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B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI ---------------------------------

GVHD: GS. Hong Minh Qun


CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

c lp - T do - Hnh phc
---------------------------------

NHIM V N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: Kho: Khoa: in t - Vin thng 1. u n:
.. ......

S hiu sinh vin: Ngnh: in t vin thng

2. Cc s liu v d liu ban u:


...... ... ....

3. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:


... . ..... ...

4. Cc bn v, th ( ghi r cc loi v kch thc bn v ):


... ... ...

5. H tn ging vin hng dn: ..... 6. Ngy giao nhim v n:.... 7. Ngy hon thnh n: . Ngy thngnm 2012 Ch nhim B mn Ging vin hng dn

Sinh vin hon thnh v np n tt nghip ngy.thngnm 2012 Cn b phn bin

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B GIO DC V O TO TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI ----------------------------BN NHN XT N TT NGHIP H v tn sinh vin: Kho: S hiu sinh vin: Ngnh: K thut in t vin thng

Khoa: in t - Vin thng

Ging vin hng dn: GS. Hong Minh Qun Cn b phn bin: ................................................................................................... 1. Ni dung thit k tt nghip ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. 2. Nhn xt ca cn b phn bin ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................. Ngythngnm 2011 Cn b phn bin

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LI NI U
Khi i sng vt cht ca ngi dn ngy cng c nng cao, yu cu v cht lng cc chng trnh truyn hnh, gii tr ngy cng ln. Lnh vc pht thanh truyn hnh trong my nm tr li y ang c nhng bc tin nhy vt. Truyn hnh analog, truyn hnh cp, truyn hnh k thut s mt t, truyn hnh v tinh DTH...pht trin mnh v s lng v cht lng, lan ta khp cc tnh, thnh ph. Truyn hnh SDTV Vit Nam hin nay c phn gii cao nht l 720 im chiu ngang v 576 im chiu dc (720x576) trong khi , truyn hnh HDTV c s lng im nh ln n 1920x1080. S lng cc chi tit nh ca HDTV cao gp 5 ln so vi SDTV, cho hnh nh sc nt, chn thc, sng ng. H thng m thanh 5.1 vn c dng nhiu trong cc dn nhc ti nh hay rp chiu phim, gi xut hin ngay c trn sng truyn hnh. Thm vo , nu t l tiu chun khung hnh c l 4:3 lm ngi xem mau mi mt th vi HDTV, t l khun hnh 16:9 hin th ng kch thc tht ca hnh nh. S dng HDTV trn mn hnh rng, ngi xem s khng cn nhn thy nhng hnh nh mt cn i. Mn hnh khng cn hin tng bng ma, m nhiu. Vi nhng c tnh u vit nh trn, c th khng nh xu th HDTV l tt yu trong thi gian ngn ti y v ph hp vi xu th pht trin ca x hi. Xut pht t thc t , em tin hnh tm hiu vi ti v HDTV. Em xin chn thnh cm n thy Hong Minh Qun tn tnh hng dn, to iu kin em c th hon thnh tt n tt nghip.

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TM TT N Ni dung ti gm 4 chng c tm tt nh sau: Chng 1. Truyn hnh k thut s, gii thiu v truyn hnh s, cc tiu chun v phng php chuyn i t tng t sang s v ngc li, phng php nn truyn dn tn hiu s. Chng 2. Truyn hnh phn gii cao HDTV, chng ny gii thiu khun hnh, t l nh v chuyn i t l nh 9:16 v 3:4, cc nh dng HDTV v khun hnh. Chng 3. Truyn dn tn hiu HDTV, chng ny ni v cc phng php truyn dn tn hiu t i pht n pha thu. Chng 4. Thit b hin th, ni v cng ngh v cu to mn hnh hin th ang c pht trin v ng dng nhiu hin nay.

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MC LC

DANH SCH CC HNH V


Hnh 1.1. So snh cht lng tn hiu s v tng t.....16 Hnh 1.2. S tng qut h thng thu v pht truyn hnh s..22 Hnh 1.3. S khi mch bin i video s sang tng t..........24 Hnh 1.4. Tp hp cc k thut gim d liu to JPEGMJPEG.....26 Hnh 1.5. M ha, gii MDPCM.....27 Hnh 1.6. Cu trc MPEG-2 phn lp.28 Hnh 1.7. Dng cc hnh PS ...................29 Page 5

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Hnh 1.8. nh dng dng truyn ti MPEG-2............30 Hnh 1.9. Dng truyn ti TS..........31 Hnh 1.10. Ghp knh dng bit truyn ti cp h thng......31 Hnh 2.1. T l hnh nh trong truyn hnh ........34 Hnh 2.2. Gii thiu nh dng video..........34 Hnh 2.3. im nh ca mt s tiu chun.................35 Hnh 2.4. So snh t s mn nh gia tivi thng v HDTV......37 Hnh 2.5. HDTV qut 30 v 60 khung hnh trn giy c....38 Hnh 2.6. Tng hp s qut HDTV ........38 Hnh 2.7. Phng php 1 ct theo chiu ng........... 41 Hnh 2.8. Phng php 2 bng bin....42 Hnh 2.9. Gii php 1 ca s trung tm...................43 Hnh 2.10. Gii php 2 letterbox: nh gc 16:9 cy vo nh dng 4:3..43 Hnh 2.11. Tn s ly mu SDTV Widescreen ......44 Hnh 3.1. nh v tinh vinasat 1.......56 Hnh 3.2. S tng th ca trm thu pht v tinh.....60 Hnh 3.3. S khi bn thu phn x l tn hiu (u thu)....60 Hnh 4.1. B tr im nh....65 Hnh 4.2. Cc lp cu to LCD...67 Hnh 4.3. Tn hiu iu khin cc im nh....69 Hnh 4.4. Cu to cc im nh mn hnh plasma..71 Hnh 4.5. Cu to cc im nh mn hnh LED..72

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DANH MC T VIT TT T vit tt ATSC C/N CD COFDM DiBEG Ting Anh y Advanced Television System Commitee Carrier/Noise Compact Disk Coding Othogonality Fequency Dvision Mltiplexing Digital Broadcasting Expert Group Ting Vit Hi ng v h thng truyn hnh ci bin Sng mang/tp m CD M ha ghp knh theo tn s trc giao Nhm chuyn gia truyn hnh s Page 7

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DVB DVBC/S/T EDTV FEC HDTV ISDB LDTV MPEG

Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video BroadcastingCable / Satellite / Terrestrial Enhanced Definition Television Forward Error Correction High Definitiom Televisiom Integrated Services Digital Broadcasing Low Definitiom Television Moving Pictures Experts Group M-ary Phase Shift Keying M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation National Television System Committee Othogonality Fequency Dvision Mltiplexing Phase Alternating Line Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Radio Frequence Standard Definition

Truyn hnh s Truyn hnh s qua cp / v tinh / pht sng trn mt t Truyn hnh phn gii m rng Sa li tin (thun) Truyn hnh phn gii cao Truyn hnh s cc dch v tch hp Truyn hnh phn gii thp Nhm chuyn gia nghin cu v nh ng Kha dch pha M trng thi iu ch bin vung gc M trng thi Hi ng h thng truyn hnh quc gia M Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao Pha lun phin theo dng iu ch bin vung gc Kha dch pha vung gc Cao tn Truyn hnh phn gii tiu Page 8

M-PSK M-QAM

NTSC

OFDM PAL QAM QPSK RF SDTV

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Television SFN SMPTE VOD Single Frequence Network Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers Video On Demand

GVHD: GS. Hong Minh Qun


chun Mng n tn Hip hi nh ng v k s truyn hnh Truyn hnh theo yu cu

S LC V LCH S PHT TRIN TRUYN HNH Lch s pht trin ca truyn hnh rt phc tp v n ng dng kt qu nghin cu ca nhiu lnh vc khoa hc k thut khc nhau. - Nm 1839 Bee Quell tm ra hin tng quang in. - Nm 1898 Volsske tm ra h thng truyn hnh khng dy dn (truyn hnh bng sng in t). - Nm 1945 tiu chun truyn hnh 525 dng v 625 dng cc th nghim truyn hnh mu bt u t sau i chin th gii ln th II v ngy nay tr thnh ph bin trn th gii. - Truyn hnh mu ra i khi h thng truyn hnh en trng hon thin. V vy khi xy dng h thng truyn hnh mu cn phi gii quyt sao cho my thu hnh, en trng c th thu c vi hnh nh en trng. Mt khc phi gii quyt c ngc li l dng my thu hnh mu c th thu c chng trnh truyn hnh en trng vi nh nhn c cng l en trng. l tnh kt hp ca h truyn hnh mu. Phng php to tn hiu hnh mu hon chnh (bao gm tn hiu chi v tn hiu mu) c thc hin u tin M. Tn hiu hnh mu hon chnh mang tin tc v mu sc v bo ho mu ca nh mu. Nng lng ph tn hiu chi phn b khng u trong c bng tn tn hiu truyn hnh. Tn hiu Page 9

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mu c ph nm trong gii tn hp hn v b tr min tn s cao ca bng tn tn hiu chi . T c im trn c th thc hin cc iu kin kt hp truyn hnh mu v truyn hnh en trng. Tn hiu hnh mu v tn hiu chi nm trong cng 1 bng tn c bn c thc hin trong h truyn hnh mu NTSC nm 1950 M do FCC (Feeal Communcation Commion - y ban thng tin lin bang). Nhng nm sau h truyn hnh mu pht trin nhanh chng, cht lng nh h NTSC ha phi l tt v tn hiu h NTSC rt nhy vi mo pha v mo bin . Ngi ta chuyn sang nghin cu tm ra cc h thng m ho tn hiu mu khc, sao cho mo pha v mo bin xut hin trong knh truyn hnh l nh hng nh nht. - Nm 1957 Php xut hin h truyn hnh mu SECAM do Henry De France nghin cu v thc hin. - Nm 1962 gio s Walter Bruce Ty c cng b H truyn hnh PAL. C hai h SECAM v PAL v nguyn l chung thng nht vi h NTSC. - Nm 1966 sl (Na Uy) tin hnh hi ngh CCIR chn h truyn hnh mu thng nht cho c Chu u, tin cho vic trao i chng trnh truyn hnh mu gia cc nc. Kt qu mt s nc chn h SECAM cn mt s nc dng h PAL, M v Nht s dng h NTSC. Vit Nam chn h PAL tiu chun OIRT (Organization International Radio and Television - t chc pht thanh truyn hnh quc t). - Nm 1994 M nghin cu v th nghim truyn hnh s, n thng 12 nm 1996 ban hnh tiu chun ATSC. - Nm 1997 Nht Bn ban hnh tiu chun ISDB - hay cn gi l tiu chun DIBEG.

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- Nm 1997 tiu chun DVB-T ca Chu u ra i. Nhiu nc Bc u, mt s nc Chu trong c Vit Nam v nhiu nc khc la chn tiu chun ny v d kin pht sng s hon ton vo nm 2010-2015. - Vit Nam t nm 1997 n nay c mt s n v k thut c nghin cu v tip cn vi cng ngh s, cho n nay nhiu cng on trong sn xut chng trnh, truyn dn c s ho, nhiu ti nghin cu truyn hnh s v ang c nghin cu th nghim chnh v vy m n mang tnh khoa hc v thc tin cao nhm cng ngy cng nng cao cht lng cho vic pht hnh s ti Vit Nam. Xu hng chung cho s pht trin truyn hnh l nhm t c thng nht, l h thng truyn hnh hon ton c k thut c cht lng cao v d dng phn phi trn knh thng tin, v vy truyn hnh k thut s HDTV v ang c pht trin mnh m.

