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14. Hubungan Perkembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Teknologi Dengan Perang Dunia II Serta Perang Dingin

14. Hubungan Perkembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Teknologi Dengan Perang Dunia II Serta Perang Dingin

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Publicado porMansur Haris
sma12sej IPA Sejarah ShMusthofa
sma12sej IPA Sejarah ShMusthofa

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Published by: Mansur Haris on Jul 27, 2012
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Sh. Mu s,th fa S'urralld'ari , ..

rik Mulyali

Unluk SIM',AlMA Kel,asl Xlii
Progrram IIPA

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:h1d~neJii1.,~~ma ~Pemng:Ounia. 'I. ham,plt' ,seLumh mtU3giif~. Erop~ ·te:ri$bat: dalam ]llefP,emm,gaJll 'yan,g 'menimbu1kan keihilf:lcturaT.1I. O:lah karena Un, bangsa A!Si~, an ,A:fr'~:men~nQkatlmn '®Unb1annya 'kepada mr~ra-.neg'2lr,~ d p~nJaJall1 berupa p~tll;ba;IfU~nPJB'merlnr~~llan d!~n. 'pem'b~n'~uik~~, :11~mb~g'a fle:rw~til~~1rr~t ,Aildbtl.t: ~s ~~rinQfftd,s~~~ P'~~g; ,[hllri~ n~~~,neg;.~, ,~" :kio(tolrnli~ 'ooTusah~ uHtUkleblh men~nQ~~lmn pemem~f;]l k~'yl~:an dI~dl~U3~tt. da.'IJ,oo. Jal~iinnya dii Asi'a dan Afrika.. H'al itu menimbWkal get',ailmnc..geraka:n 'pe:iI_lj,w'man yan.g, le'blh radiLkal., ,Be~kh~mya .Pl~raI'lg DWlia Il ~1l,9a·9~t.945'-)m.~1ahjfkan. P:iag~ A:~!:ljn:Qk : · ~tl8n.tic; Chs'l1etJ:y~!' teKlil{~ 'b~'~~ hal. ))entia!, ~f.lg :m@fi.~[],gkuf· HJ\WI ~Hak ,Asas'i. M.anUBi~'~antara Iain se1tiap, rruegaf,al dlilafang m~~g~mbi,1 wi~ayah :Mgara. :Ia!in dan :peWle!~san b1hwi! :setiap. bal1~, 'berhak :m~nen:tukan naslbll~a .~I"'· I ,''/'.J '~'H" ,~,1... 'I oasan ~~I~V~r.sar.. o~QJ .. ·'·IIL, ,. senem rS&,r:;.' u,e~~1:m,'~nij~i(J!Q/,. 'I 'In~ me,TU[p'MMin ian d' '.',.,~, • . ~. ·p~Ij'wn;§~n.:kemeoo,€ban ~gj n~9erl..-fiegeT~:~9 te~!lah sehmgg;~. eOOon:,u:'ii,g m paf,~embamgaJfi.k.eme«l;eka~ :n~~m '~et]~jWl1 UllJd. :m;eoc8pal :kemerdeka~n. 'Piagaiml '~.ar!ieibu~ eliijadi laindii.$2iD OORii;rmya :PB,B., ahua lI9·4.o, '!lang memb_t m T
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aksea~ra$i ,proes de'kob~.n:isasi,dffi,Asia, ,Afrika,. :~a_s :pelepayn ,rn;agan,jlaj~ain d~ri '~egaf,il'~nd~ya ..ni.diS€but 'pro~ Id€~o~~ ..D~k6lonisasi ,a(htl~.h,1sti!l8.h i , : ~fig dip~k~d:b¥rng~~~ E~pa dild~m, metina1ankanl pmld~k:impeti~U~me dian kdonliaJj~me~ M~ayah. ,Agm. d~D.Ahika. ~Deng;m dklaAn o.~.e!h.m.fiti.gajt !eU. 'untuk :liI1£nentubn :naslJ'b Sendilri ~f,de~ermmatiQn}"'fakt,or idecdog'W dan :stm!tegi. antiimpmiali!sute ya.ng dfumi~ikiidleh. :pe:rgernibn-perg~n ,Hba~HiHl, e,gaIra-' n :rMg,g~~,di As'i~, Aiinw" Mtus 'berju~~.Q~I li:~vkUI1~. tn:emiih kelm€fd€gM,. -p" ad ~ r~ii iDii!'ji~nn' n, ""'~':Ii '-r 'D""iF;'iii'fi'ii'fii 'n, ,,,,,,~:!::!; '0-,. I ..... ·· ~~.ii!TiinP~,-t'I'~ -m- iirnn~ n U;UJ~111~ ,UIW-I~l IJI~~K: ~ ~:=iglJ~aJmn Jug~ pa~ukan..lparukan d~ri 'ne-gefii j3ljahaoo,ya. :P,eng~~atrt.~fl 'pa.rubn
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Pem,ng' Dun.i~, I &m,P~g: ,DUlnia, :0 ~€l19;aru!h. ·~.~rhada,p' p!~~g~ pe1ige~~. ke:mle:r-de:ban. ,Iooofiesl~~ et:eld Pemng ,Dun~.]~i coral.(IDai:i :h~u<m S , 'bm:bagari. O(fgillnfusa sil :Perg@r~. :N~i6~, ,~rniollela,beru'bah. :ke ,arah yrtfilg l;ebih ·te.ga;s'l llsbn 'beran~,! dan. :~ebiib.~J:as. S~kaIp ii"adi~\tajl.dan 'ber:oagaii, !c·r~gMiSitii ; Ferg;e~n N'~ia~ mBn~LU" FLa ~ tmp~h 'oc-ap!Ml, :P,~iden 'WiiIson,pada akh~rR'et'~Q ]!)unia I ',ang: ~g~jlfitbn ~.rn' b@1I1gsa.='itJangsa. dJ.dunlal ~!I~g; maslh di}~jahdi~rii hmk Ure1ittwk: 'menen'tuDn na~,b seOOif~.,S€ba1~k.nya" Pe{~arng; :Dunia 'I 'mari1mb~ Im;sUUt~ bag;, :pe;m:eri~ Kef:iaij'r!an :aelm:ld.a. O~g;i1. rena ~ JI.;9.t.,-ii·.· ....1fI"(,1l~m·'e~,e·1'D~rrt'I~liI"_m~1I:'"iin'1'li'!i~1W'i".i._:L ~1~"""I""'ru~I~:1-!li-Ift...:ll,~, b~...di~~-"n D rv' ~-kllij ;'~'l~ . '-U~~JIJ._ a~~-~II1i_l , .~~~~n Indan~ .. ,
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pemeirinb;'han dl Indonesla .. :Pidato ~guoornum' jenchim'l ini l\ebih di~enaru :sebaga,i ,Jaf:1j~ N,owmoor 1'918, ,a/tau 'N'ovem!ber ,B'e/rJIle,~. Akan, kta:pd ~setelaih. se~i. per,arn,Q" e:marinhl!h kolon&aill, :Bilanda 'berslkap ~b]h p ~~n~' 'me:!'1;jnda~, pe.rg€~bn, l~a~~~, btd~ru§~ ,d~n~n. ~€:nang-' :kap~m) d~n ~m'b~gan, '~art@l. :pemjmpro~y;~ PI~~,Q: Qijfl]~, U rnliil.~~oo.bi~ 'mro~kn~ :Be~iJ,dan' 'Mmyah:JaD~~,dru :~clQf;'i~l~.. :Se~njrnnya.,,b:do~a berada d]a!laim PE:ududubn dBpang .., SaLama Perang: DUlllaJ D'~Jepan,g' oolQyaJk, :man_mJ imsuilli·bt.n dalafll 'weJawm De:gCLra.-negalra Sekutu sehinQg~ himJS

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p.eden.gaih~Wl b~'tin ~us~. 1.945 .J~pany,'rrul~~, ~~h ,teTha~\P fie.p~ negara ;Se'kulu ..:I?ferisfiwa mellY~ ,Je,pang ternmap Sekutu dimanfaa_[k,an 'ol!h, 'billlgSa 1ndane.ea untm, ,menip~ka,tbn perjuamgannya ,dalliam ,me:ncapai,
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Indonesi',a. meru.pa~_amiIJperiistiwa. 'pen:lring; dan. sair.1ga~, bersejmh, ,~al:am mGooorong: _mamgDt bagi, bmugsar-bain,g5a d!~:k;a.Wi'iSr.l A,. dan. ,Af:ri.b, '!J£l'tJik, m€m:~ro!~h. ke:mJZrd~ban~ ,Kem€rd€ka~n. ya:f1Q: miperolin banQ~,:m-do~ ,seJ~iuhly~, 'm.enj~dj, lIhHm 'b'agB. b~goo, hiL1Jn lirhik mem,peifdleh W :kleclatda,'bul., mbai~~ 'bmtg~ 'mndla·. ,Ban,gg, Ind~i1I. ~bM-a'mya, 'tnl~ d~kelD1al1,diU1il~,

