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Predisposing Factors: Immune compromised status Severely malnourished Age: young and old Nationality: Filipino Etiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Precipitating Factors Occupation (health care workers) Repeated close contact with infected persons Economically- disadvantaged or homeless/ poor housing Living in overcrowded areas Alcohol abuse/ dependent Poor hygiene Lack of access to health care Low socio-economic status

Etiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Exposure or inhalation of infected droplet nuclei from infected clients by coughing, sneezing, talking, laughing and singing

Tubercle bacilli invasion in the apices of the lungs or near the pleurae of the lower lobes

Bronchopneumonia develops in the lung tissue and tubercle bacilli are ingested by wandering macrophages

Many of the bacilli survived before hypersensitivity and immunity develops

Surviving bacilli is carried into bronchopulmonary lymph nodes via the lymphatic system and may even spread throughout the body

Inflammatory response occurs, TB specific lymphocyte produces T-lytic enzyme which lyses bacteria and alveolar tissue

Material (bacteria & macrophage) become necrotic

Production of cavities filled with cheese-like mass of tubercle bacilli, dead WBCs, necrotic lung tissue Partial occlusion which interferes w/ the diffusion of O2 & CO2

- productive cough - phlegm - crackles

Drainage of necrotic materials into the tracheobronchial tree


Areas of the lungs are inadequately ventilated

Lesions heal over a period of time by forming scars and later being calcified

oxygen carrying capacity


With medical intervention: - Early detection/ diagnosis of the disease - Multi-antibacterial therapy - Fixed- dose therapy - TB DOTS (Direct Observed Therapy)

Tubercle bacilli immunity develops (2 to 6 weeks after infection) (maintains in the body as long as living bacilli remains in the body)


Inhibits further growth of the bacilli and the development of active infection (bacteria becomes dormant)

- pallor - weakness - fatigue - tachycardia - chest pain - tachypnea -dizziness


Good prognosis

Reactivation of the tubercle bacilli


immune system

Bacteria becomes resistant and survives

Active infection develops

Ulceration of the lesions in the lungs


Severe occurrence of lesions in the lungs leading to abscess

Accumulation of pus in the chest cavity (empyema)

Lung consumption - chest pain - fever and chills - excessive sweating - loss of appetite - muscle wasting - weight loss - body malaise

alveolar tissue leading to oxygen