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GII THIU MN HC
Thi lng mn hc:
4VHT (36LT + 18TL + 6TH)
Mc tiu:
Kin thc: Trang b cho sinh vin cc kin thc v ghp knh quang
theo bc sng WDM, cc k thut khuch i quang, xu hng
pht trin ca mng quang.
K nng: Rn cho sinh vin c k nng nghin cu, phn tch, nh
gi v cc cng ngh trn mng truyn ti quang
Ni dung:
Chng 1: H thng thng tin quang WDM
Chng 2: Khuych i quang
Chng 3: Truyn ti IP/WDM
Chng 4: Mt s cng ngh, k thut v xu hng nghin cu
trong mng truyn ti quang
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GII THIU MN HC
Ti liu tham kho:

Cao Hng Sn. Cng ngh IP trn WDM . Nh xut bn Bu in, 8-2005.
Hong Vn V. Cng ngh v mng th h sau. Nh xut bn Bu in, 2008
V Vn San. H thng Thng Tin Quang, tp 2. Nh xut bn Bu in, 2008.
Vn Vit Em. H thng thng tin quang II. Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh
Vin thng, 2007.
J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Second
edition, Prentice Hall, 1993.
G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications . Third edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
J. Gowar. Optical Communication Systems. Second edition, Prentice-Hall, 1993.
G. P. Agrawal. Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. Second edition, John Wiley
& Sons, 1997.
Silvello Betti, Giancarlo De Marchis, Eugenio Iannoe. Coherent Optical
Communications Systems . John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1995.
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
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GII THIU MN HC
Ti liu tham kho:
Max Ming Kang Liu. Principles and Applications of Optical
Communications, 2001.
Gerard Lachs. Fiber Optic Communications Systems, Analysis, and
Enhancements. McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Peter Tomsu and Christian Schmutzer, "Next Generation Optical
Networks", Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.
D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, et al., Effect of Fiber Nonlinearity on Long
Distance Transmission, J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 9, No.1, pp. 121-128,
1991.
G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York: Academic, 1995.
nh gi:
Tham gia hc tp trn lp: 10%
Thc hnh/Th nghim/Bi tp/Tho lun: 30 %
Kim tra gia k: 10%
Kim tra cui k: 50 %
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CHNG 1
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG
WDM
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM

NGUYN L GHP KNH THEO BC SNG QUANG
(WDM) )

CC PHN T C BN TRONG H THNG WDM

MT S VN NH HNG N HIU NNG H
THNG WDM

MNG TRUYN TI WDM
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM

1.1 NGUYN L GHP KNH THEO BC SNG
QUANG (WDM) )

Khi nim WDM:
- Nhu cu truyn s liu tng cao dung lng truyn dn tng nhanh.
- H thng truyn dn TDM truyn thng b gii hn v tc .
- Ca s truyn dn trong si quang:




- WDM l k thut cho php truyn dn nhiu knh bc sng quang trn cng mt
si quang.
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cc di bng tn hot ng trong WDM:

O-band (Original band):
Di bng tn t 1260 nm 1360 nm.
E-band (Extended band):
Di bng tn t 1360 nm 1460 nm.
S-band (Short wavelength band):
Di bng tn t 1460 nm 1530 nm.
C-band (Conventional band):
Di bng tn t 1530 nm 1565 nm
L-band (Long wavelength band):
DI bng tn t 1565 nm 1625 nm
U-band (Ultra-long wavelength band):
DI bng tn t 1625 nm 1675 nm
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Qu trnh pht trin WDM

Transmitters Receivers
Combining
Signals
Separating
Signals
Transmission on fiber
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cc ch truyn dn WDM: (Theo hng truyn dn)
H thng WDM n hng:

Transmitters Receivers
Multiplexing
Demultiplexing
Fiber 1

n

Transmitters Receivers
Multiplexing
Demultiplexing
Fiber 2

n

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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
H thng WDM song hng:


Receivers

21

21

Transmitters
Multiplexing
+Demultiplexing
Fiber 1

11

1n

2n

2n

Multiplexing
+Demultiplexing
Receivers
Transmitters
Receivers

21

21

Transmitters
Multiplexing
+Demultiplexing
Fiber n

11

1n

2n

2n

Multiplexing
+Demultiplexing
Receivers
Transmitters
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
M hnh chung h thng WDM: (im- im)
OTU
OTU
MUX
BA
B thu
B thu
D
E
M
U
X
PA
LA
My pht quang
My thu quang
Khuch i
trung k quang
B thu tn hiu
iu khin gim st
knh quang
B pht tn hiu
iu khin gim st
knh quang
Thu/ pht tn hiu
iu khin gim st
knh quang
H thng qun l
mng
1
n
1
n

s

s

s

s

OTU - B chuyn pht quang
MUX/DEMUX - B ghp/tch bc sng
BA - B khuych i cng sut
PA - B tin khuych i quang
LA - B khuych i ng truyn

S
- Bc sng knh gim st quang (OSC)
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cc tham s ca h thng WDM
a. S lng knh bc sng N
b. Khong cch gia cc knh bc sng Dl
c. Bng thng s dng ca h thng N x Dl
d. Tc truyn tin trn mi knh bc sng B
e. Dung lng ca h thng N x B
f. Dung lng truyn dn ca h thng N x B x L
g. Hiu sut s dng knh bc sng B/Dl
Bc sng
#1 #2 # k # N-1 #N
Cn
g
sut
quan
g
A
Bng thng s dng ca h thng
~ B
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Bng 1.1- Cc tham s chnh ca mt s h thng WDM trong cc phng th nghim.

S knh
bc
sng N
Tc
knh B
(Gbit/s)
Khong
cch truyn
dn L (km)
Dung lng
truyn dn
(Tb/s-km)
10 2 68 1.3
17 20 150 51.0
273 40 117 1277.6
26 100 410 1066.0
5 320 525 840.0
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Bng 1.2- Cc tham s chnh ca mt s h thng WDM
hin ang c khai thc trn th gii.

S
knh
bc
sng
N
Tc
knh B
(Gbit/s)
Khong
cch
truyn
dn Dl
Dung
lng
truyn
dn
(Pb/s-km)
H thng
8 + 4 10 + 40 1 700 0.4 Mng ng trc DWDM
backbone VNPT (2010)
48 10 39 000 18.7 Mng lin lc a
SEAMEWE3 (2007)
64 10 18 800 12 Mng lin lc a
SEAMEWE4 (2008)
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Phn loi v cc chun ca h thng WDM

. H thng WDM bng tn rng (BWDM Broad passband WDM)
. H thng WDM ghp mt thp (CWDM Coarse WDM)
H thng WDM ghp mt cao (DWDM Dense WDM)
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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
1.2- CC PHN T C BN TRONG H THNG WDM