PmkBm,B:sw:Ke{m.em,dtaan

NaJm.un'~mjiak Inggris berltwasa Iii..-m"u I .I~~~ b.· ~ - - ---'. 'IUI\~ "L,~ -III "]-' L,~.I!..'L,_ _..JI - t .AI·'I.,_.;ii.__!I~,_, :m~n~~ng p€fi~J~rn~ ~nggn.6\.r'~I1l00n,~Dn I~ng~ lIl[lQI~ l~t~m1 Q!i~ip,ai'U~~II!J~n. sebmdwg' del1Q;cJfi 'pedwng~, 'yang. ,djh~tlbn 'bWt~1 '~l],d~n~a,. P~~!.mflg~ bang,Sa ,Lndla ,akJh~m.va :fitm(paWp~d_a 'p1J.anea'kl1ya ,~elriir:'i:Q' dengan dlipa~D1e:hnya. p!!D,gilkruJan :kediJIwatan, daTi ko'lo,nffia11,s, In,Qgtis p.adlJ mi1!1l!I'l, 194'7 . .In.,ggris memberi penaakuan ~oo!auta:ta;n. ,~p~ bM~ ,lra.diia, kairena, :rr;uilthat ~, peftlh~n, )Jo,Utfuk d\mf,lli~~e:t,~lillJh, oo~l:him.YiaJ ,P~g DlUtia, ,mt Setatm im,
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bag]. 'lleQilra~a,,, ~Slsa ,kolonrialjs: ,1a1in, ya'l1-Q: m,uiai mernbui, pe[l~_ua!n. kedaw_itbwn pada; ·'-1 _.'1.....' 't.. .. -..!II1-1_1.. '- . 'W-' ..Ijj.,. R. -'"- sang~.; 1., .,~,~. ,~_~JJ~!n l~D~I~i:an:nv~uilCii:ri, a .neg:am rr~~~-C~~.,~ .=i~~_ - h J~JW'~~alr" _w,y~_-_ ., ::: rliU1Q~ ,Ii~ dan t'6rsebar' dBJb~ . ,As'i'i\'i d"~ A'rnb~ :Pad~ .. ~M ][9.54 ~.a.yah jljallt~ '0 ~ d' 'f,,--.J • ,.'!l~!:..J -""Il...~........'~:~ iD_lk-. ,_ d'· r:mnCl5_'.~ ,mil.JOC~lla.m~ :m~n!Uapm:tpe!n9:aw~u 1ffi.'~'J.lIJ!t •.:ta:n.,~nr~~ . (~l 'M"I h a:ya .. Indocina 'teilm beiju~ng: menenta~ ko~on~aUsPraindis. J'adi ~ bmaQsa-bimgsa. di IndodL"!)',D:~~ja-biWh, herju~ng:dl~n~M1, seg;aJ~ pe"go~ba_Ii1a_~~~ u __ me __ nlLLk, m:peromh .kemef'(l~b@an,., Kf;metJtielm~n :~9 dill~-or~h ~r~kyatndoclllla, me~gjlhamill, ~tt~an I ,Pmncis tti ,A f"ri ka ,:,a;;,m..,A;I].amir ~f:1g lu,ga, mertn\l>:ef,o!eh '~~g~umtu kOO~ulamn. ~)I~r me'mper'o]eh. 'peng~1!lan :k~dr}i~jl~.npada tainun, 19162,. Mef~ka jl@a;,
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berjuang :menga.llgikat ,~qa~~ dan !belko~ban. segaffianya unhik Me:mpen:tileh p~lilg~ki_~lgl'r1. marWa~ ba~but ~ ~, :~ffi!p~TiaIDisf[u'~' kolQniaillsm_e yang tidak te~!u. ker-a~.bd~rtg kaI~ d~~ dw 'be\~bn,1 h:arl. m~f;'iiimb~ 'l1tub'W;iQ~. baiik m1Iiam :f:lJe,Q~ ~J~ah dan. bangsa YaillQ 'ter:1~]ah. Da~m. 'rang'ka. 'h'U'~llngan, balik. 'tersebtl;t,~ bedberapa n,ig;aTa beka,$,

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negair:;a lng·gr,is., Nega_1a~neg,~ 'mrsabut ,tmlumnya, menJallin kJetla ~ma, dlailmn bidans ekollQ-m,~, '5Psmm dan blld:a,~,~ Negara-negaf:,a~ ,sepedl ,Australia ~ M,~~~a~ .s~n~Ia'PJJm~ dan India ,MMjadi, ~Qg!c!ta, perKm~kID'lJmn, tersebult .• :D~nQ~ derniikiM furubung;an ko1oHiit~ ~bah m~n~ad1ul~un,gm,S()~ 1~6nomi: h yang men,gWlNfl:gkan, ~nggptti],ya~ 'N~romn1' b~be~p~, negarta: ,m~~.lh:mU21l;Q=' a'~pi bahwa hubunga'llr b!rsebumt meru~n bef:1~, weoktdoli1iia1i~e' ift:i!1li ko1:o~~~i$me mm,. B~ngcsaj 1'I[u]k)n~\i!i1 ,hJ!g,~ 'pi~mah m€illg!;lnc~lgapi ,u.bUlng;~n ~e1Pi€:rH UJ~, h :mef1Jpa~ berntak, :kotorl;i~]sme bam.., ,AnQg:~]J~~n '®erse!bu~sampat 'ook'e,m'banQ di Indonesla pada masa 'peiaba'lll,aan demokr,ilJsi 'ba.ypimpi.n., Angga:p:a:n l~!o:lof1iiamisme 'be t;kemm:ng; sehing ,nil2it :Ma~!lSi;a, untuk nrtemlbe~r.rtukFed,erasi :Ma~:~~ :pada,'tahun 1.964~ Fm~tat5i ,Mal\a~ ,n~tin,ya b.ernnggatabri semu~ 'b~~s ]~~p~, ,~ggrls • ~]~yah. ,Asffi~ T€ngg~,. Usa~, '~m;b€1.Jilt:lk. F'OOler.~a
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smta, mm'oo&$, 'qk.iJefo adal!ah mambmtQ' ,negara,-,~~g.-a 'lIMO E~h ml!pm1 dan - ~~""",i,~_,~,i_.,= ..., ,,_.. 'h:-.....AI k. ill - :'.-..'1\. -, It., - "tam; - - d :n~eg:ara" SwQing: ,~AI m~.~,~~;~ 'm.PeJ'1a'4!~U"!ie! ,,;,,O_Qn~lSmeF ~DPJ_.:___Jm1e'._an, ean be~ba:~g: ya:ng ~deru~, vagal rnmpel':hlitiSDleIkQreot:li~al~sme. D,en,gan. d~m~ :kialfi;, apa;JlWi'lti 'tlef:1:wmya impen:a]ifime~ dan :k:ob:;.nialisme hams, dlbapuskan,.

Pad a, umWIUll1al hubungiiin ,all:1,talA :n@Sli!l!tr:a,"fl-eSl~a, '~ang: bam inl(!m@kaiJ dan ..:a ~~'I~''''' -'k :n__eg~rapenJia~ g!;~ ~~.J.r-~·iIL=_,~ .ueng." ,ma~~n, ,.!t DIJlOrnll.~ litl!·~,_ ft 'I!W}!3X' a,pabU 11!.)IlS~:~~y:;g ~",g'a'~: .ua ru~g~lia ~n,~ oo.ru ~m:eI-d!~~, ~d~,tilUl,~kon~mln:~ ,:masih ka&aill. S-emer.at~r-(!I Itu~. k n~g~r€l, ~JUij~ja)b",ya, kWi8tuit 'telah, :ml!ng~lmp~b~~] 'kgkayam 'w1Ia~ ]ilI]Mmnya
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dan

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'bBrn~s~ i5~1alU'ba:rlandEkan, :padai P~sil~

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dan U110 1,94S·~amn sam ~ntu_k S

n'eg~t'a ruaif,l}. :~eib:ij~bn. :!l~n:g':menY~D;glkuIt liu~b~lil9tm deif]g:~n D,g~r~, laln

't;eran,gklJm dall_~m 'kebiJ~
soUdarit~Ls, t~-ban.g~. ~

pol~t1ik.'I~r negs-n,. Oleh. lkatrena iiu·, '~labarriaall. 'poUti'lit :IiIJa!r' ,IilB5IBrl IndoneSia JII.~ga, harus Iberda_sarkan :Pa,ncaJs;Ua dan UUD 1l,945Jndon,§ia mertllc~~~n g~~~va, w~. ,mengaailatng ke~:a sama dan
d'3flg~, [ru!~yeJeil9~f-a}u;~[nKM,

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'.if'.r'!i{n·.J:i:~, W:YJIJ,IH. da ~ lllJJ til .

blbk. '~a:ng,ada dj dunj;l ...J'adi,; m~ In(a,oTIum b~haik b~rsah~~ba·t d~",g~ mena '~un ~~'t ·~·PaJ. ada mm!iwo: :i:kafan 't~rteJfibjl~:Bebas ju,g;a, 'ooram 'bah~, 'biljngsa ]ndoj]esl~nlem:pufi.y~·ii (:ara.

Paliitik ~Lmilff .moo'onesi;a, 'Ddak.me.mmhak. pooa.

Ko~nsi, Asia .Aiiika. n(!gr~!ri, Indonesia ada~ 'be'bMI ,~k:tiIf.Bahu"

m~h. atu s

artllllya bIlnQ.,

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a_kti'F !ilku:t: miengillsa~akilrli 'barwuJudnua perdamaii.arn. dun~a. ,N~Qai~ .mndlC·neSi~,:m~miHh si:f:aJt pol~lik, oo'f' W :n~:geri~ya 1b!'loos ,~ktif~ba!b abiLah Pewam1~: .[)uniia.U '~~akhiif dJ, dunia. t'€J'l~. 'OlUll,('JlJll du~. ~kua~~n 8cUdJ~~ beru yang ~ng: berh_~dJapiUW_~~aiwn~am: AmedbSmbt: dan. Unl ,Sm6~t.,A:m~fika. Seri~t memelbpori ~~uJrin'!fa :B[o~,Barat aitau :B'lcd~, bpiJtali!S IOiberal ~ sed~ln9j~~ Uni. D'I.... T~-;m·~I!jr·~'~lu ~~ 'IJ....I;"!;;I"', ~~WJ~ e.i!"!;~~i~~:r' \l'\u n"~m"''Ii''i.;~~1 S.... m"i!lim'~II"""p"""~1 ~LU D Da~m. u~~. meredabn. k€oo,~illn,g~n. ian.ooruk 'm~tljurlbtn! ~am~ian d dJUJ:]la_" :Ile.-mel~ill'iah IfldQnci§.lL~ mernp~kars~il ~n m~~y~len,gYM;~ K;orn,f'erei'l~i, d A~a~1AJrlb_. U'~ha, IDa. m~nda.pa;t dukunpn I(l~rl nieg:m',fjF'Reg~ elIi, ,AsI~ dan A,~ti:ka. Ban,gM~oon;g$a d1 Asia dan A-f~rika,(;)aIda Wlllruilllli,ya pemaih, 'mend~rita. ' .karlm1~ :PBnmd~n ~mpe1ia~is Bared.. P'Br~n nastb f~ menlmbulkan rasa ~.~ uwan. S€.,ttiJ~. :P€~ani ,Dl!Ln·ia.IIberakhkc ~_,rD!eg~m d~l)st~den ,A:Frik~ .. ~.fiQ belf}U=~·~ill me~~~'paik:~f:t:uaroeban,~~ d~anw~~. ,tld~'i1l.h~indi~ :[ndofi~iili ~ :f:il1pbla'l :PjJki~ ~Bllltima 'rM~nmat).~ S~ lAnka!, Vlem:am, dan, lrbi~"eme-r:rwil S
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India

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'U"Nu ,AD ~sb:,oam~loyo

2) /toolemn$i,iJqgor (Ronleremi' Rmca~eg;niJ

Konmre~l.p0rn:hhl;fluaL~.yan,g,:kOOilJa ~I:engg.a~. ·

I,

di Bqg,or ~a

22·:49 .D~~m·.oof'1'954.,K(mruFe~~l u:u dJi.h~dh1 puh. ()I~h 'Pet-d~l1a:ttu~nteri ne.9~r-a,"n~,g;a:I(.'i. pese:na KOWil(lelleJn~ID :K.o[o[ni~o!o Konfe:re.nm :BogOT; ,memru.wbu~a'll h;aJ~h~l :sebaga,l 'beri:lw:t. ra;~ ·Kon(lerensil. ~A;si:a.,A:fnb la/limn, diseLen~kan I[lm. Bandu~g prada, 'b~n. 1",8-

'~w.

