CENTRE OF MASS
CENTRE OF MASS
Every physical system has associated with it a certain point whose motion characterises the motion of
the whole system. When the system moves under some external forces, then this point moves as if the
entire mass of the system is concentrated at this point and also the external force is applied at this
point for translational motion. This point is called the centre of mass of the system.
CENTRE OF MASS OF A SYSTEM OF 'N' DISCRETE PARTICLES
Consider a system of N point masses m
1
, m
2
, m
3
, ................ m
n
whose
position vectors from origin O are given by
1
r
,
2
r
,
3
r
,...............
n
r
=
n 2 1
n n 2 2 1 1
m ........ m m
r m ........ r m r m
+ + +
+ + +
;
cm
r
=
=
n
1 i
i
n
1 i
i i
m
r m
cm
r
=
M
1
=
n
1 i
i i
r m
where,
i i
r m
is called the moment of mass of the particle w.r.t O.
M =


.

\

=
n
1 i
i
m
is the total mass of the system.
Note: If the origin is taken at the centre of mass then
=
n
1 i
i i
r m
=0. hence, the COM is the point about which
the sum of mass moments of the system is zero.
POSI TI ON OF COM OF TWO PARTI CLES
Centre of mass of two particles of masses m
1
and m
2
separated by a distance r lies in between the
two particles. The distance of centre of mass from any of the particle (r) is inversely proportional
to the mass of the particle (m)
i.e. r 1/m
or
2
1
r
r
=
1
2
m
m
or m
1
r
1
= m
2
r
2
or r
1
=


.

\

+
1 2
2
m m
m
r and r
2
=


.

\

+
2 1
1
m m
m
r
Here, r
1
= distance of COM from m
1
and r
2
= distance of COM from m
2
From the above discussion, we see that
r
1
= r
2
= 1/2 if m
1
= m
2
, i.e., COM lies midway between the two particles of equal masses.
Similarly, r
1
> r
2
if m
1
< m
2
and r
1
< r
2
if m
2
< m
1
, i.e., COM is nearer to the particle having larger
mass.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  2
Example 1. Two particles of mass 1 kg and 2 kg are located at x = 0 and x = 3 m. Find the position of their
centre of mass.
Solution :
Since, both the particles lies on xaxis, the COM will also lie on xaxis. Let the COM is
located at x = x, then
r
1
= distance of COM from the particle of mass 1 kg = x
and r
2
= distance of COM from the particle of mass 2 kg = (3 x)
Using
2
1
r
r
=
1
2
m
m
or
x 3
x
=
1
2
or x = 2 m
Thus, the COM of the two particles is located at x = 2 m. Ans.
Example 2. The position vector of three particles of masses m
1
= 1 kg, m
2
= 2 kg and m
3
= 3 kg are
m ) k
4 i
( r
1
+ + =
, m ) k
( r
2
+ + =
and m ) k
2 j
2 ( r
3
=
2 j
3)(2 ( ) k
( (2) ) k
4 i
( (1)
r
COM
+ +
+ + + + + +
=
m ) k
3 (
2
1
+ = Ans.
Example 3. Four particles of mass 1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg and 4 kg are placed at the four vertices A, B, C and D
of a square of side 1 m. Find the position of centre of mass of the particles.
Solution :
Assuming D as the origin, DC as x axis and DA as yaxis, we have
m
1
= 1 kg, (x
1
, y
1
) = (0, 1m)
m
2
= 2 kg, (x
2
, y
2
) = (1m, 1m)
m
3
= 3 kg, (x
3
, y
3
) = (1m, 0)
and m
4
= 4 kg, (x
4
, y
4
) = (0, 0)
Coordinates of their COM are
x
COM
=
4 3 2 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
m m m m
x m m m x m x m
+ + +
+ + +
=
4 3 2 1
) 0 ( 4 ) 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( 2 ) 0 )( 1 (
+ + +
+ + +
=
10
5
=
2
1
m = 0.5 m
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  3
Similarly, y
COM
=
4 3 2 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
m m m m
y m y m y m y m
+ + +
+ + +
=
4 3 2 1
) 0 ( 4 ) 0 ( 3 ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 )( 1 (
+ + +
+ + +
=
10
3
= 0.3 m
(x
COM
, y
COM
) = (0.5 m, 0.3 m) Ans.
Thus, position of COM of the four particles is as shown in figure.
Example 4. Consider a twoparticle system with the particles having masses m
1
and m
2
. If the first particle
is pushed towards the centre of mass through a distance d, by what distance should the
second particle be moved so as to keep the centre of mass at the same position?
Solution :
Consider figure. Suppose the distance of m
1
from the centre of mass C is x
1
and that of m
2
from
C is x
2
. Suppose the mass m
2
is moved through a distance d' towards C so as to keep the
centre of mass at C.
Then, m
1
x
1
= m
2
x
2
.........(i)
and m
1
(x
1
d) = m
2
(x
2
d'). .........(ii)
Subtracting (ii) from (i)
m
1
d = m
2
d'
or, d' =
2
1
m
m
d,
CENTRE OF MASS OF A CONTINUOUS MASS DISTRIBUTION
For continuous mass distribution the centre of mass can be located by replacing summation sign with an
integral sign. Proper limits for the integral are chosen according to the situation
x
cm
=
}
}
dm
dm x
, y
cm
=
}
}
dm
dm y
, z
cm
=
}
}
dm
dm z
} dm = M (mass of the body) x = x component of centre of mass of element
cm
r
=
M
1
}
dm r
.
Note: If an object has symmetric mass distribution about x axis then y coordinate of COM is zero and
viceversa
CENTRE OF MASS OF A UNI FORM ROD
Suppose a rod of mass M and length L is lying along the xaxis with its one end at x = 0 and the
other at x = L. Mass per unit length of the rod =
L
M
Hence, dm, (the mass of the element dx situated at x = x is) =
L
M
dx
The coordinates of the element dx are (x, 0, 0). Therefore, xcoordinate of COM of the rod will be
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  4
x
COM
=
}
}
dm
dm x
L
0
x=L x=x
x=0
dx
=
M
dx
L
M
) x (
L
0
}

.

\

=
}
=
L
0 2
L
dx x
L
1
The ycoordinate of COM is
y
COM
=
}
}
dm
dm y
= 0
Similarly, z
COM
= 0
i.e., the coordinates of COM of the rod are

.

\

0 , 0 ,
2
L
, i.e. it lies at the centre of the rod.
Example 5. A rod of length L is placed along the xaxis between x = 0 and x = L. The linear density (mass/length)
of the rod varies with the distance x from the origin as = Rx. Here, R is a positive constant. Find
the position of centre of mass of this rod.
Solution :
Mass of element dx situated at x = x is
dm = dx = Rx dx
The COM of the element has coordinates (x, 0, 0).
Therefore, xcoordinate of COM of the rod will be
x=L x=x x=0
dx
y
x
x
COM
=
}
}
dm
dm x
L
0
=
}
}
L
0
L
0
dx ) Rx (
dx ) Rx )( x (
=
}
}
L
0
L
0
2
dx x R
dx x R
=
3
L 2
2
x
3
x
L
0
2
L
0
3
=
(
(
(
(
0 , 0 ,
3
L 2
Ans.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  5
CENTRE OF MASS OF A SEMI CI RCULAR RI NG
Figure shows the object (semi circular ring). By observation we can say that the xcoordinate of
the centre of mass of the ring is zero as the half ring is symmetrical abnout yaxis on both sides
of the origin. Only we are required to find the ycoordinate of the centre of mass.
Y
y
cm
u
du
y=Rsinu
Rdu
X
To find y
cm
we use y
cm
=
M
1
}
y dm
...(i)
Here for dm we consider an elemental arc of the ring at an angle u from the xdirection of angular
width du. If radius of the ring is R then its y coordinate will be R sinu, here dm is given as
dm =
R
M
t
R du
So from equation (i), we have
y
cm
=
M
1
u
t
}
t
Rd
R
M
0
(R sinu) =
t
R
u u
}
t
d sin
0
y
cm
=
t
R 2
...(ii)
CENTRE OF MASS OF SEMI CI RCULAR DI SC
Figure shows the half disc of mass M and radius R. Here, we are only required to find the y
coordinate of the centre of mass of this disc as centre of mass will be located on its half vertical
diameter. Here to find y
cm
, we consider a small elemental ring of mass dm of radius x on the disc
(disc can be considered to be made up such thin rings of increasing radii) which will be integrated
from 0 to R. Here dm is given as
dm =
2
R
M 2
t
(t x)dx
Y
y
cm
X
R
dx
x
Now the ycoordinate of the element is taken as
t
x 2
, as in previous section, we have derived that
the centre of mass of a semi circular ring is concentrated at
t
R 2
Here y
cm
is given as y
cm
=
M
1
}
R
0
dm
t
x 2
=
M
1
}
t
R
0
2
2
dx x
R
M 4
y
cm
=
t 3
R 4
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  6
1. Centre of mass of a uniform rectangular, square or circular plate lies at its centre. Axis of symme
try plane of symmetry.
2. For a laminar type (2dimensional) body with uniform negligible thickness the formulae for finding
the position of centre of mass are as follows :
.... t A t A
.... r t A r t A
.... m m
.... r m r m
r
2 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
( m = At)
or
.... A A
.... r A r A
r
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
+ +
+ +
=
or
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
A A
r A r A
r
(ii)
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
m m
x m x m
x
=
or
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
A A
x A x A
x
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
m m
y m y m
y
=
or
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
A A
y A y A
y
=
and
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
m m
z m z m
z
=
or
2 1
2 2 1 1
COM
A A
z A z A
z
=
Here, m
1
, A
1
,
1
r
, x
1
, y
1
and z
1
are the values for the whole mass while m
2
, AA
2
,
2
r
,
2
x
, y
2
and z
2
are the values
for the mass which has been removed. Let us see two examples in support of the above theory.
Example 6. Find the position of centre of mass of the uniform lamina shown in figure.
X
a
O
Y
Solution : Here,
A
1
= area of complete circle = ta
2
A
2
= area of small circle = t
2
2
a

.

\

=
4
a
2
t
(x
1
, y
1
) = coordinates of centre of mass of large circle = (0, 0)
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  7
and (x
2
, y
2
) = coordinates of centre of mass of small circle =

.

\

0 ,
2
a
Using x
COM
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
A A
x A x A
we get x
COM
=
4
a
a
2
a
4
a
2
2
2
t
t

.

\
 t
=

.

\


.

\

4
3
8
1
a =
6
a
and y
COM
= 0 as y
1
and y
2
both are zero.
Therefore, coordinates of COM of the lamina shown in figure are 
.

