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9/10/2012

INengah SuratiJaya, SyaifulDaulay Mukalil Ayub MBuceSaleh Lilik B Prasetyo (IPB) BPrasetyo YoshioAwaya MasanobuShimada KiyonoYoshiyuki ShigeruOno
Insjaya@cbn.net.id

BACKGROUND STUDYSITES METHODS RESULTS&DISCUSSION CONCULSION

INengah Surati Jaya, SyaifulDaulay Mukalil Ayub MBuceSaleh Lilik BPrasetyo (IPB) y ( ) YoshioAwaya MasanobuShimada KiyonoYoshiyuki ShigeruOno

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A.RADARSYSTEM
Becomingmorepopular coupling opticaldata ALLWEATHERDATA 1. RADARISANACTIVESENSOR PENETRATECLOUDEANDHAZE 2. LONGERWAVELENGTH PENETRATE FORESTCANOPY 3. BACKSCATTER=F(WAVELENGTH OF THESENSOR,ROUGHNESSOFOBJ BEINGSENSED.

QUESTIONS:WHYweneedto explorethebackscatter characteristicintropicalforest(1)?

1. Vegetation canopy interactswith as a group influenced b h fl d bythe leaves, branchesand treetrunks. 2. Thedegreeof backscatter of veg. relatedtothe volume of canopy (biomass). Backscatter wil lbehigh ifthe wavelengthused l be high if the wavelength used closeto theaveragesizeof the vegetation component.

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QUESTIONS:WHYweneedto explorethebackscatter characteristicintropicalforest(2)?


1. 1 of 2 5 cm is good 25 isgood to recognize agric. crops and trees. 2. of 1030 cm surface land surface or soil backscatter contri butelargerthanthe leaves or branches 3. Backscatter from VEG. can be amplified byusing cross Polarization

Penetration radar isafunction of theamountof biomass in the canopy Alonger penetratedeeperinto theground. Shorter ismoreinfluenced by a small canopy components (e.g. K, X, andC (e g K X and C bands): leaves and twigs leavesand Longer isoreinfluenced by a largercanopy components (eg L, P, and VHF bands): trunk, branches and soilsurface
Radar 1 m Wavelength

Radar 1 cm Wavelength

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Backscatterofvegetation /2) Backscatterofvegetation (1/2)

1. Like polarization HH and VV can pene trate vegetation, thus it senses the surface under vegetation.
2. In areaswith no vegetation, thecondition of thesurface roughness, surface pattern of systematic (eg. grooves) and soil texture will affectthe backscatter strength

Backscatterofvegetation( Backscatterofvegetation(2/2)

1. Vegetationand dry soil has a dielectric constantof approximately 1 10. If thewatercontent of vegetation height itwillbe the appearance onthe image is bright due to higher dielectric constant very useful torecognize healthy and dead plants. 2. Instead, clean water will appear darker bec ause thewater surface is specula reflector, sothatthe reflected energy coming awayfromthe sensor.

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RS inIndonesia
9. Now,remotelysenseddatahadbeena majordatasourceforforestmonitoring major data source for forest monitoring inIndonesiasince1990. 10.TheMoF usesthe3yrsintervalLandsat datatomapoutindonesia forestcover using23classes,since2003.

OPTICALSATELLITEDATA PROBLEMS
1. Indonesiaforestrysectorisnowmainlydepended onopticaldatatomapoutforestcover.For3 yrs on optical data to map out forest cover. For 3yrs mappinguseLandsat data,whileforannualmapping useModis Data. 2. Now,Landsat programisnotpresentlyoperatingat itsfullcapacity; 2satellitesremaininorbit: Landsat 5(operatingmorethantwodecades beyonditsoriginal3yearmission,andLandsat y g y , 7,whichsufferedamalfunctionin2003(strippings) butstillcontinuestoprovidecriticaldata. in 2012,NewLandsat isplannedtobelaunched.

