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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG KHOA: VIN THNG

BO CO CHUYN MNG VIN THNG

TI:GIAO THC KHI TO PHIN- SIP TRONG MNG NGN


NHM SINH VIN TRNH BY: NGUYN TH PHNG( NT ) NGUYN TH H V TH LAN PHNG lP: L10CQVT4- B

H NI, 8- 2012

LI NI U
Trong mt vi nm gn y nhu cu v cc dch v vin thng tng mnh

mang li nhiu li ch cho cc nh khai thc vin thng cng nh cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng, bn cnh s ra i ca nhiu cng ngh mi vi cc u im ni tri m ra c hi ln cho c ngi s dng ln nh cung cp. Mng th h mi ( The Next Generation Network ) ra i nhm em li mt cu trc mng mi vi chc nng p ng c hu ht cc nhu cu v ng thi s l nn tng kin to cho cc dch v vin thng tin tin trong tng lai. Xy dng mt mng NGN by gi l mc tiu v nhu cu ca nhiu quc gia trn th gii vi mc ch cng c v pht trin c s h tng thng tin ca quc gia . i vi Vit Nam, vic trin khai mng th h mi khng ch em li cho nh khai thc nhng li ch kinh t di do m cn l mt bc nhy vt gip cho chng ta tin gn hn n vi th gii. Cch thc trao i thng tin bo hiu v iu khin trong mng NGN c quy nh trong cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c bn gm: SIP, BICC, MGCP, MEGACO/H.248, H323. Mc d giao thc khi to phin SIP l mt giao thc mi xut hin nhng tr thnh giao thc bo hiu c s dng rng ri nht cho cc dch v VoIP.Trong cc cu trc mng NGN, SIP c la chn lm giao thc bo hiu chnh. Bi bo co ny nhm em s i su vo tm hiu v giao thc SIP thy r c nhng u im vt tri ca n. Ni dung bi bo co gm 2 chng:

Chng 1: Tng quan mng NGN

Chng 2: Giao thc khi to phin SIP Mc d chng em rt c gng hon thin bi nhng khng trnh khi nhng sai st. Rt mong c s gp ca thy bi bo co ca nhm em c hon thin hn. Chng em xin cm n thy!
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CHNG I: TNG QUAN V MNG NGN


1.1. Gii thiu Mng th h mi (Next Generation Network - NGN) bt u c xut, nghin cu tho lun nhm chun ha t khong nm 2003. NGN khng phi l mt tng cch mng. mt gc no , NGN chnh l s nh ngha li ngnh cng ngh thng tin v vin thng th gii, mt cuc cch mng dn ti s hi t m thanh, d liu, truyn ti v tnh ton. NGN l bc pht trin tip theo trong lnh vc truyn thng trn th gii h tr bi 3 mng li: mng vin thng cng cng PSTN, mng khng dy v mng Internet. NGN hi t c 3 mng trn vo mt kt cu thng nht hnh thnh mt mng chung, thng minh v hiu qu, cho php truy xut ton cu, tch hp nhiu cng ngh mi, ng dng mi v do NGN m ng cho cc c hi kinh doanh pht trin. NGN l mng hi t c thoi, video v d liu trn cng mt c s h tng da trn nn tng IP, lm vic trn c hai phng tin truyn thng v tuyn v hu tuyn. NGN l s tch hp cu trc mng hin ti vi cu trc mng a dch v da trn c s h tng c sn, vi s hp nht cc h thng qun l v iu khin. Cc ng dng c bn bao gm thoi, hi ngh truyn hnh v nhn tin hp nht (unified messaging) nh voice mail, email v fax mail, cng nhiu dch v tim nng khc. NGN c xem l mt hng i tt yu ca ngnh vin thng th gii. Vic Vit Nam sm chnh thc khai trng mng vin thng th h mi NGN hi thng 11/2004, v vy c xem l mt s tt yu. C 3 ng lc cho s pht trin ca NGN: Th nht, s bng n ca ngnh cng ngh thng tin, vin thng v ng nhin s hi t ca hai lnh vc nng: CNTT, vin thng dn ti s ra i ca cc
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ng dng mi, cng ngh mi. Cc i th cnh tranh, c bit l nhng doanh nghip mi tn dng ti a iu ny cung cp cc dch v mi, nhiu tin ch. Th hai, s bng n cc cng ngh mi nh nhn dng ging ni, chuyn i t k t sang ging ni... cng l nguyn nhn thc p mng truyn thng dn nhng bc cho mng NGN trong vic tch hp cc ng dng cao cp hn, v mc tiu phc v tt nht cho ngi s dng. ng lc th 3, nhng k vng v Internet bt k u, bt k lc no dn ti s bng n cc phng tin di ng c nhn c tnh nng truy xut thng tin, gii tr Mng Internet s l ngun cung cp thng tin cn mng NGN s l mng trung gian truyn ti. NGN khng ch n thun l s hi t gia thoi v d liu m cn l s hi t gia truyn dn quang v cng ngh gi, gia mng c nh v di ng. Vic pht trin t mng vin thng truyn thng ln mng NGN l mt hng i tt yu, sm hay mun ca ngnh vin thng. Ti sao vy? Mng vin thng truyn thng l s tp hp ca cc mng ring l: c nh, di ng, Internet... Mi mng ring bit ch phc v cho mt loi dch v vin thng nht nh v khng th s dng cho mc ch khc. Mi mng li i hi mt i ng vn hnh, qun l khc nhau dn n chi ph khai thc cao, h thng c tnh m thp cn tr thi gian dch v a ra th trng. Bn cnh , h thng c p ng nhng i hi ca cc loi hnh truyn ti khc nhau th mi dch v cn phi c mng ring. Mt im ng lu trong kin trc mng NGN l vic s dng cng ngh chuyn mch mm thay th cc thit b tng i chuyn mch phn cng cng knh. Cc mng ca tng dch v ring r c kt ni vi nhau thng qua s iu khin ca mt thit b tng i duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch mm c v nh tri tim hay b c ca NGN.