\

0 ,
6
a
Ans.
CENTRE OF MASS OF SOME COMMON SYSTEMS
A system of two point masses m
1
r
1
= m
2
r
2
The centre of mass lies closer to the heavier mass.
Rectangular plate (By symmetry)
x
c
=
2
b
y
c
=
2
L
A triangular plate (By qualitative argument)
at the centroid : y
c
=
3
h
A semicircular ring
y
c
=
t
R 2
x
c
= 0
A semicircular disc
y
c
=
t 3
R 4
x
c
= 0
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  8
A hemispherical shell
y
c
=
2
R
x
c
= 0
A solid hemisphere
y
c
=
8
R 3
x
c
= 0
A circular cone (solid)
y
c
=
4
h
A circular cone (hollow)
y
c
=
3
h
Example 7. A uniform thin rod is bent in the form of closed loop ABCDEFA as shown in the figure. The y
coordinate of the centre of mass of the system is
(A)
t
r 2
(B)
2 3
r 6
+ t
(C)
t
r 2
(D) Zero
Ans. (B)
Solution. The centre of mass of semicircular ring is at a distance
t
r 2
from its centre. (Let = mass/
length)
Y
cm
=
2 3
r 6
r 2 r r r
r 4
r 2
r 2
r
+ t
=
t + + + t
t
t
t
t
MOTI ON OF CENTRE OF MASS AND CONSERVATI ON OF MOMENTUM :
Velocity of centre of mass of system
cm
v
=
M
dt
r d
m .... ..........
dt
r d
m
dt
r d
m
dt
r d
m
n
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
+ + +
=
M
v m .......... v m v m v m
n n 3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + +
Here numerator of the right hand side term is the total momentum of the system i.e., summation
of momentum of the individual component (particle) of the system
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  9
Hence velocity of centre of mass of the system is the ratio of momentum of the system to the mass of the
system.
System
P
= M
cm
v
=
M
dt
v d
m .... ..........
dt
v d
m
dt
v d
m
dt
v d
m
n
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
+ + +
=
M
a m .......... a m a m a m
n n 3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + +
=
M
system on force Net
=
M
Force ernal int Net Force External Net +
=
M
Force External Net
(action and reaction both of an internal force must be within the system. Vector summation will
cancel all internal forces and hence net internal force on system is zero)
ext
F
= M
cm
a
where
ext
F
is the sum of the 'external' forces acting on the system. The internal forces which the
particles exert on one another play absolutely no role in the motion of the centre of mass.
If no external force is acting on a system of particles, the acceleration of centre of mass of the
system will be zero. If a
c
= 0, it implies that v
c
must be a constant and if v
cm
is a constant, it
implies that the total momentum of the system must remain constant. It leads to the principal of
conservation of momentum in absence of external forces.
If 0 F
ext
=
then
cm
v
= constant
If resultant external force is zero on the system, then the net momentum of the system
must remain constant.
Moti on of COM i n a movi ng system of parti cl es:
(1) COM at rest :
If F
ext
= 0 and V
cm
= 0, then COM remains at rest. Individual components of the system may
move and have nonzero momentum due to mutual forces (internal), but the net momentum of
the system remains zero.
(i) All the particles of the system are at rest.
(ii) Particles are moving such that their net momentum is zero.
example:
(iii) A bomb at rest suddenly explodes into various smaller fragments, all moving in different directions
then, since the explosive forces are internal & there is no external force on the system for explo
sion therefore, the COM of the bomb will remain at the original position and the fragment fly such
that their net momentum remains zero.
(iv) Two men standing on a frictionless platform, push each other, then also their net momentum
remains zero because the push forces are internal for the two men system.
(v) A boat floating in a lake, also has net momentum zero if the people on it changes their position,
because the friction force required to move the people is internal of the boat system.
(vi) Objects initially at rest, if moving under mutual forces (electrostatic or gravitation)also have net
momentum zero.
(vii) A light spring of spring constant k kept compressed between two blocks of masses m
1
and
m
2
on a smooth horizontal surface. When released, the blocks acquire velocities in oppo
site directions, such that the net momentum is zero.
(viii) In a fan, all particles are moving but COM is at rest
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  10
(2) COM moving with uniform velocity :
If F
ext
= 0, then V
cm
remains constant therefore, net momentum of the system also remains
conserved. Individual components of the system may have variable velocity and momentum due to
mutual forces (internal), but the net momentum of the system remains constant and COM contin
ues to move with the initial velocity.
(i) All the particles of the system are moving with same velocity.
e.g.: A car moving with uniform speed on a straight road, has its COM moving with a
constant velocity.
(ii) Internal explosions / breaking does not change the motion of COM and net momentum
remains conserved. A bomb moving in a straight line suddenly explodes into various smaller
fragments, all moving in different directions then, since the explosive forces are internal & there is
no external force on the system for explosion therefore, the COM of the bomb will continue the
original motion and the fragment fly such that their net momentum remains conserved.
(iii) Man jumping from cart or buggy also exert internal forces therefore net momentum of the
system and hence, Motion of COM remains conserved.
(iv) Two moving blocks connected by a light spring on a smooth horizontal surface. If the
acting forces is only due to spring then COM will remain in its motion and momentum will
remain conserved.
(v) Particles colliding in absence of external impulsive forces also have their momentum con
served.
(3) COM moving with acceleration :
If an external force is present then COM continues its original
motion as if the external force is acting on it, irrespective of
internal forces.
Example:
Projectile motion : An axe thrown in air at an angle u with the
hor i zont al wi l l per f or m a compl i cat ed mot i on of
rotat i on as wel l as parabol i c moti on under the ef f ect of
gravitation
H
com
=
g 2
sin u
2 2
u
R
com
=
g
2 sin u
2
u
T =
g
sin u 2 u
Example:
Circular Motion : A rod hinged at an end, rotates, than its
COM performs circular motion. The centripetal force (F
c
)
required in the circular motion is assumed to be acting on
the COM.
COM
2
c
R m F =
mg
mg
mg
F
c
F
c
F
c
mg
F
c
R
com
e
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  11
Example 8. A projectile is fired at a speed of 100 m/s at an angle of 37 above the horizontal. At the highest point,
the projectile breaks into two parts of mass ratio 1 : 3, the lighter piece coming to rest. Find the
distance from the launching point to the point where the heavier piece lands.
Solution : Internal force do not effect the motion of the centre of mass, the centre of mass hits the
ground at the position where the original projectile would have landed. The range of the
original projectile is,
x
COM
=
g
cos sin u 2
2
u u
= m
10
5
4
5
3
10 2
4
= 960 m
The centre of mass will hit the ground at this position. As the smaller block comes to rest
after breaking, it falls down vertically and hits the ground at half of the range, i.e., at x =
480 m. If the heavier block hits the ground at x
2
, then
x
COM
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
m m
x m x m
+
+
960 =
) m 3 m (
) x )( m 3 ( ) 480 )( m (
2
+
+
x
2
= 1120 m Ans.
Momentum Conservation :
The total linear momentum of a system of particles is equal to the product of the total mass of the
system and the velocity of its centre of mass. P
= M
cm
v
ext
F
=
dt
dP
If
ext
F
= 0
dt
dP
= 0 ;
P
= constant
When the vector sum of the external forces acting on a system is zero, the total linear momentum of
the system remains constant.
1
P
+
2
P
+
3
P
+ ...............+
n
P
= constant.
Example 9. A shell is fired from a cannon with a speed of 100 m/s at an angle 60 with the horizontal (positive x
direction). At the highest point of its trajectory, the shell explodes into two equal fragments. One of
the fragments moves along the negative xdirection with a speed of 50 m/s. What is the speed of the
other fragment at the time of explosion.
Solution :
As we know in absence of external force the motion of centre of mass of a body remains
uneffected. Thus, here the centre of mass of the two fragments will continue to follow the
original projectile path. The velocity of the shell at the highest point of trajectory is
v
M
= ucosu = 100 cos60 = 50 m/s.
Let v
1
be the speed of the fragment which moves along the negative xdirection and the
other fragment has speed v
2
,. which must be along positive xdirection. Now from momen
tum conservation, we have
mv =
2
m
v
1
+
2
m
v
2
or 2v = v
2
v
1
or v
2
= 2v + v
1
= (2 50) + 50 = 150 m/s
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  12
Example 10. A man of mass m is standing on a platform of mass M kept on smooth ice. If the man starts moving
on the platform with a speed v relative to the platform, with what velocity relative to the ice does the
platform recoil ?
Solution :
Consider the situation shown in figure. Suppose the man moves at a speed w towards right and
the platform recoils at a speed V towards left, both relative to the ice. Hence, the speed of the
man relative to the platform is V + w. By the question,
V + w = v, or w = v V .............(i)
w
V
/////////////////////////////////////////////////
ice
Taking the platform and the man to be the system, there is no
external horizontal force on the system. The linear momentum
of the system remains constant. Initially both the man and the
platform were at rest. Thus,
0 = MV  mw or, MV = m (v V) [Using (i)]
or, V =
m M
mv
+
.
Example 11. A flat car of mass M is at rest on a frictionless floor with a child of mass m standing at its edge. If
child jumps off from the car towards right with an initial velocity u, with respect to the car, find the
velocity of the car after its jump.
Solution :
Let car attains a velocity v, and the net velocity of the child with respect to earth will be
u v, as u is its velocity with respect to car.
m
M
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
u
v
M
m
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
Initially, the system was at rest, thus according to momentum conservation, momentum
after jump must be zero, as
m (u v) = M v
v =
M m
mu
+
Example 12. In a free space a rifle of mass M shoots a bullet of mass m at a stationary block of mass M
distance D away from it. When the bullet has moved through a distance d towards the block
the centre of mass of the bulletblock system is at a distance of :
(A)
( ) D d m
M m
+
from the block (B)
md MD
M m
+
+
from the rifle
(C)
2 d m DM
M m
+
+
from the rifle (D) (D d)
M
M m +
from the bullet
Ans. (A,B,D)
Solution.
d x
Ddx
D
COM
Bullet
of mass(m)
Block
M
Rifle
As; Mx = m(D d x)
x =
m M
) d D ( m
+
m/sec.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  14
Example 17. Each of the blocks shown in figure has mass 1 kg. The rear block moves with a speed of
2 m/s towards the front block kept at rest. The spring attached to the front block is light and
has a spring constant 50 N/m. Find the maximum compression of the spring. Assume, on a
friction less surface
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
1kg 1kg
k=50N/m
Solution :
Maximum compression will take place when the blocks move with equal velocity. As no net
external horizontal force acts on the system of the two blocks, the total linear momentum will
remain constant. If V is the common speed at maximum compression, we have,
(1 kg) (2 m/s) = (1 kg)V + (1 kg)V
or, V = 1 m/s.
Initial kinetic energy =
2
1
(1 kg) (2 m/s)
2
= 2 J.
Final kinetic energy
=
2
1
(1 kg) (1m/s)
2
+
2
1
(1 kg) (1 m/s)
2
= 1 J
The kinetic energy lost is stored as the elastic energy in the spring.
Hence,
2
1
(50 N/m) x
2
= 2J 1J = 1 J
or, x = 0.2 m.
Example 18. Figure shows two blocks of masses 5 kg and 2 kg placed on a frictionless surface and con
nected with a spring. An external kick gives a velocity 14 m/s to the heavier block towards the
lighter one. Deduce (a) velocity gained by the centre of mass and (b) the separate velocities of
the two blocks with respect to centre of mass just after the kick.
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
5kg 2kg
Solution : (a) Velocity of centre of mass is
v
cm
=
2 5
0 2 14 5
+
+
= 10 m/s
(b) Due to kick on 5 kg block, it starts moving with a velocity 14 m/s immediately, but
due to inertia 2 kg block remains at rest, at that moment. Thus, velocity of 5 kg
block with respect to the centre of mass is v
1
= 14 10 = 4 m/s and the velocity
of 2 kg block w.r.t. to centre of mass is v
2
= 0 10 = 10 m/s
Example 19. The two blocks A and B of same mass connected to a spring and placed on a smooth surface. They
are given velocities (as shown in the figure) when the spring is in its natural length :
(A) the maximum velocity of B will be 10 m/s
(B) the maximum velocity of B will be greater than 10 m/s
(C) the spring will have maximum extension when A and B both stop
(D) the spring will have maximum extension when both move towards left.
Ans. (A)
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  15
Solution. Suppose B moves with a velocity more than 10 m/s a should move at a velocity greater than 5
m/s and increases the overall energy which is not possible since there is no external force
acting on the system. Hence B should move with a maximum velocity 10 m/s.
Also both A and B can never stop so as to keep the momentum constant.
Also both A and B can never move towards left simultaneously for momentum remaining con
served.
Hence only (A) is correct.
I MPULSE
Impulse of a force F
=
}
2
1
t
t
dt F
=
}
dt F
=
}
dt
v d
m
dt =
}
v d m
I
= m(
1 2
v  v
) = P
= change in momentum due to force
F
Also,
s Re
I
=
}
2
1
t
t
s Re
dt F
= P
(impulse  momentum theorem)
Note: Impulse applied to an object in a given time interval can also be
calculated from the area under force time (Ft) graph in the same
time interval.
Instantaneous Impulse :
There are many cases when a force acts for such a short time that the effect is instantaneous,
e.g., a bat striking a ball. In such cases, although the magnitude of the force and the time for
which it acts may each be unknown but the value of their product (i.e., impulse) can be known by
measuring the initial and final momenta. Thus, we can write.
i f
P P P dt F
= A = = I
}
Important Points :
(1) It is a vector quantity.
(2) Dimensions = [MLT
1
]
(3) SI unit = kg m/s
(4) Direction is along change in momentum.
(5) Magnitude is equal to area under the Ft. graph.
(6)
I
=
}
dt F
=
av
F
}
dt
= t F
av
A
(7) It is not a property of a particle, but it is a measure of the degree to which an external force
changes the momentum of the particle.
Example 20. The hero of a stunt film fires 50 g bullets from a machine gun, each at a speed of 1.0 km/s. If
he fires 20 bullets in 4 seconds, what average force does he exert against the machine gun
during this period.
Solution : The momentum of each bullet
= (0.050 kg) (1000 m/s) = 50 kgm/s.
The gun has been imparted this much amount of momentum by each bullet fired. Thus, the rate
of change of momentum of the gun
=
s 4
20 ) s / m kg 50 (
= 250 N.
In order to hold the gun, the hero must exert a force of 250 N against the gun.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  16
Impulsive force :
A force, of relatively higher magnitude and acting for relatively shorter time, is called impulsive force.
An impulsive force can change the momentum of a body in a finite magnitude in a very short time
interval. Impulsive force is a relative term. There is no clear boundary between an impulsive and Non
Impulsive force.
Note: Usually colliding forces are impulsive in nature.
Since, the application time is very small, hence, very little motion of the particle takes place.
Important points :
1. Gravitational force and spring force are always nonImpulsive.
2. Normal, tension and friction are case dependent.
3. An impulsive force can only be balanced by another impulsive force.
1. Impulsive Normal : In case of collision, normal forces at the surface of collision are always impulsive
eg. N
i
= Impulsive; N
g
= Nonimpulsive
N
1
N
2
/////////////////////////////
Both normals are Impulsive
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
N
2
N
3
N
1
N
1
N
1
, N
3
= Impulsive; N
2
= nonimpulsive
Both normals are Impulsive
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  17
2. Impulsive Friction : If the normal between the two objects is impulsive, then the friction between the
two will also be impulsive.
Friction at both surfaces is impulsive
Friction due to N
2
is nonimpulsive and due to N
3
and N
1
are impulsive
3. Impulsive Tensions : When a string jerks, equal and opposite tension act suddenly at each
end. Consequently equal and opposite impulses act on the bodies attached with the string in the
direction of the string. There are two cases to be considered.
(a) One end of the string is fixed :
The impulse which acts at the fixed end of the string cannot change the momentum of the
fixed object there. The object attached to the free end however will undergo a change in
momentum in the direction of the string. The momentum remains unchanged in a direction
perpendicular to the string where no impulsive forces act.
(b) Both ends of the string attached to movable objects :
In this case equal and opposite impulses act on
the two obj ects, produci ng equal and opposi te
changes in momentum. The total momentum of the
system therefore remains constant, although the
momentum of each individual obj ect is changed in
the direction of the string. Perpendicular to the string
however, no impulse acts and the momentum of each
particle in this direction is unchanged.
///////////////////
All normal are impulsive but tension
T is impulsive only for the ball A
T
T is Impulsive
T is nonimpulsive
T is nonimpulsive
A
B
C
For this example:
In case of rod, Tension is always impulsive and in case of spring, Tension is always nonimpulsive.
Example 21. Two identical block A and B, connected by a massless string are placed on a frictionless horizontal
plane. A bullet having same mass, moving with speed u strikes block B from behind as shown. If the
bullet gets embedded into the block B then find :
A B
m u
C
m m
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
(a) The velocity of A,B,C after collision.
(b) Impulse on A due to tension in the string
(c) Impulse on C due to normal force of collision.
(d) Impulse on B due to normal force of collision.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  18
Solution : (a) By Conservation of linear momentum v =
3
u
(b)
3
mu
dt T =
}
(c)

.