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CHNG I. TRUYN HNH K THUT S Truyn hnh k thut s l s dng phng php s to, lu tr v truyn tn hiu ca chng trnh truyn hnh trn knh thng tin m ra mt kh nng c bit rng ri cho cc thit b truyn hnh c nghin cu trc. Trong mt s ng dng, tn hiu s c thay th hon ton cho tn hiu tng t v c kh nng th hin c cc chc nng m tn hiu tng t hu nh khng th lm c hoc rt kh thc hin, nht l trong vic x l tn hiu v lu tr. 1.1. c im ca truyn hnh s - C kh nng pht hin li v sa sai. - Tnh phn cp (HDTV + SDTV) - Thu di ng tt. Ngi xem d i trn t, tu ha vn xem c cc chng trnh truyn hnh. S d nh vy l do x l tt hin tng Doppler. - Truyn ti c nhiu loi thng tin. - t nhy vi nhiu vs cc dng mo xy ra trn ng truyn. bo ton cht lng hnh nh, thu s khng cn hin tng bng ma do cc tia sng phn x t nhiu hng n my thu. y l vn m h analog ang khng khc phc ni. Pht nhiu chng trnh trn mt knh truyn hnh: Tit kim ti nguyn tn s: - Mt trong nhng u im ca truyn hnh s l tit kim ph tn s - 1 transponder 36MHz truyn c 2 chng trnh truyn hnh tng t song c th truyn c 10 12 chng trnh truyn hnh s (gp 5 6 ln) - Mt knh 8 MHz (trn mt t) ch truyn c 1 chng trnh truyn hnh tng t song c th truyn c 4 5 chng trnh truyn hnh s i vi

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h thng ATSC, 4 8 chng trnh i vi h DVB T (ty thuc M-QAM, khong bo v v FEC) Bo ton cht lng :

Cht lng Tn hiu s

Tn hiu tng t

Khong cch gia my pht v my thu

Hnh 1.1 So snh cht lng tn hiu s v tng t Tit kim nng lng, chi ph khai thc thp: Cng sut pht khng cn qu ln v cng in trng cho thu s thp hn cho thu analog ( nhy my thu s thp hn -30 n -20 DB so vi my thu analog). Mng n tn (SFN): cho kh nng thit lp mng n knh, ngha l nhiu my pht trn cng mt knh song. y l s hiu qu ln xt v mt cng sut v tn s. Tn hiu s d x l, mi trng qun l iu khin v x l rt thn thin vi my tnh Page 14

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1.2. Cc h tiu chun truyn dn truyn hnh s mt t 1.2.1. Gii thiu chung 3 chun Cho n nm 1997, ba h tiu chun truyn hnh s mt t c chnh thc cng b: - ATSC ca M - DVB-T ca Chu u - DiBEG ca Nht Mi tiu chun u c mt mnh, yu khc nhau, cc cuc tranh lun lin tip n ra. Nhiu cuc th nghim quy m tm c quc gia, vi s tham gia ca nhiu t chc Pht thanh - Truyn hnh, c quan nghin cu khoa hc v thm ch cc c quan chnh ph. Mc ch ca cc th nghim: - Lm r cc mt mnh, yu ca tng tiu chun - La chn tiu chun ph hp vi mi quc gia. Do DIBEG trn thc t l mt bin th ca DVB-T (v cng s dng phng php iu ch OFDM), nn cc cuc tranh lun thng ch tp trung vo 2 tiu chun chnh l ATSC v DVB-T. C hai tiu chun ny u s dng gi truyn ti MPEG 2 tiu chun quc t, m ngoi Reed-solomon, m trong Trellis code v s dng phng php tro, ngu nhin ha d liu. Khc nhau phng php iu ch 8-VSB v COFDM. Mi tiu chun u c nhng u nhc im khc nhau, u c kh nng pht kt hp vi truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTV+SDTV), u c di tn s knh RF ph hp vi truyn hnh tng t NTSC, PAL M/N, D/K, B/Gl 6,7 hoc 8 MHz. Vic la chn tiu chun truyn hnh s mt t cho mi quc gia phi da vo nhiu yu t ty thuc vo iu kin c th ca tng t nc .

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DVB-T nm trong h thng tiu chun DVB ca chu u: DVB-S, DVBC, DVB-SI tiu chun truyn s liu theo truyn hnh s, DVB-TXT- tiu chun Teletext s, ATSC ch l mt tiu chun v cho n nay m vn cn c cc cuc tranh lun quyt lit v tiu chun ny. 1.2.2. im u vit ATSC v DVB-T ATSC c 3 im u vit hn tiu chun DVB-T: - Tro d liu v m sa sai (RS) - Kh nng chng nhiu t bin. - Mc cng trng tiu chun ti u thu DVB-T c im u vit hn tiu chun ATSC: - Kh nng chng nhiu phn x nhiu ng. - Kh nng ghp ni vi my pht hnh tng t nu c. - Chng can nhiu ca my pht hnh tng t cng knh & knh k. - Mng n tn (SFN) v tit kim di ph. - Kh nng thu di ng. - iu ch phn cp. - Tng thch vi cc loi hnh dch v khc. * Kt lun chung v 3 tiu chun: ATSC phng php iu ch 8-VSB cho t s tn hiu trn tp m tt hn nhng li khng c kh nng thu di ng v khng thch hp lm vi cc nc ang s dng h PAL. DIBEG c tnh phn lp cao, cho php a loi hnh dch v, linh hot mm do, tn dng ti a di thng, c kh nng thu di ng nhng khng tng thch vi cc dch v truyn hnh qua v tinh, cp.

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DVB-T vi phng php iu ch COFDM t ra c nhiu c im u vit, nht l i vi cc nc c a hnh phc tp, c nhu cu s dng mng n tn (SFN) v c bit l kh nng thu di ng. 1.3. La chn tiu chun truyn hnh s mt t ca c nc 1.3.1 Cc nc trn th gii Cc nc la chn tiu chun ATSC gm: Achentina, Mexico, Hn quc, i loan, Canada, * M: - 1995: Cng b tiu chun (ATSC) - 1997: Bt u pht song th nghim truyn hnh s - 2006: chm dt cng ngh truyn hnh tng t, chuyn hon ton sang pht song s. * Achentina: pht sng s vo nm 1999. * Mexico: pht sng s vo nm 1992. * Hn quc: - La chn tiu chun t nm 1997 n 1998 - Pht th nghim t 1998 n 2001 - Chnh thc pht sng s vo nm 2001 - Chm dt truyn hnh tng t vo nm 2010 * Nht Bn: ban hnh tiu chun ISDB-T v ch trng s pht sng s theo h tiu chun ring ca mnh. - 1997 : Ban hnh tiu chun v bt u pht sng th nghim - 2010 : Chm dt cng ngh truyn hnh tng t Cc nc la chn tiu chun DVB-T gm : Nc Anh l nc u tin c 33 trm pht s DVB-T vo thng 10/1998, ph sng khong 75% dn s. n nm 1999, sn trm tng ln l 81, ph sng khong 90% dn s. D kin chn dt truyn hnh tng t vo nm 2015.

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Ty ban nha, Thy in: pht sng 1999, chm dt tng t vo 2010 2012. Php, an mch, Phn lan, H lan, B o nha, Na uy :pht sng s 2000, chm dt tng t vo 2010 2015. c, B : Pht sng s nm 2001, chm dt tng t vo 2010 2015. Thy s, Italia, o : pht sng s 2002, Thy s d kin chm dt tng t vo nm 2012. Australia : tin hnh th nghim DVB-Y & ATSC t 3/10/1997 n 14/11/1997 cng b kt qu th nghim 7/1998 chnh thc la chn DVB-T. T 1998 2001 quy hoch tn s, n 1/1/2001 pht sng chnh thc ti mt s thnh ph ln, pht trn phm vi ton quc vo nm 2004. Chm dt tng t vo khng 2008 2010 Singapore : tin hnh th nghim c 3 tiu chun t 6 9/1998. La chn DVB-T v pht sng s chnh thc vo 2001. 1.3.2. Ti Vit Nam 1.3.2.1. D kin l trnh i mi cng ngh Vit Nam (D tho quy hoch THVN n nm 2010 tin n nm 2020) - T nm 1997-2000: Nghin cu la chn tiu chun - 2001: Quyt nh la chn tiu chun(DVB-T). Ngy 26-3-2001,Tng gim c i Truyn hnh Vit Nam quyt nh la chn tiu chun DVB-T cho Vit Nam. Mc quan trng trong qu trnh pht trin THVN. - 2003: Pht sng th nghim ti H Ni v TP H Ch Minh. - 2005: Truyn th nghim chng trnh TH trn internet. - Hon chnh, ban hnh tiu chun DVB-T, DVB-S, v DVB-C. - Xy dng mng quy hoch tn s, cng sut ... - n nn 2020, Vit Nam s s dng truyn hnh s hon ton. Page 18

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H tng truyn dn pht sng TH mt t s c chuyn i hp l sang cng ngh s hon ton trn c s p dng b tiu chun chu u (DVB-T truyn hnh s mt t), ngng hn vic s dng cng ngh truyn hnh tng t. 1.3.2.2. Thng tin v kt qu nghin cu th nghim ti Vit Nam Thng 5/2000: Ln u tin truyn hnh s mt t pht sng th nghim ti i THVN trong khun kh ti cp Nh Nc thuc chng trnh in T-Vin Thng KHCN-01-05B Ghp ni thnh cng b iu ch s vi my pht hnh tng t 5KW ti i PT_TH tnh Hng yn. Thng 12/2000: Pht sng th nghim trn din rng (cng sut tng t 2KW) cng ty VTC Thng 7/2001: Pht sng th nghim trn din rng (cng sut tng t 30KW) cng ty VTC. Nm 2002: Nghin cu th nghim kh nng chng li phn x nhiu ng, can nhiu s - tng t, tng t - s trong khun kh ti cp nh nc (Trung tm tin hc v o lng ch tr) Nm 2003: - Nghin cu th nghim cht lng thu tn hiu i vi cc iu kin thi tit khc nhau - Kh nng chng li can nhiu gia cc knh truyn s cng knh, ln cn) - Nghin cu vic la chn cc tham s c bn ca h thng truyn hnh s mt t ph hp vi iu kin thc t Vit Nam - Xy dng Th vin in t truyn hnh s mt t 1.4. C s truyn hnh s - Theo hnh 1.2 bn di: Mi mt chng trnh truyn hnh cn mt b m ha MPEG-2 ring trc khi bin i tng t sang s. Page 19

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- Khi c nn gim ti d liu, cc chng trnh ny s ghp li vi nhau to thnh dng bt lin tip. - Lc ny chng trnh sn sng truyn i xa, cn c iu ch pht i theo cc phng thc:

DVB-S

DVB-T

DVB-C iu ch Ghp knh chng trnh CT 1 MPEG-2 A/D Video Audio CT n MPEG-2 A/D Video Audio Gii iu ch Tch knh chng trnh Gii MPEG-2 D/A Video Audio Pha thu Khi s ha tn hiu truyn Khi nn vidieo s

Pha pht

Hnh 1.2. S tng qut h thng thu v pht truyn hnh s + Truyn hnh s v tinh DVB-S (QPSK) + Truyn hnh s cp DVB-C (QAM) + Truyn hnh s mt t ( COFDM).

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- Pha thu sau khi nhn c tn hiu s tin hnh gii iu ch ph hp vi phng php iu ch, sau tch knh ri gii nn MPEG-2, bin i ngc li s sang tng t, gm 2 ng hnh v ting ri n my thu hnh. 1.5. S ha tn hiu truyn hnh Video s l phng tin biu din dng sng vidieo tng t dng mt dng d liu s, vi cc u im: - Tn hiu vidieo s khng b mo tuyn tnh, mo phi tuyn v khng b nhiu gy ra cho qu trnh bin i tng t sang s (ADC) v s sang tng t(DAC) - Thit b video s c th hot ng hiu qu hn so vi thit b video tng t. - Tn hiu video s c th tit kim b lu tr thng tin hn nh b nn tn hiu 1.6. Chuyn i tng t sang s Qu trnh chuyn i nhn chung c thc hin qua 4 bc c bn l: ly mu, nh mu, lng t ha v m ha.Cc bc lun kt hp vi nhau thnh mt qu trnh thng nht - nh l ly mu i vi tn hiu tng t VI th tn hiu ly mu VS sau qu trnh ly mu c th khi phc tr li VI mt cch trung thc nu iu kin sau y tha mn: fS 2fImax Trong fS (1) : tn s ly mu fImax : l gii hn trn ca gii tn s tng t. V mi ln chuyn i in p ly mu thnh tn hiu s tng ng u cn c mt thi gian nht nh nn phi nh mu trong mt khong thi gian cn thit sau mi ln ly mu. in p tng t u vo c thc hin chuyn

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i A/D trn thc t l gi tr VI i din, gi tr ny l kt qu ca mi ln ly mu. - Lng t ha v m ha: Tn hiu s khng nhng ri rc trong thi gian m cn khng lin tc trong bin i gi tr. Mt gi tr bt k ca tn hiu s u phi biu th bng bi s nguyn ln gi tr n v no , gi tr ny l nh nht c chn. Ngha l nu dng tn hiu s biu th in p ly mu th phi bt in p ly mu ha thnh bi s nguyn ln gi tr n v. Qu trnh ny gi l lng t ha. n v c chn theo qui nh ny gi l n v lng t, k hiu D. Nh vy gi tr bit 1 ca LSB tn hiu s bng D. Vic dng m nh phn biu th gi tr tn hiu s l m ha. M nh phn c c sau qu trnh trn chnh l tn hiu u ra ca chuyn i A/D. - Mch ly mu v nh mu: Khi ni trc tip in th tng t vi u vo ca ADC, tin trnh bin i c th b tc ng ngc nu in th tng t thay i trong tin trnh bin i. Ta c th ci thin tnh n nh ca tin trnh chuyn i bng cch s dng mch ly mu v nh mu ghi nh in th tng t khng i trong khi chu k chuyn i din ra. 1.7. Bin i s sang tng t
Video s Mch logic D/A Ly mu Lc thng thp > Video tng t

Xung ly mu

Hnh 1.3 S khi mch bin i video s sang tng t Qu trnh tm li tn hiu tng t t N s hng (N bit) bit ca tn hiu s vi chnh xc l mt mc lng t (1LSB). ly c tn hiu tng t t tn hiu s dng nguyn tc nh hnh 1.3 trn, chuyn i s sang tng t Page 22

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khng phi l php nghch o ca chuyn i tng t sang s, v khng th thc hin c php nghch o ca qu trnh lng t ha. Theo s ny th qu trnh chuyn s sang tng t l qu trnh tm li tn hiu tng t c ly mu. V phn Audio sau khi chuyn i sang s c cc u im sau: mo tn hiu nh. Di rng m thanh ln gn mc t nhin.

p tuyn tn s bng phng. Cho php ghi m nhiu ln m khng gim cht lng.