2'4 April 1.9SS~ b ~ Pem6m.pml, tLI]~ KAA. dm :mmetapbn. '~ega,m,~neg_a,~. ,

aImn. diWitdmg;

.c)

d~

seb~giil peserta: KcmfemliliSi Asi~, A~dkii,., Hal~h.am ~,g: ,a:kan dib,1ca!raka,n, d!a1am Kan'feremi ,Asia ,A'rub., P_rloonan duikuf-l!iltl. ·i'flI'hada.pl 'kmltU!an ,lndonesia,,m~g:enai, trialfl, Barm~~. K'ofi~:~T\e;f.I$l ,8ognf' Jug~. t,~en~1 d.eJ~arnfi~m~ :K:On£~ten5!] ,PM~@g~. ,IlL

c, PeIaklaDJaD !KonfJerensl, A$la

,Afdka

Asffia;,A·frib dli~~~gg~n'ika:!'1! ,d~,:&.ndung p~da, tangg~arn 1.8,...,24· April, 1955,. 'K,otl.~, 'f'e.r,~n~1 Ag«a: ,A'frika. dlhadiri: oleh UJalWI~

Sesuai d~n.g:an, :re.nOMl'aJ, ,Konf6m~si

w\aJki~. aa;r.i 29 :nega~ ~ang,"temlri, altas,
n~1Jll ~ngJ.m,d~ulg d~[l, neg,a:ra,
'yatllQ

d~llnd~~8.
ll~ 'Negaf"~ plSn!gunda.ng: meU,ptlJU Ind!one S!wa' I:nd'jia ~ :Pak'rurst:a n ~ Sd

lmtka.~ ~Ml. BUmlaI, (M:yanf112lT'). ,2~ N.eg~f'~'~n.g dihJ!nG!1Ulg, :2\4. ~€gatm,

,~~t:di:n ~as
n~gar',iJ
Ii-

16 in1eg~f;a

,A~rib ([gn

18

S~r:~'SilI"~~~,,~,

l1"omJ~'iit !J~I p~

~~l

IDi:dJ ~

men,p'w,u
,j\

A:s:iiH. fFHi:piwn.a!

T'hanand,. ,Ka;mptlchi!'a e'~.'-I N' II 1i':1k. ~" II m 'II. S S- , ~_~!Ii~n~, _,'_,gPi!:!i~, ri~'g~l;a:rl1s~m,'I! ~rnln!" ,~W.~K", ,·~u d" A" ~,a!~a", "~a. ~ 1 ~: 'b'Y'.-..J - ",' '11....... i ' 'T' t.;~ 'v' . r~ ...Ai ,i'IL,1I: ·oll.. !fM: ., oS~· ,..:al '1'()~Uan~l~il ,~u~OJ1· ,~tm,t.U;;;I,a;m~Il~,i. U~ n~tl~ilI. I~·-·e.5Jr~, -U~jllirl.;m

-~ :L.aOS;" R:R,C, ,J'!3pa~g,-,'V~etnam Umr,a'i 'V:j;e:mam;
~,it:: ~ 6'~ ~~'bn!1(t~l~,~ ~.,

.~tlOJ)IJ.I~

Ubena~ Ubiji},! dan. P,mmi, lEm~slGoM ,Coast)...

-N"::-

'D'h a dUlW,eUiems, 'I·A,nll.l: ~t\a 'I'... ,IF..:Il ,~! ~ ,n. , ~

~~L, '.- d'l" 'b L'I~,_,=. 1Il:!'~.JII .•, ne~1JJaU ~aid~ . lr:an. Itu ._ l:seaU\ri;dJ W t'iwe~UI Ail '~I~~,T. h :mas}JiJ.l '~.l :'1.., .J::I'-'-d -·~I~~::: d~~I ;'De~q,'~ ...,._ ...._: 0 IS 'h arang,-omog ......... _- .IA::I ..... nJ!.1'1.5d ,~en,gar~ _a p!tti~m' ~~I;lI ,.' 11- - -- -,. , '5- , -- - - -\. -- .. - . -- '·d' "- . '. Asjj' ., I -' A~1,__ .' ~- - - - -'-'.' aDn Wi' 'u.'::' -" ' d-"]is'' -,'_e-nSS,ia'if,· ,,:_ '_,,_,"'_,'. '.ed'- ung 111] , - ill' _. 1. In. ~' "li['~' -. ,__sgm ... ~,~ pe~, ..~9,~' ,_,}~rLf!:r'e:n.s1.'-''- ..iJ,: ~-~--,~-' -" T

...,.- .--- -. ~.,.=.;I" , . i@g~m-:- -- ,- . 'c;-' -d',~W . -'I y~ii19~ lIlJang,

,~- h,-,:· ,~;.l,--- '1.-, 'h:--~ii'--";L T-7_ ,-c:- ~~,~, -~,A,~~·-A,'~;I ,-.J~='I~ ill!t'IL(III,Cl,(I. ,",_watt" ,_Q!WIiilr [patull. n.o:[]:I~lBns:l rt'Slii} .i1'''l_W,I,U!ii1:ai, ,i!lU41~ . -I

h

'ell,g~IU..
]1"

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19'- -"l..JI

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:Merdeb, :SElin.dung'"

'

iNu' !Jr. 2' 11."1.'1 , ._ m . 'In KOllf~'" A~A /rib I &:nt..'un!:l 1955

at

Ytalf' oolaka~g' dI~, ~T !d
]1)
Inlllll'W:~.

p€mmbang;an dffiadakan 11'U\A ~.hh ~,~g~l :berikut l(enaragnn ~¢jayai1n~, kim.pau.,darii liHme:rarpa, negam IQ] 'ka~n ,Asiwr
A'~i'I,,-

:2:~ P@'lasaan :se:n.asib sepman:ggool1,!31l :~a
-- - - ~

M~ingbtll:!la. :kes~u;1~mn 'be~ban!JJifi ~lmg i~~11mfi~o:ri ~9~Lbn,g,~n oleh ,ell~e n~lon;aVoo~Pehajar' danintlile'ktwrd. ,Ad~nya 'Pier2lng Din,gin, ~.:ta'ra Db'llt Balm;,· de~g~, ,mO:k nr.null'. 5:~ NemUrki,'pdko'k-pdkQk ~ ~t, ,dalam, :naru 'ba~~" ag,~a, d~n Ibuda,a" 16) Bemm, g:eogndis :Ie~kn~ h~-d€!kr,~ d?W'n, melengQlJ)li ~ :~ 1aiin.

a~

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d i'~n

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:sa!ma~m.a, :me:~gkfm ,m~

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m~

TulUilf.ldlad~~,
,I !I

'II 'Iii,,-'

't. ,. - i..._" L.__ . ..\I wemaJUt'Ii,dJllii ,rii.-eija sam~,~n.gs-1.k14Il :agJaa, i' ,;Iii," !J!il.,hSla ,SO,iaji !~ko~om~~an k~booa~n:i d
.'.

Knnl'e:~filsl. Asli;IJ ,Afnb~ aifliWa. lIru'n:'
..;a_,

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.I~

3~ ,nn~m;p,ell'1beof p,effWJM 'bmgsa ,A$iil. dan A:fn'ka. d1 drun1ii'l idmil ~kut mI@:~~akan 'p£wamaiat1, dunm dan ~ejaJ ~~. iintemaslonal" .!I, L-_I!'\l9iJri9! ,e9nn,90 ~_.'I~1I1'Ri '-b:..:a!-"", eOi"iieir_nl ~1'''''''F'ii"",,,'A"Ii;...a19''''' bud uut\~-1J~ lUGlm~'LI .. '~J!Cll-tla, ~~lrmI U~:'I' 1UU
,11.,-,

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,~,lj,~~Lll,~· ~."I.

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'~~l~~:I"wI]rll'~t~~'·~

be~~

se~m :k~Uli\;Imn

:11~Q~,!,

~ionaJ~c$_i,lle. di~ ,hl1ontd~,e'~

K}oifl'fe'~e:n:s;i. i\,Sw~. A.f rwk~, :mie:m.bi,cara~,~:n h~,~=hal~' '~a,rtlJg t:nefiljy,~:n.gkl:it klepzfl!tlingan ~ma !l1agl€lm-~~. d~,Asia dan A:~a~ 'mmmm.a lkerja s:am:~ ieko~omjdldl mbuda'~an-, arta ma5a._IDa1h kO:lomaJnsme dan perd.~im dWli.a.

