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CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Background

Introduction Education is an important means by which an organized society achieves stability and prosperity. Through the process of Education, the citizens are imbued with proper attitudes, values and aspirations, necessary to gain knowledge and skills that will help them achieve maximum self realization. Our own Congressional Commission on

Education (EDCOM) has recognized the crucial importance of Education when it stated in the preface to the official EDCOM report: Education is essential to our life as a nation. This is the truism that bears endless repetition1 And professional educators know very well that the word Learning implies both teaching and learning. The Philippine Educational System was before patterned from both Educational Systems of Spain and United States of America. But as the time goes by, different technologies spawned. The Department of Education proposed a new educational

system, along with that the new curriculum for all students. This will be the answer for the demand for manpower that will help for the countrys development. The end goal of Philippine Education is to produce Filipinos who respect human rights, whose personal disciplines are guided by spiritual and moral values and who can exercise responsively their rights and duties as citizens.

Excerpt from the Preface to the Official EDCOM Report (1992).

Contrary to their concept, the Philippine Educational System has apparently failed to produce the much-needed Filipinos for the countrys social and economic development. The demand for learning especially in the world of work has altered. Background of the Study Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the learning areas in Secondary Education in the Philippines. As a subject in high school, it basically tackles the basic fundamentals of technicalities that can be found in people's everyday life. Also, with the ever emerging Philippine Technology, students were also taught the need to know about the growing industry to hands-on activities and creativity projects. TLE provides High School students with practical experiences, technical knowledge and expertise in Home Economics, Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Technology and Livelihood Education intends to develop knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that will prepare the students for entry into world of work. This will enable the students to gain understanding and acquire competency in various activities. The study of TLE needs redirection to suit to the conditions in todays society and to promote advancement in knowledge and respond to the needs of individuals, families, and community. According to De Alca, The TLE as the 5th learning area in the

curriculum is the Laboratory of Life.2 Among the learning areas, it is the most experimental, interactive, interdisciplinary, vocational, politico-economic and Moral Values. It is the learning area that provides the students quality time to demonstrate
De Alca, Jocelyn De Asis, Factors related to the Performance of Secondary Students in Technology and Livelihood Education at La Navas National High School. Unpublished Masters Thesis, 2008.
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practical knowledge and life skills that have been gained especially, the skills of empathy, vocational efficiency and solving problem of daily life. The DepEd is vested with the authority, accountability and responsibility for ensuring success to promote Quality Education. Quality Education can provide people with the means to assess and construct their own values and provides a foundation for the continued Education that is essential to personal and professional fulfillment.3 At the present setting in the Philippines, The Technology and Livelihood Education is under the Technical-Vocational Program (Tech-Voc). Technical-Vocational Education offers Technical and Vocational courses to basically enhance and develop their skills. The Department of Education (DepEd), represented by Secretary Bro. Armin Luistro said in the column entitled Education and Home for November 10, 2010 issue of The Philippine Star: DepEd believes that the tech-voc high school program will play a significant role in raising the quality of high school graduates in the country toward employment here and abroad or toward entrepreneurship. Through it, they can contribute more significantly to revenue generation, jobs creation, and to national development as a whole.4 DepEd continues to raise the quality of the Tech-Voc program through the provision of Competency-Based Curriculum, Teachers Training, acquisition of physical facilities, development of instructional materials, and other logistics support. Also, The Technical Education and skills Development Authority (TESDA), works hand in hand with DepEd in encouraging the full participation and mobilization of
3 4

Aquino, Gaudencio V., Effective Teaching, 3rd Ed., National Book Store, 2006, p. 488. Ibid, p. 9.

the industrys labor and Tech-Voc Education in the development of the countrys human resources. As a means of achieving the goal of Quality TLE, the researchers is motivated to pursue this study to identify the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in Teaching Different Areas in TLE in Public High School. How would these be done? It will begin with the Teachers Effectiveness in Teaching. The concern for Teachers Effectiveness is underscored in the Education Act of 1982 which provides, among other things, that students in schools have the right to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education The same law provides that every Teacher shall be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives5 Let us start with the conceptualization of Teaching, Teaching is a science as it involves a systematic process of instruction guided by established theories, principles, and approaches that make teaching effective.6 It is a cycle of instruction that is based on theories, principles and approaches that will result in effective teaching. There is a tremendous semantic confusion in the use of such words as strategies, techniques, and methods. Strategies are the plans intended for accomplishing specific goals.7 Techniques are the day to day activities which the teacher may design for a particular lesson.

Aquino, Gaudencio V., Effective Teaching, 3rd Ed., National Book Store, 2006, p. vii.

Acero, Victoria O., et. Al., Principles of Teaching I, 1st Ed., Quezon City: Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2007, p.12. Herman, Gregorio, Principles and Methods of Teaching, 3rd Ed., Quezon City: R. P. Garcia Publishing Co., 1996, p. 4.
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And Methods are the overall procedure or process to achieve certain goals.8 It is now clear that the three are interchangeably used in education. Strategies are used in different strokes and advances to expand and raise goals and undertaking for both the teacher and advances to expand and raise goals and undertaking for both the teacher and students. It is a means to set off and develop the students skills and in depth knowledge of what had to be learned according to their interests and intelligence. It has a direct pressure on how the students learn and what skills they need to develop. Hence, it has been purposeful to strengthen and intensify the awareness of students in every topic to be understood. Aside from using new technology, a teacher needed to use different strategies and techniques to get hold of the attention of high school students. There were many ways of applying strategies to High School Students. But a teacher must know the most effective approach to be used to a particular kind of learner. According to Lardizabal, A Teacher should realize individual differences among students and put himself in the position to meet them through a variety of strategies.9 In other schools, it is common problem of the teachers if what are the strategies suited to arouse students interest. According to Tenedero, the problem raised when the Teachers were left behind by the innovations in Education.10 Many Teachers didnt care

Dhand, Harry, Techniques of Teaching, 1st Ed., New Delhi: APH Publishing Co., 2008, p. xiv.

Lardizabal, Amparo S., et. Al., Principles and Methods of Teaching, 3rd Ed., Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 1991, p.6. Tenedero, Henry A., et. Al., Creating an Enhanced Learning Environment through Individual Learning Styles, Second National Conference 2001, Philippine Trade and trading Center, Quezon City: Rex Bookstore, 2001.
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for someone exerted no effort to think which could be more appropriate learning style or strategies for their school or grade level. According to Aquino, at the end of every subject, the teacher must developed the students cognitive learning, his intellectual skills will developed; Affective learning, deals with attitudes, motivation, willingness to participate, valuing what is being learned, and ultimately incorporating the values of a discipline into a way of life; and Psychomotor Learning, focuses on performing sequences of motor activities to a specified level of accuracy, smoothness, rapidity, or force.11 Theoretical Framework This study was anchored on the theory of self-activity formulated by John Dewey which is based on the idea of learning by doing, reacting or experiencing. This theory is evident in the new philosophical approaches in Philippine education where in the first approach introduced is the work-oriented curriculum which aims to develop work values of creativity and employability of the individual.12 This concept calls for a real work experience. The love for work must be stressed or develop by the TLE teachers. B.F. Skinners Behaviourism in Modification which stresses the stimulusresponse approach to learners.13 The teachers should be aware that a positive stimulus should be presented to the study in order to achieve the desire outcome. Banduras Social Learning Theory stresses the observational learning where a response is linked with a stimulus after a person sees the consequences of another
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Aquino, Gaudencio V., Effective Teaching, 3rd Ed., National Book Store, 2006, p. 30. Elevazo, Aurelio O., Fundamental Philosophies of Education, National Book Store, 1995, p.

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115. Halfied, Mary, et. Al., Mathematics Methods for the Elementary and Middle School, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993, p. 40
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persons responses.14 The teacher should manifest a type of personality considered as a true model for the students to emulate. Ericksons Theory of Development and Sullivans Observation on the selfconcept stresses the importance of making students feel confident about their own ability.15 The teacher should encourage the students to perform an activity for its own sake and for their personal growth and satisfaction. Kolbs Theory of Experiential Learning states that, Learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.16 The students cannot only learn in the four corners of a classroom, the teacher should not teach with the theories only but instead he/she must let his/her students experience it. Bruners Theory of Cognitive Constructivism states that, Learning is an active process: Direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions are vital for the assimilation and accommodation of information. How information is presented is important. When information is introduced as an aid to problem solving, it functions as a tool rather than an isolated arbitrary fact. Learning should be whole, authentic, and real the students are engaged in the true to life experience in a classroom.17 The school should have adequate facilities and equipments to help the students learn from the real thing.

14

Ibid, p.42.

Tianero, Letecia C., et. Al., Getting the Best out of your pupils through Motivation, The Modern Teacher, Volume XLIII, No. 9, 1995, p. 364. Kolb, David A., Experiential Learning: Experience As The Source Of Learning And Development' , 1984, p. 41. Retrieved http://www.d.umn.edu/~kgilbert/educ5165731/Readings/experiential-learning-theory.pdf, August 20, 2012. Piaget, John, Congnitve Constructivist Theroy. http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/cognitiv.htm, August 20, 2012.
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Retrieved

from

Reigeluths Theory of Elaboration states that, content to be learned should be organized from simple to complex order, while providing a meaningful context in which subsequent ideas can be integrated. 18 The Teacher should teach theory, principles, and procedures of the topic first. Then, after the student learned the basic theories, let the student choose the theory, principle and procedure of the topic to be elaborated. Vygotskys Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.19 A constructivist teacher creates a context for learning in which students can become engaged in interesting activities that encourages and facilitates learning. The teacher does not simply stand by, however, and watch children explore and discover. Instead, the teacher may often guide students as they approach problems, may encourage them to work in groups to think about issues and questions, and support them with encouragement and advice as they tackle problems, adventures, and challenges that are rooted in real life situations that are both interesting to the students and satisfying in terms of the result of their work. Teachers thus facilitate cognitive growth and learning as do peers and other members of the child's community Browns Cognitive Apprenticeship is a theory that attempts to bring tacit processes out in the open. It assumes that people learn from one another, through

Reigeluth, C. (1992). Elaborating the elaboration theory. Educational Technology Research & Development, 40(3), 80-86. Retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theoryreigeluth.html , August 20, 2012. Vygotsky, Lev, Social Development Theory. Retrieved from http://www.learningtheories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html, August 20, 2012.
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observation, imitation and modeling.20 The Teacher demonstrates a task explicitly, and the students build a conceptual model of the task at hand.

Brown, Collins, and Newman, Cognitive Apprenticeship. Retrieved from http://www.learningtheories.com/cognitive-apprenticeship-collins-et-al.html, August 20, 2012.