\

=
}
u
3
u
m dt N
=
3
mu 2
(d)
}
dt ) T N (
=
3
mu
dt T Ndt =
} }
3
mu 2
dt N =
}
COLLISION OR IMPACT
Collision is an event in which an impulsive force acts between two or more bodies for a short time,
which results in change of their velocities.
Note : (a) In a collision, particles may or may not come in physical contact.
(b) The duration of collision, At is negligible as compared to the usual time intervals of observation
of motion.
(c) In a collision the effect of external non impulsive forces such as gravity are not taken into a
account as due to small duration of collision (At) average impulsive force responsible for colli
sion is much larger than external forces acting on the system.
The collision is infact a redistribution of total momentum of the particles. Thus, law of
conservation of linear momentum is indispensable in dealing with the phenomenon of collision
between particles.
Line of Impact
The line passing through the common normal to the surfaces in contact during impact is called line of
impact. The force during collision acts along this line on both the bodies.
Direction of Line of impact can be determined by:
(a) Geometry of colliding objects like spheres, discs, wedge etc.
(b) Direction of change of momentum.
If one particle is stationary before the collision then the line of impact will be along its motion after
collision.
Classification of collisions
(a) On the basis of line of impact
(i) Headon collision : If the velocities of the colliding particles are along the same line before
and after the collision.
(ii) Oblique collision : If the velocities of the colliding particles are along different lines before
and after the collision.
(b) On the basis of energy :
(i) Elastic collision : In an elastic collision, the colliding particles regain their shape and size
completely after collision. i.e., no fraction of mechanical energy remains stored as defor
mation potential energy in the bodies. Thus, kinetic energy of system after collision is equal
to kinetic energy of system before collision. Thus in addition to the linear momentum, ki
netic energy also remains conserved before and after collision.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  19
(ii) Inelastic collision : In an inelastic collision, the colliding particles do not regain their shape
and size completely after collision. Some fraction of mechanical energy is retained by the
colliding particles in the form of deformation potential energy. Thus, the kinetic energy of
the particles after collision is not equal to that of before collision. However, in the absence
of external forces, law of conservation of linear momentum still holds good.
(iii) Perfectly inelastic : If velocity of separation along the line of impact just after collision be
comes zero then the collision is perfectly inelastic. Col li sion i s sai d to be perfectly
inelastic if both the particles stick together after collision and move with same velocity,
Note : Actually collision between all real objects are neither perfectly elastic nor perfectly inelastic, its inelas
tic in nature.
Exampl es of l i ne of i mpact and col l i si ons based on l i ne of i mpact
(i) Two balls A and B are approaching each other such that their centres are moving along line CD.
Head on Collision
(ii) Two balls A and B are approaching each other such that their centre are moving along dotted lines as shown
in figure.
Oblique Collision
(iii) Ball is falling on a stationary wedge.
Oblique Collision
COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION (e)
The coef f i ci ent of rest i tut i on i s def i ned as the rati o of t he i mpul ses of ref ormati on and
deformation of either body.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  20
e =
n deformatio of pulse Im
n reformatio of pulse Im
=
}
}
dt F
dt F
d
r
=
impact of line along approach of Velocity
impact of line along seperation of Velocity
The most general expression for coefficient of restitution is
e =
impact of line along contact of point of approach of velocity
impact of line along contact of points of separation of velocity
Example for calculation of e
Two smooth balls A and B approaching each other such that their centres are moving along line CD in
absence of external impulsive force. The velocities of A and B just before collision be u
1
and u
2
respectively.
The velocities of A and B just after collision be v
1
and v
2
respectively.
Line of impact
u
1
u
2
Just Before collision
C D
A B
Line of impact
v
1
v
2
Just After collision
C D
A
B
ND
m
1
N
D
m
2
u
1
u
2
N
R
m
1
N
R
m
2
v
v
m
1
m
2
v
1
v
2
Deformation Reformation
u > u
1 2
v < v
1 2
F
ext
= 0 momentum is conserved for the system.
m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
)v = m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
v =
2 1
2 2 1 1
m m
u m u m
+
+
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
m m
v m v m
+
+
.......(1)
Impulse of Deformation :
J
D
= change in momentum of any one body during deformation.
= m
2
(v u
2
) for m
2
= m
1
(v + u
1
) for m
1
Impulse of Reformation :
J
R
= change in momentum of any one body during Reformation.
= m
2
(v
2
v) for m
2
= m
1
(v v
1
) for m
1
e =
) (
) (
D
R
J n Deformatio of Impulse
J n Reformatio of Impulse
=
2 1
1 2
u u
v v
=
impact of line along approach of Velocity
impact of line along separation of Velocity
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  21
Note : e is independent of shape and mass of object but depends on the material.
The coefficient of restitution is constant for a pair of materials.
(a) e = 1

Impulse of Reformation = Impulse of Deformation

Velocity of separation along the LOI = Velocity of approach along the LOI

Kinetic energy of particles after collision may be equal to that of before collision.

Collision is elastic.
(b) e = 0

Impulse of Reformation = 0

Velocity of separation along the LOI = 0

Kinetic energy of particles after collision is not equal to that of before collision.

Collision is perfectly inelastic .
(c) 0 < e < 1

Impulse of Reformation < Impulse of Deformation

Velocity of separation along the LOI < Velocity of approach along the LOI

Kinetic energy of particles after collision is not equal to that of before collision.

Collision is Inelastic.
Note : In case of contact collisions e is always less than unity.
0 s e s 1
Important Point :
In case of elastic collision, if rough surface is present then
k
f
< k
i
(because friction is impulsive)
Where, k is Kinetic Energy.
/////////////////////////////////////
Rough
A particle B moving along the dotted line collides with a rod also in state of motion as shown in the figure.
The particle B comes in contact with point C on the rod.
To write down the expression for coefficient of restitution e, we first draw the line of impact. Then we resolve
the components of velocities of points of contact of both the bodies along line of impact just before and just
after collision.
Then e =
x 2 x 1
x 1 x 2
u u
v v
(u
1
u
2
)e = (v
2
v
1
)
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  22
By momentum conservation,
m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
v
2
= v
1
+ e(u
1
u
2
)
and v
1
=
2 1
2 1 2 2 2 1 1
m m
) u u ( e m u m u m
+
+
v
2
=
2 1
2 1 1 2 2 1 1
m m
) u u ( e m u m u m
+
+ +
Special Case :
(1) e = 0
v
1
= v
2
for perfectly inelastic collision, both the bodies, move with same vel. after collision.
(2) e = 1
and m
1
= m
2
= m,
we get v
1
= u
2
and v
2
= u
1
i.e., when two particles of equal mass collide elastically and the collision is head on, they ex
change their velocities., e.g.
m
m
2m/s
Before Collision
v =0
1
(3) m
1
>> m
2
m
1
+ m
2
~ m
1
and 0
m
m
1
2
~
v
1
= u
1
No change
and v
2
= u
1
+ e(u
1
u
2
)
Now If e = 1
v
2
= 2u
1
u
2
Example 22. Two identical balls are approaching towards each other on a straight line with velocity 2 m/s
and 4 m/s respectively. Find the final velocities, after elastic collision between them.
m m 4m/s
2m/s
Solution :
The two velocities will be exchanged and the final motion is reverse of initial motion for both.
m m 4m/s
2m/s
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  23
Example 23. Three balls A, B and C of same mass m are placed on a frictionless horizontal plane in a
straight line as shown. Ball A is moved with velocity u towards the middle ball B. If all the
collisions are elastic then, find the final velocities of all the balls.
A B C
u
m m m
//////////////////////////////////////////
Solution :
A collides elastically with B and comes to rest but B starts moving with velocity u
A B C
u
m m m
//////////////////////////////////////////
After a while B collides elastically with C and comes to rest but C starts moving with velocity u
A B C
u
m m m
//////////////////////////////////////////
Final velocities
V
A
= 0;
V
B
= 0 and V
C
= u Ans.
Example 24. Four identical balls A, B, C and D are placed in a line on a frictionless horizontal surface. A and
D are moved with same speed u towards the middle as shown. Assuming elastic collisions,
find the final velocities.
A B C
u
D
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
u
Solution :
A and D collides elastically with B and C respectively and come to rest but B and C starts
moving with velocity u towards each other as shown
A B C
u
D
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
u
B and C collides elastically and exchange their velocities to move in opposite directions
A B C
u
D
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
u
Now, B and C collides elastically with A and D respectively and come to rest but A and D starts
moving with velocity u away from each other as shown
A B C
u
D
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
u
Final velocities V
A
= u ( ); V
B
= 0; V
C
= 0 and V
D
= u ( ) Ans.
Example 25. Two particles of mass m and 2m moving in opposite directions on a frictionless surface collide
elastically with velocity v and 2v respectively. Find their velocities after collision, also find the
fraction of kinetic energy lost by the colliding particles.
m
2m
2v v
Solution :
Let the final velocities of m and 2m be v
1
and v
2
respectively as shown in the figure:
m
2m
v
2
By conservation of momentum:
m(2v) + 2m(v) = m(v
1
) + 2m (v
2
)
or 0 = mv
1
+ 2mv
2
or v
1
+ 2v
2
= 0 .........(1)
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  24
and since the collision is elastic:
v
2
v
1
= 2v (v)
or v
2
v
1
= 3v .........(2)
Solving the above two equations, we get,
v
2
= v and v
1
= 2v Ans.
i.e., the mass 2m returns with velocity v while the mass m returns with velocity 2v in the
direction shown in figure:
m
2m
v
The collision was elastic therefore, no kinetic energy is lost, KE loss = KE
i
 KE
f
or,

.

\

+ 
.

\

+
2 2 2 2
v ) m 2 (
2
1
) v 2 ( m
2
1
) v )( m 2 (
2
1
) v 2 ( m
2
1
= 0
Example 26. On a frictionless surface, a ball of mass m moving at a speed v makes a head on collision with
an identical ball at rest. The kinetic energy of the balls after the collision is 3/4th of the original.
Find the coefficient of restitution.
Solution :
As we have seen in the above discussion, that under the given conditions :
By using conservation of linear momentum and equation of e, we get,
v
2
e 1
' v
1

.

\
 +
=
and
v
2
e 1
' v
2

.

\

=
Given that
i f
K
4
3
K = or
2
1
mv
1
2
+
2
1
mv
2
2
=
4
3

.

\

2
mv
2
1
Substituting the value, we get
2
2
e 1

.

\
 +
+
2
2
e 1

.

\

=
4
3
or e =
2
1
Ans.
Example 27. A block of mass 2 kg is pushed towards a very heavy object moving with 2 m/s closer to the
block (as shown). Assuming elastic collision and frictionless surfaces, find the final velocities
of the blocks.
2kg
very
heavy
object
10m/s
2m/s
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
Solution :
Let v
1
and v
2
be the final velocities of 2kg block and heavy object respectively then,
v
1
= u
1
+ 1 (u
1
u
2
) = 2u
1
u
2
= 14 m/s
v
2
= 2m/s
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  25
Example 28. A ball is moving with velocity 2 m/s towards a heavy wall moving towards the ball with speed
1m/s as shown in fig. Assuming collision to be elastic, find the velocity of the ball immediately
after the collision.
Solution :
The speed of wall will not change after the collision. So, let v be the velocity of the ball
after collision in the direction shown in figure. Since collision is elastic (e = 1),
separation speed = approach speed
or v 1 = 2 + 1
or v = 4 m/s Ans.
Example 29. Two balls of masses 2 kg and 4 kg are moved towards each other with velocities 4 m/s and
2 m/s respectively on a frictionless surface. After colliding the 2 kg ball returns back with
velocity 2m/s.
2kg 4kg
4m/s 2m/s
//////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////////////////////////////////
2kg
2m/s
4kg
v
2
Just before collision Just after collision
Then find:
(a) velocity of 4 kg ball after collision
(b) coefficient of restitution e.
(c) Impulse of deformation J
D
.
(d) Maximum potential energy of deformation.
(e) Impulse of reformation J
R
.
Solution :
(a) By momentum conservation,
2(4) 4(2) = 2(2) + 4(v
2
) v
2
= 1 m/s
(b) e =
approach of velocity
separation of velocity
=
6
3
) 2 ( 4
) 2 ( 1
=
= 0.5
(c) At maximum deformed state, by conservation of momentum, common velocity is v = 0.
J
D
= m
1
(v u
1
) = m
2
(v u
2
) = 2(0 4) = 8 N s
= 4(0 2) = 8 N  s
or = 4(0 2) = 8 N  s
(d) Potential energy at maximum deformed state U = loss in kinetic energy during deformation.
or U =

.