1.2. nh Ngha Mng vin thng th h mi c nhiu tn gi khc nhau, chng hn nh : -Mng a dch v ( cung cp nhiu loi dch v khc nhau ). -Mng hi t ( h tr cho c lu lng thoi v d liu, cu trc mng hi t) -Mng phn phi ( phn phi tnh thng minh cho mi phn t trong mng). -Mng nhiu lp ( mng c phn phi ra nhiu lp mng c chc nng c lp nhng h tr nhau thay v mt khi thng nht nh trong mng TDM) Cho ti hin nay, mc d cc t chc vin thng quc t v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii u rt quan tm v nghin cu v chin lc pht trin NGN nhng cha c mt nh ngha c th v chnh xc no cho mng NGN. Do nh ngha mng NGN nu ra y khng th bao hm ht mi chi tit v mng th h mi, nhng n c th tng i l khi nim chung nht khi cp n NGN. V ta c th nh ngha mt cch khi qut mng NGN nh sau: Mng vin thng th h mi l mt mng c h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh gi c th trin khai nhanh chng cc loi hnh dch v khc nhau da trn s hi t gia thoi v s liu gia c nh v di ng. c im quan trng ca mng NGN l cu trc phn lp theo chc nng v phn tn cc tim nng (intelligence) trn mng. Chnh iu ny lm cho mng mm ho (progamable network) v s dng rng ri cc giao din m API kin to cc dch v m khng ph thuc nhiu vo cc nh cung cp thit b v khai thc mng. 1.3. Cc c im ca NGN Mng NGN c bn c im chnh: Nn tng l h thng m. L mng dch v thc y, nhng dch v phi thc hin c lp vi mng.
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L mng chuyn mch gi, da trn mt b giao thc thng nht. L mng c dung lng ngy cng tng, tnh thch ng cao v nng lc p ng nhu cu ca ngi s dng. Trc ht, do p dng c cu m m: Cc khi chc nng ca tng i truyn thng c chia thnh cc phn t mng c lp, cc phn t phn theo chc nng v pht trin mt cch c lp. Giao din v giao thc gia cc b phn phi da trn cc tiu chun tng ng. Tip n, mng NGN l mng thc y, vi c im: Chia tch dch v vi iu khin cuc gi Chia tch cuc gi vi truyn ti NGN l mng chuyn mch gi, giao thc thng nht T trc n nay, cc mng vin thng, mng my tnh hay truyn hnh cp tn ti v cung cp dch v mt cch ring bit. Nhng my nm gn y, cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh IP, ngi ta mi nhn thy l cc mng trao i thng tin ny cui cng ri cng tch hp trong mt mng IP thng nht, l xu th m ngi ta thng gi l dung hp ba mng. Giao thc IP lm cho cc dch v ly IP lm c s c th thc hin ni thng cc mng khc nhau, con ngi ln u tin c c giao thc thng nht m ba mng ln u c th chp nhn c, t c s vng chc v mt k thut cho h tng c s thng tin quc gia (NII). Giao thc IP thc t tr thnh giao thc ng dng vn nng v bt u c s dng lm c s cho cc mng a dch v, mc d hin ti vn cn th bt li so vi cc chuyn mch knh v kh nng h tr lu lng thoi v cung cp cht lng dch v m bo cho s liu. Tc i mi nhanh chng trong th gii
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Internet c to iu kin bi s pht trin ca cc tiu chun m s sm khc phc nhng thiu st ny. NGN l mng c dung lng ngy cng tng v tnh thch ng cao, c nng lc p ng nhu cu ca ngi s dng. Vi vic s dng nn chuyn mch gi v cu trc m, NGN c kh nng cung cp rt nhiu loi hnh dch v, c bit l cc dch v yu cu bng thng cao nh truyn thng a phng tin, truyn hnh, gio dc V vy dung lng mng phi ngy cng tng p ng nhu cu ngi s dng, ng thi mng NGN cng phi c kh nng thch ng vi nhng mng vin thng tn ti trc n nhm tn dng c s h tng mng, dch v v khch hng sn c. 1.4. Cu Trc Mng NGN Cu trc mng NGN bao gm 5 lp chc nng: lp truy nhp dch v (service access layer), lp chuyn ti dch v (service transport/core layer), lp iu khin (control layer), lp ng dng/dch v (application/service layer) v lp qun l (management layer). Hnh 1 th hin cu trc ca NGN.

a. Lp ng dng/dch v Lp ng dng v dch v cung cp cc ng dng v dch v nh dch v mng thng minh IN (Intelligent network), tr tin trc, dch v gi tr gia tng Internet cho khch hng thng qua lp iu khin... H thng ng dng v dch v mng ny lin kt vi lp iu khin thng qua cc giao din m API. Nh giao din m ny m nh cung cp dch v c th pht trin cc ng dng v trin khai nhanh chng cc dch v trn mng. Trong mi trng pht trin cnh tranh s c rt nhiu thnh phn tham gia kinh doanh trong lp ny. b. Lp iu khin: Lp iu khin bao gm cc h thng iu khin kt ni cuc gi gia cc thu bao thng qua vic iu khin cc thit b chuyn mch (ATM+IP) ca lp chuyn ti v cc thit b truy nhp ca lp truy nhp. Lp iu khin c chc nng kt ni cuc gi thu bao vi lp ng dng/dch v. Cc chc nng nh qun l, chm sc khch hng, tnh cc cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin. c. Lp chuyn ti dch v Bao gm cc nt chuyn mch (ATM+IP) v cc h thng truyn dn (SDH, WDM), thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn cc cuc gi gia cc thu bao ca lp truy nhp di s iu khin ca thit b iu khin cuc gi thuc lp iu khin. Hin nay ang cn nhiu tranh ci khi s dng ATM hay MPLS cho lp chuyn ti ny. d. Lp truy nhp dch v Bao gm cc thit b truy nhp cung cp cc cng kt ni vi thit b u cui thu bao qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, hoc cp quang, hoc thng qua mi trng v tuyn (thng tin di ng, v tinh, truy nhp v tuyn c nh...)

e. Lp qun l y l lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp trn. Cc chc nng qun l c ch trng l: qun l mng, qun l dch v, qun l kinh doanh. 1.5. Cc Thnh Phn Ca Mng NGN Mi tng quan gia cu trc phn lp chc nng v cc thnh phn chnh ca mng NGN c m t trong hnh 2.

Theo hnh 2 ta nhn thy, cc loi thit b u cui kt ni n mng truy nhp (Access Network), sau kt ni n cc cng truyn thng (Media Gateway) nm bin ca mng trc. Thit b quan trng nht ca NGN l SW nm tm ca mng trc (cn hay gi l mng li). SW iu khin cc chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn qua cc giao thc.

Trong mng vin thng th h mi c rt nhiu thnh phn cn quan tm, nhng y chng ta ch nghin cu nhng thnh phn chnh th hin r nt s tin tin ca NGN so vi mng vin thng truyn thng. C th l : 1.Media Gateway (MG) 2.Media Gateway Controller (MGC - Call Agent - Softswitch) 3.Signaling Gateway (SG) 4.Media Server (MS) 5.Application Server (Feature Server) M hnh cu trc mng v cc thnh phn chnh trong mng NGN:

Hnh 3: Cc thnh phn chnh trong NGN

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1. Cng phng tin - Media Gateway (MG)

Media Gateway cung cp phng tin truyn ti thng tin thoi, d liu, faxv video gia mng gi IP v mng PSTN. Trong mng PSTN, d liu thoi c mang trn knh DS0. truyn d liu ny vo mng gi, mu thoi cn c nn li v ng gi. c bit y ngi ta s dng mt b x l tn hiu s DSP (Digital Signal Processors) thc hin cc chc nng: chuyn i AD (analog todigital), nn m thoi/audio, trit ting di, b khong lng, m ha, ti to tn hiu thoi, truyn cc tn hiu DTMF, Cc chc nng ca mt Media Gateway : Chc nng chnh ca Media Gateway l truyn d liu thoi s dng giao thc RTP (Real Time Protocol). Cung cp khe thi gian T1 hay ti nguyn x l tn hiu s (DSP Digital Signal Processing) di s iu khin ca MGC (Media GatewayController). ng thi qun l ti nguyn DSP cho dch v ny. Hn na MediaGateway cn h tr cc giao thc c nh loop-start, ground-start, E&M, CAS,QSIG v ISDN qua ng truyn T1v qun l ti nguyn, kt ni T1, cung cp kh nng thay nng cc card T1 hay DSP. Trong h thng mng sn c phn mm d phng Media Gateway cho php m rng cc Media Gateway v cng, cards, cc nt m khng lm thay i cc thnh phn khc trong mng. c tnh h thng: Mt Media Gateway l mt thit b vo/ra c hiu (I/O). Dung lng b nh lun m bo lu tr cc thng tin trng thi, thng tin cu hnh, cc bn tin MGCP,th vin DSPDung lng a ch yu s dng cho qu trnh ng nhp (logging). Qu trnh d phng y giao din Ethernet (vi mng IP), m rng mt vi giaodin T1/E1 vi mng TDM vi mt khong 120 port (DSOs) v s dng busH.110 m bo tnh linh ng cho h thng ni b.