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Figure 1. Shows the conceptual framework of the study. The inputs or the data for the study were collected representing selected personal variables for students, students feedback on the implementation of teaching strategies, activities and perceived adequacy of facilities and equipment, and the students feedback in terms of the skills acquired, attitudes/values towards technology and the world of work. The same figure shows that the inputs were descriptively analyzed to present the efficiency level of the technology program based on the experiences of the respondents or the perspective of the technology teachers as program implementers and students as program beneficiaries. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to assess and describe the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in teaching different areas in Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is your teachers profile? 1.1 Sex 1.2 Age 1.3 Educational Attainment 2. Which of these areas of TLE are you currently taking up? 3. What techniques and strategies are used by the teacher? 4. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses on the Techniques and Strategies? 5. What are the things that they use when they teach? 5.1 Resources and Materials

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5.2 Facilities and Equipment 6. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses regarding: 6.1 Resources and Materials 6.2 Facilities and Equipment 7. What are the things developed by the students in learning different areas in TLE? 7.1 Skills 7.2 Values 8. What are the problems that the Teacher and Student encountered in the Learning Process of TLE? 9. What are the solutions to the problems met? 10. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses on solutions to the problems encountered? 11. If you are going to assess/evaluate the performance of your teacher in teaching the subject, how are you going to rate him/her? 5- Outstanding 4- Very Satisfactory 3- Satisfactory 2- Fair 1-Needs Improvement

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Null Hypotheses The Null Hypotheses tested in this study were: 1. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses on the Techniques and Strategies. 2. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses regarding: 2.1 Resources and Materials 2.2 Facilities and Equipment 3. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses on solutions to the problems encountered. Significance of the Study This study will benefit the following: Technology and Livelihood Education Teachers. The findings of this study would equip the teachers with the skills they would need to handle Technology and Livelihood Education effectively. Students. Results of this study will lead to the students improvement of their studies and academic performance to the best of their potentials. Parents. Results of this study may provide parents a feedback on the nature of the classroom performance of their children through their teachers who may offer some ways for children to strive more on their TLE subject. The Community. This study is important because it can help the community; particularly the officials and members of the Parents-Teacher Community Association (PTCA) understand better the parents obligations and responsibilities in school.

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Administrators. The results of this study will serve as an eye-opener to administrators for effective planning, direction or guidance by encouraging teachers to use more applicable, suitable, and effective methods and strategies which will improve their teaching abilities and performance. Educational Institutions. Results of this study can provoke educational institutions to assess the students performance in Technology and Livelihood Education in order to develop desirable attitudes and values which will contribute to effective personal, family, and community living. Future Researchers. The results of the study may reveal insights that will help future researchers realize the goals of their studies. They may use the data of this study to come up with a bigger and wider spectrum about the subject. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study focuses on the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in Teaching different areas in Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School. The respondents are the third and fourth year students of Ernesto Rondon High School. I. Definitions of Terms For better understanding of this study, the following words are defined operationally. Affective Learning. It includes the manner in which we deal with things

emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.

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Age. It is a period of human life, measured by years form birth, usually marked by a certain stage or degree of mental physical development and involving legal responsibility and capacity. Cognitive Learning. It involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedure, and concepts. Competency Based Curriculum. It is a framework or guide for the subsequent detailed development of competencies, associated methodologies, training and assessment resources. Education. It is the aggregate of all processes by which a person develops ability, attitudes, and other forms of behaviour of practical values in the society in which he lives. Effectiveness. It is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression. Gender. It is used to describe the characteristics, roles and responsibilities of women and men, boys and girls, which are socially constructed. Gender is related to how we are perceived and expected to think and act as women and men because of the way society is organized, not because of our biological differences. Innovation. It is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets, governments, and society.

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Psychomotor Learning. It includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Strategies. Are the plans intended for accomplishing specific goals.21 Teacher. It is a symbol of learning, a leader of learners, and a miracle to

education. They are the main source of inspiration for the next generation. They are the ones that reach for the sky to get what our students need. Teaching. It is a science as it involves a systematic process of instruction guided by established theories, principles, and approaches that make teaching effective.22 Techniques. Are The Day To Day Activities Which The Teacher May Design For A Particular Lesson.23 Technology. It is the making, modification, usage and knowledge of tools,

machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). It s one of the learning areas in

Secondary Education in the Philippines. Technology and Livelihood Education intends to develop knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that will prepare the students for entry

Herman, Gregorio, Principles and Methods of Teaching, 3rd Ed., Quezon City: R. P Garcia Publishing Co., 1996, p.4.
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Acero, Victoria O., et. Al., Principles of Teaching I, 1st Ed., Quezon City: Rex book store, Inc., Dhand, Harry, Techniques of Teaching, 1 Education., New Delhi: APH Publishin Co., 2008,
st

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pxiv.

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into world of work. This will enable the students to gain understanding and acquire competency in various activities. Technical Vocational Education. It is demonstrated and acknowledge

development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for a place in the workforce, at levels ranging from pre-trade to a Para-professional.

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CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies

In this chapter, Review of Related Literature and Studies are divided into four parts, Foreign Literature, Foreign Studies, Local Literature and Local Studies. Local Literature Curriculum Development According to Gonzales, from a National outlook the High School or Secondary Level should have as it aims the preparation of students either for Technical Vocational or for University studies. He added that the Vocational Curriculum should include more than a mere basket-weaving or pig raising; it should be well designed to prepare the student in Technical field and not simply to give him what he perhaps could learn better at home. 24 For Palma, the Curriculum is not static. It is always tentative and is meant to undergo a process of development to bring it even higher levels of effectiveness. The concurrent process of planning and implementing, evaluating, and revising the curriculum goes on in a never ending cycle.25 He added that for Curricular change to be positive and result in development it must have the following characteristics: 1. It must be purposeful. Objectives must be clearly specified.
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Gonzales, P, Higher Education: Its meaning and Importance, Phoenix Publishing House, 1983. Palma, J, Curriculum Development System, National Book Store: Manila, 1992.

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2. It must be planned. It must be systematic, sequential, and executed over a period of time. 3. It must be progressive. It must bring improvement. Bacani, P. and Barba, B. stated that in order to make Education more relevant to students future life goals and potential curriculum should be geared towards career education. They added that when this program is properly integrated into the Educational System it can help teachers make the basics more relevant to the world of work and each student career interest and potential. Based on the Primer on the SEDP (Secondary Education Development Program), the program consists of curriculum, staff and physical facilities development designs to achieve the following objectives: 1. To improve the quality of Secondary graduates and the internal efficiency of the system. 2. To expand access to quality Secondary Education; and 3. To promote equality in the allocation of resources specifically at the local level. Under this program the students shall: a. Obtain knowledge and form desirable attitudes for understanding the nature and purpose of man, therefore, of ones self, ones own people and other races, places and time.

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b. Developed skills in higher intellectual operations and more complex comprehension and expression activities, and in thinking intelligently and critically and creatively in life situations. c. Broaden and heighten ones abilities in and appreciation for the arts, the science, and technology as a means for maximizing ones potentials for self-fulfilment and for promoting the welfare of others.26 The Primary task of education is to develop the individual to his maximum potential so that he can effectively live in an increasingly complex society, a speech of Secretary Juan Manuel of DECS in the conference of the Philippine Society for Curriculum Development held at the Teachers Camp, Baguio City.27 These Statement capsulate two major concerns of education: Individual and Society. Through education the maximum potential of the individual is developed. Through education the upliftment of society is enhanced and assured. Education in the Philippines may be characterized as dynamic and forward looking.28 It is dynamic in that is sensitive to the major movements in education, is aware of community problems, and is cognizant of the need to continually revitalize itself in order to become relevant and vital factor in national development. It is forward looking because it is ever alert to consider new ideas, new concepts, and new ways of doing things.

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Primer on the Secondary Education development Program.

Aquino, Gaudencio V., Curriculum Planning for Better School, Revised Ed., Rex Publishing Co., 1998, P. 436.
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Ibid., p. 436

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Technology and Livelihood Education Program Technology and Livelihood Education is one of the subjects offered in the secondary schools. The subject is intended to provide classroom and practical work experience that will enable the students to gain understanding and acquire competencies in various activities as they relate to Home Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial Arts and Entrepreneurship. This subject covers home and family living, housing and family economics, foods and applied nutrition and basic clothing. Practical work experiences include managing the household, caring for the sick, preparing and processing food, simple sewing and other allied activities. Academic subjects must be applied in the home economics program, especially consumer and homemaking classes that study the cultural differences and similarities in ways that will make the economics, social and cultural principles more meaningful. Home Economics programs needs redirection in order to reflect conditions in today's society.29 According to Macarayan, the home and the family are still the center of the mission of Home Economics, as a discipline. Peaceful and successful interrelationship, because of the need to survive as a planet is going to be the new ethics for the 21st century. Values formation is the focus of all disciplines and professions in the 21st century. Home Economics may have to move towards a creative professional stance where the professional seeks its own level. Home Economics program should be more relevant to the needs of the times and has to focus more on research. It is only through
Sarmiento, Adorina M., Redirecting Home Economics in Secondary Education, The Modern Teacher. Vol. XLVII, No. 10, (March 1999).
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research that one can add to the existing body of knowledge in Home Economics and improve its practice and application in the country. 30 Local Studies STUDENT RELATED FACTORS GENDER Several studies on the students performance revealed that there are significant factors that affect it. For Etulle, in her investigation of the correlation of the competency of freshmen college students of University of Baguio, she found out that gender did not affect their competency level.31 On his study, Pacer pointed out that the magnitude of differences in the overall intellectual ability between gender was not great. There had some differences between men and women. However, their differences in the intellectual ability are caused by their cultural differences.32

Macarayan, Nerissa A., The CODHHEP 26th Annual Conference Workshop: A Shift to a New Paradigm In Home Economics.: Vol. XLVII, No. 10, (March 1999), p.36 Etulle, C, Correlation of competency of freshmen college students of the University of Baguio. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Baguio, 1995. Pacer, Melchor G., Correlates returning students achievements in College of Industrial Education. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2002.
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AGE A study conducted by De Pano, said that younger people are more innovative because of the spirit of adventure. The older ones especially those bidding their time for their eventual retirement are likely to be inclined in the status quo.33 Age composition determines in a large measure the social roles of the population, the degree range and direction of their vertical and geographical movement, their adaptability to new situations, the extent, and the nature of their participation. INTEREST OF THE STUDENTS In his study about Interest and Needs in Industrial Arts of Grade Six Boys in Public Elementary School in the Division of Albay, Payno stated that the program of Industrial Arts Instruction can be effective only if it meets adequately the pupils needs and interests; if there is correspondence between the pupils interest and needs; when the activities are considered interesting and are useful to the pupils; and if wholesome attitude towards Industrial Arts can be developed. When the teacher has a good need and interests in his/her school work and understand the needs and interests in his/her school, Industrial Arts Instruction will also be effective.34