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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Ngun quang:
- S dng laser n mode lm ngun pht (C th s dng LED trong
k thut ct ph)
- S dng b iu bin ngoi gim chirp, tc iu bin cao
v to cc nh dng tn hiu quang khc nhau (NRZ, RZ, CS-RZ,
DPSK ).
- m bo tn hiu quang c rng ph hp ti bc sng chnh xc
theo tiu chun.
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
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B thu quang:
- Ging cc b thu quang s dng trong cc h thng n knh
- nhy cao trong di rng bc sng, nhiu thp, hot ng n
nh.
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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Si quang:
- S dng si n mode G.652 (SMF) v si G.655 (NZ-DSF)
- Trnh s dng si G.653 (DSF).
- Cc yu t nh hng
c bn:
. Suy hao
. Tn sc
. Hiu ng phi tuyn
Mt s loi si
in hnh
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (OMUX/ ODEMUX)
- OMUX: kt hp cc bc sng ri rc khc nhau thnh tn hiu t hp
a vo si quang.
- ODEMUX: tch tn hiu t hp WDM thnh cc knh bc sng ring
bit a ti b thu.
- Cc tham s c bn:
. Suy hao xen:


. Xuyn m:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
u
=
0
lg 10
j
j
P
u
j
cng sut quang i
vo ng truyn
u
0
cng sut quang ti
ti
j
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
u
=
jj
ij
ij
D lg 10
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
u
=

=
jj
j i
ij
j
D lg 10 Xuyn knh i sang knh j: Xuyn knh tng knh j:
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (OMUX/ ODEMUX)
- Cc k thut s dng:
Tch/ghp da trn cc b lc quang:
B lc Fabry-Perot
B lc mng mng a lp
B giao thoa k Mach-Zender
B lc quang- m
Tch/ghp da trn cch t:
Cch t nhiu x phng
Cch t Bragg si quang
Mng cch t dn sng (AWG)
B ghp xen (interleaver), b ghp quang (coupler),
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (OMUX/ ODEMUX)
- Phm vi ng dng ca mt s k thut:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
- Yu cu:
Phm vi iu chnh rng
Xuyn m thp (thng < -20 dB)
Tc iu chnh nhanh
Suy hao xen nh
t nhy cm phn cc
n nh vi mi trng hot ng
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Av
sig
- rng bng tn ca tn
hiu a knh.
Av
ch
- khong cch knh.
Av
L
- di ph t do.
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc F- P: Gm 2 gng song song
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
iu chnh bc sng bng cch thay i khong cch 2 gng.
Tc iu chnh in hnh ~ 100 s
rng bng tn tn hiu WDM Av
sig
= N Av
ch
< Av
L
Xc nh khong
cch 2 gng.
Av
sig
= 100 GHz khi L < 1 mm vi n = 1,5
rng bng tn b lc F-P: Av
FP
<< Av
ch
, nhng phi ln truyn
dn knh c la chn (c tc bit l B) Av
FP
~ B
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S lng knh b gii hn bi:

trong F l mn b lc:

S dng iu kin gii hn:
(mc xuyn m chp nhn c)

S lng knh c xc nh hon ton bi phn x
R = 90% cho php 10 knh quang
R = 99,9 % cho php 1047 knh quang
Cc b lc FP hin ti c F = 100 - 5000
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc F- P: (Cont.)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc mng mng a lp:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Gm cc lp mng mng c chit sut thay i lun phin hot
ng nh cc b phn x c dy bng 1/4 bc sng (/4n).
Multiwavelength
light
Multilayer
interference filter
Demultiplexed
wavelenghts
p ng bng thng ca b lc c to
thnh ging nh kt chui nhiu b cng h-
ng FP.
B lc 100 GHz c khong 200 lp, b lc
20 nm thng c khong 50 lp.
iu chnh bc sng c thc hin theo
mt s cch: iu chnh in t, iu
chnh quang nhit
Phm vi iu chnh c 40 nm vi rng
bng tn <0,35nm vng 1550nm.
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc Mach- Zehnder:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Gm 2 coupler 3dB kt ni vi nhau trn 2 nhnh c di khc nhau
gy ra s dch pha ph thuc bc sng gia 2 nhnh.
S giao thoa cng hng xy ra ti mt u ra cho mt bc sng xc
nh
truyn qua:
Phm vi iu chnh c 4 nm, tc iu chnh c ns
D dng ni tng v ch to trn cc silica, InP hoc LiNbO3
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Cc b tch/ghp nhiu bc sng
c xy dng bng cch ni tng
nhiu b giao thoa MZ
truyn qua ca chui M b
giao thoa MZ:


trong t
m
l tr tng i ca
b giao thoa th m
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc Mach- Zehnder:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM

Thit b c th thc hin hot
ng tch v hot ng ghp (o
chiu)
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AOTF to ra chui cc sng siu m
bn trong mt ng dn sng tinh th
TeO
2
hnh thnh cch t m
nh sng i qua s tng tc vi sng
m (tng tc photon-phonon) ging
nh mt cch t.
AOTF c ch to bng vic s
dng cc ng dn sng TeO
2
hoc
LiNbO
3
c s ph thuc phn cc
thp.
AOTF c di iu chnh c 250
nm c bng C v bng L, tc iu
chnh c s.
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (B lc quang)
B lc quang- m:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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Gm mt v lp ph phn x cu
trc tun hon (gm cc rnh cch
u nhau).
nh sng i vo cc rnh s b nhiu
x thnh mt di cc mt sng vi cc
gc khc nhau.
iu kin nhiu x:

Ti mi bc sng s c mt gc xc
nh tho mn iu kin giao thoa
cng hng.
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Cch t)
Cch t nhiu x phng:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Chm tia ti
Php tuyn
cch t
Tia b nhiu
x
Tia ti
Php tuyn
cch t
Tia nhiu x
d
Chu k
cch t
dsino
dsin|
|
o
|
o
lch quang l
bng nguyn ln
bc sng
( ) o | sin sin = d n
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B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Cch t)
Cch t nhiu x phng:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
( ) o | sin sin = d n
S dng kt hp vi
thu knh GRIN
iu kin Littrow
Mt s cu hnh c th:
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c ch to da trn si quang c chiu
UV to ra s thay i chit sut tun
hon.
nh sng i qua b phn x tr li ti bc
sng gn vi bc sng Bragg:

B
= 2n
eff
d/m
trong n
eff
chit sut hiu dng li si,
d- chu k cch t, m- bc cch t.
FBG c suy hao xen, xuyn knh thp.
C nhiu ng dng: b lc bng hp,
OADM, b tn sc, b cm bin quang
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Cch t)
FBG:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
B giao thoa
Michelson
da trn FBG
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Gm 2 coupler sao kt ni vi nhau qua mng ng dn sng c tr lan
truyn khc nhau gy ra s dch pha ph thuc bc sng trn ng dn
sng.
Cc bc sng khc nhau hi t ti cc cng u ra khc nhau
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Cch t)
Mng cch t dn sng- AWG:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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Dch pha ca tn hiu c truyn t cng u vo th p ti u ra th q
qua ng dn sng th m:

Tn hiu t cc i ti u ra (nh giao thoa cng hng) khi tha mn
iu kin:

Di ph t do ca AWG:


AWG c di iu chnh c 40 nm, tc iu chnh c 10 ms (c ch
quang nhit)
ng dng trong cc b tch/ghp, nh tuyn dung lng ln.
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Cch t)
Mng cch t dn sng- AWG:
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B tch/ ghp bc sng:
Mt s thit b quang khc :
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cong 1
C
o
n
g

2
C
o
n
g

3
Cong 1
C
o
n
g

2
C
o
n
g

4
Cong 3
(a)
(b)
I SOLATO
R
3 2 1
, ,
3 2 1
, ,
4

(c)
ISOLATOR
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B tch/ ghp bc sng:

H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Bophan cc
Boquay pha Faraday
Bophan cc
Anh sang i vao
Anh sang phan xa
Khoa
Anh sang i ra
Anh sang i vao
Anh sang phan xa
Anh sang i ra
SWP
Boquay pha Faraday
SWP Mat phang 2 /
(a)
(b)
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C th c hnh thnh t kt hp
cc coupler si 2x2: N = 2
k
Hoc t mt b si c lm nng
chy phn trn nh sng.
Coupler sao kt hp cc tn hiu
u vo v phn phi u cho cc
u ra
B tch/ ghp bc sng: (Coupler)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Kch thc NxM thay i ph
thuc vo ng dng:
~ 100x100 cho LAN.
~100x106 cho pht video qung
b
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
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Chc nng xen/r mt hoc mt vi bc sng c chn lc t tn
hiu WDM v chuyn tip cc bc sng cn li
B xen/ r bc sng: (OADM)
P2- Cc thnh phn c bn ht WDM
OADM
1, 2, i n
1, 2, i n
1, 2, n
i i
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
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Cu hnh OADM n gin:
B xen/ r bc sng: (OADM)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
DEMUX MUX
Amplifier
Tn hiu
WDM
Tn hiu
WDM
Xen/r
in t
R T
R: B thu quang
T: B pht quang
Amplifier
Cc lung xen/r
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 40
Cu hnh OADM s dng cch t:
B xen/ r bc sng: (OADM)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 41
Chc nng chuyn i cc knh bc sng gia cc cng u vo
v cc cng u ra tn hiu a knh khc nhau.
B ni cho quang: (OXC)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 42
OXC s dng thm cc b chuyn i bc sng tng linh
hot khi s dng trn mng, cho php s dng hiu qu ti nguyn bc
sng c trn mng.
B ni cho quang: (OXC)
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 43
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
1.3- MT S VN NH HNG N HIU NNG H
THNG WDM
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 44
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Bng thng cc b khuch i
Khi truyn ti tn hiu WDM i xa, phi s dng cc b
khuch i ti cc khong cch thch hp.
Bng thng ca cc b khuch i quang l yu t quyt nh
bng thng s dng ca cc knh trong h thng WDM.
Erbium (EDFA) s dng bng C, bng L
.
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 45
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
bng phng






- gii quyt vn bng phng khuch i, c hai gii php:
+ S dng cc b lc kt hp vi b khuch i mt cch hp l san phng ph
khuch i
+ S dng phng n pht tn hiu quang khng ng u v mt cng sut ngay ti
cc b pht quang

Hnh 1.21. Ph cc knh tn hiu sau khi i qua mt b khuch i v sau khi i qua
nhiu b khuch i
u vo u ra
p ng h thng sau nhiu tng
khuch i
p ng ca mt
khuch i
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 46
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Xuyn knh
S can nhiu tn hiu t mt
knh bc sng ny sang mt
knh bc sng khc
Xuyn knh tuyn tnh


j l cc knh khc vi knh i, N s knh
bc sng, Pj cng sut ca knh bc
sng j trc khi qua b lc, Tj h s
truyn t ca b lc ti bc sng j.
Dng tn hiu cho knh i


Ii l dng in ng vi Pi, Ij l dng in
ng Pj. Ich dng in ca knh cn tch
v Ix dng in d t cc knh khc sang.

=
+ =
N
i j
j j i
T P P P
Bc sng
P
i-2 i-1 i i+1 i+2

(a)
Bc sng
(b)
H
s
tru
yn
t
P
i-2 i-1 i i+1 i+2

(c)
Bc sng
1



0
C
ng
su
t
qua
ng
C
ng
su
t
qua
ng
Hnh 1.22. M t hin tng xuyn knh tuyn tnh: (a) ph cc
knh bc sng trc khi qua phn t c chc nng lc. (b) c
tnh truyn t ca b lc cho knh th i. (c) ph tn hiu cho knh
bc sng th i.
X ch
N
i j
j j i
I I T I I I + = + =

=
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 47
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cn bng b tn sc cc knh quang


- B tn sc s dng DCF
- Cn bng b tn sc cc knh quang
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 48
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cc hiu ng quang phi tuyn: xy ra khi cng sut
quang tn hiu trong phn t, thit b quang ln hn mt
ngng nht nh.

- Loi 1: pht sinh do tc ng qua li gia cc photon nh sng vi
mi trng truyn dn nh sng: tn x kch thch Brillouin (SBS) v
tn x kch thch Raman (SRS).
- Loi 2: sinh ra do s ph thuc ca chit sut mi trng truyn dn
vo cng sut quang ca tn hiu: hiu ng t iu pha (SPM - Self-
Phase Modulation), hiu ng iu ch pha cho (XPM - Cross-
Phase Modulation) v hiu ng trn 4 sng (FWM - Four-Wave
Mixing).
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 49
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Hiu ng tn x Raman kch thch


Hnh 1.25 . Hiu ng Raman trong h thng WDM
Cc bc sng u vo Cc bc sng u ra
Si quang
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Trang 50
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Hiu ng Brillouin kch thch :
Tng t nh SRS. nh sng ti tng tc vi mi trng
truyn v mt mt phn nng lng chuyn ln bc
sng di hn.
Bc sng Stokes hin tng Brillouin c khong cch c
11 GHz so vi bc sng bm.
Sng Stokes ch sinh ra trn hng ngc li vi sng bm.
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 51
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Hiu ng trn bn sng :l hiu ng sinh ra cc tn s hi l tng
hp t 3 tn s gc fi, fj, fk khi c iu kin tng hp v pha.
Hnh 1.26. Hiu ng trn bn sng
f
ijk
- f
i
= f
j
- f
k
(i,j <> k)

1

2

3

f
113
f
112

f
123

f
213

f
223
f
132

f
312

f
221
f
332

f
321

f
231

f
331

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H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
1.4 MNG TRUYN TI WDM:
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Trang 53
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Phn loi theo cu hnh :
Mng ng thng


Mng vng




. Mng hnh sao
A B D E C
A
B
D
E
C
A Coupler
sao
C
D
B
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 54
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Phn loi theo vng ph a l :
Mng ng trc WDM (mng li)
Mng th WDM
Mng truy cp
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Trang 55
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Cc phn t mng trong h thng truyn ti WDM :