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2. B iu khin cng phng tin - Media Gateway Controller (MGC)

MGC l n v chc nng chnh ca Softswitch. N a ra cc quy lut x l cuc gi, cn MG v SG s thc hin cc quy lut . N iu khin SG thit lp v kt thc cuc gi. Ngoi ra n cn giao tip vi h thng OSS v BSS. MGC chnh l chic cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc nhau, nh PSTN, SS7, mng IP. N chu trch nhim qun l lu lng thoi v d liu qua cc mng khc nhau. N cn c gi l Call Agent do chc nng iu khin cc bn tin. Mt MGC kt hp vi MG, SG to thnh cu hnh ti thiu cho Softswitch. Cc chc nng ca Media Gateway Controller: Chc nng ch yu l qun l cuc gi, s dng cc giao thc thit lp cuc githoi nh H.323, SIP v cc giao thc iu khin truyn thng nh MGCP, Megaco H.248. Chc nng tip theo l chc nng qun l lp dch v v cht lng dch vvi giao thc qun l SS7 SIGTRAN (SS7 over IP) v x l bo hiu SS7.

Ngoi ra, MGC cn qun l cc bn tin lin quan QoS nh RTCP, thc hin nh tuyn cuc gi, ghi li cc thng tin chi tit ca cuc gi tnh cc (CDR- Call Detail Record) v iu khin qun l bng thng.

i vi Media Gateway, MGC c cc chc nng: Xc nh v cu hnh thi gian thc cho cc DSP. Phn b knh DS0. Truyn dn thoi ( m ha, nn, ng gi). i vi Signaling Gateway, MGC cung cp : Cc loi SS7.
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Cc b x l thi gian. Cu hnh kt ni. M ca nt mng hay thng tin cu hnh. ng k Gatekeeper.
3. Cng bo hiu SG - Signalling Gateway

Signaling Gateway to ra mt chic cu gia mng bo hiu SS7 vi mng IP di s iu khin ca Media Gateway Controller (MGC). SG lm cho MGC ging nh mt nt SS7 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Nhim v ca SG l x l thng tin bo hiu. Cng bo hiu m nhim cc chc nng sau: Cung cp vic lin kt bo hiu gia mng TDM v mng gi. Ph thuc vo loi bo hiu s dng (ISUP, ISDN, V5.2 ), SIGTRAN c s dng hiu qu (m bo thi gian thc) v tin cy (h tr khng mt gi v jitter trong mng gi). Vi thoi v bo hiu c nhn trn cng mt knh, chc nng SG thng c tch hp trn MG. Vi ISUP quasi-associated (s dng STP) th SG l thit b c lp. 4. My ch phng tin (MS - Media Server) MS l thnh phn la chn ca Softswitch, c s dng x l cc thng tin c bit. MS cung cp chc nng tng tc gia ngi gi v cc ng dng thng qua thit b vin thng. MS phn pht dch v thoi v video trn mng gi nh cu hi ngh ( nu dch v ny khng c MG h tr ), thng bo ( thng bo n gin do MG gi ), IN v mt s tng tc ngi dng.

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Chc nng MS c th c tch hp trong Softswith hoc MG. Cc chc nng ny c th l bt buc hoc la chn. C hai nhm chc nng chnh l: Cc chc nng ti nguyn phng tin nh tch tone, tng hp thoi, phng tin nhn dng ting ni, Cc chc nng iu khin phng tin nh nhc, ghi bn tin, Trn th trng, MS l nhng thit b c iu khin bng SIP, MGCP hoc H.248/Megaco v l gii php ca SRPs (Service Resource Point) h tr cho IN. Mt MS phi h tr phn cng DSP vi hiu sut cao nht 5. My ch ng dng/ c tnh (Application Server/Feature Server ) My ch c tnh (Feature Server) l mt my ch lp ng dng cha mt lot cc dch v ca doanh nghip. Chnh v vy n cn c gi l my ch ng dng thng mi (Application Server). V hu ht cc Server ny t qun l cc dch v v truyn thng qua mng IP nn chng khng rng buc nhiu vi Softswith v vic phn chia hay nhm cc thnh phn ngdng. Cc dch v cng thm c th trc thuc Call Agent, hoc cng c th thc hin mt cch c lp. Nhng ng dng ny giao tip vi Call Agent thng qua cc giaothc nh SIP, H.323, Chng thng c lp vi phn cng nhng li yu cu truy nhp c s d liu c trng. Mc tiu chnh ca my ch ng dng l iu khin v qun l cc ng dng mt cch hiu qu, kinh t v nhanh chng. N cho php a ra cc dch v mi khng cn cp nht phn mm Softswith trong thi gian ngn. Mt dch v mi c th c pht trin bi bn thn cc nh khai thc mng. Cc my ch ng dng iu khin tt c cc logic v kt ni ng dng. Phn mm my ch ng dng c th n gin ha vic kt ni cc h thng web mi, cc h thng t trong cc v tr khc nhau v cc h thng k tha thng qua web clinet. Mt s tnh nng c bn ca cc my ch ng dng: Tnh nng chung
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Server ng dng phi cung cp s tch hp Web h tr giao din Web cho ngi qun l, khai thc, bo tr.

Tnh nng xc thc v bo mt iu khin cc phn t mng thc hin xc thc, cp php v cc kh nng tnh ton cho cc dch v c cung cp Tr gip c ch ng k, c th l yu cu ng k SIP hoc H.323. Cung cp cc dch v bo mt nh m ha hay xc thc m bo truy cp bo mt ti cc dch v Tnh nng truyn thng Truyn thng vi cc ng dng trong hoc ngoi. Truyn thng vi cc my ch iu khin ti nguyn mng bn ngoi. Tnh nng cung cp d liu Cung cp c s d liu thu bao v dch v.

Qun l giao dch trn c s ca cc lut ACID. Ni chung, nh qun tr giao dch hoc b gim st c thit k nhn thc khi nim ACID.

Tnh nng hot ng, qun l v iu khin Qun l dch v, bao gm cc phn t lin quan n kim ton, c tnh dch v.