De Pano, Evangeline C., The Effectiveness of Industrial Education Graduate of the Three public institutions in Metro Manila. Unpublised Masters Thesis, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 1992. Payno, Solomon J., Interests and Needs in Industrial Arts of Grade Six Boys in the Public Elementary School in the Division of Albay. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Bicol Teachers College, 1996, p. 24.
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TEACHER RELATED FACTORS GENDER Several studies are conducted to find out if gender affects the Teachers teaching characteristics. According to Jeraplasen, she concluded a study on personal teaching characteristics and pupils achievement in Mathematics as a basis for teacher development programs. In her study, she uses Gender as one of the variables in the personal profile. Based on her findings, she found out that teaching profession is always dominated by woman, a finding that is similar to Gahite.35 According to Bael, she revealed that gender is undoubtedly the most intensely eagerly studied individual differences.36 According to Fehr, as cited by Muvises, The D.C. Clellands Theory of Achievement and Motivation, pointed out that high need achievers tend to be independent or autonomous in performance and decision making. They like to take responsibility for their actions. Males would like to be practical, shrewd, assertive, and dominating while females would like to be moving affectionate and impulsive.37

Jeraplasen, Teresita L., Personal Teaching characteristics and pupils performance in Mathematics as a basis for Teaching development program. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Union College of Laguna, 1999. Bael, Thelma D., Determinant of the work attitude and performance in the Secondary Schools in Manila: Basis for the staff development. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2003. Muvises, Dhirwatra, Effects of Administrators Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles on the following Competencies and Job Satisfaction of Instructors of Vocational Colleges in Thailand. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2003, p. 68.
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AGE According to Callos studies, the relationship of age and enthusiasm among teachers in State Universities in Metro Manila. These variables obtain a negative

regression coefficient. This inverse relationship implies that the younger the teacher, the greater is his/her enthusiasm toward teaching technology subjects. His findings support the general observation that the older the teacher, the more they tend to loss enthusiasm on modern technology because of its complexities that change at a quick pace, almost requiring a rapid adaptation on the part of the users. He added that younger teachers showed greater interest, enthusiasm, propensity, acceptability, and creativity towards technology.38 Lehman, as cited by Naga, believed that younger people are more creative that the older ones. In her study, she found out that the age at which creativity can be seen in 34 years old.39 Galilea said that age creates more experiences and those experiences are generally accepted as great teachers. A person who occupies an executive position may perform not as fast as she/he can, but can perform the task more meaningful and efficiently.40

Callo, Ernesto B., Technology orientation in State Colleges and Universities in Metro Manila: Perspective for human resource development. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 1997, p. 40. Naga, Rowena A., Competency of Teacher Major in Technology and Home Economics and Mathematics related subjects in Private High School in Liliw and Nagcarlan District SY 2003-2004. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Laguna, 2004, p. 19. Galilea, Ofelia A., Effects of Public School Executives, Functions and Skills on Organizational Performance. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, 1997, p.49.
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AREA OF SPECIALIZATION According to Vongyuttakrai, teacher who are given assignments based on their areas of specialization are given added trust and confidence vis-a-vis their expertise along their fields of specialization.41 TEACHING STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING Naga, cited Maromas study of the proficiency of Industrial Arts Teachers. His findings are as follows: a. Not all teachers covered the areas of Industrial Arts. b. The respondents used the right methods in teaching Industrial Arts. c. There was inadequacy of shop tools based on the assessment of the respondents. d. No significant relationships existed between the activities in Industrial Arts and the manpower requirements of the service area. e. Teachers were found proficient in teaching Industrial Arts.42 Teachers are highly interested in how well the learners do in the classroom; hence, they always like to be updated with the newest trends and methodologies of teaching to make their classroom lively, dynamic, conducive to learning and influential.43
Vongyuttakrai, Pairust, Professionalism among Faculty Member of a State University: Its determination and relationship to Faculty Performance. Unpublished Dissertation, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 1996, p. 46. Naga, Rowena A., Competency of Teacher Major in Technology and Home Economics and Mathematics related subjects in Private High School in Liliw and Nagcarlan District SY 2003-2004. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Laguna, 2004.
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Survey enumerated various teaching methods which can be used by classroom teachers. They are as follows: use of lecture, lecture-forum, panel, debate, film method, slideshows method, prepared videotapes, drills demonstration, group discussion, brainstorming, case study, mini-case study, graphic method, role playing and use of games. The writer added that there is no known best methods of teaching but a teacher can blend all teaching approaches and methodologies and use the most appropriate one for his/her lessons.44 SCHOOL RELATED FACTOR ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT According to Sillantoc, the physical facilities have much significant effect on the quality of education. It is not only the student who will suffer in that situation but also the Teacher, who are the ones who teaches the students. It can affect the students academic performance, and the Teachers strategies of teaching.45 Pagram as cited by Castro, stated the site, buildings, furniture, and multi-media equipment as the physical assets of the school. To attain the objectives of teaching and learning to a minimum degree, the existence of these resources is very crucial.

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Ibid., Local Studies. Ibid., Local Studies.

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Sillantoc, Marie D., Factors affecting the Quality of Education in Public Elementary School in the Cordillera Administrative Region. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Baguio Central University, 1995, p. 20.

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Overcrowded classrooms and structurally unfit school buildings undermine students achievement and compromise the safety of staff and students as well.46 Foreign Literature The Materials below represent below the concepts that strengthened the need to undertake the present study. Cited by Yuzon in his study, Balmores defined Quality Education as the best education that money can buy in terms of facilities as well as of academic standards and traditions developed over time.47 This definition implies that quality education is viewed in terms of Educational inputs and outputs. This means that the educational quality should be evaluated by looking at the condition (inputs) that are believe to be necessary and desirable to produce Educational Quality and by looking at evidence (outputs) whether the institution of programs does indeed achieve Educational Quality. According to Zwaenepoel, Education in the Philippines just like in some other countries is a preparation for the higher educational level and in many cases, not for the world of work and the realities of Life. This therefore, calls for reorientation of

curriculum to meet the needs of industry and the work environment. 48 For Education

Castro, Salud N., Technology Orientation and Technology Education Initiative Practices of School Principals in the Division of Laguna, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2004, p.46. Yuzon, N., A Comparative study of the Academic Performance and the NSAT scores of Students in both Public and private schools in Angeles City. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Holy Angel University, 1996. Zwaenepoel, P., Sociology of Education, Department of Developmental Education, Graduate School of Arts and Science, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, 1977.
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Sector, this also calls for making the student more employable and suitable to the demands of society. Foreign Studies Curriculum offerings are vital in any institution. Adams, conducted a study about the plans of Belizean High School students post secondary plans. The aim of the study was to help the Belizean Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The results of the study indicated that the most common preferred destination for these students immediately after high school was 6th Form and then attend a university. Many students beliefs about what they will probably do after high school differed from what they want most to do. The students were more likely to say that they will probably go to work (either immediately after high school or after 6th Form) and less likely to go to University. Belizean High School students most frequently requested training in additional educational options in subjects related to business, such as accounting, economics, finance, and banking, and they want to pursue careers in business and tourism.49 Efficient teachers and able administrators are paramount in an effective school. In a study conducted by Powell, the researcher explored how the behaviours and practices of the principals of various schools in Virginia, USA, influence and contribute to the success. The findings led to some of the following conclusions: the vision of the

49

Adams, Samuel C., A Descriptive study of Belizean High School students post secondary plans.

2003.

29

principal is paramount for school success, the culture of the school must be as nurturing to teachers as the students; the teaching of curriculum is foremost.50 Squire, explored and described the vocational training needs of rural youth in Botswana. The objectives were to: (1) describe the demographic characteristics of outof-school youth in the age of 10-18 years. (2) identify the out-of-school youth vocational training needs, and (3) describe the problems the out-of-school youth face in rural areas. The findings showed that the majority of the respondents were in the age group of 16-18 years. 55% female, 63% single, 52% had only primary education, and 60% were unemployed. The majority of the youth (51%) chose careers in the farm trades, and the plurality (16%) chose to pursue careers in building and construction trades. Other career options were not popular among the youth for training. The youth identified the lack of educational facilities, employment security, recreational facilities, health education, decision-making opportunities and access to land as major problems affecting them in rural areas. It was recommended that government and non-government organizations should provide vocational training in farm trades, establish youth clubs, provide leadership, financial and logistical support for the youth to develop and manage self-sustaining enterprises that can create employment in the rural areas.51

Powell, Susan T., Leadership and School Success: The Practices and Behaviour of Principal in Successful at risk schools. 2004. Squire, P. J., A Survey of Vocational Training Needs of 10-18 years old out of School rural youth in the North East District of Botswana. Volume 25, Issue 2, 2000.
51

50

30

Griffith and Wade, worked on a study of The Relation of High School Career and Work-Oriented Education to Postsecondary Employment and College Performance, A Six-Year Longitudinal Study of Public High School Graduates in Maryland, USA. Employment and college enrolment history of high school graduates of a large, suburban school district was examined. Further, they noted the work of Ames (1979, 40). Survey results indicated that graduate deans believed the following criteria (and related attributes) were most instrumental to program quality such as quality of faculty, quality of incoming students, resources, learning environment, curricula, and characteristics of recent alumni.52 Synthesis All of these Review of Related Literature and Studies are pertaining to Education. It is important to review related literature and studies because it may help and guide the researcher in making comparison between his findings with of other researches on similar studies and literature with the end in view of formulating generalizations or principles which are the contributions of the study to fund the knowledge. The Local Literature reviewed the works of Gonzales, Palma, Bacani, and Barba is about the Curriculum Development. Gonzales work is all about the Curriculum for Technical Vocational Curriculum or the Preparation for Higher Education. Palmas work said that Curriculum in the Philippines is not static. Bacani and Barba stated that in order to make Education more relevant to students future life goals and potential curriculum

Griffith, Jane and Wade, Julie., The relationship of High School career and work oriented Education to Post secondary Employed and College Performance; A Six year Longitudinal Study of Public High School Graduates. Volume 26, Issue 3, 2001.

