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# Updated April 2012

## Geometry Honors ________________________________________________________

Textbook: Geometry Prentice Hall Pearson Education Copyright 2011 ISBN 0-13-370621-4 (with online compendium) ISBN 0-13-350041-1 (without online compendium)

Overarching Concepts: - Visualizing the relationships between two figures and connect properties of real objects with two-dimensional drawings of these objects - Using transformations described geometrically or using coordinates that model relationships with figures. - Identifying symmetries of figures defined and classified by transformations - Determine and apply various attributes of geometric figures such as length, area, volume, and angle measure that are measureable - Create a vocabulary of terms that support the system of proofs used in geometry - Verify complex truths by using deductive reasoning - Identify and describe geometric figures with properties of similarity including proportional lengths, areas, and volumes. - Use coordinate geometry to find properties of similarity with lines and polygons on a Cartesian coordinate plane.

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Geometry Summary of Topics by Unit Unit 1 Nets and Drawings for Visualizing Geometry Points, Lines, and Planes Measuring Segments Measuring Angles Exploring Angle Pairs Basic Construction Midpoint and Distance in the Coordinate Plane Perimeter, Circumference, and Area Unit 2 Patterns and Inductive Reasoning Conditional Statements Biconditionals and Definitions Deductive Reasoning Reasoning in Algebra and Geometry Proving Angles Congruent Unit 3 Lines and Angles Properties of Parallel Lines Proving Lines Parallel Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Parallel Lines and Triangles Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Equations of Lines in the Coordinate Plane Slopes of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Unit 4 Congruent Figures Triangle Congruence by SSS and SAS Triangle Congruence by ASA and AAS Using Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles Congruence in Right Triangles Congruence in Overlapping Triangles Unit 5 Midsegments of Triangles Perpendicular and Angle Bisectors Bisectors in Triangles Medians and Altitudes Indirect Proof Inequalities in One Triangle Inequalities in Two Triangles Unit 6 The Polygon-Angle Sum Theorems Properties of Parallelograms Proving that a Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram Properties of Rhombuses, Rectangles, and Squares Conditions for Rhombuses, Rectangles, and Squares Trapezoids and Kites Polygons in the Coordinate Plane Applying Coordinate Geometry Proofs Using Coordinates Geometry Unit 7 Ratios and Proportions Similar Polygons Proving Triangles Similar Similarity in Right Triangles Proportions and Triangles Proportions in Triangles Unit 8 The Pythagorean Theorem Special Right Triangles Trigonometry Angles of Elevation and Depression Laws of Sines Laws of Cosines Unit 9 Translations Reflections Rotations Composition of Isometries Congruence Transformations Dilations Similarity Transformations Unit 10 Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles Areas of Trapezoids, Rhombuses ad Kites Areas of Regular Polygons Perimeters and Areas of Similar Figures Trigonometry and Area Circles and Arcs Areas of Circles and Sectors Geometric Probability Unit 11 Space Figures and Cross Sections Surface Areas of Prisms and Cylinders Surface Areas of Pyramids and Cones Volumes of Prisms and Cylinders Volumes of Pyramids and Cones Surface Areas and Volumes of Spheres Surface Areas and Volumes of Similar Solids Unit 12 Tangent Lines Chords and Arcs Inscribed Angles Angle Measures and Segment Lengths Circles in the Coordinate Plane Locus: A Set of Points Unit 13 Experimental and Theoretical Probability Probability Distributions and Frequency Tables Permutations and Combinations Compound Probability Probability Models Conditional Probability Formulas Modeling Randomness
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FIRST QUARTER Chapter 1 Sections 1-8 Tools of Geometry Essential Questions: - How can you represent a three-dimensional figure with a two-dimensional drawing - What are the building blocks of geometry? - How can you describe the attributes of a segment or angle? Enduring Understandings - You can represent a three-dimensional object with a two-dimensional figure using special drawing techniques. - Geometry is a mathematical system built on accepted facts, basic terms, and definitions. - You can use number operations to find and compare lengths of segments. - You can use number operations to find and compare the measures of angles. - Special angle pairs can help you identify geometric relationships. You can use these angle pairs to find angle measures. - You can use special geometric tools to make a figure that is congruent to an original figure without measuring. - You can use formulas to find the midpoint and length of any segment in the coordinate plane. - Perimeter and area are two different ways of measuring geometric figures. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the first quarter a student will be able to... - create nets and drawings of three dimensional figures. - identify and define basic terms and postulates of geometry. - calculate and compare lengths of segments. - differentiate between congruency and equal lengths. - find and compare measures of angles. - identify special angle pairs. - use special angle relationships to determine and angle measure. - create basic constructions using a straightedge and a compass. - calculate the midpoint of a segment. - determine the distance between two points in a coordinate plane. - differentiate between the perimeter, circumference, and area formulas for basic polygons. Corresponding topics and terminology: Acute, right obtuse, straight angles Adjacent angles Angle bisector Collinear/coplanar points Complementary angles Congruent angles Congruent segments Construction Isometric drawing Linear pair Measure of an angle Net Orthographic drawing Perpendicular bisector Perpendicular lines Point, line, plane Postulate axiom
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Ray, opposite rays Segment Segment bisector Space Supplementary angles Vertex of an angle Vertical angles