Phn t u cui
Phn t lp
Phn t xen r (OADM)
Phn t ni cho(OXC)
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 56
H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
Qun l v bo v trong mng WDM :
Qun l: Chc nng qun l trong mng WDM c th
c thc hin trn mt bc sng ring bit.
Bo v:
Lp knh quang
Bo v knh quang
Bo v 1+1
Lp on
ghp knh quang
Bo v on ghp knh quang
Bo v 1+1 (W-UPSR)
Bo v 1:1, 1:n (W-BLSR)
Lp on
truyn dn quang
Bo v ng truyn quang
Bo v 1+1, 1:1
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 57
CHNG 2
KHUCH I QUANG
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 58
KHUCH I QUANG

2.1 GII THIU CHUNG
2.2. KHUCH I QUANG BN DN (SOA)
2.3. KHUCH I QUANG S DNG SI PHA
ERBIUM (EDFA)
2.4. KHUCH I QUANG S DNG HIU NG
RAMAN (RA)
2.5. SO SNH CC LOI B KHUCH I
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 59
Trong mi h thng thng tin quang, suy hao ca si lm hn ch khong
cch truyn dn
i vi cc h thng quang c ly di, b suy hao thng s dng cc trm
lp quang - in (rt phc tp v t tin i vi h thng quang
WDM).
Gii php khc: dng cc b khuch i quang (OA) khuch i trc
tip tn hiu quang.
1980: mt s loi b OA c nghin cu ch to
SOA : Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
RFA : Raman-based Fiber Amplifier
EDFA : Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier
1990: ng dng OA b suy hao
Vi cc h thng quang: EDFA c s dng ph bin nht
i vi cc h thng c li di: RFA hot ng tt hn
KHUCH I QUANG
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 60
KHUCH I QUANG
Cc tham s c bn :
H s khuch i
G = Pout / Pin

G (dB) = 10 log (Pout / Pin)

Pin v Pout l cng sut u vo v u ra ca b khuch i quang
[mW].
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 61
KHUCH I QUANG
rng bng tn khuch i:
- L p ng tn s quang ca b khuch i G(f) khi o h s
khuch i G ca cc tn hiu quang cc tn s khc nhau
- Bo c xc nh bi im -3dB so vi h s khuch i nh ca
b khuch i
Cng sut ra bo ha
H s K G gim khi cng sut tn hiu tng (bo ho G)
Cng sut u ra ti im G gim 3 dB c gi l cng sut
ra bo ha Psat, out.
P
in

P
out

P
out, sat

P
in,sat

P
out


3dB
P
out,sat

G
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 62
KHUCH I QUANG
Nhiu b khuch i
- Cc b K gy ra nhiu v lm gim t s SNR
- Ngun nhiu: pht x t pht (ASE-Amplified Spontaneous Emission)
- Mt ph nhiu pht x t pht gn nh l khng i:

- H s o mt (hs pht x t pht):


- Gi tr nhiu b K c nh ngha:


- SNR l t s SNR in to ra trong b tch quang
v v h n G S
sp sp
) 1 ( ) ( =
1
1 2
2
>

=
N N
N
n
sp
( )
out
in
n
SNR
SNR
F
) (
=
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 63
KHUCH I QUANG
Nhiu b khuch i
- Vi mi b K: P
out
=GP
in

- SNR ca tn hiu vo khi hn ch c nhiu bn:


- nh gi SNR ca tn hiu K cn thm phn b pht x t pht
vo nhiu my thu.
- Pht x t pht kt hp vi tn hiu to ra dng trong b tch quang c
p ng R:

- V E
in
v E
sp
c pha ngu nhin khc nhau. Dng nhiu:
f h
P
f RP q
RP
I
SNR
in
in
in
s
in
A
=
A
= =
v o 2 ) ( 2
) (
) (
2
2
2
2
sp in
E E G R I + =
u cos ) ( 2
2 / 1
sp in
E GP R I = A
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Trang 64
KHUCH I QUANG
Nhiu b khuch i
Ly trung bnh i vi u (cos u =1/2) v b qua vi cc ngun nhiu
khc:

- Do SNR ca tn hiu K c dng:


- Gi tr nhiu ca b K:

- SNR gim 3dB ngay c vi b K l tng (n
sp
=1)
- Thc t, F
n
vt 3 dB v c th ti 6-8 dB
f RS RGP
sp in sp sig
A ~

) )( ( 4
2
o
( )
sp sp n
n G G n F 2 / 1 2 ~ =
( )
f S
GP RGP
I
SNR
SP
in in
out
A
~ = =
4
) (
2
2
2
2
o o
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 65
KHUCH I QUANG
Nhiu b khuch i
- Minh ho cch xc nh F
n
:

Sourse Spontaneous
Emission (SE)
Input
Ideal output
Actual output
Wavelenght
Power
Sourse SE*Gain
EDFA ASE
Gain
SNR
out

Sourse SE*Gain+EDFA
ASE
Input Sinal*Gain
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Trang 66
KHUCH I QUANG
2.2. KHUCH I QUANG BN DN (SOA)
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 67
KHUCH I QUANG
SOA cn c gi SLA- Semiconductor Laser Amplifier
Hot ng ch nh thin thp hn dng ngng
Thc t, so vi LD th SLA c ng dn sng rng hn v 2 mt c
ph mt lp chng phn x trnh ngng LD v t c khuch i
cao
Cc b SOA thng l cc b khuch i cng hng (R
1
v R
2
=0)
Phn loi SLA theo cu trc:
FP-SLA (b khuch i bn dn c khoang cng hng FP )
DFB-SLA (b khuch i bn dn hi tip phn tn )
TW-SLA (b khuch i bn dn sng chy )
input fiber output fiber
R1 R2
P
in
P
out
=G
tot
P
out

q
in
q
out

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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 68
KHUCH I QUANG
FP-SOA:
- H s K ca FP-SOA c
xc nh nh sau:


trong :


- Thc t G
FP
gim ti G khi R
1
=R
2
=0 v G
FP
t nh khi v trng v
m
v
gim mnh khi gia chng.
- H s khuch i thc b gim cn q
in
q
out
G
FP
- Nu dng iu khin l 10mA th h s K t c khong 25-30
dB, cng sut ra bo ho l 8dB vi rng bng tn 1-3GHz
R
2

R
1

P
out

P
in

L
I
B

G - H s khuych i thng n
v
m
- tn s cng hng ca khoang
Av
L
- khong cch cc mode cn gi l di ph t do ca khoang FP
( )
| |
L m
FP
R R G R R G
G R R
G
v v v t
v
A +

=
/ ) ( sin 4 ) 1 (
) 1 )( 1 (
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 69
KHUCH I QUANG
FP-SOA:
- rng bng tn b K t iu hng v-v
m
vi G
FP
gim 3dB so vi gi
tr nh:



- Av
A
ln th phi gn bng 1.
- Hn ch ca FP-SOA:
+ Ph khuch i b nhp nh do s phn x, nh ti v=v
m
+ rng bng tn b K (Av
A
) l mt phn nh ca di ph t do ca
khoang PF (Av
L
=100GHz v Av
A
=10GHz).