52

31

should be geared towards Career Education. They added that it should be integrated to the world of work and should be relevant to students career interest and potential. Based on the SEDP, there are the following objectives to achieve like for the composition of the curriculum, staff and Physical facilities development designs. On the other hand, the subject Technology and Livelihood Education was discussed by Sarmiento and Macarayan. Sarmiento discusses about the Home Economics programs needs. And Macarayan, discusses the Home and Family as the Centre of the Mission of Home Economics, as a discipline. Most of the Local Studies reviewed focused on the Student related factors, Teacher related factors, and School related factors. For Student related factors, Etulles and Pacers study find out that Gender did not affect the ability of the student. De Panos study finds out that the younger people are more innovative than older people. Paynos study finds out that teaching Industrial Arts can be effective only if it meets adequately the pupils need and interests. For Teacher related factors, based on Jeraplasens study, she found out that teaching is dominated by woman. Baels Study focused of the individual differences of the teacher. Muvises study was pointing out that males would like to be practical, shrewd, assertive, and dominating while females would like to be moving affectionate and impulsive. Callos study, finds out that older teacher tend to loss enthusiasm, unlike younger teacher shows greater enthusiasm. The study of Naga also is like Callos study, but she added that the creativity can be seen at the age of 34 yrs. old. Galilea also said that, age creates more experiences and those experiences are generally accepted as great teachers. According to Vongyuttakrai, the teacher who given assignments based on their 32

areas of specialization are given added trust and confidence. Nagas study teaching strategies finds out that not all teachers covered all the areas of TLE, the respondents used the right methods in teaching Industrial Arts, there is a lack of tools needed, and the teachers are proficient in teaching Industrial Arts.. School related factor like adequacy of facilities and equipment. According to Sillantoc, the physical facilities have much significant effect on the quality of education. Pagram as cited by Castro, stated the site, buildings, furniture, and multi-media equipment as the physical assets of the school. To attain the objectives of teaching and learning to a minimum degree, the existence of these resources is very crucial. Most of the concepts which can be gleaned from the Foreign Literature focused on the importance of school, its basic concepts, characteristics of an effective school, partnership of the school to the community and parent, good teaching practices and sound curriculum. The Foreign Studies reviewed the works of Adams, Powell, Squire, Griffin, and Wade and Haworth and Conrad. Most of the mentioned authors wrote about the needs of students ranging from good leadership, educational facilities, and expectations after graduation in High School and program quality. All these concepts are significant to the study because they expand the need for curriculum to meet the pressing needs of the society. At the same time, the interests, previous experiences, problems encountered by the learner are explicitly reviewed. Further, the said chapter reviewed also the needs of schools specifically that of competent teachers, good physical facilities, and administrative support. 33

The significance of the studies and literature then provides a strong basis for which this current study is founded. For schools to be capable of offering Technology and Livelihood Education, they must meet the above challenges. The present study differs from the completed studies in terms of the inclusion of integration of values, impression of the teachers to technology lessons and the teachers work place which includes the school, facilities and equipment, and environment. Furthermore, the present study will make use of different instrument and treat the data that will be gathered statistically.

34

CHAPTER III Research Methodology

In this chapter, Research Method, Research Locale, Population Frame and Sample Scheme, Sampling Technique, Description of the Respondents, Instrumentation, Validation of the Questionnaire, Data Gathering Procedure, and Statistical Treatment were presented. Research Method Used The Researchers used the Descriptive Research Method. Descriptive Research describes and interprets what is. It reveals the conditions or relationship that exist or do not exist, practices that are held or are not held; processes that are going on or otherwise, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.53 According to Calderon, Descriptive Method of Research is a purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends, and cause effect relationship and then making inadequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical methods.54 It attempted to describe the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in teaching different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School.

Estolas, Josefina V., et. Al., Fundamentals of Research, Manila: G. Miranda and Sons, Inc., 1973, p. 67-68. Calderon, Jose F., et. Al., Methods of Research and Thesis Writing, Mandaluyong City: National Book Store, Inc., 1993, p. 61.
54

53

35

Research Locale Ernesto Rondon High School is the research locale of the study. It has a total of 28 sections in 3rd and 4th year level. In this study, the researchers choose only the 20 % of each section Population Frame and Sample Scheme The population comprised of 825 3rd year students, 854 4th year students, a total of 1,679 students and 14 Technology and Livelihood Education Teachers. In computing the number of respondents, the researchers used the Slovens Formula which is represented:

Where : n = N 1+ (N*e2)

n= N= e=

Number of Respondents Total Number of Population Margin of Error

The number of respondents was determined using 5 % or 0.05 Margin of Error. Applying the Slovens Formula:
n= N 1+ (N*e2) 1,679 1+ [1,679(0.05)2] 1,679 1+1,679(0.0025) 1,679 1+4.1975 1,679 5.1975 323.03 or 323

n=

n=

n=

n=

n=

36

To get the proportional allocation of the percentage, the researchers use the proportional allocation formula which is represented:

Where: %= n N

n= N= %=

Number of Respondents Total Number of Population Percentage

Applying the proportional allocation formula to get the percentage:

%=

323 1,679

% = 19.2 or 20 %

See Table 1 and 2 for the presentation of data in tabular form. Table 1 Presentation of the Teacher Respondents RESPONDENT Teacher MALE 6 FEMALE 8 TOTAL 14 PERCENTAGE 100%

This table will show the number of male and female teachers, the total and the percentage.

37

Table 2 Presentation of the Student Respondents THIRD YEAR SECTIONS III-Platinum III-Gold III-Silver III-Titanium III-Aluminum III-Iron III-Lead III-Manganese III-Neon III-Nickel III-Radium III-Silicon III-Uranium III-Zinc TOTAL FOURTH YEAR SECTIONS IV-Diamond IV-Ruby IV-Agate IV-Amethyst IV-Aquamarine IV-Emerald IV-Feldspar IV-Garnet IV-Jade IV-Onyx IV-Pearl IV-Quartz IV-Sapphire IV-Turquoise TOTAL OVERALL TOTAL POPULATION PER SECTION 53 59 61 55 62 59 65 63 62 58 62 58 59 49 825 POPULATION PER SECTION 53 68 66 65 64 64 65 52 64 58 58 59 59 59 854 1679 SAMPLE SIZE 11 12 13 11 13 12 13 13 13 12 13 12 12 10 170 SAMPLE SIZE 11 14 13 13 13 13 13 10 13 12 12 12 12 12 173 343
PERCENTAGE

20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20%
PERCENTAGE

20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20%

38

Sampling Technique The researchers used Probability Sampling specifically, Pure Random Sampling. This type of sampling is one in which everyone in the population of the inquiry has an equal chance of being selected to be included in the sample.55 A certain percentage of the population is to be selected. In this research, 20% of each class is the sample size; the total sample size is 343 which are 20% of 1,679. Therefore, if there are 53 students in a class, 20% of that is 11. Description of the Respondents In this study, the process used was a survey of the responses of the 170 3rd and 174 4th year students of Ernesto Rondon High School located at Project 6, Quezon City for the School Year 2012-2013. The other responses will be taken from all the members of the faculty specifically those who are teaching Technology and Livelihood Education. Instrumentation The main instrument in gathering the necessary data is Questionnaire. Before preparing the questionnaires, the researchers gathered information from books and other sources such as published or unpublished theses in order to gain more knowledge and insights about the study. The Questionnaire was based on the Questionnaire of Alejandro Vitug. 56 Then all information related to the study was put together in a form of questionnaire. Two sets of questionnaire were prepared, one for the TLE Teachers and the other one for the students.
55

Questionnaires intended for the TLE teachers include

Calderon, Jose V, et. Al., Methods of Research and Thesis Writing, Mandaluyong City: National Book Store, 1993, p. 170-171. Vitug, Alejandro, The TLE program of Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Unpublished Masters thesis; Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades, Bacolor, Pampanga, 2008
56

39

information about the teachers name and gender, and highest educational attainment. The areas of Technology and Livelihood Education which they are currently teaching, techniques and strategies they are using, resources and materials, facilities and equipment, skills and values developed, problems encountered and the solutions to that problems, and the evaluation of their own teaching performance (See Appendix B). Questionnaires intended for the students, include the students name, year and section and gender. The area of Technology and Livelihood Education they were taking up, techniques and strategies their teacher used, resources and materials, facilities and equipment, skills and values they developed, problems they encountered and the solutions to that problems. Validation of the Questionnaire The Validation of the Questionnaire is first done with the one fourth year student teachers of College of Education, Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The

researchers give them a checklist to be answered if the question will be revised, retained, or removed. After they validated it, the researchers made all the revisions. Then, the researchers conducted dry run to two (2) TLE Teachers and five (5) 3rd year students of the Ernesto Rondon High School. Data Gathering Procedure The Administration of the questionnaire was personally conducted by the researchers. Permission was sought from the school principal who gladly accommodates the researchers. The principal of the school told the TLE Department Head of that school to assist the researchers. The TLE Department Head asked the researchers if they have the questionnaires with them, they have. Since the topic is about TLE, The Department

40

head of TLE manage the distribution of the questionnaires to all the Faculty members of TLE. At the same time, the TLE Teacher was given also the teachers questionnaire. After all the distribution was done, the TLE Department Head told the researchers to go back next day for the retrieval. Statistical Treatment of the Data As soon as the researchers gathered the pertinent data, they were complied, sorted out, organized and tabulated. The data were subjected to statistical treatment in order to answer the questions proposed in this study. 1. The Statistical Treatment used was the simple frequency and the

percentage. The Percentage can be computed by dividing the class frequency by the total frequency. Where: Perc Per P= f x 100 N P = Percentage F = Frequency N = Number of Class

Percentage Distribution is a descriptive statistics used to determine the number of respondents responding to a particular category against the total number of respondent. 2. Likert Scale. Based on Rensis Likert, a scale of 1 to 5 was used to

describe the performance of teachers in teaching TLE such as: 5 Outstanding, 4 Very Satisfactory, 3 Satisfactory, 2 Fair, 1 Needs Improvement

41

3.

Weighted Mean. The Weighted Mean was used to calculate the central

tendency of the responses of the respondents, the formula is:

Where:
w=

w=

Weighted Mean

( ) n

= the sum of all quantities that follow = Frequency n = Number of respondents

4.

Arbitrary Scale. The following scale was used to describe the result. 4.21 5.00 3.41 4.20 2.61 3.40 1.81 2.60 1.01 1.80 Outstanding (O) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Needs Improvement (NI)

5.

Pearson Correlation Coefficient denoted by r, is given by: nxy (x) (y) nx2 (x) 2 ny2 (y) 2

x = first set of score y = second set of score x2 = first set of score squared y2 = second set of score squared n = number of cases xy = x multiply by y (x) 2 = sum of all x

(y) 2 = sum of all y

42

6. The Critical Value Table of the Pearson r Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the two data treated. Here is the Table: df = n-2 Level of Significance (p) for the Two-Tailed Test df 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .988 .900 .805 .729 .669 .622 .528 .549 .521 .497 .476 .458 .441 .426 .412 .400 .389 .378 .369 .360 .997 .950 .878 .811 .754 .707 .666 .632 .602 .576 .553 .532 .514 .497 .482 .468 .456 .444 .433 .423 .9995 .980 .934 .882 .833 .789 .750 .716 .685 .658 .634 .612 .592 .574 .558 .542 .528 .516 .503 .492 .9999 .990 .959 .917 .874 .834 .798 .765 .735 .708 .684 .661 .641 .623 .606 .590 .575 .561 .549 .537

.10

.05

.02

.01

43

CHAPTER IV Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

In this chapter, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data were presented. Tables and its interpretation were discussed comprehensively. TLE Teacher Respondents Profile in terms of Gender, Age, and Educational Attainment Table 3 Profile of Teacher-Respondents According to Gender RESPONDENT MALE FEMALE TOTAL F 6 8 14 % 42.86 57.14 100

Table 3 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Gender. 8 or 57.14% were Female, and 6 or 42.86% were Male. This indicates that Female Teachers are dominant than

44

Table 4 Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Age AGE F 25-35 35-45 45-55 55-65 TOTAL 1 1 6 6 14 RESPONSES % 7.14 7.14 42.86 42.86 100.00

Table 4 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Age.