\

+
2
2 2
2
1 1
u m
2
1
u m
2
1
2
1
(m
1
+ m
2
)v
2
=

.

\

+
2 2
) 2 ( 4
2
1
) 4 ( 2
2
1
2
1
(2 + 4) (0)
2
or U = 24 Joule
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  26
(e) J
R
= m
1
(v
1
v) = m
2
(v v
2
) = 2 (2 0) = 4 Ns
or = 4(0 1) = 4 Ns
or e =
D
R
J
J
J
R
= eJ
D
= (0.5) (8) = 4 Ns
Col l i si on i n t wo di mensi on ( obl i que)
1. A pair of equal and opposite impulses act along common normal direction. Hence, linear momen
tum of individual particles do change along common normal direction. If mass of the colliding
particles remain constant during collision, then we can say that linear velocity of the individual
particles change during collision in this direction.
2. No component of impulse act along common tangent direction. Hence, linear momentum or linear
velocity of individual particles (if mass is constant) remain unchanged along this direction.
3. Net impulse on both the particles is zero during collision. Hence, net momentum of both the
particles remain conserved before and after collision in any direction.
4. Definition of coefficient of restitution can be applied along common normal direction, i.e., along
common normal direction we can apply
Relative speed of separation = e (relative speed of approach)
Example 30. A ball of mass m hits a floor with a speed v
0
making an angle of incidence a with the normal. The
coefficient of restitution is e. Find the speed of the reflected ball and the angle of reflection of the
ball.
Solution :
The component of velocity v
0
along common tangential direction v
0
sin o will remain un
changed. Let v be the component along common normal direction after collision. Applying,
Relative speed of separation = e (Relative speed of approach)
along common normal direction, we get
v = ev
0
cos o

v sin
0
o
v'
v (= ev cos )
0
o
Thus, after collision components of velocity v are v
0
sin o and ev
0
cos o
2
0
2
0
) cos ev ( ) sin v ( ' v o + o = Ans.
and tan  =
o
o
cos ev
sin v
0
0
or tan  =
e
tano
Ans.
Note : For elastic collision, e = 1
v = v
0
and  = o
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  27
Example 31. A ball of mass m makes an elastic collision with another identical ball at rest. Show that if the
collision is oblique, the bodies go at right angles to each other after collision.
Solution :
In head on elastic collision between two particles, they exchange their velocities. In this
case, the component of ball 1 along common normal direction, v cos u
becomes zero after collision, while that of 2 becomes v cos u. While the components
along common tangent direction of both the particles remain unchanged. Thus, the com
ponents along common tangent and common normal direction of both the balls in tabular
form are given below.
Ball
Before collision After collision Before collision After collision
1 v sin
u
v sin
u
v cos
u 0
2
0 0 0
v cos
u
Component along common
tangent direction
Component along common normal
direction
From the above table and figure, we see that both the balls move at right angle after
collision with velocities v sin u and v cos u.
Note : When two identical bodies have an oblique elastic collision, with one body at rest before collision, then
the two bodies will go in directions.
VARIABLE MASS SYSTEM :
If a mass is added or ejected from a system, at rate kg/s and relative velocity
rel
v
.
Thrust Force (
t
F
)

.

\

=
dt
dm
v F
rel t
+
r
v
= (m dm) ( v
+ d v
) + dm ( v
+
r
v
)
or m v
= m v
+ md v
(dm) v
(dm) (d v
) + (dm) v
+
r
v
dm
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  28
The term (dm) (d v
=
r
v
dm or

.

\

dt
v d
m
=

.

\

dt
dm
v
r
Here,

.

\

dt
v d
m
= thrust force ( )
t
F
and
dt
dm
= rate at which mass is ejecting or

.

\

=
dt
dm
v F
r t
\

dt
dm
v
r
and direc
tion is given by the direction of
r
v
r
v
if it is decreasing.
3. Find net force on the mass and apply
dt
v d
m F
net
=
(m = mass at the particular instant)
4. Integrate it with proper limits to find velocity at any time t.
Rocket propul si on :
Let m
0
be the mass of the rocket at time t = 0. m its mass at any time t and v its velocity at that
moment. Initially, let us suppose that the velocity of the rocket is u.
Further, let 
.

\

dt
dm
be the mass of the gas ejected per unit time and v
r
the exhaust velocity of the
gases with respect to rocket. Usually 
.

\

dt
dm
and v
r
are kept constant throughout the journey of
the rocket. Now, let us write few equations which can be used in the problems of rocket propul
sion. At time t = t,
1. Thrust force on the rocket F
t
= v
r

.

\

dt
dm
(upwards)
2. Weight of the rocket W = mg (downwards)
3. Net force on the rocket F
net
= F
t
W (upwards)
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  29
or F
net
= v
r

.

\

dt
dm
mg
4. Net acceleration of the rocket a =
m
F
or
dt
dv
=
m
v
r

.

\

dt
dm
g
or dv =
m
v
r
( ) dm g dt
or
}
=
v
u
r
v dv
}
m
m
0
m
dm
g
}
t
0
dt
Thus, v = u gt + v
r
n

.

\

m
m
0
...(i)
Note : 1. F
t
= v
r

.

\

dt
dm
is upwards, as v
r
is downwards and
dt
dm
is negative.
2. If gravity is ignored and initial velocity of the rocket u = 0, Eq. (i) reduces to v = v
r
ln

.

\

m
m
0
.
Example 32. A rocket, with an initial mass of 1000 kg, is launched vertically upwards from rest under gravity.
The rocket burns fuel at the rate of 10 kg per second. The burnt matter is ejected vertically
downwards with a speed of 2000 ms
1
relative to the rocket. If burning stopsafter one minute.
Find the maximum velocity of the rocket. (Take g as at 10 ms
2
)
Solution :
Using the velocity equation
v = u gt + v
r
ln 
.

\

m
m
0
Here u = 0, t = 60s, g = 10 m/s
2
, v
r
= 2000 m/s, m
0
= 1000 kg
and m = 1000 10 60 = 400 kg
We get v = 0 600 + 2000 ln 
.

\

400
1000
or v = 2000 ln 2.5 600
The maximum velocity of the rocket is 200(10 ln 2.5 3) = 1232.6 ms
1
Ans.
Example 33. A flat car of mass m
0
starts moving to the right due to a
constant horizontal force F. Sand spills on the flat car from
a stationary hopper. The rate of loading is constant and
equal t o kg/ s. Fi nd t he t i me dependence of t he
velocity and the acceleration of the flat car in the process
of loading. The friction is negligibly small.
F
m
0
Solution : Initial velocity of the flat car is zero. Let v be its velocity at time t and m its mass at that
instant. Then
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  30
At t = 0, v = 0 and m = m
0
at t = t, v = v and m = m
0
+ t
Here, v
r
= v (backwards)
dt
dm
=
F
t
= v
r
dt
dm
= v (backwards)
Net force on the flat car at time t is F
net
= F F
t
or m
dt
dv
= F v ....(i)
or (m
0
+ t)
dt
dv
=F v or
}
v
0 v F
dv
=
}
+
t
0
0
t m
dt
1
[n (F v)]
0
v
=
1
[n (m
0
+ t)]
0
t
n 

.

\

v F
F
= n


.

\
 +
0
0
m
t m
v F
F
=
0
0
m
t m +
or v =
t m
Ft
0
+
Ans.
From Eq. (i),
dt
dv
= acceleration of flat car at time t
or =
m
v F
a =




.

\

+
+
t m
t m
t F
F
0
0
or a = 2
0
0
) t m (
Fm
+
Ans.
Example 34. A cart loaded with sand moves along a horizontal floor due to a constant force F coinciding in
direction with the carts velocity vector. In the process sand spills through a hole in the bottom
with a constant rate kg/s. Find the acceleration and velocity of the cart at the moment t, if at
the initial moment t = 0 the cart with loaded sand had the mass m
0
and its velocity was equal
to zero. Friction is to be neglected.
Solution : In this problem the sand spills through a hole in the bottom of the cart. Hence, the relative
velocity of the sand v
r
will be zero because it will acquire the same velocity as that of the
cart at the moment.
v
r
= 0
v
F
v
m
Thus, F
t
= 0

.

\

=
dt
dm
v F as
r t
and the net force will be F only.
F
net
= F
or m

.

\

dt
dv
= F ....(i)
But here m = m
0
t (m
0
t)
dt
dv
= F
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  31
or
}
v
0
dv
=
}
t
0
0
t m
dt F
v =
 
t
0
0
) t m ( n
F
or v =
F
ln


.

\

t m
m
0
0
Ans.
From eq. (i), acceleration of the cart
a =
dt
dv
=
m
F
or a =
t m
F
0
Ans.
LINEAR MOMENTUM CONSERVATION IN PRESENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCE.
ext
F
=
dt
P d
ext
F
dt =
P d
P d
=
ext
F
)
mpulsive
dt
If
ext
F
)
mpulsive
= 0
P d
= 0
or P
is constant
Note: Momentum is conserved if the external force present is nonimpulsive. eg. gravitation or spring force
Example 35. Two balls are moving towards each other on a vertical line collides with each other as shown.
Find their velocities just after collision.
3m/s
4m/s
2kg
4kg
Solution : Let the final velocity of 4 kg ball just after collision be v. Since,
external force is gravitational which is non  impulsive, hence,
linear momentum will be conserved.
Applying linear momentum conservation:
2kg
4kg
v
4m/s
2(3) + 4(4) = 2(4) + 4(v)
or v =
2
1
m/s
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  32
Example 36. A bullet of mass 50g is fired from below into the bob of mass
450g of a long simple pendulum as shown in figure. The bullet
remains inside the bob and the bob rises through a height of
1.8 m. Find the speed of the bullet. Take g = 10 m/s
2
.
/////////////////////
v
Solution : Let the speed of the bullet be v. Let the common velocity of the bullet and the bob, after the
bullet is embedded into the bob, is V. By the principle of conservation of the linear momentum,
V =
kg 05 . 0 kg 45 . 0
v ) kg 05 . 0 (
+
=
10
v
The string becomes loose and the bob will go up with a deceleration of g = 10 m/s
2
. As it comes
to rest at a height of 1.8 m, using the equation v
2
= u
2
+ 2ax,
1.8 m =
2
2
s / m 10 2
) 10 / v (
or, v = 60 m/s.
Problem 1. Three particles of masses 0.5 kg, 1.0 kg and 1.5 kg are placed at the three corners of a right
angled triangle of sides 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm and 5.0 cm as shown in figure. Locate the centre of
mass of the system.
Solution :
1.5 kg
0.5 kg
1.0 kg
(A)
(B)
(C)
x
y
3cm
5cm
4cm
taking x and y axes as shown.
coordinates of body A = (0,0)
coordinates of body B = (4,0)
coordinates of body C = (0,3)
x  coordinate of c.m. =
C B A
C C B B A A
m m m
r M x m x m
+ +
+ +
=
5 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 0
0 5 . 1 4 0 . 1 0 5 . 0
+ +
+ +
=
3
4
kg
cm
= cm = 1.33cm
similarly y  wordinates of c.m. =
5 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 0
3 5 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 5 . 0
+ +
+ +
=
3
5 . 4
= 1.5 cm
So, certre of mass is 1.33 cm right and 1.5 cm above particle A.
Problem 2. A block A (mass = 4M) is placed on the top of a wedge B of
base length l (mass = 20 M) as shown in figure. When the
system is released from rest. Find the distance moved by the
wedge B till the block A reaches at lowest end of wedge. As
sume all surfaces are frictionless.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  33
Solution : Initial position of centre of mass
=
B B
A A B B
M M
M X M X
+
+
=
M 24
M 4 . M 20 . X
B
+
=
6
X 5
B
+
Final position of centre of mass
=
M 24
Mx 4 M 20 ) x X (
B
+ +
=
6
x ) x X ( 5
B
+ +
since there is no horizontal force on system
centre of mass initially = centre of mass finally.
5X
B
+ = 5X
B
+ 5x + x
= 6x
6
x
=
Problem 3. An isolated particle of mass m is moving in a horizontal xy plane, along xaxis. At a certain
height above ground, it suddenly explodes into two fragments of masses m/4 and 3m/4. An
instant later, the smaller fragment is at y = + 15 cm. Find the position of heavier fragment at
this instant.
Solution : As particle is moving along xaxis, so, ycoordinate of COM is zero.
Y
M
M =
4
M Y 
.

