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GIO TRNH KHA H C

T NG QUAN V H TH NG THNG TIN DI NG


1. Gii thiu chung
1.1.
L ch s thng tin t bo
M t s s pht tri n quan tr ng trong thng tin v tuy n:
H th ng truy n d n v tuy n u tin c th c hi n b i nh khoa h c
Heinrich Hertz nm 1885:
H th ng c c u trc n gi n
B pht dng cu n dy pht tia l a i n gi a 2 i n c c
B thu l vng dy ng khng khp kn, ng knh 35cm
Ph ng php truy n d n v tuy n ny c c b n s d ng trong h u
h t cc thit b v tuy n ( n nm 1915).
Nm 1900, Marconi, cha c a ngnh thng tin di ng sau ny th c hi n
truy n thng tin cho ngnh tu bi n (Marconi. Nobel nm 1907).
Nm 1912, Fressenden, th c hi n truy n tn hi u tho i.
Nm 1947, l n u tin Bell Labs a ra khi ni m m ng thng tin t bo
(Cellular Communication Network).
Nm 1982, l n u tin h th ng thng tin t bo c a vo s d ng t i
Nh t b n (th h th nh t, cn g i l h th ng thng tin di ng 1G).
Nm 1993, h th ng thng tin di ng ton c u GSM (Global System for Mobile
Communication) pht tri n t i Chu u (h th ng 2G).
Nm 2001-2002, h th ng di ng th h m i (3G) ra m t ng i s d ng
t i Nh t, M v m t s n c tin ti n (Hn Qu c, Chu u).
Figure 1-1 Nh ng b c ngo t l n trong ngnh thng ti n v tuy n
1.2. Th h th nh t 1G
a.
Gi i thi u s l c:
-
Th c s ho t ng vo nh ng nm 80s.
-
N khng ph i l h th ng thng tin t bo u tin.
-
Dung l ng v kh nng l u ng cao h n h n tr c .
b.
Yu c u c a h th ng:
-
Dung l ng h th ng cao h n cc h th ng tr c.
-
H tr kh nng l u ng cao c a ng i s d ng
-
Ti s d ng t n s trong m ng.
c.
c i m c a h th ng:
-
Dung l ng, tnh l u ng cao.
-
Cc t bo c chia nh v ti s d ng t n s

Dung l ng tng ng
k .
-
Dng k thu t truy n tn hi u t ng t Analog (Voice)
-
C nhi u h th ng cung c p d ch v , trong NMT (Nordic Mobile
Telephone), Total Access Communication System (TACS), Advanced Mobile Phone
Service (AMPS) l thnh cng nh t.
-
Cc h th ng khc nh C-Netz (West Germany), Radiocom2000 (France) ch
ng k trong n c.
-
NMT (Scandinavia

Southern Europe):
o
NMT-450
o
NMT-900
-
TACS (UK

Middle Eastern, Southern Europe):


o
D a trn h th ng AMPS
o
D i t n 900 MHz
-
AMPS (Northern, Southern US

Far East).
o
D i t n 800MHz
-
NTT MCS l h th ng di ng t bo u tin t i Nh t.
NMT-450 Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary,
Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Moldova, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand,
Turkey, and Ukraine
NMT-900 Cambodia, Cyprus, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Greenland,
Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, and Thailand
TACS/ETACS Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, China, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait,
Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Philippines, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, United Arab
Emirates, and United Kingdom
AMPS Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada,
China, Georgia, Guam, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Nauru, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Taiwan,
Thailand, Turkmenistan, United States, Vietnam, and Western Samoa
C-NETZ Germany, Portugal, and South Africa
Radi ocom 2000 France
1.3. Th h th hai 2G
a.
Xu t hi n u nh ng nm 90s.
b.
S d ng k thu t truy n d n s (khc bi t v i h th ng 1G).
c.
Dung l ng h th ng cao h n ng k so v i h th ng 1G.
-
Qu n l Cell c phn c p (Hierarchical Cell Structure)

:
o
Macro cell
o
Micro cell
o
Pico cell
d.
T n s trong m t knh truy n c ti s d ng b ng cch dng
ng th i cho nhi u Users (phn bi t b i Ti me Sl ot ho c Code).
e.
C 4 chu n c b n c s d ng cho cc h th ng 2G:
-
Global System for Mobile Communication GSM
-
Digital- AMPS (D-AMPS).
-
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA-IS 95).
-
Personal Digital Communication (PDC).
1)
H th ng thng tin di ng ton c u GSM

GSM ( c s d ng u tin t i Chu u, v sau c m t h u h t cc n c


trn th gi i):
a)
S d ng r t ph bi n v thnh cng nhi u n c.
b)
Southern America (Wide-Coverage GSM).

c i m h th ng GSM:
a)
S d ng d i t n 900 MHz
b)
C 2 d n xu t chnh:
i. Digital Cellular System DCS (GSM-1800).
ii. Personal Communication System PCS (GSM -1900).
c) Sau , ETSI (European Telecom Standard Institute):
i. GSM-400

B sung dung l ng cho GSM-800

R t ph h p v i cc vng ph sng r ng, m t dn c cao,


cc vng duyn h i.

Tuy nhin, cu i nm 2002, ton b h th ng GSM-400 khng


cn ho t ng.

Bng t n ho t ng:
1. 450.4 - 457.6 (UL) / 460.4 - 467.6 (DL)
2.
478.8 - 486.0 (UL) / 488.8 - 496.0 (DL)

L do t i sao cc h th ng GSM-400 khng pht tri n t t v


s m ch m d t trn ton th gi i ?
1.
p ng yu c u ph sng r ng, tng dung l ng
2.
Cng d i t n s v i NMT-450

khng th cng song song
t n t i v cng ho t ng !!!
ii.
GSM-800 (s d ng ch y u vng B c M ).
2)
H th ng D-AMPS (US-TDMA IS 136 or TDMA):

c s d ng M , Isarel v m t s n c Chu .

D i t n 850 MHz ho c 1900 MHz.

Ph ng th c a truy nh p phn chia theo th i gian TDMA (Time Division


Multiple Access) (t ng t nh h th ng GSM).
3)
H th ng CDMA-IS 95 (by Qualcomm):

S d ng ph ng th c khc v i GSM thi t k giao di n v tuy n

S d ng k thu t a truy nh p phn chia theo m - CDMA

IS-95 c s d ng ph bi n :
a) United States
b)
South Korea (r t nhi u n i).
c)
Hong Kong, Singapore.
d)
Japan v nhi u n c ng Nam .

H th ng cn c g i v i tn l : Cdmaone (Au KDDI Nh t b n)


4)
H th ng PDC (Personal Digital Communication):

Chu n h th ng 2G c a Nh t b n (JDC

PDC)

D i t n 800 MHz v 1500 MHz

Ho t ng c 2 ch : Analog v Digital

V c b n, cc tham s k t n i l p V t l (Physical Layer) r t gi ng v i D-


AMPS. Tuy nhin cc kh i giao th c th gi ng v i GSM.

H th ng ch pht huy trong n c Nh t v khng pht tri n trn th tr ng


vi n thng qu c t .

i cng v i cc h th ng thng tin di ng t bo 2G, v n cn c cc h th ng


s khng dy (Cordless Digital System):
a) DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications).
b) Personal Handyphone System (PHS).
c)
c i m c a cc h th ng Cordless Digital:
iii.
Khng ph i l Cellular System, khng c h th ng ring bi t
iv.
Ch c m t Base Station v m t nhm cc my di ng MS
v.
BS th ng g n vo m t HT m ng no .
vi.
K t h p v i Cellular System

nng cao kh nng ho t ng c a
h th ng Cordless Digital.
1.4. Th h 2.5G
a.
L m t thi t k hon thi n v nng c p t h th ng 2G
b.
Khng c s phn bi t r rng v i h th ng 2G.
c.
Cc h th ng 2.5G c th t kh nng v dung l ng v qui ho ch gi ng v i
cc h th ng 3G.
d.
Thng th ng, 2.5G s d ng cc cng ngh sau:
-
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data)
-
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
-
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution)
e.
V d v chuy n i nng c p h th ng 2G ln 2.5G:
-
IS-136

2.5G khi p d ng GPRS ho c EDGE


-
IS-95

2.5G khi tri n khai IS-95B ho c p d ng cng ngh CDMA2000


f.
V n khi nng c p ln 2.5G:
-
T c d li u khng m b o (current: 9.6 or 14.4kbps)
-
V d xt h th ng HSCSD:
1)
Hi n t i h th ng c th cung c p d ch v d a trn m ng d li u chuy n
m ch knh, t c 9.6/14.4kbps. Khi tri n khai h th ng 2.5G, yu c u t c
d li u chuy n i tng ln 4 l n (h th ng s ch nh 4 time slots cho m i
ng i s d ng thay v m t Time Slot nh trong h th ng khi ch a nng c p).
T cho th y vi c s d ng ngu n ti nguyn v tuy n c a h th ng khi
nng c p l khng hi u qu .
2)
Ph h p v i Real time Applications v nhu c u cc d ch v p ng nhanh
3)
HSCSD mang tnh t m th i cao trong khi chuy n i ln 3G
-
Xt n GPRS:
1)
M ng chuy n m ch gi (gi ng Internet)

s d ng ti nguyn v tuy n hi u
qu (khng c p pht TS lin t c cho m t k t n i, m ch c p khi c d li u
c n truy n).
2)
T c Data Rate l thuy t

115Kbps (dng bao nhiu TS)
3)
GPRS xu t hi n trn th tr ng t nm 2001, ph h p v i cc ng d ng Non-
Real-Time (Internet, Web).
4)
Chi ph cho GPRS r t t so v i HSCSD. Tuy nhin:

Cc h th ng GSM c n thi t nng c p v i GPRS

Xem GPRS l b c c n thi t i vo l trnh 3G (ch ng trnh 3GPP ch y u


d a trn GSM v GPRS pht tri n h th ng 3G).
-
V i h th ng s d ng EDGE:
5)
Dng ph ng th c i u ch 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying)

Tng Data Rate ln 3 l n so v i trong GSM

Vi c nng c p n gi n h n so v i 2 ph ng n trn

N u EGDE k t h p v i GPRS

Enhanced GPRS
a)
EGDE ph h p v i kho ng cch ng n
b)
GPRS v i GMSK-Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
c)
E-GPRS

t i a Data Rate l 384Kbps

EDGE + HSCSD

Data Rate tng 3 l n so v i HSCSD

K t h p gi a 2 trong 3 h th ng ny t o ra s m m d o v a d ng trong vi c
nng c p cc h th ng 2G chu n b cho h th ng 3G
-
Qu trnh nng c p cc h th ng 2G khc ngoi GSM

2.5G:
1)
IS-136 (US-TDMA/850-1900MHz), c th b ng:

EGDE (chuy n i nhanh h n c GSM



GPRS)

GPRS
2) IS-95 (CDMAone):

Hi n t i cung c p 14.4Kbps

N u nng c p t IS-95, Data Rate t i a l 64Kbps.

C nhi u h th ng IS-95

2.5G v i CDMA2000 1xRTT (S. Korea)
3) PDC (Japan):

NTT Docomo pht tri n m t d ch v g i l I-Mode (PDC-P)

PDC-P: ng sau m ng giao di n v tuy n c a PDC, l m t m ng d li u gi


(ph trch truy n d n v k t n i v i m ng truy n tr i d li u gi (Packet Data
Network).

Thu bao ch tr ti n theo l ng d li u gi trao i (m khng ph i theo th i


gian s d ng nh cc m ch chuy n m ch knh).

I-Mode c i m t ng t v i Wireless Application Protocol-WAP (KDDI, Japan


cung c p d ch v Internet d a trn WAP):
a)
I-Mode u tin xu t hi n u nm 1999

2002 (33 tri u)
b)
I-Mode r t thnh cng t i Nh t v cho th y lo i hnh d ch v ki u
WAP v i s xu t hi n c a Data Network l r t c ng i dng a
chu ng s d ng.
c)
NTT cng l nh cung c p d ch v 3G u tin t i Nh t (W-CDMA)
1.5. T ng quan h th ng 3G
-
K t 1990s, cc h th ng thng tin di ng pht tri n nhanh chng trn
ton th gi i.
-
Nm 1991, h th ng GSM u ti n xu t hi n t i Finland.
-
Sau GSM xm nh p vo nhi u n c trn th gi i.
-
GSM lin t c pht tri n, nng c p khng ng ng.
-
n 9/2002:
-
T ng c ng c 460 m ng GSM
-
T ng s thu bao 747.5 tri u
-
Sau l kho ng th i gian chu n b chuy n ln 3G c a cc h th ng 2G. V i
cc d ch v nh GPRS, EDGE, CDMAone
-
Nm 1996-97, ETSI (European Telecom Standard Institute) v ARIB (Association
of Radio Industries Business) ch n WCDMA l ng c vin cho chu n v Giao
di n V tuy n c a h th ng 3G.
-
Chu n ny sau cng c ng h b i NTT (Nh t) v nhi u t p on vi n
thng khc thu c Chu u

UTRAN/UTRAN FDD mode.
-
S phn b ph t n s cho h th ng chu n IMT-2000
-
Chnh xc, IMT-2000:
o
1885-2025 MHz (Uplink)
o
21102200 MHz (Downlink)
1.6. Cc chu n ngh cho 3G
1.6.1. W-CDMA

Bng thng r ng 5MHz:


r ng

Data Rate: 144 - 384Kbps/ 2Mbps.
C i thi n nhi u a ng (Multiple Paths Fading)/ Ch t l ng

WCDMA t n t i 2 d ng:
Synchronous Network (ETIS/ARIB/Korea TTA II)
Asynchronous Network (Korea TTA I/ CDMA2000)

Chu n WCDMA c a EITS/ARIB gy c s ch nh t:


i tn thnh UTRAN/FDD
T ng thch v i h th ng GSM nng c p ln 3G (3GPP)

Chu n CDMA2000
Ph h p v i h th ng 2G (IS-95)
Cc Operators: Qualcomm, Lucent, Motorola.
c pht tri n trong d n 3GPP2
1.6.2. Advanced TDMA

x ng nm 1990s, v i chu n UWC-136

Ph h p v i h th ng TDMA IS-136

S d ng nhi u sng mang t n s :


30 kHz (gi ng v i IS-136)
200 kHz (gi ng v i GSM-EDGE)
and 1.6 MHz (ch dng cho Indoor Services)
1.6.3. Hybrid TDMA/CDMA

By European FRAME Project


M i Frame TDMA chia thnh 8 TS
Trong m i TS, cc knh khc nhau c ghp knh phn chia theo m
dng cng ngh CDMA.
1.6.4. OFDM

D a trn nguyn l i u ch a sng mang (Multi-carrier)


Lu ng d li u chnh (main data stream) c chia thnh cc lu ng d
li u ph (sub data stream), t c th p trn cc sng mang ph (sub-
carrier), t c d li u trn cc sub-carrier th p h n t c lu ng d
li u chnh nhi u l n.
Lu ng d li u ph c i u ch b i cc m tr c giao, do m c d
cc sub-carrier c th c b tr r t st nhau ho c ph t n s c th
giao nhau m t ph n nh ng k t qu l v n trnh c nhi u giao thoa
gi a cc sng mang c nh nhau.
Tn hi u i u ch OFDM c kh nng cao trong vi c ch ng l i truy n
d n a ng v kh c ph c t t tr do tn hi u truy n d n trong mi
tr ng truy n sng gy ra.

