n g u a gc o m m o no a l lr e l e v a n te r s o n n ( s e e e c t i o n . 2 . 1 1 ) . a e e p el s t 1 lf the master leaves bridge, OOWshould the the always seek clarifrcation the pilotwhen in from anydoubtasto the pilotsactions intentions. a satisfactory or lf explanatronnot given, OOW s the should notify master the immediately, takingwhatever is action necessary before master the arrives. Whenever thereisanydisagreement decisions the pilot, cause concern with of the of s h o u l d l w a y b e m a d e l e a t o t h e p i l o ta n da n e x p l a n a t i o n u g h t a s c r so TheOOWshould bearin mindthat,duringpilotage, shipwill needto be properly the secured for sea.Excessive of decklighting nightmaycause use at visibility interference.

88) 3.3.4 At anchor(seebridge checklist

circle swinging be should madeandthe ship's dropposition a on anchoring, fix on the anchor for be should selected and tn of uponthe length cable use.Landmarks transits based ascertained, light and appropriate and shape at of the of ease monitoring position the shipas it lies anchor, regulattons' and with in exhibited accordance the CoLREGS anylocal be should signals that the ship to on a maintain check the shipsposition monitor the Whileat anchor, oOW should ship. to or doesnot dragitsanchor movetoo close anyotheranchored if particularly madeperiodically' rounds and mustbe maintained shipinspection look-out A proper or by pirates armedrobbers' a whichmightpresent rlskof attack In the shiprsanchored waters or or her if immediatelythe shipdrags anchor, if seaconditions be should notified Themaster deteriorate. visibility


3 . 4 . 1 U s eo f t h e e n g i n e s
to not hesitate usethe engines the of the ln ordernot to jeopardise safety the ship, oow should so if on speed passage the situation requires' to change to be should given the speed to changes engine of notice intended possible, timely Whenever of control the direct of the mainengines, control is room.lf the shrp titteowith bridge engine fromthe bridge. will be possible enqines 3.4."1.1 SafesPeed at safespeedln restricted at ships with In compliance the COLREGS, should alltimesproceed a of distance the to speed reduce stopping in a mayrequire reduction service sate visibrlrty, speed speed speeds proceed moderate at to required are Whennearice,ships specifically the shrp. to wherethe shipis unable alter rn a to required avoid collision circumstances may changes be rse. cou by caused washandwake, the assess rrsk ships craftandfastconventional should Highspeed water. in shallow partrcularlY Controland differentenginetypes fromthe with theiroperation be the effectively, OOWshould familiar the Tocontrol mainengines of alsobe aware Theoow should mechanism. of as brrdge, wellasthe operatron the propeller of the ships that and appreciate the typeand configuration mayhave the anylimrtations system through dresel diesel, Dtrect-drive speed. whenchanging couldhaveimplrcations engines to quickresponses all engines haverelatively and turbo-electric gasturbine geirbox/clutch, responsive' areless turbines Geared are provided engines on stand-by. the change,

; qsl.i

3.4.2 Steeringcontrol
Steering control the shipwill comprise of manual probably steering, supplemented an by pilot(autopilot) othertrackcontrol automatic or system. In areas hightraffic of density, conditions restricted in of visibility in all otherpotentially and hazardous situations,helmsman a should available the bridge, be on ready alltimes takeover at to steering control immediately. Whensteering shipunder the autopilot, is highly it dangerous allowa situation develop a to to to pointwherethe OOWiswithoutassistance hasto break continuity the look-out and the of in orderto takeemergency action and engage manual steering Changing between automatic manual and steering should always madein goodtime under be the supervision the OOW Manual of steering should tested be onceperwatchandafterprolonged (see useof the autopilot annex A7). 3.4.2.'l Useof overridecontrols Manual steering override controls be usedon those can occasions whenthe autopilot engaged is andthe OOWneeds takeimmediate direct to and control the steering. of Override controls typically have nonfollow-up a typeof operation arelikely differ romthe and to f mainsteering position control where follow-up control usual. is TheOOWneeds be familiar to with the operation the steering of control systems the bridge, on as wellasthe method control the emergency of at position. steering Manoeuvringdata Shipsmanoeuvring rscontained the Pilot data (see on CardandWheelhouse Poster annexes A3 andA4).Some ships alsohavea manoeuvring booklet. OOWneeds be familiar The to with this data. It is important onlyto record the Pilot not on Cardthe shipsdraught, also but anypermanent or temporary idiosyncrasies couldaffect manoeuvrabilitythe ship. shipmay, ship that the of A for example, have tendency steer portat full speed, steer starboard slowspeed. a to to but to at

3.5.1 General
T h ef o l l o w i n g a s i c r i n c i p l e s p l y o a l lc o m m u n i c a t i c a r r i e o u t b y r a d i o : p b ap t on d priority o absolute should given distress, be to urgency safety and communications; o interference otherradiousers with should avoided; be o frequencies purpose. should used theircorrect be for The ITUpublrcation Manualfor Useby the Maitrme Mobileand MaritimeMobile-Satellite Services contains relevant extracts fromthe ITURadio Regulations, setting the correct procedures be out to followed.


3.5.2 Safetywatchkeepingon GMDSS ships

TheOOWshould (GOC). ships normally in possession a General be of Operator's Certificate For operating (ROC) sufficient. OOW onlyin GMDSS AreaA1, a Restricted Operator's Certificate is The will be responsible ensuring for with compliance the radio watchkeeping requirements SOLAS, of the ITURadio Regulations anylocal and watchkeeping rules. 3.5.2."1 VHFwatchkeeping T h eV H F a t c h k e e p i na n g es2 0 t o 3 0 n a u t i c a l i l e sd e p e n d i nu p o na n t e n n a e i g h tA l l s h i p s w rg i m , g h . m u s tm a i n t a ra w a t c ho n : n 5 ( o D S C h a n n e l0 ( 1 5 6 . 5 2 M H z ) D i g i t a l e l e c t i v e l l i n g ) ; C 7 S Ca (Distress, o Channel (156.8MHz) 16 when practicable safety andcalling); 0 n o C h a n n e1 3 ( 1 5 6 . 6 5 M H z ) w h e n r a c t i c a b(lle t e r - s h i p ) . p l MF (300-3000 kHz)watchkeeping (MF)broadcasts typically Medium frequency will have R/Trange between a of 150and 250 nautical miles dayand a DSCrange 600 to 700 nautical by of miles. Reception range be will greater night.Ships at mustkeepa continuous watchon o the NAVTEX frequency kHz,when in an area 5'lB wherethe service provided; is o the DSC frequency 2187 kHz. .5 HF (3000kHz - 30 MHz) watchkeeping (HF) Highfrequency broadcasts an unlimited have range. Ships fittedwith HFmustkeepa continuous watchon: o the DSCdistress frequency 8414.5kH4 o at least oneof the DSC requencies .5, 6312,12577 16804.5 f 4207 kHz,asappropriate the to , n t i m eo f d a ya n dt h e p o s i t i oo f t h e s h i p . Satellitewatchkeeping (SES) Ships fittedwith a shipearthstation mustkeepa continuous watchon the satellite position appropriate the ship's to (except polar Therange satellite of broadcastsunlimited is in regtons). Maritimesafetyinformation (MSl) defined navigational meteorological Maritime safety information is as and warnings, meteorological forecasts otherurgent and related safety messages broadcast ships. to A continuous watchshould keptat seaat alltimesby all ships. NAVTEX MSI be The receiver meets thisrequirement whilethe shipiswithina NAVTEX coverage Beyond area. suchcoverage, watchkeeping should undertaken be using appropriate HFor satellite the MF, frequencies on whichMSIis broadcast.

3.5.3 Logkeeping
A radiolog mustbe maintained up connected with contarning to daterecords all incidents of radiocommunications appear be of importance the safety lifeat sea. particular, ln the that to to of f o l l o w i n g r en o r m a l lry q u i r e d : e a relating distress, to and traffic, o a summary communications of urgency safety radio incidents; o a reference important to service o the position the shipat least of onceperday. Thelog should the of with whichthe shipcommunicates or contain identities otherstations attempts communicate, records anydifficulties to and of experienced owingto congestion, interference, disturbances. atmospheric noise ionospheric or Incrdents involving language unnecessary or should recorded with the obscene transmissions be particularly identities the stations if relevant VHFChannel 16. of concerned, known Thisis to

3 . 5 . 4 Testingof equipmentand false alerts

Radio equipment should tested the intervals be at stated the manufacturer in accordance by and with flagstate be requirements. care Great should takento avoid transmission false the of alerts w h e nt e s t i n g q u i p m e n t . e Regular testing radio of equipment demonstrate will continued compliance the requirements with (Functional requirements). of Regulationof SOLAS 4 Chapter lV Cancellation falsealerts of lf a distress is inadvertently alert by VHF, or HFDSC: N/F transmitted either o the equipment mustbe reset immediately; o a sa p p r o p r i a tte ,e e q u i p m e n th o u l d e : h s b o s e tt o V H F h a n n e16 , o r C l o tunedfor R/Ton MF 2182 kHz,or frequency eachbandin whichthe false o tunedfor R/T the HFdistress safety and in alert on wastransmitted; o a broadcast mustbe transmrtted, message "all stations" to cancelling false the alert. (SES), appropriate lf a distress is inadvertently alert transmitted a shipearthstation by rescue the (RCC)should notified that the alertiscancelled sending distress co-ordination centre be by a (CES)through priority message way of the same by coast earthstation whichthe false distress alertwassent. lf a distress is inadvertently by alert transmitted an EPIRB, appropriate should the RCC be contacted through shore station andthe distress should cancelled alert be a


pollution the of and of effects operational accidental TheOOWshould aware the serious be of L s O b e f a m i l i aw i t h M A R P Oa n dt h e s h i p ' S h i p b o a r di lP o l l u t i o n r m a r n ee n v r r o n m ea n ds h o u l d nt Plan as Pollution Emergency (SMPEP) appropriate. Marine Emergency (SOPEP) Shipboard Plan or plan (An SMPEP be a combined for emergency andthat for document the oil pollution can noxious liquid substances.)

3.6.1 Reportingobligations
ship involving another authorities whenan incident makea report the relevant to All ships should on isobserved an incident theirown shipinvolves: or the liquid substances above permitted of o a discharge probable discharge oil or of noxious or life; the of for reason, including securing safety the shipor saving or level whatever form,including thosein substances packaged in of o a discharge probable discharge harmful or portable vehicles barges. and containers, tanks, the failure a breakdown affects safety that damage, or is if A report alsorequired the shipsuffers probable into in discharge the sea or and of the shipor impairs safenavigation, results a discharge if required therehasonly are lt be of a harmful substance.should notedthat reports not normally or or of beena breakdown failure machinery equipment 3.6.'1.1 Reportingpoints or o h e T h eS O P E P / S M s h o u l dn c l u d a sa n a p p e n d itx e l i s to f a g e n c i e s o f f i c i a l sf a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s PEP i be that should contacted. point, the reporting in a or In the absence a local of agency if thereisanydelay contacting listed should be reporting station RCC or ship nearest radiostation, designated movement coastal rneans. available contacted the fastest by


in C contained Part of this with checklists TheOOWshould fullyconversant the emergency be know and Safety Management System should withinthe shipoperator's Guide similar or checklrsts situations. to what initial action takein response emergency to s e s e ch s A c o l l i s i o(n e e m e r g e n c y e c k l i s t2 ) , g r o u n d i n(g e e m e r g e n c y e c k l i Ct3 )o r a m a n ch C a (see immediate that of checklist areexamples situations will require C4) overboard emergency on the arrives the bridge. action fromthe OOWbefore master drills out. exercises be carried These to drills and mustering SOLAS requires emergency trarning, station emergency control the bridge the designated is where will involve OOWon thoseships the to the emergency alarm signals, actions be with the general TheOOWshould fullyconversant be py a n s . l s a g an t a k e n n h e a r i n o r i n s t i g a t i n g a l a r m n dt h e s h i p ' e m e r g e n c o

3,7.'l General

An illustrated tabledescribing ship's savrng the life appliances should kepton the bridge. be Shrps or persons distress in prescribed should the use signals whencommunicating life-saving with stations, maritime rescue units, N,4RCCs aircraft and engaged search rescue in and operations

3.7.2 Reporting
TheOOWshould aware be that SOLAS Chapter Regulation provides V 32 details the obligation of to broadcast danger messages ships the area to in andthe nearest coast station with notification o f c o n d i t i o n h a ti n c l u d e : ts o dangerous ice; o a dangerous derelict anyotherdirect or danger navigation; to o a tropical storm; o sub-freezing temperatures air associated galeforcewindscausing with severe accretion ice on perstructu su res; o windsof force10 or above the Beaufort on scale whichno stormwarnino oeen for nas received. T h es a f e t s i g n as h o u l d e u s e d h e na n n o u n c i n g n g e m e s s a g es e e e c t i o 4 . 1 2 . 3 . 3 ) . y l (s s b w da r n

(seeemergencychecklist 3.7.3 Search and rescue C7)

TheOOWshould aware be that SOLAS Chapter Regulation includes V of searrh 33 details shins' (SAR) and rescue obligations. On receivingsignalfrom source a any that persons in distress sea, are at ships that arein a position to provide assistance boundto proceed are with all speed theirassistance. canalsobe to Ships requisitioned provide to assistance During SAR operations, ship-to-ship communication should by VHFor MF.Satellite be channels should keptfreefor communicatrons rescue be with co-ordination centres. Guidance search rescue on and activity be foundin the IAMSAR can published lMO. Manual by

3.7.4 Helicopteroperations
TheOOWof a shipthat is likely be engaged the transfer personnel stores helicopter in to of or by shouldbecome familiar with the ICSGuideto Heltcopter/Ship Operations.