Thun tin lu tr, x l. 1.8. Nn tn hiu truyn hnh X l video, audio s c u im l cht lng cao v hnh nh v m thanh. Nhc dim ca x l vidieo v audio l phai thc hin mt s lng ln cc file d liu trong khi tnh ton v cc ng dng truyn dn. Gii php nn cho php ngi s dng la chn mt trong cc phm vi thay i cc thng s ly mu v cc t s nn, cc lin kt thch hp nht cho mc ch s dng. X l tn hiu s ha hn thay th tt c cc phng php tng t (c) v tc dng, tc mnh, NTSC, PAL, SECAM, HDTV v cui cng tp trung vo HDTV s bng rng. K thut tng t: Nn thng tin video bng cch gim rng bng tn mu < 1,2MHz. K thut gim (nn) d liu video: (c 2 nhm) nn c tn tht v nn khng tn tht.

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Tn tht

DCT

VLC RLC

Tch vng xa

fs thp (bng con)

DPCM

Lng t ha, VLC Cho cc h s DCT

-Huffman M ha entropy

JPEG, MPEG-1/2,DV Ch cc gi tr ca sample 0 l c m ha theo s chy (RUN): cn cc gi tr = 0 dc theo dng qut (to li bng tch tng quan DCT)

Dng cho tn hiu mu C

Hnh 1.4. Tp hp cc k thut gim d liu to cc nh dng nn JPEG, MJPEG, MPEG. Nn video tn tht DPCM-u xung m vi sai: - y l mt phng php nn quan trng v hiu qu. Nguyn l c bn ca n l: ch truyn ti tn hiu vi sai gia mu cho v tr d bo (c to ra t cc mu trc ) - Cng ngh DPCM thc hin loi b tnh c nh v cc thng tin d tha ca ngun tn hiu bng mt b lc c bit c p ng u ra l tn hiu s gia mu u vo v gi tr d bo ca chnh n. Rt nhiu gi tr vi sai ny gn bng 0 nu cc im nh bin i ng u. Cn vi nh c nhiu chi tit gi tr sai s d bo c th ln. Khi c th lng t ha chng bng mc lng t cao hn do c im ca mt ngi khng nhy cm vi nhng chi tit c tng phn cao, thay i nhanh. S gim tc bit y thu c t qu trnh lng t ha v m ha. - Hu ht cc cch thc nn nh u s dng vng lp DPCM.

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+ M ha DPCM Video V+ e Ly mu e' M ha entropy + D bo v' + e=v-p sai s d bo e sai s lng t ha v = e+p tn hiu khi phc + Gii m DPCM: + Gii m entropy e' + v' Ra

+ p

Ra

D bo

Hnh 1.5. M ha, gii m DPCM 1.9. Truyn dn tn hiu truyn hnh s Trong k thut truyn hnh tng t, truyn dn tn hiu, ngi ta thng dng phng php iu bin (AM) hoc iu tn (FM). Ti u thu tn hiu s gii iu ch v hnh nh v m thanh ban u. Mt u iu ca truyn hnh s so vi truyn hnh tng t l trn mt knh thng tin c th truyn c nhiu chng trnh. truyn dn tn hiu truyn hnh s ta phi dng cc phng php m ha v iu ch tn hiu s m bo tn hiu c truyn dn u thu mt cch trung thc. H thng ghp knh: - H thng ghp knh MPEG-2:

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+ Tiu chun MPEG-1 xc nh v nn, dn v ng b tn hiu video v audio, bao gm c cc lp nn, Tiu chun MPEG-2 nng cao v m rng tiu chun MPEG-1 vi vic thm cc lp.
Tn hiu audio, video d liu To dng ADC Lp nn nn ng gi Lp h thng Ghp knh PS Ghp knh TS ES PS Tch dng ADC Dn M gi Tch knh PS Tch knh TS

TS

Hnh 1.6. Cu trc MPEG-2 phn lp + Lp nn biu din c php (syntax) ca cc dng audio v video trn c s cu trc dng d liu video v audio. Cc chui audio v video hoc d liu c lp c m ha MPEG-2 cc dng d liu c lp, gi l dng c bn ES (elemantary strems). + Lp h thng xc nh vic kt hp cc dng audio v video c lp thnh mt dng lu tr (dng chng trnh PS program stream) hoc truyn d (dng truyn TS transmission stream).

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- Dng chng trnh PS : SC (m khi u): 3 bytes SI (nhn dng dng): 1 byte PL (chiu di gi): 2 bytes BS (kch thc b nh): 2 bytes ddsbytbytes

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Gi n 8 KB (max) Header gi Video1 PES Header Audio 1 Audio 2 Data Gi n ES

Gi d liu PES Header gi Kt thc gi Audio 2 Data Gi n+1

Video2

SC M bt u

SCR Chun ng h

MR Tc ghp knh

Hnh 1.7. Dng cc hnh PS Cc gi PS c th c chiu di bt k. S lng v chui cc gi / gi khng c xc nh, nhng cc gi t cc dng ring c chuyn t 1 bc thi gian. Mt PS c th ti n 32 dng audio, 16 dng video, 16 dng d liu. Tt c u c n v thi gian c bn c ghp knh ng b. Nu chia cc gi PES c di khc nhau thnh cc gi TS c di khng i (mi gi TS c bt u bng TS header) v truyn cc gi ny i, ta s c dng truyn ti TS (transport Stream). Cc gi TS c di khng i l 188 byte. Dng TS c kh nng chng li cao, c thit k truyn trn cc knh truyn c nhiu nh: knh truyn hnh thng thng (thng qua mt t) cng nh cc knh truyn hnh cp.

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Hnh 1.8. nh dng dng truyn ti MPEG-2 Cc gi PES xut pht t mt hoc nhiu dng ES c cng hoc khc n v thi gian c bn (nh audio, video, d liu) c ghp knh thnh 1 dng TS qua vic bin i trong cc gi PES. Kh nng ghp knh cc chng trnh vi nhiu tc bit khc nhau thnh 1 dng TS c dng trong h truyn hnh c phn gii cao HDTV.

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Hnh 1.9. Dng truyn ti TS Hnh 1.9. Mi ch ra qu trnh ghp cc gi PES audio, video, data, to thnh gi truyn ti TS. tng tnh hiu qu, cc dng truyn ti c th ghp li vi nhau to thnh dng truyn ti ghp knh cp h thng (System Level Multiplex).
TS1 TS2

TS(n-1) TS(n) Elementary stream mapPID(0)

Hnh 1.10. Ghp knh dng bit truyn ti cp h thng Sau khi cc bc trn hon thnh, cc b lc ti b tch knh c th thit lp cc bt dng truyn ti ti bn thu ph hp cho tng chng trnh cn quan tm.

... .

Multiplexer

System level multiplexer

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Khi pht mt lung s knh trn v tuyn, cc tn hiu bng gc s phi c bin thnh cc tn hiu bng tn v tuyn. Qu trnh ny c gi l iu ch. Ngc li qu trnh ti to cc tn hiu s t cc tn hiu trong bng tn v tuyn c gi l gii iu ch.

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CHNG II. TRUYN HNH PHN GII CAO HDTV (HIGH-DEFINITION TELEVISION) 2.1. Gii thiu v HDTV - HDTV truyn hinh vi net cao, la mt thut ng chi cac chng trinh TV ky thut s, cac tp tin a phng tin (movies, audio, game...) c trinh chiu vi phn giai cao cao nht hin nay. phn giai cao giup hinh anh trung thc, chi tit hn rt nhiu - Tt c cc chng trnh truyn hnh v phim u c hin th ch mn hnh 16:9 - Mu sc thc hn nh ng truyn bng rng. - S r nt v chi tit hn ca hnh nh c nng cao cho cc mn hnh c ln d nhn v sc nt hn. - H thng m thanh Dolby Digital 5.1 c pht sng ng thi vi HDTV h tr chc nng m thanh vm * Khc bit gia HDTV v tivi thng: Khc bit ln u tin gia HDTV v mt chic TV thng chnh l phn gii. Trong khi mt chic TV truyn thng ch c th hin th ti a khong 500 dng v 500 ct im nh, tng ng vi phn gii ch khong 500 x 500 pixel (250.000 im nh), th mt mn hnh HDTV c th chia ra 1.920 ct v 1.080 dng qut, tng ng vi phn gii 1.920 x 1.080 pixel (hn 2 triu im nh). Nh vy, lng im nh hin th c trn mn hnh HDTV nhiu hn gp 10 ln so vi TV thng. iu ng ngha HDTV c th hin th nhiu chi tit hn. Khc bit ln th hai gia HDTV v TV thng nm s cng vo tn hiu mt sau TV. Do phi hin th nhiu im nh hn, nn mt chic HDTV cn ti 3 dy cp hnh: mt dy truyn ti cc hnh nh mu (R), mt dy cho mu xanh l (G) v mt dy cho mu xanh lam (B).

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Khc bit ln cui cng l mt s loi HDTV cn c mt u thu v gii m tn hiu phn gii cao (HDTV receiver) th mi c th bt sng truyn hnh HD trc tip t i pht. 2.2. T l nh 2.2.1. nh v t l nh

Hnh 2.1. T l hnh nh trong truyn hnh. T l vit theo quy c rng:cao. T l mn nh l t l nh rng ti nh cao. Mn nh chun ca phim v truyn hnh theo t l trong hnh 2.1 trn. Quy c truyn hnh phn gii chun hay phn gii thng standarddefinitinon television (SDTV) c t l mn nh 4:3. Tivi mn hnh rng v truyn hnh phn gii cao high-definition Televison) (HDTV) c t l 16:9 Phim c th chuyn sang 4:3 khi ct cc cnh ca khung (mt mt cht ni dung ca nh),

a. Pan-andscan chun 4:3 nm trn chun 16:9

b. nh dng letterbox chun 16:9 nm trn chun 4:3

c. nh dng Pillarbox chun 4:3 nm trong chun 16:9

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hnh trn o din v ngi sn xut thch phim ca h khng b thay i bi s ct xn ny, v vy nh sn xut phim trong VHS v DVD a nh dng letterbox, trong hnh 2.4 b. trong nh dng ny ton b phim c duy tr, phn nh v phn chn ca khung 4:3 khng s dng (b mu xm hoc en). Vi k vng tivi mn hnh rng, n tr nn ph bin, khng c g l khi chun 4:3 hin th bn trong mn hnh rng vi nh dng pillarbox, chiu cao th hin th y cn bn tri v bn phi b trng 2.2.2. Gii thiu mng pixel Mt bc nh s c biu din bi mt mng hnh ch nht (ma trn) ca phn t nh (pels, hoc pixels). Trong h thng nh en trng, mi mooth pixels gm n b phn m gi tr ca n c lin kt ri rc gi l sang. Trong h thng nh mu, mi pixels gm nhiu gi tr, thng l 3 nhng gi tr ny lin kt gn nhau trong nhn thc mu sc ca con ngi.

Hnh 2.3. im nh ca mt s tiu chun quy c qut th t tri sang phi, sau u trang ti cui cng, nh s v cc hng ct t (0,0) pha trn bn tri. 2.3. Cc nh dng nh ca HDTV

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Phn ny chia lm 2 loi nh dng nh 1280x720 v 1920x1080 cho truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTV), gii thiu cc tham s qut cc thong s ca cc on video lin quan n h thng nh 720p v 1080i. Ngy nay nhng h thng HDTV nghin cu c nh hng bi Dr. Fujio NHK (Nippon hoso Kyokai, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation). HDTV c hai ln chiu dc v hai ln chiu ngang ca truyn hnh truyn thng, t l hnh nh 5:3 (sau bin i thnh 16:9) v t nht hai knh cht lng m thanh ca CD. Trng quay ca HDTV c chu k ly mu ca 74.25 MHz, 5,5 ln ca Rec. 601 tiu chun cho SDTV. Tc im nh ca HDTV khong 60 megapixels trn giy. Nhng tham s m khc tng t hay ng nht vi SDTV tiu chun. Nhng tham s m ha mu Y'C RCB cho HDTV khc vi nhng tham s SDTV. 2.3.1. So snh t s mn nh Khi HDTV c gii thiu ti ngi tiu dng trong nghnh cng nghip in t Bc M, SDTV v HDTV c so snh bng gi tr o khc nhau, bng tm tt hnh 2.6 di cn c v s khc bit trong t s mn nh gia 4:3 v 16:9 so snh c lm da theo chiu ngang nhau, chiu rng bng nhau, ng cho bng nhau, v din tch bng nhau. Tt c cc php o trn khng thy c ci tin c bn trong HDTV: l nt cao, phn gii cao, khng them 6 ln s im nh cng mt gc nhn. Thay vo gc nhn ca mt im nh c gi nguyn v ton b nh b gi c th chim vng ln hn tm nhn ca ngi xem. HDTV cho php gc hnh nh tng ng k, So snh chnh xc gia HDTV v truyn hnh thong thng khng c da vo kha cnh t l: n c da vo chi tit bc nh.