,KcijaJ sama ~'kctnomj, ~l~m in,giwngra:n, ban~."ibamg~, Asia, dan, ,Alii'lm diml~!~ d defiQ~n. :~lh:l;Q :meoo,be;ri'karn b~ul.tu(:JIn '~~kld'k darn 'beni'1g;~ MU~ K,crl1:£e:Jen~~
b
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m~C'SIi:I-'11-., ,r~lI~.il~-IjJ.~II~~·~ ~ ~...!I..i 'i'LI ~;"m'l!"li 'I~,_, .._-, !I",_'I~,_,_~~,dUl~, ~'!Im~a~~:l~ ~~:·~"Id perhllJ'bun!gi~ul dapai~' m~~m~j'l!Jk~]1,~:kon@ml. ,KO'f"f,efi~nsi Jug~ meny,fJtUljiui :penOOPfi~an'oobev,~~. org~nl~sili lfi.t'errmsi()~~,yang '~~~'~!J 'unbJ~, le~~o n !ekofD;~m,i .
,,.J!·,li_t:II_,..IL._,o..; Uf 'L~~~"I'\Jr~~~' ~" ~rra,'1II"IiI5l1"1it;''ll''lniftU;:Iii ,~~.~ ~I~~~!,!!!~~
__ ,._.~
"9!1"'Ii~-GIf"I'9,~'

'pemalgang;an

dan, perbuk~.

dellegasi

dag<il1lg. Dalarn
1~~:.~i!JQJll·W

,k:on'£er'e_~sii, _f.,se'blJ_t m
~~'~ldl,·~

K,onfa-ensi ,Asi2!JA'fr~ :msll,yoh,ong:sapewhnya prinsip dasar ,hak .as], :~~~ :yzi"!1 '®€!OOatfl,b.lJJTI ,d~mmPtagam PBB,~'O:l€hkare:n~.:iihJ'j ~ga'-' dli~~ :m;_En ~'Cffi~Far}.m, f'ar.5~:a;l1sme ~n dm~krimin!.l&] 'W~l',ii1:~ kuH:t: di. beb~r~!Ila,:i1~g;!l~,~ ,Kon~'eJ6fi~] mf!nduktnf:]g:usaha Ulltnk. m,e[e~p]l{an msia,llisme dmi11 ,GLiskDminarsi ~m_a kwti.t di m_arn!i 'pun dm dlUiniB :inw. Ko.:nl',smnsi jugal lJteny,atabn. bahwa, 'k!rl!omtiaIDisme dail_a;m, smg;ala, 'be!nrul~.hlJflJS ,dja!khlri dan :setilaJ'p 'per:1'mnga!1:l kemer''':',~'I':i;:h '1I"fW.-.:I:',",,"'5I;i~iPi; ,_ ~_~'U-UIJ,II-LI_m.tD.I,~IJ

dl€ka_ h.anw. dib~lu, ga,nn.:pa'm 'berh~l :Dem~ :p€molnm~n dJ~ta~ ,kiQn.~gren'Si m€fid~'Q' _ooS0 perlucutaifl. smJj~ta. ,JUg~.di$erukan ,ag. per-g:J'ooa:n se;nmalti;
'i"iI~

'&.ILIUJYJ.~

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b

=5~'~~;1l.. 't:f:::r~' _~m,~I. :I!bUj li"~

C:~I1Fi1~!j,

~,.I~~.lL

'pe:nting; dalam 'ICUBJgaumlall, in'mm_asiona1l. O:leh kamn;a, iN, sem~a bangm di dlU!nia, ,h_.end~va :~~~lm1kai1, 'w~fansi d~n ,nidu:p' b~rd!~m!pi~~a:11. ~ra Hmtal... .D~mi
,~·~~IU~;I,tcg..~I'LIJ

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,~;t-_~I~.!t,

5eg€;f.tJJ,

dl~:I;;llat ~tenm~ ~mefij~~, m'lggo:ia PBS" d

Ko:nfle~nsl ~-eternah membicmabn oolbempa masa~M yang: nlefl~bJt kiepelTWlingan. ne:ga:ra."n~a!raJ, ,Asj~ ,A'frlb, kh~SU5[1~ dan rJ!e~negaJl';a d~dllWnia 'paaa lum!iUtnn'~i '~g~m :mef'lgamb.ffi~ oooo~~~ :k~.:p~ :P€'"~i1~' m:lw,a ,Iai~'; 'll ~ me:maJttbn, :keTj,a SiMfi~, being~~brulQ~. ,A_si~,A'[rilm, ,dJ bld~g: ,~jl)sruat
nl"=ii1'ji:ii"'i!~'l~ ,.1,=-""
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,3) menWikung,
,M~n;
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w_nmmroo

A'" lii5""'5~ilii" -T'. n·':·I~i~, d ~~~Jlll.i.~
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]Ddo\le5~aJ,~tas, ,mriem Bm-at dan tlm~tan

'Yaman ~b_s

4,~
5}

nlef;l~rJJ~

dW$_kfrl1imiW~~ diillll :llwruof<i:i~IS]'D,edWam 'seg~l~ befilwlq ras

aikli~ 'moo,g~hal(ij:'1l peKlam_m:an dUIDlia... 5E1ai!1 :l1l1metapkan, Igpulusa,n, 'tersebut:i :konrjwen~ ~\~ :mmlgliJ~k tetia;p ba:n,g$a di. dOO~Dl unrtUk n;u~nja:lankan,beooll'a:tm 'ipnnsap bersama, m~ffi:, 11 :men,gh~ITllati b;alk..hak ~'m~[nus:la~, tu~u:an~ ~ oorta,a~, yang 'temtm~d~lim1
'Piaga;m,PBS;
'2'~ meM9h6rma!ti,·kedmila;m.1lI aa,n 'mJb~grirtas! '~eritoriail, Hmua bangsa~ 3!~ ,Q1en_gahlm persamaan 'WS' dan :~samatm1 mmua, ba;ng;a ~balk, ban,gsa beser

:kedl,~ 4~ 'ltid~. m,elakuk~ :inmryen~ mta:~~kutICDIllPUf mngan Cham. p~~n, nJeg~r:i negar:a Jiilifii~
,D'iBllllpUn ~ifIlig~,

d~lam

5)

mengjhOmilJrl1ti: hak:-h~·k.M~;p,ballQ,Sa '

lD1il.tuk.·me.mperlah~.

5endtrla~ :maJ.lIpUfill ~I :k9~ilttilR5U~. de;ngilf:l 'Priagam, P.BB;~ ·6~ a) tidak, mengrJUiflaikan peraturnn.~peramlan dmi 'pertahan~n .k'Olekti.~'untuk 'L""'rt"'- ,,.;a ~~I~ 'L~. " mr. - ~_ J!!!1~ U<l.91· .~iSpe~Hflgan..l{h - - saw ... w :~~g~ L__ _. ~~~~, ~1~.;L,g u~f~ bl tllcl~. :mel~kJ~ tekan~n teifthada.:prI~g~m:Ia:iil:;
b,.

~dilin,'baiik

;~;ra:.

1'~ 'ud!alk. mls:hl.ik!uka.iI:1. 'ililldiakan a.tau a~~amGu].,a:Qr'eiSia:mUlptli'D1 ellggullilf~~ p kekl6~asan'ter.had!a,p,tnteglims 'tentorial aims ke;metd*ain po1itilk ·suatlu, :ne-~ ~ ,8) ·mmyelesa:ib1l. ~ penel1slhan in~lmasj)onal secara.dilmal ~i dWgain.
11"):1!:Iifl~'- 1")1fI1D ,. rlg.;;b.,g.I,~IJ,~, r·,DD.

'9) mem~jukaml:~pen.ting~n ber~m~, d~n kgrja ..~n iiltem~S1oftl!aII~ .• _ 'Ib..•.,.·I·'1_ ..J1~!i"iIII~~ .•-~,nL n~'mi ]['.,0.~ .J ;I~,'; til wl.al~ l ~LD\~ u~ l~W~~_lUtlillll=~. ··m"~,;~~· ..... ~JtlW 1'!!ii:W-'i:"iIiii~,
Iii"i:"ii~t'"til-.'~':!i..~
~llj'l~';:~=fi 1Il:~ -II

,1~iIJ·~-whb~.1.~I;

llw_U] iIll]

Ii~'~i]

Keg,pu~uh, :p'rins'~p yang! tii:n,yaillLkain. dWa[1n1 ,Ko,nierensil Aa~,A'fdka d;~Q~Q ~am~,:DbbUa. BaBdgoSl' ,~tau BBRd.UI1g Dsdara601'J .. d.ii :Pengilf1l1h KoDIe~DI$i ..Asia AMk_2i. 'bagI "WI_ali.tas. d_u Keme1dekaaD, :Bang-_ dli ,ASia liI_ilD ,A•• a
U;A.'A~'~~lIj'ii;~i

~w, ~kena! d

PerjuiillDglD ..
~_iIi '*l!l!.!!!~

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JI."~; 50 A ,t,i""I~I~'!!Ii1 ..... l"I'1I'tem'll..'!I[.w~ n~~ ~ ,hi '"'" .. ~;.!.I!t~_U~ .. _.i!OJ!.
.~!I;!!j

d!~n :~UMg~
'," 'IL,..

Asffi~ AIlrib ~ilIilih ~g~m '00rikn1:. n ~ .iJ: Lf .~~..J...:!!d II.!I~I:~ 'II=I.~ ,,I:;,~ r-eil":liiiluS, d at'1 ~ :memu:.na, sowa,u~ 'L=,L !,ki;ng,sa,,\IJI'ijID"lQA,_an :merup~. =!I~=.~ 'ILIJUft. '1:o~l'1;; i. tmWk memgak_uiJ .Mnyala_all. bahwa S€m~ bangsa.dru dum_a twus.dapart :hldu-p' 'beKl~m.punS~rrueeara dil..lftai. s 2) C~~. ~ ,seij~.lt~w.an.~,:lmb~og~~n b~iJgsa=b~.As~ Nrik8. wtuk.
i.'_

'·b'Be'~irb.'~m 'L"A];',d· .I~!l'iill..-:",", _Q!l::!i'" ~~~tdek~H~tiO'bangsa ,di ASia dan .AJrika .. P"eJlgDmh. Koro~!ie~$a.
'r'lB~inl~"'" •. , u;ttlll'ilrn e .t."~!!Ic!!!;!:!i"""I.lW.~. ...._,."\!:Io._.

nlef.]gg~l!amlg·~ers~j~!Dl.

3) ~nJ~lmaain keban~lan :Qmbalffi 'balf;lgl5a.";~aing~di ,Asia dan ,A'frikam 4} Pooclorong! bagJ P'!r.Juang;an 'k'emem}~n ba~ a'i dlU1!ia pau umumnYi
'o}

7:~ Bmlyak ~egara,-negm:a A;sia-,A£rlka. yan~l':merdeka :kemudfuatn mas~ :menjldi
~;nn:i"fA~g,

,Ama dan. ,Ahib dabm,
~_. ,~,'Y:!!id

s:e~ dli :A$ia. d~n Af~. khu~[1~a~ Mem•.beFffikalm p~ng~mh yang '~rtemadal)
menca'pai

~'em"rdek_aloony~.