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Chapter 2 Sections 1-6 Reasoning and Proof Essential Questions: - How can you make a conjecture and prove that it is true? - What are different ways you can create and use a theorem? Enduring Understandings: - You can observe patterns in some number sequences and some sequences of geometric figures to discover relationships. - You can describe some mathematical relationships using a variety of if-then statements. - A definition is good if it can be written as a biconditional. - Given true statements, you can use deductive reasoning to make a valid or true conclusion. - Algebraic properties of equality are used in geometry. They will help you solve problems and justify each step you take. - You can use given information, definitions, properties, postulates, and previously proven theorems as reasons in a proof. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the first quarter a student will be able to... use inductive reasoning to make conjectures. identify algebraic and geometric patterns and relationships. recognize conditional statements and their parts. synthesize converses, inverses, and contrapositives of conditionals. construct bi-conditionals using good definitions. prove theorems using the Law of Detachment and the Law of Syllogism. relate properties of equality from algebra to geometric applications. prove and apply theorems about angles.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Biconditional Conclusion Conditional Conjecture Contrapositive Converse Counterexample Deductive reasoning Equivalent statements Hypothesis Inductive reasoning Inverse Law of Detachment Law of Syllogism Negation Paragraph proof Proof Theorem Truth value Two-column proof

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Chapter 3 Sections 1-8 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Essential Questions: - How do you prove that two lines are parallel? - What is the sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle? - How do you write an equation of a line in the coordinate plane? Enduring Understandings: - Not all lines and not all planes intersect. - The special angle pairs formed by parallel lines and a transversal are congruent, supplementary, or both. - You can use certain angle pairs to decide whether two lines are parallel. - You can use the relationships of two lines to a third line to decide whether the two lines are parallel or perpendicular to each other. - The sum of the angle measures of a triangle is always the same. - You can also use a straightedge and a compass to construct parallel and perpendicular lines. - You can graph a line and write its equation when you know certain facts about the line, such as its slope and a point on the line. - You can determine whether two lines are parallel or perpendicular by comparing their slopes. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the first quarter a student will be able to... - identify relationships between figures in space. - synthesize laws created by the angles formed by two angles and a transversal. - prove theorems about parallel lines. - use properties of parallel lines to find angle measures. - determine whether two lines are parallel and justify using theorems. - relate parallel and perpendicular lines. - use parallel lines to prove a theorem about triangles. - determine measures of angles of triangles. - construct parallel and perpendicular lines. - graph and write the linear equations that create geometric shapes. - relate slope too parallel and perpendicular lines.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Alternate exterior angles Alternate interior angles Auxiliary line Corresponding angles Exterior angle of a polygon Flow proof Parallel lines Parallel planes Point-slope form Remote interior angles Same-side interior angles Skew lines Slop Slope-intercept form Transversal