6 or

42.86% of TLE teacher respondents are at the age bracket between 45-55, and 55 65, and 1 or 7.14% of the TLE teacher respondents are at the age bracket between 25 35, and 35 45. The data confirms that most of the age of the TLE Teacher Respondents, whether male or female are in between the age bracket of 45 55, and 55 65. Table 5 Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Educational Attainment BACHELOR'S DEGREE f Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Home Economics Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Electrical Technology 0 RESPONSES TOTAL % 0.00

7.14

45

Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition Bachelor in Business Education Major in Business Technology Bachelor of Science in Computer Education Bachelor in Technical Education TOTAL

42.86

0 6 1 0 0 14

0.00 42.86 7.14 0.00 0.00 100.00

Table 5 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Educational Attainment. 6 or 42.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts, and 1 or 7.14% of the TLE teacher respondent graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Electrical Technology and Bachelor of Science in Business Education. This indicates that most of the TLE Teacher Respondents is a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts.

46

Table 6 Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Highest Educational Attainment MASTER'S DEGREE f Master in Educational Management Master of Arts in Teaching Master of Arts in Education Master of Arts in Industrial Education Master of Arts in Home Economics Others: Master of Arts in Education Units only TOTAL 1 3 33.33 100.00 0 0 2 0 0 RESPONSES TOTAL % 0.00 0.00 66.67 0.00 0.00

Table 6 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Highest Educational Attainment. 2 or 66.67% of the TLE teacher respondents graduated with a Masters Degree of Master of Arts in Education, and 1 or 33.33% of the TLE teacher respondents have only Master of Arts in Education (MaEd) Units only. This indicates that only 2 out of the 14 TLE teacher respondents have the highest educational attainment of Master of Arts in Education.

47

The Teacher and Student respondents assessment on the Instruction of Technology and Livelihood Education Table 7 Subjects taught by the Teacher Respondents SUBJECTS TAUGHT F Culinary Arts Computer Education Dressmaking Home Economics (Cosmetology, Housekeeping, etc.) Industrial Arts( Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal Works, Electronics, etc) Business Education (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, etc.) Others: Exploratory Technology and Livelihood Education I Exploratory Technology and Livelihood Education II TOTAL 3 17.65 2 1 2 1 RESPONSES % 11.76 5.88 11.76 5.88

29.41

5.88

2 17

11.76 100.00

Table 7 shows the subject taught by the TLE teacher respondents. 5 or 29.41% of the teacher respondents is teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.), 3 or 17.65% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Exploratory TLE I, 2 or 11.76% of the TLE teacher respondents 48

is teaching Culinary Arts, Dressmaking, and Exploratory TLE II, 1 or 5.88% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Computer Education, Home Economics, and Business Education. This means that most of the TLE teachers are teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.). Table 8 Subjects currently taking up by the Student Respondents SUBJECT RESPONSES f Culinary Arts Computer Education Dressmaking Home Economics (Cosmetology, Housekeeping, etc.) Industrial Arts( Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal Works, Electronics, etc) Business Education (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, etc.) Others: TOTAL 343 100.00 76 43 0 53 164 % 22.16 12.54 0.00 15.45 47.81

2.04

Table 8 shows the students response on the subject they are taking up. Based on the data on subject areas, the findings revealed that 164 or 47.81% of the respondents specialized in Industrial Arts; 76 or 22.16% in Culinary Arts; 53 or 15.45% in Home Economics; 43 or 12.54% in Computer Education; 7 or 2.04% in Business Education and none or 0% of the respondents specialized in Dressmaking.

49

This indicates that the majority of the respondents are specialized in Industrial Arts. Table 9 Teachers Responses on the Teaching Method Used

TEACHING METHODS/STRATEGIES f Lecture Method Reporting Method Activity Method Discussion Method Laboratory Method Project Method Demonstration Method Question and Answer Method Group Learning Method Problem Solving Method Others: Simulation Method TOTAL 13 12 5 13 1 13 8 2 1 1 1 70

RESPONSES

% 18.57 17.14 7.14 18.57 1.43 18.57 11.43 2.86 1.43 1.43 0.00 1.43 100.00

Table 9 presents the teacher response on the teaching methods they used. 13 or 18.57% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Lecture, Discussion and Project Method; 12 or 17.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Reporting Method; 8 or 11.43% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Demonstration Method; 5 or 7.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Activity Method; 2 or 2.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Question and Answer Method, and 1 or 1.43% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Laboratory, Group learning, Problem Solving, and Simulation Methods.

50

This indicates that the TLE Teachers use Lecture, Discussion and Project Method as the primary Teaching Methods used in teaching different areas of TLE. Table 10 Students Responses on the Teaching Method used by their TLE Teachers TEACHING METHODS/STRATEGIES f Lecture Method Reporting Method Activity Method Discussion Method Laboratory Method Project Method Demonstration Method Question and Answer Method Group Learning Method Problem Solving Method TOTAL 185 148 155 191 84 104 80 67 33 8 1055

RESPONSES % 17.54 14.03 14.69 18.10 7.96 9.86 7.58 6.35 3.13 0.76 100.00

Table 10 the table represents the Student Responses on the Teaching Methods used by their TLE Teachers. 191 or 18.10% of the students said that their teachers uses Discussion Methods in teaching different areas of TLE; 185 or 17.54% in Lecture Method; 155 or 14.69% in Activity Method; 148 or 14.03% in Reporting; 104 or 9.66% in Demonstration; 84 or 7.96% in Laboratory; 80 or 7.58% in Project Method; 67 or 6.35% in Question and Answer; 33 or 3.13% in Group-Learning and lastly 8 or 0.76% answered Problem-Solving Method.

51

The data confirms that discussion method garnered the highest number of responses that definitely states that most of the teachers use this method in teaching different areas of TLE. Table 11 Teachers Responses on the Resources and Materials they Used RESOURCES AND MATERIALS f 13 14 2 2 12 43 RESPONSES % 30.23 32.56 4.65 4.65 27.91 100.00

Lesson Plans Textbooks Module/Workbook Multimedia Aids Visual Aids TOTAL

Table 11 shows the TLE Teachers response on the Resources and Materials they used in teaching. 14 or 32.56% of the TLE Teachers used Textbooks as their resources and materials; 13 or 30.23% of the TLE Teachers used Lesson Plans; 12 or 27.91 of the TLE Teachers used Visual Aids; 2 or 4.65% of the TLE Teachers used Module/Workbook and Multimedia Aids. This data confirms that the primary resources and materials used by TLE Teachers are Textbooks.

52

Table 12 Students Responses on the Resources and Materials used by their TLE Teachers RESOURCES AND MATERIALS Lesson Plans Textbooks Module/Workbook Multimedia Aids Visual Aids Others: Drawing Boards Cooking Materials Drafting Tools Actual Materials TOTAL f 156 83 53 49 207 1 2 2 2 555 RESPONSES % 28.11 14.95 9.55 8.83 37.30 0.18 0.36 0.36 0.36 100.00

Table 12 shows the Students Responses on the resources and materials used by their TLE Teacher. 37.30% or 207 Student Respondents answered that the materials used by their TLE Teacher is visual aids; 28.11% or 156 Student Respondents answered that their teacher make Lesson Plans; 14.95% or 83 student respondents answered textbooks; 9.55% or 53 student respondents answered module/workbooks; 8.83% or 49 student respondents answered that the materials used by their teacher in teaching TLE by the use of multimedia aids; while some of the student respondents answered others, .18% or 1 student respondent said that they used actual materials; .36% or 2 student respondents said that they used cooking tools, Drafting Tools and Actual Materials This indicate that majority of the students/respondents is being taught with the use of the most common and popular material in learning which is the Visual Aids.

53

Table 13 Teachers Responses on the Facilities and Equipment they Used FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT f Home Economics Room (Gas Stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing, Machines, etc.) Industrial Arts Room (Electrical Tools, Drafting Tools, Woodworking Tools, etc.) Agricultural Arts Room (Gardening Tools, Farm Tools, etc.) Spacious Working Area School Garden Storage Cabinet Computer Laboratory TOTAL 7 RESPONSES % 24.14

5 2 0 5 8 2 29

17.24 6.90 0.00 17.24 27.59 6.90 100.00

Table 13 shows the TLE Teacher Responses on the facilities and equipment they used in teaching different areas of TLE. 8 or 27.59% of the TLE Teachers used Storage Cabinet, 7 or 24.14% of the TLE Teachers used Home Economics Room, 5 or 17.24% of the TLE Teachers used Industrial Arts Room and School Garden, 2 or 6.90% of the TLE Teachers used Agricultural Arts Room and Computer Laboratory. This indicates that Storage Cabinet is the most common facilities and equipment used by TLE Teachers in Ernesto Rondon High School.