3.7.5 Piracy
TheOOWof a shipthat is likely operate waters to in that maypresent riskof attack pirates a by or armedrobbers should familiar be with the latest edition the ICS/lSF publicatron of Pirates and Armed Robbers:Guidelines Prevention Mastersand ShipSecuiltvOfficers. on for




familiar with allthe officers completely are and that It is important the master the watchkeeping on and publications board. charts equipment, navigational communications and manuals of themselves the contents operating with should acquaint Bridge watchkeeping icers off to and particularly regard the setting of controls the procedures be up to with for equipment, failure. followed the event equipment in of (ECDIS ECS) fitted, ull useis made f are systems and navigation It rsimportant that,whenelectronic trackerror of the waypoint and otheralarms, determination cross including of theircapabilities to barriers the interaction the OOWand provide with use depthof water. Such will stimulate and track. vessel departing from its planned (see foundto out. Equipment 3.2.5)should carried be Periodic checks the equipment section on in and recorded the to of brought the attention the master should be have operational defects (see ,A3). Card annex logbook andon the Pilot to should carried according instructions be out preventive of Regular maintenance all equipment procedures manual and manufacturers'manuals. maintenance setout in the shipboard on voyage should available be for appropriate the intended A full setof charts and publications board and keotuo to date.


radars, be aware and between andS-band X with the differences TheOOWshould familrar be of bandfor the detection in of radar capable operating the 9 GHzfrequency is that the X-band (SARf) devices. search rescue and transponder displays unit an installation includes interswitching to allowradar that fittedwith a radar On ships arrangements. with interswitching be the to change transceivers, OOWshould familiar

4.2.1 Good radar practice

be and should at andfullyoperational alltimes is It is recommended a radar keptrunning that as to connected the VDRor S-VDR appropriate. bearin mindthe following: radar, OOWshould Whenusing the monitor, regularly:performance a needs be checked to of o the quality performance the radar of for if f itted, should used thispurpose; be of interpretationspotential to heading marker giverise misleading can o an incorrectly aligned periodically against boththe needs checking marker alignment heading collision situations: h e a d i n a n dt h ef o r ea n da f t l i n eo f t h e s h i p ; g compass by may suchascontainers not be detected the objects o small vessels, and otherfloating ice radar; with care; should used be o videoprocessing techniques


o echoes maybe obscured seaor rainclutter: careful of clutter by the use controls assist; will o masts otherstructural or features cause may shadow blindsectors the 6li<nl:'tho oo\A/ or on should aware these be of sectors. Clearweather practice Operating radar seain clear the at weather provide opportunity watchkeepers will an for to practise theirradar collision avoidance navigation and for skrlls; example, radar observations and practice parallel target vectors be checked can visually. Regular of indexing in techniques clear provide weather andsafewaters should watchkeepers improved with in ability thisform of track monrtorrng, Range cales s Thechoice range of scales depend will uponfactors suchastraffic density, speed own shipand of how oftenthe radar beingobserved. is particularly targets, generally Detection targets, of small is better shortranges. at However, the if plotting, is not advisable usea scale radar to be used is for it to that istoo short. Advance warning approaching of vessels landisan important and factorin deciding upona safe speed, and requires monitoring longer the range of scales.

4 . 2 . 2 R a d a ra n d c o l l i s i o n v o i d a n c e a Accuracy own ship speedand headinginputs of plotting, In radar measurement the course, of speed andaspect a targetis used determine of to pointof approach thattargetandto indicate the closest of whether not thereis a riskof or collision. Theaccuracy the targetplotwill depend of uponan accurate inputof own ship's course and speed during plotting interval; yawing the a shipor inaccurate speed inputs and heading intothe radar reduce accuracy calculated will the of target vectors. Plotinaccuracies be mostapparent head-on will in situations maymakea target and appear be to passing clear when in fact it is crossing ahead nearly or ahead. The plotting period A single observation the range giveanyindication target of and bearing a targetcannot of of course speed. and period, Multiple observations required, the longer plotting are and the the greater be the accuracy. wrll Accuracy the plotwill however lostif either in be own shipor the targetchanges course speed or period. change the course speed the targetmaynot be immediately during plotting the A in or of detected. Theestimation the course speed the targetand riskof collision onlyvalidup to the of and of is timeof the lastobservation. situation The musttherefore keotcloselv be underreview. Changing target bearing It should be assumed not that,because relative the bearing a target changing, is of thereisno risk of collision. alteration course An of and/or speed own shipmayalter relative of the bearing ano,ar quarters, of collision exist (see close rrsk with a changing can even compass bearing section




4 . 2 . 3 R a d a ra n d n a v i g a t i o n
Whenusing radar position-f and monitoring, OOWshould ixing for the check: performance the radar; o the overall of o the identity the fixedobjects being observed; of o gyroerrorand accuracy the heading alignment; line of (VRM), (EBL) fixedrange o accuracy the variable electronic lines and of range markers bearing r in g s ; o that the parallel index lines correctly are set. Parallelindexing progress relation the Parallel index when monitoring ship's in to techniques be useful can the p d s s d gp r a n . e

Parallel indexing but of doesnot fix the shipsposition, provides method the radar verifying a on that the shipis maintainingsafecourse pass fixedobject, a to a suchasa headland, the desired at passing position replace needto fix the ship's distance Parallel indexing doesnot therefore the on the chartat regular intervals. Thetechnique requires index an lineto be drawnto pass through radar the echoof a fixedobject, passing tangential a VRMsetto a range to to distance. index will lineup The line equal the desired parallel the ground to trackthat the shipwill needto followto maintain safepassing a distance. motionand ground Parallel indexing be used both relative on stabilised motionmodes true of can radar operation. With a relative motion display, echoof a fixedobject movein a direction the will move andat a speed whichisthe reciprocalof shipsground own track, andthe echoshould alongthe index line. a ground On stabilised motiondisplay, echowill remain true the stationary andthe edgeof the VRMshould movealongthe index lineasthe shippasses echo. the Electronicmapping prcture, Electronic mapping for facilities commonly are available displaying the radar on the passage and local plan areamaps. Mapscanbe drawnto include suchas buoys, limits, zones chartfeatures channel separation and lines anchorages using number different a of and symbols. Once complete, mapcanbe stored the i n t h er a d a r plan Any mapor passage needs be geographically to referenced that it will appear the radar so on position. correctly orientated positioned relative the ship's to and Anyerrors the shipsposition in usedby the radar, errors the accuracy the maps poorradar in of or (see problems section ground stabilisation cause mapinterpretation could pictures Mapselectronically overlaid radar on should always used be with caution.

plotting devices 4.2.4 Electronic

plotting is On larger ships, least at oneof the radars carried likely have to automatic radar aid (ARPA) functions. maybe fittedwrth either Radars smaller on ships automatic tracking (ATA) aid or plotting (EPA) functions. electronic aid

ATAuses ARPA hardware with limited functionality: but thereareno trialmanoeuvre, targetpast position guard or zonefeatures, manual acquisition limited 10 targets. offers and is to EPA basic plotting plotter. electronic functions areasgoodasa reflectron that In comparison standard with radar, ARPA ATAoffera number automated and of collision avoidance features. However, watchkeepers should aware the dangers beingoverreliant be of of on these devices must: and o understand types errors the of that arepossible recognise operational and warnings the that a p p e ao n t h e d i s p l a y ; r o understand limitations the devices; the of (CPA)with precision the digital pointof approach o treatthe apparent of display the closest of caution; o r e g u l a r tl e s tt h e d e v i c eu s i n g h e b u i l t - i n p e r a t r o n a l t ea c i l i t i e s . y o s t f st Headingand speedinputs Correct reliable and inputs into bridge speed and heading including ARPA ATAare equrpment or vitalif information to be processed is Inputderived correctly from GPS equipment should be monitored periodically and cross-checked independently with derived datato verify continued its accu racy. (water Speed and heading inputs needto be seastabilised tracked) provide ARPA ATA to the or (bottom with speed and course through water. the Theuseof these devices a ground in stabilised tracked) modefor assessing of collision risk couldbe particularly hazardous seaareas in that experience significant streams currents. tidal and Automatictargetacquisition Features asguard such zones andtarget acquisition footprints commonly for are used the automatic acquisition ARPA of targets. Such features with caution, should always used be especially seaareas in whereradar inconspicuous targets be expected, can

4.3 ArS
4 . 3 . 1 A I So v e r v i e w
AISisa maritime mobile bandVHFbroadcast system that cansendbothdynamic static and ship i n f o r m a t i os u c h s M M S Ic a l l i g n p o s i t i o n ,o u r s e n ds p e e dt,o o t h e r I St r a n s p o n d e rn d n, a , s , c A a as years base stations. Recent have seen functionality AIS expand include sending a variety to the of of additional information, as ETA, such waypornts, from navigational suchas buoys data aids and lighthouses, of turn,timestamp, passenger rate shiptype,typeof cargo, draught, dimensions,
^l^ l u e L d i l 5 d^r-u +^.,+

tex[ il re55dqeS.

All ships 300 gross of engaged international tonnage and upwards voyages, cargo on and ships of 500 gross tonnage not and upwards engaged international on voyages, passenger and ships irrespectivesize of shall fittedwith AlS,as required IMO be by


4.3.2 AIS operation

correctly. of It isvitalthat the AISunit is installed operated and Unless is done,the integrity the this datasuchasshipdimensions mustbe checked Basic broadcast canbecome data unreliable. static datasuchasspeed for accuracy, mustthe correct inputof dynamic etc. as quality intodisrepute, alsolowers but the Poor the broadcast not onlybrings AISconcept data reduce potential the mariner's andcansignificantly confidence observed of otherships in data gains be hadfromthisequipment. is particularly as This relevant AISisto be considered an aid if to contribution canmaketowards it to collision avoidance making of the potential by use or visibility. navigational in density reduced safety areas hightraffic of and is equipment that AIS,in common with the useof helmcontrols radar, an itemof bridge should at the disposal the OOW.lvlasters encouraged ensure are to thatwatchkeeping be of its officers f ullyfamiliar are with the useof thisequipment that theymonitor performance and partof theirnormal watchkeeping duties. and,if necessary, anyoperational make adjustments as b t I n c o m i nA I Sd a t as h o u l d e u s e d i t h c a u t i o nI .n a d d i t i o n ,c c a s i o nc h e c ks h o u l d e m a d e o g w o al b by own shipis accurate. ensure that course speed and datatransmitted


4.4.1 VDRand S-VDR overview
(VDR) existing for and VDRand S-VDR equipment beenmandated carriage both new ships has on (S-VDR) at carried aircraft, on ships according schedules to agreed lMO.Similar the blackboxes to procedures instructions the in VDRequipment accident investigatorsreview to and enables the moments before incident helps identify cause anyaccident. to of an and provides vessel and Additionally, S-VDR the operator ownerwith information canenhance that with record shipoperation management, provides owner/operator a comprehensive and and the of events during givenperiod. a

4.4.2 VDRrequirements
from Performance standards VDRs for wereadopted IMO in 1997with phased by implementation for from 2002.Subsequent performance require implementation 2006. IMO standards S-VDR records preselected items relating status VDRshould maintain sequential of data to continuously a n do u t p u t f t h e s h i p ' e q u i p m e n tn dc o m m a n d n dc o n t r oo f t h es h i p A s a m i n i m u m , e a a l . th o s parameters be recorded: and time,position, radar following must date speed, heading, data,echo door sounder data,mandatory alarms, rudder data,telegraph data,hullopening watertight and also status, wellaswind dataand accelerations hullstresses. and S-VDR as and VDR equipment r e c o r da l l V H F o m m u n i c a t i o n sda l l v e r b a lo m m u n i c a t i i n t h ew h e e l h o u s e . s c on c an that TheVDRshould installed a protective in capsule is brightly coloured fittedwith an and be lt be automatic normal in operation. appropriate device aid location. should entirely to


4.4.3 S-VDRrequirements
An S-VDR not required store samelevel detailed is to the of dataasa standard VDR, but ' nonetheless should store, a secure retrievable in and format, information concerning position, the physical movement, status, command control a shipoverthe period and of leading to and up followingnincident. a

4.4.4 Preserving records

In somedesigns VDRand S-VDR, speedy of the intervention the master otherperson of or on boardis needed following incident ensure datais saved. an to the With these models, thereis no if manual intervention, datawill be overwritten the within12 hours and so will not be available to the accident investigator. therefore lt is essentialfor masters, watchkeeping officers accident and inspectors be aware the features particular to of of systems fittedto ships.


4.5.'l Testingof steeringgear
TheOOWshould ensufe that the SOLAS requirements the operation testing the for and of gearareobserved annex (see steering A7).