OFDM c s d ng thnh cng trong cc h th ng Digital audio


broadcasting (DAB) and Digital video broadcasting (DVB) ho c c dng
trong cc chu n k t n i LAN 802.11a, g.

u i m chnh c a OFDM:
S d ng bng thng hi u qu (ph t n s chia cho cc Sub-carrier c
th ph nhau m t ph n nh t nh).
Ch ng c nhi u bng h p (Narrow-band Interference)
H n ch nhi u a ng (Multipath Interference)

Nh c i m chnh:
High Peak to Average Power (CS nh trung bnh)

Tuy nhin khng c chu n no c a IMT-2000 ch n cng ngh OFDM tri n


khai. OFDM c nghin c u s d ng nhi u cho WLAN v cc h th ng
Broadcasting nh c p trn.
1.6.5. IMT-2000

IMT-2000 c ITU xu t nh m t o ra chu n/tiu ch chung cho cc h


th ng thng tin di ng 3G.

Nm 1999, ITU ch p nh n cc xu t sau cho IMT-2000:


IMT Direct Spread (IMT-DS or UTRA-FDD).
IMT Multi Carrier (IMT-MC or CDMA 2000).
IMT Time Code (IMT-TC or UTRA-TDD/TD-SCDMA).
IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC or UWC-136).
IMT Frequency Time (IMT-FT or DECT).

IMT-DS v IMT-TC c pht tri n b i 3GPP1

IMT-MC c pht tri n trong 3GPP2

IMT-DS

1st priority

IMT-MC

2nd priority.
1.6.6.
3GPP1
A. T i sao IMT-2000 ch n Ti me Di vi si on Dupl ex ?

u i m TDD:
Trong h th ng 3G, ng ln v xu ng ho t ng trn cc d i t n r t
khc nhau.
T c cho Downlink r t cao h n so v i Uplink.
D i u khi n cng su t.

Nh c i m:
Can nhi u ng k gi a cc TS
Nhi u Intracell v nhi u Intercell gi a Uplink v Downlink
B. TD-SCDMA

c pht tri n b i China Academy of Telecommunications Technology.

Tr ng h p Narrow-band c a UTRA TDD.

khai thc thnh cng t i T.Qu c

c i m c a TD-SCDMA:
Gi ng UTRA TDD, nh ng dng bng h p
c xem l HT Low Bit Chip Rate LCR (1.28Mcps).
Bng thng s d ng c 2 kh nng:
ng v i LCR l 1.6MHz
UTRA TDD l 5MHz.
So v i h th ng UTRA TDD, TD-SCDMA c u i m:
M i TS, cho php 16 users truy nh p
Cc h s Spreading Factor v Spreading Code gi ng v i
UTRA TDD.
Uplink, h s Spreading Factor (1, 2, 4, 8, 16).
Downlink, h s Spreading Factor ch l 1 ho c 16. Tuy
nhin Multi-code v n c th dng c thch nghi v i
cc t c bit khc nhau.
Dng bng thng t h n nh ng v n c th p ng dung
l ng h th ng nh nhau nn hi u qu h n UTRA TDD.
1.6.7. 3GPP2

H tr vi c p d ng CDMA2000 (m t d ng c a WCDMA).

D n ny cn c g i l IMT-MC (Multi-Carrier).

Chu n ny ph h p v i cc h th ng c s n IS-95 (dng nhi u B c M v


Hn Qu c), c cng chung Core Network.

So snh v i chu n c a 3GPP1:


Chip Rate l b i c a 1.2288MHz (up to 14.7456MHz).
Phase 1: Chip Rate: 1.2288 -3.6864 MHz.
Phase 2: Tng 3 l n (chu n 1xEV-DO (IS-856)).

H th ng CDMA2000 c c i m:
Forward Link (Downlink):
Multi-carrier c s d ng
Ph c chia thnh cc ph r ng 1.25MHz (r ng b ng ph c a
h th ng IS-95).
Reverse Link (Uplink):
Direct Spread c s d ng
Gn ph cho m t sng mang ph r ng (Wideband Carrier)
Khng ng b th i gian trn Reverse Link.

Qu trnh chuy n i t h th ng IS-95 ln h th ng CDMA2000 (3G):


Giai o n 1: CDMA2000 1xRTT Release 0 (144Kbps).
Giai o n 2: CDMA2000 1xRTT Release A (384Kbps).
Giai o n 3: CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Enhanced Version of Data Only (up to
2Mbps for fixed-user).
Giai o n sau cng, l h th ng CDMA2000 1/3xEV-DV (h tr truy n
t i d li u ln n 5Mbps).
1.6.8.
Con ng ti n n cc h th ng 3G/4G
V c b n, cc h th ng thng tin di ng hi n nay u s d ng m t trong 2 lo i
cng ngh GSM ho c CDMA. Cc h th ng ny c th ang pht tri n cc th h
th 3 ho c ang giai o n qu 2.5G.
Hnh v sau trnh by m t qu trnh pht tri n n h th ng th h th 3 c a cc
h th ng s d ng cng ngh ni trn:
2.
Cc Khi Ni m v H Th ng Thng Ti n T Bo
2.1. Khi ni m v nguyn l c b n
Ch c nng c b n c a m t h th ng TT di ng:
=
Thi t l p k t n i d li u (Multimedia) cho gi a 2 thu bao.
=
Cc thu bao di ng c.
=
nh v c cc thu bao.
=
m b o thu bao lun c k t n i t t nh t v i m t tr m g c BTS
t t ng thi ng thi t k t k ban ban u: u:
M t h th ng v tuy n c th
ph c v k t n i cho m t khu
v c r ng l n:
Antenna kh cao
CS pht ln
Nh ng khng p d ng k
tht ti s dng ti nguyn
v tuyn (Tn s).
Dung lng h thng hn ch
v s dng ph tn s km
hiu qu
trong m ng t bo.
Gi i thi u chung v c u trc m t h th ng thng ti n di ng
a) S nguyn l :
b)
S nguyn l c a m t h th ng di ng th h th 3
(3G)
PSTN PSTN
/PLMN /PLMN
BTS BTS
BSC BSC
BTS BTS
BTS BTS
BTS BTS
BSC BSC
IWF IWF
AAA AAA
Internet Internet
HA HA
DCN DCN
PDSN(FA) PDSN(FA)
SMSC SMSC
HLR/AuC HLR/AuC
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR
VMS VMS
Radio Access Network Radio Access Network RAN RAN
Packet Core Network Packet Core Network PCN PCN
Circuit Core Network Circuit Core Network CCN CCN
WIN/PPS WIN/PPS
MS MS
MS MS
PSTN PSTN
/PLMN /PLMN
PSTN PSTN
/PLMN /PLMN
BTS BTS
BSC BSC
BTS BTS
BTS BTS
BTS BTS
BSC BSC
IWF IWF
AAA AAA
Internet Internet
HA HA
DCN DCN
PDSN(FA) PDSN(FA)
SMSC SMSC
HLR/AuC HLR/AuC
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR
VMS VMS
Radio Access Network Radio Access Network RAN RAN
Packet Core Network Packet Core Network PCN PCN
Circuit Core Network Circuit Core Network CCN CCN
WIN/PPS WIN/PPS
MS MS
MS MS
MSC
MSC: Mobi l e
Swi tchi ng
Center
MS1 MS1
MS2 MS2
BTS1 BTS1
PSTN
Subscriber
BTS2 BTS2
t t ng thi ng thi t k t k ban ban u: u:
M t h th ng v tuy n c th
ph c v k t n i cho m t khu
v c r ng l n:
Antenna kh cao
CS pht ln
Nh ng khng p d ng k
tht ti s dng ti nguyn
v tuyn (Tn s).
Dung lng h thng hn ch
v s dng ph tn s km
hiu qu
t ng ban u v h th ng thng tin v tuy n
Khi ni m ti s d ng (Re-use) t n s trong T.T. t bo:
O
Nng cao dung l ng h th ng
O
Trnh t t ngh n trong thng tin
O
Ti t ki m, s d ng hi u qu ti nguyn v tuy n

Thay th 1BTS cng su t pht l n thnh nhi u BTS cng su t b h n.

M i BTS ch ph sng cho m t vng c ph m vi nh h n.

Cc vng ny c b tr st nhau v g i l cc t bo thng tin


(Communication Cell).
Khi ni m m ng thng tin d ng t bo
2.2.
Khi ni m m ng thng tin t bo (Cellular Communication Network).
M i BTS c gn m t nhm t n s .
Cc BTS k c n s d ng cc nhm t n s khc nhau
Ti s d ng nhm t n s Cell ny cho cc Cell khng k c n
a) C u trc h th ng thng tin t bo
t t ng thi ng thi t k t k ban ban u: u:
M t h th ng v tuy n c th
ph c v k t n i cho m t khu
v c r ng l n:
Antenna kh cao
CS pht ln
Nh ng khng p d ng k
tht ti s dng ti nguyn
v tuyn (Tn s).
Dung lng h thng hn ch
v s dng ph tn s km
hiu qu
Khi ni Khi ni m Cl uster: L m Cl uster: L nhm cc Cell
gn nhau v c tn s hon ton khc
nhau:
Tng s cc tn s c trong Cluster
bng vi tng tn s c c trong
ton h thng
n: s Cell trong mt Cluster gi l kch
thc ca Cluster.
M i tr m g c BS c thi t k cho m t t bo

T bo l ph n bao ph (ph sng) c m t tr m g c BS

M i t bo c cung c p b i m t ho c nhi u sng mang (t n


s , knh truy n)
Cc thu bao di ng k t n i song cng (Full Duplex) v i tr m g c BS
- M i trung tm chuy n m ch di ng MSC c th qu n l n hng tr m
g c BS
- MSC ng vai tr l trung tm chuy n m ch vng v l c ng k t n i v i
m ng i n tho i cng c ng PSTN ho c cc m ng vi n thng khc.
b) Khi ni m Cluster trong T.T. t bo:
Khi ni Khi ni m Cl uster: L m Cl uster: L nhm cc Cell
gn nhau v c tn s hon ton khc
nhau:
Tng s cc tn s c trong Cluster
bng vi tng tn s c c trong
ton h thng
n: s Cell trong mt Cluster gi l kch
thc ca Cluster.
c) Cc c i m c a Cluster:
-
Cc Cluster khc nhau c t t i cc v tr a l khc nhau trn ton
mi n ph sng.
-
thu n ti n cho vi c qui ho ch, qu n l v pht tri n m ng, Cell c
d ng hnh l c gic (vng ph sng r ng v vng che l p h p).
-
V c b n, c 2 cch t tr m BTS:
T i tm c a Cell (antenna v h ng)
T i gc c a 3 Cell k nhau (Antenna c h ng).
-
Cell hnh l c gic nn cc Cluster x p st nhau:
Trong N l s cell trong m t Cluster; i,j: cc s nguyn d ng.
-
D i t n s dng trong m t cell b ng 1/N t ng t n s s d ng trong
ton b h th ng.
-
N u N nh , kch th c Cell khng i

S Cluster tng ln

dung
l ng HT tng, nh ng nhi u ng knh tng.
-
Ng c l i, n u N l n, kch th c Cell khng i

S Cluster gi m
xu ng

dung l ng h th ng gi m v nhi u ng knh b.

C n thi t k N nh m b o 2 yu c u v dung l ng h th ng
cng nh yu c u v ch t l ng d ch v t m c yu c u.
3. i u khi n cu c g i :
Khi ni Khi ni m Cl uster: L m Cl uster: L nhm cc Cell
gn nhau v c tn s hon ton khc
nhau:
Tng s cc tn s c trong Cluster
bng vi tng tn s c c trong
ton h thng
n: s Cell trong mt Cluster gi l kch
thc ca Cluster.
2 2
j ij i N + + =
a)
M i MS th c hi n truy n thng v i m t BTS thng qua m t c p t n s :

H ng ln (Reverse)

H ng xu ng (Forward)
b)
C 4 lo i knh c b n:

Reverse Control Channel RCC

Reverse Voice Channel RVC

Forward Control Channel FCC

Forward Voice Channel FVC


c)
Knh i u khi n cn g i l knh thi t l p cu c g i, c nhi m v thi t
l p cu c g i v chuy n cu c g i n m t knh tho i ch a c s
d ng. N nh n v truy n cc thng tin thi t l p cu c g i v yu c u
d ch v . N c cc thu bao gim st khi rnh.
d)
M i Cell c t nh t m t knh i u khi n.
Khi thu bao m my (Turn on)
e)
Khi thu bao m my, MS qut tm cc knh i u khi n, tm knh m nh
nh t v gim st knh .
X l khi thu bao c g i (Called Party)
f)
Khi m t MS khc c g i, MSC s g i yu c u tm ki m thu bao c
g i (s nh n d ng TB) t i t t c cc BTS. T cc BTS ti p t c tm
ki m thu bao c g i thng qua knh i u khi n xung FCC.
g)
Khi TB c g i nh n c tin tm g i, n tr l i b ng thng i p, xc
nh n, g i t i BTS c a n qua knh RCC. BTS chuy n thng i p ny
n MSC.
h)
MSC i u khi n cho BTS chuy n cu c g i n m t knh tho i r i. ng
th i BTS bo hi u cho MS chuy n t n s lin l c n knh tho i r i ny.
i)
Sau , trn knh tho i r i ny, BTS truy n tn hi u chung cho MS
chung.
j)
Trong khi cu c g i ang di n ra, MSC i u ch nh cng su t c a MS v
thay i t n s c a MS v BTS truy tr cu c g i khi MS i ra kh i
vng ph sng c a BTS. Qu trnh ny g i l Hand Off.
X l khi thu bao th c hi n g i (Calling)
k)
Khi MS c n thi t l p cu c g i, MS g i s nh n d ng c a n v s c n
g i n BTS thng qua knh RCC.
l)
BTS nh n thng i p ny v g i ti p n MSC.
m)
MSC phn tch yu c u, xem s c n g i thu c m ng di ng hay
thu c m ng PSTN.
n)
N u l PSTN, MSC ti n hnh chuy n cu c g i n m ng PSTN.
o)
N u thu c m ng di ng, MSC s pht tin qu ng b n t t c cc BTS
tm ki m thu bao c g i.
4. Chuy n gi ao cu c g i
A. c i m v yu c u:
-
Hand Off m b o cu c g i lin t c khi MS di chuy n t Cell ny sang Cell
khc ho c gi a Sector ny sang Sector khc trong cng m t Cell.
-
MSC t ng chuy n cu c g i n m t t n s m i thu c BTS m i.
-
Yu c u cho Hand Off lun cao h n yu c u thi t l p cu c g i. V th trong
thi t k v dung l ng c a Cell, lun t ra m t l ng knh truy n nh t
nh u ti n cho x l chuy n giao cu c g i.
-
Hand Off ph i c th c hi n thnh cng v khng c nh n bi t b i
ng i s d ng.
-
M t m c cng su t thu t i u t i BTS c ch nh ti n hnh chuy n
cu c g i cho MS, th ng -90dBm n -100dBm.
-
= Pr
handoff
Pr
minimum usable
khng qu l n ho c qu nh
B.
Hand Off cc h th ng 1 v 2G:
h th ng 1G, vi c o c ng tr ng c a cc thu bao di
ng MS c th c hi n b i tr m g c BTS v c gi m st b i
trung tm chuy n m ch MSC:
-
BTS o c ng tr ng c a cc MS trong Cell thng qua o tn hi u c a
cc knh tho i.
-
ng th i, m t Receiver khc c a BTS ch u trch nhi m o c ng
tr ng c a t t c cc MS thu c BTS xung quanh qu n l.
-
D a vo gi tr c a c ng tr ng o c t cc BTS bn c nh, MSC
quy t nh l ti n hnh Hand Off hay khng ? Ngha l n u c ng
tr ng c a BTS hi n t i nh v th ng th

= 6 ~12 dB, th MSC
chuy n cu c g i sang BTS bn c nh c c ng tr ng t t h n duy tr
cu c g i.
cc h th ng 2G, vi c Hand Off th ng x y ra v i s ph i h p
gi a MS v BTS:
-
M i MS lun o cng su t nh n c t BTS ph c v v ng th i o cng
su t t BTS k c n, sau g i v trung tm chuy n m ch MSC.
-
Khi cng su t o c t BTS k c n cao h n cng su t thu c t BTS
ph c v , Hand off x y ra. Th ng th Handoff b t u khi

= 1 ~ 6 dB.
-
Tr ng h p MS di chuy n sang m t Cell khc c qu n l b i m t MSC
khc, khi g i l Intersystem HandOff.
C. Hnh v m t chuy n giao cu c g i
5. Can nhi u v dung l ng h th ng
Trong thng tin t bo, th ng c 2 l o i nhi u ch nh:
+
Nhi u ng knh (Co-channel Interference CCI).
+
Nhi u knh k c n (Adjacent-channel Interference).
A.
Nhi u ng knh CCI:
-
Do cc Cell s d ng cng t n s gy ra
-
T s cng su t tn hi u trn nhi u ng knh SIR (Signal Interference Ratio):
o
Khng ph thu c vo cng su t pht tn hi u (Noise?).
o
Nh ng ph thu c vo t s N R D Q 3 / = = (R: bn knh c a Cell; D:
kho ng cch ng n nh t gi a 2 Cell c t n s gi ng nhau (kho ng cch ti
s d ng t n s ), N: s l ng Cells trong m t Cluster; i
0
: S l ng Cell gy
ra nhi u ng knh;

: d c suy hao (Propagation law,

=4 trong PLMN).
o
N u Q l n v cell c bn knh khng i

D l n

N l n

c nhi u cell
trong m t Cluster, s l ng Cluster trong h th ng gi m

Dung l ng h
th ng gi m nh ng t s SIR tng, ch t l ng d ch v tng ln .
MSC

=

=
= =
0 o
i
1 i
i
i
1 i
i
D
R
I
S
SIR

( ) ( )
0 0
3 D/R
SIR
i
N
i

= =
o
N u Q nh

D nh

N nh

c t Cell trong m t Cluster, c nhi u
Cluster trong h th ng

Dung l ng h th ng tng nh ng t s SIR gi m,
ch t l ng d ch v cng b gi m xu ng.

C n l a ch n m t Trade-Off h p l m b o ch t l ng d ch v (SIR)
v dung l ng h th ng cng c m b o (ch n N ph h p).
6. L u L ng (Traffi c) v M c D ch V (Grade of Servi ce
GOS)
6.1. L u L ng:

M i User c gn m t t n s khi c yu c u thng tho i v ts c gi i


phng khi k t thc. Do h th ng c th ph c v m t s l ng l n thu bao
v i s l ng knh gi i h n (Traffic and Grade of Service).

C ng /l u l ng (Traffic) c n v l Erlang. M t Erlang (1Erl) c ngha l


m t l u l ng c truy n t i b i m t knh m n hon ton c s
d ng/khai thc.

Cng th c v l u l ng c n thi t cho m t User:


H A .

=
Trong :

: T n su t th c hi n cu c g i (Calls/ n v th i gian)
H : Th i gian trung bnh th c hi n m t cu c g i

T ng l u l ng c n thi t cho U users l:

S l ng knh trong m t Cell ph i l n h n ho c b ng A


U
.
V d :
6.2. M c D ch V GOS:
-
Khi ni m Traffic v Grade of Service: GOS l xc su t t t ngh n h th ng vo
gi cao i m (BH: Busy Hour).
H U A U A
U
. . .

= =
-
GOS t l v i nh ng cu c g i khng th lin l c c v cc m ch ang b chi m
khi cc cu c g i m i xu t hi n.
-
GOS xem nh l tiu chu n i v i ch t l ng chuy n m ch
-
GOS t l v i t s l u l ng t n th t v l u l ng t ng
-
Cng th c tnh ERLANG_B: Th hi n quan h gi a xc su t ngh n GOS, s knh
C v l u l ng A:
-
ti n s d ng, d a vo b ng kt qu gi i bi ton tm s knh (channel)
c n ph c v khi bi t GOS (%) v l u l ng (Erl) c n truy n.
V d : Tnh ton s knh c n thi t ph c v 100 Users, v i m c ph c v
GOS=2%. L u l ng trung bnh cho m i ng i s d ng l 30m Erl.
L i gi i: L u l ng c n thi t cho 100 ng i dung l: 100x30m Erl=3 Erlang.
Trn c s tra c u b ng Erlang-B, ng v i GOS=1%, L u l ng 3Erl, ta suy ra s
l ng knh c n thi t p ng yu c u v l u l ng trn l 8 Channels.
Channel 1% 1.2% 1.50% 2% 3% 5%
1 0.0101 0.0121 0.152 0.0204 0.0309 0.0526
2 0.153 0.168 0.19 0.23 0.282 0.381
3 0.455 0.489 0.535 0.602 0.715 0.899
4 0.869 0.922 0.992 1.09 1.26 1.52
5 1.36 1.43 1.52 1.66 1.88 2.22
6 1.91 2 2.11 2.28 2.54 2.96
7 2.5 2.6 2.74 2.94 3.25 3.74
8 3.13 3.25 3.4 3.63 3.99 4.54
9 3.78 3.92 4.09 4.34 4.75 5.37
10 4.46 4.61 4.81 5.08 5.53 6.22
) (
!
!
0
B
k
A
C
A
GOS
C
k
k
C

=
=
7. c T nh Truy n Sng C a Knh V Tuy n Di ng
7.1. Khi ni m truy n sng v tuy n
+
T n s v c t nh sng v tuy n
-
Sng v tuy n l sng i n t , n m cng nhm v i nh sng, b c x h ng
ngo i v tia X.
-
T n s v tuy n n m trong d i t n s 10 Hz-300 GHz.
+
V i sng thu c d i t n s th p:
-
D ph n x (v t qua t m nhn th ng).
-
H at ng t ng t sng m thanh
+
V i sng thu c d i t n s cao:
-
H at ng gi ng sng nh sng
-
Truy n d n theo ng th ng (b m a h p th , tn x )
HIN TNG PHN X
Cnh nhi u x
Vng
che
khut
song
nhieu xa
HIN TNG NHIU X
Song
ti
Nang lng
tan xa
HIN TNG TN X
-
Khi t n s tng th r ng bng t n s d ng cng tng
+
Trong v tuy n di ng, ch y u dng bng t n VHF, UHF.
+
VHF, UHF c u i m:
-
Suy hao th p
-
V t qua t m nhn th ng
-
Antenna nh h ng pht theo h ng truy n lan xc nh
+
V sao ngy cng c nhi u ng d ng trong d i t n s cao ?
+
Ph t n s v tuy n v ng d ng t ng ng:
+
Cc hi n t ng ph n x , nhi u x v tn x trong truy n sng
HIN TNG PHN X
Cnh nhi u x
Vng
che
khut
song
nhieu xa
HIN TNG NHIU X
Song
ti
Nang lng
tan xa
HIN TNG TN X
+
Phn l o i truy n sng:
-
C nhi u ph ng th c truy n sng t Tx

Rx
o
T n s ang s d ng
o
a hnh, kho ng cch truy n
-
Cc tia bn thu c th l:
o
Tr c ti p LOS
o
Tia ph n x
o
Tia nhi u x
o
Tia khc x t t ng i n ly
-
Ty vo m c ch truy n thng tin s d ng. N u mi tr ng gi a pht v
thu l nhn th ng th ch y u l sng tr c ti p. N u c ta nh cao t ng, dng
cc sng ph n x v nhi u x v c th c sng tr c ti p.
+
ng truy n sng c th chi a l m 3 nhm:
-
Khng gian t do (Microwave)
-
Vng t ng tc 2 tia (Air to Ground Communication)
-
Vng Fading Rayleigh (PLMN)
7.2.
c tnh truy n sng:
M h nh t nh suy hao theo kho ng cch v h s m suy hao

Song
ti
Song phan
xa
HIN TNG PHN X
Ta
nh
Cnh nhi u x
Vng
che
khut
song
nhieu xa
HIN TNG NHIU X
Song
ti
Nang lng
tan xa
HIN TNG TN X
Moi trng Mu suy hao ng
truyen
Khong gian t do 2
Vo tuyen di ong
thanh pho
2,7 en 3,5
Vo tuyen di ong
thanh pho b che khuat
3 en 5
ng trc tiep trong
toa nha
1,6 en 1,8
B che khuat trong toa
nha
4 en 6
B che khuat trong cac
nha may
2 en 3
7.2.1.
Khng gi an t do (Free space)
-
c xem l mi tr ng truy n sng l t ng (khng c nhi u ph n x , khc
x , tn x ).
-
c i m c a truy n sng trong mi tr ng nhn th y nhau LOS:
o
Nhn th y nhau, Light of Sight.
o
Sng v tuy n truy n nh trong mi tr ng khng gian t do
o
Cng su t thu: t l ngh ch v i bnh ph ng c a kho ng cch t i m pht
n
d
d
d P d P

=
0
0
). ( ) (
[ ] [ ]

+ =
0
0
lg 10 ) ( ) (
d
d
n dB d P dB d P
n i m thu.
-
M hnh tnh ton suy hao trong LOS, m hnh Friss:
-
Ph ng th c tnh suy hao trn ng truy n cho tr ng h p LOS:
7.2.2.
Truy n sng trong mi tr ng c a th /Nng thn
-
Gi i thi u m hnh tnh ton truy n sng OKUMURA-HATA:
-
M hnh Ukumura-Hata cho mi tr ng Th :
-
M hnh Okumura-Hata trong mi tr ng truy n sng ngo i :
; Frequency : 150Mhz to 1500Mhz.
-
M t suy hao khi tnh ton theo m hnh Okumura-Hata:
7.2.3. M hnh tnh ton COST-231
+
COST-231 Model
+
L m hnh m r ng c a m hnh Hata v i s khc bi t l t n s cho
php n 2GHz (M hnh Okumura-Hata ch hi u l c n 1500MHz).
+
L(Urban)[dB] = 46,3 + 33,9l g(f
c
) 13,82l g(h
te
) a(h
re
)
+ (44,9 6,55l gh
te
)l gd + CM
Trong :
o
CM= 0dB i v i cc thnh ph c v a v khu v c ngo i
thnh.
o
CM= 3dB i v i khu v c th .
o
f : 1500Mhz n 2000Mhz
o
h
te
: 30m n 200m
o
h
re
: 1m n 10m
o
d : 1km n 20km
7.2.4.
M h nh Sakagami -Kuboi (SAKAGAMI-KUBOI Model ):
+
Sakagami v Kuboi th c hi n phn tch thm nh ng k t qu c a Okumura
tm ra m hnh th c nghi m mang tnh t ng qut h n cc m hnh tr c
do Okumura xy d ng.
+
Theo m hnh ny, suy hao do truy n d n c tnh ton nh sau:
+
Lp =100 7,1lgW +0,023