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Qun l h thng, bao gm cc phn t lin quan n hot ng, qun l v khai thc cc my ch ng dng ( v d nh qun l cnh bo, gim st c tnh, bt gi v khi phc h hng ). Qun l thi gian vng i dch v, bao gm tr gip s trin khai dch v, cung cp dch v, thu dch v, kch hot v gii kch hot dch v, xc nh phin bn ca dch v. Tnh nng thc hin dch v Tr gip thc hin a ng dng hay a trng hp ca cng ng dng. Mi trng tr gip thc hin dch v, bao gm tp cc kh nng c lp dch v truy cp cc h thng bn ngoi thng qua cc giao thc, giao din chng trnh ng dng qun l cc phin dch v, truy cp dch v, cc s kin v khai bo, ng nhp v tng tc logic dch v 1.6. Cc Giao Thc Bo Hiu Trong Mng NGN: Kin trc ca NGN l kin trc phn tn. V th m cc chc nng bo hiu v x l bo hiu, chuyn mch, iu khin cuc gi.... c thc hin bicc thit b nm phn tn trong cu trc hnh mng c th hin trn hnh . c th to ra cc kt ni gia cc u cui nhm cung cp dch v, cc thit b ny phi trao i cc thng tin bo hiu v iu khin vi nhau. Cch thc trao i thng tin bo hiu v iu khin c quy nh trong cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c s dng trong mng. Trong mng NGN c cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c bn sau: - H.323 - SIP - BICC - MGCP
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- MEGACO/H.248

Hnh 4: S cc giao thc Cc giao thc ny c th phn thnh 2 loi: - Cc giao thc ngang hng (H.323,SIP, BICC). - Cc giao thc ch t (MGCP, MEGACO/H.248).
S khc nhau c bn gia hai cch tip cn ny l ch kh nng thng minh c phn b nh th no gia cc thit b bin ca mng v cc server. S la chn phng thc no l ph thuc vo chi ph h thng, trin khai dch v, kh thi. Mt gii php tng th s dng u im ca c hai cch tip cn nn c xem xt. S so snh gia hai cch tip cn ny c trnh by trong bng

Khai thc

Ch - t Thit b cng n gin ng dng c t ti cc server Ch trin khai dch v ti cc server

Ngang hng Thit b cng phc tp Tng tc ngang hng Trin khai trn tng thit b
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Trin khai dch v

Ch nng cp cc server iu khin Qun l cc dch v linh hot trn ton mng

Thi gian trin khai mng ln Phi nng cp tt c thit b mng khi trin khai dch v mi trn ton b mng Thit b mng c gi thnh cao lm cho chi ph tng th ln Theo thi gian, thit b cng c th phi thng xuyn nng cp SIP

Chi ph

Thit b cng c ti u v chi ph dn ti tng chi ph gim Vng i sn phm ca thit b cng di hn

V d v cc giao thc

MEGACO/H.248

MGCP H323 Cc giao thc ngang cp thc hin chc nng mng cp cao hn, quy nh cch thc giao tip gia cc thc th cng cp cng phi hp thc hin cuc gi hay cc ng dng khc. Trong khi cc giao thc ch t l sn phm ca vic phn b khng ng u tr tu mng, phn ln tr tu mng c tp trung trong cc thc th chc nng iu khin (ng vai tr l master), thc th ny s giao tip iu khin vi nhiu thc th khc qua cc giao thc ch t nhm cung cp dch v. 1.H.323 H.323 l giao thc chun cho vic lin lc bng thoi, hnh v d liu trong h thng mng IP (bao gm mng Internet). H.323 l tp hp cc chun ca ITU cho vic truyn thng a phng tin v l mt trong nhng chun chnh cho VoIP nh Megaco hay SIP. H.323 c cng b ln u tin vo nm 1996 v phin bn mi nht (version 5) c hon thnh vo nm 2003.
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2. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol): SIP l giao thc iu khin lp ng dng c thit k v pht trin bi IETF. Giao thc SIP c s dng khi to, iu chnh v chm dt cc phin lm vic vi mt hay nhiu yu t tham d. Mt phin c hiu l mt tp hp ni gi, ni nhn lin lc vi nhau v trng thi bn trong mi lin lc . V d trng thi c th bao gm cuc gi in thoi Internet, tn hiu a phng tin phn tn, hi ngh truyn thng a phng tin, hay c th l tr chi my tnh phn tn... L giao thc bo hiu m, mm do v c kh nng m rng, SIP khai thc ti a cng c Internet to ra nhiu dch v mi trong mng NGN. S giao thc bo hiu SIP trong NGN c th hin trong hnh 7.

Hnh 7: SIP trong mng NGN Giao thc khi to phin SIP thm nhp vo thit k SW khng ch nh mt giao thc bo hiu cuc gi m cn ng vai tr ca mt c cu vn chuyn cho cc giao thc khc v cho bo hiu ca thit b SW n cc server ng dng v cho cc h thng p ng thoi tng tc hai chiu. Hin nay SIP c dng ph bin cho Voice Over IP. Hin nay, SIP ang tr thnh la chn thay th H.323 tr thnh giao thc im ni im (end-to-end protocol) trong cng ngh SW. 3.BICC: :

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BICC (Bearer Independent Call Control) l giao thc bo hiu gia 2 MGC/Call Server, c th l t cc nh cung cp khc nhau, nhm mc ch m bo lu lng thoi dng k thut gi (VoP - Voice over Packet). Theo ITU-T, BICC c thit k c th tch hp hon ton vi cc mng hin hu v bt k h thng no c h tr vic chuyn ti bn tin nhn thoi. BICC h tr cc dch v bng hp (PSTN, ISDN) mt cch c lp vi ng truyn v k thut chuyn ti bn tin bo hiu. Bn tin BICC chuyn ch c thng tin iu khin cuc gi v iu khin ng truyn. BICC gp phn n gin ha cc bo hiu s dng cho vic giao tip hot ng gia mng truyn thng vo mng NGN. Ni cch khc, mng NGN vi nn tng mng chuyn mch gi c th cung cp y cc dch v bng hp thng qua bo hiu BICC. 4. MGCP( Media Gateway Control Protocol): MGCP l giao thc VoIP v l mt chun c xc nh bi IETF, c dng iu khin MG t MGC/SW. MGCP l mt giao thc ch t (master/slave) m qua MG s thc thi cc lnh c gi t MGC/SW. MG truyn ti cc loi tn hiu nh thoi, d liu, hnh nh gia mng IP v mng truyn thng (PSTN). C th hiu, trong m hnh MGCP, cc MG ch trng vo chc nng phin dch tn hiu m thanh, trong khi SW m nhn chc nng x l bo hiu v cuc gi.

5. Megaco/H.248: Megaco v H.248 ging nhau, u l giao thc iu khin MG. Megaco c pht trin bi IETF (a ra vo cui nm 1998), cn H.248 c a ra vo thng 5/1999 bi ITU-T. Sau c IETF v ITU-T cng hp tc thng nht giao thc iu khin MG, kt qu l vo thng 6/2000 chun Megaco/H.248 ra i. Megaco/H.248 l bo hiu gia SW/MGC vi MG (Trunking Media Gateway, Lines Media Gateway hoc IP Phone Media Gateway). Megaco/H.248 iu khin MG

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kt ni cc lung t ngoi. Megaco/H.248 tng t vi MGCP v mt cu trc v mi lin h gia b iu khin v cng gateway, tuy nhin Megaco/H248 h tr a dng hn cc loi mng (v d ATM). thay th MGCP. Mt s thit b c sn xut h tr c hai giao thc cng mt lc.