4 , 5 . 2 Steering control
p T h e s e a r a g r a p h h o u l d e r e a d n c o n j u n c t i o ni t hs e c t i o 3 . 4 . 2 o ft h i sG u i d e ss b i w n Steering control the shipwill comprise of manual probably steering, supplemented an by pilot(autopilot)or automatic othertrackcontrolsystem. eachsteering position, At thereshould be a gyrorepeater rudder and angleindicator. emergency An position, back-up steering usually the in gearf lat,isalsorequired. steering lf an autopilot fitted, steering is a modeselector switch changing for between automatic and manual steering, a manual and override control allowthe OOWto gaininstant to manual control of the steering, be required. will Theautopilot(heading/trackcontroller) Theroleof the autopilot to steer shipautomatically. autopilot either operated is the The can be independently in an integrated or, bridge, controlled a navigation by system. Whenoperated an independent as system, course steer needto be setmanually the the to will on autopilot the autopilot steer and will that course untila new course enrereo ts Whenlinked an to tntegrated system, autopilot be ableto receive the (XTE) will cross trackerror information and track-keep automatical ly. (if Automatictrack-keeping fitted) Track-keeping control allows shipto maintain planned the its track, whereas course-keeping only ensures the shipis pointing the rightdirection. that in Windand currents for example, can, move t h e s h i p i d e w a y s do f f i t st r a c k h i l e h e s h i p s e a d i n r e m a i nu n c h a n g e d . s an w t h g s


Fora shipto operate automatic system, autopilot be and an track-keeping the should adaptive pre-set or ableto perform between tracklegs, using either turn radius rateof turnsautomatically turn values. onlyafterthe OOWhasacknowledged wheel the Turns commenced a wheeloverposition are at overposition alarm that the and issatisfied it issafeto execute turn. the and revert immediately to lf a malfunction whentrack-keeping, system should alarm occurs course-keeping mode. is continue steer to lf the malfunction whilethe autopilot on a track, autopilot the should occurs is occurs, lf a the pre-set course that track. the autopilot performing turnwhenthe malfunction of the autopilot turnvalue andtakeup the course the of should complete turn at the pre-set the nexttrack. performing functions itsalarm An autopilot outputs should always automatic track-keeping and be monitored closely. Theability the autopilot followclosely planned a uponthe accuracy the of of to trackwill depend (see XTEinformation to the autopilot fromthe navigation 4.10.3). sent system section It should recognised in automatic heading be that, track-keeping mode, therecanbe frequent in varying changes cangivemisleading that information end-to-end situations, wellassupplying as heading datainputs ARPA equipment. to

4.5.3 Off-course alarm

As partof the steering facility warnthe control system, thereshould an off-course be alarm to from OOWwhenthe shipdeviates excessively itscourse. Examples appropriate of devices include: o a magnetic from off-course alarmindependent otherbridge equipment inputs; and gyrocompass o a second with a heading comparison connected bothcompasses. unit to Thealarm should in useat alltimes whenthe autopilot in operation. is be Theuseof the off-course alarmdoesnot relieve OOWfromfrequently the checking course the that is beingsteered. its Non-activationthe off-course will not always meanthat the shipis maintaining of alarm planned Theshipmaybe moved itstrackby wind and currents thoughthe heading track. off even r e m a r nu n c h a n g e d . s


4.6.'l Magneticcompass
Themagnetic is fittedabove bridge the centreline a periscope, the with so compass generally on position. that the compass readable is fromthe helmsman's

Where magnetic the compass needed provide rs to heading outputs otherbridge to systems, a (TMC) fitted.TMCoutputs transmitting magnetic compass is should corrected compass be for errorandthe TMCshould tested be oncea week,in clear visibility. A compass deviation should maintained posted the bridge. compass need card be and on The wjll to be swungat intervals during shipslife,and particularly major the after steel conversion work to the ship.Caution should observed be when usrng magnetrc the compass snips on that carry magnetic cargoes suchas ironand steel. Compass distances specified all electrical safe are on bridge equipment provide minimum and the distances the magnetic from compass equipment be installed. that can

4.6.2 Gyrocompass
It is recommended the gyrocompass that should run continuously. be Should gyrocompass a stop for anyreason, should restarted subsequentlv it be and checked before to ensure has use it "settled" and is reading correctly. Speed and latitude corrections to be applied the gyrocompass. need to Where gyrohasno the direct speed or position log input,manual corrections have be madeas required. will to Thegyrowill support number repeaters, a of including repeater the emergency a at steering position. Gyrorepeaters the bridge on should checked be against maingyroat least the oncea watchand afterexcessive manoeuvring. Otherrepeaters should checked be frequently.

4.6.3 Compass errors

As a safeguard against gyroand gyrorepeaters the wandering, frequent checks should made be between magnetic gyrocompasses. the and Magnetic gyrocompass and errors should checked recorded be and eachwatch, wherepossible, u s i n g i t h e a z i m u t h r t r a n s ib e a r i n g s . e r o t A record magnetic gyrocompass of and courses steer to and compass errors should maintained be a n d k e p ta v a i l a btl o t h e h e l m s m a n e

4.6.4 Rateof turn

Whenships manoeuvring, particularly ships are large wherethe distance between bow and the the pivotpointof the shipisconsiderable, of turn indication rate provides shiphandler the with feedback how quickly shipisturning. on the Rate turn measurementusedby automatrc of is trackkeeping systems perform to controlled turns.


Speed logs, depending upontheirtype,will provide either measurementsspeed of throuqh the wateror speed overthe ground.

4.7.1 Types speedmeasurement of

ln general for terms, speed through wateris used radar the overthe collision avoidance speed and ground used navigation. rs for Caution should exercisedspeed be if is for overthe ground used collision avoidance, differences arise the aspect a target can in as of and itsvector dueto strong cross tides. Speed madegoodcanalsobe measured ships on and represents speed the that the shiphasachieved a period time Speed madegoodcanbe measured over of fromthe chart position-fixes, is alsocalculated transmitted electronic position-fixing between and and systems. by

4.7.2 Directionof speedmeasurement

Doppler-type canbe either logs single-axis measure and speed the foreand aft direction dualin or axis and measure andaft and athwartship movement. fore with rateof turn Coupled measurement, logs dual-axis arealsoableto calculate speed the anddirection movement the of of
b O w a n d 5 [ a r n F l o r t r n - m : n n o t i r l O g Sp r O v i d eS i n g l e - a x i S e a S U r e m e n tO n l y . m

4.7.3 Recording distancetravelled of

As wellas indicating ship's speed, logsrecord display and distance travelled. isgood navigation lt practice initialise log distance at the startof eachnew trackand record distances to the trip log in the logbook the endof each at watch.


Thenavigational sounder to echo should expected operate be downto depths at least of '1 '10 (approximately fathoms). 200 metres Theechosounder should always used be when making landfall keptswitched in coastal a and on waters. the echosounder fittedwith a shallow lf is wateralarm, alarmshould setto an the be appropriate depthto warnof approaching safe shallow water Care should takento check be that the units soundings the echosounder the same of on are as t h o s e s e d n t h e c h a r t n u s e W h e nc o m p a r i ne c h oa n dc h a r t o u n d i n ga l,l o w a n cm u s tb e u o i . g s s e madefor the draught the shipand anywaterstand tidaleffects. of or


position-fixing provide automatic continuous Electronic position systems an and for update ships fittedwith a suitable receiver using either terrestria a hyperbolic radionavigation system, suchas Loran or a global C, satellite system, suchas GPS.

positioning 4.9.1 Hyperbolic systems

positroning Theuseof hyoerbolrc systems seahasdeclined at Omega and Decca no longer are operational. However, Loran asa back-up the global C, to navigation satellite system, to be is retained the time beinq. for

Theuseof lattice charts showing hyperbolic of position alsodeclined, mostreceivers lines has and convert readings latitude longitude. the to and projects investigating viability enhanced Current research are the of Loran to fulfilthe C s\/sttrm tho cvpntof a GPS in requirement an effective for back-rn system failure. 4 . 9 . 1 . 1 L o r a nC Loran hasa basic C range approximately 1,200miles ground-wave of using signals, although extended range coverage possible is using skywaves. Corrections to be applied Loran signals takeintoaccount need to C to variations the in conductivity the earth surface pass. of s overwhichthe signals These knownasadditional are secondary factor(ASF) corrections. corrections needto be applied The may manually before plotting position the chart. the on Thedevelopment enhanced of Loran will seek provide C to adequate if back-up GPS unavailable is or degraded for GPS and correction data.

4.9.2 Globalnavigationsatellitesystem
(GNSS) a satellite A global navigation satellite system is system that provides ships fittedwith suitable receivers a means obtaining with position, of contrnuous worldwide timeand speed information. (GPS), TheGlobal Positioning System operated bythe United States, the Global and Navigation (GLONASS), Satellite System operated the Russian by Federation, currently are for available civilian u s eo n s h i p s . Othersystems suchas Galileo, European the satellite navigation system, alsounder are development. GPS nd DGPS a Since 200'1, artificial the degradation applied the United by States authorities GPS to transmissions (SA)has and knownasSelective Availability beenremoved. previous global The commercial '100 posttioning capability accuracy the orderof with of metres was improved thismeasure by to offeraccuracy 15-25 of metres the receiver at antenna. Differential (DGPS) GPS receivers apply corrections raw GPS to signals determined transmitted and by terrestrial monitoring stations. Differential signals be transmitted ships satellites can to via or positional using radiolinks. HF WithinDGPS coverage, accuracy the orderof 10 metres, of or better, the receiver at antenna possible. is Greater navigational accuracy that offered the above than by systems provided specialised is by equipment including based GPS equipment, is usedby those and positional who require increased f idelity.

4 . 9 . 3 Useof electronic position-fixingsystems

position-frxing Careshould takenwhen using be electronic systems. tho':ro ry5i19, Watchkeepers to understand capabilities limitations tho <'<tom< need the and sf a n dc o n t i n u a lm o n i t oa n dv a l i d a tte e i n f o r m a t i o n v e n . ly r gi h


ng e ft i W h e nu s i n g l e c t r o nnc v i g a t i o n a l u i p m e no r p o s i t i o n - f i x ia n d p a s s a gp l a n n i n gt, s h o u l d e ia eq with the haveat all times statutory a requirement comply to be remembered allvessels that may vessels deviate fromtheirintended COLREGS. Compliance the COLREGS require with to quarters electronic trackto avoid close a situation. Whenfollowing trackon an electronic navigation or chart, OOWshall, the any system paper of speed alteration, assess likely first the consequences before making course any alteration and/or quarters a to suchactions ensure that theydo not cause close situation develop. to position-fixing in systems integratedbridges Useof electronic systems, rntegrity quality the and Whenposition-fixing systems transmit datato othernavigation of the datatransmitted needs be safeguarded. to T e c h n i q u u s e d h o u l dn c l u d e : e s i pre-set quality o using limits monitor fix quality eachposition-fixing the system connected to to of the integrated bridge; o comparing positions identify reject roguepositions positions areclearly any that all to and or incorrect; (EP) positions the ship's position calculated o comparing wrth estimated using drrect electronic rnputs fromthe log andgyro; o checking status the datatransmitted ensuring onlyvaliddatamessages used and are the of that Routemonitoring Route are GPS features. entering By the storage cross and trackerror(XTE)monitoring common passage in the GPS wellasthe navigation plan provide integrated system, GPS an as the can ( h g b r i d g e y s t e ml B S ) w i ta n i n d e p e n d e r o u t e o n i t o r i nc a p a b i l i t y . s nt m (seesection3.3.1.3) Chartdatumsand accuracy position-fixing positions Electronic GPS referenced to systems, in particular receivers, and calculate with the the global datumWGSB4. maynot be the same the datumof the chartin use, This as result that the position when plotted maybe wrongin the context the chart. of positions" Where difference datumshiftis known,a "satellite-derived noteon the chart the or provides offset apply the position plotted. it the to to before is positions fromWGS84 the datumof the chart Manyreceivers facilities transform have to to internally, eliminating needto apply datumoffsets manually. is nevertheless lt so the recommended the receiver keptreferenced WGSB4 is to and position shiftvalues applied are that parameters in the receiver differ manually used may fromthose because transformation the parameters by the hydrographic that produced chart. used office the ^^ r (s T h en r e c i s i o n c h a r f e a t r r r e e o d a n o e r s ) ^ ' " i ^ - + i ^ ^ - - r - - " +i'so f t h e o r d e r f 0 . 3 m m of t o or or Manycoastal equivalent an accuracy 15 metres moreat scales 1:50,000 greater. to of of may when displaying dangers. charts of suchscales therefore not be as precise DGPS are and as TheOOWshould safety margin takeaccount anysuch to of therefore always allowa sensible d i s c r e p ae s . nc
LJ \L.\,. vurryLrJ, vll lloVl9Otlul lOl Ll lolL)


An integrated bridge system a combination systems is of whichareinterconnectedallowthe to centralised monitoring sensor of information control a number operations as and of of such passage execution, communications, machinery control, safety andsecurity. \

There no single is standard design ships IBS for and nor is IBS mandatory. Classification societies do offeroptionalclass (LR), notations ships; "NAV1"class for the from Lloyd's Register the "W1-OC" (DNV), "NAV-OC" from DetNorske class Veritas the class from Germanischer (GL)and Lloyd "OMBO"class (ABS)are from the American Bureau Shipping of examples class of notations IBS for arrangements periodic manbridge designed support to one operations. Factors whichwill determine extent whichIBS the to design allows certain bridge functions be to automated include design the bridge, typeof equipment isfittedandthe layout the of the that of t h a te q u i p m e n tn t h e b r i d g e . o

4.10.1Workstations, bridgedesignand layout

Centralised controland monitoring require workstation a design approach. the mainoperating At position the bridge (referred variously the workstation navigation/traffic on to as for surveillance and manoeuvring, navigation the workstation the conning position) OOWshould ableto or the be undertake hisprimary all duties unassisted efficiency safety. with and Thedesign should alsoallowtwo bridge teammembers work sideby sideunhindered. to Bridge design the layout the workstations, and of together with the equipment and instrumentationthose workstations, important parts IBS at are of design. There should proper be access and around bridge, goodworking into the a environment adequate and bridge visibility from allthe workstations. A detailed review the principles IBS of of design outside scope thisGuide, the design is the of but should ensure that the failure onesub-system not cause failure another that of does the of and anyfailure immediately is brought the attention the OOW. to of

4 . 1 0 . 2 I B Se q u i p m e n t
Topermit centralised monitoring control navigational and of functions the bridge, following on the systems be required: will Navigationmanagementsystem Thenavigation provides mechanism planning, management system the for executing and monitoring passage andwilltherefore plan provide linkbetween charts whichthe the the the on voyage beenplanned, position-fixing has the systems, log andgyroandthe autopilot. the An electronic chartdisplay system typically will function the navigation as management system withinan lBS, supported a dedicated by routeplanning terminal allowrouteplanning to activities to be undertaken whileon passage withoutinterfering the OOW. and with Alarm system TheIBS an alarm has system warnthe OOWif potentially to dangerous situations couldarise. - usually - willtransfer alarm Failure the OOWto acknowledge of alarms within30 seconds the to remote alarmunitsin cabins, offices messes callfor back-up and to assistance.