P.~~Lmaf:lg~ bMQ~~gM.

dli

r~

'1:"l'1i:;~[li1

..
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baflg~. dl. Asia d-~ Alrika_~ :Kon~,efe~ ,A!iffia A'lrtka,: ];uga. mafi,mbuilkan. damlP,~k, yii_ng pe:nti,ng daLa;ml 'perkembang;an dun:i.a. pada umumnya,. Pe~garuh ,iitaJU dJa;mpak 'i~WlCIntar& lam. ~bagw 'be:rlkut II~ KonJfieli~l\s'i .Asi~ AMna. :ma:m:pu .men~l pell~ngW1. du~ blck '!{M1g' ,salilng: ·berne~~·ru ..:sejlilm,gsa,. di1l~t :mmgJi1lFrulgm ..:kem9~anldIIMl:e .a}dl:ml P!2raD.Q

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pomiHk bebm; ,akit~f'~ng. d~jailat'lkaJn 'Endonuia, Indiiii Bt1Jtft'ru), rM:~nlar~lj,dain. Sri L,tlnka tamp_ :mmati, dlIDk~t1. ,o'l~h'negma,-neg,~, yang tidak. b~~a nl~uk :B~ok. im.'LK' ataupoo Sro;k. Bara:t: .. T

eemas dalmn m~nghtd~p~ keICjf:nfp~k Asj~ ,AMb, dl :PBB ,sena:!b delam S~dan\g U'mum :PBB :k,el:Qmpo\k "tefseiblID~ m,emduk;unl] tuntWita.n IndonesYt ates :kemballnva M_m, &rat he. ~Qk~ :m. ,5~ ,AmfraM~, All.t0rib SerilwrJ\t: mula~, e~~, dan, b men91~,pllSkw1 dmkrimi.nM[ It,:) ~nd~,
~I

bereema kll'l!
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Parang: :Oun:ia ,0' '(1'9\3:9~t945)1 teLah :men~mbulka;n. 'oorbagm, fikiba:t ,ang' :menQ!I>Ttikan, bag~ llilmi:l!t 'manU!i~F!. S:lil~in, j!Jt~lta.n, m;a;n.'~!;l~a m,a:tt~ '~r'jad1, :PIJID~ ltenat1oumn. befbagai. ba~gLmanJ mta'na,prOOw:~~, Si11r8i~ tr:aml5~ofm!Si~,'mljadl 'I....i!',h~·I'c:-:~I-,.... 1,..:I~iiffil ·~.--:-l:r.a~"~iI"~n iil:ii~;b-~1.1 nnniii_R:1,.l;1:; 'P-:ma, 'nL·""'~'!ll-"I,~jk' ,.j~~inJ'iI~ 'nil~rn '"'ill"'...... '. a U~Dii~ ·~;,~._:~Jlj U,I~,.'berubah" :DlDla ~eJkuaitan ,adidaya te~ah I;a:hlr :!iJa;ngm~iI1,~eb~?lbka~n 'telijadin,a
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b,

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lata,

adidaya, ya;I:1Q :5i;Jillns''berlhadapan. Mernka, bereb.urt pengaruh 'b~rilli.d~iP' Ileg~-a," :ne,gam 'yan,g: ,Mdang' 'oorkembaIlQ: ,~!r' 'm~njJadi R'kllun,~al. Cua :n,eQ~ra,adida;ya. ttu 'lamJl, Amerika, SenRlI't darn U,l'lli: Soviet. :1P1ersamgan :l«:d!lua'blll dJ a:nmT,3i dua '-b'l- t, ",,",-- - Jkiiii..,~l!k:an 'j~rJaulB~ 'P' D"·· .u-:.If:ii 'I.,..j~-:_,' 1i!'\I'i",a,r~~~~e~, ~ ,_ ....JJ:~ M:' 'i", ~,Itg' ._a~,h,u" mell_ga~.~'~, . tJ - • -~... ,_~,~r,iing -,,\In:!m, t~1l.","" ,.. -fd- r,j/' ,J , 'ber.bada:fpan, tJi~:rSEl;ing'l daJriIJ saUng: :memper:kuaf s1ste fi1, p.er5en.jEilI8an, Setm,:p :ke~()mpOk. t:e~ :meng;arankan, k~km:m.n bomn~ 'Ike n~9l~, La\iJaf:1I~ ,A:k1itta'm:~,~ ~s~:t'Uag dm:iia .'f'Cekam lc~eh'ke~tI:tan [akao mels~n~, Pemng, ,Dmia, m i!lJmi1lJ
1
e _,

GeJ:iakiID, NOD 'Wok, ,Pi, sela,,.;se~a, Ui~! p :k~haIl~mn, akibat 'P~mm.g OuJnia, , mmcu~ U
BeJa'kMB'Der.dilnD.va

Idw :ne:gua:

u~tllk 'nl€w'bankm ~uatu .~elampok, eru :ya~ n~wli~ 'fida_~, b me:_minu.Blok. &~~ 'H<["- 111-T~'- . '1'.1"."",'1."",,··· - -iL ,:t.....::il_ iIb.""n, . '~'" . ..J:", . 'k.,.;I.. k ~i11· .- -t., -- .' .. ~!;(!IIOp1ill1l,I[) _ 'OK, '_ mn.ur, ,~l.Qmpg,"" U,lIiIJ~jU Y~-J!.-g IlarmLl!n~, U!~~:i!,l~, :l~-iD'm.po."", n.€gM~,=' ne:,giln',.J, N on :B~Dh,. Dengan, demIklz-n. '~BlkJtaf-'~,~kf'Qr y~ng 'm!e]~;tar'bel~k:anQ! be-rd~r:ilrtya Ger:a.km1 Nan 'amok adalah Hh~aii, benk1lJt. 'II 'P!;:AI .•• n 111..:1'I,., val! "~"~O\~ 1~ 'D "tu g!~ ,carat: d· II, 'b. awil:, ",men~ ~nl\:dl luMJ BI 0- 'k 'h A - ~nl.,.... ~ - ·:~~-,t ~ Ji." '~"!Ii'lWlCJUlI!U,~, ulla, Q~j' .', Ti' -'i.!tt'~I.' Iii..~;•• ,~'''' UI,FUll.~ ~ t yang sa~ 'm_Brn:p~~,~uL!l_~n - """"".....,,'b. w, uwua. Ii -_ ...........,.,1....- ·~i..~, ..at - • .'un ~_' .~~,W-dlIrt ~ - '. ,~o~:, _ng pe.n.~~~-i, 2'~ ,Ad~~ .~e~ n0;g~-11ep~ 'p.ng: b~m 'w()liid,eb: d~ fi~a~eg~,
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D ~ 11\;;'1• 11~·1~ • .' • ,.'l.. 'I 'L;.J ...., ..::n ~~·'b ...:I'" t. ,remng 0"· n. .oJ ,I""'s:rang,!I;~ILIlJ'lillr .!:"mg' la~~~,!:uIJ11, meng,en~'n, IU~'anulng~n , Junia, ill uDr'iI, :PI~r-aJ'l,g Dunia It ,MiBnghadapi. ~,iit!ilas~ d.'~i~ :Yalng: '~n~~lIih. :k!~fIf~llik t~:rsehuti :tnd'©l:rl~;~, m~n~ntu[kim sis1:em 'polirHlit, ,~U:af' neg,~ 'beb~~ aldJi~, P,rm.~PI.~eb~'ak:: SUlaMi plllUlk ~lJlar:neQer;1liJdQn~5ia te~'buit 'ltem~ta ]USa, ~uai: d~[ig(jn s~p :negara,-:ruagara is_ang, bEl~em,bal1g,:Iailnnya,. 'O~e;h merea :[liu,! 'm~ka !ii-epalkat
1m .

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oohin,gga 'be:rupa.ya 'mered~~e~angjD1

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Ditmld~trut~a;I1TInya. '!'!'])o!lcum~i1.8rlofiJiF' mhun 1.9,56 ,oleh. ,Pf-reiSl d en Joseph , BlfQ~ 'T.i:'tD CYug;osl~~)., PM ,Ja;waha;niM. :Neihm, rl'f:ldi,f~t 'PJ;ies:idm 'GamaIJ A'l;dul
'T~ri~-.JII·m' -u:~ ·i,..... ;,me 'U'I'.b,~; 1'"£:.1 ,~-~~_~, , m lIIe i,,~,~...........Iy-~J _ . 11J.~.!,.J~ :,jj~" ~_~_~ ,~-~~~, ,~g'
'ii"i ,.i-.~I n~~

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nega,ra~.nesta_r;a non b£o~.
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.5) Pertemwan § O~iH1Q rlieg~if~.wan :pada swang umlWll. 'PBB di

'nl~;

~r

P.BB~)Bitu~
Presiden &ewno (jmdonesi!al 'b) PM J~w~arla1 N',~ru (~~, e:) ,1P:rtiidJ~n Gam,~ru Abdul, 'Nasser (Mesiir),
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i

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el 'PresM,eJl ,K~e' N:mmm1!lh, i'Ghanal. ~rl;n~j Ge~~ N6n. B16k {Non AJ!gnfJ/J Mowem:mt) dl.pma~i 'olM.

'Preme:rn, ,Jo~ph

Bro'z\TU~, (Vugo.'Ii'~';1dan

·pa~. ,pemimpin :neg~ra d~rl. lfid(llJesnla (,P:reSiden Soekamo)1 . Repub'm]k. Persatuan A'[a~Muffif:" I~efill Gamal1 ,AJoo'w :N'~~ser:1,!:room (PeKian~ ,Mooted Pandith J'aw,ahMmi. Ne(bm).~'YlIgOSI.m'a. (i'r'E:siden. Joseph ,EirozTUot ,du Ghana. (lP;r,eSiden .Kw~ N:k:rumah'),.

c.. Tnjna 01 G:e ra'ka:o rJ mn Hla'k !GeJ,akal]. Non Blo:k :msm1p1Wl~ 'wjuan, ,mUtT,a lain:'
'Ii 'Ii. JJ.!~
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d~. Asas Gerakan. 'Non Blolt.
1:~ GNB bukalrda], SOOJW, 'D]oik tSJrscndh1 den 'fidak, barpoong kre dlWm blek dun~a,~_g ~i~! b@rtefWmn.g~I" : .,~ u.]· ,0 'M' . ""'ii'UI) ""t~"'"'.... :~Uu. 'if"II"""""J';'~~',,",lIFI,n::.n'~ '-n "",n ~'N·J~ -Ji",.h _'n """j'j""';;;;"", iii JiI;:,;.n!ii"ii· ,;;;Gi...l """-n-n &_~ t~ 'be.embang' 'yang ge~j;];~ tjd~k'pasU~ 3) ONB, berusaha m~ndukl!lng perjuangan deikolbnisasi di rsemul2I tempa~~ memeg.~:n-tJ t,€'Quh perj Ua:n.g:8!h :mela,wan :i,m,pl!rla~ism~,,~ kio'lo~ia:~i~me~
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:mw~Jm ['amID :PBB,.