\

4
M
+
4
M 3 Y 
.

\

4
M 3
0 M = 15 
.

\

4
M
+
4
M 3 Y 
.

\

4
M 3
cm 5
4
Y
M 3
=
Problem 4. A shell at rest at origin explodes into three fragments of masses 1 kg, 2 kg and m kg. The
fragments of masses 1 kg and 2 kg fly off with speeds 12 m/s along xaxis and 8 m/s along y
axis respectively. If m kg flies off with speed 40 m/s then find the total mass of the shell.
Solution : As initial velocity = 0, Initial momentum = (1 + 2 + m) 0 = 0
Finally, let velocity of M =
V
. We know 
V
 = 40 m/s.
Initial momentum = final momentum .
0 = 1 12
i
+ 2 8 j
+ m
V
V
=
m
) j
16 i
12 ( +

V
 =
2
2 2
m
) 16 ( ) 12 ( +
=
m
1
2 2
) 16 ( ) 12 ( + = 40 {given}
m =
40
) 16 ( ) 12 (
2 2
+
= 0.5 kg
Total mass = 1 + 2 + 0.5 = 3.5 kg
Problem 5. A block moving horizontally on a smooth surface with a speed of 20 m/s bursts into two equal
parts continuing in the same direction. If one of the parts moves at 30 m/s, with what speed
does the second part move and what is the fractional change in the kinetic energy of the
system.
Solution :
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  34
Applying momentum conservation ;
m 20 =
2
m
V +
2
m
30 20 =
2
V
+ 15
So, V = 10 m/s
initial kinetic energy =
2
1
m (20)
2
= 200 m
final kinetic energy =
2
1
.
2
m
. (10)
2
+
2
1
2
m
(30)
2
= 25 m + 225 m = 250 m
fractional change in kinetic energy =
E . K initial
) E K. initial ( ) E K. final (
=
m 200
m 200 m 250
=
4
1
Problem 6. A block at rest explodes into three equal parts. Two parts starts moving along X and Y axes
respectively with equal speeds of 10 m/s. Find the initial velocity of the third part.
Solution :
Let total mass = 3 m, initial linear momentum = 3m 0
Let velocity of third part =
V
Using conservation of linear momentum :
m 10
i
+ m 10 j
+ m
V
= 0
So,
V
= ( 10
i
10 j
) m/sec.

V
 =
2 2
) 10 ( ) 10 ( + = 10
2
, making angle 135
o
below xaxis
Problem 7. Blocks A and B have masses 40 kg and 60 kg respectively. They are placed on a smooth
surface and the spring connected between them is stretched by 1.5m. If they are released
from rest, determine the speeds of both blocks at the instant the spring becomes
unstretched.
Solution :
Let, both block start moving with velocity V
1
and V
2
as shown in figure
Since no horizontal force on system so, applying momentum
conservation
0 = 40 V
1
60 V
2
2 1
V 3 V 2 = ........(1)
Now applying energy conservation, Loss in potential energy = gain in kinetic energy
2
1
kx
2
=
2
1
m
1
V
1
2
+
2
1
m
2
V
2
2
2
1
600 (1.5)
2
=
2
1
40 V
1
2
+
2
1
60 V
2
2
.......(2)
Solving euation (1) and (2) we get,
V
1
= 4.5 m/s, V
2
= 3 m/s.
Problem 8. Find the mass of the rocket as a function of time, if it moves with a constant accleration a,
in absence of external forces. The gas escaps with a constant velocity u relative to the
rocket and its initial mass was m
0
.
RESONANCE AIEEE_CENTRE OF MASS  35
Solution : Using, Fnet = V
rel

.

\

dt
dm
F
net
= u
dt
dm
.......(1)
F
net
= ma ......(2)
Solving equation (1) and (2)
ma = u
dt
dm
}
m
m
o
m
dm
=
}
t
o
u
adt
n
o
m
m
=
u
at
o
m
m
=
u / at
e
u
at
e m m
0
= Ans.
Probl em 9. A ball is approaching to ground with speed u. If the coefficient of restitution is
e then find out:
m
u
/////////////////////////
(a) the velocity just after collision.
(b) the impulse exerted by the normal due to ground on the ball.
Solution :
e =
approah of velocity
separation of velocity
=
u
v
(a) velocity after collision = V = eu ........(1)
(b) Impulse exerted by the normal due to ground on the ball = change in momentum of ball.
= {final momentum} {initial momentum}
= {m v} { mu}
= mv + mu = m {u + eu} = mu {1 + e} Ans.
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  36
PART  I : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Hkkx  I : oLrqfu"B iz'u OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
SECTION (A) : CALCULATION OF CENTRE OF MASS nz O;eku ds Unz dh x.kuk
A1. The centre of mass of a body : (n i i :
(1) Lies always at the geometrical centre (r ii ilni lin ri ni r )
(2) Lies always inside the body (r ii (n ri ni r )
(3) Lies always outside the body (r ii (n ir ri ni r )
(4*) Lies within or outside the body ((n i ir ri ni r )
Sol. Centre of mass is a point which can lie within or outside the body.
i (r l r i l (n i ir ri ni r 
A2. A uniform solid cone of height 40 cm is shown in figure. The distance of centre of mass of the cone from
point B (centre of the base) is :
i i i li + i; 40 i. r , lii i liii ^i r  l B i i i
(iii ) ri ^i
(1) 20 cm (2) 10/3 cm (3) 20/3 cm (4*) 10 cm
Sol. Centre of mass are r
cm
=
4
h
=
4
40
= 10 cm
i r
cm
=
4
h
=
4
40
= 10 cm
A3. A body has its centre of mass at the origin. The xcoordinates of the particles
(1) may be all positive
(2) may be all negative
(3) must be all nonnegative
(4*) may be positive for some particles and negative in other particles
(n i i l r ii xlii
(1) i ii ri n r (2) i ~ii ri n r
(3) i ~ii ri ri ilr (4*) ii l ii ( ii l ~ii ri n r
Sol. self explaintory
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  37
SECTION (B) : MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS nzO;eku dsUnz dh xfr
B1. A bomb travelling in a parabolic path under the effect of gravity, explodes in mid air. The centre of mass
of fragments will:
 ^ (i ii(  ( i ^ln ni r , i r(i  l(i ln ri ini r   i i i
(1) Move vertically upwards and then downwards
r ii + i i l i i ^ln ^i
(2) Move vertically downwards
ii i i i ^ln ^i
(3) Move in irregular path
i i ^ln ^i
(4*) Move in the parabolic path which the unexploded bomb would have travelled.
( i ^ln ^i l   r ri ri ni r 
B2. If a ball is thrown upwards from the surface of earth and during upward motion :
^ (i i nr ^ + i i i ini r , ni + i i ^ln i i
(1) The earth remains stationary while the ball moves upwards
(i i r ; rni r , l ^ + i i ^ln ni r 
(2) The ball remains stationary while the earth moves downwards
^ i rni r l (i i i i ^ln ni r
(3) The ball and earth both moves towards each other
^ nii (i i i i i ^ln n r 
(4*) The ball and earth both move away from each other
^ nii (i i i i i ^ln n r 
Sol. In abscence of external force both move away from each other to keep the centre of mass at rest.
i= i liln  i i i i ^ln ^ l i l(i r 
B3. Internal forces can change :
inl l(lnn ni r
(1) the linear momentum but not the kinetic energy of the system.
(2*) the kinetic energy but not the linear momentum of the system.
(3) linear momentum as well as kinetic energy of the system.
(4) neither the linear momentum nor the kinetic energy of the system.
(1) li i li (^ ln ^ln +i ri (2*) li i ^ln +i ln li (^ ri
(3) li i li (^ ( ii ri ^ln +i ii (4) li i ni li (^, ri ^ln +i
Sol. Internal forces canot change velocity but can do work.
i nl ( ^ i l(ln n ri n r l i n r 
B4. If the external forces acting on a system have zero resultant, the centre of mass
(1) must not move (2) must accelerate
(3*) may move (4) may accelerate
l li li ^ r ir i i liii i ri, i
(1) ^ln ri ^i (2) (ln ri^i (3*) ^ln ni r (4) (ln ri ni r
Sol. If initial velocity of system is not zero then centre of mass moves with constant velocity.
l li i ili ( ^ i ri r ni i ln ( ^ ^ln ni r 
B5. Two balls are thrown in air. The acceleration of the centre of mass of the two balls while in air (neglect
air resistance)
(1) depends on the direction of the motion of the balls
(2) depends on the masses of the two balls
(3) depends on the speeds of the two balls
(4*) is equal to g
i ^ ii (i  i ^i r ii ^i i i i (i ( (i  r
(1) ^i i ^ln i lii li ni r (2) ii ^i ii li ni r
(3) ii ^i i ii li ni r (4) g i r
Sol. a
cm
=
2 1
2 1
m m
g m g m
+
+
= g
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  38
B6. Two particles of mass 1 kg and 0.5 kg are moving in the same direction with speed of 2m/s and 6m/s
respectively on a smooth horizontal surface. The speed of centre of mass of the system is :
i i 1 kg nii 0.5 kg ri lii  2 m/sec nii 6 m/sec l nr ^ln r r   r
i i ( ^ ri ^i
(1*)
3
10
m/s (2)
7
10
m/s (3)
2
11
m/s (4)
3
12
m/s
Sol. v
cm
=
sec / m
3
10
2 / 1 1
6
2
1
2 1
=
+
+
.
B7. Two particles having mass ratio n : 1 are interconnected by a light inextensible string that passes over
a smooth pulley. If the system is released, then the acceleration of the centre of mass of the system
is :
i i li i i in n : 1 r ( ri l(ni i r r i li lii ^ ni
r  ^ li i i li ini r ni  r i i (i ri ^i
(1) (n 1)
2
g (2)
g
1 n
1 n
2

.

\

+
(3*)
g
1 n
1 n
2

.

\

+
(4)
g
1 n
1 n

.

\

+
Sol. a =
m nm
) m nm (
+
g
=
) 1 n (
) 1 n (
+
g
a
1
= a
2
= a
a
cm
=
) m nm (
ma nma
2 1
+
=
a
) 1 n (
) 1 n (
+
a
cm
=
g
) 1 n (
) 1 n (
2
2
+
.
SECTION (C) : CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM js[kh; laosx laj{k.k
C1. Two particles A and B initially at rest move towards each other under a mutual force of attraction. The
speed of centre of mass at the instant when the speed of A is v and the speed of B is 2v is :
[JEE  89]
ii  li A ( B l  ii i i i ^ln n r  A i i v ( B i i
2
v r ni i i i ri ^i ` [JEE  89]
(1) v (2*) Zero i (3) 2
v (4) 3
v
/2
Sol. Net external force is zero so net momentum will remain zero.
i= i r  ;l ( ^ i ri ^i
C2. If the KE of a body becomes four times its initial value, then the new momentum will be more than its
initial momentum by;
^ li (n i ^ln +i ili i ^ i ri ini r ni i ( ^ ili ( ^ lni ii ri ^i
(1) 50% (2*) 100% (3) 125% (4) 150%
Sol.
4
k
k
1
2
=
4
v
v
2
1
2
=


.

\

2
v
v
1
2
=
Then n
100
p
p p
1
1 2


.

\

=
100
mv
mv mv
1
1 2


.

\

=
100 1
v
v
1
2


.

\

= 100%
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  39
C3. A man of mass 'm' climbs on a rope of length L suspended below a balloon of mass M. The balloon is
stationary with respect to ground. If the man begins to climb up the rope at a speed v
rel
(relative to
rope). In what direction and with what speed (relative to ground) will the balloon move?
(1*) downwards,
M m
mv
rel
+
(2) upwards,
M m
Mv
rel
+
(3) downwards,
M
mv
rel
(4) downwards,
M
v ) m M (
rel
+
m i i ii L i; i i ri r , i M i ^ i i r ; r  i
i i ^ ii li r  ^ ii i i i v
rel
(i i i) ( ^ i i ni r ni l
lii  (i i i) nii l ( ^ ^ ii ^ln ^i
(1*) i ,
M m
mv
rel
+
(2) +,
M m
Mv
rel
+
(3) i ,
M
mv
rel
(4) i
M
v ) m M (
rel
+
Sol. we have r in r V
m
+ V
b
= V
rel
V
m
= V
rel
V
b
by conservation of linear momentum
ii ( ^ ii
mV
m
MV
b
= 0
So n m (V
rel
V
b
) MV
b
= 0
V
b
=
M m
mv
rel
+
SECTION (D) : SPRING  MASS SYSTEM fLa x nz O;eku fudk;
D1. In the figure shown the change in magnitude of momentum of the block when it comes to its initial
position if the maximum compression of the spring is x
0
will be :
lii i i ( ^  l(n ri ^i i ii ili (ii  ini r l l ^ i lin
i x
0
r 
(1*) 2 km x
0
(2) km x
0
(3) zero (4) none of these ; i ; ri
D2. Two masses are connected by a spring as shown in the figure. One of the masses was given velocity v = 2
k
,
as shown in figure where 'k' is the spring constant. Then maximum extension in the spring will be
i i liii l^ i r r i i 2k (^ n r i li  iii ^i r ri k l^ lni
r ni l^  lin lii( ri^i
(1) 2 m (2) m (3*)
k m 2
(4)
k m 3
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  40
Sol. by energy conservation
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
(2m)
2
2
v

.

\

+
2
1
kx
2
+i ii
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
(2m)
2
2
v

.