+1,4lghs +6,1lg(H) -[24,37 3,1(H/h


te
)2]lgh
te
+
+(43,42 3,1lgh
te
)lgd +20lgf
c
+exp(13(lgf
c
3,23))
Trong :
+
Lp : suy hao ng truy n [dB].
+
W : r ng con ng t i i m thu (5m n 50m).
+
: Gc h p b i ng ph v h ng truy n sng t BS n MS (0
0
n 90
0
).
+
h
s
: Chi u cao ta nh pha BS g n MS nh t (5m n 80m).
+
H : Chi u cao trung bnh c a cc ta nh n m xung quanh MS (5m- 50m).
+
hte : Chi u cao c a Antenna BS pht (20m n 100m).
+
d : Kho ng cch gi a BS v MS.
+
f
c
: T n s h at ng, t 450Mhz n 2200Mhz.
+
Nhi u thng s lien quan n mi tr ng thnh ph c xem xt.
+
M hnh ny v n p d ng c trong tr ng h p antenna c a BS th p h n
ton nh (khi h th ng p d ng ph ng php nng cao dung l ng b ng
cc Micro Cell).
8.
H Th ng GSM/GPRS
8.1. Gi i thi u c u trc kh i c a h th ng GSM
8.1.1.
C u trc chung c a GSM:
Trong :
BTS: Base Transceiver Station, Tr m thu/pht g c.
MS: Mobile Station, Tr m di ng (thu bao di ng)
MSC: Mobile Switching Center, Trung tm chuy n m ch di ng
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network, M ng di ng m t t cng c ng
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network, M ng i n tho i chuy n m ch cng
c ng.
8.1.2. C u trc phn c p c a m ng GSM:
8.1.3. Cc thnh ph n c b n c a m ng GSM:
Trong :
GMSC: Gateway c a MSC
OMC: Trung tm b o d ng v v n hnh
EIR: B nh n th c thi t b
AuC: B nh n th c thu bao
HLR: B ng k v tr th ng tr
VLR: B ng k v tr t m tr
8.1.4. Cc phn h th ng trong GSM
C 2 thnh ph n ch nh:
A. Cc thi t b c l p t c nh
Xt v ph n m ng u c ci t c nh, hnh v sau m t c u trc v k t
n i gi a cc thnh ph n m ng nh sau:

Phn h tr m g c BSS
Tr m g c BTS c ch c nng:
ng vai tr thi t b pht v thu
M ha v gi i m ha tho i
i u ch nh t c bit cho d li u
Cung c p cc knh bo hi u trn giao di n v tuy n
M ha b o v l i
C c u trc kh i nh sau:
M c cng su t pht t i a t i cc BTS:
B i u khi n tr m g c BSC
Qu n l cc giao di n v tuy n
C p pht v gi i phng cc knh v tuy n
Qu n l v chuy n giao cu c g i, qu n l di ng
Ra l nh i u khi n cng su t
C c u trc nh sau:
DB:
o
Ch a thng tin v tr ng thi c a t t c BSS
o
V cc ph n m m ph c v cho BTS

Phn h chuy n m ch NSS - Network Swi tching Sub-System


Cc thnh ph n c a NSS bao g m:

Mobile Switching Center (MSC) / Gateway MSC (GMSC)

Home Location Register (HLR ) / Authentication Center (AuC)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)


Ch c nng c a NSS:

Chuy n m ch cho cc thu bao

Qu n tr v d li u khch hang

Tnh c c Billing

Qu n tr v b o m t v di ng c a thu bao
K t n i gi a cc thnh ph n v i nhau: Thng qua m ng bo
hi u SS7, v i s m r ng ph h p (e.g. MAP Mobile Application Part)
a) Trung Tm Chuy n M ch Di ng MSC

An ISDN switch (64 kbps channels)

Trung Tm chuy n m ch ph trch bo hi u v chuy n m ch


knh cho cc thu bao thu c vng a l thu c MSC.

S khc bi t l n so v i m ng PSTN: Ch c nng di ng:


o
ng k v tr v c p nh t v tr c a MS
o
Nh n th c
o
Chuy n giao Handoff

M t m ng PLMN (operator network) c nhi u BSC v m i MSC


qu n l m t b cc BSS (note: a BSS refers to just 1 MSC, not many)
b) Gateway c a MSC- GMSC
GMSC, need, as fixed
network switches are not
mobile capable!!
GMSC task: query HLR
for current MS location
(if fixed network switches
were able to query HLR,
direct connection with local
MSC would be available)
GMSC, need, as fixed
network switches are not
mobile capable!!
GMSC task: query HLR
for current MS location
(if fixed network switches
were able to query HLR,
direct connection with local
MSC would be available)

t t i v tr k t n i trung k v i PSTN

Cc cu c g i i vo m ng PSTN, u tin c nh tuy n n


GMSC v sau , nh tuy n n trung tm chuy n m ch MSC qu n l thu bao t i v
tr hi n t i.
c) B ng k v tr th ng tr HLR

Ch a c s d li u cho cc thu bao

L u thng tin c a cc thu bao ang ng k thu c MSC hi n t i

C cc ki u d li u sau v thu bao:


Permanent i nformati on associ ated to the user
Cc thng tin v nh vi n l i n quan n khch hng

MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN, IMSI (Internation Mobile


Subscriber Identity))

Cc d ch v c a thu bao ng k s d ng

Gi i h n d ch v (roaming)

D li u xc th c (Key xc nh n)
Temporary informati on associ ated to the user
Cc thng tin t m th i c a khch hang:

Lin k t t i v tr th c hi n t i c a User

Current VLR address (if avail)

Current MSC address (if avail)

MSRN (if user outside PLMN)- Message Sending Routing Number


d)
B ng k v tr t m tr VLR
m b o r ng d li u l u tr trong b HLR lun s n sng ngay cho cu c g i,
thng tin trong HLR c l u tr thm m t c s d li u khc c g i l b ghi
v tr t m th i VLR (VLR g n v tr hi n t i c a MS nh t).
c i m h at ng c a VLR:

Khi MSs xm nh p vo vng d ch v m i, cc thng tin v thu bao ny s


c sao chp ngay t b HLR qu n l MSs.

B VLR c th ph trch m t ho c nhi u MSC vng

Thng tin nh n th c cua

Ch c nng VLR th ng c tch h p trong trung tm chuy n m ch MSC

N u m t thu bao di chuy n n m t vng d ch v VLR m i, vi c c p nh t v


v tr l i x y ra: VLR m i s yu c u d li u thng tin v thu bao t HLR qu n
l tr c ti p thu bao di ng.
e) Trung Tm Nh n Th c AuC
N u m t thu bao MS mu n truy nh p vo m ng l i, VLR ki m tra li u SIM
card c h p l khng, y l qu trnh nh n th c. th c hi n ki m tra, VLR yu c u
cc thng s nh n th c c a thu bao t trung tm nh n th c AuC.
Trung Tm AuC c ch c nng:
-
Ph i h p v i HLR
-
Tm ki m kha IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
-
L u tr cc d li u c a thu bao lin quan n b o m t

Cc kha PIN c a thu bao

Kha m ha d li u thu bao trn knh v tuy n

Ti n trnh ki m tra tnh h p l c a cc kha


-
8.1.4.1.1. Phn h v n hnh v b o tr
Cc ch c nng c b n:

Qu n tr m ng l i

Qu n l c u hnh, v n hnh v th ng k

Thu th p, phn tch v b o tr m ng l i

V n hnh v tnh c c th ng m i

K ton v tnh c c

Qu n l b o m t h th ng

Qu n l cc b ng k nh n d ng thit sb EIR

M t OSS bao g m m t ho c nhi u trung tm v n hnh v b o d ng


OMC.

OMC c k t n i n phn h chuy n m ch NSS v phn h tr m


g c thng qua m ng truy n d n d li u gi X25.
8.1.4.1.2.
Thu bao di ng MS
GMS tch vi c di ng c a ng i s d ng ra kh i vi c di ng c a thi t b b ng
cch nh ngha ra 2 thnh ph n ring bi t:
+
Mobi l e Equi pment (ME)

The cel l ul ar tel ephone i tsel f

Address/Identi fi er:
IMEI (Internati onal Mobi l e Equi pment Identi ty)
+
Subscri ber Identi ty Modul e (SIM)

Fi xed i nstal l ed chi p (pl ug-in SIM) or

Exchangeabl e card (SIM card)

Addresses / i denti fi ers:


IMSI (Internati onal Mobi l e Subscri ber Identi ty)
MSISDN (Mobi l e Subscri ber ISDN)
Mobile Termination functions
tRadio interface (tx, rx, signalling)
Terminal Equipment functions
User interface (microphone,
keyboard, speakers, etc);
Functions specific of services
(telephony, fax, messaging, etc),
Independent of GSM
Terminal Adaptor functions
Interfaces MT with different types
Mobile Termination functions
tRadio interface (tx, rx, signalling)
Terminal Equipment functions
User interface (microphone,
keyboard, speakers, etc);
Functions specific of services
(telephony, fax, messaging, etc),
Independent of GSM
Terminal Adaptor functions
Interfaces MT with different types
8.2. Cc tham s trong h th ng GSM
8.2.1. Tham s chung
8.2.2. i u ch GMSK trong GSM
8.2.3. Tham s c a ph ng php FDMA
8.2.4. Tham s c a ph ng php TDMA
1 TDMA Frame = 120ms/26= 4.615ms
1 TDMA Frame c 8 TDMA Slots
Time slot duration = 4.615/ 8 ms = 576.9 s = 577 s
1 TDMA Frame = 120ms/26= 4.615ms
1 TDMA Frame c 8 TDMA Slots
Time slot duration = 4.615/ 8 ms = 576.9 s = 577 s
8.2.5. Tham s trong Hybrid gi a FDMA v TDMA
A Physical Channel = A RFC + A Time Slot
124 124
A Physical Channel = A RFC + A Time Slot
124 124
8.3. Duplexing trong GSM
8.4. Cc knh logic trong h th ng GSM
c i m c b n c a knh l ogi c:
+
c xy d ng n m trn l p cc knh v t l
+
Tr nh by cc thng ti n c chuy n gi ao gi a thu bao di ng
MS v phn h tr m g c BSS
+
Nhi u knh l ogi c khc nhau nh ng c th s d ng chung m t
knh v t l
T hnh v trn, cho th y cc knh logic bao g m:

Knh l u l ng Traffic Channel

Knh qu ng b Broadcast Channel

Knh i u khi n chung Common Control Channel

Knh i u khi n bo hi u i m-i m Dedicated Control Channel


Danh sch t vi t t t dng cho tn c a cc lo i knh logic nh sau:
TCH Traffi c Channel
TCH/F Traffi c Channel Ful l Rate
TCH/H Traffi c Channel Hal f Rate
CCH Control Channel s
BCH Broadcast Channel s
FCCH Frequency Correcti on Channel
SCH Synchroni zati on Channel
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
CCCH Common Control Channel s
PCH Pagi ng Channel
AGCH Access Grant Channel
RACH Random Access Channel
DCCH Dedi cated Control Channel s
ACCH Associ ated Control Channel s
SDCCH Stand Al one Dedi cated Control Channel
FACCH Fast Associ ated Control Channel
SACCH Sl ow Associ ated Control Channel
8.4.1.
Knh l u l ng Traffic Channel (TCH)
+
TCH - Traffi c Channel
+
TCH/F h tr truy n d n v i cc thng s :

Tho i : 13 kbit/s (full rate speech codec)

D li u data : 14.5 , 12 , 6 ho c 3.6 kbps


+
22.8 kbps
+
TCH/H h tr truy n d n:

Tho i: 6.5 kbit/s (Speech Half Rate Codec)

D li u data: 6 ho c 3.6 kbps


+

11.4 kbps
8.4.2.
Knh i u khi n qu ng b- Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)

Qu ng b d li u v c u hnh m ng

Cung c p c u trc knh c a cell thu c n v cell bn c nh

Cung c p cc thng tin v ng b

T ch c c a cc knh i u khi n chung CCCH

Thng tin v t t ngh n, cac knh r i v cc knh s d ng

Knh i u hi u ch nh t n s - Frequency Correcti on Channel FCCH

MS s d ng FCCH ng b cc t n s Pht, Thu v i h th ng


m ng.

Knh ng b - Synchronisation Channel SCH

ng b v th i gian (Time synchronization)

M xc nh tr m g c BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)

S khung FN cho vi c ng b khung (Frame Number).


8.4.3.
Knh i u khi n chung Common Control channel CCCH
Pagi ng Channel (PCH)

Ch c trong Down Link

Xc nh m t thu bao di ng c th g i vo.


Random Access Channel (RACH)

Ch c trong Up Link

MS s d ng bo t PCH ho c yu c u thi t l p m t k t n i b o
hiu.
Access Grant Channel (AGCH)

Ch c trong Down Link

M ng s d ng sau khi ki m tra RACH thnh cng, nh m m c ch c p


i m b o hi u

H ng d n thu bao di ng v n hnh trn m t knh v t l nh t


nh, v i m t DCCH. RACH l b n tin CCCH cu i cng tr c khi MS di
chuy n kh i knh i u khi n.
8.4.4.
Knh i u khi n bo hi u i m-i m Dedicated Control Channel
Stand Al one Dedi cated Control Channel SDCCH

Stand alone=not combined with TCH like SACCH, Assigned by AGCH.

Used to send authentification data before MS is switched to a TCH.


Sl ow Associ ated Control Channel SACCH

Only in combination with SDCCH or TCH.

BTS

MS :

Synchronisation (Time Advance)

Power control

MS

BTS:

the received signal strength measurements.

Quality of TCH

Signal strength measurements from BCH of neighboring cells.


Fast Associ ated Control Channel FACCH

Only in combination with TCH, stolen from TCH : Stealing bit is set.

Stransfer information SACCH

Urgent message : Handoff requests.


8.4.5. V d v thi t l p cu c g i:
8.5.M ng v d ch v GPRS
8.5.1. Con ng i n 3G
8.5.2. M ng GPRS, nng c p c a cc m ng GSM
8.5.2.1. c i m:
+
Always online
+
An upgrade to existing systems
+
An integral part of future 3G systems
+
c tnh lun lun Online:

Lun cho php MS k t n i tr c tuy n v i d ch v d li u gi


m khng c n ph i tr c c ph theo pht nh trong m tho i.
+
C th nng c p t cc h th ng hi n t i GSM:

GPRS khng ph i l m t h thng m i hon ton, m l m t


phin b n nng c p t cc h th ng GSM hi n t i
+
GPRS l m t ph n c a h th ng thng tin th h th 3.

Trn th c t , GPRS l m t h th ng Overlay, c ki n trc song


song v i h th ng hi n t i (2G GSM).