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Hnh 2.4. So snh t s mn nh gia tivi thng v HDTV: Bng nhau v chiu cao, rng, ng cho, din tch. Tt c cc php o trn khng thy c ci tin c bn trong HDTV: lm tng s pixels ( im anh). Tc l cn c v chi tit bc nh 2.3.2. Qut trong HDTV Tranh lun ln din ra vo nhng nm 1980 v 1990, liu c phi HDTV cn qut lin tc hoc xem k. Ti sao s nhp nhy v nhng tc d liu cho qut xen k a ra s tng no trong quyt nh khng gian tnh hc. Trong cuc tranh lun HDTV, cng nhip tin hc v cng ng lm phim c t chng li qut xen k. Dn dn c qut xen k v qut lin tc c chun ha thng mi c th tn ti c, mt thit b thu phi gii m c hai dng trn. Hnh di mnh ca h thng qut lin tc 1Mpx (1280 x 720, 720p60) v 2Mpx h thng qut xem k (1920 x 1080, 1080i 30).1920 x 1080 d dng p ng t 24-30Hz qut lin tc (1080i 24, 1080i 30).

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Hnh 2.5. HDTV qut 30 v 60 khung hnh trn giy c chun ha vi 2 nh dng 1280x720 (1Mpx, lun l qut lin tc progressive ), v 1920x1080 ( 2 Mpx, quyets xen k interlaced hoc quyets lin tc progressive). H thng 720p60 1035i30 1080i30 1080p60 1080p30 1080i25 1080p25 1080p24 Kiu qut 750/60/1:1 1125/60/2:1 1125/60/2:1 1125/60/1:1 1125/30/1:1 1125/25/2:1 1125/25/1:1 1125/24/1:1 Chun SMPTE SMPTE 296M SMPTE 260M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 274M STL 1650 2200 2200 2200 2200 2640 2640 2750 LT 750 1125 1125 1125 1125 1125 1125 1125 SAL 1280 1920 1920 1920 1920 1920 1920 1920 LA 720 1035 1080 1080 1080 1080 1080 1080

Hnh 2.6. Tng hp s qut HDTV cho h thng 720p, 1080i v 1080p Trong bng trn, h thng 1035i30 c k t khng c cp s dng, v dng 1080i30 thay th, SMPTE 274M gm qut lin tc 2 Mpx, 1080p60 vi h thng qut 1125/60/1:1, c k hiu : y l h thng b gii hn bi cng ngh STL - samples per total line mu trn tng s dng; LT - total lines tng s dng; SAL - samples per active line mu trn mt dng tch cc; LA -active lines dng tch cc. c im ca my thu hnh HD- ready (720p) v Full-HD(1080p): Cng l tivi LCD phn gii cao (HDTV) nhng tivi gn mc Full-HD c gi cao hn rt nhiu so vi tivi HD-ready, nhiu ngi cho rng HDTV phi l Page 36

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Full-HD, th nhng quan nim ny cha chnh xc. Cho d tivi gn mc FullHD hay HD-ready cng u l dng tivi c phn gii cao, c p dng cng ngh khc nhau nhng vn hin th sc nt hn tivi bng n thng. Hai cng ngh ny c phn bit nh sau: - HD-Ready Cho php trnh chiu cc ni dung nt cao phn gii HD thng qua cac giao tip component (Y/Pb/Pr), HDMI v DVI. Cc tivi ny phi c phn gii chun (Native Resolution) thp nht l 720p c gi l tivi HDready. Chun giao tip component(Y/Pb/Pr) dung tn hiu analog c h tr bi cc loi tivi HD nhm tng thch vi cc ngun ni dung HD hin ang c trn th trng, cn HDMI v DVI u l chun tn hiu digital. - Full-HD Full-HD cho php x l v hin th tn hiu tivi cng nh cc ni dung HD khc phn gii 1080p, phn gii mc nh l 1920x1080. Ngoi ra mt s dng tivi gn mc Full-HD 1080i v 1080p cng phn gii 1920x1080 nhng thc cht khc nhau hon ton. Cng ngh HD 1080i c 1080 dng qut xem k (interlaced scan) nn qut ht mn hnh cng ngh ny cn qut 2 lt, lt u cc dng l, lt sau cc dng chn. Ni tm li, 1080i ch th hin c 540 dng qut cng mt lc nn hnh nh khng p bng Full-HD khi chuyn t khung ny sang khung khc. Trong khi , chun 1080p (chnh l Full-HD) c 1080 dng qut ng b (progressive scan), cho php thc hin 1080 dng qut mt lc trn hnh nh mt m v r nt ngay c khi chuyn tip gia cc khung hnh. C th ni FullHD l chun cao nht hin nay i vi HDTV

2.4. Bin i nh dng video 2.4.1. nh dng qut

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C th bin i cc mnh qut xen k thnh cc frames qut lin tc bng cch tnh cc dng b mt trong mt mnh qut xen k. Nu khng c chuyn ng gia hai mnh th c th thc hin frame qut lin tc bng cch kt hp cc dng ca 2 mnh mt cch d dng. Nu c chuyn ng th vic kt hp s lm rung (judder) nh (cc chi tit nh theo chiu ng chuyn ng) v s xp chng b lch ca 2 mnh. Do tt hn ht l tnh ton cc dng b mt t mnh qut xem k ang xt. Nhiu k thut x l trong mnh (intrafield) c s dng v c th ti u ha cho nh tnh v ng (i hi c b nh mnh hoc b nh dng video). Vic la chn k thut qut xen k ph thuc vo gi thnh, phc tp v yu cu cht lng lng nh. Phng php bin i qut lin tc (30p) thnh qut xen k (30i) n gin l tch cc dng l v chn ca frame qut lin tc. Cc dng l gn cho mnh 1, cc dng chn gn cho mnh 2. Hai nh dng HDTV (1920 x 1080 v 1280 x 720) quan h vi t l 3:2 v mt h s ni quy c dng bin i nh dng ny sang nh dng khc. Quan h gia c trng pixels v dng ca 2 nh dng qut 1280x720 v 640 x 480 ca VGA l 2:l; nh dng th nht c t s khun hnh l 16:9 cn nh dng th 2 c t s khun hnh l 4:3 (1280/640 = (720/480) x (16:9)/(4:3) = 2). nh dng qut 1920x1080 gp i phn gii khng gian ca CCIR-Rec. 601 v xc nh t l khun hnh l 16:9 (720 x 2 x (16/9)(4/3) = 1920 mu/dng). V nh dng CCIR-Rec.601 khng c pixel vung (4/3x480/720 = 0,888), cho ln s lng tnh l 480 x 2/0,888 = 1080 dng. nh dng video khc c s dng trong my tnh l nh dng 1440x1080 (4:3). nh dng ny l tp con ca nh dng 1920 x 1080 (16:9). C 2 nh dng u c pixels vung, nhng khc v t s khun hnh. nh dng 1440 x 1080 l mt phn ca tiu chun MPEG-2 v c th bin i tn 1920 x 1080. C th bin i nh dng xung 720x480 bng cch chia s pixels dng cho 2 v tnh s dng theo chiu ng nh sau: (l080/2) x 4/3 x 480/720 = 480. Page 38

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2.4.2. Bin i t l khun hnh 2.4.2.1. C th bin i t l khun hnh 4:3 thnh 16: 9 bng 2 phng php vi 2 kt qu khc nhau 2.4.2.1.1. Phng php 1 (vertical crop) Ct theo chiu ng nh gc v biu din theo hnh 5-6, nh gc 4:3 c dn rng vi h s 1,33 (16: 9/ 4: 3) theo c 2 chiu ngang v ng. Hnh nh 16: 9 c tch 362 dng (483 x 3/4) ca nh gc 4: 3 v hin th n theo t l nh l 483 dng. Vic dn 362 dng thnh 482 dng a thc hin bng ha qu trnh ni suy nh theo chiu ng. Kt qu, phn gii nh theo chiu ng mt khong 25% (121/483)
nh gc4:3 720x483 Ni suy mnh nh bin i 16:9 720x483 483 dng 720 pixel; 16:9

720 pixel; 4:3

Hnh 2.7. Phng php 1 ct theo chiu ng: nh gc 4:3 cy vo nh dng 16:9 Ni suy theo chiu ng thc hin bng cch x l tng mnh ca tn hiu qut xen k (lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu qut xen k theo cc chiu ng bin (contours cho). C th thc hin ni suy theo chiu ng bng nhiu bc (chnh xc, nhng phc tp hn) nh: bin i t qut xen k thnh qut lin tc ni suy theo chiu ng bng intraframe trn tng frame, ly mu tn s thp theo chiu ng tn hiu ni suy lu cu trc qut xen k.

362 dng

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2.4.2.1.2. Phng php 2 (bng bin)

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nh gc 4:3 720x483

Chia theo chiu ngang

nh bin i 16:9 720x483 483 dng

720 pixel; 4:3

540 pixel; 4:3 720 pixel; 16:9

Hnh 2.8. Phng php 2 bng bin: nh 4:3 cy vo nh dng 16:9 Cy nh gc 4: 3 vo khun hnh 16: 9, Hnh 2.8. Kt qu c 2 sc en 2 bn mp nh. 720 pixels dng ca nh 4: 3 c chia a vo 540 pixels (720 x 3/4) ca khun hnh 16: 9. Phng php ny khng yu cu c b nh frame, v d thc hin. Tuy nhin, phng php ny t c a chung. 2.4.2.2. Hai gii php bin i khun hnh 19: 9 thnh 4: 3 2.4.2.2.1. Gii php 1 (ca s trung tm) Ct 2 di bn tri v phi ca khun hnh 16: 9 tch ca s trung tm (central window) v t vo khun hnh 4: 3. Gii php ny dng ni suy pixel dng gin 540 pixels thnh 720 pixels. Hai b nh dng c dng bin i. C th nng cao bng thng tin gin v qut (pan v scan) nh v ca s bn trong nh. Thng tin ny c cung cp trn c s mnh trn mnh trong nh gc
483 dng

d liu video

my thu hnh).

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720 pixel; 16:9 540 pixel; 16:9 720 pixel; 4:3

483 dng

m16:9 (cho ha 720x483

Ni suy dng

nh bin i 4:3 720x483

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Hnh 2.9. Gii php 1 ca s trung tm: ct nh 16:9 bn thnh nh 4:3 2.4.2.2.2. Gii php 2 (letterbox)
nh gc
16:9 720x483

nh bin i
483 dng nh 16:9

Chia theo chiu ng

Hnh 2.10. Gii php 2 letterbox: nh gc 16:9 cy vo nh dng 4:3 nh gc 16: 9 c nn theo chiu ng thnh 362 dng, cho kt qu 2 vch ngang en (pha trn v pha di) ca nh 4:3, Hnh 2.10 gii php bin i ny s dng qu trnh chia theo chiu ng v b nh frame. 2.5. Nhn xt Cc phng php v gii php bin i khung hnh trn ch c th p dng cho chun SDTV widescreen (SDTV mn hnh rng 16: 9)

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Component 4:2:2 Rec. 601-5

Hnh 2.11. Tn s ly mu SDTV Widescreen s dng l 13.5 MHz, thc t s mu c ly dn 4/3 so vi nh dng chun 4:3 Widescreen (16: 9) SDTV: Chng trnh truyn hnh c lch s c sn xut t l 4: 3. Tuy nhin, t l chng trnh mn hnh rng c ngun gc trn phim nh, HDTV, hoc widescreen SDTV l kinh t hin nay. ng thi, ngi tiu dng ngy cng quan tm n chng trnh widescreen. H khng thch nhng vng trng ca mn hnh hin th kt qu t letterboxing. Do vy, cc tiu chun SDTV ang c iu chnh ph hp x l t l 16: 9. K thut ny c bit l widescreen SDTV. i khi thut ng ny gy hiu nhm, d khng c s gia tng cc im nh, gc nhn khng rng hn tiu chun thng thng (4:3) SDTV. Trong video v x l tn hiu m thanh, cn nhng gi tr mu c t xp x nhng mu c, kt qu c trng hp mu gc tc thi khc nhau, ti mt t l khc, hay ti mt pha khc. Ci ny c gi l s ly mu li (resampling). Resampling l mt phn quan trng ca video quy trnh nh sau: Chroma subsambling chia nh mu tn hiu mu (VD: 4:4:4 xung 4:2:2) Downconversion h cp (v d HDTV xung SDTV) v upconversion tng cp (VD: SDTV ln HDTV) Aspect ratio conversion bin i t l hnh nh (VD: 4:3 ln 16: 9) Bin i gia t l mu khc nhau ca tn hiu video tiu chun (VD: 4fsc thnh 4:2:2, 13.5 MHz) Page 42

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Khi phc kch thc nh trong k xo (digital video effects DVE) Ly mu li (resambling) mt chiu cho php tc ng ngay ti tn hiu m thanh s, nh thay i t l ly mu t 48 kHz ti 44,1 kHz. Trong video, 1-D ly mu li c th b tc ng theo chiu dc hoc chiu ngang. Ly mu li c th m rng ti mt mng mu 2 chiu. Hai phng php gn nh c th. Mt b lc theo chiu ngang, mt b lc theo chiu dc, c th tc ng n bc. Vy ly mu li c th c coi l ti u hn, c ng hn cch bin i t l khun hnh.