Themainnavigational needto be connected the alarm sensors to system, particular radar in the gyroandautopilot whichprovides provide traffic alarms, the which course-related alarms, the and no:r n^wer position-fixing position-related systems whichprovide If alarms. )lg tho <toorinn panels mayalsobe connected. distribution etc. lncluded the alarm in system should a watchsafety fitness be or alarm monitor alertness to the of '12 the OOW. interval An timerfor setting alarmintervals up to of minutes should partof the be system. be effective, is essentialthat watchalarmisfullyoperational that the OOW To it the and points, cannot disable for hisown convenience.number alarm it A of acknowledgement each with a pre-warning alarm givethe OOWnotice to that the alarmis aboutto be activated, be should available around bridge. with the failure the OOWto acknowledgenavigation As the of if a alarm, the fitness time interval expires, alarm an should sound awayfromthe bridge. C o n n i n g i s p l a y d position showinformation Thedisplay should available the conning be at to summaries the of important navigational and sensors usedon passage whiledocking. place monitor Thedisplay provides OOWwith a central also the to sensors compare and actual settings with thoseordered.

4 . 1 0 . 3I B Sa n d t h e a u t o m a t i o no f n a v i g a t i o n u n c t i o n s f
Theprocess planning passage of a through itsexecution monitoring progress the to and the of shipagainst planarebridge the operations canbe safely that automated longascertain as procedures disciplines followed: and are (see o the planneeds be thoroughly prepared charts to on section 2); o the details the plan, prepared or of and in particular waypoints, the needto be carefully on (see transferred the navigation to system section 2.3.4), o the position the shipneeds be safely of to calculated quality and monitored the navigation by (see system section 4.9); o if the position the shipis accurate reliable the passage hasbeensafely plan of and and entered, the XTE deviatrons off-track calculated the navigation as by system transmitted the and to autopilot be accurate, will allowthe autopilot control direction the ship will and to the of ( s e e e c t i o4 . 5 . 2 . 2 ) a u t o m a t i c aaln ds a f e l y s l y n

4.10.4 U s i n gI B S
guidance IBS Where fitted,clear should contained the shipboard on operations be in operational procedures manual. particular, ln advice whento commence whento suspend on and automatic provided. track-keeping should be Overreliance automatic on with the OOWpaying iittleattention visual systems, coupled too to navigational watchkeeping and techniques, be dangerous. can



4 . 1 1 . 1Carriage chartsand nauticalpublications of \
All ships nauticalcharts, Directions, of lists should carry adequate up to dateofficial and Sailing publications lights, notices mariners, tables and all othernautical necessary the intended for to tide voyage. An on board system recommended ensure chartand publication management is to that records arekeptof what charts and publications carried when theywerelastcorrected. are and

4 . 1 1 . 2Officialnauticalcharts
paper electronic, produced or on the authority a nautical or of, Official charts be either can by, national hydrographic office. paper needto be displayed an electronic Unlike charts, electronic charts on chartdisplay system. Official electronic nautical charts be in one of two formats: can ( e ia o E l e c t r o nn c v i g a t i o n a l a r t sE N C ) a ro f f i c i a l v e c tn a u t r c a l a r t s . h e nd i s p l a y e d E C D I S ch or ch W on equipment, areequivalent paper they to charts; (RNC) official navigational raster ARCS format o Raster charts are nautical charts. British Admiralty charts and United States NOAAformatcharts examples. are However, whendisplayed ECDIS on (or RCDS) (see equipment, arenot fullyequivalent paper they to charts section

publications 4 . 1 ' 1 . 3Useof charts and nautical

Onlyofficial nautical chartdatawhichis up to dateandadequate should used passage be for planning navigation. charts either paper or The be can charts electronic or charts that are equivalent paper All charts by definition official areoften not to charts. othernautical are and referred as private These to charts. charts not accepted the basis navigation are as for under the SOLAS Convention. Foradvice planning of refer section on using combination electronic paper a and charts, to Whennavigating careshould takento ensure shows using electronic charts, be that the display "look-ahead" sufficient distance the nextchartcanbe readilv and accessed,

4.11.4 Electronic chartsand electronic chart displaysystems

There two kinds official are charts commonly Vector Electronic of electronic available: or d ( ) N a v i g a t i o n ah a r t ( E N C ) a nR a s t e r a v i g a t i o n ah a r t sR N C T.h em a r i n eu s i n g l e c t r o n i c N r Cl s Cl e chartsystems shouldbe awareof the differences between two typesof chartformats. the Vectorchart format electronic charts Vector charts compiled attributing eachandevery to are by chartfeature setof values, each a and in database. chartfeature stored a layered is digital Storage a database in allows chartdatato the whilelayering enables be displayed a seamless as chart, fields datathat arenot required the of at timeto be removed from disolav reduce to chartclutter.

information objects features be interrogated display to additional aboutcharted Chart can "routesafety "intelligence" vectorised zone allows Theinherent of charts threedimensional t c m o n i t o r i n g C.h a r t e p t h o n t o u ra n da i rd r a u g hc l e a r a n c a r o u n dh e s h i p a nb e m o n i t o r e d " t es d c s (see and automatically, whilethe routeis beingplanned whilethe shipis on passage section both if a will automatically safety zonearound shipis breached. a 2.3.4). Alarms be triggered has Edition andvector 3) An international for charts beenfinalised IHO(S-57 by standard vector produced or on the authority a national hydrographic by of charts complying with thisstandard (ENC). navigational charts office knownaselectronic are 4.1"1.4.2 Rasterchart format electroniccharts Raster charts and areproduced digital by scanning techniques. charts exact are copres paper of will and Information raster on charts cannot layered the movef romone chartto another not be be have be individually selected displayed. and seamless. Raster charts to "intelligence". chartdataitself The automatic alarms Raster haveno inherent cannot trigger charts withoutthe addition user-inserted information hasbeenentered that manuallv durinqroute of p l a ni n g . maybe using raster charts Withoutselecting different scale charts, look-ahead the capability of objectsDatums and limited, causing when the someinconvenience determining identity distant projections differbetween may raster charts andcaremustbe takento takeaccount such of differences. A facsimile a paper of by on of chartoriginated or distributed the authority a national hydrographic navigationai (RNC). chart officeis knownasa raster

4 . 1 1 . 5Electronic chart displaysystems

include display electronic vector and/or Standard features electronic chartdisplay systems the of of position the shipand itstrack, facilities routeplanand raster and to charts overlaid with the of Iog notices marrners. to Navigation sensors suchasGPS, automatically update charts using digital positional information. autopilot An mayalsobe connected and gyrowill be connected provide to is as system. whenthe electronic chartdisplay system installed partof an integrated bridge radar dataoverlaid the on Some electronic chartdisplay systems offerthe capability display to picture chart. This canbe either selected targets a full radar or that canbe independently wheretarget vectors based the ship's on speed controlled. Caution should always exercised be chartthat is displaying speed overthe ground. through waterareoverlaid an electronic the on will Factors will determine what extent electronic that to an chartdisplay system be used can nautical include typeof system to official the that hasbeenfitted,the ability that system display of purposes. adminrstration its charts andwhether not the flagstate or allows usefor navigational Electronic can as RCDS ECS. or chartdisplay systems be categorised ECDIS, 4 . 1 1 . 5 . 1 Electronic ChartDisplayand InformationSystem(ECDIS) in ECDIS a shipborne is navigational system whoseperformance standards specified IMO are R e s o l u t i o n 8 1 7 ( 1 9l)t.m u s ts u p p o rtth ew h o l er a n g e f n a v i g a t i o n a l f u n c t ito n sm a k eu s eo f A. o hat presentation. the Moreover, be an ECDIS, to the characteristics chartdataandtheirspecific of the mustbe shown meetallthe requirements the IMO Performance Standards and equipment to of presentation chartdata,additional information offel besides graphic the of aboutthe features. characteristics disolaved of the


Withinthe ECDIS, ENC the database stores chartinformation the form of geographic the in objects represented point,lineandarea by shapes, carrying individual attributes whichmakeany of these objects unique. Appropriate mechanisms builtintothe system query dataand are to the thento usethe obtained information perform to certain (e.g. navigational functions antigrounding surveillance). presentation the current The positron, of range/bearing functions and p g r o u t e l a n n i nc a p a b i l i t ia rs o t h e r x a m p l e s t h e m i n i m u m C D I r e q u i r e m e n as dd o w ni n e e e of E S lt i the IMO Performance Standards. 4 . 1 1 . 5 . 2 Carriage requirements ECDIS for Onlya type-approved ECDIS operating with up to dateofficial ENCs wrthappropriate and back-up maybe used replace paper to all charts a ship. on Where official yet available, ENCs not are IMO regulations allowflagstates authorrse useof official (toqether to the raster charts with an appropriate of paper folio charts). In all othercases, shipmustcarry paper the all charts necessary its intended for voyage. 4 . 1 1 . 5 . 3 ECDIS back-uprequirements No electronic system completely is fail-safe. Performance IMO Standards therefore require the that "overall system" includes botha primary ECDIs an adequate and independent back-up arrangement provides: that o independent facilities enabling safetakeover the ECDIS a of functions order ensure in to that a system failure doesnot result a critical in situation; and o a means provide safenavigation the remaining of the voyage case ECDIS to for for part in of failure. There a number possible are of options that couldmeetthese requirements, including: o A second ECDIS connected an independent to powersupply and a separate position GPS input; o An appropriate to datefolioof official up paper charts the intended for voyage; S o A n E C D i o p e r a t i nig t h e R C D S o d eo f o p e r a t i o n ;r n m o "Chart-Radar" o A radar-based system called meeting IMO Performance the Standards IMO of Resolution A.477(Xll), amended MSC64(6j). as by 4.1',t.5.4 Requirement the safe use of ECDIS for Navigation ECDIS fundamentally with is different from navigating paper with charts. a As consequence, safeuseof ECDIS the requires mariner be appropriately the to trained and appropriate procedures be established. bridge to In 1998,IMOrecognised it wouldtakesomeyears complete worldscoverage ENCs. that to the of As a consequence, ECDIS IMO Performance Standards amended were adding new optional a modeof operation ECDIS, Raster of the (RCDS) ChartDisplay System mode.In thismode,RNCs canbe used an ECDIS meetSOLAS in to carriage requirements nautical for charts. However, is this onlyallowed approved the flagstate. if by Theintention those of changes to allowthe ECDIS was to operate far as possible official as on chartdata,i.e.official ENCs whereavailable official with R N C f i l l i n gn t h e g a p s . s i IMOtook noteof the limitations RNCs compared ENCs, the revised of as to and ECDIS Performance Standards require the ECDIS that mustbe used together with "an appropriate folio of up to datepaper charts" the areas for whereRCDS modeisemployed. intention to The was allowthe number paper of charts carrred a shipto be reduced by whereRCDS modewas utrlised. but onlyto a level compatible safenavigation. with

flag by folio" wasprovided lMO,different states of As no definition the term "appropriate as theirf lagstate to consult should shipowners Consequently, interpretations. individual developed what conditions. and under modeisallowed whether RCDS for necessary the charts mustcarry paper all ships are whereENCs RNCs not available, or In areas voyage. intended and port state control 4 . 1 1 . 5 . 5ECDIS on officials based international control local by to at Ships arriving a port maybe subject portstate agreements. set port to according the regulations out in the Paris is In Europe, statecontrol conducted officer control guidelines how a portstate explain lts of Understanding.ECDIS Memorandum with in accordance SOLAS (PSCO) electronic charts a whether shipis using should assess e r e q u i r e m e nCs . e c k m a yi n c l u d w h e t h e r : t h s with IMO Performance complies that the system o the shiphasdocumentation rrming conf confirmation seek should the of In for Standards ECDIS the absence suchdocumentation, PSCO requirements; doesmeetthe statutory that the system from the f lagstate is ECDIS used whether lt be navigation.should established o the system beingused primary for is modeor in both modes; in the ENC modeor RCDS ECDIS; procedures board shipfor using the o therearewritten on that documentation appropriate are o the master watchkeeping officers ableto produce and hasbeenundertaken; familiarisation generic type-specific ECDIS and editions; are official voyage the latest o the charts for used the intended o the charts useareup to date;and in of transfer the ECDIS a available ensure safe to o thereareapproved arrangements back-up part for safenavigation the remaining of failure andto provide in of functions the event ECDIS the vovaoe. Summaryof IMO ECDIS carriage requirements


Areofficial ENCs available for area of operation?





What digital Official ENC Official ENC (coverage charts being (coveragean are at at used the in appropriate anappropriate ECDIS the by scale for scale for mariner? navigation) navigation)


Private charts (6)

Howisthe ECDIS operating?


A sa nE C D Ii S n RCDS mode

A sa n E C D Ii S n RCDS mode

Asan EL)

Independent Independent What back-up ECDIS or ECDIS or system rs other back-up other back-up required? solution solution required required An "appropriate (1) folio"of upto What the Notrequired are datepaper (Except requirements if charts be to for thecarriage back-up a is used in paper folioof paper of official conjunction charts ? charts) withrheEcDts in RCDS mode Does ECDIS the fulfilchart carflage requirements?