\

+
2
1
kx
2
x =
mK 2
SECTION (E) : IMPULSE vkosx
E1. A ball of mass 50 gm is dropped from a height h = 10 m. It rebounds losing 75 percent of its kinetic
energy. If it remains in contact with the ground for At = 0.01 sec., the impulse of the impact force is :
50 gm i ^ 10 i + i; i i ini r  r (il 75 lnin ^ln +i i ril i ni
r  ^ r ini ii At = 0.01 , l i ni r ni  i i( ^ ri ^i
(1) 1.3 Ns (2*) 1.05 Ns (3) 1300 Ns (4) 105 Ns
Sol. v
1
= gh 2 =
10 10 2
=
2 10
k
2
=
4
1
k
1
v
2
2
=
4
1
v
1
2
v
2
=
2
v
1
=
2 5
AP = mv
2
(mv
1
) = mv
2
v
1

AP = 50 10
3
2
3
2 10
=
2
10 15
2
J = AP = 1.05Ns.
E2. The area of Ft curve is A, where 'F' is the force on one mass due to the other. If one of the colliding
bodies of mass M is at rest initially, its speed just after the collision is :
Ft (> i i i A r ri 'F' i ii r  ^ i (ii (n i  M i
(ii ii  li ii ni i i ;i ( ^ i ri ^i
(1*) A/M (2) M/A (3) AM (4)
M
A 2
Sol.. Area of Ft curve = A = Impulse. Ft ii i ii = A = i(^
Impulse i(^ = dP = A = mv 0
v =
M
A
.
E3. The given figure shows a plot of the time dependent force F
x
acting on a particle in motion along the x
axis. What is the total impulse delivered by this force to the particle from time t = 0 to t = 2second?
li ^i li xi li ^ln n r i i (i  li F
x
(t) i ^ i li n
ni r   t = 0 t = 2 sec n ; ,ii i i li ^i i( ^ i r `
(1) 0 (2) 1 kgm/s (3*) 2 kgm/s (4) 3 kgm/s
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  41
Sol. Impulse (i( ^) =
}
dt F
= Area under curve ((> l, i i)
=
2
1
(2) (2) = 2 kgm/sec.
E4. A mass of 100g strikes the wall with speed 5m/s at an angle as shown in figure and it rebounds with the
same speed. If the contact time is 2 10
3
sec., what is the force applied on the mass by the wall :
100g i i i; i 5m/s i i li i(i li  ii ^ ii ini r, nii i i
(i i ini r l  2 10
3
sec ri ni i ,ii i(i ^i ^ i i r
60
60
100g
(1) 250
3
to right (2) 250 N to right (3*) 250 3 N to left (4) 250 N to left
(1) 250
3
ii i (2) 250 N ii i (3*) 250 3 N ii i (4) 250 N ii i
Sol. F
x
=
N 3 250
10 2
) 60 sin mV ( 60 sin mV
t
) Pi Pf (
t
P
3
x x x
=
=
A
=
A
A
=
3 250
N towards left ii n
SECTION (F) : COLLISION VDdj
F1. A block moving in air explodes in two parts then just after explosion
(1*) the total momentum must be conserved
(2) the total kinetic energy of two parts must be same as that of block before explosion.
(3) the total momentum must change
(4) the total kinetic energy must not be increased
r(i  ^lnii ^i i ii^i   ini r nii  ^^ ri in r, ni l(i nn i
(1) (^ lin r^i
(2) ii ii^i i ^ln +i (ri r^i i l(i r ^ i ii
(3) (^ l(lnn ri i^i
(4) ^ln +i ri i ilr
F2. In head on elastic collision of two bodies of equal masses, it is not possible :
(1) the velocities are interchanged
(2) the speeds are interchanged
(3) the momenta are interchanged
(4*) the faster body speeds up and the slower body slows down
i i (ii i (ni i i ii  , r i( ri r
(1) (^  l(lnn ri in r (2) i  l(lnn ri ini r
(3) (^  l(lnn ri in r (4*) ni(^ii (n n ri i nii iii (n iii 
F3. A bullet of mass m = 50 gm strikes a sand bag of mass M = 5 kg hanging from a fixed point, with a
horizontal velocity
p
v
. If bullet sticks to the sand bag then the ratio of final & initial kinetic energy of
the bullet is (approximately) :
50 gm i ^i i n  r ^ (li i 5 kg r ) i ln ( ^ v ini r  ^ 
n ^ l ini r ni ^i i i ln nii ili ^ln +i i in i ri ^i (^i^) ( 1 )
10
2
(2) 10
3
(3) 10
6
(4*) 10
4
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  42
Sol. 0.5 v
p
+ m 0 = 5.05 v
i
f
v
v
=
5
05 . 0
= 10
2
2
i
2
f
) v ( m
2
1
) v ( m
2
1
= (10
2
)
2
= 10
4
.
F4. There are hundred identical sliders equally spaced on a frictionless track as shown in the figure.
Initially all the sliders are at rest. Slider 1 is pushed with velocity v towards slider 2. In a collision the
sliders stick together. The final velocity of the set of hundred stucked sliders will be :
lii i 100 i i i iii lrn nr lin r  ii  ii li r  r i
i v ( ^ i n ii li ini r  nii i i l in r ni ii l 100 i i
ln ( ^ i ri ^i `
(1)
99
v
(2*)
100
v
(3) zero (4) v
Sol. by conservation of linear momentum P
i
= P
f
mv = (100 m) u u = v/100
ii ( ^ ii P
i
= P
f
mv = (100 m) u u = v/100
F5. A massive ball moving with speed v collides headon with a tiny ball at rest having a mass very less
than the mass of the first ball. If the collision is elastic, then immediately after the impact, the second
ball will move with a speed approximately equal to:
iii ^ i v ( ^ i i ^ (li i r nr n  r )  i ii  ni r ni
 i i ^ i ( ^ ^i^ ri ^i
(1) v (2*) 2v (3) v/2 (4) .
Sol. Velocity of heavy mass donot change after collison
 i iii (n i ( ^ l(ln n ri ri ni r 
1 2
1 2
u u
v v
= e = 1
v 0
v v
2
= 1 v
2
= 2v
F6. A ball of mass 'm', moving with uniform speed, collides elastically with another stationary ball. The
incident ball will lose maximum kinetic energy when the mass of the stationary ball is
'm' i i ^ ln ( ^ ^ln ri r  li ^ ii  ni r  ^ ilnn
^ i lin ^ln +i i ril ri ni r ni li ^ i i ri ^i [REE  96]
(1*) m (2) 2m (3) 4m (4) infinity n
Sol. If mass l i = m
first ball will stop i ^ i^i v = 0
so n k.e. = 0 (min n)
In other cases there will be some kinetic energy i  i ri^i
(K.E. can't be negative ~ii ri ri ni)
F7. During the head on collision of two masses 1 kg and 2 kg the maximum energy of deformation is
3
100
J.
If before collision the masses are moving in the opposite direction, then their velocity of approach
before the collision is :
i ii 1kg. nii 2kg i iiii li i  i i i i rn +i
3
100
r  l 
r i l(in lii  ^lni r , n i  r ii ( ^ r
(1*) 10 m/sec. (2) 5 m/sec. (3) 20 m/sec. (4) 10 2 m/sec.
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  43
Sol. A
U =
) m m (
m m
2
1
2 1
2 1
+
(V
1
V
2
)
2
=
3
100
(V
1
V
2
)
2
) m 2 m ( 2
m . m 2
+
=
3
100
putting m = 1 kg i :
(V
1
V
2
) = 10 m/sec.
AlternateSolution:
When deformation is maximum both the particles are moving with same velocity . So applying momentum
conservation.
ii i i (^ ^ln ^ n i lin ri^i n (^ ii
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
1
v
1
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
m m
v m v m
+
+
Applying energy conservation: +i ii
2
1
m
1
v
1
2
+
2
1
m
2
v
2
2
=
2
1
(m
1
+ m
2
) (v
1
)
2
+ A U
deformation
A U
deformation
=
2
1
( )
2 1
2 1
m m
m m
+
(v
1
v
2
)
2
=
3
100
v
1
v
2
= 10m/sec.
F8. A block A of mass m moving with a velocity '
v
' along a frictionless horizontal track and a blocks of mass
m/2 moving with 2
v collides with block elastically. Final speed of the block A is :
m i i i A,
v
' ( ^ ii i lrn i ri r i m/2 i i i B, 2
v
( ^ n r i A, ii ini r ni i A i ln i ri ^i
(1)
5 v
3
(2*) v (3)
2 v
3
(4) none of these ; i ; ri
Sol. Let the velocities of plank and body of mass
2
m
ii i i
2
m
i i (n liii  i
move with speed v
1
and v
2
after collision as shown.
>i (^ v
1
( v
2
^ln ni r
From conservation of momentum.
( ^ ii
mv
2
m
2v = mv
1
+
2
m
v
2
or 2v
1
+ v
2
= 0 ..........(1)
From equation of coefficient of restitution.
i(ii ^ii
e = 1 =
v 2 v
v v
1 2
+
v
2
v
1
= 3v ..........(2)
Solving 1 and 2 we get
1 ( 2 i r
v
1
= v
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  44
F9. In a collision between two solid spheres, velocity of separation along the line of impact (assume no
external forces act on the system of two spheres during impact) :
i i ^i i i   ,  ii li i i ( ^ (r il l i ^i i li 
i i i ; ir i ri ni r )
(1*) cannot be greater than velocity of approach
i i ( ^ ii ri ri ni
(2) cannot be less than velocity of approach
i i ( ^  ri ri ni
(3) cannot be equal to velocity of approach
i i ( ^ i ri ri ni
(4) none of these (; i ; ri )
Sol. e =
 approach of velocity 
 separation of velocity 
For elastic collision e = 1
Velocity of separation = velocity of approach
For inelastic collision e < 1
So velocity of separation < velocity of approach
r e =
 
 
i (^ i il i i
i (^ i il ri
ii  l e = 1

ri i i li ( ^
 = 
i i i i li ( ^

ii  l e < 1
n 
ri i i li ( ^
 < 
i i i i li ( ^

F10. In the figure shown the block A collides head on with another block B at rest. Mass of B is twice the
mass of A. The block A stops after collision. The coefficient of restitution is :
lii i i A, li i B  i  ni r  B i i A ^i r   i A
i ini r  iini ^ ii r
(1*) 0.5 (2) 1 (3) 0.25 (4) it is not possible r i( ri r 
Sol. v
1
=
2 1
2 2
2 1
1 2 1
m m
u ) e 1 ( m
m m
u ) em m (
+
+
+
+
=
m 2 m
0 ) e 1 ( m 2
m 2 m
u ) m 2 e m (
1
+
+
+
+
= 0
0 = m e2m
e = 1/2
F11. A particle of mass m moves with velocity v
0
= 20 m/sec towards a wall that is moving with velocity v = 5 m/sec.
If the particle collides with the wall elastically, the speed of the particle just after the collision is :
m i i i v
0
= 20 m/sec ^ln ni r i 5 m/sec ^ln ni i(i lii i ini r
ni ii  i i i ( ^ i ri ^i
(1*) 30 m/s (2) 20 m/s (3) 25 m/s (4) 22 m/s
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  45
Sol. Sol.
V
2
= Z
0
Vol. of Sep = Vel of approach ( elastic)
i i (^ = l i i (^ ( ii)
20 + 5 = V 5
V = 30 m/s Ans.
F12. A superball is to bounce elastically back and forth between two rigid walls at a distance d from each
other. Neglecting gravity and assuming the velocity of superball to be v
0
horizontally, the average force
being exerted by the superball on one wall is :
^ , i i(ii i d i r ,  i^ i ^ln ni r ; ii ni r  ^ (i
^ r nii ^ i i ln ( ^ v
0
r ni  i(i ^ ,ii ^ii ^i ri ^i
(1)
2
1
d
mv
2
0
(2*)
d
mv
2
0
(3)
d
mv 2
2
0
(4)
d
mv 4
2
0
Sol. t =
0
v
d 2
(time for succeesive collision >i^n i i )
N t = dP = mv
0
(mv
0
)
N
0
v
d 2
= 2mv
0
N =
d
mv
2
0
F13. In the figure shown the block A collides head on with another block B at rest. Mass of B is twice the
mass of A. The block A stops after collision. The coefficient of restitution is :
lii i i A, li i B  i  ni r  B i i A ^i r   i A
i ini r  iini ^ ii r
(1*) 0.5 (2) 1 (3) 0.25 (4) it is not possible r i( ri r 
F14. A sphere of mass m moving with a constant velocity hits another stationary sphere of the same mass.
If e is the coefficient of restitution, then ratio of speed of the first sphere to the speed of the second
sphere after collision will be :
m i i ^i i ln ( ^ ^ln ni r i i i li ^i ini r  ^ e iini
^ ii r ni  i i ^i ( ^ ( ^i ( ^ in i ri ^i
(1*)

.

\

+
e 1
e 1
(2)

.

\

+
e 1
e 1
(3) 
.

\

+
1 e
1 e
(4) 
.

\

+
1 e
1 e
Sol. mu = mv
1
+ mv
2
.......(i)
u = v
1
+ v
2
.......(i)
u
v v
1 2
= e ......(ii)
as solving have r
2
1
v
v
=

.