Av
A
nh lm cho b K FP
khng ph hp vi cc ng dng h thng quang.
- khc phc nhng hn ch ny phi s dng loi TW-SOA
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

A
= A

2 / 1
2 1
2 1 1
4
1
sin
2
R R G
R R G
L
A
t
v
v
2 1
R R G
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Trang 70
KHUCH I QUANG
TW-SOA:
- ci thin c tnh khuch i cu trc dn sng trong FP-SOA
c thay i: ng dn sng lp tch cc c chy xin, hai u c
bc lp chng phn x: gim ngng LD, tng h s K v m rng ph
K.
- TW- SOA c h s phn x rt nh (<0,1 %). nh gi tr s chnh
lch ca phn x b
mt thng qua biu thc:



- duy tr AG<2 th h s phn x
phi tho mn k:
- c G=1000 (30dB) th
2
1
2 1
min
max
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= = A
R R G
R R G
G
G
G
FP
FP
17 , 0
2 1
< R R G
4
2 1
10 7 , 1

< R R
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Trang 71
KHUCH I QUANG
Cc vn i vi SOA:
- SOA rt nhy cm vi phn cc, cn c cc bin php khc phc nh:
mc ni tip cc SOA trc giao, phn tp phn cc hoc quay phn
cc.
- H s nhiu ca SOA
tng i ln (7-12 dB).
- Suy hao ghp ni ln
6-8 dB hoc hn.
- Thc t, SOA thng t
c s dng K tn
hiu WDM, tuy nhin
cc hiu ng xy ra
trong SOA thng c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc trong mng
quang (chuyn i bc sng, chuyn mch quang).
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Trang 72
KHUCH I QUANG
2.3 KHUCH I QUANG S DNG SI PHA
ERBIUM (EDFA)
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Trang 73
KHUCH I QUANG
Cu trc:







- Thnh phn chnh l si pha tp Erbium, nng pha tp 100
2000 ppm
- Qu trnh bm c th thc hin theo hai hng thun v nghch
- Cc b cch ly quang ngn nhiu phn x v tn hiu truyn dn
theo hng ngc li lm gim cht lng b K
- Cc thnh phn gim st v iu khin khc.
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Trang 74
KHUCH I QUANG
Nguyn l:







- Ion Er+3 hp th photon ca laser bm chuyn ln mc nng
lng cao hn.
- Ion kch thch sau mt thi gian s chuyn v mc nng lng nn
v pht x photon theo hai qu trnh pht x t pht v pht x kch
thch.
- Pht x kch thch l c ch khuych i tn hiu, pht x t pht
gy ra nhiu quang trong b khuych i.
2
H
11/2
4
S
3/2
4
F
9/2
4
I
9/2
4
I
11/2
4
I
13/2
4
I
15/2
<100 ns
1s
60 ns
5 ns
7s
514 nm
532 nm
665 nm
810 nm
980 nm
1480 nm
1532 nm
<1 ns
10 ms
ESA
800 nm
1620 nm
Hiu ng Stark
Chuyn tip phonon
Chuyn tip photon
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Trang 75
KHUCH I QUANG
Vng pha ion
Er3+
Li pha vi Ge
d=3-6 m
An = 0.01 0.05
Lp ph
d=250m
Mode sng
quang
Lp bc silica
d=125m

Mt ct ngang ca si quang pha ion Erbium
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Trang 76
KHUCH I QUANG
- Ph khuych i ca EDFA ph thuc vo cht ng pha tp,
cng sut bm v nng Er.

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Trang 77
KHUCH I QUANG
Cu hnh b khuch i EDFA bm hai chiu
Coupler
B cch li
Si pha Er
3+



B cch li
Laser
bm
Coupler
Laser
bm
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Trang 78
KHUCH I QUANG
2.4- B KHUCH I RAMAN (RA)
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Trang 79
KHUCH I QUANG
Khi nim:
- B K si Raman da vo tn x Raman kch thch (SRS) xy ra trong
si quang silica khi c nh sng bm.
- SRS khc vi pht x kch thch:
. Trong pht x kch thch, mt photon ti kch thch pht x mt
photon khc c bc sng v pha ging photon kch thch m khng
lm mt nng lng
. Trong SRS photon bm trao nng lng to ra photon khc c nng
lng gim ti tn s thp; nng lng cn li b hp th bi mi trng di
dng dao ng phn t (cc phonon quang).
- V vy cc b K Raman cn c bm cung cp kh nng khuch
i.
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Trang 80
KHUCH I QUANG
Cu trc:




- Tn s tn hiu (
s
) v tn s sng bm (
p
) c a vo si quang
qua coupler. Nng lng c chuyn t sng bm ti tn hiu thng qua
SRS nh l hai sng cng truyn bn trong si.
- Tn hiu v sng bm cng truyn ng thi theo cu hnh bm
thun hoc ngc. C th hot ng bt k bc sng no vi sng
bm ph hp.
- C th cung cp rng bng tn K ln bng cch s dng nhiu
ngun bm
- Khuch i khng ph thuc phn cc nh s dng bm phn cc
trc giao tng bc sng
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 81
KHUCH I QUANG
H s khuch i v rng bng tn Raman:
- H s K Raman quan h vi h s K quang nh sau:
g() = g
R
() (P
P
/ a
P
)
trong : a
p
l din tch vng bm bn trong si, t s g
R
/a
P
l s o
ca h s K Raman
- nh h s khuch i b dch 13,2 THz (khong 100nm) so vi bc
sng bm v rng bng tn K khong 6THz.
- Thc t, Ph khuch i Raman c th ln n hn 20THz

BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 82
KHUCH I QUANG
2.5 SO SNH CC LOI B KHUCH I
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 83
CHNG 3

TRUYN TI IP/WDM
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 84
TRUYN TI IP/WDM

3.1. GII THIU CHUNG V IP
3.2. GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUYN TI IP/
WDM
3.3. IU KHIN TRONG MNG IP/ WDM
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 85
TRUYN TI IP/WDM



WDM
IP over WDM
n gin
Ph bin
Tc cao
Chuyn mch linh hot
Internet
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 86
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
3.2- GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUYN TI IP/WDM


I P I P I P I P SONET/SDH SONET/SDH
B iu khin
Cp quang
vt l
Cc knh a
bc sng
Cc cng ghp
tn hiu
Cc cng tch
tn hiu
(Giao din khch hng) (Giao din khch hng)
Khung chuyn
mch
M
U
X
/
D
E
M
U
X
B pht p
Cng bc sng
(Giao din truyn ti)
M
U
X
/
D
E
M
U
X
Lu
lng
Vo/Ra
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 87
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
Cc m hnh truyn ti IP/WDM
Gim tnh nng d tha
Gim mo u giao thc.
n gin ha cng vic qun l.
IP
ATM
SDH
Quang/WDM
Quang/WDM
Quang/WDM
IP
ATM
Quang/WDM
Quang/WDM
IP
SDH
Quang/WDM
IP
Quang/WDM
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 88
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
Cc cu trc mng IP trn WDM phn loi theo
mt bng d liu
IP/ WDM im - im
IP/WDM cu hnh li
IP/WDM chuyn mch
Cc cu trc mng IP trn WDM phn loi theo
mt bng iu khin

