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reported speech explicación en castellano

reported speech explicación en castellano

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Published by: Andrea Rodriguez on Nov 14, 2012
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Direct Speech (El estilo directo) Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos el estilo directo

. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas y deberá ser palabra por palabra.

• •

Ejemplos:

Play "I am going to London next week," she said.("Voy a Londres la semana que viene," ella dijo.) • Play "Do you have a pen I could borrow," he asked. ("Tienes un bolígrafo que puedas prestarme," él
preguntó.)

Play Alice said, "I love to dance." (Alice dijo, "Me encanta bailar.") • Play Chris asked, "Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night?" (Chris preguntó,
"Te gustaría cenar conmigo mañana por la noche?")

Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto) El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbal cambia. A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o "whether".
Direct Speech Reported Speech

Present Simple Play "He's American" she said. Play "I'm happy to see you", Mary said. Play He asked, "Are you busy tonight?" Present Continuous Play "Dan is living in San Francisco," she said. Play He said, "I'm making dinner" Play "Why are you working so hard?" they asked. Past Simple Play "We went to the movies last night," he said.

Past Simple Play She said he was American. Play Mary said that she was happy to see me. Play He asked me if I was busy tonight. Past Continuous Play She said Dan was living in San Francisco. Play He told me that he was making dinner. Play They asked me why I was working so hard. Past Perfect Simple Play He told me they had gone to the movies last night.

Play Play Greg said that he hadn't gone to work Greg said, "I didn't go to work yesterday." yesterday. Play Play "Did you buy a new car?" she asked. She asked me if I had bought a new car. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Play Play Vicki told me she'd been working last "I was working late last night," Vicki said. night. Play Play They said that they hadn't been They said, "We weren't waiting long." waitinglong. Play Play He asked, "Were you sleeping when I He asked if I'd been sleeping when he called?" called. Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Play Play Heather said, "I've already eaten." Heather told me that she'd already eaten. Play Play "We haven't been to China," they said. They said they hadn't been to China. Play Play I asked her whether she'd worked there "Have you worked here before?" I asked. before. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Play Play "I've been studying English for two He said he'd been studying English for two years,"he said. years. Play Play Steve said, "We've been dating for over a Steve told me that they'd been dating for year now." over a year. Play Play "Have you been waiting long?" they They asked whether I'd been waiting long. asked. Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE) Play Play "I'd been to Chicago before for work," he He said that he'd been to Chicago before for said. work. Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE) Play Play She said, "I'd been dancing for years She said she'd been dancing for years before the accident." before the accident.
Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (todavía es verdad) o que es en el futuro, no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal.

• •

Ejemplos: Play

"I'm 30 years old," she said. → She said she is 30 years old. • Play Dave said, "Kelly is sick." → Dave said Kelly is sick. • Play "We are going to Tokyo next week," they said. → They said they are going to Tokyo next week. • Play "I'll cut my hair tomorrow," Nina said. → Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow. Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales) El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto también con algunos de los verbos modales:
Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Will

Would Play Play John said he would "I'll go to the movies go to the movies tomorrow," John said. tomorrow. Play Play She asked "Will you help me me if I would move?" she asked. help her move. Can Could Play Play Debra said Debra said, "Allen can Allen could work tomorrow." work tomorrow. Play Play He asked "Can you open the window, me if I could please?", he asked. open the window. Must Had to Play Play My mom said I had "You must wear your to wear my seatbelt," mom said. seatbelt. Play Play She said, "You must She said I had to work tomorrow." work tomorrow. Shall Should Play Play Tom "Shall we go to the beach asked if we should today?" Tom asked. go to the beach today. Play Play

She asked me what "What shall we do tonight?" we should she asked. do tonight. May Might/Could Play Play Jane said she might Jane said, "I may not be in not be in class class tomorrow." tomorrow. Play Play The boy "May I use the bathroom, asked if he could please?" the boy asked. use the bathroom.
Nota: Con "would", "could", "should", "might" y "ought to", el tiempo no cambia.

Say vs. Tell En español podemos traducir "say"o "tell" como "decir", pero en inglés se usan estos verbos de maneras distintas. Hay unas reglas que indican el uso de uno sobre el otro en inglés, aunque en general usamos "say" para "decir algo" y "tell" para "decir algo a alguien."

Say Se usa "say" en el estilo directo y el indirecto. Si queremos usar "say" con un objeto personal, necesitamos usar el preposicion "to".

• • •

Ejemplos: Estilo directo

Play "I'm hungry," he said. ("Tengo hambre," él dijo.) • Play "I need your help," Glen said to Mike. ("Necesito tu ayuda," Glen dijo a Mike.) • Play She said, "Do you like to dance?" (Ella dijo, "¿Te gusta bailar?")

• •

Estilo indirecto

Play He said he was hungry. (Él dijo que tenía hambre.) • Play Glen said to Mike that he needed his help. (Glen dijo a Mike que necesitaba su ayuda.) • Play She asked me if I liked to dance. (Me preguntó si me gustaba bailar.)

Tell También se puede usar "tell" con el estilo directo y el indirecto, aunque el uso con el estilo directo no es tan común. Cuando usamos "tell" necesitamos usar un objeto indirecto que va detrás del verbo.

• • •

Ejemplos: Estilo directo Play

He told me, "I'm hungry." (Me dijo, "Tengo hambre.") • Play Glen told Mike, "I need your help." (Glen dijo a Mike, "Necesito to ayuda.")

• •

Estilo indirecto

Play He told me that he was hungry. (Me dijo que tenía hambre.) • Play Glen told Mike that he needed his help. (Glen dijo a Mike que necesitaba su ayuda.) Otros usos de "tell": 1. Se usa "tell" con ordenes o instrucciones.

o o

Ejemplos:

Play I told him, "Stop complaining." (Le dije, "Deja de quejarte.") o Play She told us to hurry. (Nos dijo que nos diéramos prisa.) 2. Usamos "tell" cuando damos o pedimos información.

o o

Ejemplos:

Play "Can you tell me your name please." ("Díme tu nombre, por favor.") o Play You told him the address of the office? (¿Le dijiste la dirección de la oficina?) 3. Se usa "tell" con cuentos o bromas. En esto caso, se puede traducir "tell" como "contar" en español.

o o

Ejemplos:

Play He told us a great story. (Nos contó un cuento maravilloso.) o Play "Tell me a joke," she said. ("Cuéntame un chiste," dijo ella.) 4. Con la verdad y las mentiras, se usa "tell."

o o

Ejemplos:

Play "Tell me the truth," she said. ("Dime la verdad," dijo ella.) o Play Keith never tells lies. (Keith nunca miente.) 5. Usamos "tell" con el tiempo o la fecha.

o o

Ejemplos:

Play "Could you tell me the time, please?" she asked. ("Podrías decirme la hora, por favor?" me
preguntó.)

Play Bob told me the date. (Bob me dijo la fecha.)

o

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