\

+ e 1
e 1
.
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  46
SECTION (G) : VARIABLE MASS ifjorZu'khy nzO;eku
G1. If the force on a rocket which is ejecting gases with a relative velocity of 300 m/s, is 210 N. Then the rate of
combustion of the fuel will be :
l 300 m/s, (^ ^i i ir li r i ,ii ^i 210 N r ni ;i i ri^i :
(1) 10.7 kg/sec (2) 0.07 kg/sec (3) 1.4 kg/sec (4*) 0.7 kg/sec
Sol. F =
dt
dm
210 = 300
dt
dm
dt
dm
= 0.7 kg/s.
PART  II : ASSERTION / REASONING
Hkkx  II : dFku@dkj.k (ASSERTION/REASONING)
1. STATEMENT1 : A sphere of mass m moving with speed u undergoes a perfectly elastic head on collision
with another sphere of heavier mass M at rest (M > m), then direction of velocity of sphere of mass m is
reversed due to collision [no external force acts on system of two spheres]
STATEMENT2 : During a collision of spheres of unequal masses, the heavier mass exerts more force on
lighter mass in comparison to the force which lighter mass exerts on heavier mass.
oDrO;1 : ^i i li i m r nii ;i i u r nii r iii ^i i ni ii  i
 ni r  iii ^i i ii  l(i  r nii iii ^i i i M r ri (M > m) r   ii
m i ^i ( ^ i lii l(in ri ini r [i i ^i i li i ; ir i n ri r ]
oDrO;2 : i i ^i i i  i i iii (ii ^i i r (i ^i , r (i ^i ,ii
iii (i ^i ^ i n i  li ^ini r 
(1) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statement1.
(2) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement1
(3*) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is False
(4) Statement1 is False, Statement2 is True
(1) (n1  r, (n2  r ; (n2, (n1 i ri ii r
(2) (n1  r, (n2  r ; (n2, (n1 i ri ii ri r
(3*) (n1  r, (n2  r ;
(4) (n1  r, (n2  r
Sol. Statement2 contradicts Newton's third law and hence is false.
(n2  ni l i l(ii ni r nii ;l  r
2. STATEMENT1 : In a perfectly inelastic collision between two spheres, velocity of both spheres just
after the collision are not always equal.
STATEMENT2 : For two spheres undergoing collision, component of velocities of both spheres along
line of impact just after the collision will be equal if the collision is perfectly inelastic. The component
of velocity of each sphere perpendicular to line of impact remains unchanged due to the impact.
oDrO; 1 : i ^i i i i ii  l,  n n i i i ^i ( ^ r ii i
ri ri ^ 
oDrO; 2 :  n r i ^i l,  n n i  i ii li i i ^i i ( ^i
i i ri ^ l  i ni ii r   i ii (n  ^i ( ^ i i 
ii l(ln n rni r 
(1*) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statement1.
(2) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement1
(3) Statement1 is True, Statement2 is False
(4) Statement1 is False, Statement2 is True
(1*) (n1  r , (n2  r ; (n2, (n1 i ri ii r 
(2) (n1  r , (n2  r ; (n2, (n1 i ri ii ri r 
(3) (n1  r , (n2  r ;
(4) (n1  r , (n2  r
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  47
Sol. (Easy) From statement2, if the component of relative velocity normal to line of impact is nonzero, they
shall not have same velocity after collision. Hence statement2 is correct explanation of statement1.
(Easy) (n2 , l  i ii (n i li ( ^ i i i r , ni  i i
( ^ ri ri ^  ;l (n2 , (n1 i ri ii r 
3. Statement 1 : If the mass of the colliding particles remains constant, then the linear velocity of the
individual particles change during collision along common normal direction.
Statement 2 : A pair of equal and opposite impulses act along common normal direction.
(1*) Both statements 1 and 2 are true and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1.
(2) Both statements 1 and 2 are true but statement 2 is not correct explanation of statement 1.
(3) Statement 1 is true but statement 2 is false
(4) Both statements 1 and 2 are false.
oDrO; 1 ^  r ii i i ln r ni  i i  i i i li ( ^
il li lii li l(ln n ri ni r 
oDrO; 2 i nii l(in i( ^  il li lii li i ni r 
(1*) i i (n  r nii (n 2, (n 1 i ri ii ni r 
(2) i i (n  r n (n 2, (n 1 i ri ii ri ni r 
(3) (n 1  r nii (n 2  r 
(4) (n 1  r ln (n 2  r 
Ans. (1)
PART  I : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Hkkx  I : oLrqfu"B iz'u OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Single choice type
,dy fodYih izdkj
1. All the particles of a body are situated at a distance R from the origin. The distance of the centre of
mass of the body from the origin is
li (n n i  l R i lin r (n i i  l i [HCV  I]
(1) = R (2*) s R (3) > R (4) > R
2. A uniform thin rod of mass M and Length L is standing vertically along the yaxis on a smooth horizontal
surface, with its lower end at the origin (0,0). A slight disturbance at t = 0 causes the lower end to slip
on the smooth surface along the positive xaxis, and the rod starts falling. The acceleration vector of
centre of mass of the rod during its fall is : [JEE  93]
[ R is reaction from surface]
 ni M i ( L i; i yi li l i ln n +(i i i i r  ;i
li li  l (0,0) r i l(ii i ri ;i li li ii xi i i lni r nii
l^i ii ni r l^n  ; i i (i li ri ^i [ R nr lnl>i r ]
(1*)
M
R g M
a
CM
+
= (2)
M
R g M
a
CM
= (3) R g M a
CM
= (4) None of these ; i;
ri 
Sol. Equation of motion ^ln ii
cm
a M R g M
= +
so n
cm
a
=
M
R g M
+
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  48
3. A skater of mass m standing on ice throws a stone of mass M with a velocity of v in a horizontal
direction. The distance over which the skater will move back (the coefficient of friction between the
skater and the ice is ) :
  ( i m) i i r , M i i i v ( ^ i ln lii  ni r    i i i
lni i n ^i, (i ri ^i` ( nii ii i ii i ^ ii r ) :
(1)
g m 2
v M
2 2
(2)
g m 2
Mv
2
2
(3*)
g m 2
v M
2
2 2
(4)
g m 2
v M
2 2
2 2
Sol.
P
i
= 0 ...(i)
P
f
= MV mV
1
....(ii)
MV mV
1
= 0 v
1
=
m
M
V..
using 0
2
= v
1
2
2ax
v
1
2
= 2gx
2
m
MV

.

\

= 2g x.
x =
g m 2
V M
2
2 2
4. In a vertical plane inside a smooth hollow thin tube a block of same mass as that of tube is released as
shown in figure. When it is slightly disturbed it moves towards right. By the time the block reaches the
right end of the tube then the displacement of the tube will be (where R is mean radius of tube).
Assume that the tube remains in vertical plane.
+(i i n  ii ii li  i i i i lii i i i ini r r li l
r ni r ni li i l(ii ri ^i (R li i i n lii r ) ii li +(i i rni r 
(1)
t
R 2
(2)
t
R 4
(3*)
2
R
(4) R
Sol. Let the tube displaced by x towards left, then block will be displaced by (R x) towards right ;
ii li ii n x l(iiln ri ni r  n i ii n (R x) l(iiln ri ^i
mx = m (R x) x =
2
R
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  49
5. A stationary body explodes into two fragments of masses m
1
and m
2
. If momentum of one fragment is
p, the minimum energy of explosion is
li (n m
1
nii m
2
i    ini r  ^ ii^ i ( ^ p r ni l(i i +i ri ^i
(1)
) m m ( 2
p
2 1
2
+
(2)
2 1
2
m m 2
p
(3*)
2 1
2 1
2
m m 2
) m m ( p +
(4)
) m m ( 2
p
2 1
2
Sol. use m
1
v
1
= m
2
v
2
=P
F.E. =
2
1
mv
1
2
+
2
1
m
2
v
2
2
=
2
1
m
1
2
1
m
P


.

\

+
2
1
m
2
2
2
m
P


.

\

=
2
1
2 1
1 2
2
m m
) m m ( P +
.
6. A train of mass M is moving on a circular track of radius '
R
' with constant speed V. The length of the
train is half of the perimeter of the track. The linear momentum of the train will be
 li i M r i (^ V (iii i li lii '
R
' r  ^ln ri r  i i;
 i lli i iii r  i ii (^ ri^i
(1) i 0 (2*)
t
V M 2
(3) MVR (4) MV
Sol. If we treat the train as a ring of mass 'M' then its COM will be at a distance
t
R 2
from the centre of the
circle. Velocity of centre of mass is :
l  i 'M' i i ( i ni i i
t
R 2
i ri ^i i i ( ^
V
CM
= R
CM
.e
=
t
R 2
.e =

.

\

t R
V
.
R 2
( e =
R
V
)
V
CM
=
t
V 2
MV
CM
=
t
MV 2
As the linear momentum of any system = MV
CM
The linear momentum of the train =
t
MV 2
Ans.
li ii li i ii ( ^ = MV
CM
n  i ii (^ =
t
MV 2
Ans.
7. Two particles approach each other with different velocities. After collision, one of the particles has a
momentum p
in their center of mass frame. In the same frame, the momentum of the other particle is
[REE  98]
i i i i lili ( ^ i r r   i  i i i ni
 ( ^ p
(3) p
/2 (4) 2p
= =
}
}
}
}
}
}
11. A ball kept in a closed box moves in the box making collisions with the walls. The box is kept on a smooth
surface. The centre of mass :
i  ^ ; nr ii r; r l r ^ i i i(ii ini rni r i i li iln nr
ii ^i r i
(1) of the box remains constant (2*) of the box plus the ball system remains constant
(3) of the ball remains constant (4) of the ball relative to the box remains constant
(1) i i ln r^i (2*) ^ nii i li i ln r^i
(3) ^ i ln r^i (4) ^ i i ii ln r^i
Sol. Net external force on box plus ball system is zero.
^ i i li i= i r 
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  51
12. A man of mass M stands at one end of a plank of length L which lies at rest on a frictionless surface. The man
walks to the other end of the plank. If the mass of plank is M/3, the distance that the plank moves relative to
the ground is :
M i i ln L i; nn il iiilrn nr ii r l ii r ln nn
l i i i i ni r l nn i i M/3 ri ni ln l rni r ni nn ,ii n
i ri^i
(1*) 3L/4 (2) L/4 (3) 4L/5 (4) L/3
Sol. m (L x) +
3
m
(x) = 0
mL =
3
4
mx
13. Two blocks A and B are connected by a massless string (shown in figure) A force of 30 N is applied on block
B. The distance travelled by centre of mass in 2s starting from rest is :
i i A nii B liii ilrn i r r F = 30 N i B i ^ii ini r ni ^ln
2s in i ,ii n i ri^i :
10kg
20kg
F=30N
Smooth( ) ii ilrn
A
B
(1) 1m (2*) 2m (3) 3m (4) none of these ; i; ri
Sol. a
cm
=
) 20 10 (
30
+
= 1 ms
2
S = 0 (2) +
2
1
(1) (2)
2
= 2 m
14. The motion of the centre of mass of a system of two particles is unaffected by their internal forces :
i i li i i i inl i iil(n rni r ni
(1*) irrespective of the actual directions of the internal forces
(2) only if they are along the line joining the particles
(3) only if they are at right angles to the line joining the particles
(4) only if they are obliquely inclined to the line joining the particles.
(1*) inl i li ii lii l
(2) ( ii i i (ii ii  ^
(3) ( ii i i (ii ii (n ^
(4) ( ii i i (ii ii ln ^
Sol. vector sum of internal forces on system is zero.
li i nl i li i ^ i ri ni r 
15. Two bodies of masses m and 4m are moving with equal linear momentum. The ratio of their kinetic energies
is :
m i 4m i i i (n i (^ ^ln ri r, ni ;i ^ln +ii i in ri^i
(1) 1 : 4 (2*) 4 : 1 (3) 1 : 1 (4) 1 : 2
Sol.
2
1
k
k
=
2
1
) m 4 ( 2 / P
) m /( P
2
2
= 4/1
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  52
16. If the momentum of a body increases by 20%, the percentage increase in its kinetic energy is equal to :
l (^ 20% i li i ni (n i ^ln +i  lnin l(n (i) ri^i
(1*) 44 (2) 88 (3) 66 (4) 20
Sol. we have
2 . 0
p
p p
1
1 2
=
2 . 1
p
p
1
2
=
so
100 1
k
k
100
k
k k
1
2
1
1 2


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

1
p
p
2
1
2
2
100 (since k =
m 2
p
2
)
= ((1.2)
2
1) 100 = 44 %
17. Two observers are situated in different inertial reference frames. Then :
i i ^^ ( li ni  lin r ni
(1*) the momentum of a body by both observers may be same
(2) the momentum of a body measured by both observers must be same
(3) the kinetic energy measured by both observes must be same
(4) none of the above
(1*) ii i i (n i (^ i ri ni r
(2) ii i i (n i (^ i ri ri^i
(3) ii i i (n i ^ln +i i ri ri^i
(4) ; i; ri
Sol. When velocity of both frames are same then momentum will be same else it will be diffrent according
to diffrent observers
i i l i nii i ( ^ i r , n ( ^ i ri ^i iii ^ ^ i i i r ^ ^
ri^i
18. A man is sitting in a moving train, then : ln ^lnii ^ii (train)  i ri r
(1) his momentum must not be zero (2) his kinetic energy is zero
(3) his kinetic energy is not zero (4*) his kinetic energy may be zero
(1) ;i (^ i ri ri^i (2) ;i ^ln +i i ri^i
(3) ;i ^ln +i i ri ri^i (4*) ;i ^ln +i i ri ni r
Sol. Velocity of man w.r.t. train is zero so kinetic energy of man w.r.t. train = 0
^ii i i ln i ( ^ i r n ^ii i i ln i ^ln +i i ri ^i
19. A bomb dropped from an aeroplane explodes in air. Its total :
(ii l^ii ^i  r(i  l(iln ri ini r ni
(1) momentum decreases (2) momentum increases
(3*) kinetic energy increases (4) kinetic energy decreases
(1) (^ i^i (2) (^ ^i
(3*) ^ln +i ^i (4) ^ln +i i^i
Sol. Kinetic energy increase due to internal energy.
inl +i ii ^ln +i ni r
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  53
20. Two blocks of masses m
1
and m
2
are connected by a massless spring and placed on smooth surface. The
spring initially stretched and released. Then :
i i m
1
nii m
2
i ilrn l^ i rini i li nr ii ini r l^ i ii  ii
i n r n :
(1) the momentum of each particle remains constant separately
(2) the momentums of each body are equal
(3) the magnitude of momentums of each body are equal to each other
(4) the mechanical energy of system remains constant
(5*) both (3) and (4) are correct
(1)  i i ^^ (^ ln r^i (2) ii i i (^ i ri^i
(3) ii ii i (^ i lii i ri^i (4) li i ili +i lin r^i
(5*) (3) nii (4) ri r
Sol. 0 p p
2 1
= +
2 1
p p
=
2 1
p p
=
21. A shell is fired from a cannon with a velocity v at an angle u with the horizontal direction. At the highest point
in its path, it explodes into two equal pieces, one retraces its path to the cannon and the speed of the other
piece immediately after the explosion is :
^i i ni i ln u ii v ( ^ i^i ini r ; i n l r i i ii^i  l(iln
ri ini r ii^ ;i i i ni i n ln ni r ni ii^ i i  nn i ri^i
(1*) 3u cosu (2) 2u cosu (3)

.