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THEUSEOFRADAR
1. TheuseofRADAR(PALSAR)isstillat ( ) thebeginingstage INTERPRETATIONMANUAL VISUAL METHODS? wasjustdevelopedby JICA,IPB,MoF(20092011) 2. TheuseofRStechnology majorrole 2 Th f RS t h l j l GHGmonitoringsystem MRV

1. Veg.structureandspeciesare compositionoftropicalecosystemare composition of tropical ecosystem are quitediverse 2. TheadventofALOSPALSARdatain 2006,Manyscientistshadexploreits capabilitytoderive landcover information. information 3. Theknowledge backscatter characteristicsisquitepoor NEED TOBEEXPLORED

OPTICALSATELLITEDATA PROBLEMS (2)

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STUDYSITEANDDATA
DATA 1. ALOSPALSARofNORTHSUMATERA SpatialRes50mx50m,12.5x12.5m, 6.25x6.25m BandHHandHV,rec in 2008(copyright:JAXA) 2. GroundTruthDataperformedin2009 and2010 3. Landsatbasedlandcovermapof Kalimantan(2006)

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STUDYSITE
1. ThestudywasperformedinNORTH y p SUMATERA surroundingTobaLake 2. Thisstudysitecovers: Highland trpicalforest,plantation forest,rubber andoilpalm

STUDYSITES

STUDYSITES

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50m

6.25m

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RUBBER

OILPALM

50M

12.5M

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START

PREPROCESSING (SMOOTHING)

LANDCOVMAP OFKAL(LANDSAT BASED) DATAOF GROUNDTRUTH

CLUSTERING

DENDROEVAL DISCRIMANAL MERGING& MERGING & LABELLING IDENTIFIED STAND/VEG.VAR.


END

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NATURALFOREST PLANTATIONFOREST PLANTATION FOREST ESTATECROP GROUNDTRUTH BIOMASSMODELLING

INITIALCLUSTERING
1. UnsupervisedClassification:K p meansmethodandmeasured withEuclideanDistance. 2. Thedendrogram wasdrawnusing SingleLinkageMethod 3. INITIALCLUSTERING:20 CLASSES 4. MERGEDINTOseveral CLASSES

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NATTROPICALFOREST

CLUSTERINGOF50MX50M
1. ONLY6 CLUSTER FOREST

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SINGLELINKAGE NATTROPFOREST

FOREST CLUSTER
FOREST CLUSTER

WHAT VARIABLES AFFECTING THEMOST?


1DENSITYOFSAPLING 2DENSITYOFPOLE 50M 3DENSITYOFTREE 3DENSITY OF TREE 4DBHOFSAPLING 5DBHOFPOLE 6DBHOFTREE 7HEIGHTOFSAPLING 8HEIGHTOFPOLE
6.25M

14BIOMASSOFPOLE 15BIOMASSOFTREE 16CROWNTICKNESSOFSAPLING 16CROWN TICKNESS OF SAPLING 17CROWNTICKNESSOFPOLE 18CROWNTICKNESSOFTREE

6.25

19CROWNDIAMETEROFSAPLING 20CROWNDIAMETEROFPOLE 21CROWNDIAMETEROFTREE 22CROWNCLOSUREOFSAPLING 22CROWN CLOSURE OF SAPLING 23CROWNCLOSUREOFSAPLING 24CROWNCLOSUREOFSAPLING 6.25 25LEAFAREAINDEX(LAI)

9HEIGHTOFTREE 9HEIGHT OF TREE 10BASALAREAOFSAPLING 11BASALAREAOFPOLE 12BASALAREAOFTREE 13BIOMASSOFSAPLING

50M

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NATURALFORESTVARIABLES EXAMINED
BASALAREA BIOMASS TREE HEIGHT THICKNESSOFPOLE CROWN POLE BIOMASS TREE CROWNDIAMETER CROWN DIAMETEROF SAPLING SAPLINGDENSITY DBHOFSAPLING SAPLINGCROWN THICKNESS CROWNDIAMETEROF POLE

DBHOFPOLE CROWNCLOSURE
CROWN THICKNESS DBH POLE HEIGHT

SAPLING HEIGHT SAPLINGBIOMASS POLEDENSITY


SAPLINGBASAL AREA TREEDENSITY

BASALAREAOFPOLE LEAF AREAINDEX BASALAREAOFTREE

CLASSIFICATIONRESULTOF NATURALFOREST
1. Res50MX50M 3CLASSESOFBASALAREA/BIOMASS 91% 1. RES6.25M 2CLASSES 60%OFBASAL AREA/BIOMASS MANY NOISES AREA/BIOMASS MANYNOISES

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WHATIS THERESULT IN FOREST PLANTATION?