VII- Tnh hnh pht trin mng NGN ti Vit Nam v trn th gii S pht trin mng NGN ti Vit Nam l mt xu th tt yu, ph hp vi qu trnh pht trin NGN trn th gii. Khng nm ngoi xu hng chung , Vit Nam cng ang c nhng bc pht trin mng NGN ca ring mnh. Hin nay c 6 doanh nghip c php ca Tng Cc Bu in (nay l B Bu chnh Vin Thng) cho php cung cp cc dch v vin thng l Tng cng ty bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT), Cng ty in t vin thng qun i (Viettel), Cng ty vin thng in lc (VP Telecom), Cng ty c phn dch v Bu chnh Vin thng Si Gn (SPT), H Ni Telecom, Cng ty vin thng Hng hi. Trong ngoi tr Cng ty vin
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thng Hng hi, cc cng ty khc u ang cung cp dch v gi VoIP ng di trong nc v quc t. Phn ny s gii thiu mt cch c th tnh hnh trin khai mng NGN ca Tng cng ty Bu chnh-Vin thng (VNPT) v mt s cng ty khc, trong c cng ty thng tin Vin thng in lc (EVNTelecom). Cng ty Gartner d bo: bt u t nm 2005, th trng cho vic trin khai NGN s bt u khi sc. Trong vng vi nm tip theo, thoi qua giao thc IP v NGN s c kh nng h tr ti a cc nh dng giao dch tn nhiu bng thng nht. Gartner Dataquest hon thnh mt cng trnh nghin cu ton din, cp ti nhiu kha cnh mang tn State of the Next-Generation Network (trng thi ca mng th h tip theo). Cng trnh nghin cu cc bc chuyn bin m NGN t c, xc nh nhng xu th chnh v gii thiu kh chi tit v 141 t chc pht trin NGN trn th gii. c giao trng trch i vi nghnh cng nghip mng trong th k 21, NGN ngy cng ginh c s quan tm, ch v c coi l quc sch ti nhiu quc gia. Trong bi cnh , Hi ngh thng nh ton cu v mng th h tip theo (Global NGN Summit) din ra thng 4 nm 2004 ti Bc Kinh-Trung Quc vi ch Cng n lc xy dng mng th h tip theo (Joint Efforts to Build the Future Next Generation Network). Trc , Trung Quc th nghim mng Internet th h tip theo (China Next Generation Internet - CNGI) v coi y l bc pht trin quan trng tin ti xy dng mng NGN. D n c s tham gia ca 5 tp on vin thng ln nhm xy dng mng bao ph 6 tnh vi bng thng mng ng trc l 10Gbit/s. NGN xut hin bi v c nhiu thay i trong nhng nm qua, xt t ba kha cnh chnh: cu trc ngnh cng nghip, cng ngh v s mong i ca ngi s dng. Th nht, s bng n ca ngnh cng ngh thng tin v vin thng, mt lp cc nh cung cp dch v mi xut hin: cc nh cung cp dch v mang tnh cnh tranh, mun khng nh v tr ca mnh trn th trng. Hai l, cng ngh ang pht trin vi tc chng mt khin mng truyn thng buc phi nhng ng cho NGN
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trong vic tch hp cc dch v cao cp hn, v mc tiu phc v tt nht cho ngi s dng. Ba l, mng Internet to cho ngi s dng cm gic rng h c th ly thng tin bt c u, bt c khi no h mun. Xut pht t chnh nhu cu ny xut hin xu hng hi t ca cc thit b u cui cho h tr c y cc tnh nng nh lin lc, truy xut thng tin, gii tr... trong khi vn m bo c tnh di ng. Mng Internet chc chn s vn ng vai tr l ngun cung cp thng tin chnh. Tuy nhin, mng truyn ti ng vai tr trung gian chc chn s phi l NGN.

ng dng NGN cho php gim thiu thi gian a dch v mi ra th trng, nng cao hiu sut s dng truyn dn. NGN cn cho php cc nh cung cp dch v tng cng kh nng kim sot, bo mt thng tin ca khch hng. N p ng c hu ht cc nhu cu ca nhiu i tng s dng nh c nhn, vn phng, doanh nghip... vi cc giao thc chun v giao din thn thin. Vi tnh thng minh ca mng, NGN cng to tin cho cc bc pht trin ca cng ngh v cc dch v mi trong tng lai.

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CHNG II: GIAO THC KHI TO PHIN- SIP


2.1. c im giao thc khi to phin: (SIP - Secssion Initiation Protocol ) SIP c pht trin bi SIP Working Group trong IETF. SIP l giao thc bo hiu iu khin lp ng dng c dng thit lp , duy tr v gii phng cc cuc gi hoc cc phin truyn thng a phng tin (multimedia) nh in thoi hi ngh, in thoi Internet v cc ng dng tng t khc. SIP da trn tng v cu trc ca HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) giao thc trao i thng tin ca World Wide Web. N l mt giao thc Client -Server, ngha l cc yu cu SIP c Client a ra v Server s tr li cc yu cu ny. Cui cng, SIP da vo giao thc m t phin SDP (Session Description Protocol), mt tiu chun khc ca IETF, thc hin s sp xp tng t theo c cu chuyn i dung lng ca H.245. SDP c dng nhn dng m tng i trong nhng cuc gi s dng mt m t nguyn bn n. SDP cng c s dng chuyn cc phn t thng tin ca giao thc bo hiu thi gian thc RTSP sp xp cc tham s hi ngh a im v nh ngha khun dng chung cho nhiu loi thng tin khi c chuyn trong SIP. Giao thc SIP n c tch hp vi cc giao thc c ca t chc IETF, n c kh nng m rng, h tr u cui v vi SIP th vic cung cp dch v mi tr nn d dng v nhanh chng khi trin khai. SIP c 5 tnh nng sau: Tch hp vi cc giao thc c ca IETF. n gin v c kh nng m rng. H tr ti a s di ng ca u cui. D dng to tnh nng mi cho dch v v dch v mi. Kh nng lin kt hot ng vi mng in thoi hin ti.

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2.2.Cc chc nng ca SIP SIP l mt giao thc iu khin lp ng dng m n c th thit lp, sa i v kt thc cc phin truyn thng a phng tin (cc hi ngh) hay cc cuc gi in thoi qua Internet. SIP c th mi cc thnh vin tham gia vo cc phin truyn thng n hng hoc a hng; bn khi to phin khng nht thit phi l thnh vin ca phin . Phng tin v cc thnh vin c th c b sung vo mt phin ang tn ti. SIP h tr vic nh x tn v cc dch v chuyn tip mt cch trong sut, v th n cho php thc hin cc dch v thu bao in thoi ca mng thng minh v mng ISDN. Nhng tin ch ny cng cho php thc hin cc dch v ca cc thu bao di ng. thc hin chc nng iu khin phin, SIP h tr 5 chc nng sau: User location (nh v ngi dng): Xc nh v tr ca ngi s dng hay cn

gi l dch tn ( name translation), dng xc nh ngi c gi v m bo cuc gi n c ngi nhn d h u. User availability (tnh kh dng ngi dng): Xc nh trng thi v tnh sn

sng ca thu bao b gi bt u thit lp ng truyn. User capabilities (cc kh nng ngi dng): Xc nh phng tin v cc

thng s c s dng. Call setup (Thit lp cuc gi) : Thit lp cuc gi, thc hin vic rung chung

v thit lp cc thng s ca phin cho c thu bao ch gi v thu bao b gi. Call handling (x l cuc gi): To, kt thc, v sa i phin.

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2.3. Cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP

H thng SIP

Hnh 2.1: Cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP SIP Client: l thit b h tr giao thc SIP nh SIP phone, chng trnh chat, y chnh l giao din v dch v ca mng SIP cho ngi dng. SIP Server: l thit b trong mng x l cc bn tin SIP vi cc chc nng c th nh sau: User Agent (UA) ng vai tr l thit b u cui trong bo hiu SIP.