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:Non.'Bldk daJam

:bidmlQ ekooo;rui immr,a
j

J1kut bena~ha 11'D)e;m;pe~f~gkan kem,erd~n
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,ed penoaJ!en, :ranf;agga;n. 'm'ta e~nomi du~ia.bairu~ ' b) mm-edalmill :lmlegangan dW1ia,,amtl. '~'d€mllb~.t -dan mem'bahu nmUJ~'T~laih~

:persoahn 'Krls!.$

c~ pem~nb.tkan dana .pamoongun-an bagjl negamr·ll1eg~~a.b~mbim;g;~, d~ ,ketjasama daJ_OO!n meng~m~ m~, IIDn,gliwn;gan hidup~

5~ KQnle~'5}"I.:Tiogk'lll tii)ggi' VG€~n Non,BlonlKIT' V'Gem~n,N~fJ,Bhk) K"I ,I' Y Genikmn N~fllllt),k Cliiernen,g9~rn_dii I{,QI,omh:o. Sd 4Jm~ 'pad;a, 'tM:i,§ga!1 lOr=1..9 Agu!Ns 19716 deng~1l1 ksru~,P.M S&rima:VQI Band.atranalke .. :KIT : dihad~ri ,oleb 8.1 n~~a. H'asil K:l ,r 'U 'G~l~kan N'on ,B~dk,·,t::J.'f!ItJB:msl ,R",lambo .;
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d)eng~n lketua PM: Indira ,Gandhi. ~nurut kepu,tusan KIT he '\I)' b.a;hwa KTT' 'un dliH[~E.lg~.D d~'~idad ~'rakpada ,a.khir tah~, :['9812., 'O~h :kar,ena.'tetja<ii '~emng':[mk:"~~,~maka K1T W:,maililkain,b :N'~' Delhi mhaia., :~mDlQfaan,pada .KIT VU: Ge;raka;n, :Non .sruok In~:masi.h ber.'tIDsa:f' pada, eara :meny;eles;a;lk;an, :~mensk~m~n 'yang: tlmbul, dID ,at]:b1Rl anQQp.ltilIGe!t',~n N'on ,Bb:k, 'alkibat p~UBig:
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KUWaiilt~ :K.eill'ompo'k pertiimal yang d1id~1rung mayodtas
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ltak me:naa,ti SEmltW, reso'W,sii, PBS., K'elom,pok bdual ,mengffi1BTIdaki: penye:i~ian, hak....;:Ktlwaiitde~.:n. sdl~, Atab 'm~p.a camp:uw.'~g~11 !p~ha:k:I~~,. ,A~ 'fs~p~,~ akhlm~. Get~fi. :N[)p,8[0[;[, g~gul 'menghen~n. konflllk.<Wi. ''feluik P,ersl~i'lbamk. d{tl~ kasus pie'.afl,g Teltlk I: m_€rupun,Pe~ng Teluk ll,

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r"~-!I!

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''{anum d~~layah

ldahm pem'bangwlan. pemuikitman.
~ ,PBB'__ ~ Irak.dan~U~. maslh m;em.l:nlktlk~n lemahnya

Sledkait

'yflDIQ

'memban:hl Israel '''~ ..

me,m'asu:kkJlO.:~h.

Gera'kan Non :etok. dalam men-gi~
. asj: t

p~r~

..pelld~paIt blani

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m

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,11) ,KoBlemmi Tii1gitat' 1JnggJ ,Xl' ,G(?'J;;!JIUtB ,Blak (K17 ,Xl GemAan .NOll Np!]' Blot) Klr XlI. 'Ge~ Non :~Idk dilsfihmgs,amlwn. d~.CmtagS:rUl Kalom'bia.pada 'lllngga1ll!5---22 O:lrt6bet 1.'9~5, d-~g~n ·k~ .. de-n .Erntsfu· Sam.pel; •.H:~ln~ ~
j

---!I. __ ..iil._.= '.-..ffi.~.=:t~ ...,'U-' -!Il< .... -'E'=~I="-..IJIII,!$<I'I:J!ns~lliiodn lI;,JIJ!Ili;1Wg, ". fmJia: ~mllll~
'i'rri• .-:.ri~,-

12)1KDniereDSl Tingim,t Tinggi K/I'(krliJkan' Nbni Blair. (KlT XII' GsmJen Nab

K-.rr :xu: G~~ :N'on :Bmo'kJ~e~lan,gg~, dlliDufban.-, .A:EnU Se1amn pa.da. '~.~. 28 .Agtls~3 S~pltte-m'bu1. 9918,. :H_Sirn pe~yan.g~ demoba~_sj da:1am
p-eing,a'k;lm_ll

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sem hwb:w1'galnl inqmiEi;,ona.]
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di :~rak.

POKOK..poK~OiK :PENTDlG :PESAN' ,I~A, l Ja/aJmJ M~ P,Ma, :pemimpin ne;gMm-:neg'in',B aLngg:oia Geraka:n N:on B~o"k('GN~B)I
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,J{eberhasUan. 'peny.eh3ngg~,aarn Konfef1~fJjst A:si_a;, Aibiika dan ,ju9~ b~l~[, :kieiputusan ~ng b~lah d~a!m'bU 'nlu~ll1banskID6tan sema:'~g8lt bang~a,-ban,gsa di
,niSta
,A."

dan •.

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l '. n'~

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dru :ka;WalSQln, ,~1~, dan J\Jrika bemtur"~

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TeJl)l.sfllQ: IU~J: SU~ meru,pa.Mn ,t~san ,atlgi ,m~[1Shubun9~8:n. nf~ La'U~ ~ Ten.Q~, datil :~u!t, MeriZih,teMtak ,~ ~layah Mes1if.,: 'Stmhl~idffi lanah Ge:Il:tmla: animtt3 ~ed'1l1!a :Iaiut 'te~sebut: '~g .aiIm:~a, kurang lehillil l!6l9 bm. l"erosan 3~ez 'h!demk anm:r,il POR 'Tautlk dan~m Suez dl, t~p;i,blat MSM denQainl Porl Said dan :Part FUild ell te;pi, U!'ll.l "GengaLh,.,lPanmta~anl "tWmIl, ,Sum!:
T~FI'

'taboo 185'91,.']59 dqaJll. 'pa:njMI :11~9kin, leoor &0 m :dml, :kwahman ,8 meter' M~ ,meOO~})i1Ilfkan ,4~ dan jumJah ~I.h~m daD. :~.~, djl~m w~
i ii~'~' ~1i[1111J;iUlll; 1111 Irl~liII

'pada, abad :ke=19 ~kn~ :ketib, 'be~adiJ ba,~h. pemerinmharml di ,Khedive 'MiUha:mnlad Sa.td Pasha, '~l8.S,4i"" ·864l,} d'eng~n 'pe'I1't;lH:biiUll pengpUan 'COm;pagnii(1 ·IU)Jjrm,aslle' dlJ' CaD,il Mar:lti'me de: 5VfJ3' yan;g, dilP1DllPm ol,h FeR/mad' de Lessl:ps cIDairi PraindSi" T~: S:l1u: dlbKlg'lWl:l,

dli1~e:kan,

'q~~~ ,JI~= =~' a.'~~:11

~~

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1m dimQ:an

W I~EI'

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AiQ:le !dan idDkuti ,dish 69 lu:paj

3,.

risis, Suez. an [Peran, IndDnes:~
Padj 'bmgmd, 29 IOboOOif' 1888 dili~fl~ ,KQnfem~ :~mbUl, f~urla1 yang: :5@·eara'bm;sa'ma,"Sa'1llta me1u.m~,plkan status Ten.ISELn :Suei:~.Hal :hili :m.e~~ngat ~~'~~n~_:r~~ dan '~mn~ d~:~nmm~~~" K~f:~ruj dLihadlffl eleh ,ln~-, ,AusiriaI-,Hongarna Spa1fI,!i,JOlr ~OlS! jt~h~. B~k!nd~, :Rusia. Tur:ld d~n, ~MeS,b-: K.onjrl~x'ensi :meneta,pqn Terusarn, :Sue~ b>e'if-:s!bIlh1S
1

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~~'~

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.

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i

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S~mu.a, ,bparu, 'ymlg melirn.~_! Te~1
Su~.,

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fidlak 'boleh, ,memp~~tkan

TId~k, 'bol~h ,menem,pa.'ibn ,ka,~,..1b,pal di, :p~~bJ,:m~5uk
~~FlI

~musepa:n)Mlg

d"

PtemetmJtah, M;esi.f harus menpmbU tin;_dakaj'l.-"Md~, menjamm pela:ksana~n Kon$,e:r,en5i 1BmmbUl."

:yan,g: 'per~uQW"fi!~

Ie. ,Kcebenasan 'l'~r~yar' dl Te.ru~1JJ 5.&lBl, 'meru;l#~. ke'be'ba;~: '~g; terbata!l. ,t Ploko,k-pokok, :~rsetu~.~ :ini, ooJ~ya. 'tid,ilk. dibatasi hin,gsa, bsakh[m~a. U,ndalQg.~U!n.danQ ya;~ ,mm,g,a'~li!!r kans;esj dad perusahaan Terusan SU~.
,AslillJ A.~~, maJka, ~~l i\iOOulJ'~~r :rn@fltasi~ndsa5i, Te~ S1!.U~Z 'pada 'mn,ggm, 261 ,JWi, 19q61~ Dengittl d~rllikian Te~n Sl]~~;~rb,g sefflulal 'b~,tm blilh'ir:nuonal 5ep!zfJ!W1n,a. dimJ99~P 'rRi[ik, : bangra Mesk.o. Tind!a!kzm, Gamil A,bdlUl Nasser 'im 'ERW, SElja, aiamgaap '.bagai Teri~piit-~, oleh h~l
0

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n~_g,~rra'Ym:lg:'~~g: P:m:Ia, g~: .:( Ag~ ~ (5 '[ 956, a~S 'p.~br~ :M,etlJter:W. Luar Nlq]eini ,Am.erika. Serika:t Jo,bn Fo~er DUlles: dliooaikan :kQf;1:femns,i d] LOmOll1 Uf:liW]k: mg~l~i'kan. 'r.nasala:h Tie'f1JSa[l, S1l4:'e~.Kon:riemnsi Uu dlhamri, lo~eh 2,0 neg)ar~,~ '~p;i, Me-mr
tidak. ,hadir" KO!lf'e'teosi
"T"~P,;'"t".!':>I''''''' ,ll~.,~1Il

,Amerlka Mrikat 'berusaha mengajak, 'barundi~g keljga berse_n·8~bI Uu 'LmWk.m~yel~~ 'ma~h Te~ ,SU~~