DBH LAI TREEHEIGHT TREENUMBERS CROWNDIAETER CROWNAREA CROWN AREA STANDDENSITY BASALAREA BIOMASS

50M

6.25M

CLASSIFRESULTS ONPLANTATIONFOREST
1. Res50MX50M 2CLASSESOFTREEHEIGHT 61%

1. RES6.25M HOMOGENOUSVEG (LESSERNOISES) 3CLASSES 85%OFSTANDDENSITY& CROWNCOVERAGE CROWN COVERAGE

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VARIABLESONRUBBERPLANTATION
AGEOFPLANTATION SPACINGDISTANCE DENSITYPERHA AVERAGEOFTREEDIAMETER AVERAGEOFTREEHEIGHT BASALAREA VOLUMEPERHA CROWNDIAMETERSIZE CROWNTHICKNESS CROWNAREA RATIOSPACEOFTREE CROWNAREA BIOMASSPERHA LAI DBH

50M

6.25M

50M

VARIABLESONOILPALMPLANTATION
AGEOFPLANTATION SPACINGDISTANCE DENSITYPERHA AVERAGEOFTREEDIAMETER AVERAGEOFTREEHEIGHT 12.5M BASALAREA VOLUMEPERHA CROWNDIAMETERSIZE CROWNTHICKNESS CROWNAREA RATIOSPACEOFTREE CROWNAREA BIOMASSPERHA LAI DBH

50M

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CLASSIFOFRUBBER&OILPALM
1. RUBBER ON50M 2CLASSES(CROWN DIAMETER) 75%ACC ON12.5M, 3CLASSES65%ACC 2.OILPALM
50M:2CLASSES(CROWNDIAMETER) 92% 50 M: 2 CLASSES (CROWN DIAMETER) 92% ACC 12.5M:3CLASSES(TREEHEIGHT) 65%ACC

CLASSIFICATIONOFOILPALM usingalospalsar12.5m
CLASS 1 2 3
ACC:65%.

CROWN COVERAGE <8500m2 8500 16.750 >16.750

MEANHH 10.02 7.36 9.24

MEANHV 18.31 15.42 14.65

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CLASSIFICATIONOFOILPALM usingalospalsar50m
CLASS 1 2 CROWN diameter di t <8.5m 8.5~15.2 MEANHH 14.7 7.49 MEANHV 24.76 14.72

ACC:92%

RUBBERCLASSIFONPALSAR 12.5M
CLA DBH SS 1 2 3 015.49 15.49 19.99 >20.00 Acc: 72%
RATTREE SPAC/CRO WNAREA

BIOMAS S(T/HA) S (T/HA)

MEAN MEAN HH HV 13.65 22 6.5 7.97 18.36 15.67

0.639.88 <4.15 0.511.51 4.168.4 0.231.57 >8.41

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RUBBERCLASSIFONPALSAR 50M
CLA DBH SS 1 015.5 2 3 15.51 20.99 21 26.52 26 52 Acc:75%
BASAL ARE3A

0~8.49 8.49~ 15.59 15.6~ 23.57 23 57

MEAN MEAN HH HV 14.73 24.76 7.46 2.03 14.72 11.72

GENERALPATTERN
SOMANYNOISES PROVIDING HIGHERCONFUSIONINHIGHER RESOLUTION INHIGHERRESOLUTION,HIGHER NUMBEROFSTANDVARIABLES AFFECTINGBACKSCATTER

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PLANTATION FOREST(EUC GRANDIS)

OILPALMANDRUBBERAREA

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NATFOREST

MANYSMALLTREESAND MANY SMALL TREES AND SAPLING

NATURALFOREST

MANYSMALLTREESAND SAPLING

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PLANTATION:YEAR1

PLANTATION(EUCGRANDIS) YEAR2

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PLANTATION(EUCGRANDIS) YEAR3

PLANTATION(EUCGRANDIS) YEAR4

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RUBBER

OILPALM

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CONCLUSIONONNATURAL FOREST
1. BACKSCATTERMAGNITUDEAND VARIATIONAREAFFECTEDBY STANDVARIABLES 2. ONTHE6.25MRES BASAL AREA,BIOMASSANDHEIGHT CLASSES 3. ONTHE50MRES,BASALAREA ANDTREEBIOMASS

CONCLUSIONONFOREST PLANTATION
1. ONPALSAR50MRES VARIATION OFBACKSCATTER TREE HEIGHT OF BACKSCATTER TREEHEIGHT 2. ONPALSAR6.25M, BYSTAND DENSITYANDCROWNCOVERAGE. 3. ONPALSAR6.25M 3CLASSESWITH 85% 4. ONPALSAR50 M,CANONLYBE 4 ON PALSAR 50M CAN ONLY BE CLASSIFIEDINTO2CLASSESWITH 61.7%

