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ENSAYO HISTORIA Y PROBABILIDAD EN SEGUROS.

Nuestro tema de hoy a tratar son los seguros, los cuales los podemos definir como contratos entre una persona o empresa y una empresa que presta el servicio de asegurar, firman y se ponen de acuerdo para que sea pagada ya sea de contado o sea financiada a determinado tiempo.

Para entender mas este tema tenemos que empezar por la historia de los seguros, que de tiempo atrs ha tenido mucha importancia por el hecho de proteger, las personas se han visto en la necesidad de tomar seguros ya que antes existan riesgos que el estado asuma pero poco a poco, con el cambio en las economa y de los dirigentes han hecho que estos riesgos no sean cubierto por el estado sino que el mismo ciudadano ha tenido que asumirlos.

Desde hace mucho tiempo ha existido los seguros, desde Babilonia donde en el cdigo Hammurab se poda observar las diferentes ayudas en cuanto indemnizaciones por accidentes de trabajo, robos en las caravanas , y por perdida de barcos ( cuando sufragaban), en Grecia podemos encontrar en la ley de Rodasse donde todas las personas que transportaban mercanca si llegase a ocurrir algo compartan las perdida, en Roma los militares ayudaban en los gastos funerario de su asociados o indemnizaciones en caso de retiro. Tambin como la creacin de Prstamo a la Gruesa Ventura que era un a los acreedores que si la mercanca llegaba a su destino sin ningn contratiempo la devolvan reconociendo un inters.

Ya entrada la edad media, ya se empezaron a organizar porque el comercio martimo haba crecido y se conformaron las guildas y las tontinas, que reconocan cierta dinero ya sea por muerte, por accidente o simplemente porque acordaban que tenan cierto tiempo de creacin. En el siglo 18 aparecen las primeras instituciones que su objetivo era este fin, asegurar. En 1667 se cre el primer seguro contra incendio y ya en 1686 se crea la primera compaa aseguradora Lloydss en Londres.

In this first step, you will read carefully the presentation of this unit (phrasal verbs have been highlighted in yellow). A full glossary below will help you understand it better. To get information in Spanish, just place the arrow of your mouse on any highlighted word without clicking. The Company is expanding, and the present factory is rapidly becoming too small to cope with the increase in production. Some months ago it was decided that the Company would have to build an extension to the present factory. An architect, Mr. Norman Phillipson, was called in, and given the job. He drew up the plans and the firm applied for an I.D.C., which is granted by the Board of Trade. This was granted provided that the Fuel and Paint Stores were put in a different position. The authorities are very strict in seeing that certain rules are obeyed. Possible dangers to health and safety are carefully considered. When Harper & Grant's new extension is built on to the existing area they will have three more bays, but the present Fuel and Paint Stores would be too near the new extension. As both these materials are highly inflammable, it was considered that a fire could spread to the new extension very easily. The proposed new Paint Store will be protected by the fireproof wall of the main factory. The County Planning Authority will also have to approve the plans. The present Managing Director, Hector Grant, has called a meeting of a committee who are dealing with the new extension, with the architect present, to discuss progress. Mr. Grant is the Chairman in charge of the meeting. Also attending are Peter Wiles, Production Manager; John Martin, Sales Manager, William Buckhurst, the Company Secretary, and Ian Hampden, who is the Personnel Manager. The meeting is just about to begin.
GLOSSARY: to cope with: to satisfy or fulfill (hacer frente a); extension: new building added to an existing one (ampliacin edilicia); to call in: to ask to participate (llamar a alguien para presupuestar o realizar un trabajo); to draw up: composed the basic details for (esbozar, realizar un esbozo o plan de); to apply for: to ask for (solicitar); I.D.C.: Industrial Development Certificate (Certificado de Ampliacin Industrial); to grant: to give (otorgar, conceder); to built on: to add (anexar una construccin); bays: divisions of a factory floor (bahas, plataformas); to spread: to extend (extenderse); fire-proof wall: a wall resistant to fire (muro incombustible, pared a prueba de fuego); Managing Director: a member of the Board of Directors who controls resources and expenditures in the Company (director gerente); to deal with: to occupy with, to manage a problem (ocuparse de, hacerse cargo de); Personnel Manager: a manager in charge of all the employees (the staff), employed by the Company (gerente de personal); just about to begin: starting in a few minutes (a punto de empezar).

In Hector Grant's office)


GRANT ELIZABETH GRANT ELIZABETH GRANT ELIZABETH GRANT ELIZABETH Is the Boardroom ready for the meeting, Miss Corby? Yes, Mr. Grant. Where's the agenda? It's in the folder. Also, a copy of the minutes of the last meeting. I shall need the drawing of the new extension. Where's that? It's in the folder, too. You haven't forgotten anything? I don't think so, Mr. Grant.