Nh ng d ch v c n thi t (Data) th s c nh tuy n i


qua ph n c u trc m ng GPRS.
8.5.2.2. C u trc chung c a m ng GPRS
+
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node;
+
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node;
8.5.2.3. C u trc c a cc m ng c chung m ng li
+
M hnh ny cung c p k t n i c a cc M ng truy nh p khc nhau (different
access network) nh ng c cng m ch li (the same core network).
9. H Th ng CDMA
9.1.
Gi i thi u cc ph ng th c a truy nh p
+
Trong h th ng thng tin a truy nh p, s l ng l n thng tin c chia s
trn knh thng tin chung.
+
M c ch l ph i h p tn hi u t cc my thu khc nhau trn cng m t knh
thng tin chung, t i my thu cc tn hi u phn bi t c l p l n nhau m
khng gy nhi u do a truy nh p gy ra.
+
D a trn c i m c a vi c phn chia cc tn hi u chia s cung knh
thng tin, c cc ph ng php a truy nh p nh sau:
o
a truy nh p phn chia theo t n s FDMA
o
a truy nh p phn chia theo th i gian TDMA
o
a truy nh p phn chia theo m CDMA
a) Ph ng php FDMA
Frequency
Sub Channel Sub Channel Sub Channel
Total Band
Guard Band
Amplitude
Frequency
Sub Channel Sub Channel Sub Channel
Total Band
Guard Band
Amplitude
Cc ng i s d ng c truy nh p vo knh thng tin chung trn c s
phn chia theo t n s . FDMA c c i m:
a.
Knh FDMA ch ph c v duy nh t m t thu bao t i m t th i
i m
b.
N u m t knh FDMA khng c dng, th n khng c ti s
d ng b i m t user khc.
c.
Sau khi gn m t knh tho i, BS v MS ti n hnh thu v pht
m t cch lin t c ng th i.
d.
Bng thng knh FDMA nh (30KHz)
e.
Th i gian c a k hi u (symbol) th ng l n h n th i gian tr tn
hi u.
f.
FDMA l ph ng php truy n d n lin t c nn t c n cc bit
ph c v m c ch nh tuy n.
g.
FDMA c n c u trc l c RF ch t ch t i thi u ha giao thoa
gi a cc knh thng tin k c n.
h.
T ng s knh c th ho t ng ng th i trong m t h th ng
FDMA l:

B
tot
: T ng s ph c phn ph i

B
guard
: Bng t n b o v xung quanh m i knh

B
c
: Bng t n s d ng c a m i knh
b) Ph ng php TDMA
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel n
Buffer 1
Buffer 2
Buffer 3
Buffer n
Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel n
Clock
Channel 1
One Channel of FDMA
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel n
Buffer 1
Buffer 2
Buffer 3
Buffer n
Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel n
Clock
Channel 1
One Channel of FDMA
Cc ng i s d ng c truy nh p vo knh thng tin chung trn c
s phn chia theo th i gian. TDMA c c i m:
a.
M i user chi m m t khe th i gian l p l i theo chu k
b.
TDMA chia m t sng mang n cho m t user. S khe th i gian
trong m i khung ph thu c vo k thu t i u ch , bng thng
c.
Truy n d n TDMA khng lin t c.
d.
Qu trnh x l chuy n giao cu c g i gi a cc Cell l n gi n,
MS c th theo di cc tr m g c khc nhau trong su t qu trnh
ngh .
e.
TDMA s d ng cc khe th i gian khc nhau cho pht v thu.
f.
Qu trnh ng b khung r t c n thi t v i h i chnh xc
pha thu tch sng ng.

Btot: T ng s ph c phn ph i

Bguard: Bng t n b o v xung quanh m i knh

Bc: Bng t n s d ng c a m i knh

M: S User c c i trong m t knh v tuy n


c
guard tot
B
B B
N
2
=
c
guard tot
B
B B m
N
) 2 (
=
c) Ph ng php CDMA
Voice
Data
PN
Code
Carrier
RF
Amp
Encoding
BPF
1.25MHz
14.4KHz
f
fc
f
y z
S(t)
A A
d(t)
p(t)
S(t) = d(t)p(t)
S(t) = d(t)p(t)cos
cosct
Voice
Data
PN
Code
Carrier
RF
Amp
Encoding
BPF
1.25MHz
14.4KHz 14.4KHz
f
fc
f
y z
S(t)
A A
d(t)
p(t)
S(t) = d(t)p(t)
S(t) = d(t)p(t)cos
cosct
c i m c a h th ng a truy nh p phn chia theo m:
u i m:
Dung l ng l n (10-15 l n so v i AMPS)
o
Coding/Modulation Scheme
o
Voice Activity
o
Sectorization
o
Universal Frequency Reuse
A E D
C D F
G F C E
B
B G A E D
C D F
G F C E
B
B G
A A A A
A A A A
A A A A
A
A A A A
A A A A
A A A A
A
AMPS Frequency Reuse of 7
CDMA Frequency Reuse 1
(Reuse planning not required)
Ch t l ng d ch v cao:
o
Kh c ph c nhi u trong v n Fading a ng nh s d ng
cc b thu RAKE
o
Gi m t l r i cu c g i do p d ng c chuy n giao m m
o
Ty vo yu c u d ch v , t c c a Voice Coder (Vocoder) c
th i u ch nh

t c m ha tho i khc nhau.
Gi i h n m m v dung l ng:
H n ch can nhi u:
o
S d ng k thu t tr i ph
o
B thu ch gi i tr i ph tn hi u c n thi t v tr i ph can nhi u
trong n n tn hi u thu c
Chuy n giao (Handoff) m m:
o
Do cc cell k c n s d ng cng t n s
o
Gi m c t l cu c g i b r i
i u khi n cng su t v cng su t pht th p
o
p d ng cc k thu t i u khi n cng su t t i u
o
T l tn hi u/nhi u th p h n FDMA, TDMA
o
Tng dung l ng h th ng, gi m cng su t pht (ko di th i
gian h at ng c a Pin)
o
Gi m cng su t tiu th , gi m c kch th c my CDMA
B o m t cu c g i
o
S d ng k thu t tr i ph v cc chu i m gi ng u nhin PN
trong truy n d n
H tr cc d ch v gia tng
o
Voice Dialing Service, VMS(Voice Mailing Service), SMS(Short
Message Service)
o
Fax, Packet Data, VOD(Video on Demand), Multi-media Service
Tnh kinh t cao
o
D qui ho ch cell v h th ng c n t cell h n so v i AMPS
o
Pht cng su t t h n

chi ph t h n cho h th ng
FDMA TDMA CDMA
Knh/Sng mang 1 N>1. Mt khung
TDMA gm N khe
thi gian uwojc
ch nh dng cho
mi khe thi gian
khc nhau
N>1. Tt c cc
thu bao pht
ng thi trn
cng mt b ng
thng.
Pht Lin tc, ng
thi trn ng
Uplink v
Downlink
Khng lin tc,
pht v thu ti
cc khe thi gian
khng cho nhau
Lin tc ng
thi trn ng
Uplink v
Downlink.
B ng t n/knh
tn s
B ng t n hp BW t ng i BW rt rng.
Nhiu giao thoa
gia cc k hiu
Khng ng k C gi tr, dn
n s phn chia
khong cch pht
N phn
C gi tr, my
thu RAKE c s
dng.
Tng s
Bit/Khung
Thp Cao, cha cc Bit
ng b, bit bo
v v Bit gim
st
T ng i thp,
nh ng yu c u c
thm knh Pilot
yu cu cho
vic tch sng
lin tc
Phn cng n gi n BW t ng i
phc tp do b
Rt phc tp do
yu cu x l tc
cn bng ng
b phc tp
cao trn b ng
rng
Ghp Duplex Yu cu Khng cn thit
v pht v thu ti
nhng khe thi
gian khc nhau
Yu cu
Chuyn giao
Handoff
My pht v thu
ca BS lin tc
nn khng hiu
c Handoff
Thc hin c v
MS lun hat
ng gim st
cc BS trong N-1
khe thi gian
khc. Do c
th thc hin
c Handoff
nhanh.
Thc hin c v
MS s dng my
thu RAKE kim
tra BS khc.
Ngoi ra cn c
chuyn giao
mm.
Chi ph BS Cao, mt my
pht v my thu
cho mi knh
Thp Chi ph ng
truyn RF thp
nh ng b x l
BS chi ph cao.
Nhiu b ng h p B nh hng,
lm gim c
tnh h thng
nh hng v
lm gim c
tnh h thng
Khng nh hng
v nhiu b ng h p
b suy gim ng
k ti b nn ph
my thu
Ti s dng tn
s
Cn thit Cn thit Khng cn thit
i u khin cng
sut
i u khin chm i u khin, dung
lng khng t ng
i u khin
nhanh, c tnh
hu hiu
Cc dch v mi Dung lng pht
bng s lng
khe thi gian ti
cc knh tn s
Dung lng pht
bng s lng
cc khe thi gian
ti cc knh tn
s
Phc v cc dch
v vi tc bit
pht khc nhau
Pht Lin tc, ng
thi trn ng
Uplink v
Downlink
Khng lin tc,
pht v thu ti
cc khe thi gian
khng cho nhau
Lin tc ng
thi trn ng
Uplink v
Downlink.
B ng t n/knh
tn s
B ng t n hp BW t ng i BW rt rng.
B ng thng s k thu t c a cc ph ng php a truy nh p
Thng s FDMA TDMA CDMA
Di tn v tuyn 12.5MHz 12.5MHz 12.5MHz
Ti s dng tn
s
K=7 K=7 K=1
Di thng knh 0.03MHz 0.03MHz 1.25MHz
v tuyn
S knh v
tuyn/di
416 416 10
S knh v
tuyn/1cell
58 58 10
S knh l u
thng trong 1
knh v tuyn
1 3 20
S knh l u
thng trong mt
cell
57 168 200
S di qut trong
1 cell
3 3 3
S knh l u
thng/di
19 56 200
Dung lng 100% 300% 1000%
9.2.
K thu t thng tin tr i ph
9.2.1.
Khi ni m v k thu t tr i ph
Thng tin tr i ph l m t h th ng thng tin m tn hi u s d ng m tr i ph
c b r ng ph l n h n b r ng ph c a tn hi u. Trong tr ng h p ny m s d ng
l c l p v i h th ng tn hi u thng tin.
V n t ra l t i sao l i s d ng k thu t tr i ph trong h th ng thng tin.
nh gi nh h ng c a t p m n ch t l ng c a h th ng thng tin, ng i ta
s d ng hai tham s :
- T s tn hi u trn t p m u ra.
- Xc su t l i BER.
D a vo k t qu nghin c u thng tin, ng i ta ch r ra r ng: v i m t m c t p
m cho, vi c nng cao t s tn hi u trn t p m khng th th c hi n m t cch
ty ti n m ph i tr gi cho m t trong ba cch sau:
- Cch 1: Tng cng su t c a ngu n tn hi u, tuy nhin bi n php ny khng
ph i lc no cng h p l v th c hi n c.
- Cch 2: Tng di tn hi u, c ngha l ko di th i gian lm vi c c a h
th ng thng tin. S d ng ph ng php ny nng cao t s tn hi u/t p m, nh ng
ph i tr gi b i t c truy n tin b gi m.
- Cch 3: Tr i ph tn hi u.
9.2.2. nh ngh a h th ng thng tin tr i ph
M t h th ng thng tin g i l h th ng tr i ph n u n tho mn y cc
yu c u sau:
- Th nh t: Tn hi u sau tr i ph chi m m t r ng bng truy n d n l n
h n nhi u l n r ng bng t n t i thi u c n thi t truy n i thng tin.
- Th hai : S tr i ph c th c hi n b i tn hi u tr i ph th ng c g i
l m tr i ph . M tr i ph ny c l p v i tn hi u.
- Th ba: T i pha thu vi c nn ph khi ph c l i tn hi u ban u c
th c hi n b i s t ng quan gi a tn hi u thu c v i b n sao c ng b c a
tn hi u tr i ph c s d ng pha pht.
Nh v y, m t s tn hi u thng tin s d ng cc k thu t i u ch truy n th ng
nh i u t n, i u pha, i u xung m... c r ng bng t n truy n d n l n h n
r ng bng t n t i thi u c n thi t truy n d li u nh ng khng ph i l i u ch tr i
ph , l do l trong cc h th ng thng tin ny k thu t i u ch s khng tho mn
yu c u th hai v ba c a nh ngha h th ng tr i ph . K thu t tr i ph p d ng
c hi u qu trong cc h th ng thng tin d i r ng do c nh ng u i m l n trong
vi c c i thi n ch t l ng thng tin, k thu t truy n d n, dung l ng ch c nng i u
khi n v kh nng ch ng nhi u.
Ta xem xt m hnh m t h th ng thng tin tr i ph nh sau:
n
S
(
)
- k k nh thng tin
W
S
u(t) i(t)
=

(
)
(
)
1

n
S
M y ph t M y thu
Nh ng thnh t u trong thng tin s truy n th ng d a trn n n t ng c a
t ng pht cng nhi u thng tin trong m t bng h p cng t t. Cc h th ng thng
tin ny g i l h th ng thng tin bng h p (tn hi u thng tin bng h p thng th ng
c k hi u l S
n
). Trong m hnh h th ng thng tin tr i ph ny (hnh 1.1), ho t
ng c a my pht v my thu c th chia lm hai b c:
T i my pht:
- B c 1: Chng ta xem nh l i u ch c p m t, tn hi u c hnh thnh d(t)

S
n
.
- B c 2: B c i u ch c p hai l n i p d ng k thu t tr i ph , k hi u

(),
k t qu c a c p i u ch ny l vi c m r ng ph tn hi u thnh bng t n r t r ng.
Tn hi u ny k hi u l S
w
, c i u ch v i m tr i ph .
T i my thu:
- B c 1: L vi c nn ph c k hi u

-1
(), th c ch t c a qu trnh nn ph
nh trnh by l vi c t ng quan tn hi u thu c S
w
v i b n sao m tr i ph
c ng b nn t p m c

-1
() =

().
- B c 2: Sau tr i ph tn hi u bng thng S
w
c khi ph c l i v bng g c S
n
c a tn hi u bng h p. n y tn hi u bng h p S
n
qua gi i i u ch tn hi u bng
h p tr v d ng bng g c d(t).
9.2.3. Cc u i m c a h th ng tr i ph
9.2.3.1. u i m tri t nhi u:
My thu li u c th kh c ph c c cc nh h ng c a cc lo i nhi u ra c
nh th no, ngay c khi cng su t nhi u l n h n nhi u so v i cng su t tn hi u
pht i. Cc nghin c u l thuy t thng tin c i n v knh t p m tr ng - c ng -
d ng Gaussian g i tr l i cho cu h i ny. T p m tr ng Gaussian l m t m
hnh ton h c, theo nh ngha c ph nng l ng phn b u v h n t t c cc t n
s . Thng tin s d v n c th t c b i v: t p m tr ng c ph nng l ng phn
b u v h n t t c cc t n s , song ch c cc thnh ph n t p m trong khng
gian tn hi u (hay ni m t cch khc l cc thnh ph n ny chi m cc to gi ng
nh cc thnh ph n c a tn hi u) gy ra cc nh h ng c h i. L y v d nh v i
m t tn hi u bng h p (Narrowband Signal) th i u c ngha l ch c cc thnh
ph n t p m trong b r ng ph tn hi u m i c th gy nh h ng gi m c tnh
c a h th ng. Ta c th hi u t ng c a tn hi u tr i ph ch ng nhi u nh sau:
nh n xt r ng s n c nhi u to tn hi u tr c giao hay cc phn l ng ph
thi t l p vi c lin k t thng tin v ch c m t t p con c a cc to tn hi u ny
c s d ng t i b t c lc no. Ta gi thi t r ng pha gy nhi u khng xc nh
c t p con tn hi u m hi n ang c s d ng. V i cc tn hi u c b r ng ph
b ng W v th i gian t n t i l T th s cc phn l ng ph x p x l 2WT. N u xt
ring v i m t lo i tn hi u cho tr c, c tnh l i c a h th ng l m t hm c a t s
nng l ng bit/t p m - k hi u E
b
/N
0
. ch ng l i t p m tr ng Gaussian v i nng
l ng v h n, s d ng tr i ph (c b r ng bng sau tr i ph l n h n 2WT) khng
cho php c i thi n c tnh c a h th ng. Tuy nhin khi t p m c cng su t c nh
v pha gy nhi u l i khng bi t ch c ch n t p con tn hi u no hi n lin k t thng
tin ang s d ng, r rng r ng trong tr ng h p ny pha gy nhi u s ph i ch n
m t trong hai chi n thu t sau y t o nhi u:

Chi n thu t 1 : Pha gy nhi u t o nhi u t t c cc to tn hi u c a


h th ng v i nng l ng nhi u l b ng nhau t i t t c cc to trong
bng ph tn hi u. Nh v y cng su t nhi u gy ra s b gi m nh .