Notrequired (3)

Notrequired (3)

All upto date All upto date paper charts paper charts required for required for safe navigation safe navigation in areas where for theintended ENCs are voyage available

( Y E S1 )

( YFS 7)

N0 (4)


N o t e st o t a b l e a b o v e : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) S o m e l a gs t a t e s a yr e q u i r e p e c i f id o c u m e n t a t i o o a l l o wt h i s . f m s c tn R e q u i r e sp p r o v a l f s h r p s l a g s t a t e f i a g s t a t ed e f i n e s e a n i n g f " a p p r o p r i a t e " . a o f m o B a c k - u p y s t e ms o n l yr e q u i r e df E C D I S i n t e n d e do m e e tc a r r i a g r e q u i r e m e n t s . s i r is t e F o rE C D I S f u l f i lc a r r i a g r e q u i r e m e n ts h i p s u s tu s eE N C s h e r et h e s e r ea v a i l a b l e to e s, m w a l f p r i v a t e h a r t s r eu s e di n a n E C D I Sh e s y s t e ms r e g a r d ea s o p e r a t i n g s a n E C S c a t, i d a ( P a p ec h a r t s n o tt h e E C D I S )h o u l d e m a i nh e p r i m a r y e a n s f n a v i g a t i o n . r s r t m o

4 . 1 1 . 5 . 7 Raster ChartDisplaySystem(RCDS) g R C D S ,r a n E C D I u s e d n a R C D S o d eo f o p e r a t i o n ,i s p l a y i n gN C h a r t a t as h o u l d e n e r a l l y o S i m R c d d onlybe used a supplementary as navigation Amendments the IMO ECDIS tool" Performance to Standards a new optional add modeof operation ECDISthe Raster of ChartDisplay System (RCDS) mode.In thismode,RNCs be usedin an ECDIS meetSOLAS requirements can to carriage for nautical if A folioof charts. However, isonlyallowed approved the flagstate. complete this by operating the RCDS up to datepaper charts should carried ships be by in mode. No performance for standard currently exists RCDS. 4 . 1 1 . 5 . 8 Electronic ChartSystem(ECS) ECS should onlybe used a supplementary navigatron together as tool with a complete folioof up paper to date charts. All electronic navigation systems whicharenot tested showcompliance the ECDIS to with "Electronic (ECS). ECS generically Performance Standards be can designated as ChartSystems" An privately could maybe ableto useeither ENCs, RNCs otherchartdataproduced official or and h a v e u n c t i o n a l is iy i l atr E C D I S . f t m o SomeECS vector equipment manufacturers produce also and raster datato usein theirproducts. Their charts derived are from hydrographic officepaper charts hydrographic or office digital data. Hydrographic for offices not takeanyresponsibility the accuracy reliability privately do or of produced charts. Where shipoperates the with ECS, paper the chartremains official basrs navigation for on the board. Theshipmustretain and usea fullfolioof up to datepaper charts board, on regardless of the typeof electronic charts used. Because arenot intended meetSOLAS ECS to reouirements. related no IMO Performance Standards beendevelooed. have

4.12.1 G M D S S a d i o c o m m u n i c a t i ofn n c t i o n s r u
q el p s O n l y u a l i f i erd d i o e r s o n n s h o u l d p e r a t e q u i p m e n t f o r M D S S u r p o s e G.M D S S q u i p p e d a p o G e ships required be ableto do the following are wherever to theyoperate: o transmit ship-to-shore distress alerts two independent by means; o receive shore-to-ship (usually alerts relayed Rescue by Co-ordination Centres); o transmit receive and o ship-to-ship alerts. o SAR co-ordinating communications; o on-scene communrcatrons; o locating signals;

o maritime information; safety o routine general or communicationsandfrom shore; to o bridge-to-bridge communications.

4.'12.2 MDSS quipment G e

Ships operating GMDSS equipped are according carriage to requirements relate trading that to areas, Areas , A2,A3 and44 asstipulated SOLAS. ships i.e. A'1 in All operating GN/DSS be can expected haveat least following to the equipment: (Ch l, o V H Fr a d i o - t e l e p h o n e a n n e6s 1 3 a n d 1 6 ) : o Channel maybe used 6 ship-to-ship SAR for operations; o Channel is used safety navigation 13 for of ship-to-ship; o Channel is used distress urgency 16 for and traffic, and maybe usedby aircraft safety for purposes; (Channel transmitter watchreceiver: o VHFDSC 70) and (DSC) used calling o Digital selective calling is for and replying, for transmitting, and acknowledging relayrng and lt distress alerts. allows specific a station be contacted to and madeaware that the calling wishes communicate it, andto indicate station to with how to reply, whichstation listen for subsequent or to to distress traffic. Calls alsobe addressed can t o " a l ls h i p s " r " a l ls t a t i o n s " , o (SART) for providing o Search rescue and transponder used homing fromsurvival signals craftfor detection 9 GHzradar; by o NAVTEX receiver used receiving for maritime safety printed information whichis automatically groupcall(EGC) by the receiver. Enhanced facilities alsobe required ships will for operating outside NAVTEX range the receipt SafetyNET for of broadcasts; (EPIRB) in SAR alerting for providing position o Emergency indicating radiobeacon for used and homing signals useby aircraft. for Ships sailing beyond range a VHFDSC of coast station mustalsohavea medium frequency DSC transmitter watchreceiver.sailing and lf MF beyond DSC range, theymusthave shipearth a station a highfrequency transmitter watchreceiver or DSC and including radio a telexsystem. Ships operating polarregions not haveInternational in will Mobile Satellite Organization (lNMARSAT) Iite coveraqe. satel

4.12.3 Emergency communications

Emergency communications include distress, urgency safety and messages. Distress alert,distress message and distress relay Thedistress is an automated alert form of distress signal and indicates a ship, that aircraft other or vehicle, a person in grave or is and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance. lt may contain or someof the information all contained the distress in message. Thedistress maybe sentusing alert DSC one or moreof the frequencies on dedicated exclusively (see to the purpose, by satellite annex or 46).

Messages concerning of should transmitted a standard form safety lifeand navigation be in containing following the information, whichever modeof transmissionused: is o name f ship; o o c a l l i g no f s h i p ; s (MMSI) ship; o maritime mobile identity service of o p o s i t i oo f s h i p ; n o nature distress otheremergency); (or of o typeof assistance (if required appropriate); o anyotherinformation mayhelpthose whoseassistancerequired. that is Themaster message should order the relaying a distress of whenever is clear it that the shipin distress cannot transmit message the itself if further or helpisthought be necessary. master The to should makeclear the relay rn message hisown shipis not in distress using prefix that by the ,,N/AYDAY RELAY". Urgencymessages An urgency message onecontaining is urgentinformation relating a ship, for to aircraft person, or example: o manoverboard; o lostpropeller; o permanent of power; loss o announcing identifying medical and transports; o communications medical concerning advice. Theurgency signal should onlybe senton the authority the master. of lf using terrestrial communications, urgency the announcement should madeon one or more be of the DSC distress frequencies contained annex Theactual in 46. urgency message whichfollows should senton oneor moreof the radio be telephony/telex frequencies follow-up for distress traffic. lf using satellite it should notedthat shipearthstations have"distress" be communications, only and "routine"priority levels INMARSAT therefore has devised system two-digit a for of codes urgency safety and However, allcoast not communications. earthstations accept the codes. all Safety messages A s a f e t y e s s a gi eo n ec o n t a i n i na n i m p o r t a n t a v i g a t i o n a lm e t e o r o l o g i c a l w a r nAn g . e l l m s n g or i sw asthe items listed section in 3.7.2,inlormation reports concerning position buoys the of andthe w o r k i n g f l i g h t h o u s a n do t h e r i d s o n a v i g a t i o n nb e m a d e . o es a t ca Whentransmitting messages, safety message safety the formatshould usedusing same be the frequencies procedures for urgency messages. and as Emergencyover
WheneVef {ho omornonnr i< rlo:rhi nrior it char rld ho rrn69llgl by a bfOadCaSt tO "all StatiOnS".

4 . ' , 1 2 . R o u t i n eo r g e n e r a lc o m m u n i c a t i o n s 4
Routine general or communications include ship-to-ship pilotage communication, port messages, operations, movements, ship ship's messages otherpublic business and correspondence. Thefrequencies by coast port used stations, stations canbe ascertained the ITUList etc" from of Coast Stations. Routinecommunications using DSC Whentransmitting DSC, OOWshould on the listen the ship's on transmission frequency and, w h e ni t i sf r e e , a k e h e c a l l T h ec a l l h o u l d o n t a i nn f o r m a t i o n : m t . s c i on (i.e. o the modeof transmission be used the follow-up to for message telephony, telex); o the frequency be used transmit message. to to the C o a ss t a t i o nu s u a l lm o n i t otrw o D S C h a n n e - sn a t i o n a ln di n t e r n a t i o nT h.en a t i o n a l t s y c l al a channel should triedfirst. be Theacknowledgementthe callwill normally on the frequency to be that is paired with the frequency whichthe callwasmade. on Thestation that is called shoulo either confirm frequency the follow-up the for traffic indicate or another frequency. On receiving DSC that gives indication follow-up a call no of frequency use, receiving to the ship should indicate suitable a frequency itsacknowledgement. in 4 . 1 2 . 4 . 2 Routinecommunications using radio telephony Before commencing transmission, whether frequency already any check the rs occupied. A simplex in whichbothstations the same call use frequency involves listening that frequency. on A duplex in whichseparate call frequencres usedinvolves are listening the ship's on transmit frequency; whenthe channel free, to rcsly is the receiver should retuned the co:stst,afion be frequency the callmadein the normal and way. Whencalling, speak clearly. givethe nameof the station First beingcalled followed own shrp's by (andcallsignif necessary)it is necessary spell nameof the ship, phonetic name lf to the the alphabet should used. be Give otherstation the timeto answer; mayhaveheard it vou but be unable reply to immediately. Routinecommunications using radio telex Before transmitting a coast to station, listen itsanswering on frequency the "channel for free" sronal.


T h eO O Wi s r e s p o n s i b oe e n s u r i ntg a tt h e e m e r g e n c y v i g a t i o i g h t s n ds i g n a l l i n g fl r h na ln a e q u i p m e n tr ei n w o r k i n g r d e r n dr e a d yo r i m m e d i a tu s ea t a l lt i m e s . a o a f e Thecondition flags of andshapes should checked regular be at intervals. S o u n d i g n a l l i n g u i p m e n t u s tb e c h e c k ed a i l y n dm a i n t a i n e n a n o p e r a t i o nc o n d i t i o n . s eq m d a id al guides wires Whereroller and operate whistle, the these should examined be f requently ensure to easy operation. Electric automatic and whistles should maintained be accordinq manufacturers' to InsIrucIrons.



(DP) Positioning has that notes Theforeword thisedition to that thrsisthe firstoccasion Dynamic provided hereaddresses the Theguidance Procedures Guide. in Bridge beenaddressed the ICS procedures. section the Guide should be This of interface DP and between systems bridge for requirements those manuals training DP and to considered supplementarydetailed procedure serving aboard ships. DP


passage undertake operations berth-to-berth, vessels many In addition making conventional to a in oilfields. for formsof hazard exist, example offshore involving navigation areas in wheredifferent planning plan environment withina worksite address operational Theberth-to-berth should plan it for operational to area Whenarriving the operational or worksite, is necessary a detailed at is lf operation. the vessel of covering approach otherphases the envisaged the and be available al a of D , es u s i n g Pm o d e t h e nt h e c a p a b i l i t ia n dl i m i t a t i o n s t h e D Ps y s t e m n di t sp e r i p h e re q u i p m e n l for. should allowed be plan, following be factors among those that should the are Whendeveloping operational the Intoaccount: taken o g u i d a n cc o n t a i n ew i t h i n h e s h i p o p e r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e sa n u a l so g e t h ew i t h a n y e m t, r s al d t responsible or owners managers, fromthe agency or instructions guidance or from the vessel's for operations withinthe worksite area; planning; o anyconditions maynecessitate beingmadeto the operational changes that o location hazards the area, depthof wateron and around worksite withinthe worksite of o whether is impaired anyaspect the operation; by of vessel manoeuvrability o expected andcurrents; of sea weather conditions, conditions visibility, state o availability vessel power; of o level vessel requirements the operation; of redundancy the redundancy and of o availability position references; including contingency back-up and reference, of o anyrestrictions mightbe imposed the fieldoperator regarding placing the or by that hardware; manoeuvring underwater of o proximity othervessels anystage the operation the effects and uponthe at of of references; of manoeuvrabilityown vessel the integrity herposition or of poweror operational o ability own vessel react changes weather, in status. of to to all of whichwill cover aspects the All of the above form partof a formalriskassessment will operation. B pl o s al C o n t i n g e n c ya n n i n ig a n e s s e n t ip a r to f a n yp l a n n i nfg r t h i st y p eo f o p e r a t i o n .yt h e i r proximity othervessels fixed in to or nature, operations thistypeareoftenconducted close of plans madecovering escape routes andactions are safe essential contingency lt that failure anysignificant or circumstances, catastrophic to be takenin the event unforeseen of degradation vessel of systems.