:me:n,~b]j:tblfJ~" ,~mm larm balhi~1 akan d.ib!imiruk ~OOiW bad:an ,intem!itSillon~l UfiJtuk :f.llsnanganj, T~msan Suu .. Nitm1Jn,~'Gamal ,AJbdull:NasSlil" '~eta.p mguih pada
'pandMcm unbik 'mleJJaSOO,uSMi'i 'T~ U· - - f - . .. 'lAJd-b t "rL,~, ib~ ........... iL· .~'!!;,OfPd'_:€fIernli -..1 ~on~,IJ'.)tI., _.,_,_,a...: S'l~~ ~1J":j
·l~~

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~I

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'men_cap~: ]lm"Get~.~ ten.taLng peFt!JElesai~n mMa'icih K·<""",.... ,f-iwn' ... 'l.-....d- ...... 'H' ""'I?']'·-t ·ruJ'·Rn-"fii9¥,o .... ""~i IL""'rn"d'-III"'!>"Fli i... ,
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[W~JlllJ;_lllGlo:.l.~A-JV-.u
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kernOO~., :M'~

Terusan 5u~:,lug~,df~~.
I

~l~-ii ~~~~gm

Suez' dan mello~ .basffiJ,qpubJEaln -.;a,1 kaJ ., T' lmur_, li_:L yJ, _:__WMan, .' . --. €fIg~rl
d~"SidiU1g'

mi

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,tEir.k,andun,g da1!mtJ, enem hamsepern barUtlD:.
a. P'e.n.'~~iI1gi1.ya, tr!ln~1tbe'b~

,d~skrllir:mnars:llbaiic. s~ra

'po1iHk, marupun. 'mknilk~

d,iilirniJt~tbuka 'm,~~~luiTe:rusa:n 5ue~ 't~:"P3 ,

b~ Keda!1!1liit'lanMeiir d,arI;1. 17ertlAn ,SIlR hmu'S: djhorm~iti. cdeh setiap, ;n,eg~ra. c. Pens,ope:rasian Terusan ,s'lLt9Z. h~ru6 te~bebas! d;a(ri. 'patiJUk ootia,PI negara.,

dt. 'Pm~mpanlbe~f mI, h~rus ,diiputuskan, ~ltas:k~iP~mn ,d~n, eYlay,ijJ, em~lmj Ti€ru5m1, oo'ez·., n p
Ie. &bag~~n pendapatan

oo~~,

,mtarn. :M~iw

ya~g: dll;pero~eh ha'rus d!lgur.raloml k.embaU lmntuk, piallg;embarnga.n Terusan SMezc •.

'f,.

Jig te.I~Jadi 'pet~Usih:an h~M' diseleDiibn ,Slc-ara, d~'m~i, el~1W l,emiba,g\l; m
~fbj~f"a~e: lil~r~o:n€'lil.,. m

Terusan Sum;; dan, Sekjen PBS 'm]t,~ritm~ bai~: oleh M'@s~.'Na:mun :M esir '~Ita:pmenolak has11.~'hI2lSU :KQmifGr!!f:l~ London. 'nn9Sris. dan P,ra;nciS :m~lam'1da:ng: Iba'hw,a Wesir S!!.e.a, sepih2lk telah, :m.eluu'kan, :~n,ggarm
Inmm~to~ .. Q,lsh

P~yeLe~M. ·m~.

wd~plh :M;esiT~ ,~g~.
dlatll

:mG:l1d.ucluki. d~emh OOpm1j!Jl'lg: T~nJsa'n, Sue dia,n 'Part: ,Said. '~~a,el_Ju,g~. bt '1D.eili)lba!ikan din. m~~u;n;g . ~ M~]r
'berh.L] me,ooLdUki. wiilayah Ou:run Sina~.,

:~~aJ

'ltu

j

,mnggm,ldim.

:~ds,secawa

be~~,

mef'l_y€r:atng:

g'abun,Q~ Uti. fbeF:h~i1.

8&)
-~

mdOtuasm '!I~g oo~~l d'!e:ng~n pembt&aian. 'UUD 1945 .h,;M'w;). ikut· berper,. dailam ·rnen('.ip~alkarJru pe:m_foLm~ffi~nd.'llfJ~a. iku~:'~ergef"~kmemban:bJ. :mefiQ~.t~;~i, Kds~5 Suez-,. Pmda 'tan9]g~l,,8 :NQV'efn'be:r 1.9,15'161 eb~giaJ~. ~ 'wuiJiud. pilar Usi,pra!d a.'k"U~ oanlQ sa lnd~oln8s:i,a, m el:1ly',i\l:a kan n~sed t h~la,f:lny.,a d!alam, :men:y@lesaikan Krlsfus&e~cfengan, bersedlia. m~nlemiPa!tkan, p2i&Ib.n. Tlfl ~.~gai. 'penJ~g~, :1H:ro~~a_fl di '~layal1 :Mufw Id~'lam :KOt:n~indo UNEiE, Pa~ ThU
ym'fi'g:
I'G' -YiIj I~UIdJriI ":~I'i'!~1 !',~'5 .....

~g~.

dlkirhn,
l l

,fH~'b\a!gJ,~:ii pen]i~g:m.
.il5I ....

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r~jUdllW_Dd..YJj,1i

d ~IJ -M'"'l~_-atlt ~'i" .~
dj

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Letkel
~!"RiiI•...

Ha,r'loiYio '!J',3rng k@mudi,ln
il-iIb. 'm~Ji:k.11l....

II;.IIIl'SIi;,:U1J!lJJ!'!!,an 'O!!.~n

~liU\". o.x:J.IU.W" ,r~~~1l

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-.,.,~.-,

.

,M]srig~ I 'be:-mtrlAk~d: ThnLU 1ieng~ ,~e 'pad-a bulan JEllIlUM,i, '1l98~l;

Pengir ~:man pasukan :pen] a,ga '~e'rdI~m~lan IO:b~h.b!TUlg;sa Infhlnesia
d!~1am 'meng~m.Si: ](iiiSiS Su~~'juga unruk
i'ri'rj, n'i"i 'I Ii :I,il IIIlIS ,Ii II,u'li

i"ij'J

i 'I i'"Iil III' U.J!i..t\,![;.II'111

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:2!'''_'' ,~,;Y,u'~-~, L!i;.I,;a 1Ii_~~11""~n ....dliiU ~~I
U' ,'1:.11

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'iC'
i

.. JIi.!I:.I:,I,~!IOII, ,I, 1i_:1::i!i1li'l~'I!IO!I, ;

I":~~"'~I

seb '~9:'UU, 3d, b~~r!lll m ·'-5Ir"· ka d
e;" -,

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:k€pl!J.~n :Y~J1g't~~a:h.!cljj~mbll (~!~I:aml ,Ke$]~eflmsj ~~, ,Afnb..,

Glm'l~JI'"
G:rI1L~

k

3..4'

J\fesll'

Upnt-£,;l,r.J1k"'m'bcr~7!ThtiJfI '_ •

mi$l

ASEAt[ Kupaslah dal u-miikirn ke~ -SmnaJ bid-cms e_k/tmomi. ,m,siaJJ. 'booaya,. dlall :peooiIJikan it~tam~~ ASEA:N!
:Kill'j~~ ,.np~,":",ttil .....~as :mi k~"'f'","A,. 'Y!:."I:~ .... I IJ g,Wll ~.l;"'liarnl_ .. k .... iI!.t.l[b-:- -, ~ ~c:'~ ~~ __ ~ E~a
_ ji~PJlIIII!J~'~ ~I_ _ _,

'C'a1ri'kih ~ke~ d!i. mooi'a, mtak a:iau el~lk,

IjI~UPun Jefi!!~eM_i huikruJ '~nmfl1S

ii

I I'
I I

II
I I

• •
i

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do:tOtlg 'p,mn1ag~nglan. d~an.~n.v~,
:litan ,seider s;v;a9ta:.

cUll 'wils.vah ,Asiia, ,Pamfik '~Iar[)i, :han}~U~UT:IDeti,baill=
j,

IOrgimm,sit\$l '~n.g' lah:ir dli Canberra,;t ,A'USmID" bli :ll'IA!nctpmis_n ke'lbmpOk, keoc1~, 'l!ln:twik me~g:iden~f~_~_Sj :kl€]J€QHngan, ~konomi, :~ffi(M1iBl1.i '~romm~ perd~~~Qa:_m1,. ~unloor' daya manJLiS]~jraml, te-~~fJ9i., eil,~~gi., dan b~lekomLmlkaSiil'W,~.I~UpWl 'f.n~sm, be:r$iiat '~ri'r:oullal_, 'P.EOC :r::nellM:&~ pa'~ '~jaJb;a,t ~merititah~c '~la:ku

Pada 'taboo 'l1~a.OImUl]cul Pacific ECQJ1()Jrn:it' Caope.m,'Ii{)11 Co,wcil (PEOCh

;a;tas uMdan 'Peman~ MBnb~ri ,A'yMrali.a" :Bo'b H~wke.,Ste,ill. hal. ~ns m~lilta~r-bela,Dngi te:rben~ulm.ya,,A:P.E,Cadailaib 'Ith!d'embang~J I~tuam:'poilHk. dan. tS\1mnomi dlu_~ia, PllUa\ ~Itu, iw! :!I8P5.Dl 'beru~ah ec~, e~part deng~n. :munc.ulr:i:ya. kelompc~l{elomPQ~k. penia,g'f!l1itQ:aD ~pem ~,~, :r~AF:IfA~ a~IDmnltu ;p.enibahan.~'r tetieda, dJ~ bidJiM),g 'p~m:li;k dan ,ekofiomi '~g: ,tel}~di:dlil U.nl Somet datl .EJro:p~,'T:imiUir~,Hal
in;l dl~kull diengaitl,
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:N'aV'emba.J ,989' d] CanoettaJ, ,Ausfr. 1

b~mj_g! dan aikad~roi5\. SaIDah satu hasil '~g~aitru1 PECC ada~mte~ooll~knya, A9ia' Rasillt: EcMomic Coopera,fj'M (APSe) S'I!'bqil5 'wadah, b3dla smn~ bmlgJK~.~angJia dirukawasan ,A;s~a,P,~i:£i:k 01 bidan.g ,e;kononu' yanSI ~, :resm~ 'w~oonfulk,WI~

'~d~ ,

tahlIDl :1'9,89.

P~,benru~n

APEC

'~akhaW,a,tiI1311,

gagilln,a pe.rundmgan,
~

d!~gangiln~basl. ,Apabi]a masalaih
1I!'Ii,
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d.i ~.~.