Chi n thu t 2: T p trung cng su t ngu n nhi u vo m t bng h p no


c a ph tn hi u. Ph ng php ny gia tng c cng su t nhi u
nh ng xc su t tc ng ng vo to ph c a tn hi u c ch s b
gi m nh .Hnh 1.2 (a, b) l ph ng php tr i ph c m t t p m tr ng v i
vi c tr i ph trong tr ng h p t n t i nhi u c . M t ph nng l ng
c a tn hi u tr c khi tr i ph c bi u th l G(f), v sau khi tr i ph l
G
ss
(f). n gi n hnh v ch m t theo khng gian t n s . Hnh minh
ho cho ta th y r ng m t ph cng su t m t bin c a t p m tr ng N
0
khng thay i khi ta th c hi n tr i ph c a tn hi u t W thnh W
ss
. Cng
su t trung bnh c a t p m tr ng (vng pha d i ng cong m t ph )
l v h n. Nh v y tr i ph trong mi tr ng t p m tr ng khng c i thi n
c c tnh c a h th ng.
N
0
G(f)
G
SS
(f)
Tr c khi tri ph
Sau khi tri ph
W
SS
W
N
0
a)
b)
G
SS
(f)
W
SS
G
SS
(f)
W
SS
J
0
/P
d)
e)
G(f)
W
c)

Hnh (c,d,e) trnh by tr ng h p cng su t nhi u thu c l J, nh th


m t ph cng su t nhi u s l J
0
= J/W. Sau khi tn hi u c tr i ph
l n th nh t, pha gy nhi u c th ch n m t trong hai ph ng n sau
t o nhi u.
a. Ph ng n gy nhi u 1:
V i ph ng n ny m t ph cng su t t p m nhi u s gi m i W/W
ss
l n.
K t qu l m t ph ph cng su t t p m nhi u by gi l: J
0
= J/W
ss
. V J
0
lc
ny c xem nh m t ph cng su t nhi u t p m bng r ng (Broadband
Noise).
b. Ph ng n gy nhi u 2:
V i ph ng n ny pha gy nhi u t p trung trong d i h p c a to ph tn
hi u. Tuy nhin b ng cch ny pha gy nhi u c th tng m t ph t p m nhi u
t J
0
ln J
0
/p trong p l t s gi a m t ph n r ng bng tr i ph c pha
gy nhi u l a ch n gy nhi u v r ng bng tr i ph W
ss
(nh v y 0

p

1).
Ta c th th y ngay r ng v i ph ng n ny, n u pha gy nhi u l a ch n cc to
tn hi u gy nhi u m khng h p l th hi u qu c a vi c gy nhi u s r t km.
Ni tm l i, ch ng l i nhi u c th ph i l a ch n s phn b tn hi u sao
cho pha gy nhi u kh m c th thi t l p c t s cng su t t p m nhi u trn
tn hi u l n trong phn b tn hi u ny.
9.2.3.2. Gi m m t nng l ng:
Gi thi t ta c m t yu c u r ng m t h th ng thng tin v tuy n m vi c tch
sng khng th th c hi n c b ng b t c my thu no ngoi my thu c
nh tr c. Cc h th ng thng tin c thi t k nh m tho mn yu c u c bi t
ny c hi u nh cc h th ng thng tin xc su t tch sng th p (Low Probability of
Detection - LPD). Cc h th ng thng tin ny c thi t k sao cho vi c tch sng
cc tn hi u c a h th ng i v i b t c my thu no ngoi my thu nh tr c
cng kh cng t t. M c ch c a m t h th ng nh th l nh m s d ng cng su t
tn hi u t i thi u v h th ng phn l ng ph t i u, i u d n t i xc su t tch
sng c tn hi u l r t th p. Do trong cc h th ng tr i ph , ph tn hi u c tr i
ra trn nhi u to phn l ng ph h n cc h th ng s d ng k thu t i u ch
thng th ng, do v y cng su t trung bnh c a tn hi u c tr i u v m ng trn
ton b mi n tr i ph . Cng v l do m tr i ph tn hi u khng nh ng h n ch
c nh h ng c a nhi u m s t n t i c a tn hi u cng kh m pht hi n ra
c. V i b t k my thu no khc khng c b n sao c ng b c a m tr i ph
c s d ng pha pht th tn hi u tr i ph d ng nh b chm trong nhi u.
9.2.3.3. Truy nh p a ng phn chi a theo m:
Ph ng th c truy nh p a ng phn chia theo m l ph ng th c thng tin
d a trn n n t ng c a k thu t tr i ph bng r ng. Ph ng th c ny d a trn
nguyn t c l m i ng i s d ng c ch nh m t m s xc nh c l p v i
nh ng ng i s d ng khc trong cng h th ng v cng s d ng chung m t bng
t n pht r ng c a h th ng. M t trong nh ng tnh nng c a k thu t a truy nh p l
kh nng cung c p thng tin an ton, gi a nh ng ng i s d ng khng h p l
(ng i khng c m tr i ph ) khng d dng can thi p vo thng tin c a nh ng
ng i s d ng khc.

9.2.3.4. Kh nng phn d i theo th i gi an cao:
Cc tn hi u tr i ph c th c ng d ng cho vi c xc nh v tr ho c c ly
i h i chnh xc cao. Nguyn l c a vi c xc nh c ly l o th i gian xung thm
d truy n t n i pht qua knh truy n d n t i m c tiu v quay tr v . Do sai s c a
php o th i gian l t t l ngh ch v i b r ng ph c a xung, ngha l: t = 1/W.
Nn xung thm d c b r ng ph cng l n th php o c ly s cng chnh xc.
Trn knh Gaussian, php o l ng m t l n trn m t xung duy nh t c tin c y
th p v cc l do sau:
- Th i gian xc l p c a xung thm d l n, khi b r ng ph c a xung l i t l
ngh ch v i i l ng ny, do v y sai s t c a php o l n.
- Do s d ng php o l ng m t l n trn m t xung duy nh t, nn nng cao
chnh xc c a php o ta ph i ti n hnh nhi u l n o, lm nh v y v a m t th i
gian v l i do cc l n o c ti n hnh khng ng th i d n t i sai s gi a cc l n
o l n.
N u s d ng k thu t tr i ph o l ng c ly: thay cho vi c pht i m t
xung thm d duy nh t ta s d ng m t dy xung. Tr c khi pht i chm xung ny
c i u ch tr i ph . pha thu, nh vi c t ng quan gi a tn hi u thu c v i
b n sao m tr i ph m dy xung thm d c ph c h i. B ng vi c o chnh l ch
gi a th i i m pht v th i i m thu nh n chm xung thm d ta s xc nh c
th i gian tr truy n c a chm xung. L do nh sau:
- Tn hi u sau tr i ph (tn hi u pht i) c b r ng ph r t l n do v y s gi m
c sai s t.
- B ng vi c s d ng m t dy xung thm d, cng m t lc ta th c hi n c
nhi u php o lin ti p, v a gi m c th i gian o, v a gi m sai s gi a cc l n
o, nn php o cng chnh xc h n.
9.2.4. M h nh tr i ph tri t nhi u:
B
lc
Thng tin s(t)
c tc R
s
Thng tin c
phc hi
Tn hiu
tri ph
W
ss
W
c

M tri phc(t) c
tc chp R
c
Tn hiu khng mong mun
M tri phc(t) c
tc chp R
c
C s k thu t tr i ph
Hnh v trn trnh by m hnh tr i ph tri t nhi u. T i b i u ch , thng tin
s(t) v i t c R
ss
(k hi u/s) c nhn v i m tr i ph c(t) c t c k hi u m,
th ng g i l t c chp c a m, k hi u l R
c
(chip/s). Gi s b r ng ph c a s(t)
v c(t) t ng ng l W
s
(Hz) v W
c
(Hz). Vi c nhn theo th i gian chuy n sang tch
ch p trong mi n t n s nh sau:
s(t).c(t)

S()*C()
B i v y n u tn hi u c ph h p so v i m tr i ph th tn hi u k t qu c a tch
s(t).c(t) s l tn hi u c b r ng ph x p x b ng b r ng ph c a m tr i ph
(W
s
W
s
).
T i b gi i i u ch , tn hi u thu s c nhn v i b n sao c ng b c a
m tr i ph (m tr i ph t i my thu). Gi s vi c nhn l l t ng, v tn hi u
truy n i khng b nhi u, k t qu l ph c a tn hi u thu c s b nn xu ng. B
l c thng d i R c s d ng l c i b t c thnh ph n t n s cao no. N u c
b t k m t tn hi u khng mong mu n no t i my thu, do vi c nhn v i m tr i ph
c(t) m cc thnh ph n tn hi u ny s b tr i ph v i cch th c t ng t nh vi c
tr i ph thng tin pha my pht. Nh v y t i pha thu, tn hi u thu b nn ph l i,
sau c l c tch tr l i tn hi u ban u, trong khi y ph c a cc thnh
ph n tn hi u khng mong mu n l i b tr i r ng ra, do m t ph cng su t tn
hi u sau khi nn ph c tng ln cn m t ph cc tn hi u khng mong mu n
l i b gi m i. Nh v y, sau qu trnh nn ph n u so snh t s tn hi u trn t p m
t i l i vo my thu v l i ra b tr n nn ph ta c th pht bi u r ng t s tn hi u
trn t p m l i ra b tr n nn ph c nng ln. Ni tm l i, ta c th trnh by
ng n g n b n ch t kh nng tri t nhi u c a h th ng tr i ph nh sau:

T i my pht: b ng vi c nhn tn hi u v i m tr i ph , ph tn hi u
c ch c tr i ra trn ton b b r ng bng tr i ph (tr i ph l n m t).

T i phia thu: tn hi u thu c nn ph nh vi c nhn v i b n sao


c ng b c a m tr i ph , ti p nh qu trnh l c tn hi u c ch
c tch tr l i (tr i ph l n hai).
Tn hi u c ch c ph c h i sau l n tr i ph th hai my thu
(th c ch t l qu trnh nn ph ), trong khi do nhi u ch c nhn v i
m tr i ph c m t l n nn ph c a n b tr i r ng ra trn ton b b r ng
bng tr i ph d n n m t ph cng su t c a n b suy gi m i nhi u
l n. Trong v d minh ho ny, ta gi s r ng t c dng m tr i ph R
s
l n
h n 3 l n t c dng bit d li u R
b
, v c hai php i u ch : i u ch tn
hi u v i u ch tr i ph u l i u ch kho d ch pha nh phn (BPSK).
9.2.5. Phn l o i cc k thu t tr i ph :
Vi c nng cao cc thng s nh gi ch t l ng c a h th ng thng tin bao
g m t s tn hi u trn nhi u S/N trong cc h th ng t ng t v t s bit l i BER
trong cc h th ng s , c th c th c hi n b ng cc ph ng php tr i ph tr c
ti p v nh y th i gian. K t qu c a hai ph ng php ny l vi c tng phn l ng
ph c a tn hi u. M t tn hi u c r ng bng l W(Hz) s c s phn l ng ph l
2WT.
V i k thu t nh y th i gian, m t b n tin c t c dng s R s c phn b
truy n trong kho ng th i gian l n h n. Tc d ng ch ng nhi u c a k thu t ny
th hi n ch pha gy nhi u s c xc su t th p h n trong vi c gy nhi u ng vo
to th i gian m tn hi u c ch ang c truy n i t ng lo t theo s i u khi n
c a m. Do gia tng phn l ng ph trong k thu t tr i ph th ng s d ng
hai ph ng php c b n sau:

Tr i ph tr c ti p (Direct Sequence - DS): Trong k thu t ny, m


tr i ph s tr i ph tn hi u b i u ch b i d li u c n truy n m t cch
tr c ti p.

Tr i ph nh y t n (Frequency Hopping - FH): Trong k thu t ny,


m tr i ph s tc ng i u khi n b t o sng mang sau sng mang
ny s c i u ch b i d li u c n truy n.
Cng c cc k thu t tr i ph khc m l s k t h p c a hai k thu t tr i ph
nu trn, l y v d nh k thu t DS/FH; FH/TH; DS/FH/TH... Tuy nhin cc k thu t
ny c xem nh s m r ng n gi n c a hai k thu t trn, nn khng c xt
m t cch chi ti t.
C hai c u hnh h th ng tr i ph m ng i thi t k c th s d ng m
b o cho my thu v my pht ho t ng ng b v i cng m t t p h p cc tn hi u
ng u nhin. l hai h th ng:

H th ng chu n pht (Transmitted Reference - TR)

H th ng chu n l u gi ( Stored Reference - SR)


9.2.5.1. H th ng chu n pht
Trong nh ng nm u nghin c u v k thu t tr i ph , m t trong nh ng k
thu t c xt n ng b m tr i ph th c s ng u nhin nh t p m bng
r ng my thu v my pht - c g i l h th ng chu n pht. Trong h th ng
chu n pht, my pht c th truy n i hai bi n thi c a sng mang bng r ng khng
th d on tr c c, trong :

M t sng mang c i u ch v i d li u

Sng mang cn l i khng c i u ch


Hai tn hi u ny c pht i trn hai knh ring bi t. Pha thu s s d ng
thnh ph n sng mang khng c i u ch nh m t tn hi u chu n nn (hay
t ng quan) thnh ph n kia.
u i m c b n c a h th ng chu n pht l vi c ng b m tr i ph t i my
thu khng ph i l v n quan tr ng, l do m tr i ph i u ch d li u v m tr i
ph s d ng cho qu trnh nn tn hi u pha my thu c pht i ng th i.
Nh ng bn c nh , h th ng ny cng c nh ng nh c i m nh sau:

M tr i ph c truy n i cng khai, do b t c m t i t ng


no cng c th can thi p c vo qu trnh truy n tin. Nh th tnh ch t
b o m t c a thng tin s b gi m.