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CHNG III. TRUYN DN TN HIU HDTV 3.1. Tiu chun 3.1.1. H thng HDTV l tng H thng HDTV l tng c xc nh (trn c s tm sinh l) ti gii hn ca vic cm nhn hnh nh v m thanh (16Hz-16Khz). Vn ct li l mn hnh (my thu hnh c nhn) c din tch ln (gn 1m2); khong cch gia ngi xem v mn hnh phi ngn hn so vi vic xem truyn hnh thng thng; Ngng ca gc nhn cc chi tit nh l 1 pht; T l khun hnh l 16: 9; Khong cch quan st hnh nh l 3H, trong H l chiu cao mn hnh S dng hnh tch cc ca h thng HDTV l tng l 2270, s mu/dng tch cc l 3960. Vi cc iu kin k trn, cc chi tit nh nh nht s nm gii hn cm nhn hnh nh ca mt. Ngoi phn gii theo din tch nh, phn gii theo thi gian (tn s lp li theo mnh v nh) c nh hng n: - Vic khi phc li nh (tng hp nh) mt cch trung thc - nhp nhy cc vng nh rng v qut xen k (2:1). Khi tn s mnh bng 80Hz, s mt hin tng nhp nhy vng nh rng. Hiu ng nhp nhy (qut xen k) s mt, nu tn s mnh c gi tr khong 100Hz. T cc kt qu trn, c th kt lun rng h thng ti u phi l h thng qut lin tc, c tn s nh t nht l 80Hz vi s dng qut l 2270. Vy h truyn hnh c phn gii cao l tng l HDTV 2270/80/1: 1. HDTV 2270/80/1: 1 c bng tn tn hiu video rng khong 350MHz. Kt qu nghin cu v tiu chun truyn hnh s cho bit: t s bng tn tn hiu chi Y trn bng tn tn hiu s mu C l 2: 1; l t l kt hp tt gia cc yu cu v mu tn hiu v tit kim bng tn. Tn hiu HDTV l tng ng vi tc bit khong 13 Gbit/s. 3.1.2. Tn s mnh v tn s nh

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Tn s mnh 60Hz tt hn l 50Hz. Tuy nhin hot ng cc thit b dng 60Hz gn vi 50Hz, do c th gy nhiu (v d n chiu sng) v thiu tng hp vi h truyn hnh 625/50. pha my thu hnh, tn s 50Hz v 60Hz c th qu nh loi b nhp nhy; Do ngi ta s dng b nh nh x l hnh nh. Nhiu ca thit b truyn hnh lm vic 60 Hz ( cc nc s dng mng in 50Hz) c th lm nhp nhy hnh nh do khc nhau v tn s mnh v tn s li in. Khi chiu sng phim trng (bng n dng na chu k dng hoc m) v s dng camera qut 60Hz, c th xut hin hiu ng ly mu tn hiu 100Hz vi tn s 60Hz, to ra tn hiu nhiu (aliasing) 20Hz hoc 40Hz. khc phc, trong studio nn s dng in 3 pha. 3.1.3. Qut xen k hay lin tc H thng HDTV qut lin tc cho cht lng nh rt cao v thun li cho vic x l tn hiu HDTV trong studio. Tuy nhin, vn khng n gin, ch h HDTV 1125/60/1: 1 cn bng tn rng gn gp 2 ln so vi h HDTV/1125/2: 1; Cng sut nhiu camera s tng khong 9dB vi cc ng pht hnh hin nay. Hin tng ny c th gii quyt bng cch s dng CCD trong camera. Vn ny cng xy ra tng t trong VTR. H thng HDTV/50/1: 1 s t vn hn h thng HDTV/60/1:1, v bng tn c phn hp hn. Nu gim s dng qut xung cn 800-900 dng v s dng qut lin tc, th phn gii theo mnh tt hn l qut xen k. C th s dng tiu chun qut lin tc studio v bin i tn hiu sang qut xen k cho mc ch truyn-pht sng, v pha thu li chuyn ngc li thnh qut lin tc (nh ni suy cc dng thiu). 3.1.4. Tng hp vi h truyn hnh s 4:2:2 Tiu chun HDTV hin nay l tiu chun tng t (mt s chi tit s dng k thut s), cho nn cn xc nh cc thng s c bn ca tn hiu s v tng hp tn hiu s vi tn hiu truyn hnh s thng thng. Theo Page 45

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RCC.601/CCIR, th s mu trn 1 dng tch cc l 720, cn theo NHK (Nht) l 1920. T l ny l 8:3, nhng on dng hnh tch cc (t l khun hnh 4: 3) c 1440 mu (bng 2 ln s mu trn 1 dng tch cc ca truyn hnh thng thng). Gi tr ny l thch hp cho m chuyn i tn hiu HDTV sang tn hiu truyn hnh thng thng. S lng dng hnh tch cc ca h 525/60 v 625/50 l khc nhau; cho nn t l 2:1 ng thi cho 2 h l khng th c. S 1035 dng hnh tch cc/ nh l 1 s trung gian. Vn tng hp gia h HDTV vi cc h truyn hnh thng thng cn phi gii quyt trn c s 2 quan im sau y: - Kh nng chuyn i chng trnh truyn hnh HDTV sang chng trnh truyn hnh thng thng 625 hoc 525 dng cn c thc hin trong studio v. - C th thu cc chng trnh pht sng ca HDTV bng my thu hnh 525 hoc 525 dng. 3.2.1. Phng php hin th v xen hnh 3.2.1.1. Khong cch gia ngi xem v mn hnh Nu ngi xem ngi gn mn hnh, th vng nh nhn thy s tng ln v n tng v nh cng tng ln, cng ging nh quan st hnh nh trong khng gian thc, th nghim nghin cu, mt nh tnh trn mn hnh cong, v nghin cu n tng ngi xem theo chiu ngang v chiu ng. Kt qu th nghim cho thy n tng n tng ca ngi xem c thay i theo chiu ngang hoc chiu ng thc khi gc nhn gim. Gi tr ca gc nhn c quan h cht ch vi n tng tht. 3.2.1.2. Kch thc mn hnh Theo kt lun phn trn, th chiu cao mn hnh H > 67cm (v khong cch quan st > 2m v bng 3H). Nu t s khun hnh l 5:3, th din tch mn hnh phi > 0,74m vung.

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GVHD: GS. Hong Minh Qun

T s tng i ti thiu 30/1, tt hn l 70/1, mt s th nghim khc cho bit l t s tng phn (contrast) ti u cho nh l 27/1. T cc kt qu trn, ta rt ra kt lun v t s tng phn ti thiu ddooid vi HDTV l 50/1. 3.2.2. Cc thng s c bn ca HDTV STUDIO 3.2.2.1. S dng qut Nu xem truyn hnh mt khong cch 3H v cho khng nhn thy c cc dng qut trn mn hnh, th s dng qut cn thit phi >1100 dng. Th nghim vi v truyn hnh en trng cho thy l nhiu do cu trc dng loi ny c th c lm gim i trong trng hp nng s dng qut ln 1100 dng. 3.2.2.2. S mnh trong mt giy Th nghim v quan h gia tn s nhp nhy ti hn CFF (critical flicker frequency) v gc nhn. Tn s CFF = 60Hz (50Hz) l cn thit khng cn nhn thy nh nhp nhy i vi h HDTV 1125 (HDTV 1250) trong trng hp sang trng nh l 150 cd/m vung, khong cch xem truyn hnh l 3H, t s khun hnh l 5:3 (16:9) v gc nhn theo chiu ngang l 16 . T cc kt qu nghin cu c th rt ra c kt lun l h HDTV 1125 c tn s mnh l 60 Hz v h HDTV 1250 c tn s mnh l 50 Hz. chuyn i h t HDTV 1125/60 thnh h 625/50 ngi ta phi s dng k thut thch nghi v kt qu kh quan hn nhiu so vi phng php chuyn i h thong thng.

3.2.2.3. Qut xen k Kh nng phn gii ca mt ngi s gim rt nhanh nu tc chuyn i ca vt th trong nh truyn hnh tng. Kh nng phn gii ca mt i vi Page 47

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nh tnh kh cao. H thng truyn hnh qut xen k kh n gin v thit b, do phng php ny rt c hiu qu. C th nhn thy rng cng mt hiu qu nh nhau, nu tng 20% s dng qut lin tc (1:1) hoc s dng qut xen k > (2:1) s khng thc t, bi v mc nhiu do cu trc dng s ln hn. Do qut xen k vi t l 2:1 c th dng cho h HDTV. 3.2.2.4. T l khun hnh Trong thc t c nhiu th nghim v t l khun hnh cho HDTV 3.2.2.5. Bin i quang in c phn gii cao. B bin i quang in c phn gii cao i hi mch qut khng c li, phn gii cao, t s tn hiu trn nhiu S/N cao, nhy ca mn cm qung co. Mn cm quang (target) ca b bin i quang in ng vai tr rt quan trng. Mn target ca ng vidicon (b i quang in loi chn khng) c cu ti t vt Sb2S3. Do mn target c in dung ln, nn vidicon c nguy c chy thnh mn hnh target. B bin i quang in Plumb c cu ti target t vt liu Pbo, cho nhy cao hn v tnh thp hn so vi vidicon. Loi saticon dng target t vt liu Sb2S3 c dng in ti thp, qun tnh thp v gii cao hn. 3.2.3. K thut siu ly mu SNS K thut siu ly mu pht trin t nhng nm 70 v c tip tc s dng bng cc thut ton gim d tha (redundace) mc ch chnh l truyn c tn hiu qua knh c gii hn bng tn. S lng cc mu truyn c gim thp hn gi tr thu c do s dng tn s Nyquist ( sub Nyquist sampling SNS) gp i. K thut SNS dng cho tn hiu HDTV s cho kt qu tt: gim mnh tn s ly mu theo dng so vi l thuyt. tn hiu HDTV c th truyn pht sng c do hn ch bng tn tn hiu bng k thut SNS

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Phng php ly mu mi SNS c thc hin theo dng, mt v thi gian. Khi ly mu SNS theo dng, th 2 dng lin tc c th c truyn nh 1 dng, nh ghp knh cc mu ca 2 dng trn vo 1 dng. pha my thu, cc mu li c th tch ra c, l phng php xo trn dng. Bng cch ny ta c th truyn cc thong tin h HDTV 1250 bng knh 625 dng. 3.3. Chin lc pht trin HDTV T nm 1968 hng NHK (Japan Broadcasting corporation) ca nht bt u nghin cu v pht trin h truyn hnh c phn gii cao HDTV. Kt qu lm xut hin tiu chun k thut HDTV cho studio: - S dng qut/nh: 1125 - T l khun hnh: 5:3 - Phng php qut: 2:1 (xen k) - Tn s mnh: 60Hz - rng bng tn tn hiu: 20MHz Trong khong thi gian 1981-1985, hng NHK t chc nhiu trin lm thit b HDTV v hi tho nhiu nc nh M, Chu u, Lin X c. Thng 2-1984 NHK cng b chnh thc mt h thng pht sng v thu tn hiu truyn hnh phn gii cao: h MUSE. Trong , bng tn tn hiu HDTV c nn t 20 MHz xung 8,1MHz v c th truyn pht sng qua v tinh v h thng truyn hnh cp CATV, ghi hnh bng VTR v videodisk (bng v a t). Thng 10-1984 h MUSE c trnh by vi mch m ha (encoder) v gii m (decoder) v c nhiu nc cng nhn l h truyn hnh phn gii cao u tin trn th gii. Cng ging nh lch s pht trin ca truyn hnh trc y (th gii c 3 h truyn hnh: NTSC, PAL, SECAM v nhiu tiu chun: CCIR, OIRT, FCC), truyn hnh phn gii cao HDTV cng cha thng nht c thnh mt h chung cho ton th gii.

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Nm 1974, M tp trung nghin cu ch cc gii hn k thut truyn hnh v a ra d kin h thng truyn hnh c mn hnh rng (thuc SMPTE). Nm 1978, Hng BBC (Anh) cng b kt qu nghin cu v kh nng pht sng tn hiu HDTV qua v tinh v tiu chun HDTV (Plilips v Harvey). Nm 1974, Gio s Wendland (Trng i Hc Dortmund c) bo co v mt h thng HDTV tng hp. V tinh u tin truyn tn hiu HDTV 1125 vi kt qu tt vo nm 1978-1979 (qua v tinh BSE ca Nht) l hiu mu (chrominance) sau ny 1983 mi pht trin thnh h MUSE, truyn tn hiu HDTV trong cng mt knh (tn hiu cc thnh phn truyn ln lt). Thit b truyn hnh HDTV c nghin cu v sn xut vi nhp cao nh camera, VTR tng t, telecine laser, mn hnh CRT30. Display110 (t l khun hnh l 5:3) thit b pht sng 12GHz v 38GHz (1982). Nm 1981, EBU thnh lp nhm chuyn gia nghin cu v h thng HDTV v nm 1982 t chc hi ngh chuyn v HDTV Canada, Chu u c chng trnh nghin cu v HDTV mang tn EUREKA95 (EU95) vi s tham gia ca c, Php, H Lan cac t chc tham gia v ng gp nhiu cho chng trnh EU95 l vin Heinrich Hertz (c), BBC (Anh), IBA, RAI, DBP, CCETT (v mu sc, m, pht sng). Nm 1983 hi ngh quc t v truyn hnh (international television symposium) Montreux (Canada) c trng by nhiu thit b v HDTV, Hng CBS (M) cng cng b h thng pht sng HDTC tng hp. Pht qua v tinh (ng thi s dng 2 knh). Nhm nghin cu SG11/ CCIR thnh lp tiu ban nghin cu tiu chun truyn hnh c phn gii cao IPW/6 t 1983. Nm 1985, ti Nht c trin lm EXPO85 vi nhiu thit b HDTV: my phng hnh 370. CRT display 40, my pht sng truyn tn hiu trn mt t (phm vi hp) truyn tn hiu HDTV vi khong cch > 500km bng cp quang (optical fiber trunk line).

