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1. S PHN CC CA SNG V TUYN IN.

Trng in t ca sng v tuyn in khi i trong mt mi trng s dao ng theo mt hng nht nh. Phn cc ca sng in t chnh l hng dao ng ca trng in t. Vic s dng cc phn cc khc nhau ca sng in t c mt ngha rt ln trong vic s dng hiu qu tn s trong thng tin v tuyn. Trng ti vng xa ca anten c dng sng phng TEM v c xc nh bng vect r r r r Pointing: k = [E H] . iu ny c ngha l cc vect E v H nm trong mt phng vung gc r vi phng truyn sng k . Phng ca ng do u mt ca vc t trng in v ln s xc nh phn cc sng. Trng in v trng t l cc hm thay i theo thi gian. Trng t thay i ng pha vi trng in v bin ca n t l vi bin ca trng in, v th ta ch cn xt trng in. C ba loi phn cc sng v tuyn in: phn cc thng, phn cc trn v phn cc elip.

Phn cc thng.

Hu ht truyn dn v tuyn s dng phn cc tuyn tnh, trong phn cc ng c gi l phn cc trong trng in vung gc vi mt t v phn cc ngang c gi l phn cc trong trng in song song vi mt t. Gi thit rng phng ngang v ng c coi l trc x v y (hnh1.2a). Ti mt im no trong khng gian, vect trng ca sng c biu th bi cc thnh phn thng ng v nm ngang nh sau:

r r E y = a y Eysint r r E x = a x Exsint

(1.4) (1.5)

r r trong a y , a x l cc vect n v trong phng ng v phng ngang; Ey, Ex l gi tr nh


(hay bin ) ca trng in trong phng ng v phng ngang.

Trng tng s l vect E hp vi trc ngang mt gc c xc nh nh sau:


Ey Ex

= arctan g

(1.6)

r Trong trng hp ny ta thy vect E khng bin i. di ca vect thay i theo thi gian nhng u mt ca vect lun nm trn ng thng c nh trng vi phng ca vect c gc nghing (hnh 2c). l hin tng phn cc ng thng ca sng in t. Khi = 00 ta c sng phn cc ngang, lc ny vect E lun song song vi mt t; cn khi = 900 ta c sng r phn cc ng, vect E lun vung gc vi mt y.

+E y

r | E |=

E y + Ex
2

r ay r ax
Trc z hng ra ngoi

-E x

+E x

-E y

Hnh 1a. Cc thnh phn ngang v ng ca phn cc thng

Phn cc trn

Khi cc thnh phn thng ng v nm ngang c bin bng nhau ( k hiu l E0) nhng mt trng nhanh pha hn 900. Cc phng trnh th hin chng trong trng hp ny nh sau:

r r E y = a y E0 sint r r E = a x E0 cost

(1.7a) (1.7b)

p dng ptr. (1.6) cho trng hp ny ta c =t. Bin vect tng l E0. Trong r trng hp ny, vect E c bin khng i nhng hng ca n thay i lin tc theo thi r gian vi quy lut t. Ni cch khc, vect E quay quanh gc ca n trong mt phng xy vi vn tc . u mt ca vect trng in v ln ng trn c bn knh bng di vect. l hin tng phn cc trn.

y t = 90

t = 180

t zVect x

t = 00 x

hng ra ngoi
0

t = 270

RHC im nhn theo IEEE z

LHC im nhn theo IEEE z

Hnh 1b. Phn cc trn Hng ca phn cc trn c nh ngha bi phng quay ca vect in nhng iu ny i hi ta phi quan st c chiu quay ca vect. Theo nh ngha ca IEEE th phn cc trn tay phi (RHC) l phn cc quay theo chiu kim ng h khi nhn dc theo phng truyn sng (hnh 1.3), cn phn cc trn tay tri (LHC) l phn cc quay ngc chiu kim ng h khi nhn dc theo phng truyn sng. Phng truyn sng dc theo trc z dng. Phn cc elip

Trong trng hp tng qut hn sng in t c dng phn cc elip. iu ny xy ra khi hai thnh phn tuyn tnh l:

r r E y = a y Eysint r r E = a x Excos(t+)

(1.8a) (1.8b)

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T s sng phn cc elip l t s gia trc chnh v trc ph ca elip. Phn cc elip trc giao xy ra khi mt sng c cng t s phn cc nhng phng quay ngc chiu.