\ - q - '


During operations, watchkeeper DP the mustbe aware the proximity othervessels of of or \ structures whichmightpresent collision a hazard. is especially This important viewof the fact in that vessels engaged DPoperations usually in are unable manoeuvre to immediately, being often hampered vessels. appropriate The lights and othersignals mustbe displayed. Thewatchkeeper responsible the continuous is for position of the monitoring the vessels of and (PRS) status the various of Position Reference providing positional Systems data.lf datafrom more thanone PRS beingautomatically pooled combined, is or thenthe watchkeeper mustbe aware of t h e r e l a t i vw e i g h t i n g sp p l i e t o i n d i v i d u PlR S . e a d a Manyoperations involving capable DP vessels entail positioning vessel relative a moving to target, for example shuttle a tanker conducting tandemloading operations from a Floating Production, (FPSO). Storage Offloading and vessel Under these circumstances, watchkeepers be the must aware the motioncharacteristics target. of of the There mustalsobe provision appropriate of position references, including bothabsolute references, as DGPS, relative such and references with position datareferenced the moving to target. Manyoperations involving capable DP vessels entail deployment underwater of equipment suchas (ROVs) tethered Remotely Operated Vehicles submersibles. operations Other entail deploymenr pipelines, of divers, cables otherunderwater or equrpment. watchkeeper The mustbe aware of presented thisequipment the vessel's the hazard by to manoeuvrability, especiallyviewof the in riskof fouledpropellers thrusters, alsoof the limitations manoeuvring or and in imposed the by presence underwater of equipment operations. or


Thewatchkeeper responsible the monitoring all equipment is for of related the control the to of posttion heading the vessel and of whilstin DPmode.DPsystems verycomplex are because, via computer control, theyintegrate number differentunctions a of f relating the powerplant, to propulsion systems, position heading and and references. DPsystems employ will complex mathematical modelling techniques provide to adaptive positioning process control. Thismodelling takes timeto establish withinthe system. The watchkeeper musttherefore ensure that sufficient time hasbeenallowed the mathematical for model become to established before commencing operations positioning uponwhichthe precise of the shipisa critical factor Effective control a vessel DPmodeis dependent of in uponthe efficient operation propulsion of propellers thrusters. watchkeeper units, and The mustcontinually monitor that propulsion commands matched feedback are by values from allthrustunits. Thewatchkeeper mustalso constantly aware the demands be of beingmadeon the powerplant powerisavailable effective and ensure that sufficient for control the ship, of with an appropriate powerreserve propulsion (propellers thrusters) Similarly, individual units and mustbe montToreo conil uousty. n In deteriorating environmental conditions, watchkeeper the mustcontinue monitor accuracy to the with whichthe vessel's position heading beingmaintained. position and are lf and/or heading excursions outside are acceptable limits, thendue consideration be given suspending must to operations morefavourable prevail. until conditions

z4,S ".


As Dynamic Positioninga vessel piece equipment, canbe is function rather thana specific of it (PRS), described an integration a variety components as Position as of of such Reference Systems gyrocompasses, propulsion powerplant. systems computers, and systems the vessel's DP are controlled means an Operator by of Station, usually located the bridge. on Before commencing operations, transferring DPcontrol DP or to from conventional navigation, all systems mustbe carefully provided this checked tested; pre-DP and a checklist normally is for (see purpose checklist B14). Upontransferring conventional from navigational control DPcontrol, watchkeeper to the must check that controlofall propulsion units andthrusters effective, that all unitsarebeing is i.e. correctly commanded the DPsystem. is normally by This donein a "Manual"DPmode, with position heading the vessel and panel. of controlled a joystick by located the DP on Whenin automatic mode, watchkeeper DP the mustsetwarning and alarmlimits appropriate to values orderto giveindications heading position in or of excursions. In manyDPvessels, system gyrocompasses, sensors, full redundancy provided. is Multiple wind PRS computers and contribute the level redundancy. watchkeeper to of The mustmonitor and compare inputdatafrom duplicated The givewarnings alarms sensors. system should and against datadiscrepancies. system lf the features triplemodular redundancy, triplicated with sensors, then a "voting"capability allows automatic detection an errant of sensor automatic and rejection an of incorrect sensor itsdata. and All PRS have inherent limits theirlevels reliability normal deploy to of and lt to more thanone PRS with datapooling provide "bestfit" position. watchkeeper to a The should avord common-mode failure resulting scenarios from the deployment PRS the same of of type. position Typical reference systems include: o differential GPS; o microwave range/bearing systems; o hydroacoustic systems; o taut wire systems; o laser-based systems. lf the operation necessitates deployment threePosition the of Reference Systems, at least then one of these references reference, not all of themshould underwater i.e. should a surface be be systems suchasthe taut wireor the hydroacoustic system.

Thischapter closely pilotage is based rhetnternattonal Practices Maritime on Best for guidelines jointly published lCS, by OCIMF and Intertanko whichshould and prove useful a supplement to sections and3.3.3of thisGuide. 2.7 Thekindpermission the co-authors acknowledged \ of is for the reproduction these guidelines. of Recommendations offered shipmasters, are to bridge supporting and pilots the minimum staff on standards pilotage of servrce the shipping that industry should expect board on ships pilotage in waters worldwide. Theaimof thischapter to clarify roles the master, ship's is the of the crewandthe pilot,andthe workingrelationship between them.However, recommendations designed complement, the are to and not replace, existing regulations standard and references giving by guidance the detailed on interaction parties between involved pilotage in operations.



Efficient pilotage chiefly is dependent uponthe effectivenessthe communications of and information exchanges between pilot,the master otherbridge the and personnel uponthe and mutualunderstanding hasfor the functions duties the others. each and personner, of Ships snorebased shipmanagement the relevant and pilotage port and authorities should utilise proven the concept Bridge of Resource Management. Establishmenteffective of co-ordination between pilot,master othershipspersonnel, the and takingdueaccount the shipssystems the equipment of and available the pilot,isa prerequisite to for the safeconduct the shipthrough of pilotage waters. Thepresence a piloton the shipdoesnot relieve master officerin charge the of the or of navigational watchfromtheirduties and obligations the safeconduct the ship. for of


Ships provide relevant or pilotage should port the authority with basic information regarding their arrival intentions shipcharacteristics, asdraught and such and dimensions, required the port as by or otherstatutory obligations. should completed in advance the planned Thrs be well of arrival and in accordance local with requirements. In acknowledging receipt thisinformation, of relevant information should provided the ship be to (either directly viaagents) soonas it becomes or as available. Such information should include a as minimum:the pilotboarding point;reporting communications and procedures; suffictent and details the prospective of berth, anchorage routeing and information enable master to the to prepare provisional passage to the berthpriorto hisarrival a plan Whilst pilotbooks charts, and portguidelines provide muchof thisinformation directly, masters should recognise not all of that thisinformation be available sufficient may in detail complete passage untilthe pilot to plan the hasboarded ship. the



Thepilotandthe master should information exchange regarding pilotsintentions, ships the the parameters soonas possible characteristics operational and as afterthe pilothasboarded ship. the (annexes andA2) or the equivalent TheICSMaster/Pilot Exchange Forms A1 format, company should completed boththe master be by and pilotto helpensure ready availability the of information that nothing omitted error. and is in pilotage the passage should Theexchange information plan of regarding and include clarification of: pilot and responsibilities master, andothermembers the bridge o roles of the management of team; intentions; o navigational conditions o local including navigational traff constraints; ic or a o t i d a l n dc u r r e nitn f o r m a t i o n ; planand mooring o berthing boatuse; use o proposed of tugs; weather o expected conditions. Aftertakingthisinformation account comparing pilot's plan into and the suggested with that initially developed board, pilotand master on should the finalplanearly the agree overall an in passage before shipiscommitted. master the The should commithisshipto the passage not until satisfied the plan. parties with All should aware be that elements the planmaychange. of plans Contingency should alsobe madewhichshould followed the event a malfunction be in of or possible a shipboard emergency, identifying abortpoints andsafegrounding areas. These should pilotand master. be discussed agreed and between


personnel Thepilot,master and bridge share responsibility goodcommunrcations mutual a for and understanding the others' of rolefor the safeconduct the vessel pilotage of in waters. They should alsoclarify theirrespective and responsibilities roles so that the pilotcanwork easily and successfully the normal with bridge management team. Thepilotsprimary dutyisto provide informatron ensure safenavigation the accurate to the of ship.In pract the pilotwill oftenconthe shipon the master's ce, . behalf Themaster retains ultimate personnel the responsibility the safety hisship.Heand hisbridge for of havea dutyto support pilotand to monitor actions. should querying the his This include any actions omissions the pilot(oranyothermember the bridge or by management of team)if plan inconsistent the passage or if the safety the shipis in anydoubt. with of



Theprlotand Pilotage Authority should: \ priorto an act of pilotage, goodphysical mental o ensure that the pilotisadequately rested in and f itness not under influence drugs alcohol; and the of or o establish communication the shipto makearrangements boarding; wrth for o maintain current information relevant navigational, to hydrographic meteorological and information wellastraffic as movements withinthe pilotage area, o facilitate communication the shipto makearrangements boarding. with for , I n s u p p o r t i n g e p i l o t t h e m a s t ea n db r i d g e e r s o n n s h o u l d : p el th r priorto an actof pilotage, goodphysical mental o ensure theyareadequately rested in and frtness a n d n o t u n d e r h e i n f l u e n co f d r u g s r a l c o h o l ; t e o o drawuponthe preliminary information supplied the relevant or pilotage port by authority along (e g. charts, tables, with published data tide lightlists, Directions radiolists) order Sailing and in passage priorto the ship's plan to develop provisional a arrival; o prepare suitable personnel embarking pilotin a safe equipment provide and sufficient for the a n de x p e d i e n t a n n e r ; m o establish communications the pilotstation confirm with to boarding details.


position pilots Theboarding for should located, be wherepracticable, a greatenough at distance fromthe portso asto allowsufficient for a comprehensive time face-to-face exchange of information agreement the finalpilotage passage and plan. of Theposrtion chosen should allow sufficient searoom ensure to that the shipssafety not put in danger, is before, during directly or aftersuchdiscussions, neither shouid impede passage otherships. it the of T h ep i l o to r P i l o t a gA u t h o r i ts h o u l d : e y personal precautions, o takeall necessary safety including using wearing appropriate or the personal protective equipment ensuring and items properly are maintained; o takeanyappropriate measures available check to properly that boarding equipment appears r i g g e d n dm a n n e d ; a <n o liaise with the master th:t tho chini. ^ositioned manoeuvred permit and to safeboarding. I ns u p p o r t i n g ep i l o t th personnel o the master ship's and should ensure that the means pilotembarkation of and positioned, disembarkation properly are rigged, maintained manned accordance and in with IMO recommendations whereapplicable, port requirements; and, other o the master should liaise with the pilotstation/transfer so that the shipis positioned craft and manoeuvred ensure to safeboardinq.


(MPX)results clear It is essentialthatface-to-face a master/pilot exchange in andeffective communication the willingness the pilot,master personnel work together and of and bridge to as partof a bridge management team.English language, a mutually or language agreed common or the IMOStandard Marine Communication Phrases, should used, be and all members the team of share responsibilityhighlight clarification perceived a for to any errors omissions otherteam or by mem0ers. p el T h em a s t ea n db r i d g e e r s o n n s h o u l d : r management with the pilotproviding o withinthe bridge team,interact confirmation his of directions feedback and whentheyhavebeencomplied with; o monitor alltrmes ship's at the speed and position wellasdynamic as factors affecting ship the (e g. weather conditions, manoeuvring responses denstty traffic); and of o confirm the chartat appropriate on intervals shipsposition the positions navigational the and of pilotto anyperceived aids, alerting the inconsistencies. T h ep i l o t h o u l d : s o ensure that the master ableto participate anydiscussions one pilotrelinquishes is in when his prlot; dutyto another o report the relevant to authorrty irregularity withinthe passage, any including deficiencies a t i o n m a n n i n g ,r e q u i p m e n tf t h e s h i p . , o o
ainaarnl^d iha nnor


Thenecessity co-operation a elose of and workingrelationship between master the and pilot duringberthing unberthing and operations extremely is important the safety the ship.In to of particular, the pilotandthe master both should discuss agree and whichoneof themwill be (such mainengine, responsible operatrng equipment controls for key and as helmandthrusters). Thepilotshould co-ordinate efforts all parties the of engaged the berthing unberthing in or (e.9. crews, operation tug linesmen, His ships crew). intentions actions and should explained be as soonaspracticable the bridge to management team,in the previously agreed appropriate language. In supporting pilot, master personnel the the and bridge should: that the pilot's o ensure directions conveyed the shipscrewand arecorrectly are to implemented; that the ship's management o ensure crewprovide bridge the teamwith relevant feedback information; the o advise pilotoncehisdirections have beencomplied with, or wherean omission occurred has or if a ootential oroblem exists.

'"<lsi ":


T h ep i l o t h o u l d : s \ parties o assist interested suchas portauthorities, national authorities flagadministrations and in reporting investigating and incidents involving vessels whilstunderpilotage, subject the laws to and regulations the relevant of authorities, o observe recommendations the withinthischapter meetor exceed requirements and the set down in IMOAssembly Resolution 4.960(23) itsannexes; and o report the appropriate to authority anything observed whichmayaffect safety navigation of or pollution prevention, including incident any that mayhaveoccurred the piloted to ship; pilotage o refuse whenthe shipto be piloted believed pose danger the safety is to a to of navigation to the environment. suchrefusal, or Any together with the reason, should immediately reported the appropriate be to authority further for action. Themaster, having ultimate the responsibility the safenavigation the ship,hasa for of responsibrlity to request replacement the pilotshould deemit necessary. of he


I M OR e s o l u t i o n9 6 0 ( 2 3A,n n e x els n d l l a n ds u b s e q u ea m e n d m e n " s e c o m m e n d a t i o n s A. ) a nt tR Training, and Operational Procedures Maritime otherthan Deen SeaPilots" for Pilots Qualifications I M OR e s o l u t i o n8 9 3 ( 2 1")G u i d e l i n eo r V o y a g e l a n n i n g " 4. fs P " IMO Resolution 4.889(21) Pilot Transfer Arrangements" SOLAS Chapter Regulation "Pilot V. 23 Transfer Arrangements"




Ship-to-shore: Master/Pilot Exchange

SHIP IDENTITY Name Ships agent Cargo type Call sign Year built Ship type Flag IMO No Last port

ADDITIONAL COMMUNICATION INFORMATION Fax PILOT BOARDING Date/ETA Boarding station (if there is more than one) SHIP PARTICULARS Draught fwd Air draught Displacement ANCHORS Port anchor Stbd anchor (length of cable available) Dwt Draught aft Length Gross Draught amidships Beam Net (salt water) (UTC/LT) Freeboard Telex Other

MANOEUVRING DETAILS AT CURRENT CONDITION Full speed Slow speed Propeller direction of turn Number of propellers MAIN ENGINE DETAILS Type of engine motor / turbine / other Max. number of engine starts Time from full ahead to full astern Half speed Min. steering speed left / right Controllable pitch yes / no Number of aft thrusters