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Thng 6/1982 hi ngh trin lm quc t IBC92 Amsterdam ( H Lan) vi nhiu bo co v thit b ca mt s h HDTV kt thc tt p, IBC;92 l mc nh du quan trng v s pht trin ca truyeeng hnh HDTV, v vic HDTV ang i vo cuc sng ca chng ta. * Chin lc v phng php: Hi ngh thng k ca CCIR ln th 17 (1990 Dusseldort c) khng nh chin ton din v pht trin HDTV theo cc im sau y: Mi trng pht sng Kh nng ng dng HDTV S iu ha gia ng dng pht sng v khng gian sng Phng tin sn xut chng trnh truyn hnh HDTV

Mng truyn dn, pht sng trn mt t v trn v tinh.

Da vo cc quan im trn v vic xc nh cc yu t c bn ca HDTV cho studio, nhm SG11/CCIR xem xt nhng tin b trong lnh vc nn tc bit nhm mc ch pht sng HDTV trn mt t. 3.4. Phng php truyn dn 3.4.1. Cc phng php ang c cc nh khai thc s dng - Phng php truyn dn tn hiu bng cp quang v cp ng trc. - Truyn dn tn hiu HDTV qua giao thc IP internet * u im: tn hiu n nh, khng b nh hng nhiu do mi trng thi tit * Nhc im: Xy lp c s h tng kh khn, chi ph ln, ch ph hp vi khu vc ng dn c do vy khng th trin khai trn mt khu vc rng ln, - Truyn dn tn hiu HDTV qua v tinh * u im: vng ph sng rng khp c nc v vn ra cc nc xung quanh, kh nng ph song 1/3 tri t, r lp t, chi ph thp Page 51

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* Nhc im: b suy hao tn hiu do thi tit xu. T u im trn em chn ng truyn qua v tinh v tm hiu v phng php ny. 3.4.2. Truyn dn tn hiu qua v tinh Chu u s dng h truyn hnh D2-MAC vi bng tn tn hiu 8MHz v h C-MAC vi 10,5MHz. truyn tn hiu HDTV c th s dng 2 knh v tinh (2x27MHz) lin tip, ng thi truyn tn hiu video thng thng qua 1 knh, cn knh th 2 l tn hiu hon thin cho HDTV. Tuy nhin vn truyn ng thi tn hiu trn 2 knh l rt phc tp. c th truyn tn hiu HDTV qua v tinh (DBS) mt cch thun li cn phi hn ch bng tn tn hiu HDTV. Hng NHK (Nht) thc hin vic hn ch ph tn tn hiu HDTV 1125 cn 8,1MHz. l h MUSE. Trong h MUSE, tn hiu HDTV siu ly mu (ch truyn mu th 4). Dch pha ly mu theo tng mnh s cho php truyn lin tc 4 mnh vi tt c cc mu (trng hp nh tnh). Trong trng hp nh ng, vic ni suy s kh phc tp v phn gii km i. H thng tnh ton v truyn vector chuyn ng cho php ti u ha phng php ny. Kt qu: my thu hnh s khi phc li tn hiu chi vi bng tn 20MHz (nh tnh) v 12.5MH (nh ng) Cn tn hiu s mu vi bng tn 7MHz v 3MHz h MUSE khng tng hp vi h MAC pht sng qua v tinh, v n s dng phng php ghp knh theo thi gian cc tn hiu chi v mu c nn bng tn. 3.4.2.1. DATV (h MUSE) Hng BBC nghin cu v thc hin phng n DATV. T tng chnh l truyn n my thu 2 loi tn hiu trong cng mt knh, tn hiu tng t (video, nh l ti) v thng tin s (m thanh s, s liu, thng tin ph) dung lng knh cho DATV c gi tr vi trm KB/s n vi MB/s. DATV l h thng gim Page 52

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bng tn (nh ti u ha k thut truyn hnh tng t) nh h MAC v k thut s, rt c hiu qu trong vic gim d tha (nh x l). N cho php tng hp gia truyn hnh tng t c cht lng cao vi my thu hnh c cht lng thp hn. u im na ca DATV l thc hin c vic x l ngun tn hiu v pha thu. pha pht s dng phng php biu din vector chuyn ng hoc din tch vng nh chuyn ng m khng lm nh hng n phn cn li ca knh. Phn x l ch yu thc hin pha ngun ca tn hiu 1 cch khn ngoan. Bng phng php ny, cht lng ton knh c ci thin m khng cn thay i thit b truyn pht sng, pht sng v thu, h MUSE (Nht) l h u tin s dng k thut ny truyn video c phn gii cao. 3.4.2.2. H HD- MAC Cc chuyn gia Chu u tp trung nghin cu h thng truyn hnh tn hiu video HD-MAC (tng hp vi cc h h MAC). l h va s dng k thut SNS v va s dng k thut DATV, nhm pht trin truyn hnh c kch thc rng 16:9 trong h MAC, nhng s dng truyn hnh khng thay i 625 dng. l h E-MAC.

3.4.2.3. v tinh Vinasat 1

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Hnh3.1 nh v tinh vinasat1 Cc thng s k thut c bn: - Cao 4 mt, trng lng kh khong hn 2,7 tn. - Dung lng 20 b pht p (8 b bng C, 12 b bng Ku). - V tr qu o: qu o a tnh 132E (cch tri t 35768Km). - Tui th theo thit k: ti thiu 15 nm v c th ko di thm mt vi nm ty thuc vo mc tiu hao nhin liu. - n nh v tr kinh v v : +/- 0,05 . Bng tn C m rng (C-Extended): - S b pht p: 08 b (36 MHz/b) - ng ln (Uplink): Tn s pht Tx: 6.425-6.725 MHz. Phn cc: Vertical, Horizontal. - ng xung (Downlink): Tn s thu Rx: 3.400-3.700 MHz. Phn cc: Horizontal, Vertical. - Mt dung lng bo ha (SFD): -85 dBW/m2 - Vng ph sng bao gm: Vit Nam, ng Nam , Trung Quc, Triu Tin, n , Nht Bn v Australia. Bng tn Ku: S b pht p: 12 b (36 MHz/b) Page 54

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Tn s pht Tx: 13.750-14.500 MHz Phn cc: Vertical. - ng xung (Downlink): Tn s thu Rx: 10.950-11.700 MHz Phn cc: Horizontal - Mt dung lng bo ha (SFD): -90 dBW/m2 - Vng ph sng bao gm: Vit Nam, Lo, Campuchia, Thi Lan v mt phn Mianma. Cc b pht p ang s dng: VTC: 2 b VSTV: 4 b HTVC: 2 b Hin nay s dng ht tt c cc b pht p trn v tinh vinasat1.

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V tinh Anten thu

Anten pht

Anten pht mt t

Anten thu
K tp m thp v h Thu v gii iu ch

tn

Gi m

Tn hiu ra

K cng sut cao ng dn sng

Nng tn

iu ch

M ha

Tn hiu vo

Hnh 3.2. S tng th ca trm thu pht v tinh Hin nay thng s dng hai bng tn: bng C s dng di tn 4Ghz 6Ghz, v bng Ku s dung di tn 12Ghz 14Ghz. Vic la chon bng Ku v li th rt c bn, l khung tn s cao (v tinh pht xung tn s 12Ghz) ch cn anten c kch thc b nh thu c, nn chi ph cho cc thu bao lp cho thu nh, lm tng nhanh s lng cc thu bao trn mi min t nc. Bng tn Ku: - S b pht p c 12 b (36MHz/ b). - ng ln (uplink): Tn s pht Tx: 13.750-14.500MHz Phn cc: vertical - ng xung (downlink): Tn s thu Rx: 10.950-11.700MHz Page 56

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- Mt dung lng bo ha (SFD): -90dBW/m2 - Vng ph sng bao gm: Vit nam, Lo, Campuchia, Thi lan, v mt phn Mianma. Tn hiu s pht t v tinh thu c bi anten parabol offset v khi thu hnh s (khuch i v dch tn t Ku xung 950-1450MHz c ngha l di trung tn th nht). Tn hiu ny c truyn bng cp n my thu. So vi my thu hnh v tinh tng t, cu to bn trong my thu hinh v tinh s hon ton khc v nguyn tc. N bao gm b Tuner, b gii iu ch QPSK, b gii m MPEG v khi u ra. u ra my thu bao gm c tn hiu s ln tng t c th ni trc tip n my thu hnh tng t. B Tuner hai cp: trung tn 1 v trung tn 2 (480MHz). Sau khuch i v lc, tn hiu c di tn 70MHz. vic x l tn hiu s c bt u t v tr ny. Sau y l mt cch gii quyt k thut ca my thu dung IC ca hng VLSI Technology Inc.

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DRAM 512k

DRAM

Khi u vo VES4143X VES5453X

Demultiplexer MPEG-2 VES2020

Decoder MPEG-2

Coder NTSC/PAL

Miroprocessor iu khin

Cc khi u ra Cc phm iu khin Giao din bn phm u ra s HDTV

B iu ch TV

iu khin xa

My thu iu khin xa

m thanh L, R

Knh cao tn 3/4

Card thng minh

u c card

Y,Cr,Cb

NTSC/PAL

UHF/VHF

Hnh3.3. S khi bn thu phn x l tn hiu (u thu) Tn hiu t tuner c truyn n khi IC VES4143X trong c b gii iu ch QPSK, khi tng hp s ng b tn hiu cng cc b lc tn hiu ra v khi t ng iu chnh khuch i. Khi ny c th lm vic vi tc cc i 63Mb/s. Hng VLSI cng sn xut khi 4143 dng cho truyn hnh cp trong b di iu ch QBSK c thay bng b gii iu ch QAM. Tn hiu sau gii iu ch c a n khi Page 58

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VES5453X c nhim v bo v cc bit bo v tn hiu s gc trc li truyn. trong h thng DSS c hai mc bo v: mc u tin dung m reed-solomon v mc th hai dung m chp. t khi VES5453X cng c th c c li khi truyn cho php chnh anten thu. Tn hiu s sau khi c loi b m bo v s n khi VES2020 trong c b phn knh (Demultiplexer) cc tn hiu MPEG-2. Nhim v ca khi ny l tch lung tn hiu s chung trong cc knh s liu ca chng trnh truyn hnh c yu cu (trong mt knh c th c ng thi nhiu chng trnh truyn hnh). Khi VES2020 to li tn hiu tng t. sau n b coder PAN/SECAM v b iu ch c th a n u vo ca anten. Cu trc bn trong my thu v b m h thng DSS phc tp hn rt nhiu so vi tuner truyn hnh v tinh tng t.Tuy nhin thao tc my khng phc tp hn. Tt c cc khi ca my thu c iu khin bi Microprocessor. Microprocessor c lnh ca ngi xem t bn phm mt trc ca my hoc iu khin t xa. Ngoi ra khi ny cn hin th ni dung thng tin c pht cng vi chng trnh v phc v c vic c card thng minh. Trn card ny cha thng tin gii m chng trnh truyn hnh. Gi tr card l c thi hn m ngi s dng ch gii m c nhng chng trnh m h thu bao. Ngoi ra trong my thu cn c modem gip ngi s dng yu cu chng trnh cn xem v thanh ton cc chng trnh truyn hnh tr tin (pay per wiew).