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SECOND QUARTER Chapter 4 Sections 1-7 Congruent Triangles Essential Questions: - How do you identify corresponding parts of congruent triangles? - How do you show that two triangles are congruent? - How can you tell whether a triangle is isosceles or equilateral? Enduring Understandings: - You can determine whether two figures are congruent by comparing their corresponding parts. - You can prove that two triangles are congruent without having to show that all corresponding parts are congruent. - If you know two triangles are congruent, then you know that every pair of their corresponding parts is also congruent. - The angles and sides of isosceles and equilateral triangles have special relationships. - In overlapping triangles you can sometimes use congruent corresponding parts of one pair of the triangles to prove another pair is also congruent. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the second quarter a student will be able to... recognize congruent figures and their corresponding parts. prove that two triangles are congruent using various postulates. differentiate between congruent and non-congruent triangles. use and apply properties of isosceles and equilateral triangles. prove that right triangles are congruent identify congruent overlapping triangles. formulate a proof demonstrating that two triangles are congruent using other congruent triangles.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Base angles Congruent polygons Corollary Hypotenuse Legs of a triangle Vertex angle

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Chapter 5 Sections 1-7 Relationships Within Triangles Essential Questions: - How do you use coordinate geometry to find relationships within triangles? - How do you solve problems that involve measurements of triangles? - How do you write indirect proofs? Essential Understanding: - There are two special relationships between a midsegment of a triangle and the third side of the triangle. - There is a special relationship between the points on the perpendicular bisector of a segment and the endpoints of the segment. - For any triangle, certain sets of lines are always concurrent. - A triangles three medians are always concurrent. - You can use indirect reasoning as another method of proof. - The angles and sides of a triangle have special relationships that involve inequalities. - In triangles that have two pairs of congruent sides, there is a relationship between the included angles and the third pair of sides. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the second quarter a student will be able to... use properties of mid-segments to solve problems. compare the length of segments using various theorems. create perpendicular and angle bisectors in an angle. identify points of concurrency in triangles. explain the properties of medians and altitudes of a triangle. write proofs using indirect reasoning. compare and contrast triangles using inequality statements about angles and sides. apply inequality statements in two triangles.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Altitude of a triangle Centroid of a triangle Circumcenter of a triangle Circumscribed about Concurrent Distance from a point to a line Equidistant Incenter of a triangle Indirect proof Indirect reasoning Inscribed in Median of a triangle Midsegment of a triangle Orthocenter of a triangle Point of concurrency

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Chapter 6 Sections 1-9 Polygons and Quadrilaterals Essential Questions: - How can you find the sum of the measures of polygon angles? - How can you classify quadrilaterals? - How can you use coordinate geometry to prove general relationships? Enduring Understandings: - The sum of the interior angle measures of a polygon depends on the numbers of sides the polygon has. - Parallelograms have special properties regarding their sides, angles, and diagonals. - You can decide whether a quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its sides, angles, and diagonals have certain properties. - You can determine whether a parallelogram is a rhombus or a rectangle based on the properties of its diagonals. - The angles, sides and diagonals of trapezoids and kites have certain properties. - You can classify figures in the coordinate plane using the formulas for slope, distance, and midpoint. - You can use variables to name the coordinates of a figure and state relationships between them. - You can prove geometric relationships using variable coordinates for figures in the coordinate plane. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the second quarter a student will be able to... calculate the sum of the measures of interior and exterior angles of a polygon. discuss the relationships between the sides and angles of parallelograms. prove theorems of relationships among diagonals of parallelograms. determine whether a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. define and classify special types of parallelograms. compare and contrast properties of rectangles and rhombuses. prove a parallelogram is either a rectangle or a rhombus. verify properties of trapezoids and kites. classify polygons in the coordinate plane. name coordinates or special figures by using their properties. prove theorems using figures in the coordinate plane.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Base Base angle Consecutive angles Coordinate proof Equiangular polygon Equilateral polygon Isosceles trapezoid Kite Midsegment of a trapezoid
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Opposite angles Opposite sides Parallelogram Rectangle Regular polygon Rhombus Square Trapezoid