Number of fwd thrusters


OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS e.g. berthing restrictions, manoeuvring peculiarities


Bridge procedures guide


Shore-to-ship: Pilot/Master Exchange

SHIP REQUESTING PILOTAGE DETAILS Ship Name ORIGINATING AUTHORITY Contact name Other means of contact PILOT BOARDING INSTRUCTIONS Date/arrival time at pilot boarding station Position pilot will board Embarkation side port / starboard / TBA Approach course and speed (UTC/LT) VHF channel Call sign

Requested boarding arrangement BERTH AND TUG DETAILS Intended berth and berthing prospects Side alongside port / starboard Estimated transit time to berth Number of tugs Total bollard pull

Tug rendezvous position Tug arrangement

LOCAL WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS at the pilot boarding station on arrival Tidal information Expected currents Forecast weather DETAILS OF THE PASSAGE PLAN including abort points/emergency plans (heights/times)

REGULATIONS including VTS reporting, anchor/look-out attendance, max. allowable draught

OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS including navigation hazards, ship movements

Bridge procedures guide



Pilot card

SHIPS PARTICULARS Name Displacement Length OA Draught fwd Port anchor


Call sign (tonnes) Deadweight (m) Breadth (m) Draught aft (shackles) Stbd anchor
m m

(tonnes) Year built (m) Bulbous bow (m) Draught amidships yes / no (m)

(shackles) (1 shackle=27.4 m/15 fathoms)

m Manifold Parallel W/L Loaded Ballast m m Air draught m ft in m

ENGINE Type of engine Maximum power (kW) (HP)

rpm/pitch Full ahead Half ahead Slow ahead Dead slow ahead Dead slow astern Slow astern Half astern Full astern

loaded speed (kts) (kts) (kts) (kts)

ballast speed (kts) (kts) (kts) (kts)

(% of full ahead power)

Engine critical rpm Time full ahead to full astern

Maximum number of consecutive starts (sec) Time limit astern (min)


Bridge procedures guide

Rudders Trme hard-over hard-over to Rudder angle neutral for effect

--l pitch Controllable l=yes7no Thrusters

Bow power n Steerig idiosyncrasies (kW/HP) Sternpower (KW/HP)



Anchors Whistle Flags X-Band radar S-Band radar Speed log Echo sounder Electronposition-fixing ic
l- ^^^--LUil rPd)) -,,-+^)y>tcil l o

water/ ground

a / s i n g l e x i s d u a la x i s

Gyrocompass error gear Steering Rudder/RPM/ROT indicators E n g i nt e l e g r a p h s e VHF Mooring winches lines and



R e f e r e n c le : l O R e s o l u t i o n 4 . 6 0 P r o v s r o n a n d d i s p l a y a n o e u v r i n g o r m a t o n o n b o a r d s h i p s l V l(15) m of nf


Wheelhouse poster

Ships name....................................................... Call sign......................Gross tonnage.......................Net tonnage........................ Max. displacement................tonnes, and Deadweight................tonnes, and Block summer full load draught

Draught at which the manoeuvring data were obtained Type of rudder(s) ________________________________ ___________ Maximum rudder angle Time hard-over to hard-over ___________s with one power unit ___________s with two power units Minimum speed to maintain course propeller stopped Rudder angle for neutral effect _______knots ___________

No. of shackles Port Starboard Stern (1 shackle = ______m/______fathoms) Max. rate of heaving (min/shackle)

Loaded Trial/Estimated ___m forward ___m aft

Ballast Trial/Estimated ___m forward ___m aft

Type of engine ______, ___kW (___HP). Type of propeller ______ Engine order Full sea speed Full ahead Half ahead Slow ahead Dead slow ahead Dead slow astern Slow astern Half astern Critical revolutions ___rpm Minimum rpm ___ ___knots ___rpm Time limit astern Time limit at min. rev.___rpm Emergency full ahead ___s to full astern ___s Stop to full astern Astern power ___% ahead Max. no. of ___ consecutive starts Combined Rpm/pitch setting Speed (knots) Loaded Ballast Bow Stern Thruster

THRUSTER EFFECT at trial conditions

kW (HP) Time delay for full thrust s s s Turning rate Time delay to at zero speed reverse full thrust /min /min /min min min min s s s Not effective above speed knots knots knots


Estimated Squat Effect Under keel clearance Ships speed (knots) Max. bow squat estimated (m) Heel Effect Heel angle (degree) 2 m 4 8 12 m 16 Draught increase (m)

Full astern




Insert a recommended turn

Reference: IMO Resolution A.601(15) Provision and display of manoeuvring information on board ships


Bridge procedures guide



In accordance with I.M.O. requirements and I.M.P.A. recommendations


H.Q.S Wellington, Temple Stairs, Victoria Embankment, London WC2R 2PN Tel: +44 20 7240 3973 Fax: +44 20 7240 3518

Required boarding arrangements for pilots


HANDHOLD STANCHIONS Min. diam. 32mm 120cm above bulwark min. 70cm max. 80cm. apart


When no side door available


Two man-ropes ready for immediate use. Min. diam. 28mm

No shackles No knots No splices

PILOT LADDER Must extend at least 2 metres above lower platform

Of cer in contact with bridge

The steps must be equally spaced

MAN-ROPES without knots min. diam. 28mm IF REQUIRED BY PILOT


Should rest rmly against ships side

Guard ring

The steps must be horizontal

SPREADER Min. 180cm long

Ladders to rest rmly against ships side

Should lead aft Maximum 55 slope Lower platform horizontal Rigid handrails preferred 3 to 7 metres depending on size of pilot launch and height of swell

Max. 8 steps between spreaders

method of embarking or disembarking a pilot on ships with a freeboard of more than 9 metres

Flexible part

Spreaders must not be lashed between steps

Min. 40cm 3038cm


The side ropes must be equally spaced

Recommended 9 metre mark 2m Stern Bow

A pilot hoist made and rigged in accordance with SOLAS Chapter V, together with a pilot ladder rigged alongside for immediate transfer, may be used subject to agreement between the Master and the Pilot. It should be noted that the distance between the nearest side ropes of the pilot hoist and pilot ladder will be at least 1.4 metres.

The loops are a tripping hazard for the pilot and can become foul of the pilot launch

Bridge procedures guide 83

Very dangerous ladder too long 5th step must be a spreader

Two handhold stanchions rigidly secured to ships structure

Responsible of cer

Height required by pilot Lifebuoy with self-igniting light NO OBSTRUCTIONS

Pilot ladder and ships deck lit by forward shining overside light

Bulwark ladder secured to ship

Approved by I.M.O.

March 2001


Distress alert and the frequencies to use

Terrestrial radiocommunication The distress alert may be sent using digital selective calling (DSC) on one or more of the following frequencies which are dedicated exclusively to the purpose: VHF MF HF HF HF HF HF Channel 70 2187.5 kHz 4207.5 kHz 6312 kHz 8414.5 kHz 12577 kHz 16804.5 kHz

The distress alert should indicate:


on which frequency the follow-up distress message will be transmitted; and the mode of transmission (telephony or telex).

The frequencies that should be used for the follow-up distress message: Radio Telephone (R/T) Channel 16 VHF 2182 kHz 4125 kHz 6215 kHz 8291 kHz 12290 kHz 16420 kHz 2174.5 kHz 4177.5 kHz 6268 kHz 8376.5 kHz 12520 kHz 16695 kHz Radio Telex

Satellite radiocommunication The distress alert by satellite should be transmitted, with absolute priority, to a Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC).


Bridge procedures guide


Guidance on steering gear test routines

Manual steering positions The steering gear should be tested at all the manual steering positions on the bridge: o after prolonged use of the autopilot; o once per watch; o before entering coastal waters. Multiple steering gear power units In coastal waters, use more than one steering gear power unit when such units are capable of simultaneous operation. Before departure from port Shortly before departure, check and test the steering gear including, as applicable, the operation of the following: o the main steering gear; o the auxiliary steering gear; o the remote steering control systems; o the main steering position on the bridge; o the emergency power supply; o the rudder angle indicators in relation to actual rudder position; o the remote steering gear control system power failure alarms; o the steering gear power unit failure alarms; and o automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment. Checks and tests Checks and tests should include: o the full rudder movement according to the required capabilities of the steering gear; o the timing of rudder movement from hardover-to-hardover, using each steering gear power unit singly and together, to ensure consistency with previous tests; o a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage; and o the operation of the means of communication between the bridge and the steering gear compartment. Changeover procedures All officers concerned with the operation or maintenance of the steering gear should acquaint themselves with the changeover procedures. The regular testing of manual steering should be an opportunity for all bridge team members to test and practise procedures for changeover between different modes, as appropriate. Typically these will include: o Auto Track Keeping to Auto Pilot; o Auto Pilot to Hand Steering; o Hand Steering to Non Follow-Up; o Hand Steering to Emergency Steering. Emergency steering drills Emergency steering drills should take place at least every three months and must include direct control from within the steering gear compartment, the communications procedure with the bridge and, where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies. Records The dates on which these checks and tests are conducted, and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried out, must be recorded in the log book.

Bridge procedures guide



Note: These checklists beenincluded a guide. have as Masters navrgating and officers wishto addto or modify may these checklists suitthe particular to operational needs the ship of


Familiarisation with bridge equipment

Has the operation of the following equipment been studied and fully understood? bridge and deck lighting emergency arrangements in the event of main power failure navigation and signal lights, including searchlights signalling lamp morse light sound signalling apparatus, including whistles fog bell and gong system safety equipment, including LSA equipment including pyrotechnics, EPIRB and SART bridge fire detection panel general and fire alarm signalling arrangements emergency pump, ventilation and watertight door controls internal ship communications facilities, including portable radios emergency batteryless telephone system public address system AIS and external communication equipment, including VHF and GMDSS equipment alarm systems on bridge automatic track-keeping system, if fitted ECDIS and electronic charts, if fitted echo sounder electronic navigational position-fixing systems VDR or S-VDR equipment gyro compass/repeaters IBS functions, if fitted magnetic compass off-course alarm radar including ARPA speed/distance recorder engine and thruster controls


Bridge procedures guide

alertequipment l_ l shipsecurity
steeringgea4 includingmanual,auto-pilotand emergency changeoverand testing arrangements(see annex A7) location and operation of ancillarybridge equipment (e.9. binoculars, signallingflags, meteorologicalequipment) ] I stowage of chart and hydrographicpublications

Other checks(to be expanded by master and navigation officer):






Preparation for sea

Has a passage plan for the intended voyage been prepared? (see section 2)

Has the following equipment been checked and found ready for use? anchors bridge movement book/course and engine movement recorder echo sounder electronic navigational position-fixing systems gyro/magnetic compass and repeaters passage plan entered into integrated bridge system radar(s) required AIS data inputs made, speed/distance recorder clocks Has the following equipment been tested, synchronised and found ready for use? bridge and engine room telegraphs, including rpm indicators emergency engine stops thruster controls and indicators, if fitted controllable pitch propeller controls and indicators, if fitted communications facilities, including bridge to engine room/mooring station communications portable radios VHF radio communications with port authority navigation and signal lights, including searchlights signalling lamp morse light sound signalling apparatus, including whistles fog bell and gong system steering gear, including manual, auto-pilot and emergency changeover arrangements and rudder indicators (see annex A7) window wiper/clearview screen arrangements Is the ship secure for sea? cargo and cargo handling equipment secure all hull openings secure and watertight cargo/passenger details available stability and draught information available


Bridge procedures guide

| Are all the crew on board and all shore personnelashore?


personnel nre necessary sufficiently rested?

been carriedout? | nave requiredsecurityand stowaway searches

annex A5) f__.]nre the pilot disembarkationarrangementsin place?(see Other checks:





Preparation for arrival in port

In preparing the passage for arrival in port, has a pre-pilotage information exchange taken place? (see annexes A1 and A2) Has the passage plan been updated following receipt of the Shore-to-Ship Pilot/Master Exchange form and all latest navigational warnings? Has the ETA been sent with all relevant information required by local regulations (e.g. details of dangerous/hazardous goods carried)? Is it necessary to rearrange cargo/ballast?

Has the following equipment been prepared and checked? course and engine movement recorders clock synchronisation communications with the engine control room and mooring stations signalling equipment, including flags/lights deck lighting mooring winches and lines, including heaving lines pressure on fire main anchors cleared away stabilisers and log tubes housed, if fitted Has the steering gear been tested, and has manual steering been engaged in sufficient time for the helmsman to become accustomed before manoeuvring commences? (see annex A7) Have the engines been tested and prepared for manoeuvring? Has the Pilot Card (see annex A3) been completed and are the pilot embarkation arrangements (see annex A5) in hand? Have VHF channels for the various services (e.g. VTS, pilot, tugs, berthing instructions) been noted and a radio check carried out? Has the port been made fully aware of any special berthing requirements that the ship may have?

Other checks:


Bridge procedures guide


Immediately on arrival on the bridge, has the pilot been informed of the ships heading, speed, engine setting and draught? Has the pilot been informed of the location of lifesaving appliances provided on board for his use?

Have details of the proposed passage plan been discussed with the pilot and agreed with the master, including: radio communications and reporting requirements bridge watch and crew stand-by arrangements deployment and use of tugs berthing/anchoring arrangements expected traffic during transit pilot change-over arrangements, if any fender requirements Has a completed Pilot Card (see annex A3) been handed to the pilot and has the pilot been referred to the Wheelhouse Poster? (see annex A4) Have the responsibilities within the bridge team for the pilotage been defined and are they clearly understood? Has the language to be used on the bridge between the ship, the pilot and the shore been agreed? Are the progress of the ship and the execution of orders being monitored by the master and officer of the watch? Are the engine room and ships crew being regularly briefed on the progress of the ship during the pilotage? Are the correct lights, flags and shapes being displayed?