M hnh xp chng
M hnh ngang hng
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 89
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
IP/ WDM im - im
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
Cc tm
ng dy
Cc bc
sng
Mux/
Demux
Lin kt cp
vt l
BI GING MN
MNG TRUYN TI QUANG
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 90
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
IP/WDM cu hnh li
OXC
B
nh
tuyn
IP
OADM
B
nh
tuyn
IP
OADM
B
nh
tuyn
IP
OADM
B
nh
tuyn
IP
OADM
B
nh
tuyn
IP
OADM
OXC
OXC
Giao din
khch hng
Si nhiu
bc sng
Lin kt truy
nhp (Si mt
bc sng)
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 91
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
IP/WDM chuyn mch
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
OPR
OPR
OLSR
OLSR
OLSR
OLSR
OLSR
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
B nh
tuyn IP
Giao din khch
hng WDM
Si nhiu
bc sng
Si mt
bc sng
B nh tuyn
gi quang
B nh tuyn
chuyn mch
nhn quang
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 92
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
M hnh xp chng
M hnh ngang hng

UNI
UNI
UNI UNI
NNI
Thong tin topo,
bao hieu, ieu
khien
NNI
Mohnh xep chong
Mohnh ngang hang
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 93
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
Cc cng ngh hng ti truyn ti IP/WDM

- Chuyn mch burst quang
- Chuyn mch gi quang quang
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 94
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
Chuyn mch burst quang
Thi gian
lch
2
X l gi
iu khin
(Thit lp/ dnh
sn bng thng)
C cu
chuyn
mch
O/E/O
2
1
Cc gi iu
khin
1
Bc sng iu
khin
Cc t pht
d liu
2
1
2
1
Cc bc sng
d liu
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 95
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
Chuyn mch gi quang quang
M u
gi mi
chuyn i
E/O
Chuyn i
O/E
ng dy tr
cc b
X l m
u
Ti to m
u
ng
b
ho
Ti
M u
gi
di c nh
(Nhng khng
sp xp)
X l m u in
C cu
chuyn
mch
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 96
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
3.3. IU KHIN TRONG MNG IP/ WDM
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 97
TRUYN TI IP/WDM
iu khin truy nhp trong mng IP/ WDM
- iu khin truy nhp WDM chu trch nhim sp xp cc gi
IP vo cc knh bc sng.
- Khi thit k sp xp cc gi IP vo cc knh bc sng
(MF) phi ch n cc c tnh WDM
- MF c cu trc da vo cc thnh phn sau y
- Tc kt ni
- Cht lng ca knh quang
- Ti trn cc ng
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 98
CHNG 4
MT S CNG NGH, K
THUT V XU HNG NGHIN
CU TRONG MNG TRUYN
TI QUANG
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 99
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN CU
TRONG MNG TRUYN TI QUANG

4.1. CC K THUT B TN SC
4.2. CC HIU NG PHI TUYN V NG DNG
4.3. FTTx
4.4. THNG TIN QUANG COHERENT
4.5. RoF
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 100
4.1. CC K THUT B TN SC
Hin nay, trong cc h thng quang ch yu s dng si SSM,
GVD l nhn t chnh nh hng n hiu nng h thng
Xu hng cc h thng thng tin quang:
Tng tc truyn dn
Tng khong cch truyn dn
Tng s lng knh quang
B tn sc l gii php cn thit ci thin hiu nng h thng:
tng tc bit v khong cch truyn dn quang.
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN CU
TRONG MNG TRUYN TI QUANG

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Trang 101
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN CU TRONG
MNG TRUYN TI QUANG
Phng trnh truyn xung:
(1.15)

Trong :




A l bin ng bao

Gii phng trnh 1.15 trong min Fourier c:

(1.16)

Thc t, khi ||
2
|>0,1ps
2
/km th |
3
c b qua. Khi :

(1.17)

nh hng ca tn sc biu th qua h s pha:



D
c d
d
t

e
|
|
e e
2
2
2
2
2
0
= =
=
( )
( ) D
c d
d

t

e
|
|
e e
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
0
+ = =
=
0
6 2
3
3
3
2
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
+
c
c
t
A
t
A j
z
A | |
( )
}


|
.
|

\
|
+ = e e e | e | e
t
d t j z
j
z
j
A t z A
3
3
2
2
6 2
exp ) , 0 (
~
2
1
,
|
|
.
|

\
|
z j
2
exp
2
2
e
|
( )
}


|
.
|

\
|
= e e e | e
t
d t j z
j
A t z A
2
2
2
exp ) , 0 (
~
2
1
,
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 102
Gii hn tc bit
- Ngun quang c rng ph ln (v d LED), V
e
>>1.
Nu |
2
tri hn v b qua nh hng chirp (C=0):
T pt (1.23) tnh c rng xung u ra:
(1.24)
Trong : - o dn xung do tn sc.

Gii hn chung i vi tc bit l: (1.25)

i vi xung Gauss: iu ny c ngha l 95% nng lng ca xung vn nm
trong khe bit. Do , khi dn xung ln (o
D
>> o
0
) th pt(1.25) tr thnh:

(1.26)
V d: D=17ps/nm.km, o

=15nm --> [BL]


max
~1Gb/s.Km
Nu |
3
tri hn v b qua nh hng chirp (C=0):
Khi : (1.27)


Gii hn tc bit: (1.28)



V d: S=0,08ps/km.nm
2
, o

=15nm --> [BL]


max
~20Gbit/s.Km

o o L D
D
=
B
T
B
4
1
4
= < o
4
1
s

o D BL
8
1
2
s

o S BL
( ) ( )
2 2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
0 D
DL L o o o o o | o o
e
+ = + = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
0
2
2 2
0
2
2
3
2
0
2
1
2
1
D
SL L o o o o o | o o
e
+ = + = + =
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 103
Gii hn tc bit
- Ngun quang c rng ph nh (v d LD), Ve<<1.
Nu |
2
tri hn v b qua nh hng chirp (C=0):
T pt (1.23) tnh c rng xung u ra:

(1.29)


Gii hn tc bit l:

(1.30)

V d: SMF |
2
=20ps
2
/km --> [B
2
L]max~3000[(Gb/s)
2
.Km]
2,5 Gb/s truyn c 480 Km, 10Gb/s truyn c 30 Km

Nu |
3
tri hn v b qua nh hng chirp (C=0):

Khi : (1.31)


Gii hn tc bit: (1.32)


V d: SMF |
3
=0,1ps
3
/km --> [B
3
L]max~3.10
8
[(Gb/s)
3
.Km]
50 Gb/s truyn c 2700 Km, 100Gb/s truyn c 340 Km
4
1
2
s L B |
( ) 324 , 0
3 / 1
3
s L B |
( )
2 2
0
2
0 2
2
0
2 /
D
L o o o | o o + = + =
( )
2 2
0
2
2
0 3
2
0
2 / 4 /
D
L o o o | o o + = + =
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 104
S cn thit phi b tn sc

gim nh hng ca GVD:
Dng Laser c ph hp
Bc sng hot ng gn
ZD
.
Thc t, cc mng TTQ hu ht s dng
SSMF c
ZD
~1,31m. Trong khi cc ngun
quang s dng c =1,55 m, khi truyn
trong si SSMF c D ~16ps/(km.nm). Khi tc
bt >2Gb/s th GVD nh hng nghim
trng n hiu nng h thng.