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THIRD QUARTER Chapter 7 Sections 1-5 Similarity Essential Questions: - How do you use proportions to find side lengths in similar polygons? - How do you show two triangles are similar? - How do you identify corresponding parts of similar triangles? Enduring Understandings: - You can write a ratio to compare two quantities. - You can use ratios and proportions to decide whether two polygons are similar and to find unknown side lengths of similar figures. - You can show that two triangles are similar when you know the relationships between only two or three pairs of corresponding parts. - When you draw the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle, you form three pairs of similar right triangles. - When two or more parallel lines intersect other lines, proportional segments are formed. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the third quarter a student will be able to... write ratios used in solving proportion problems. compare values found in proportions. identify and apply similar polygons. use similarity to find indirect measurements. differentiate between various theorems to prove similarity. synthesize statements of similarity using right triangles. use proportions to demonstrate similarity in triangles.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Extended proportion Extended ration Extremes Geometric mean Indirect measurement Means Proportion Ration Scale drawings Scale factor Similar figures Similar polygons

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Chapter 8 Sections 1-6 Right Triangles and Trigonometry Essential Questions: - How do you find a side length or angle measure in a right triangle? - How do trigonometric ratios relate to similar right triangles? Enduring Understandings: - If you know the lengths of any two sides of a right triangle, you can find the length of the third side by using the Pythagorean Theorem. - Certain right triangles have properties that allow you to use shortcuts to determine side lengths without using the Pythagorean Theorem. - If you know certain combinations of the side lengths and angle measures of a right triangle, you can use ratios to find other side lengths and angle measures. - You can use the angles of elevation and depression as the acute angles of right triangles formed by a horizontal distance and vertical height. - The relationships between angle measure and side lengths can be stated using trigonometric relations. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the third quarter a student will be able to... solve problems using the Pythagorean theorem and its converse. classify two special right triangles. create triangles that are congruent using the properties of special right triangles. use the trigonometric relations to determine side lengths and angular measures in right triangles. differentiate between angles of elevation and depression, then use each to solve problems. identify triangles that require the Law of Sines to solve, then apply the law to solve for missing parts. identify triangles that require the Law of Cosines to solve, then apply the law to solve for missing parts.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Angle of depression Angle of elevation Cosine Law of Cosines Law of Sines Pythagorean triple Sine Tangent Trigonometric ratios

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Chapter 9 Sections 1-7 Transformations Essential Questions: - How can you change a figures position without changing its size and shape? - How can you change a figures size without changing its shape? - How can you represent a transformation in the coordinate plane? - How do you recognize congruence and similarity in figures? Enduring Understandings: - You can change the position of a geometric figure so that the angle measures and the distance between any two points of a figure remain the same. - When you reflect a figure across a line, each point of the figure maps to another point the same distance from the line, but on the other side. - Rotations preserve distance, angle measures, and orientation of figures. - You can express all isometries as compositions of reflections. - You can use compositions of rigid motions to understand congruence. - You can use a scale factor to make a larger or smaller copy of a figure that is also similar to the original figure. - You can use compositions of rigid motions and dilations to help you understand the properties of similarity. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the third quarter a student will be able to... find and identify isometries. differentiate between various translations on general images. classify translations that are specifically reflections. create compositions of isometries including glide reflections. identify congruence transformations. prove triangle congruence using isometries. explain the dilation of figures. use scale factors to create dilations. verify properties of similarity in various transformations.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Composition of transformations Congruence transformation Dilation Glide reflection Image Isometry Preimage Reflection Rigid motion Rotation Similarity transformation Transformation Translation

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FOURTH QUARTER Chapter 10 Sections 1-8 Area Essential Questions: - How do you find the area of a polygon or find the circumference and area of a circle? - How do perimeters and areas of similar polygons compare? Essential Understanding: - You can find the area of a parallelogram or a triangle when you know the length of its base and its height. - You can find the area of a trapezoid when you know its height and the length of its bases. - The area of a regular polygon is related to the distance from the center to a side. - You can use ratios to compare the perimeters and areas of similar figures. - You can use trigonometry to find the area of a regular polygon when you know the length of a side, radius, or apothem. - You can find the length of part of a circles circumference by relating it to an angle in the circle. - You can find the area of a circle when you know its radius. - You can use geometric models to solve certain types of probability problems. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the fourth quarter a student will be able to calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles. deduce the area formula for trapezoids, rhombuses, and kites and apply appropriately. create equations for the areas of regular polygons. use ratios to find and compare perimeters and areas of polygons. determine the area of regular polygons and triangles using trigonometry. solve for the measure of central angles, arcs, circumferences, and arc lengths. manipulate the area formula of a circle to find the area of a sector. create segment and area models that find the probabilities of events.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Adjacent arcs Altitude Apothem Arc length Base Central angle Circle Circumference Concentric circles Congruent circles Diameter Geometric probability Height Major arc Minor arc Radius Sector of a circle Segment of a circle Semicircle