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CONCLUSIONONRUBBER
1. BACKSCATTERMAGOFRUBBERIS AFFECTEDBY: DBHSIZEANDBASALAREAFORALOS50 M DBHSIZE,RATIOTREEDISTANCEAND CROWNAREAANDBIOMASSVOLUME FORALOS12.5M 2.ON50MAND12.5M,3CLASSESCANBE IDENTIFIEDWITH75%ACCAND72%ACC

CONCLUSIONONOILPALM
3.BACKSCATTERMAGOFOILPALMISAFFECTED BY: CROWNDIAMETERFORALOS50M 2 CLASSES 92% TREEHEIGHTFOR12.5M 3CLASSES 65%. 4.BACKSCATTERINHIGHERRES MUCH NOISE 4. BACKSCATTER IN HIGHER RES MUCHNOISE NOSIGNIFICANTIMPROVEMENTFOR CLASSIFICATION

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CONCLUSIONONBIOMASS ESTIMATIONMODEL
1. Biomass(carbonstock),particularly ( ), p y RUBBERBIOMASScouldbeestimated usingALOSPALSARDATAeitherusing original(raw)dataorbackscatterdata 2. OILPALMANDNATURALFORESTtend tohaveagoodrelationshipwiththe t h d l ti hi ith th backscattervalueofALOSPALSAR.

FUTRHERRESEARCHREQUIRED

Morecomphrehensive More comphrehensive dataandanalysisshould beperformedinvarious foresttype. forest type

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DATAEXPLORATION
1. NATURALFOREST,FOREST , PLANTATIONANDOILPALM CANTBEEXAMINED LACKOF DATAVARIATION 2. GOODDATARECORDS RUBBER BIOMASSESTIMATION BIOMASS ESTIMATION

RubberBIOMASSESTIMATIONusing50 mres
HHvsbiomas50m
80.00 70.00 60.00 60 00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 5.00 HHvsbiomas50m Expon.(HHvsbiomas 50m)

y=75.76e0.384x R=0.672

HVvsBIOM50m
180.00 160.00 140.00 140 00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 HVvsBIOM50m Expon.(HVvsBIOM50m)

Goodmodelcan bedeveloped using50mres

y=156.3e0 256x 156 3 0.256x R=0.788

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00

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RubberBIOMASSESTIMATIONusing12.5m res
HHvsbiomas12.5 m
80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 5.00

y=68.59e0.320x R=0.758
HHVSHVBIOM12.5 M Expon.(HHVSHV BIOM12.5M)

Bettermodels areprovide are provide using12.5res


HVVSBIOM12.5M
180.00 160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 Expon.(HVVSBIOM12.5 M) HVVSBIOM12.5M

y=157.8e0.235x R=0.821

30.00

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00

OilpalmBIOMASSESTIMATION using50mres
y y=367.6e0.336x R=0.327

hhvsbiom50m
400.00 400 00 350.00 300.00 250.00 200.00 150.00 100.00 50.00 hhvsbiom50m Power(hhvsbiom50 m) Expon.(hhvsbiom50 m)

Lackofdatavariation Lack of data variation

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y=657.4e0.207x R=0.143 R 0 143

hvvsbiom50m
700.00 600.00 500.00 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 Power(hvvsbiom50 m) Expon.(hvvsbiom50 m) hvvsbiom50m

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20

15

10

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OilpalmBIOMASSESTIMATION using12.5mres
y=1412.e0.448x R = 0 480 R=0.480
1,600.00 1,400.00 1,200.00 1,000.00 800.00 600.00 400.00 200.00 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Series1 Power(Series1) Expon.(Series1)

Lackofdatavariation
y=10569e0.359x R=0.251
12,000.00 10,000.00 8,000.00 8 000 00 6,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 25 20 15 10 5 0 Series1 Power(Series1) Expon.(Series1)

NaturalFORESTonpalsar50m
THEREISRELATIONSHIP BETWEENTHE INCREASEOFBASAL INCREASE OF BASAL AREAANDBACK SCTATTERINNATURAL FOREST

1. BIOMASSvsBackscatterofHH&HV

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NaturalFORESTonpalsar6.25
THEREISRELATIONSHIP BETWEENTHE INCREASEOFBIOMASS I C AS O IO ASS ANDBACKSCTATTERIN NATURALFOREST

1. BIOMASSvsBackscatterofHH&HV

NATURALFORESTONPALSAR 6.25M
MANYNOISE ONLY2CLASSES

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NATURALFORESTONPALSAR 6.25M

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