(The meeting has just started)


GRANT Well, gentlemen, I don't think we need to read the minutes of the last meeting, as copies of them have already been circulated to you (Murmurs of agreement.) Right. The minutes of the last meeting are taken as read. Now, let's get on. Mr. Wiles, will you report, please, on the result of your interview with the Building Inspector? Yes. The delay in getting bye-law approval was largely owing to the fact that the architect had not supplied detailed plans of the foundations of the new building. I've now given the Building inspector the detailed plans. May I go on, Mr. Grant? Yes, Peter. As you know, at the speed we're growing, I have felt right from the beginning that we ought to have planned a much larger extension. No. We mustn't grow too quickly. Slow but sure is the way this business will grow. But we went over all this in our original discussion, so there's no point in going over it all again. But what will happen, Mr. Grant, when we need to expand again? If we have to build another extension in a year or two it will be exasperating to have to go through all this work again. It's taken a long time to get permission to build, and to reorganise the machine layout, not to mention the building costs, which go up every year. Wouldn't we be saving time and money, if, even at this late date, we build six bays instead of only three? I'd like to have a regional sales office on the new site, too. If there's any additional space, Martin, I need it for production or stores. May I remind you, gentlemen, that the space you are arguing about does not exist. We stick to our present plan. Now, time's getting on. The next item on the agenda is the report from the Personnel Manager about the additional labour that's going to be required. So far, lan, we've had no difficulty in obtaining skilled workers, but is this situation likely to continue or not? Well, the position is this: skilled labour is getting harder to find. There's plenty of unskilled labour, and I think we should start a training programme now. Then, by the time the new extension is ready, we should have the right number of trained men. Let's see. Phillipson, how long will the factory take to build, once we've got our

PETER PHILLIPSON PETER GRANT PETER GRANT

PETER

JOHN PETER GRANT

IAN

GRANT

permission? PHILLIPSON GRANT IAN GRANT If the contractors are very efficient I'd say five months, possibly less. Well, lan, can you produce enough skilled workers in, say, six months from now? Yes, I think so. Very well. I think we all agree that a training programme should be started immediately (Murmurs of assent). Good. You will minute that, Mr. Buckhurst, won't you? Also, that Mr. Hampden will make an estimate of the cost. Now we come to item number three on the agenda. Peter? Our I.D.C. was granted provided the Fuel and Paint Stores were placed in a different position, to avoid the danger of fire. Mr. Phillipson has now proposed that we rebuild the present Managers' garage as a Paint Store. This would be a great saving in time. It's on the other side of the delivery bay, and would halve the time taken to unload and store the stuff. Where shall we put our cars? Well, they can stand in the car park like everyone else's. Just a minute, gentlemen. What is all this going to cost? I propose to extend the present garage to meet the west wall of the delivery bay and knock in a door here. The present Paint Store can then be used for other storage. Splendid. Just what we need. Very well... yes, this does seem a sensible solution. If we are all agreed...? (Murmurs of yes). Right, I presume there is no other business? (Chorus of nos, dont think sos). Very well, the meeting is over. Thank you very much, gentlemen...

PETER

IAN JOHN GRANT PHILLIPSON

PETER GRANT

GLOSSARY & NOTES


Boardroom agenda folder minutes The room in which the board, or group of directors who control a business, meets (sala de directorio). List of points, items, to be discussed at a meeting (agenda). A kind of file in which papers can be kept. Usually the papers are loose (carpeta). A written summary of what is said at a meeting. It is a legal requirement in Great Britain that minutes are kept of board meetings, and all those attending as directors must sign them (minutas de reunin). A phrase used when it is decided not to read the minutes of the last meeting aloud. According to rules governing official meetings, the minutes must be read aloud if they have not previously been circulated (dadas por ledas, se supone que todos estn al tanto). To start (arrancar, comenzar). In Britain, as in most countries, you have to get permission from the local government authority to construct new buildings. The building plans must be submitted and accepted. Later the Building Inspector will come to make sure you build exactly according to the plans (inspector de construcciones). Building bye-laws are rules and regulations drawn up by the government concerning

taken as read

to get on Building Inspector

bye-law

building in the area (estatuto o reglamento). foundations to go on to go over there's no point in to go through machine layout to go up to stick to item on the agenda skilled workers All buildings have foundations; nowadays they usually consist of a concrete raft or metal piles driven deep into the ground (cimientos). To continue (continuar). To check out, to examine (revisar, repasar). It makes no sense (no tiene sentido). To experience (experimentar, volver a pasar). The way in which machines are placed inside a building; the disposition of machines (distribucin de la maquinaria). To increase, to rise (subir, los precios o costos). To keep, to adhere (mantener, respetar). Item means a subject to be discussed; the agenda is the list of these subjects (tema o tpico de la agenda a tratar o discutir). Workers who are expert in some particular general skill, e.g. capstan-lathe setters, press setters, kiln operators or maintenance fitters. They earn more than unskilled workers. Tradesmen are skilled workers in a specific trade, e.g. bricklayers, carpenters, electricians and painters (trabajadores especializados). A plan for training unskilled workers in certain skills (programa de entrenamiento). An outside firm doing a special job under contract. Usually associated with building work (contratistas, especialmente de la construccin). A forecast of the cost of goods or services on which a decision to proceed or not can be made (presupuesto, estimacin). To be finished (dar por terminado, finalizado o concluido).

training programme contractors estimate to be over