H th ng d dng b nh l c h ng khi pha gy nhi u pht i m t


c p tn hi u ph h p v i t i tin t i pha thu.

Do t p nhi u t n t i trn c hai tn hi u, trong tr ng h p tn hi u


nh , hi u qu truy n tin s b gi m.

So v i cc h th ng thng tin thng th ng, h th ng lo i ny yu


c u b r ng bng truy n d n v cng su t pht tng g p hai l n.
9.2.5.2. H th ng chu n l u gi
T t c cc h th ng tr i ph ki u m i u s d ng m hnh h th ng c g i
l h th ng chu n l u gi , trong m tr i ph c t o ta m t cch c l p c
my thu v my pht. c i m c b n c a h th ng chu n l u gi l: m t m tr i
ph c thi t k t t kh c th xc nh c thng qua vi c gim st qu trnh
truy n d n. L u r ng m tr i ph trong cc h th ng chu n l u gi khng th th c
s ng u nhin nh trong cc h th ng chu n pht. Do m tr i ph gi ng nhau c n
c t o ra c l p t i hai ho c nhi u v tr, dy m c n c xc nh c m c
d s xu t hi n c a n l ng u nhin i v i cc i t ng tri php. Cc tn hi u
xc nh nh ng l i xu t hi n ng u nhin ny c g i l cc tn hi u gi t p m hay
gi ng u nhin (Pseudonoise ho c Pseudo-random).
9.2.5.3. Cc dy m gi t p m:
H th ng tr i ph theo m hnh chu n pht c th s d ng m tr i ph th c s
ng u nhin tr i v nn ph tn hi u b i v hai tn hi u pht i trong : m t l m
tr i ph i u ch d li u, v m t khng ph i i u ch d li u c truy n d n ng
th i trn cc mi n ph khc nhau.
Cn v i m hnh chu n l u gi l i khng th s d ng m tr i ph lo i ny do
m c n c l u gi ho c t o ra pha thu. H th ng tr i ph s d ng m hnh
chu n l u gi c n ph i s d ng m tr i ph gi ng u nhin ho c gi t p m.
V y tn hi u gi ng u nhin khc v i tn hi u th c s ng u nhin nh th no ?
Tn hi u ng u nhin th khng th xc nh c, s bi n i ti p theo c a n
ch c th miu t c b ng b ng th ng k. Tuy nhin tn hi u gi ng u nhin th
khng hon ton ng u nhin, n l tn hi u c chu k xc nh v c th d on
tr c c c pha thu v pha pht. T i sao n l i c tn l gi ng u nhin ho c
gi t p m ? M c d l tn hi u xc nh, nh ng s su t hi n c a n c tnh ch t
th ng k c a t p m tr ng v v i cc i t ng tri php s su t hi n c a n th c
s l ng u nhin.
a. Cc ch ti u ng u nhi n
C ba ch tiu c b n c th p d ng cho cc dy nh phn tu n hon nh l cc
ch tiu c a s su t hi n ng u nhin. l cc ch tiu:

Tnh cn i: cn i t t yu c u trong m i chu k c a dy s , s


cc con s nh phn 1 v 0 khc nhau nhi u nh t m t n v .

Tnh ch y: M t b c ch y c nh ngha l m t dy cc bit cng


lo i. S xu t hi n c a cc bit khc lo i ch ra m t b c ch y m i. di
c a m t b c ch y l s bit ch a trong b c . Trong s cc b c ch y
c a m t chu k m n u c 1/2 b c ch y m i lo i l di 1; 1/4 b c
ch y l di 2; 1/8 b c ch y l di 3 v c nh v y.

Tnh t ng quan: Ngha l khi so snh theo ki u s h ng - s h ng


(term by term) m t dy v i chnh dy y nh ng b d ch i; dy c tnh t ng
quan t t n u nh s s h ng gi ng nhau khc v i s s h ng khng gi ng
nhau khng qu m t ch s m.
b. dy ghi d ch
Trong v d ny, chu i ghi d ch c nh ngha l chu i thu c t i l i ra c a
ph n t X4.
X1 X2 X3 X4
ng hi tip Cng Modul 2
Ra
Gi s tr ng thi ban u c a b ghi d ch l 1000. Nh th ta s c tr ng thi
ti p theo c a b ghi d ch. Ta th y r ng sau 15 xung nh p b ghi d ch l i quay tr v
tr ng thi ban u l 1000. Dy tn hi u thu c t i l i ra c a ph n t X4 sau 15
xung nh p l: 000100110101111
Trong cc bit ngoi cng bn tri l cc bit m i. Ti p theo ta ki m tra dy thu
c trn xem n c tho mn cc ch tiu ng u nhin trnh by hay khng.
Tr c tin xt tnh cn i c a dy tn hi u thu: Trong dy c t t c 7 con s 0
v 8 con s 1, chnh l ch gi a chng l 1. Nh v y tnh cn i c tho mn.
Xt tnh ch y: C t t c 4 b c ch y 0; 4 b c ch y 1; m t n a l di 1,
m t ph n t l di 2; m t ph n tm l di 3... Do dy qu ng n ta c th
ti p t c ki m tra, nh ng cng cho ta th y r ng tnh ch y cng c tho mn.
B ng tr ng thi c a b ghi d ch
Xung nh p tc ng Tr ng thi c a b t o m
T0 1 0 0 0
T1 0 1 0 0
T2 0 0 1 0
T3 1 0 0 1
T4 1 1 0 0
T5 0 1 1 0
T6 1 0 1 1
T7 0 1 0 1
T8 1 0 1 0
T9 1 1 0 1
T10 1 1 1 0
T11 1 1 1 1
T12 0 1 1 1
T13 0 0 1 1
T14 0 0 0 1
T15 1 0 0 0
B ghi d ch cc dy ty thu c vo s ph n t nh , cch a h i ti p v cc
i u ki n ban u. Dy u ra b ghi d ch c phn lo i ra: Dy c di t i a
ho c dy c di khng t i a. Dy c di t i a l dy c tnh ch t n u a
dy vo b ghi d ch h i ti p tuy n tnh g m n ph n t nh , th s l p l i c a dy
xu t hi n sau p xung nh p, trong : p=2
n
- 1.
Nh v y ta c th th y ngay r ng dy ang xt trn l dy c di t i a.
Cn trong tr ng h p: p 2
n
- 1 th dy c g i l dy c di khng t i a.
9.2.6. Cc m tr i ph
9.2.6.1. Chu i M
9.2.6.2. Chu i Gol d
Chu i Gol d c th u c t o ra b ng cch t o 2 chu i M b ng
cc thanh ghi d ch r i k t h p l i .
9.3.
H th ng thng tin di ng CDMA
9.3.1. Khi ni m CDMA
9.3.1.1. T i sao ph i ni n v tuy n s Digital Wireless Communication

Tng c tnh s d ng ph v tuy n

Tng c ng kh nng truy c p v tuy n

Vi c x l tn hi u s t i c s d ng t i a

Kh nng tch h p cao trn VLSI

tin c y v chnh xc cao

T ng thch v i truy n thng d li u v m ng s

Gi m c kch th c v thi t b cho cc t bo Cell


9.3.1.2. Mi tr ng v tuy n

Nhi u ng knh v nhi u do knh k c n gy ra

Long-term Fading do a hnh v do con ng i gy ra


- Propagation Loss : 20 ~ 40dB(ty thu c m.tr ng)
- Shadow Loss : ty thu c v cc v t ch n trn ng i

Short-term Fading gy ra do ph n x a ng b i cc v t phn tn:


- Multi-Path Fading (Rayleigh Fading)
- Doppler Effect

Kh c ph c v n Fading :
- Long Term Fading : Thi t k BTS trn c s cc v n v Propagation
Loss, gia tng them cc BTS trong cc vng b Shadow
- Multipath Fading : Phn t p, K thu t tr i ph tr c ti p, dung cc knh
Pilot.
- Slow Fading : Error Correction Coding
- Fast Fading : Error Correction Coding, Interleaving
9.3.1.3. Bi n php i ph v i Fading:

Interleaving
- Hon v cc Symbol c pht i

Antenna Diversity
- K t h p cc tn hi u thu c t cc ng thu khc nhau

Equalization
- H n ch can nhi u ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference)

RAKE receiver
9.3.2. Khi ni m v a truy nh p FDMA, TDMA, CDMA:
power
time
time
frequency
power
time
time
frequency frequency
power
time
frequency
power
time

frequency
power
frequency
power
9.3.3. Dung l ng h th ng CDMA
9.3.3.1. ng Ln
100%
K1
6%
K2
0.2%
0.03%
K3
0.01%
K4
Where :
N : Calls per Sector
W : Spread Spectrum Bandwidth [1.25MHz]
R : Data Rate [9.6Kbps / 14.4Kbps]
Eb/Io : Bit Energy / Io [7 dB]
(Io = Other User Interference Density)
d : Voice Activity Gain [40%]
f : Other Interference / Same Interference [0.6]
: Loading Factor [0.8]
g : Reduction for Variable Power [0.85]
- 27 Users per Sector for R=9.6Kbps
- 18 Users per Sector for R=14.4Kbps
- 13.5 Times than AMPS
- 5 Times than TDMA
N =
Eb / Io d 1 + f
W / R 1 1
g
100%
K1
6%
K2
0.2%
0.03%
K3
0.01%
K4
100%
K1
6%
K2
0.2%
0.03%
K3
0.01%
K4
Where :
N : Calls per Sector
W : Spread Spectrum Bandwidth [1.25MHz]
R : Data Rate [9.6Kbps / 14.4Kbps]
Eb/Io : Bit Energy / Io [7 dB]
(Io = Other User Interference Density)
d : Voice Activity Gain [40%]
f : Other Interference / Same Interference [0.6]
: Loading Factor [0.8]
g : Reduction for Variable Power [0.85]
- 27 Users per Sector for R=9.6Kbps
- 18 Users per Sector for R=14.4Kbps
- 13.5 Times than AMPS
- 5 Times than TDMA
N =
Eb / Io d 1 + f
W / R 1 1
g
9.3.3.2. ng xu ng
-Number of users per cell (capacity) approximated by
user
overhead
F
F
C Capacity

=
1
- F
overhead
: Fraction of power allocated to overhead channels
- F
user
: Fraction of average power allocated to a user
-Number of users per cell (capacity) approximated by
user
overhead
F
F
C Capacity

=
1
- F
overhead
: Fraction of power allocated to overhead channels
- F
user
: Fraction of average power allocated to a user
9.3.3.3. C u trc c b n h th ng truy n d n CDMA
Voice
Encoding
Channel
Encoding
Interleaving
Spread
Spectrum
Digital
Modulation
Multiple
Access
Transmitter
Output
Bit Stream WaveForm
Voice
Decoding
Channel
Decoding
De-
Interleaving
De-Spread
Spectrum
Digital
Demodulation
Multiple
Access
Receiver
Input
Bit Stream WaveForm
< Forward Link Block Diagram >
< Reverse Link Block Diagram >
Voice
Encoding
Channel
Encoding
Interleaving
Spread
Spectrum
Digital
Modulation
Multiple
Access
Transmitter
Output
Bit Stream WaveForm
Voice
Decoding
Channel
Decoding
De-
Interleaving
De-Spread
Spectrum
Digital
Demodulation
Multiple
Access
Receiver
Input
Bit Stream WaveForm
< Forward Link Block Diagram >
< Reverse Link Block Diagram >
9.3.3.4. Gi i thi u Wash Code:
o
G m 64 m, m i m c di n 64 bi ts
o
Cc m ny tr c gi ao v i nhau: Correl ati on l zero gi a cc m
o
Cung c p m i m nh n d ng cho m i knh truy n
9.3.3.4.1. M tr c giao:
o
Hai m c g i l tr c giao n u lm php X-OR cho 2 chu i m,
k t qu l s l ng k t 1 v 0 b ng nhau.
o
Cch t o m tr c giao:
Example:
0011010011
0101001010
0110011001
Creating Orthogonal Codes:
0 0 0
0 1
00 00
01 01
00 11
01 10
Repeat code
- Right
- Below
Invert code(diagonally)
Example:
0011010011
0101001010
0110011001
Creating Orthogonal Codes:
0 0 0
0 1
00 00
01 01
00 11
01 10
Repeat code
- Right
- Below
Invert code(diagonally)
9.3.3.5. C u trc b thu RAKE (RAKE Receiver):
o
Cho php tch v k t h p 2 tn hi u l ch nhau v th i gian
o
Ph ng php phn t p theo th i gian nh m gi i quy t v n v Fading
a ng.
o
RAKE bao g m cc b tm Searcher v cc Finger
o
Khi chuy n giao m m, n thu nh n tn hi u t cc BTS khc nhau v
ng th i.
Path 1
Path 2
Path 3
Path 1
Path 2
Path 3
Correlator1
Correlator2
Correlator3
Correlator4
Path1
Path1
Path1
Path1
Path1 Data
Path2 Data
Path3 Data
Path4 Data
Correlator1
Correlator2
Correlator3
Correlator4
Path1
Path1
Path1
Path1
Path1 Data
Path2 Data
Path3 Data
Path4 Data
9.3.3.6. M ha tho i
M ha tho i c th c hi n v i cc t c khc nhau:
Rate set 1: 8 k (QCELP: Qualcomm Code Excited Linear Prediction, EVRC:
Enhanced Variable Rate Code)

8.6kbps, 4.0kbps, 2.0kbps, 0.8kbps


Rate set 2 : 13k (QCELP, EVRC)