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CHNG IV: THIT B HIN TH 4.1. V c bn Nhim v ca mn hnh l ti to li hnh nh. phng php ph bin nht hin nay l hin th hnh nh da vo bn ma trn im nh. Theo phng php ny, mt khung hnh s c chia ra lm v s cc im nh nh. Cc im nh c dng hnh vung, c kch thc rt nh. Kch thc thc ca mt im nh l: 0.01x0.01 (cm). Tuy nhin kch thc thc ny phn ln ch c ngha l thuyt, v hu nh chng ta t khi quan st c cc im nh ti kch thc thc ca chng, mt phn do chng qu b, mt phn do kch thc quan st ca im nh ph thuc vo phn gii: vi cng mt din tch hin th, phn gii (s lng im nh) cng ln th kch thc quan st c ca chng cng b. Kch thc ca mt khung hnh c cho bi s lng im nh theo chiu ngang v s lng im nh theo chiu dc. V d kch thc khung hnh 1600x1200 (pixel) c ngha khung hnh s c hin b bi 1600 im nh theo chiu ngang v 1200 im nh theo chiu dc. Nhiu ngi lm tng gi tr 1600x1200 trn chnh l phn gii ca hnh nh. Thc cht, gi tr v s lng pixel ch mang ngha kch thc (image dimension), cn phn gii (resolution) c cho bi s lng im nh hin th trn din tch mt inch vung. phn gii cng cao, hnh nh c hin th s cng nt. phn gii t n gi tr phn gii thc khi m mt pixel c hin th vi ng kch thc thc ca n (kch thc thc ca pixel c ly sao cho mt khong cch nht nh, pixel c nhn di mt gc xp x bng nng sut phn ly ca mt ngi). Nu phn gii b hn gi tr phn gii thc, mt ngi s c cm gic hnh nh b sn, khng nt. Nu phn gii cao hn phn gii thc, trn l thuyt, nt v chi tit ca hnh nh s tng ln, tuy nhin thc s mt ngi khng cm nhn c hon ton s khc bit ny. Page 60

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Mt ngi cm nhn hnh nh da vo hai yu t, mu sc v sng (chi) ca hnh nh. Mn hnh mun hin th c hnh nh th cng phi ti to li c hai yu t th gic ny ca hnh nh. V mu sc, mt ngi c kh nng cm nhn hn 4 t sc mu khc nhau, trong c mt ph mu khong hn 30 triu mu c cm nhn r rt nht. Mun ti to li hnh nh chn thc, mn hnh hin th cn phi c kh nng hin th t nht l khong 16 triu mu. Bnh thng, khi mun to ra mt mu sc, ngi ta s dng k thut lc mu t nh sng trng, mi b lc mu s cho ra mt mu. Tuy nhin, vi kch thc v cng b ca im nh, vic t 16 triu b lc mu trc mt im nh l gn nh v vng. Chnh v th, hin th mu sc mt cch n gin nhng vn cung cp kh y di mu, ngi ta s dng phng php phi hp mu t cc mu c bn. H cc mu c bn phi tho mn iu kin ti to c mt ph mu rng t cc mu thnh phn, v cc mu thnh phn, khi c tng hp vi cng t l phi to ra mt trong hai mu s cp l mu en (loi tr ca tt c mu sc) hoc mu trng (tng ho ca tt c mu sc). V cc mu c bn, trong cc ti liu m thut c in thng cp n ba mu c bn vng, , xanh lam. Mu hp vi mu vng s to ra mu da cam, mu xanh vi to ra mu tm, mu vng vi xanh to ra xanh l. Tip tc t cc mu trn, phi hp vi nhau s ra c tt c cc mu khc. Tuy nhin, h 3 mu c bn ca m thut c in ngy nay t ra c nhiu nhc im trong cc ng dng k thut. Th nht, vi mi ln phi hp mu, mu thu c thng b xn i, gy kh khn trong vic ti to li nhng mu sc ti nh xanh l m, vng chanh..., v nhc im quan trng nht, khi chng ba mu c bn vng, , xanh lam vi cng ging nhau ln nhau th khng thu c mu en hon ton. Yu im ny khin cho h mu , vng, xanh lam by gi ch cn tn ti trong sch v, v hu nh khng c mt ng dng k thut thc t no. Thay vo , ngy nay c hai h mu c s dng rt ph bin l h mu RGB v h mu CMYK. C s xy dng nn hai h mu c bn ny da trn nguyn l phi mu pht x v phi mu hp th ca nh sng. Page 61

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V hai nguyn l phi mu trn, cn ni qua v c ch mt cm nhn mu. Mu sc m mt cm nhn c ph thuc vo bc sng ca nh sng chiu ti mt. Bc sng ca nh sng chiu ti mt li ph thuc vo bn cht ngun sng. C hai loi ngun sng, l ngun sng s cp v ngun sng th cp. Ngun sng s cp l cc ngun sng c kh nng t pht ra sng nh sng, cn ngun sng th cp l ngun sng pht ra nh sng bng cch phn x li nh sng t ngun sng s cp. Khi quan st mt ngun sng s cp, mu sc m mt ngi quan st c chnh l mu ca nh sng m ngun sng pht ra, cn khi quan st ngun sng th cp, mu sc quan st c l mu m ngun sng th cp khng c kh nng hp th t ngun sng s cp. V d: khi quan st nh sng pht ra t n led, chng ta c cm nhn mu th nh sng t n led pht ra c bc sng nm trong vng nh sng . Cn khi quan st mt tm bng mu , ta c cm nhn mu bi tm bng hp th hu ht cc bc sng khc (xanh, tm, vng...) t ngun sng s cp, ch c mu l khng hp th c v truyn n mt chng ta. Mu sc ca ngun sng s cp lun khng i, cn mu sc ca ngun sng th cp li thay i ph thuc vo mu sc ca ngun sng s cp. Chiu sng ngun sng th cp bng cc ngun sng s cp c mu khc nhau s thu c nh sng th cp khc nhau. Phi mu pht x l hnh thc phi mu s dng cho cc ngun sng s cp, cn phi mu hp th l hnh thc phi mu s dng cho cc ngun sng th cp. Chng khc nhau c bn: c ch ca phi mu pht x l cng mu, cn c ch ca phi mu hp th l tr mu. C th kim chng iu ny mt cch n gin: Theo nh ngha, nh sng trng l tng ho ca v s nh sng n sc c mu sc khc nhau, c bc sng t 0.4 n 0.7um. Tuy nhin, chng ta ch c th thu c nh sng trng nu chiu cc chm sng chng ln nhau (cc chm sng c pht ra t cc ngun sng s cp), cn nu chng cc mu sc ln nhau bng cch t chng ln mt t giy, tt nhin s chng bao gi nhn c mu trng, m ngc li, cn ra mu en. L do l qu trnh t mu sc ln

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t giy khng phi qu trnh tng hp cc mu, m ngc li, l qu trnh loi tr cc mu. Khi oi tr ht tt c cc mu th r rng ch cn mu en. 4.2. Mn hnh LCD Do hnh nh c m ha v hin th di dng bn ma trn im nh, nn mn hnh LCD cng phi c cu to t cc im nh. Mi im nh trn mn hnh LCD s hin th mt im nh ca khung hnh. Trong mi im nh c 3 im nh con (subpixel), mi im nh con hin th 1 mu: , xanh l, xanh lam.

Hinh 4.1. B tr im nh cho mn hnh 4.2.1. V cu to Sp t song song nhng phn t tinh th lng dc theo nhng rnh. Khi cc phn t ny i vo trong v tip xc vi b mt rnh mt phng hng c nh, iu chnh nhng phn t tinh th lng song song dc theo hng nhng rnh. Ti y chng c sp xp sao cho cc phn t thng hng (n) v lun cch nhau mt khong nht nh. Khi nhng tinh th cht lng c kp gia hai tm film c h thng rnh vung gc vi n.

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V cc phn t sp xp theo chiu hng cc khe hp ca hai tm lc l nh nhau i vi cc phn t nn to ra hin tng: Ti gia hai tm lc cc phn t s sp xp theo cu trc xon 90 0. Khi c nh sng i xuyn qua khong cch gia cc phn t cng l nh sng xon, v cc phn t tinh th lng sp xp theo cu trc xon nn khi nh sng xuyn qua khong cch gia cc phn t n cng phi i theo chiu xon ca cc phn t. C ngha l nh sng khi xuyn qua cc phn t tinh th lng cng c hnh xon 900 ging nh cc phn t tinh th lng, nh sng i theo chiu t trn xung di vung gc vi b mt ca tm lc. Khi c in p t vo hai tm lc do hiu ng in trng tc ng vo cc phn t tinh th lng nn chng sp xp li theo chiu thng ng vung gc vi hai tm lc v khi nh sng d dng i qua gia cc khong trng ca phn t tinh th lng. Khi c th coi nh nh sng c phng dc theo cc phn t tinh th lng. Lc ny do in p cha ln nn khi nh sng ti c phin lc th hai n tip tc i qua phin lc ny. Khi in p ln phn cc cho hai phin lc v tinh th lng xon. Khi c nh sng i qua khong trng gia cc phn t tinh th lng ti mng lc th hai n b cn li bi mt hnh nh mu en hin ra v khi n tr thnh mt mn hnh LCD n sc. Nh ta bit khi nh sng phn cc phng i xuyn qua mt lp tinh th lng th phng phn cc ca n c th b xoay i hay gi nguyn ty thuc tinh th cht lng y c c p mt in th hay khng v xoay i nhiu hay t ty thuc hiu in th y ln hay nh. Trng tnh in mt chiu c th ph hng cu trc tinh th, v th ngi ta hay dng hiu in th xoay chiu. Hiu in th dng cho tinh th lng tng i thp.

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Hnh 4.2. Cc lp cu to LCD Nhng mn hnh LCD hin nay, v c bn c th c hnh dung nh mt h thng van iu tit lng nh sng pht ra t mt ngun sang pha sau. Bn thn LCD khng t pht sng nh mn hnh CLT. Trong mn hnh LCD nh sng i qua mt vi lp cc mng c cu to t vt liu tinh th lng c tnh phn cc. Cht tinh th lng nm gia 2 mt knh mng to nn mn hnh. Hnh nh hin th trn mn hnh c xc nh bi mt h thng li (ma trn) bao gm nhiu in cc, iu tit lng nh sng i qua mi im ca li (pixel). Hin nay mn hnh LCD c phn ra lm 2 loi chnh: Th ng (Passive, bao gm c Dual-scan) v tch cc (gm Active TFT) S khc bit c bn gia hai loi l cch thc iu khin mi im pixel ring bit. Trong mn hnh ma trn th ng, mi hng im pixel ngang do mt transistor iu khin. V vy mi im c iu khin mt cch th ng. Trong khi i vi mn hnh LCD tch cc mi im c mt transistor ring iu khin, v i vi mn hnh mu th c n transistor cho mi im (mi transistor cho mt mu c bn). Mn hnh thc cht l mt tp hp (array) hnh ch nht bao gm nhiu tr dng lp mng (thin film). V vy cn c tn gi l TST (thin film transistor). Page 65

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Mn hnh LCD ma trn tch cc cho hnh nh nhanh v p hn nhiu so vi mn hnh th ng bi kh nng iu khin lng nh sng i qua mi im tt hn. Chng ta c th nhn s phn bit ng nt, tng phn, tnh trung thc mu cng nh kh nng phn ng nhanh ca mn hnh ng vai tr rt quan trng trong hin th video chuyn ng thc. Trong khi cc mn hnh ma trn tch cc mi nht c kh nng ti hin video vi tc 20 n 30 khung hnh trn mt giy th mn hnh ma trn th ng, k c loi dual - scan ch t ti mc 5 khung hnh trn mt giy. Cng ngh dual-scan l mt c gng nhm tng cng hiu nng ca mn hnh th ng m khng lm tng gi thnh. V c bn, theo cng ngh ny mn hnh c chia thnh hai na, vi hai transistor cho mi hng. Nh vy thi gian phn ng cng nh tng phn v sng c tng ln mt t. Tuy nhin so vi mn hnh tch cc, mn hnh th ng vn cn km mt khong cch xa.

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Cc phn t in cc ct

Thnh phn mu ca cc tn hiu li Cc transitor mng mng Ct 0

Hng 0 R G B

Hng 1

Hng 2

Cc Tn hiu li hng

Cc in cc hng

Ba tn hiu cn thit cho mi pixel

Hnh 4.3. Tn hiu iu khin cc im nh Vi LCD loi ny tt c cc transistor c t ti mi im bn trong mn hnh. Mn hnh tch cc cho hnh nh sc nt v tng phn cao. 4.2.2. Nguyn tc hot ng nh sng c pht ra t 1 n nn, c v s phng phn cc nh nh sng t nhin. nh sng ny cho i qua lp knh lc phn cc th nht, tr thnh nh sng phn cc phng ch c phng thng ng. nh sng phn cc phng ny c tip tc cho truyn qua tm thy tinh v lp in cc trong sut n lp tinh th lng. Sau chng i tip ti kinh lc th 2 c phng phn cc vung gc vi knh lc th nht, ri i ti mt ngi quan st. Mt im nh trng thi tt n s khng cho nh sng n nn i qua v ngc li. nh sng n lp tinh th lng l nh sng phn cc phng, nu in cc ca 1 im nh con khng c p 1 in th, th phn tinh th lng ni y Page 67

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khng b tc ng g c, nh sng khi truyn qua im vn gi nguyn phng phn cc, v cui cng b chn li hon ton bi knh lc phn cc th 2, im con ny b tt v i vi mt y l 1 im ti. bt mt im nh con, ta t in th vo in cc ca n, lm thay i s nh hng ca cc phn t tinh th lng, kt qu l nh sng sau khi truyn qua phn tinh th lng im nh con ny s b xoay phng phn cc i, c th lt qua lp knh lc phn cc th 2, to ra mt im mu trn tm kinh trc. mi thi, cc im nh mt trng thi bt/tt nht nh ng vi mt nh trn mn hnh. Vic iu khin im nh cp in th vo tng hng (qut dc) v tng ct (qut ngang) do mnh vi in t c lp trnh lm vic ny. 4.3. E-pepr-mn hnh giy in t Giy in t c lm t cht do cha cc ht tch in nh, c kh nng chuyn ng v thay i hnh nh hin th trn giy. E-paper khng pht sng m hp th v phn x nh sng t nhin nn ngi c cm thy d chu hn so vi nhn vo mn hnh khc. Loi mn hnh ny nh, c th un cong, tit kim nng lng. im yu ca giy in t l tc i mu chm v tng phn thp. Nhng vn ny trong tng lai s c khc phc v c ng dng nhiu. 4.4. Mn hnh Plasma Plasma l mt trong cc pha (trng thi) ca vt cht. trng thi plasma, vt cht b ion ha rt mnh, phn ln cc phn t hoc nguyn t ch cn li ht nhn, cc electron chuyn ng tng i t do gia cc ht nhn, ng dng c tnh ny ca plasma, ngi ta ch to ra mn hinh plasma. trng thi thng, cc ion dng v electron chuyn ng hn lon, vn tc tng i ca chng c vi nhau khng ln. Khi t kh plasma vo gia hai in cc, in trng tc dng ln cc ht mang in s lm cho chng chuyn ng c hng: cc electron b ht v pha cc dng, cc ion dng b hut v Page 68

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pha cc m. Trong qu trnh chuyn ng ngc chiu nhau nh vy, cc ht mang in va chm vo nhau vi vn tc tng i rt ln. Va chm s truyn nng lng cho cc electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t kh, lm cho cc electron ny nhy ln mc nng lng cao hn, sau mt khoang thi gian rt ngn, cc electron s t ng chuyn xung mc nng lng thp hn v sinh ra mt photon nh sng theo nh lut bc x in t. Trong mn hnh plasma, ngi ta s dng kh xenon khoac kh neon. Cc cht kh ny khi b kch thch s pht ra cc tia cc tm, khng nhn c trc tip bng mt thng, nhng c th gin tip to ra nh sng kh kin.