54

Table 14 Students Responses on the Facilities and Equipment used in learning different areas of TLE FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENTS f Home Economics Room (Gas Stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing, Machines, etc.) Industrial Arts Room (Electrical Tools, Drafting Tools, Woodworking Tools, etc.) Agricultural Arts Room (Gardening Tools, Farm Tools, etc.) Spacious Working Area School Garden Storage Cabinet Computer Laboratory Others: Classroom TOTAL 113 RESPONSES % 31.13

161

44.35

4 18 5 7 52 3 363

1.10 4.96 1.38 1.93 14.33 0.00 0.83 100.00

Table 14 shows the Students Responses on the facilities and equipment used in teaching T.L.E. 161 or 44.35% of the students are using the Industrial Arts (Electrical tools, Drafting tools, Woodworking tools, etc.); 113 or 31.13% of the students are using Home Economics Room (Gas stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing Machine, Cosmetics, etc.); 52 or 14.33% of the students are using the Computer Laboratory; 18 or 4.96% of the students are using Spacious Working Areas; 7 or 1.93% of the students are using the Storage Cabinet; 5 or 1.38% of the students are using School Garden; 4 or 1.10% of the

55

students are using Agricultural Arts (Gardening tools, Farm tools, etc.); 3or 0.83% of the students are using Classroom. Majority of the students were using Industrial Arts (Electrical tools, Drafting tools, Woodworking tools, etc.) based on their responses in the facilities and equipment they are using in learning T.L.E. Table 15 Teachers Responses on the skills developed by the students in learning different areas of TLE SKILLS
A. CULINARY ARTS Meal Planning, and Budgeting Preparing, Cooking, and Serving Foods and Table Setting Introducing Cooking Terms and Techniques Preparing Food properly Others: Food Preservation Baking TOTAL B. COMPUTER EDUCATION Learning Computer operations and concepts Knowing the general structure of E-Mail and E-Mail Address Understanding the structures of Microsoft Office Software Typing with desirable speed using the proper keyboarding positions Others: HTML/Web Design TOTAL F

RESPONSES
%

2 2 2 2 1 1 10

20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 10.00 10.00 100

0 0 0 0 1 1

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100

56

C. HOME ECONOMICS (DRESSMAKING, COSMETOLOGY, HOUSEKEEPING, ETC.) Able to apply the principles in Cosmetics Able to sew and design dresses Able to use different tools in Housekeeping Able to apply the principles in decoration Others: Draft Patterns TOTAL D. INDUSTRIAL ARTS (DRAFTING, CONSTRUCTION BUILDING, WOODWORKING, METAL WORLDS, ELECTRONICS. ETC.) Repairing defective furniture and appliances Lettering and making of pictorial drawings Making a Project Plan Using the principles of English and Metric System accurately Others: Construction Building Theories Wood Products

2 5 4 5 1 17

11.76 29.41 23.53 29.41 0.00 5.88 100.00

5 4 6 4

21.74 17.39 26.09 17.39

2 1
1

8.70 4.35
4.35

Orthographic Drawings
TOTAL E. BUSINESS EDUCATION (ENTREPRENEURSHIP, MARKETING, ETC.) Making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use Identifying business opportunities in the locality Making business plans of feasibility study Retailing Business TOTAL

23

100.00

0 2 1 3 6

0.00 33.33 16.67 50.00 100.00

57

Table 15 the table shows the Students Responses on the skills they developed in different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education. In Culinary Arts, 2 or 20% of the TLE Teacher said that introducing cooking terms and techniques; preparing, cooking and serving foods and table setting; preparing foods properly; meal planning and budgeting, and 1 or 10% of the TLE Teacher answered food preservation and baking. These are the skills to be developed by the students In Computer Education, making HTML and Web Design is the only skill the students should developed. In Home Economics including Dressmaking, Cosmetology and Housekeeping, 29.41% or 5 TLE Teachers answered that ability to sew and design dresses and ability to apply the principles in decoration is the primary skills to be developed by the students; 23.53% or 4 TLE Teachers answered the ability to use different tools in housekeeping; 11.77% or 2 TLE Teachers answered the ability to apply the principles in Cosmetics and 5.88% or 1 TLE Teacher answered the ability to draft patterns In Industrial Arts including drafting, construction building, wood working, metal works and electronics, 6 or 26.09% of TLE Teachers answered that Making a Project Plan is the Primary skill to be developed by the students; 5 or 21.74% of the TLE Teachers answered repairing defective furniture and appliances; 4 or 17.39% of the TLE Teachers answered Lettering and Making of pictorial drawings, and Using the principles of English and Metric system accurately; and 1 or 4.35% of the TLE Teachers answered Learning the Construction Building Theories, Wood Products, Orthographic Drawings, and Electric Circuit.

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In Business Education, 3 or 50% of the TLE Teachers answered that retailing business is the primary skill to be developed by the students; 2 or 33.33% of the TLE Teachers answered Identifying business opportunities in the locality; and 1 or 16.67% of the TLE Teachers answered Making business plans of feasibility study is the last. This indicates that in Culinary Arts, majority of the TLE Teacher choose all the skills to be developed by the students and food preservation and baking as additional skills to be developed. In Computer Education, HTML/Web Design is the only skill to be developed by the students. In Industrial Arts, majority of the TLE Teacher choose making a project plan as the primary skill to be developed by the students. In Business Education, majority of the TLE Teachers said that retailing business is the primary skill to be developed by the students. Table 16 Students Responses on the skills they developed in different areas of TLE SKILLS
A. CULINARY ARTS Meal Planning, and Budgeting Preparing, Cooking, and Serving Foods and Table Setting Introducing Cooking Terms and Techniques Preparing Food properly Others: Food Preservation Baking TOTAL B. COMPUTER EDUCATION Learning Computer operations and concepts f

RESPONSES
%

57 72 73 66 4 3 275

20.73 26.18 26.55 24.00 1.45 1.09 100

43

35.83

59

Knowing the general structure of E-Mail and E-Mail Address Understanding the structures of Microsoft Office Software Typing with desirable speed using the proper keyboarding positions Others: Making Website HTML TOTAL C. HOME ECONOMICS (DRESSMAKING, COSMETOLOGY, HOUSEKEEPING, ETC.) Able to apply the principles in Cosmetics Able to sew and design dresses Able to use different tools in Housekeeping Able to apply the principles in decoration Others: TOTAL

16 29 18 6 8 120

13.33 24.17 15.08 5.00 6.67 100

60 12 9 2

72.29 14.46 10.84 2.41

83

100.00

D. INDUSTRIAL ARTS (DRAFTING, CONSTRUCTION BUILDING, WOODWORKING, METAL WORKS, ELECTRONICS. ETC.) Repairing defective furniture and appliances Lettering and making of pictorial drawings Making a Project Plan Using the principles of English and Metric System accurately Others: Construction Building Theories Silk Screen Printing TOTAL

42 94 40 49

18.10 40.52 17.24 21.12

1 6 232

0.43 2.59 100.00

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E. BUSINESS EDUCATION (ENTREPRENEURSHIP, MARKETING, ETC.) Making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use Identifying business opportunities in the locality Making business plans of feasibility study Retailing Business TOTAL

30 23 19 19 91

32.97 25.27 20.88 20.88 100

Table 16 shows the Students Responses on the skills they developed in different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education. In Culinary Arts, 26.55% or 73 of the Students Responses said that they developed their skills in introducing cooking terms and techniques; 26.18% or 72 Students Responses answered that they developed their skills in culinary arts through preparing, cooking and serving foods and table setting 24% or 66 Students Responses answered preparing foods properly; and 20.73% or 57 Students Responses answered that they developed their skills in meal planning and budgeting. But 1.45% or 4 and 1.09% or 3 of the Students Responses answered others and that they enjoyed and developed their skills through food preservation and baking. In Computer Education, 35.83% or 43 of the Students Responses answered that they developed their skills through learning computer operations and concepts; 24. 17% or 29 Students Responses answered understanding the structures of Microsoft office software; 15.08% of the Students Responses answered typing with desirable speed using the proper keyboarding positions has developed their skills. And 13.33% or 16 Students Responses answered knowing the general structure of and email address. While there are

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6.67% or 8 and 5% or 6 of the Students Responses said that they developed their skills by making HTML and making website. In Home Economics including Dressmaking, Cosmetology and Housekeeping, 72.29% or 60 Students Responses answered that able to apply the principles in cosmetics developed their skills; 14. 46% or 12 Students Responses answered able to sew and design dresses developed their skills; 10.84% or 9 Students Responses answered that able to use different tools in housekeeping and 2.41% or 2 among the Students Responses answered that able to apply the principles in decoration developed their skills. In Industrial Arts including drafting, construction building, wood working, metal works and electronics, 40.52% or 94 Students Responses answered that lettering and making of pictorial drawings have developed their skills; 21.12% or 49 of the Students Responses answered using the principles of English and Metric System accurately; 18.10% or 40 Students Responses answered repairing defective furniture and appliances have developed their skills; and 17.24% or 40 Students Responses answered making a project plan. While 2.59% or 6 and .43% or 1 among the Students Responses answered that they developed their skills through skill screen printing and construction building theory. In Business Education, 32.97% or 30 Students Responses answered that making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use have developed their skills; 25.27% or 23 Students Responses answered making business plans of feasibility study and 20.88% or 19 answered that retailing in business have developed their skills in Business Education.

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This indicates that in Culinary Arts, majority of the Students Responses have developed their skills in Introducing, cooking Terms and techniques; in Computer Education, majority of the Students Responses developed their skills through learning computer operations and concepts; in Home Economics, majority of the Students Responses said that able to apply the principles in cosmetics have developed their skills; in Industrial Arts, majority of the Students Responses said that lettering and making of pictorial drawings have developed their skills and in Business Education, majority of the Students Responses said that making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use have developed their skills. Table 17 Teachers Responses on the Values learned VALUES Adaptability Honesty and Integrity Positive Attitude Dependable and Responsible Strong Work Ethics Self Motivation Loyalty Strong Self-Confidence Others: Accuracy Neat and Orderly Self Discipline TOTAL f 14 14 14 14 12 14 13 14 1 1 2 113 RESPONSES % 12.39 12.39 12.39 12.39 10.62 12.39 11.50 12.39 0.88 0.88 1.77 100.00

Table 17 presents the TLE Teachers Responses on the values to be developed by the students. 14 or 12.39% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Adaptability, 63

Honesty and Integrity, Positive Attitude, Dependability and Responsibility, Self Motivation and Strong Self Confidence are the primary values to be developed by the students; 13 or 11.50% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Loyalty; 12 or 10.62% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Strong Work Ethics; 2 or 1.77% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Self Discipline; and 1or 0.88% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Accuracy and Neat and Orderly. This indicates that being Adaptable, Honest and Good Integrity, Positive Attitude, dependable and responsible, Self Motivated, and Strong Self Confidence are the values the students should developed in different areas of TLE. Table 18 Students Responses on the Values Learned VALUES Adaptability Honesty and Integrity Positive Attitude Dependability and Responsibility Strong Work Ethics Self Motivation Loyalty Strong Self-Confidence Others: Accuracy Neat and Orderly Self Discipline TOTAL f 95 134 164 143 149 154 108 160 1 1 2 1111 RESPONSES % 8.55 12.06 14.76 12.87 13.41 13.86 9.72 14.40 0.09 0.09 0.18 100.00

Table 18 shows the Students Responses on values they learn from different areas of T.L.E. 164 or 14.76% of the students have developed the values of dependable and 64

responsible; 160 or 14.40% of the students have developed the values of strong selfconfidence; 154 or 13.86% have developed the values of self-motivation; 149 or 13.14% have developed the values of strong work ethics. 143 or 12.87% of the students have developed the values of dependability and responsibility; 134 or 12.06% of the students have developed the values of honesty and integrity; 108 or 9.72% of the students have developed the values of loyalty; 95 or 8.55% of the students have developed the values of adaptability; 1 or 0.09% among the students has developed the values of patience; 1 or 0.09% among the students has developed the values of being helpful; and 2 or 0.18% of the students have developed the values of being resourceful. Majority of the students have a positive attitude based on their responses on the values they learned from different areas of T.L.E. Table 19 Teachers Responses on the problems they met PROBLEMS Tardiness Absenteeism Lack of Interest Non Compliance of the requirements Malfunctioning of Laboratory Equipments Classroom/Laboratory Environment TOTAL f 11 13 10 7 3 1 45 RESPONSES % 24.44 28.89 22.22 15.56 6.67 2.22 100.00