UA c th khi to, thay i hay gii phng cuc gi. UA bao gm hai loi User Agent Client (UAC) v User Agent Server (UAS). UAC khi to cuc gi v UAS tr li cuc gi. Nhng c UAC v UAS u c th gii phng cuc gi. iu ny cho php thc hin cuc gi ngang hng thng qua m hnh client-server. Proxy Server l phn mm trung gian hot ng c nh Server v Client

thc hin cc yu cu thay mt cc u cui khc. Chc nng chnh ca n trong mng l nh tuyn cho cc bn tin n ch.

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Location Server l phn mm nh v thu bao, cung cp thng tin v v tr ca pha b gi cho cc phn mm Proxy Server v Redirect Server. N lu thng tin trng thi hin ti ca ngi dng trong mng SIP. Redirect Server tip nhn yu cu nhng khng chuyn sang server k bn m

gi tr li n ch gi ch ra a ch ca pha b gi. Khng ging nh Proxy Server, Redirect Server khng bao gi hot ng nh mt u cui, tc l khng gi i bt c yu cu no. Redirect Server cng khng nhn hoc hy cuc gi. Registrar Server l phn mm nhn cc yu cu ng k REGISTER. Trong

nhiu trng hp Registrar Server m nhim lun mt s chc nng an ninh nh xc nhn ngi s dng. Thng thng Registrar Server c ci t cng vi Proxy hoc Redirect Server hoc cung cp dch v nh v thu bao. Mi ln u cui c bt ln (my in thoi hoc phn mm SIP) th u cui li ng k vi Server. Nu u cui cn thng bo cho Server v a im ca mnh th bn tin REGISTER cng c gi i. Ni chung cc u cui u thc hin vic ng k li mt cch nh k. 2.4. Mi lin h gia cc thnh phn trong mng SIP Khi qut v chc nng ca Proxy Server, Redirect Server trong mng SIP. Gi s thu bao c tn user1 trong min dch v do here.com mun thc hin mt cuc gi thoi ti thu bao c tn user2 thuc there.com.

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Hnh 1.

Chc nng ca Proxy, Redirect Server trong mng SIP

1. Khi User 1 mun gi ti User 2, trc ht n s gi bn tin INVITE 1 n Proxy Server 1. Proxy Server 1 chuyn tip bn tin ti Redirect Server. 2. Redirect Server ny x l v tr v m 3xx thng bo cho Proxy Server t thc hin kt ni. 3. Proxy Server 1 gi bn tin INVITE 2 ti ch tr v bi Redirect Server ( chnh l Stateless Proxy Server 1). V y l Stateful Proxy nn thc cht bn tin INVITE c gi bi Stateful Proxy l khc so vi bn tin nhn c t User1(ban u). 4. Stateless Proxy Server chuyn tip bn tin INVITE ti SIP Statefull Proxy 2. Do l Stateless Proxy nn cng vic ca n n gin l chuyn tip bn tin.
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5. SIP Statefull Proxy 2 chuyn tip bn tin INVITE ti user2. 6. Khi user2 nhc my th n s gi bn tin 200 OK theo chiu ngc li. 7. Sau khi nhn c bn tin 200 OK, user1 s gi xc nhn ACK ti user2. 8. Lung RTP trc tip gia hai thu bao c thit lp. V cuc gi c thc hin.

2.5. Kin trc phn lp SIP c th c m t nh mt kin trc phn lp trong cc hot ng c chia thnh tng giai on x l c lp v t lin quan n nhau. Thp nht trong kin trc ny l lp lnh v m ha lnh. Tip theo l lp vn chuyn. Lp ny nh ngha cch thc mt ngi dng hay server gi cc bn tin yu cu v cc bn tin tr li. Tt c cc phn t SIP u cha lp vn chuyn. Lp th ba v cng l thnh phn c bn nht ca SIP l lp giao dch. Mi giao dch l mt yu cu v cc tr li tng ng cho yu cu . Lp ny qun l cc hot ng nhng gi li ng dng, tm cc tr li ph hp vi cc request hay kim sot thi gian. Lp ny xut hin ti UA v cc Stateful Proxy. Vi cc Proxy ny, khi x l mt yu cu bt k n s xt n trng thi ca cc yu cu trc v nu c li th s x l li trc khi gi tr li n Client. Ngc li, Stateless Proxy tr li cc yu cu mt cch c lp v cng khng cha lp giao dch. Lp th t l lp TU. Ngoi tr, Stateless Proxy, mi phn t SIP u l mt TU, tc u l i tng giao dch ca lp giao dch. Cc yu cu gi bi TU c coi l cc Client ca tng giao dch v c gi cng vi a ch IP, a ch port n ch tr li yu cu.

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2.6. Cc loi bn tin SIP: SIP l giao thc dng Text s dng b k t ISO 10646 trong m ho UTF-8 (RFC 2279). iu ny to cho SIP tnh linh hot, m rng v d thc thi cc ngn ng lp trnh cp cao nh Java, Tol, Perl. C php ca SIP gn ging vi giao thc HTTP, n cho php dng li m v n gin ha s lin kt ca cc my phc v SIP vi cc my phc v Web. Tuy nhin, SIP khng phi l mt dng m rng ca HTTP.Khc vi HTTP, SIP c th s dng giao thc UDP. Bn tin SIP c chia lm hai loi: Bn tin yu cu t Client ti Server v bn tin p ng t Server tr li cho Client: SIP-message = Request/ Response a. Bn tin yu cu (Request): Bn tin Request c khun dng gm hai phn c bn: Request-line v phn mo u-header (vi 3 loi header): Request=Request-line*(General-header/Request-header/Entity-header) CLRF [message-body] Trong thnh phn Request-line cha tn phng thc, mt Request - URI v s phin bn ca giao thc. Cc thnh phn c ngn cch vi nhau bng mt khong trng (SP). Cng nh cc dng khc, dng khi u c kt thc bng mt k t xung dng (CRLF). Request-line = Method SP Request-URI SP SIP-Version Trong : - Method (Phng thc SIP): SIP nh ngha 6 phng thc c bn
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- Request-URI: Trng Request-URI c khun dng theo SIP URL. N thng bo cho User hoc dch v v a ch hin ti. Khc vi trngTo,Request-URI c th c ghi li bi Proxy (trng hp my phc v y quyn)