Cc h thng quang hin i s dng cc EDFA, nn GVD l nhn t chnh gii
hn hiu nng h thng .
Do , cn thit phi thc hin b tn sc trong cc h thng quang ci thin
hiu nng ca h thng.
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 105
Cc k thut b

Rt nhiu k thut c s dng gim nh hng ca tn sc.
Cc k thut in:
B trc (trc khi truyn dn)
B sau (sau khi tch tn hiu)
Cc k thut quang:
Si b tn sc
Cc b lc
Cch t si chirp
Kt hp pha quang
Soliton
Tt c cc k thut ny c mc ch l kh tn sc do h s pha gy ra khi tn
hiu truyn trong si:

(1.33)
e e
t
e e |
d e A t z A
t z j
}


|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
2
1
) , 0 (
~
2
1
) , (
BI GING MN
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 106
S dng k thut in b GVD ti my thu.
b tn sc s dng my thu heterodyne tch tn hiu: u tin, my
thu bin i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu v tuyn ti tn s e
IF
trong khi
vn duy tr c thng tin bin v pha.
Sau cho tn hiu qua mt b lc bng c hm truyn t nh sau.
(1.39)

Trong L l chiu di si quang khi phc c dng gc ca tn hiu.
K thut ny b tn sc trong h thng quang coherent

k thut b sau
( ) ( ) | | 2 / exp
2
2
L j H
IF
| e e e =
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 107
b VI si b tn sc
Nu b qua nh hng phi tuyn, th tn sc hon ton c b bng mt on si quang
th hai c D<0 (Si DCF).

(1.39)

Trong : L=L
1
+L
2
v |
2j
l tham s GVD ca on si L
j
(j=1,2).
Nu: |
21
L
1
+|
22
L
2
=0 hay D
1
L
1
=-D
2
L
2
th dng xung u ra: A(L,t)=A(0,t)
Chiu di ca si DCF cng ngn cng tt, nn n phi c gi tr m ln
Cc DCF c D=-300-100ps/nm.km c ch to vi tham s V nh nhng suy hao tng i
cao: 0,4 1 dB/km.
Cc DCF thng mi, c L
2
=4km c th b L
1
=50km si SSMF
( ) e e | | e e
t
d t i L L
j
A t L A
}

+ =
2 22 1 21
2
2
exp ) , 0 (
~
2
1
) , (
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 108
b tn sc VI cch t bragg si CHIRP
Chit xut trong si thay i theo
chu k dc si.
Nu n(z) thay i dc si theo chu
k s c cch t si chirp
- Bc sng Bragg,
B
=2T
GB
, ti tn
hiu phn x s thay i dc si.
- Cc thnh phn tn s khc b tr vi
thi gian khc nhau
- Kt qu tn hiu quang ra s b c
tn sc
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B MN: THNG TIN QUANG - KHOA VT1
Trang 109

Trong h thng quang c li di,
s dng k thut OPC b tn
sc.
Nguyn l ca OPC l thc hin
kt hp trng phc ti chng gia
ca tuyn, kt qu l ti na sau
nh hng ca GVD s trung ho
nh hng ca GVD na u. Ph-
ng php ny cn c gi l o
ph gia chng.
Phng php s dng thng dng
nht trong OPC l FWM trong mi
trng phi tuyn: thng chn bc
sng bm trng vi bc sng tn
sc khng
Th d v b tn sc: tn hiu
=1542,9nm c kt hp pha nh
FWM trong 21 km si DSF vi sng
bm =1546,7nm
b tn sc VI kt hp pha quang (OPC)
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Trang 110
H thng quang c li di
B qua nh hng ca phi tuyn, tn sc GVD tng c b mt lc u
thu.
Khi xt n nh hng ca phi tuyn th phi s dng mt gii pht khc:
qun l tn sc theo chu k.
S dng cc si quang c GVD dng v m trong mt chu k, sao cho:

D= (D
1
L
1
+D
2
L
2
)/L
m
~0
Thc t, chu k sp xp L
m
=L
1
+L
2
c chn ph thuc vo hiu nng h
thng v thng c chn = L
A

L
m
=L
A
~80km h thng quang t lin nhng gim xung 50km i vi h
thng cp bin.
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Trang 111
H thng quang c li di
Cho h thng si n mode chun:
Rx Tx
OA OA
DCF
S-SMF
Mt chu k b tn sc
L
DCF
L
SSMF

Khong cch (km)
d tn sc (ps/nm)
0
Rx Tx
OA OA
DCF
S-SMF
Mt chu k b tn sc
L
DCF
L
SSMF

Khong cch (km)
d tn sc (ps/nm)
0
Rx Tx
OA OA
DCF
S-SMF
Mt chu k b tn sc
1/2L
DCF
L
SSMF

OA
DCF
1/2L
DCF

Khong cch (km)
d tn sc (ps/nm)
0
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Trang 112
H thng quang bng rng
Cc h thng WDM yu cu b tn sc ng thi cho tt c cc knh:

D
1
(
n
)L
1
+D
2
(
n
)L
2
=0
ng cong tn sc DCF phi tho mn:
S
2
=-S
1
(L
1
/L
2
)=S
1
(D
2
/D
1
)


T s S/D phi ph hp trn c hai on.
Nhiu cch t si c th c s dng:
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Trang 113
B tn sc bc 3
Vi cc xung hp truyn tc cao th yu cu phi b c tn sc bc 2
v bc 3.

|
21
L
1
+|
22
L
2
=0 v |
31
L
1
+|
32
L
2
=0
Thit k cc DCF c ng cong tn sc m sao cho:
|
32
=(|
22
/ |
21
) |
31
=-(L
1
/L
2
) |
3
1







Cc dng xung sau khi truyn xung 2,6ps qua 300km si dch tn sc
(|2=0).
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Trang 114
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN
CU TRONG MNG TRUYN TI QUANG

4.2. CC HIU NG PHI TUYN V NG DNG
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Trang 115
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN
CU TRONG MNG TRUYN TI QUANG

Hiu ng t iu ch pha (SPM)
- Hin tng ny to nn s dch pha phi tuyn uNL ca
trng quang khi lan truyn trong si quang.