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Table 19 shows the problems met by the TLE teacher in the teaching process of different areas in TLE. 13 or 28.89% of the TLE Teachers answered Absenteeism as the primary problem in the teaching process; 11 or 24.44% of the TLE Teachers answered Tardiness; 10 or 22.22% of the TLE Teachers answered Lack of Interest on the part of the students; 7 or 15.56% of the TLE Teachers answered Non Compliance of the requirements; 3 or 6.67% of the TLE Teachers answered Malfunctioning of the Laboratory Equipment; 1 or 2.22% of the TLE Teacher answered Classroom/Laboratory Environment. The data confirms that the primary problem they met in the teaching process of TLE is Absenteeism. Table 20 Students Responses on the Problems they met in TLE PROBLEMS Tardiness Absenteeism Lack of Interest Non Compliance of the requirements Malfunctioning of Laboratory Equipments Classroom/Laboratory Environment Others: Sleepy TOTAL f 56 16 81 38 34 70 4 299 RESPONSES % 18.73 5.35 27.09 12.71 11.37 23.41 1.34 100.00

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Table 20 shows the Students Responses on the Problems they encounter in the teaching-learning process. The table reveals that 81 or 27.09% of the Student

Respondents answered that they are lacking interest on the area they are currently taking up; 70 or 23.41% said that the classroom/laboratory environment affects their learning; 56 or 18.73% said that tardiness is a hindrance on the teaching-learning process; 38 or 12.71% answered that non-compliance of the requirements will be a problem especially when computing grades; 34 or 11.37% said that malfunctioning of the laboratory equipment has a great effect on the hands-on activities of the subject; 16 or 5.35% answered that absenteeism affects the gaining of knowledge and acquiring of the needed skills. Aside from these responses, 4 or 1.34% said that falling asleep during discussion is also a problem among students. As reflected on the table, majority of the student-respondents said that lacking of interest on the subject is the major problem that they encounter in the teaching-learning process. Table 21 Teachers Responses to the solutions to the problems

SOLUTIONS f Constant Follow up on Attendance Consultation of Parents Counseling Research Work 14 13 4 0

RESPONSES % 41.18 38.24 11.76 0.00

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Request on Classroom/Laboratory Improvement Others: Repairs of Computers Budget for New Equipments TOTAL

0.00

1 2 34

2.94 5.88 100.00

Table 21 shows the TLE Teachers Responses to the solutions to the problem. 14 or 41.18% of the TLE Teachers answered Constant follow up on attendance as the solution to the problem; 13 or 38.24% of the TLE Teachers answered Consultation of Parents; 2 or 5.88% of the TLE Teachers answered Budget for new equipment; and 1 or 2.94% of the TLE Teachers answered Repair of computers. This means that the solution to the problem is Constant follow up on Attendance. Table 22 Students Responses on the solution to the problem SOLUTIONS f Constant Follow up on Attendance Consultation of Parents Counseling Research Work Request on Classroom/Laboratory Improvement Others: 75 56 41 59 112 RESPONSES % 21.55 16.09 11.78 16.95 32.18

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Budget for New Equipments TOTAL

5 348

1.44 100.00

Table 22 shows the Students Responses on the Solution to the Problems met. As suggested by the students, 112 or 32.18% request for classroom/laboratory improvement, to have a room conducive to learning. Although there are rooms conducive to learning, yet there are still some rooms which are not. 75 or 21.55% said that there should be a constant follow-up on attendance for a regular monitoring with the parents and teachers. 59 or 16.95% of the student-respondents also suggested that research work can be given to students to lift up their poor performance. 56 or 16.09% said that consultation with parents will help remedy the problems. This may be conducted by the teachers, students, and parents. 41 or 11.78% said that there should be counselling, an activity of students, teachers, and guidance counsellors. Moreover, 5 or 1.44% said that budget for new equipment is really a need in schools. Among the solutions suggested by the students, majority of them said that classroom/laboratory improvement will keep and encourage students to continue learning.

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Table 23 Teachers own Performance Evaluation CRITERIA # Mastery of the Subject 11 Matter Knowledge of the Teaching 8 Methodology Ability to implement a particular technique in 12 presenting lessons Ability to motivate students to inquire and look for answers Technique in Questioning students 5 4 3 2 1
OWM

WM # WM # WM # WM # WM 3.93 3 2.86 6 0.86 1.71 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DI O O

4.79 4.57

4.29 2

0.57

4.86

3.21 5

1.43

4.64

10

3.57 4

1.14

4.71

Knowledge in the use of equipment and uses 11 it for instruction Ability to use the tools and equipment 12 properly TOTAL

3.93 3

0.86

4.79

4.29 2

0.57

4.86 4.74

O O

WM = Weighted Mean DI = Descriptive Interpretation OWM = Overall Weighted Mean

4.21 5.00 3.41 4.20 2.61 3.40 1.81 2.60 1.01 1.80

Outstanding (O) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Needs Improvement (NI)

Table 23 shows the TLE Teachers own performance Evaluation. The data were treated by using Weighted Mean. In the first criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; in the second criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean 70

of 4.57; in the third criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.86; in the fourth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.64; in the fifth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.71; in the sixth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has a Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; and in the seventh criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.86. As a whole, the TLE Teachers of Ernesto Rondon High School is Outstanding in terms of the criteria given.

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Table 24 Students Evaluation on their TLE Teacher


CRITERIA # Mastery of the Subject Matter
Knowledge of the Teaching Methodology

5 WM 2.61 2.11 # 108 150

4 WM 1.26 1.75 # 54 43

3 WM 0.47 0.38 # 2 3

2 WM 0.01 0.02 # 0 0

1 WM 0 0
OWM

DI

179 145

4.35 4.26

O O

Ability to implement a particular technique in presenting lessons Ability to motivate students to inquire and look for answers Technique in Questioning students Knowledge in the use of equipment and uses it for instruction Ability to use the tools and equipment properly TOTAL

154

2.24

132

1.54

39

0.34

0.01

4.14

VS

123

1.79

137

1.60

62

0.54

0.02

3.96

VS

145

2.11

123

1.43

60

0.52

0.03

4.11

VS

200

2.92

100

1.17

41

0.36

0.01

4.45

209

3.05

85

0.99

37

0.32

0.01

4.37

4.23

WM = Weighted Mean DI = Descriptive Interpretation OWM = Overall Weighted Mean

4.21 5.00 3.41 4.20 2.61 3.40 1.81 2.60 1.01 1.80

Outstanding (O) Very Satisfactory (VS) Satisfactory (S) Fair (F) Needs Improvement (NI)

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Table 24 shows the Students Evaluation on their TLE Teacher. The data were treated by using Weighted Mean. In the first criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.35; in the second criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.26; in the third criteria, they evaluate their performance as Very Satisfactory, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.14; in the fourth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Very Satisfactory, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 3.96; in the fifth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Very Satisfactory, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.11; in the sixth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has a Over All Weighted Mean of 4.45; and in the seventh criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.37. As a whole, the Students of Ernesto Rondon High School evaluate their TLE Teachers as Outstanding in terms of the criteria given.

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CHAPTER V Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

In this chapter, Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations were Presented. The purpose of this study is to find out the Techniques and Strategies of teachers in teaching different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School. This research used the descriptive method. The population comprised of 854 Fourth year students, 825 Third year students, and 14 Teachers who are teaching Technology and Livelihood Education. The Sample Scheme was 343 Fourth and Third year students, which is 20% of the total population, and 14 Teachers who are teaching Technology and Livelihood Education, which is 100% of the total population. The pure random sampling was used in this study. A researcher-made instrument was used for the questionnaire. The instrument used was tested first with a group of 1 Fourth Year college students, 5 High School students, and a teacher. The administration of questionnaires was personally conducted by the researcher. The data were compiled, sorted out, organized and tabulated. The statistical treatment used was Percentage Distribution to find out the profile of the TLE Teachers, areas of TLE that the teacher taught, and student took up, teachers and students responses on the techniques and strategies, resources and materials, facilities and equipment used by the Teachers, skills and values being developed in the teaching and learning process of different areas of TLE, problems that may encounter in teaching and 74

learning process of TLE, and its solutions. A Weighted Mean was used to find out the performance of the teacher in teaching TLE. Findings 1. 8 or 57.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondent were Female, and 6 or 42.86% were male. Majority of the TLE Teachers were Female. 2. 6 or 42.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents are at the age bracket between 4555, and 55-65. This represents the majority of the TLE Teacher Respondent. And 1 or 7.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondent are at the age bracket between 25-35, and 35-45. 3. 6 or 42.86% of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts. This represents the majority of Teacher-Respondents who graduated with the Bachelors degree with the major of TLE subjects. And 1 or 7.14% of the TLE teacher respondent graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Electrical Technology and Bachelor of Science in Business Education. 4. 2 or 66.67% of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with a Masters Degree of Master of Arts in Education. This represents the majority of the TeacherRespondents who took up Masters Degree. And 1 or 33.33% of the TLE teacher respondents have only Master of Arts in Education (MaEd) Units only. 5. 5 or 29.41% of the Teacher-Respondents is teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.). This represents that most of the Teacher-Respondents are teaching Industrial Arts. 3 or 75

17.65% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Exploratory TLE I, 2 or 11.76% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Culinary Arts, Dressmaking, and Exploratory TLE II, 1 or 5.88% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Computer Education, Home Economics, and Business Education. 6. The findings revealed that 164 or 47.81% of the Student-Respondents are specialized in Industrial Arts; 76 or 22.16% in Culinary Arts; 53 or 15.45% in Home Economics; 43 or 12.54% in Computer Education; 7 or 2.04% in Business Education and none or 0% of the Students-Respondents are specialized in Dressmaking. 7. 13 or 18.57% of the Teacher-Respondents used Lecture, Discussion and Project Method as their method for teaching the subject. 12 or 17.14% of the TLE Teachers used Reporting Method; 8 or 11.43% of the TLE Teachers used Demonstration Method; 5 or 7.14% of the TLE Teachers used Activity Method; 2 or 2.86% of the TLE Teacher used Question and Answer Method, and 1 or 1.43% of the TLE Teachers used Laboratory, Group learning, Problem Solving, and Simulation Methods. Majority of the TLE Teacher respondents used Lecture, Discussion and Project Methods in teaching TLE subject. 8. 185 or 17.54% of the Student respondent answered lecture method as the method used by their TLE teachers; 155 or 14.69% in activity method; 148 or 14.03% in reporting method; 104 or 9.66% in demonstration method; 84 or 7.96% in laboratory method; 80 or 7.58% in project method; 67 or 6.35% in question and answer method; 33 or 3.13% in group-learning method and lastly 8 or 0.76%

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answered problem-solving method.