- SIP Version: Phin bn SIP l cc bn SIP c a ra cc ln khc nhau. C hai bn tin Request v Response u cha phin bn ca SIP c s dng SIP Version. Hin ti phin bn SIP l 2.0. Trong SIP nh ngha 6 phng thc (method) c bn sau: REGISTER, INVITE, ACK, BYE, CANCEL, OPTIONS. REGISTER Trong hi thoi SIP, mi bn tham gia (bn b gi v bn gi) c gn mt a ch SIP hay cn gi l SIP URI. SIP URI c dng trong cc bn tin SIP thng bo v ni gi, ch hin thi v ni nhn cui cng ca mt yu cu SIP v ch r a ch gin tip INVITE to mt cuc gi SIP, pha b gi nh v ti Server tng ng v gi i mt yu cu SIP. Lc ny bn tin INVITE c dng thng bo rng mt ngi dng hoc mt dch v c mi tham gia vo mt phin hi thoi. ACK Sau khi nhn c tr li 200 OK rng pha b gi sn sng tham gia hi thoi, bn gi cn xc nhn c tr li bng cch gi i mt yu cu ACK. BYE UAC s dng phng thc BYE thng bo cho Server rng n mun gii phng cuc gi. CANCEL Yu cu CANCEL c dng hy b mt yu cu trc hin ang c x l bi Server tip nhn yu cu.
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OPTION Phng thc OPTION dng hi v kh nng ca SIP Server. b. Bn tin phc p (Response): Sau khi nhn v thng dch mt bn tin yu cu, pha nhn thc hin tr li bng mt bn tin phc p. Khun dng bn tin cng gm hai phn c bn: Status-line v phn mo u header (vi 3 loi header): Response = Status-line *(General-header/ Response-header/ Entity-header) CLRF [message-body] Trong thnh phn Status-line c cu trc sau: (SP l k t phncch): Status-line = SIP-Version SP status-code SP Reason-phrase - SIP Version: Cng ging nh trong bn tin Request. - Status-code v Reason-phrase: Status-code l mt m kt qu nguyn gm 3 digit, ch ra kt qu ca vic c gng thc hin v mc tha mn yu cu. - Reason-Phrase th dng a ra mt li gii thch ngn cho Status-code. - Status-code mc ch l s dng cho Server - Reason-phrase l dng cho User. Client khng th yu cu hin th hay kim tra Reason-phrase. Status-code gm 3 digit. Digit u tin nh ngha loi p ng, hai digit sau khng c vai tr phn loi. SIP 2.0 nh ngha 6 gi tr ca digit u tin nh sau: - 1xx: Provisional: yu cu c nhn v tip tc c x l. Sau y l mt s m trng thi ph bin. (1) 100 Trying
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(2) 180 Ringing (3) 181 Call Is Being Forwarded (4) 182 Queued 2xx: Success : thnh cng, hnh ng c chp nhn.

Tr li 200 OK: Cho bit yu cu c thc hin thnh cng. Ni dung thng tin km trong bn tin tr li ty thuc vo phng thc ca yu cu. 3xx: Redirect : xc nh li, mt s hnh ng khc cn thc hin thm

hon tt yu cu. 4xx: Client Error: c li Client, yu cu b li c php hoc gi sai server.

Tr li 4xx l cc thng bo li t mt Server c th. Khi nhn c tr li ny Client bt buc phi thay i phn no trong bn tin yu cu trc khi gi li n Server . 5xx: Server Error: yu cu hp l nhng server b qu ti khng th p ng. 6xx: Global Failure: li ton cc, xy ra s c trn ton mng v yu cu

khng c p ng ti bt k server no. Cc bn tin SIP u c khun dng text, tng t nh HTTP. Mo u ca bn tin SIP cng tng t nh HTTP v c h tr MIME.. 2.7. Cu trc bn tin SIP: C hai loi bn tin trn u s dng chung mt nh dng c bn c quy nh trong RFC 2822 vi cu trc gm mt dng khi u (start - line),mt s trng tiu v mt phn thn bn tin tu chn (hnh 4.2). Cu trc ny c tm tt nh sau: generic-message = start-line *message-header
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CRLF [ message-body ] Vi start-line = Request-Line / Status-Line

Hnh 4.2. Cu trc bn tin SIP Trong , dng bt u, cc dng tiu hay cc dng trng phi c kt thc bng mt k t xung dng (CRLF) v phi lu rng dng trng vn phi c ngn cch phn tiu v phn thn ca bn tin ngay c khi phn thn bn tin l rng. * Start line: Mi bn tin SIP c bt u vi mt Start Line, Start Line vn chuyn loi bn tin (phng thc trong cc Request, v m p ng trong ccbn tin p ng) v phin bn ca giao thc. Start line c th l Request-Line (trong cc request) hoc l Status-Line (trong cc response). * Headers: Cc trng Hearder ca SIP c s dng vn chuyn cc thuc tnh ca bn tin v thay i ngha ca bn tin. Chng tng t nh cc trng tiu ca bn tin HTTP theo c c php v ng ngha (thc t c mt vi tiu c mn t HTTP) cho nn chng lun c khun dng nh sau: <Name>:< Value>. Th t cc trng tiu khc tn l khng quan trng (nhng cc tiu m c s dng nh tuyn bi cc proxy s c t trc). Th t cc tiu c cng tn l quan trng.
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Tiu bn tin bao gm bn loi: - Tiu chung. - Tiu Request. - Tiu Response. - Tiu thc th. * Body: Thn bn tin c s dng m t phin c khi to (v d: trong mt phin multimedia phn ny s mang loi m ha audio v video, tc ly mu ), hoc n c th c s dng mang d liu di dng text hoc nh phn (khng c dch) m lin quan n phin . Phn thn bn tin c th xut hin trong c bn tin yu cu v p ng. Cc loi Body bao gm: - SDP: Session Description Protcol ( Giao thc m t phin) - MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extentions. - Cc phn khc: c nh ngha trong IETF. 2.8.Thit lp v hu cuc gi SIP

Phin gi SIP gia 2 in thoi khng qua Proxy:

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- My gi gi mt tn hiu mi ( INVITE) - My c gi gi tr mt thng tin hi p 100 Th. - Khi my c gi bt u chung, mt tn hiu hi p 180 chung c gi tr - Khi bn gi nhc my, my c gi gi mt tn hiu hi p 200 - OK - My gi hi p vi ACK tip nhn - Lc ny cuc gi ch thc c truyn di dng d liu thng qua RTP - Khi ngi gi dp my, mt yu cu BYE c gi n cho my gi - My gi phn hi vi tn hiu 200 - OK.

Hot ng ca my ch u quyn ( Proxy Server ) :

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Hot ng ca Proxy server c trnh by nh trong hnh trn Client SIP cuong@gmail.com gi bn tin INVITE cho tuan@yahoo.com mi tham gia cuc gi.

Cc bc c m t nh sau:

Bc 1: cuong@gmail.com gi bn tin INVITE cho tuan@yahoo.com min yahoo.com, bn tin ny n Proxy server SIP ca min yahoo.com (bn tin INVITE c th i t Proxy server SIP ca min gmail.com v c Proxy SIP ny chuyn n Proxy server ca min yahoo.com).

Bc 2: Proxy server ca min Yahoo.com s tham kho server nh v(Location server) quyt nh v tr hin ti ca tuan. Bc 3: Server nh v tr li li v tr hin ti ca tuan (gi s l tuan@yahoo.com). Bc 4: Proxy server gi bn tin INVITE ti tuan@yahoo.com .Proxy server thm a ch ca n trong mt trng ca bn tin INVITE. Bc 5: UAS ca tuan p ng cho server Proxy vi bn tin 200 OK. Bc 6: Proxy server s gi bn tin 200 OK p tr v chocuong@gmail.com Bc 7:cuong@gmail.com gi bn tin ACK cho tuan@yahoo.com thng qua Proxy Server. Bc 8: Proxy server chuyn bn tin ACK cho tuan@yahoo.com . Bc 9: Sau khi c 2 bn ng tham gia cuc gi, thit lp mt knh RTP/RTCP gia 2 im cui truyn tn hiu thoi. Bc 10: Sau khi qu trnh truyn dn hon tt, phin lm vic b xa bng cch s dng bn tin ACK v BYE gia 2 im cui.