Other checks:

Bridge procedures guide



Passage plan appraisal

Have navigation charts been selected from chart catalogue, including: large scale charts for coastal waters appropriate scale charts for ocean passages planning charts routeing, climatic, pilot and load line zone charts Have publications been selected, including: Sailing Directions and pilot books light lists radio signals guides to port entry tide tables and tidal stream atlas Have all navigation charts and publications been corrected up to date, including: the ordering of new charts/publications, if necessary notices to mariners local area warnings NAVAREA navigational warnings Have the following been considered? ships departure and arrival draughts together with any restrictions on underkeel clearance due to squat ships cargo and any special cargo stowage/carriage restrictions if there are any special ship operational requirements for the passage Have the following been checked? planning charts and publications for advice and recommendations on route to be taken climatological information for weather characteristics of the area navigation charts and publications for landfall features navigation charts and publications for Ships Routeing Schemes, Ship Reporting Systems and Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) Has weather routeing been considered for passage? Have the following preparations been made for port arrival? navigation charts and publications studied for pilotage requirements Ship-to-Shore Master/Pilot Exchange form prepared (see annex A1) Pilot Card updated (see annex A3) port guides studied for port information including arrival/berthing restrictions Other checks:


Bridge procedures guide


Navigation in coastal waters

Have the following factors been taken into consideration in preparing the passage plan? advice/recommendations in Sailing Directions ships draught in relation to available water depths effect of squat on underkeel clearance in shallow water tides and currents weather, particularly in areas prone to poor visibility available navigational aids and their accuracy position-fixing methods to be used daylight/night-time passing of danger points traffic likely to be encountered flow, type, volume any requirements for traffic separation/routeing schemes ship security considerations regarding piracy or armed attack Are local/coastal warning broadcasts being monitored? Is participation in area reporting systems recommended including VTS? Is the ships position being fixed at regular intervals? Has equipment been regularly checked/tested, including: gyro/magnetic compass errors manual steering before entering coastal waters if automatic steering has been engaged for a prolonged period radar performance and radar heading line marker alignment echo sounder Is the OOW prepared to use the engines and call a look-out or a helmsman to the bridge? Have all measures been taken to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and to comply with applicable pollution regulations?

Other checks:

Bridge procedures guide



Navigation in ocean waters

Is keeping a look-out being given due priority? Are NAVAREA, HYDROLANT and HYDROPAC navigational warning broadcasts and other long-range weather reports being monitored closely? Are changes in the local weather being monitored and is the barometer observed regularly? Is participation in area reporting systems (e.g. AMVER) recommended? Is the ships position being fixed at regular intervals? Are celestial navigational techniques being practised? Are gyro/magnetic compass errors and radar performance being checked regularly? Have radar techniques been practised (in clear visibility)? Have preparations been made for landfall? Have measures been taken to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and to comply with applicable pollution regulations?

Other checks:


Bridge procedures guide


Anchoring and anchor watch

Has an anchoring plan been prepared taking into account: speed reduction in ample time direction/strength of wind and current tidal stream when manoeuvring at low speeds need for adequate searoom particularly to seaward depth of water, type of seabed and the scope of anchor cable required Have the engine room and anchor party been informed of the time of stand-by for anchoring? Are the anchors, lights/shapes and sound signalling apparatus ready for use? Has the anchor position of the ship been reported to the port authority? While at anchor, the OOW should: determine and plot the ships position on the appropriate chart as soon as practicable when circumstances permit, check at sufficiently frequent intervals whether the ship is remaining securely at anchor by taking bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore objects ensure that proper look-out is maintained ensure that inspection rounds of the ship are made periodically ensure vessel access control precautions are maintained in respect of vessel security observe meteorological and tidal conditions and the state of the sea notify the master and undertake all necessary measures if the ship drags anchor ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and other machinery is in accordance with the masters instructions if visibility deteriorates, notify the master ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound signals are made in accordance with all applicable regulations take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and comply with applicable pollution regulations

Other checks:

Bridge procedures guide



Navigation in restricted visibility

Has the following equipment been checked to ensure that it is fully operational? radar, ARPA or other plotting facilities VHF fog signalling apparatus navigation lights echo sounder, if in shallow waters watertight doors, if fitted Have look-out(s) been posted and is a helmsman on stand-by? Has planning allowed for the provision of additional bridge team personnel if required? Have the master and engine room been informed, and the engines put on stand-by? Are the COLREGS being complied with, particularly with regard to rule 19 and proceeding at a safe speed? Is the ship ready to reduce speed, stop or turn away from danger? If the ships position is in doubt, has the possibility of anchoring been considered?

Other checks:


Bridge procedures guide


Navigation in heavy weather or in tropical storm areas

Have the master, engine room and crew been informed of the conditions? Have all movable objects been secured above and below decks, particularly in the engine room, galley and in storerooms? Has the ships accommodation been secured and all ports and deadlights closed? Have all weather deck openings been secured? Have speed and course been adjusted as necessary? Has the crew been warned to avoid upper deck areas made dangerous by the weather? Have safety lines/hand ropes been rigged where necessary?

Have instructions been issued on the following matters: monitoring weather reports transmitting weather reports to the appropriate authorities or, in the case of tropical storms, danger messages in accordance with SOLAS

Other checks:

Bridge procedures guide



Navigation in ice
Have the master, engine room and crew been informed of the ice conditions? Have watertight doors been shut, as appropriate? Has speed been moderated? Has the frequency of sounding tanks and bilges been increased?

Have instructions been issued on the following matters: monitoring ice advisory service broadcasts transmitting danger messages in accordance with SOLAS

Other checks:


Bridge procedures guide


Changing over the watch

When changing over the watch, relieving officers should personally satisfy themselves regarding the following: standing orders and other special instructions of the master relating to navigation of the ship position, course, speed and draught of the ship prevailing and predicted tides, currents, weather and visibility and the effect of these factors upon course and speed procedures for the use of main engines to manoeuvre when the main engines are on bridge control, and the status of the watchkeeping arrangements in the engine room the ship security status sufficient time has been allowed for night vision to be established and that such vision is maintained navigational situation, including but not limited to: the operational condition of all navigational and safety equipment being used or likely to be used during the watch the errors of gyro and magnetic compasses the presence and movements of ships in sight or known to be in the vicinity the conditions and hazards likely to be encountered during the watch the possible effects of heel, trim, water density and squat on underkeel clearance any special deck work in progress

Other points:

Bridge procedures guide



Calling the master

The OOW should notify the master immediately: if restricted visibility is encountered or expected if traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern if difficulties are experienced in maintaining course on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs of breakdown of the engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear or any essential navigational equipment, alarm or indicator if the radio equipment malfunctions in heavy weather, if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict if any vessel security concerns arise in any other emergency or if in any doubt

Other points:


Bridge procedures guide


Preoperational DP checklist

Ships Name: ................................................................ Date: ................................. Time: ..

Item Computers A B Thrusters 1 2 3 4 5 6 Power and Generators 1 2 3 4 Bus Tie Switch Equipment Class Control Gain Alt Rot Point Wind Sensors Gyros Status Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Running Consequence Analysis Enabled Low/Med/High No Selected 1/2 Available 1 2 3 MRU Printer 1 2 Running Running HDOP Running HDOP Position DGPS 1 Reference Systems 2 Running Running Running Position: Selected Selected Selected Selected MRU Differences Checked Paper OK Diff Available AOD (Sec) Diff Available AOD (Sec) Taut Port Wires Starboard Fan Deployed Beam HPR 1 2 Communications VHF UHF Internal Talkback Weather Forecast Time Received: Signals Displayed 30 Mins Setting Time Complete MCR Checklist Complete Tasks Agreed Permit To Work Ref No: Expiry Time: Running Running Deployed Deployed Range/Brg: Pole Up/Down Pole Up/Down Channels: Listening: Channels: Water Depth: Water Depth: Reflector Location Transponders Deployed Transponders Deployed Working: Tested Tested Tested Tested m m IMCA DQI Factor Outstanding Messages Checked IMCA DQI Factor Gyro Differences Checked Repeater Checked Gyro Alarms Checked Customised/Relaxed Online Online Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled Stand-By Stand-By Stand-By Stand-By Remarks

A/B Difference Messages


Signed: .........................


Bridge procedures guide



Note: These checklists beenincluded a guide. have as It is recommended appropriate that checklists should devrsed suitthe particular be to needs the shiptype of andtrade, takingintoaccount that otherpersonnel passengers be on board. and may It is recommended emergency and on board that drills training should include scenarios incidents with addressed the Emergency in Checklists. During suchdrills andtraining, useof Emergency the Checklists should encouraged increase be to familiarity theiruse. in


Main engine or steering failure

Action to be carried out: Inform master Take action to manoeuvre ship away from danger Prepare for anchoring if in shallow water Exhibit not under command shapes/lights Commence sound signalling Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity, if appropriate Modify AIS status message to communicate relevant information Inform VTS or port authority if in controlled or similarly monitored waters In case of a STEERING FAILURE: Inform engine room Engage emergency steering Prepare engines for manoeuvring Take way off the ship

Other actions:


Bridge procedures guide



Action to be carried out: Sound the general emergency alarm, and carry out a crew muster to check for missing or injured personnel Close watertight doors and automatic fire doors Manoeuvre the ship so as to minimise effects of collision without endangering other ships Switch on deck lighting at night Switch VHF to Channel 16 and, if appropriate, to Channel 13 Muster passengers, if carried, at emergency stations Make ships position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary Sound bilges and tanks after collision Check for fire/damage Take appropriate damage control measures Offer assistance to other ship Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity

Other actions:

Bridge procedures guide



Stranding or grounding

Action to be carried out: Stop engines Sound general emergency alarm, and carry out a crew muster to check for missing or injured personnel Consider use of anchor Close watertight doors, if fitted Switch to high cooling water intakes Maintain a VHF watch on Channel 16 and, if appropriate, on Channel 13 Exhibit lights/shapes and make any appropriate sound signals Switch on deck lighting at night Check hull for damage Sound bilges and tanks Visually inspect compartments, where possible Sound around ship Determine which way deep water lies Determine the nature of the seabed Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly details of the rise and fall of the tide Consider reducing the draught of the ship Consider taking on additional ballast to prevent unwanted movement Make ships position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity

Other actions:


Bridge procedures guide


Man overboard

Actions to be carried out: Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the side the crew member has fallen overboard Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard Note ships position, wind speed and direction, and time Activate GPS man overboard marker Sound three prolonged blasts of the ships whistle and repeat as necessary Post a look-out with binoculars and instructions to maintain a continuous watch on the man overboard Engage hand steering, if helmsman available Commence a recovery manoeuvre, such as a Williamson turn Inform master, if not already on the bridge Inform engine room Hoist signal flag O Place engines on stand-by Muster rescue boats crew, master and coxswain, and jointly assess launch/recovery risks Prepare rescue boat for possible launching Consider alternative means of MOB recovery if launch/recovery of rescue boat considered to be of excessive risk Distribute portable VHF radios for communication Rig pilot ladder/nets to assist in the recovery Make ships position available to radio room/GMDSS station Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected Assume role of On Scene Co-ordinator

Other actions:

Bridge procedures guide




Action to be carried out: Sound the fire alarm Call master if not already on bridge and notify engine room Muster crew Establish communications Check for missing and injured crew members On locating the fire, notify all on board of that location If an engine room fire, prepare for engine failure and manoeuvre ship away from danger Assess fire and determine: The class of fire Appropriate extinguishing agent Appropriate method of attack How to prevent the spread of the fire The necessary personnel and firefighting methods Close down ventilation fans, skylights and all doors including fire and watertight doors Switch on deck lighting at night Make ships position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal or other automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity

Other actions:


Bridge procedures guide



Actions to be carried out: Sound the general emergency alarm Close watertight doors, if fitted Sound bilges and tanks Identify location of incoming water Cut off all electrical power running through the area Shore up area to stem water flow Check bilge pump for operation Check auxiliary pumps for back-up operation, as required Make ships position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity

Other actions:

Bridge procedures guide



Search and rescue

Actions to be carried out: Take bearing of distress message if radio direction finder fitted Re-transmit distress message Maintain continuous listening watch on all distress frequencies Consult IAMSAR manual Establish communications with all other surface units and SAR aircraft involved in the SAR operation Plot position, courses and speeds of other assisting units Monitor X-band radar for locating survival craft transponder (SART) signal using 6 or 12 nautical mile range scales Post extra look-outs for sighting flares and other pyrotechnic signals

Other actions:


Bridge procedures guide


Abandoning ship

Actions to be carried out: Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE on the authority of the master Instruct crew members to put on lifejackets and wear adequate and warm clothing Instruct crew members to put on immersion suits, if carried, if water temperature is below 16 C Order crew members to lifeboat stations Prepare to launch lifeboats/liferafts Ensure that lifeboat sea painters are attached to the ship Embark all crew in the lifeboats/liferafts and launch Ensure lifeboats/liferafts remain in safe proximity to the ship and in contact with each other

Other actions:

Bridge procedures guide


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) n I S l y of G u i d e l i n e s t h e A p p l i c a t i o n t h e l N / O n t e r n a t i o n aa f e t M a n a g e m e ( l tS M C o d e on (I F S Sl a o O on G u i d a n cfe r S h i p p e r a t o r s t h e I M Ol n t e r n a t i o n ah i p n d P o r t a c i l i t ye c u r i t yS P S ) C o d e Systems Management Assessment Development Safety and of P M o d e S h i p e c u r i t yl a n l S Officers for and on Pirates ArmedRobbers: and Guidelines Prevention Masters ShipSecurity A for Peril Sea and Salvage: Guide Masters at r O G u i d e o H e l i c o p t /eS h i p p e r a t t o n s t (ISGOTT) for and International Safety Guide OilTankers Terminals
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