Hnh 4.4. Cu to im nh mn hnh plasma Mn hnh c to t nhiu im nh, trong mi im nh c 3 im nh con th hin 3 mu c bn: , xanh l, xanh lam. Mi im l mt bung kn, Page 69

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trong c cha cht kh xenon hoc neon. Ti mt trc ca bung c ph lp pht pho, ti hai u bung kh s b ion ha, cc nguyn t b kch thch v pht ra tia cc tm. Tia cc tm ny p vo lp pht pho ph trn mt trc ca bung kn s kch thch cht pht pho, lm cho chng pht sng. nh sng pht ra s i qua lp knh lc mu t trc mi bung kn v cho ra mt trong ba mu c bn. Phi hp ca 3 nh sng t 3 im nh con s cho ra mu sc ca im nh. Plasma c im nh to hn LCD nn mn hnh cng kch c th plasma c it im nh hn LCD, v gc nhn th plasma hn LCD, plasma thng thit k vi kch c ln, v bn th km hn LCD. 4.5. Mn hinh LED Mn hnh bao gm nhiu im nh, mi im nh c 3 led tng ng vi 3 mu: , xanh l, xanh lam. Cu to ca Led gm hai khi bn dn, mt khi loi p v mt khi loi n ghp vi nhau. Khi t mt in p thun vo 2 u led, l trng trong khi bn dn p v electron trong cc khi bn dn n chuyn ng v pha nhau. Ti mt tip xc xy ra mt s tng tc gia l trng v electron. Trong qu trnh trng tc ny c th gii phng nng lng di dng nh sng, bc song nh sng tng ng vi mu sc v n ph thuc vo cu trc phn t ca cht bn dn.

Hnh 4.5. Cu to im nh mn hnh LED Page 70

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Nh iu chnh cng sng ca tng led, c th thay i cng sng t i ca 3 led so vi nhau s to ra mu sc tng hp ti mi im nh. Khi mun tt im nh ch cn tt c 3 led l c th thu c mu en tuyt i. Mn hnh led c u im hn LCD v plasma: LED c tng phn cao hn, gc nhn rng hn, sng hn, tiu th in nng t hn, mng hn. 4.6. Mn hnh laser Mn hnh laser c pht trin bi Mitsubishi. nh sng laser c cng mnh l laser to thnh t cht rn. Mt cht rn thch hp, khi nhn c kch thch t bn ngoi cc electron bn trong s nhy ln mc nng lng cao hn, sau li nhanh chng chuyn v mc nng lng thp hn v gii phng 1 photon nh sng. Photon ny bay ra chuyn ng trong long khi chat rn, li va chm vi nguyn t khc, kch thch electron ca nguyn t ny ln trng thi cao hn, sau khi nhy xung trng thi thp li tip tc pht ra 1 photon khc. C nh vy to ra 1 phn ng dy chuyn, cng ngy cng gii phng nhiu photon. Ti mt u ca khi cht rn c gn 1 gng bn m. Photon gp gng s phn x nhiu ln, n khi ln bt ra ngoi to laser. Mn hnh gm ma trn im nh, mi im nh c 3 laser tng ng 3 mu: xanh lam, xanh l, . iu khin 3 mu vi cng khc nhau s cho ra mu ti im nh. Mn hnh laser c nhiu u im so vi cc loi mn hnh hin nay nh kh nng ti to li mt ph mu rt rng vi chnh xc mu sc cao (c th t n hn 90% ph mu m mt ngi c th cm nhn). Mn hnh tiu th t nng lng hn LCD hay plasma, kch thc gon nh, tui th ln n 50000 gi. 4.7. Mn hnh SED Mn hnh gm nhiu im nh, mi im nh c 3 sng in t ring bit, mi sng in t pht ra 1 mu: , xanh lam, xanh l.

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V c bn mn hnh SED da trn cng ngh mn hnh CRT, s dng cng ngh pht x in t dn b mt. CRT ch s dng 1 ng in t, dung qun li tia qut cc electron bn vo tt c cc im nh trn mn hnh lm lp hunh quang ti cc im nh pht sng. Nn ng in t c kch thc rt to, nng. SED s dng 1 sng in t iu khin 1 im nh con pht sng, nn mn hnh cn rt nhiu sung in t nh. V sng in t nh ch pht sng 1 im, nn mn hnh rt mng, kh nng p ng hnh nh nhanh, v c nt cao, tng phn cao, khc phc c nhc im ca mn hinh CRT. i vi mn hnh ny v cht lng hnh nh hn hn LCD v plasma v gc nhn, tng phn, sng..

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CHNG V. NG DNG CNG NGH HDTV VIT NAM nc ta HDTV ang pht trin rt mnh, nhiu cng ty truyn thng sn xut chng trnh HD vi s lng ln. ng gp nhiu nht l VTC, ngoi ra cn c VTV, K+, MyTV truyn qua giao thc IP internet, truyn HD qua mng truyn hnh cp 5.1. u im. - Thit b (TV) Kch thc mn hnh ln, phn gii cao, v vi gi thnh ty vo la chn ca ngi s dng ta c th s hu b hin th HD l tng cho cng ngh ny: - Tt c cc chng trnh truyn hnh v phim u c hin th ch mn hnh 16:9. - H thng m thanh Dolby Digital 5.1 c pht sng ng thi vi HDTV h tr chc nng m thanh vm lp th. - Kh nng chng xuyn nhiu tt, hnh nh khng b mui. - Loi b c hin tng bng ma (ghosting) - Tn hiu s t nhy cm vi cc dng mo xy ra trn ng truyn - C kh nng pht hin li v sa sai - Tnh a nng v linh hot trong qu trnh x l tn hiu. 5.2. Nhc im. - D liu HD c dung lng cao hn cc file d liu truyn hnh khc c cng ni dung, nn vic lu tr tn dung lng b nh. - Kinh ph sn xut HD t hn nhiu so vi cc truyn hnh khc, thit b thu hnh (TV) phi l chun HD th mi hin th nh HD theo tiu chun. - Cc thit b my quay HD, my pht hnh HD, mn hnh hin th HD u c gi cao hn so vi cc thit b truyn hnh khc.

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- Dung lng HD ln nn cc knh truyn hnh thng thng khng c kh nng truyn ti 5.3. HDTV Vit Nam ng dng v trin khai cng ngh HDTV vo nc ta lu, nhng vn cha mnh so vi th gii. Nhng kh khn v my k thut, ngun kinh ph u t it, l nguyn nhn HDTV pht trin chm so vi cc nc khc. Mt s cng ty truyn thng cung cp dnh v HD.

i VTC c 30 knh HD: VTC HD 1 - Tng hp (VTC) VTC HD 2 - Phim truyn (VTC) VTC HD 3 - Thi trang, ca nhac (VTC) VTC HD 4 - ESPN HD VTC HD 5 - NGC HD VTC HD 6 VTC HD 7 - CCTV HD (Trung Quc) VTC HD 8 - CHC HD (Trung Quc) VTC HD 9 - LUXE TV HD VTC HD 10 - NHK HD (Nht ban) VTC HD 11 - ASN VTC HD 12 - NGC WILD HD VTC HD 13 - NGC ADVENTURE HD VTC HD 14 - FOX ADVENTURE HD VTC HD 15 - FX HD VTC HD 16 - STARWORLD HD VTC HD 17 - FOX HD VTC HD 18 - LiTV HD VTC HD 19 - Phim truyn (VTC) VTC HD 20 Page 74

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VTC HD 21 VTC HD 22 VTC HD 23 VTC HD 24 VTC HD 25 VTC HD 26 VTC HD VIP 1 - Tng hp (VTC) VTC HD VIP 2 - Discovery HD VTC HD VIP 3 - HBO HD VTC HD VIP 4 - ITV HD (VTC).

GVHD: GS. Hong Minh Qun

Trong mt s chng trnh phi mua ca cc i nc ngoi, nhng cng nh m thng tin th gii c cp nht nhanh hn.

Tuyn hnh K+ c 8 knh HD: K+ 1 HD K+ NS HD AXN HD HBO HD STARMOVIES HD DISCOVERY HD ESPN HD NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL HD. Truyn hnh K+ c mua bn quyn truyn hnh trc tip cc gii bng

, nn rt li th trong cc ma gii bng. MyTV: Cartoon Network (HD) - Thiu nhi Disney (HD) - Thiu nhi Page 75

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NHK (HD) - Tng hp HBO (HD) - Phim truyn AXN (HD) - Gii tr tng hp MTV (HD) - Ca nhc NGA (HD) - Khoa hc Star Movies (HD) - Phim truyn

GVHD: GS. Hong Minh Qun

Star World (HD) - Chuyn v gii tr trn th gii Discovery (HD) - Khoa hc gio dc. Cc i truyn hnh hu ht cc chng trnh c mua ca nc ngoi, cn phi u t sn xut cc chng trnh trong nc nhiu hn na. 5.4. Gii php pht trin HDTV Do nhu cu thng tin gii tr ngy cng ln, nn vic pht trin HDTV l cn thit. pht trin mnh hn na chng ta phi u t con ngi thit b my mc, c s h tng thit b u cui. Hin nay dch v HD phi tr ph cao nn rt kh khn vi nhiu i tng ngi dn, ph hp nn gim gi thu bao v gim gi thit b thu. Chng trnh phi xy dng nhiu hn na, ni dung phong ph hn, p ng tt nhu cu thng tin gii tr.

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KT LUN

C th thy rng, cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin hin i, truyn hnh s cng nh truyn hnh phn gii cao ang c bc pht trin nhanh chng v tr thnh xu hng pht trin ca ngnh cng ngh truyn hnh trn ton th gii. Mn hnh hin th HD ngy cng tr nn ph bin vi gi c phi chng, dn thay th mn hnh truyn thng; ngun cung cp ni dung HD v cc knh chng trnh HD ngy cng nhiu, phong ph p ng c nhu cu thng tin gii tr ca khn gi. Nh vy cng vi xu hng tt yu ca truyn hnh nt cao HDTV trn ton th gii, Vit Nam chng ta cng ang c nhng bc tin ng k trong cng ngh truyn hnh ni chung v HDTV ni ring. Vi nhng phn tch v c s cng nh cc thng s c bn ca HDTV v cc h thng HDTV trn th gii hi vng mang li mt ci nhn c bn v h thng truyn hnh nt cao t thy r xu th pht trin HDTV hin nay ca Vit Nam cng nh trn ton th gii. Em xin cm n thy gio GS. Hong Minh Qun nhit tnh gip v hng dn em hon thnh bi bo co ny, trong qu trnh lm n do iu kin v kin thc cn hn ch nn bi bo co c th c mt vi vn cn thiu st v cha chuyn su. Em mong cc thy trong khoa v cc bn thng cm, ng gp kin em c kinh nghim lm vic sau ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Nguyn Kim Sch, truyn hnh s c nn v multimedia, Nh xut bn Khoa hc k thut, H Ni 2000 [2] Charles Poynton, Digital Video HDTV Algorithms and Interfaces, Morgan Kautmann Publishers, 2003 [3] hong Tin Bi nh phong inh th kim phng, gio trnh k thut truyn hnh, nh xut bn gio dc, 2009 [4] http://vi.wikipedia.org/, truy nhp cui cng ngy 26/8/2011 [5] http://www.tailieu.vn/, truy nhp cui cng ngy 26/8/2011

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