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Chapter 11 Sections 1-7 Surface Area and Volume Essential Questions: - How can you determine the intersection of a solid and a plane? - How do you find the surface area and volume of a solid? - How do the surface areas and volumes of similar solids compare? Essential Understanding: - You can analyze a three-dimensional figure by using the relationships among its vertices, edges, and faces. - To find the surface area of a three-dimensional figure, find the sum of the areas of all the surfaces of the figure. - You can find the volume of a prism or a cylinder when you know its height and the area of its base. - The volume of a pyramid is related to the volume of a prism with the same base and height. - You can find the surface area and the volume of a sphere when you know its radius. - You can use ratios to compare the areas and volumes of similar solids. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the fourth quarter a student will be able to... classify polyhedral and their parts. construct cross sections of space figures. calculate the surface area of a prism and a cylinder. use the properties of lateral surface area to find the surface area of pyramids and cones. determine the volume of a prism, cylinder, pyramid, and a cone. solve for the surface area and volume of a sphere. compare and contrast the areas and volumes of similar spheres and solids.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Altitude Center of a sphere Cone Cross section Cylinder Edge Face Great circle Hemisphere Lateral area Lateral face Polyhedron Prism Pyramid Right cone Right cylinder Right prism Slant height Sphere Surface area Volume

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Chapter 12 Sections 1-6 Circles Essential Questions: - How can you prove relationships between angles and arcs in a circle? - When lines intersect a circle or within a circle, how do you find the measures of resulting angles, arcs, and segments? - How do you find the equation of a circle in the coordinate plane? Enduring Understandings: - A radius of a circle and the tangent that intersects the endpoint of the radius on the circle have a special relationship. - Angles formed by intersecting lines have a special relationship to the arcs the intersecting lines intercept. - Angles formed by intersecting lines have a special relationship to the related arcs formed when the lines intersect a circle. - The information in the equation of a circle allows you to graph the circle. - You can write the equation of a circle on a coordinate plane given its center and radius. - You can use the description of a locus to sketch a geometric relationship. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the fourth quarter a student will be able to... define the properties of a tangent to a circle. differentiate between lines that are tangents and chords. create perpendicular bisectors to chords. identify central angles. determine the measure of an inscribed angle. construct an angle formed by a tangent and a chord, then determine its measure. calculate the measures of angles formed by chords, secants, and tangents. determine the lengths of segments associated with circles. construct the equation of a circle on a coordinate plane. identify the center and the radius of a circle on a coordinate plane. draw and describe a locus.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Chord Inscribed angle Intervepted arc Locus Point of tangency Secant Standard form of an equation of a circle Tangent to a circle

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Recommended Project Based Assessment Chapter 13 Sections 1-7 Probability Essential Questions: - What is the difference between experimental probability and theoretical probability? - What is a frequency table? - What does it mean for an event to be random? Enduring Understandings: - Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. - You can use data organized in tables that show frequencies to find probabilities. - You can use counting techniques to find all of the possible ways to complete different tasks or choose items from a list. - You can find the probability of compound events by using the probability of each part of the compound event. - You can use two-way frequency tables to organize data and identify sample spaces to approximate probabilities. - You can find conditional probabilities using a formula. - You can use probability to make choices and to help make decisions based on prior experience. Learning Objectives: Upon successful completion of the fourth quarter a student will be able to... calculate experimental and theoretical probability. create and use a frequency table. analyze a frequency table to determine probability distributions. solve problems using combinations and permutations. identify independent and dependent events. construct and solve compound probabilities. analyze a data table and construct a probability model. evaluate and solve conditional probabilities. defend decisions made based on probability analysis.

Corresponding topics and terminology: Combination Complement of an event Conditional probability Dependent event Event Experimental probability Expected value Frequency table Independent events Mutually exclusive events Permutation Probability Sample space Theoretical probability Two-way frequency table

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