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Hot ng ca my ch chuyn i a ch (Redirect Server):

Bc 1: Redirect server nhn c yu cu t cuong@gmail.com (Yu cu ny c th i t 1 Proxy server khc). Bc 2: Redirect server truy vn n Location Server nh v a ch ca tuan. Bc 3: Location Server tr li a ch ca tuan cho Redirect server. Bc 4: Redirect server tr li a ch ca tuan n ngi gi cuong.N khng pht yu cu INVITE nh Proxy Server. Bc 5: User Agent Client cuong gi li bn tin ACK cho Redirect Server xc nhn s trao i thnh cng. Bc 6: Ngi gi cuong gi yu cu INVITE trc tip n a ch c tr bi Redirect Server ( y l n tuan).Ngi b gi tuan p ng vi ch th thnh cng (200 OK), v ngi gi p tr bn tin ACK xc nhn.Cuc gi c thit lp.

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Tng qut li trong mng SIP qu trnh thit lp v hy mt phin kt ni:

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t chi.

ng k, khi to v xc nh v tr ngi s dng. Xc nh bng thng cn thit c s dng. Xc nh s sn sng ca pha c gi, pha c gi phi

gi 1 bn tin phn hi th hin s sn sng thc hin cuc gi: chp nhn hay Cuc gi c thit lp. Chnh sa cuc gi (v d nh chuyn cuc gi) v duy tr. Kt thc cuc gi.

2.9. nh gi SIP: SIP l giao thc c c t chc IETF a ra. N ra i vi mc ch n gin ho c ch bo hiu v iu khin cuc gi cho VoIP. SIP l giao thc dng text, cc lnh SIP c cu trc n gin cc thit b u cui d dng phn tch v sa i. -Cc u im ni bt ca SIP l: + Tnh m rng mt cch t nhin ca giao thc cho php d dng nh ngha v thi hnh trong tng lai. + Cho php to cc thit b u cui mt cch n gin v d dng m vn m bo chi ph thp. Tuy nhin SIP vn cn c cc nhc im: + SIP l giao thc rt mi, cn c tip tc hon thin. + N ch cp ti mt phm vi hp trong ton b phin truyn thng nn cn phi c kt hp vi cc giao thc khc trong qu trnh xy dng mt h thng hon chnh. + Kh nng giao tip vi mng chuyn mch knh km.
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2.10.. ng dng ca SIP a. Cc ng dng thng mi Do c pht trin t cc giao thc Internet nh HTTP v SMTP, cc nh pht trin trn mi trng Internet c th nhanh chng to ra v a vo s dng cc dch v mi da trn SIP. V d in hnh nht l Windows Messager ca Microsoft. Windows Messager c tch hp trong h iu hnh Windows XP v c cc tnh nng chnh nh sau - Qun l danh b cho tng ngi s dng, v c chc nng hin th tnh trng hin ti (Presence) ca tng c nhn trong danh sch. - Tinh nhn tc thi - Thoi v video - Truyn file - Thoi t PC ti my in thoi ca mng cng cng. Bng vic tch hp Windows Messager vo h iu hnh, Microsoft to ra SIP client tim tng trong mi my tnh c nhn, nh cho php cc nh pht trin trin rng ri dch v SIP trn ton mng. Ngoi ra c th lit k y mt s ng dng SIP clients khc nh: eCONF, Wave3 Session (www.wave3software.com), Network Convergence Laboratory at Claremont Graduate University (ncl.cgu.edu). Mt s ng dng SIP server bao gm: Microsoft Live Communications Server, HCL Technologies (www.hcltech.com), Indigo, Ubiquity, SNOM, VOCAL, Iptel, DynamicSoft, Siemens, Nortel, eCONF. b. ng dng ca SIP trong mng NGN SIP rt c ch v ngy cng c s dng rng ri trong cc kin trc ca mng NGN. Thng 11 nm 2000, SIP c chp nhn nh mt giao thc bo hiu ca 3GPP v tr thnh mt thnh phn chnh thc ca cu trc IMS. Cn phi ch rng, khi s dng trong mt mi trng c th (v d nh IMS), SIP khng cn c
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gi nguyn nh nh ngha ban u ca IETF. Thay vo , n c m rng cho nhng ng dng c th. 3GPP cng pht trin nhng m rng khi s dng SIP trong cu trc IMS. Mc d ra i v xut hin cc sn phm thng mi sau H.323, nhng SIP tr thnh giao thc bo hiu c s dng rng ri nht cho cc dch v VoIP. MSF pht trin m rng ca SIP cho dch v ny trn nn mng NGN theo cu trc iu khin Call Server.

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KT LUN
NGN l bc pht trin tip theo trong lnh vc truyn thng trn th gii h tr bi 3 mng li: mng vin thng cng cng PSTN, mng khng dy v mng Internet. NGN hi t c 3 mng trn vo mt kt cu thng nht hnh thnh mt mng chung, thng minh v hiu qu, cho php truy xut ton cu, tch hp nhiu cng ngh mi, ng dng mi v do NGN m ng cho cc c hi kinh doanh pht trin.N p ng c hu ht cc nhu cu ca nhiu i tng s dng nh c nhn, vn phng, doanh nghip... vi cc giao thc chun v giao din thn thin. Giao thc khi to phin (SIP) l mt giao thc c ch trng pht trin trong mng NGN. y l giao thc bo hiu mi xut hin, n thc hin iu khin phin cho cc kt ni a dch v. V c bn, hot ng iu khin bao gm khi to, thay i v kt thc mt phin c lin quan n cc phn t a phng tin nh: video, thoi, tin nhn, game trc tuyn...Bn cnh ng dng trong in thoi Internet, hin nay giao thc SIP cng ang c ng dng rt rng ri trong thng mi in t. L giao thc da trn HTTP, SIP cung cp kh nng tch hp mt cch d dng ting ni vi cc dch v Web khc, cho php truyn thng a phng tin nh hi ngh truyn hnh v tr chuyn trc tuyn, iu ny lm phong ph thm cc Website thng mi in t. Theo nh gi ca gii phn tch th SIP c v tr vng vng v l chn la v giao thc cho mng khng dy cng nh in thoi th h th ba.

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THUT NG VIT TT

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (Giao thc truyn siu vn bn ) MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension ( M rng th tn Internet a mc ch: Giao thc th in t ) RTP: Real-time Transport Protocol (Giao thc truyn thi gian thc) RTCP: Real Time Control Protocol ( Giao thc iu khin thi gian thc ) SIP: Session Initiation Protocol (Giao thc khi to phin ) SDP: Session Description Protocol( Giao thc m t phin ) IETFl: Internet Engineering Task Force( Nhm k thut Internet ) TU: Telephone User Part( ngi s dng in thoi ) ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network( Mng s a dch v tch hp ) VoIP: Voice over IP ( Cng ngh truyn thoi trn mng IP ) URI: Uniform Resource Identifier( nh danh ti nguyn ) URL: Uniform Resource Locator ( nh v ti nguyn )

UAS: User Agent Server( UA ch ) UAC: User Agent Client( UA khch )

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TI LIU THAM KHO

1.

Cng ngh IP/ MPLS v cc mng ring o TS V Tin Ban, NXB thng tin v truyn thng

2.

K thut chuyn mch TH.S Hong Trng Minh V TH.S Nguyn Thanh Tr, Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng

3.

Nghin cu cc gii php iu khin kt ni v phi hp bo hiu trong mng NGN- L Ngc Giao & Nguyn Tt c, Vin Khoa Hc K Thut Bu in 4. Neill Wilkinson, Next Generetion Network Services, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, 2002. 5. Henry Sinnreich, Alan B.Johnston, Internet Communications Using SIP, Wiley Publishing Inc, 2006

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MC LC

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