13.35kbps, 6.25kbps, 2.75kbps,


1.05kbps
Vocoder
0
1
2
3
0322313
0
1
2
3
0322313
Vocoder Vocoder
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0322313
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0322313
Vocoder
9.3.3.7. M ha knh truy n:
o
Dng s a l i trong truy n thng v tuy n s
o
L p l i m i bit v g i
o
Cc ki u m ha knh
o
M ha kh i
o
Map block c a tn hi u vo v i m t tn hi u khc
o
Convolutional Coding (th ng dng)
o
M ha tn hi u vo
o
c tnh s a l i cao nh ng ph n c ng ph c t p
o
L u tr v pht hi n ra tn hi u nh vo gi i m Viterbi
o
M ha Turbo
o
c thm vo h th ng IS-2000 nh m cung c p d li u
gi t c cao
o
T t h n Convolutional Coding nh ng ph c t p h n
o
Convolutional Encoder:
o
Th ng dng R=1/2 or R=1/4 trong Forward Channel
o
Th ng dng R=1/3 or R=1/4 trong Reverse Channel
9.3.3.8. K thu t l p l i tn hi u
M c ch:
o
Vi c l p l i tn hi u nh m duy tr m t t c bit u ra
o
Cc tn hi u l p s d ng u vo c a b tr n tn hi u
9.3.3.9. i u khi n cng su t
o
duy tr dung l ng h th ng trong i u ki n m c cng su t th p
nh t cho MS v BSS.
o
Tng dung l ng cc h ng k t n i v m b o ch t l ng d ch v
o
i u khi n cng su t vng m (Opened Loop Power Control):
o
i u khi n Tx m b o t ng CS pht + CS thu = Offset
o
CS Offset c xc nh trn c s bng t ng lm vi c v t l
tr i ph .
o
i u khi n cng su t vng ng (Closed Loop Power Control):
o
BTS o cng su t nh n c vo m i 1.25ms
o
Sau BTS yu c u MS i u ch nh cng su t, b c i u ch nh
l 1dB.
o
i u khi n cng su t h ng xu ng (Forward Link Power Control):
o
i u ch nh m c cng su t pht d a trn bo co m c l i c a
thu bao di ng.
o
i u khi n cng su t ng xu ng nhanh
o
M t i u khi n cng su t vng m v vng ng
AGC
PA
Closed-Loop
MS
Receiver
MS
Transmitter
Open-Loop
Tx Gain Adjust
BS TRX
Power Control
Command
MS Signal Strength
measure
FER Criterion
+
AGC
PA
Closed-Loop
MS
Receiver
MS
Transmitter
Open-Loop
Tx Gain Adjust
BS TRX
Power Control
Command
MS Signal Strength
measure
FER Criterion
+
9.3.3.10. Chuy n giao m m Soft Handoff
Input
Data Rate
Repetition Rate
Symbol Rate
FL / RL
960
0
480
0
240
0
120
0
No repetition
Repeat 1 time (2 symbols)
Repeat 3 times (4
symbols)
Repeat 7 times (8
symbols)
19200 /
28800
19200 /
28800
19200 /
28800
19200 /
28800
Rate
Set
1
1440
0
7200
3600
1800
No repetition
Repeat 1 time (2 symbols)
Repeat 3 times (4
symbols)
Repeat 7 times (8
symbols)
28800 /
28800
28800 /
28800
28800 /
28800
28800 /
28800
Rate
Set
2
o
Chuy n giao x y ra gi a cc sector thu c m t cell (

,

)
o
D li u tho i c k t h p t i Cell v c chuy n nh m t
Frame t i BSC th c hi n chuy n giao tr c khi c t k t n i v i
Sector hi n t i.


BTS
CHC
(combining & Decoding)
SELECTOR
(One voice frame)
BSC


BTS
CHC
(combining & Decoding)
SELECTOR
(One voice frame)
BSC
o
Tr ng h p gi a nhi u Cell v i nhau:
o
T i a 3 cell tham gia (cng FA)
o
M i cell cung c p d li u tho i t i BSC
o
D li u tho i c l a ch n t i b Selector v sau
n b Vocoder t i BSC
o
Th c hi n k t n i tr c khi c t k t n i
o
i u ki n tham gia
o
Inter Frequency Assignment
o
Make before Break
Soft Handoff Here
Cell A Cell B
Mobile Assisted
Hard Handoff Here
FM Handoff Here
Strength
Threshold
Level
Distance
Cell A
Cell B
Select Best
Voice Frame
Vocoder
BSC
Soft Handoff Here
Cell A Cell B
Mobile Assisted
Hard Handoff Here
FM Handoff Here
Strength
Threshold
Level
Distance
Cell A
Cell B
Select Best
Voice Frame
Vocoder
BSC
9.3.3.11. Chuy n giao c ng
o
Chuy n giao gi a cc h th ng
o
Inter Frequency Assignment
o
Break before Make
Cell A
FA 1
FA 2
Cell B
FA 1
Cell A
FA 1
FA 2
Cell B
FA 1
9.3.3.12. ng k trong CDMA
o
Th t c MS thng bo nh ng thng tin c a n n h
th ng ph c v Paging v d ch v v nh v thu bao
o
L u tr d li u c a thu bao trong HLR, VLR.
o
Cc h nh th c ng k:
1. ng k b i MS:
- B t/t t my (Power on/off)
- ng k nh k
- ng k theo th i gian
- ng k theo vng
2. ng k b i h th ng (MSC)
- ng k theo yu c u
- ng k knh l u l ng
9.4. H th ng thng tin di ng CDMA IS-95
9.4.1. T ng qut c u h nh m ng CDMA
OS AUX IWF
MSC BTS BSC A
bis
MSC
DMH
HLR
AC EIR
VLR
A
E
F C B
M
i
D
i
A
i
P
i
X L O
I
H
I
D
G
other
VLRs
PSPDN
PSTN
ISDN
PLMN TA
DCE
S
m
WPT0
WPT1
TAP
WPT2
R
m
R
m
MS

TE1

TE2

TE2
U
m

TE2
R
x
W
S
R
R
v

TE2

TE2

TE2
Mobility Managers
(Terminal &Personal)
External Networks
WPT0: Wireless Personal Terminal
Um: Interface BetweenBTS andWireless Personal Terminal
Sm,Rm: Interface BetweenWPT andTerminal Equipment
DCE: Data CommunicationEquipment
Rv : Interface BetweenBCE andTerminal Equipment Type 2
Rx : Interface BetweenPSPDNandTerminal Equipment Type2
9.4.2. c i m h th ng IS-95:
-
H tr t c d li u trung bnh
Ln n 76.8kbps (RS 1), 115.2kbps(RS 2)
-
H tr i u khi n cng su t nhi u b cl 3 m c 0.25dB, 0.5dB, 1dB
-
H tr ch c nng tng cng su t PUF(Power Up Function)
-
IMSI (International Mobile Station Identity), cho php Roaming qu c t
-
TMSI (Temporary Mobile Station Identity) b o m t
-
Dynamic Soft Handoff
-
Access Handoff Tng t l thnh cng chuy n giao cu c g i
-
PACA (Priority Access and Channel Assignment)
9.4.3. C u trc knh h ng xu ng
a. Pi l ot channel
-
Pht lin t c
-
Tn hi u c tr i ph nh ng khng i u ch
- Pht chu i m PN ng n
-
Cho php thu bao lin h c h th ng
- Tn hi u tham chi u cho lin h , nh th i gian v m ha
t ng quan (Coherent Modulation).
-
Cung c p s so snh v c ng tn hi u n MS
-
PN offset l duy nh t v b ng 512 cho m i Sector ho c Cell
-
Cng su t dnh cho Pilot channel chi m kho ng 20% tng su t
b c x t pha antenna pht.
All 0's
W0 I PN
1.2288
Mcps
All 0's
W0 I PN
1.2288
Mcps
b. Syn channel
-
MS s d ng ng b v i h th ng
-
Pht b n tin ng b cng v i cc thng tin:

- Pilot PN Offset - System Time

- Long PN Code - CAI Rev. Level

- System ID - Network ID

- Paging Channel Data Rate


-
Pht v i t c bit l 1200 bps
1200 bps
W32 I PN
Q PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
4800sps
1200 bps
W32 I PN
Q PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
4800sps
c. Pagi ng channel
-
Tr m g c dng :

- Page Mobi - Transmit Overhead Information

- MS Contro - Assign Mobile to Traffic Channel


-
Cung c p MS cc b n tin v :
-
- System parameter - Neighbor List
-
- Access Parameter - CDMA Channel List
-
Pht v i t c 9600 ho c 4800 bps
9600 bps
4800 bps
W32 I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/2
19.2
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Paging Channel
Address Mask
Decimator
1.2288
Mcps
19.2
ksps
Q PN
9600 bps
4800 bps
W32 I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/2
19.2
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Paging Channel
Address Mask
Decimator
1.2288
Mcps
19.2
ksps
Q PN
d. Traffi c channel
-
Dng :
-
Chuy n t i tho i, m nh l nh v yu c u t BTS n MS.
-
Pht v i t c ln t i 9600bps ng v i Rate Set 1 v 14400 bps
ng v i Rate Set 2
Puncturing
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Wt I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/2
19.2
ksps
+
Long
Code PN
Generator
User Address
Mask(ESN)
Decimator
1.2288
Mcps
19.2
ksps
Decimator Q PN
M
U
X
4
800Hz
Power
Control
Bit
For Rate set 2
+
+
+
Puncturing
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Wt I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/2
19.2
ksps
+
Long
Code PN
Generator
User Address
Mask(ESN)
Decimator
1.2288
Mcps
19.2
ksps
Decimator Q PN
M
U
X
4
800Hz
Power
Control
Bit
For Rate set 2
+
+
+
9.4.4.
C u trc phn b knh h ng l n
e. Access channel
-
MS dng :
-
- Truy nh p h th ng khi ch a c c p knh l u l ng
-
- Kh i t o cu c g i - Tr l i l i b n tin Page
-
- ng k v i h th ng
-
T o thnh c p cng v i knh Paing
-
Dng m di PN
-
Pht t c 4800 bps v c chi u di khung l 20ms
4800bps
I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/3 or 1/2
28.8
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Access Channel
Address Mask
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN
28.8
ksps Walsh
Cover
307.2
kHz
D
1/2 PN
Chip Delay
4800bps
I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/3 or 1/2
28.8
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Access Channel
Address Mask
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN
28.8
ksps Walsh
Cover
307.2
kHz
D
1/2 PN
Chip Delay
f. Traffi c channel
-
T ng t v i knh traffic h ng xu ng
-
M t s i m khc bi t:
-
- 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator
-
- Using Long PN Code: phn c p Reverse Channel
-
- Data Burst Randomizer: cho i u khi n cng su t v truy n
d n v i cc t c khc nhau.
4800bps
I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/3 or 1/2
28.8
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Access Channel
Address Mask
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN
28.8
ksps Walsh
Cover
Data Burst
Randomizer
307.2
kHz
D
1/2 PN
Chip Delay
For Traffic Channel
4800bps
I PN
1.2288
Mcps
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/3 or 1/2
28.8
ksps
Long
Code PN
Generator
Access Channel
Address Mask
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN
28.8
ksps Walsh
Cover
Data Burst
Randomizer
307.2
kHz
D
1/2 PN
Chip Delay
For Traffic Channel
9.5. C u trc m ng CDMA2000
9.5.1.S chung
MSC/VLR(SSP)
MSC/VLR(SSP)
BSC
(#0)
BSC
(#0)
BSC
BSC
(#11)
BTS
#0
BTS
#0
MS MS
MS
MS
PSTN
/PLMN
/ISDN
BTS
#47
BTS
#47
BTS
#0
BTS
#0
BTS
#47
BTS
#47
HLR
HLR
Intra
IP
PDSN
PDSN
HA
HA
AAA
AAA
SMSC
SMSC
VMS
/FMS
VMS
/FMS
AuC
AuC
IWF
IWF
Internet
G/W
Router
G/W
Router
SCE
SCE
SCP
SCP
IP
IP
SMS
SMS
RAN
CCN
PCN
CAN
MSC/VLR(SSP)
MSC/VLR(SSP)
BSC
(#0)
BSC
(#0)
BSC
BSC
(#11)
BTS
#0
BTS
#0
MS MS
MS
MS
PSTN
/PLMN
/ISDN
BTS
#47
BTS
#47
BTS
#0
BTS
#0
BTS
#47
BTS
#47
HLR
HLR
Intra
IP
PDSN
PDSN
HA
HA
AAA
AAA
SMSC
SMSC
VMS
/FMS
VMS
/FMS
AuC
AuC
IWF
IWF
Internet
G/W
Router
G/W
Router
SCE
SCE
SCP
SCP
IP
IP
SMS
SMS
RAN
CCN
PCN
CAN
9.5.2.Nh ng c i m ch y u c a IS-2000
-
C kh nng k t n i v i GSM-MAP bn c nh kh nng k t n i v i
m ng IP v m ng IS-41.
-
Phn l p m i v i LAC v MAC nn ghp knh d ch v c c i
thi n v qu n l QoS, s d ng ti nguyn v tuy n hi u qu .
-
H tr cc i v n hnh khc nhau
-
C u trc knh m m d o, h tr a d ch v v i QoS khc nhau
-
Truy n t c thay i v i m c cao nh t ln t i 1Mbps/channel
v 2Mbps /user
9.5.3.Ti u chu n IS-2000
9.5.4. Bng thng h at ng c a IS-2000
9.5.5.
9.5.5.1. Tr m g c BS
9.5.5.2. T ng i di ng MX
9.5.5.3. B ng k v tr th ng tr HLR
9.5.5.4. Thi t k h th ng CDMA
9.5.5.4.1. Dung l ng v cc y u t nh h ng n dung l ng
9.5.5.4.2. Thi t k ng truy n v tuy n
9.5.6. i u khi n cng su t trong h th ng CDMA
9.5.7. Ch c nng h th ng
9.5.7.1. Ch c nng c a my di ng MS
9.5.7.2. Ch c nng c a tr m g c BS
9.5.7.3. Ch c nng c a trung tm chuy n m ch di ng MSC
9.5.8. Chuy n m ch v chuy n gi ao trong CDMA.
9.6.
K thu t CDMA bng r ng (W-CDMA)
9.6.1. Gi i thi u
9.6.2.
c i m h th ng
10.
Cng ngh t ng l ai cho thng ti n di ng
10.1. OFDM
10.2. MC-CDMA