( )
NL
const
E n n L
nL
u + =
+
= = u

t
2
2 0
2
2
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Trang 116
MT S CNG NGH, K THUT V XU HNG NGHIN
CU TRONG MNG TRUYN TI QUANG

Hiu ng iu ch pha cho (XPM)
- L hiu ng pha phi tuyn gy ra do do tc ng ca cc
xung quang cc knh khc. Ch xy ra trong h thng a
knh.
- Trong h thng a knh, dch pha phi tuyn ca tn hiu ti
bc sng trung tm i c tnh theo cng thc sau:

( ) ( )
(

+ =

=
t I t I z n
j
j i
i
i
NL
2
2
2

t
|
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Hiu ng trn bn sng (FWM)
- Tn s sng quang mi sinh ra khi 2 hoc 3 sng quang vi
cc tn s khc nhau tng tc vi nhau
- Gi s c 3 bc sng vi tn s ei, ej, ek th t hp tn s
mi to ra s l nhng tn s eijk tho mn:
eijk = ei + ej - ek
- Tng s cc thnh phn mi c to ra c th tnh nh sau:
m = 1/2 (N3 - N2) vi N l s knh ban u

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Hiu ng tn x Raman (SRS)
- L kt qu ca qu trnh tn x khng n hi, trong photon nh
sng ti chuyn mt phn nng lng ca mnh cho dao ng c hc
ca cc phn t cu thnh mi trng truyn dn v phn nng lng
cn li c pht x thnh nh sng c bc sng ln hn bc
sng ca nh sng ti
- Khi nh sng tn hiu truyn trong si quang c cng ln, qu
trnh ny tr thnh qu trnh kch thch (c gi l SRS) m trong
nh sng tn hiu ng vai tr sng (gi l bm Raman) lm cho phn
ln nng lng ca tn hiu c chuyn ti bc sng Stoke. Cng
sut ca bc sng Stoke Ps(L) c tnh theo cng thc:
Ps(L) = P0exp(grP0L/KAeff)

P0 l cng a vo si ti bc sng tn hiu; gr l h s khuch i
Raman; Aeff l vng li hiu dng; K c trng cho mi quan h v
phn cc gia tn hiu, bc sng Stoke v phn cc ca si. i vi
si thng thng th K 2

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Hiu ng Brillouin (SBS)
- Tng t nh SRS. nh sng ti tng tc vi mi trng truyn v
mt mt phn nng lng chuyn ln bc sng di hn.
- Bc sng Stokes hin tng Brillouin c khong cch c 11 GHz so
vi bc sng bm
- Sng Stokes ch sinh ra trn hng ngc li vi sng bm.
- mc cng sut ngng i vi hiu ng SBS nh sau:



Vi: g : l h s khuch i Brillouin.
Avp : l rng ph tn hiu.
- Hiu ng ny khng ph thuc s knh ca h thng.
B
p B
eff
eff th
gL
KA
21 P
v A
v A + v A
=
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ng dng cc hiu ng phi tuyn

- ng dng hiu ng SPM lm b ti to tn hiu
- ng dng hiu ng FWM lm b chuyn i bc sng
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4.3- FTTx
- y l mt hnh thc truy nhp trong mng truy nhp si
quang, a dch v ti khch hng. FTTx bao gm cc h
thng truy nhp khc nhau nh:
- Si quang ti vng dn c (FTTC).
- Si quang ti c quan (FTTO).
- Si quang ti ta nh (FTTB).
- Si quang ti tn nh (FTTH).
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FTTC
Tng i
di cp ng : xp x 100m
Si quang
C

n
g
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FTTO/H
Tng i
di cp ng : xp x 0m
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FTTB
Tng i
di cp ng : xp x 10m
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Cng ngh AON
- L mng truy nhp quang phn phi tn hiu s dng cc thit b cn
ngun cung cp
- D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch c chuyn n
khch hng d liu ca khch hng s trnh c xung t khi truyn
trn ng vt l chung.
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Kin trc Home Run
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Kin trc Active Star Ethernet
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Cng ngh PON
- L mt kin trc mng im-a im, s dng cc b chia quang
th ng (khng c ngun cung cp) chia cng sut quang t
mt si quang ti cc si quang cung cp cho nhiu khch hng
- Mng quang th ng c ba cu hnh c bn l:
- Cu hnh Ring
- Cu hnh cy
- Cu hnh bus
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4.4- QUANG COHERENT
- Tn hiu thng tin c iu ch pha pht vi mc yu cu cao v
rng ph tn hiu, n nh tn s (c th iu ch trc tip hoc iu ch
ngoi)
- phn cc ca nh sng c gi nguyn trng qu trnh truyn
- Trc khi tch sng thit b thu, tn hiu thng tin c trn vi tn hiu
dao ng ni. Nh vy nh sng c x l trc khi ti b tch sng
quang.
- u im:
C nhy thu cao
Cho php ko di thm c ly truyn dn
Bng tn ca h thng ln v c th iu chnh la chn cc knh
quang


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Cu trc c bn ca h thng thng tin quang coherent








- Chc nng cc khi:
DE (Drive Electronic): khi ny thc hin khuch i tn hiu ng vo nhm to tn
hiu c mc ph hp vi cc khi pha sau.
CWL (Continuous Wave Laser): y l b dao ng quang s dng laser bn dn c
rng ph hp pht ra nh sng lin tc c bc sng 1.
DE MOD DEC AMP
DE-
MOD
CWL LC LLO LOC

1

1

2

Homodyne
1
=

2

Heterodyne
1
=

2

D liu
vo
B
pht
B thu
Heterodyn
e
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LC (laser control): khi ny nhm n nh bc sng pht ra ca b dao ng
quang.
MOD (Modulator): y l khi iu ch quang, s dng k thut iu ch ngoi
to ra tn hiu iu ch dng ASK (Amplitude Shitf Keying), FSK (Frequency Shitf
Keying), PSK (Phase Shitf Keying) hay PolSK (Polarization Shitf Keying ).
LLO (Laser Local Oscillator): y l b dao ng ni ti b thu s dng laser bn dn
to ra tn hiu quang c bc sng 2.
DEC (Detector): khi ny thc hin hai tnh nng, u tin s dng coupler FBT cng
tn hiu thu c (1) v tn hiu ti ch (2). Sau a tn hiu tng ti
photodiode thc hin tch sng trc trip theo qui lut bnh phng.
LOC (Local Oscillator control): khi ny nhm iu khin pha v tn s ca tn hiu
dao ng ni n nh.
AMP (Amplifier): khi ny khuch i tn hiu in sau khi tch sng quang.
DEMOD (Demodulator): khi ny ch cn thit khi b thu hot ng ch
heterodyne.

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S khi tng qut ca b thu quang coherent
- B thu quang Heterodyne
Coupler 22 B tch sng
quang
B lc
khuch i
trung tn
B gii iu
ch
B lc
khuch i
di nn
Mch quyt
nh bit
AFC
B dao ng
ni
Tn hiu vo
Tn hiu ra
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- B thu quang Homodyne c kho pha gia tn hiu dao
ng ni v tn hiu vo.
Coupler 22 B tch sng
quang
B lc
khuch i
di nn
Mch quyt
nh bit
AFC
B dao ng
ni
Tn hiu vo
Tn hiu ra
Coupler 22
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4.5- RoF
- Cng ngh RoF s dng ng truyn si quang phn
phi cc tn hiu tn s v tuyn (RF) t mt trm u cui
ti cc khi anten u xa (RAU).
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Cc u im khi s dng cng ngh RoF

- Suy hao thp
- Bng thng ln
- Lp t v bo tr n gin
- Gim cng sut tiu th
- Phn b ti nguyn linh hot

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Hn ch ca cng ngh RoF

- Do RoF gm iu ch tng t v tch sng quang
v c bn l h thng truyn dn tng t tn hiu
b nh hng bi nhiu v mo.

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