Majority of the Student-Respondents

answered Lecture Method as the method of teaching used by their TLE Teachers. 9. 14 or 32.56% of the Teacher-Respondents used Textbooks as their resources and materials in teaching TLE subject; 13 or 30.23% used Lesson Plans; 12 or 27.91 used Visual Aids; 2 or 4.65% used Module/Workbook and Multimedia Aids. Majority of the Teacher-Respondents used textbooks as their primary resources and materials in teaching the subject. 10. 7.16% or 207 Student-Respondents answered that the materials their teacher used in the class are visual aids; 28% or 156 Student-Respondents answered that their teacher used lesson plans; 14.90% or 83 Student-Respondents answered textbooks; 9.52% or 53 Student-Respondents answered module/workbooks; 8.80% or 49 Student-Respondents answered multimedia aids; and some of the Student-Respondents also answered others. 54% or 1 Student-Respondent said that they used actual materials; 36% or 2 Student-Respondents said that they used cookery tools, drafting tools and actual materials. Majority of the StudentRespondents answered visual aids as the primary resources and materials used by their TLE Teacher. 11. 8 or 27.59% of the Teacher-Respondents used Storage Cabinet as their facilities and equipment in teaching the subject; 7 or 24.14% of the Teacher-Respondents used Home Economics Room; 5 or 17.24% of the Teacher-Respondents used Industrial Arts Room and School Garden; 2 or 6.90% of the Teacher-Respondents used Agricultural Arts Room and Computer Laboratory. Majority of the Teacher-

77

Respondents used Storage Cabinet as their facilities and equipment provided by the school for TLE subject. 12. 161 or 44.35% of the Student-Respondents are using Industrial Arts Room (Electrical tools, Drafting tools, Woodworking tools, etc.) as their facilities and equipment in learning the subject; 113 or 31.13% of the Student-Respondents are using Home Economics Room (Gas stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing Machine, Cosmetics, etc.); 52 or 14.33% of the Student-Respondents are using the Computer Laboratory; 18 or 4.96% of the Student-Respondents are using

Spacious Working Areas; 7 or 1.93% of the Student-Respondents are using Storage Cabinet; 5 or 1.38% of the Student-Respondents are using School

Garden; 4 or 1.10% of the Student-Respondents are using Agricultural Arts (Gardening tools, Farm tools, etc.); 3 or 0.83% of the Student-Respondents are using Classroom. Majority of the Student-Respondents answered Industrial Arts Room as their facilities and equipment used in the teaching-learning process of the TLE subject. 13. This indicates that in Culinary Arts, 2 or 20% of the Teacher-Respondents choose all the skills to be developed by their students. Aside from this, they include food preservation and baking as additional skills to be developed. In Computer

Education, HTML/Web Design is the only skill to be developed by the students that comprises 1 or 100%. In Industrial Arts, 6 or 26.09% of the TeacherRespondents chose making a project plan as the primary skill to be developed by the students. In Business Education, majority of the Teacher-Respondents said

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that retailing business is the primary skill to be developed by the students which comprises 3 or 50%. 14. In Culinary Arts, majority of the Student-Respondents have developed their skills in introducing cooking terms and techniques that comprises 73 or 26.55%; in Computer Education, majority of the Student-Respondents developed their skills through learning computer operations and concepts which comprises 43 or 35.83%; in Home Economics, majority of the Student-Respondents said that they already have the ability to apply the principles in cosmetics which comprises 60 or 72.29%; in Industrial Arts, majority of the Student-Respondents said that lettering and making of pictorial drawings have developed their skills which comprises 94 or 40.52%; and in Business Education, majority of the s StudentRespondents said that making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use have developed their skills which comprises 30 or 32.97%. 15. 14 or 12.39% of the Teachers-Respondents answered adaptability, honesty and integrity, positive attitude, dependable and responsible, self motivation and strong self confidence as the primary values to be developed by the students; 13 or 11.50% answered loyalty; 12 or 10.62% answered strong work ethics; 2 or 1.77% answered self discipline; and 1or 0.88% answered accuracy, and neatness and orderliness. Majority of the TLE Teachers said being adaptable, honest, Positive, dependable and responsible, self-motivated and strong self confidence as the primary values to be developed by the students. 16. 164 or 14.76% of the Student-Respondents answered that they have developed the values of dependable and responsible. This represents the majority of the

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Student-Respondents with regards on the Values being developed. 160 or 14.40% of the Student-Respondents answered strong self-confidence; 154 or 13.86% Student-Respondents answered self-motivation; 149 or 13.14% of the StudentRespondents answered strong work ethics. 143 or 12.87% of the Student-

Respondents answered dependability and responsibility; 134 or 12.06% of the Student-Respondents answered honesty and integrity; 108 or 9.72% of the Student-Respondents answered loyalty; 95 or 8.55% of the Student-Respondents answered adaptability; 1 or 0.09% of the Student-Respondents answered patience; 1 or 0.09% of the Student-Respondents answered the values of being helpful; and 2 or 0.18% of the Student-Respondents answered the values of being resourceful. 17. 13 or 28.89% of the Teacher-Respondents answered absenteeism as the primary problem in the teaching process; 11 or 24.44% of the Teacher-Respondents answered tardiness; 10 or 22.22% of the Teacher-Respondents answered lack of interest on the part of the students; 7 or 15.56% of the Teacher-Respondents answered non compliance of the requirements; 3 or 6.67% of the TeacherRespondents answered malfunctioning of the laboratory equipment; 1 or 2.22% of the Teacher-Respondents answered classroom/laboratory environment. Majority of the Teacher-Respondents encounter Absenteeism as the major problem in the teaching process. 18. 81 or 27.09% of the Student-Respondents answered that they are lacking interest on the area of TLE they are currently taking up; 70 or 23.41% said that the classroom/laboratory environment affects their learning; 56 or 18.73% said that tardiness is a hindrance on the teaching-learning process; 38 or 12.71% answered

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that non-compliance of the requirements will be a problem especially when computing grades; 34 or 11.37% said that malfunctioning of the laboratory equipment has a great effect on the hands-on activities of the subject; 16 or 5.35% answered that absenteeism affects the gaining of knowledge and acquiring of the needed skills. Aside from these responses, 4 or 1.34% said that falling asleep during discussion is also a problem among students. Majority of the StudentsRespondents lack interest in the learning process. 19. 14 or 41.18% of the Teacher-Respondents answered constant follow up on attendance as the solution to the problem; 13 or 38.24% of the TeacherRespondents answered consultation of parents; 2 or 5.88% of the TeacherRespondents answered budget for new equipment; and 1 or 2.94% of the TeacherRespondents answered repair of computers. Majority of the Teacher-Respondents suggested that constant follow up on attendance is the solution to the problem. 20. 112 or 32.18% of the Student-Respondents requested for classroom/laboratory improvement, to have a room conducive to learning. Although there are rooms conducive to learning, yet there are still some rooms which are not. 75 or 21.55% said that there should be a constant follow-up on attendance for a regular monitoring with the parents and teachers. 59 or 16.95% of the student StudentRespondents also suggested that research work can be given to students to lift up their poor performance. 56 or 16.09% said that consultation with parents will help remedy the problems. This may be conducted by the teachers, students, and parents. 41 or 11.78% said that there should be counselling, an activity of students, teachers, and guidance counsellors. Moreover, 5 or 1.44% said that

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budget for new equipment is really a need in schools. Majority of the StudentRespondents requested for classroom/laboratory improvement to have a room conducive to learning. 21. In the first criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; in the second

criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.57; in the third criteria, the TeacherRespondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.86; in the fourth criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.64; in the fifth criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.71; in the sixth criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as

Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; and in the seventh criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.86. Therefore, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their own performance as Outstanding. 22. In the first criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.35; in the second criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.26; in the third criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

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TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.14; in the fourth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 3.96; in the fifth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.11; in the sixth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.45; and in the seventh criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teacher as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.37. Therefore, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE Teachers as Outstanding.

Conclusions 1. In terms of profile of the Teacher-Respondents, the majority of them are Female Teachers. Also, most of them are between the age brackets of 45-55 and 55-65 years old. 2. Most of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with Bachelors degree major in Industrial Arts and Food and Applied Nutrition. Two of them had their Masters Degree and have units with their only respective graduate studies. 3. Most of the Teacher-Respondents taught Industrial Arts. Also, most of the Student-Respondents are taking up the same subject. 4. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Lecture, Discussion, and Project Method as the method in teaching different areas of TLE. Most of the Student-

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Respondents answered Lecture Method as the method of teaching used by their TLE teachers. 5. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Textbooks as their primary resources and materials in teaching. Most of the Student-Respondents answered Visual Aids as the primary resources and materials used in the subject. 6. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Storage Cabinet as their facilities and equipment for the subject. Most of the Student-Respondents answered that they are using the Industrial Arts Room as the facilities and equipment for the subject. 7. Most of the Teacher-Respondents said that adaptability, honesty and integrity, positive attitude, dependability and responsibility, self motivation and strong self confidence are the values that the students should be learned. Most of the Students said that they have developed the values of dependability and responsibility. 8. Most of the Teacher-Respondents encountered absenteeism as the primary problem in the teaching and learning process of TLE. Most of the StudentRespondents answered that they lack of interest in the area of TLE they are taking up. 9. Most of the Teacher-Respondents suggested that constant follow-up on attendance is the best solution for the problem they encounter in the teaching and learning process in TLE. Most of the Student-Respondents requested for

classroom/laboratory improvement as the best solution for the problems they met in the teaching and learning in TLE.

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10. Most of the Teacher-Respondents evaluate their selves as outstanding with regards to teaching TLE subject. Most of the Student-Respondents evaluate as outstanding the performance of their TLE Teachers in teaching the TLE subject. Recommendations In the light of the summaries, findings, and conclusions drawn, the following are offered for recommendations. 1. School heads should find ways and means to have sufficient funds to improve the physical facilities, tools, and equipment used in the program. 2. Teachers should have a continuous evaluation or analysis of their performance in teaching Technology and Livelihood Education so that they could improve their weak points and enhance strong points. 3. Addressing students own choice of areas in TLE that would best fit into their interest, their sexes, physical capabilities and mental capacity. 4. Extra and Curricular activities should be enhanced so students can freely integrate among others, the value of human labour and skills. Linkages and community involvement are encouraged to promote basic training skills of students. 5. Teachers in TLE should teach the subject in conformity to its curricular content. 6. Adequacy of facilities and instructional materials in TLE should be given attention. It is necessary that school facilities be provided by the government so that students are properly guided and taught how to handle the right tools, equipment, and facilities.

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7. Varied Strategies of teaching the subject should be given more focus aside from the usual strategies used by the teachers. Teachers should be encouraged to grow professionally or attend professional trainings on teaching strategies to update their technical expertise in teaching the subject. 8. Further studies related to this research are recommended.

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