\

2
3
u cosu (4)
2
3
u cosu
Sol. P
1
= P
f
mV cos u =
2
m
(V cos u +
2
m
V
'
)
V
'
= 3V cos u
22. The centre of mass of the shaded portion of the disc is : (The mass is uniformly distributed in the
shaded portion) :
ni ii ln r ii^ i i ri ^i (ii ln ii^  i  l(nln r )
A
(1*)
20
R
to the left of AA (A ii i
20
R
)
(2)
12
R
to the left of A ( AA ii i
12
R
)
(3)
20
R
to the right of AA (A ii i
20
R
)
(4)
12
R
to the right of A (A ii i
12
R
)
Sol. A
1
= tR
2
A
2
=
16
R
2
t
x
1
= 0 x
2
=
4
R 3
x
cen
=
20
R
16
R
R
4
R 3
16
R
0
2
2
2
=
t
t
t
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  54
23. A semicircular portion of radius r is cut from a uniform rectangular plate as shown in figure. The
distance of centre of mass 'C' of remaining plate, from point O is :
, (ni ii^ li lii r r i lii i inii  ii ^i r  l O i r ; 
i C i i ri ^i
(1)
) 3 (
r 2
t
(2)
) 4 ( 2
r 3
t
(3)
) 4 (
r 2
t +
(4*)
) 4 ( 3
r 2
t
Sol. A
1
= 2r r = 2r
2
A
2
=
2
r
2
t
x
1
=
2
r
x
2
=
t 3
r 4
x
cm
=
2
r
r 2
3
r
2
r
2
r
r 2
2
2
2
2
t
t
4
=
] 4 [ 3
r 2
2
4
r
3
2
1 r
2
3
t
=
(
t
(
t
24. In an elastic collision in absence of external force, which of the following is/are correct :
[REE  95]
ii   , ir i liln  l  i i, i  r 
(1) The linear momentum is not conserved
ii ( ^ lin ri rni r 
(2) The potential energy is conserved in collision
  liln +i lin rni r 
(3) The final kinetic energy is less than the initial kinetic energy
ln ^ln +i ili ^ln +i  ri ni r 
(4*) The final kinetic energy is equal to the initial kinetic energy
ln ^ln +i ili ^ln +i i ri ni r 
25. A bag of mass M hangs by a long thread and a bullet (mass m) comes horizontally with velocity v and
gets caught in the bag. Then for the combined system (bag + bullet) :
M i i i i ii^ i r nii m i i ^i i v i ln ( ^ i i 
i ini r  ni i i nii ^i i n li l
(1) Momentum is mMv/(M + m) (2) KE is (1/2) Mv
2
(3*) Momentum is mv (4) KE is m
2
v
2
/(M + m)
(1) ( ^ mMv/(M + m) ri ^i (2) ^ln +i (1/2) Mv
2
ri ^i
(3*) ( ^ mv ri ^i (4) ^ln +i m
2
v
2
/(M + m) ri ^i
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  55
Sol. by conservation of linear momentum p
i
= p
f
ii (^ ii p
i
= p
f
mv = (m + M) u u =
) M m (
mv
+
so energy of system =
2
1
(m + M) u
2
= m
2
v
2
/2(M + m)
n li i +i =
2
1
(m + M) u
2
= m
2
v
2
/2(M + m)
26. A shell explodes in a region of negligible gravitational field, giving out n fragments of equal mass m.
Then its total [REE  97]
^i i ^ ^(i i i  l(ii ln rini r  nii i i m n  i ni r n ;i
(1) Kinetic energy is smaller than that before the explosion
^ln +i l(i ln ri r (ii ^ln +i  ri ^i
(2) Kinetic energy is equal to the before the explosion
^ln +i l(i ln ri r (ii ^ln +i i ri ^i
(3) Momentum and kinetic energy depend on n
( ^ nii ^ln +i n li ^i
(4*) Momentum is equal to that before the explosion.
( ^ l(i ln ri r (i ( ^ i ri ^i
More than one choice type
cgq fodYih izdkj
27.* A system of particles has its centre of mass at the origin. The xcoordinates of all the particles
(A) may be positive
(B) may be negative
(C*) may be nonnegative
(D*) may be nonpositive
i li i i l r ii ii xlii
(A) ii ri n r (B) ~ii ri n r
(C*) ~ii ri n r (D*) ii ri n r
28.* In which of the following cases the centre of mass of a system is certainly not at its centre ?
(A*) A rod whose density continuously increases from left to right
(B*) A rod whose density continuously decreases from left to right
(C) A rod whose density decreases from left to right upto the centre and then increases
(D) A rod whose density increases from left to right upto the centre and then decreases
l  l lilni l li i i lln ; ri ri^i
(A) li i( ii ii i ln ni r
(B) li i( ii ii i ln  rini r
(C) li i( ii ii i  l n  rini r nin 
(D) li i( ii ii i  l n ni r nin  rini r
29.* If the net external force acting on a system is zero, then the centre of mass
(A) must not move (B*) must not accelerate
(C*) may move (D) may accelerate
l li li ^ r ir i i liii i ri, ni i
(A) ^ln ri ^i (B) (ln ri ri^i (C) ^ln ni r (D) (ln ri ni r
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  56
30.* In an elastic collision in absence of external force, which of the following is/are correct :
[REE  95]
ii   , ir i liln  l  i i, i  r 
(A*) The linear momentum is conserved
ii ( ^ lin rni r 
(B) The potential energy is conserved in collision
  liln +i lin rni r 
(C) The final kinetic energy is less than the initial kinetic energy
ln ^ln +i , ili ^ln +i  ri ni r 
(D*) The final kinetic energy is equal to the initial kinetic energy
ln ^ln +i , ili ^ln +i i ri ni r 
31.* A small ball collides with a heavy ball initially at rest. In the absence of any external impulsive force, it
is possible that
(A) Both the balls come to rest
(B*) Both the balls move after collision
(C*) The moving ball comes to rest and the stationary ball starts moving
(D) The stationary ball remains stationary, the moving ball changes its velocity.
l(ii(ii  ii iii ^ ii ^ ini r li ii i= i(^i i liln  r i( r l
(A) ii ^ l(ii(ii  i i
(B)  in ii ^ ^lnii ri
(C) ^lnii ^ li ri i nii li ^ ^ln ii 
(D) li ^ li r, ^lnii ^ i (^ l(lnn ri i
32.* A block moving in air explodes in two parts then just after explosion (neglect change in momentum
duet to gravity)
(A*) The total momentum of two parts must be equal to the momentum of the block before explosion.
(B) The total kinetic energy of two parts must be equal as that of block before explosion.
(C) The total momentum must change
(D*) The total kinetic energy must increase
r(i  ^lnii ^i i ii^i  l(iln ri ini r ni l(i nn i (^( ii (^ l(n ^
r)
(A) ii ii^i i (^, l(i r i (^ i ri^i
(B) ii ii^i i ^ln +i (ri r^i i l(i r ^ i ii
(C) (^ i( l(lnn ri i^i
(D) ^ln +i i( i^i
33.* Two bodies of same mass collide head on elastically then
(A*) Their velocities are interchanged
(B*) Their speeds are interchanged
(C*) Their momenta are interchanged
(D*) The faster body slows down and the slower body speeds up.
i i (ii i (ni i i ii  
(A) ; (^  l(lnn ri in r (B) ;i i  l(lnn ri ini r
(C) ; (^  l(lnn ri in r (D) ni(^ii (n iii ri ini r nii iii (n n ri ini r
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  57
PART  II : COMPREHENSION
Hkkx  II : vuqPNsn (COMPREHENSION)
Comprehension # 1
vuqPNsn # 1
A 3kg block A
moving with 4 m/sec on a smooth table collides inelastically and head on with an 8kg
block B moving with speed 1.5 m/sec towards A
. Given e = 1/2
l  4 m/sec (^ ni ri 3kg i i i A
, 1.5 m/sec (^ l(ln lii  A i
i ^lnii 8kg i i ii i ii  ni r li r : e = 1/2
1. Final velocities of both the blocks
ii i i ln (^
(1*) V
A
= 2m/s, V
B
= s / m
4
3
(2) V
A
= 1m/s, V
B
= s / m
4
3
(3) V
A
= 2m/s, V
B
= s / m
4
1
(3) V
A
= s / m
4
3
, V
B
= 2m/s
2. The impulse of reformation and deformation
i nii l(i i i(^
(1) 12Ns, 6 Ns (2) 4Ns, 12 Ns (3*) 6Ns, 12 Ns (4) 12Ns, 4Ns
3. The maximum potential energy of deformation
l(i i lin liln +i
(1) 34J (2) 35J (3) 30J (4*) 33J
4. Find out loss in kinetic energy of system.
li i ^ln +i  ril nin i
(1) ) J
4
89
(2*) ) J
4
99
(3) J
4
79
(4) zero
Ans. (1) V
A
= 2m/s, V
B
= s / m
4
3
, (2) 6Ns, 12 Ns, (3) 33J (4) J
4
99
RESONANCE NIT_CENTRE OF MASS  58
Sol. using momentum conservation (^ ii
e =
2
1
3 4 8 1.5 = 3V
1
+ 8V
2
12 12 = 3 V
1
+ 8V
2
3 V
1
+ 8V
2
= 0 ....(1)
coffecient of restitution i(ii ^ii
5 . 1 4
V V
1 2
+
=
2
1
....(2)
V
2
V
1
=
2
5 . 5
....(2)
reat in (i) 3 1 + 8

.

\

+
1
V
2
5 . 5
= 0
3 1 + 22 + 8 1 = 0 V
1
=
11
22
= 2 m/sec
V
2
=
8
3
V
1
=
8
3
(2) =
4
3
m/sec
(2) applying momentum conservation eqn. (^ ii
m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
)V V = 0 so
 P
D
 =  m
1
(
V
u
1
)  =  m
1
u
1
 = 3 4 = 12 Ns
 J
R
 = e. J
D
 = 6 Ns
(3) P.E =
2
1
mu
1
2 +
2
1
m
2
V
2
2
1
(m
1
+ m
2
) V
2
.
=
2
1
3 u
2
+
2
1
8 (1.5)
2
0 = 335
(4) AK = Ki K
f
= 33
(
(

.

\

+
2
2
4
3
8
2
1
) 2 ( 3
2
1
=
4
99
J.
Comprehension2
A smooth ball 'A' moving with velocity 'V' collides with another smooth identical ball at rest. After
collision both the balls move with same speed with angle between their velocities 60. No external force
acts on the system of balls.
li ^ 'A' i 'V' i li i ^ ini r i l r l(i  i ii 
i i i ^ i i ni r ( ( ^i  i i 60 r  ^ i li i ; ir i n
ri ri ni r 
5. The speed of each ball after the collision is
 i  ^ i i
(1)
2
V
(2)
3
V
(3*)
3
V
(4)
3
V 2
Sol. From conservation of momentum
( ^ ii
mv = mv' cos30 + mv' cos30
v' =
3
v
30 cos 2
v
=
\

7. The value of coefficient of restitution is
i ^ ii (coefficient of restitution) i i r
(1) 1 (2*)
3
1
(3)
3
1
(4) 0
Sol. Initially B was at rest, therefore line of impact is along final velocity of B.
^ B ii  l(i  ii n i( ^ l>i ii ^ B ln ( ^ li ri ^i
e =
3
1
2
3
v
3
v
2
1
30 cos v
60 cos ' v ' v
=