2) ~Dta'

dan .1fl4'SifikasJ NegaraM~fa

Pa:da ;awal·~rd:lrlnya.~.A:~ '~er--'lg,6ml\can, ~t1ai. ~has n~~a 1ya;;:h,J, I~am fi~-a-r,a ~gg,ota ASEJ\'N diMill e,n~m. :mfifb'~ di;~IDo~iya_J:~, ,JBpajfi.g~ ·Ko~a. Selartanl ,A)~~ia;, Selandia :Balru ~ad,a~ dan ',Am@nbl Se'ribt Pada ,tZihuIl II9;91 APEC' menerima. IC'ina~ Han;gkong' 1ld,wan mawk m'l!n]'ad~ ,an;~oli!l;· 'I1!J~...1J,~laml'pm1®moon [dill Se~uJe'~. :I).a. 'bu'I~Fru.N'ovem'b~r 1'99'S,~,APEC . memasnkkan :Pr~pu~. ~N'Ugj~ii Me:qJ~, sebag~,~n99olt~J?ada. :pertemUaft, (]ii. d\an. a :Bo:gm'·ta!hWJ]J 99~ ~ggp~ ,AP,EC :mm~~dl lS, 'negaq:~ 1 !
jl

mn Kan~cm
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h~ SiingaJjiUJ¥a. ~~ '~t'EllI.d
d'~ :RUpina. ,e} Ml.J!a~S1la ~ Brunei Darussabm
'i g,lFi;

'ss'laran k) SehOO~ Barn.
K,OJI'ea,

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:m) RR'C:

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h~ J~llMg 1) Kanada. Dad 1 BI ,n~a li.Wgg\Qt~'1 dtklasjj~lm,15ibn :meIlJ~tU :k;elampok yang dldJasar4 'I.•.=~ ,-"'>. k .,' ~nUn.'Oml~ ~'Jl 'mUIUlQiU.,!.;:~~~ • se. b 'I~,,,,,,. ,..II~, '. ..l" •. ' ~ ~,",,",;ih "'-b"k b ~,,' 1~!iGS _:,}ema-Jwn ·!lgm, ~€:n_ lUlL,. ~l 'Neg~rn, sarng;at 'm~~UJ::' ·AS dm'l. JJ~~rl;g"
k_.'1Ii_· lUI
N'0i5i!"1':!i'i"'S

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~:~ N'qara,

dJ) Negara
,3) K1T

M~blkoI1''Papua. N'u,g;ifm'I'

oo~m~

:ilIJdust.d:

,H/Ol'lm,

Selatm'i Si[19J!PU'1:a1 "("ali,wan dan -Hongmng" ':Brtm.e,i ~rusaWm,! Mm~si~-il iFijlp&ha., ThaIl__a;td~, 'RRC,-

em, d~, :~'nd'o\Dl~ia.,

»sec

,AP,\EC :m,a;mpaun :keIja, ama 18klp:llom~~gjionw, 'unmk. :memDiiu_n :pe:rd.~~g~.~. dan i~v~l;as~ dli ,Asia, P,Miflk.,Pefb~JJlIYOOl tingu! tinsWii pawa kepaJ~ 1]je.Q;~~"'pemeoomh. di.sebut meel1ng.~;,m.u. AEliM: (AP£C ,Eccnomic Le:f}t(/~~ Meel1r«l-' Permmlmttl, 'pam 'pe.mtm,plmii 'EkofJl.'OrnU APEO :~. '~rsHiart lnfon:rna:1.
Adarpul1t ,AELM cUm~ni' ~1L~l;LM, - ,I.JI:. ~~·_~~I " ] ;,,;-:!~ UJl ~~~ ~ UIl 'c:!;OfI>~;mB- AS'_. '. '~"'h~II'II"I;, 1~;~~' ~I~_

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d~ ,AELM ,N dl, :Milni]a ,ftlti:pioo, ,tallilun 1'996 Ie) ,A.ELM V di Kuma :lum,pur~ M~ailaySia."tmmJ:am 17;··-18,,N'ovem'ber 1998t ,f}

K~

~~'

AJ'EC'
kajla, sarna, [,eg,ora],

S~ak, ,tDdliir mihuo. 1'98~ ,mrOti~, wnkDik:~n: :iw :ma:ldn kllal karena. beber.ana hal. 'belik'UJittnDJ. . .II~~

,a:}

:6, t.. ,.' ----.'...:ii ) ~:~·I!.'~n...., 'e.I'W~~l'U.um.l .-

mnwa pH.a da9war.s,a 1'9'80--a1l~ [(STOpa me.m.peooepa't. _&mgkahnya menuj~
.Ii-..... ~,.""'n--:- "'"'''ii,
~K~,
u._a.w

P'e;rb.1, ke.sJi\mgliiln ne:g;~.[f&,='rtiJegml~a,f1iu;J,a P,as~'£·iih. '~;rhad~.p ,kemungk~n~n pmmg'kamr.t p-m~ di '&o'pa dan Amedka. Sedlm~. Seperii 'w!alhdlikeblhui
-- -:,;...;I, -E -- ,em~~ .:1 ·!I~~:i,._.,&I~ :mo~~l,er_rtopa.. D--- d..: -~-- :pw!ili..L._~ n"'_l!,._._.~. ~~ . .!',"•. !h,~,Trade. ,Nea (N~Al .m~. ggrl~ d~ Amerlb. -Se1fi.bt ~ .... 1!~t .. l~~JlJLJ.I_~,

.Aare:lnaD .Free'
W-.jll.B_l'-li"W
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d·' =.'1 ""ii'!i"ji, .. m_~II~ _

~'-,~bl ;i~;"iII-~'n '~'""'~;;;!ifi,;;;;ftn"""n'
ft~"_'!JP_l~lllll 'F~iJl-U-~l~auI"~~~~1

nes~rinya - m~.yaJ~ :~~alIu'i, anceman 'pe_~:tca;blJ!ran. f:~ili'tas, G'enw:aJiZ«i' SjI.S'tem' 01 ,Pr:elemnc'e~ ('G:SP) ~ A.m')Usi,pasj, "t@.t\ha(l~p, pe-r.ke:mba.ng}an '~tu, me:n{:illorong '~am,'~pin: ~~ bli mernfQIf~rnBten,k€rj~.~iJ, tegion~L l~
b~

penumtu,dlan, :~~.gaifig~n, ,tJ.b:ljI,-A$ia dOO).tnt[~-,A'S;)~,P~lk .. r Dahm p~riode' .9\88~1.992 to~ l_~ksPQrni!g.a,-:n~gaJm. ,anggom, ,APEC ,. 11.,_, d" .. .'0:::'7n niUIJ~J1' d' Otldir iii'"'Y;U~I.nM mi!nj)atdi~ , I,.,;;J.w.O~'IIJI'mnlJll~r ue!lil::lf' ~I: 'il_A:,~._, ·~I~_, C"iII'O iIfii. '.~~ ...I menlf'J..QM!L: an ::1'~''''' ,Att'J.elika dan '66, 'p~ts~ dl ,~.t~n~aJ ,~, ~por he ~~~ iiVlgg~ta ,APEC:. :D~lE[m:~rdod~ y~g, sam~, 'lo~l, '~m~ neg~rt~.~ru~~~ :meniing;lm~
PM~nQbl:am1
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maij,w~ :~ondsme leU k~~f~n ya'n~! :mer.lgh~nkM, .kl1ra~lGm50 persen 'pftld~srn dm,ta, dlM. im.eflLgUai~. 40 perset1. :pa~~ 'p~~f g;looot IC:~ Kamll11tuiil!1iI 'negara,~nega!Ta. i~um b~m leU ,A'si;t Tmur~:Ke~~n a~n. keiwatan sendiri dan, rasa perea~ .am, ~anQmmu:w al\diba't prestasli :i,WI jLgi! ban_,a_k 'il'Ilmndoron.g :negara,..IReQarr;a diil bwasan. inJ untu.llt, :mela.ku..kan ,k~rja
~~t-eg~o[]al,. .

dl,an.mf;7a1n:~a, ,adlabih ~m(pa'r dan ~ ,angg,ota, APSe. iii, • £' ,. \I:. l.,~'· ,. ib. "' d!l' 'ug~ m'mwn -'b 'I...~.,-, -n]~mSl~ny,aIDlIL'e'£,aigl,'Ull!iJ;,~re,gJlon'a_rn "w , ,J ~a •.tdJ !I- ,II ' ·UI,lull

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I

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35%1 (iat.i, kesereu-.:uh~. 'ban-man ~IJLlai~ Deg~rl ~ng diltE;rtm~, 'lild]on;esia. DamlP~k. SMna ekonom'i dalalm 'kegiatan investasI dJj. APEiC ,adalaih 'li2ibub1q~ pe;]u;ang: 'p~~_f' Yaiflg:,~. ~ebcn:.Hel ~,OO-Bj~ harus dm~ngemi\amh APE'C' !lisa. :m~njoo'i.

bet~~ dloo 'neg~negar-i

ASi~ ,P~flri ...lBegitu 'Pbl!~'impor ,~nd~(f.Ies~~aJkin;
an,ggot.a,

,J\PEC,. :Mere~ka, ~rnel],yum'bml,ghampim' j~ga,

60%

,u~'a

·p-e,rda.gamlg~1 beb~~t 'terjun ke 'peTdliig~~ ~-bas;~,,sebllah neg:al'u 'Ih~s, siiap menenma, '~ji~ bar:ang im[lOr:'I 'I~ta.p~yalng d~r:na:bMd, 'bw:n perd~g2m,g;an be'hH ~anl! am sebeb.as-beb§n~a;.. 'bar-seibu:f' ~dmlah '[iendilhf;f~ ,illtg'~t s:)ticla.riJta~ ~me-ii'eka.\. :Oailam ,APEC 'k b 'k negarlfa, S e a:ta~ '!.JI II~ L.=~, [~;lft ~JUn da.' ,seaga~~ u, 1,_, t!i;f!wm;po,.· ~ng 11111iJe:~,t~.. 1""'1 1\ 1,~:U~alifi.y:a, M~ysia, yang 'mentFiJitang A_metika Sedkat'lem,yam 'lida'k me:rnpemLeh
1, -I
I~

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,.;jj,

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I'

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,5J P#nsip ASE4N tJiJJn' Sllt~p 1ndi:it1tiB/ijl PrtnSilp,ASEAN '~r'hadap ,APEC ,adalah, ;s~bagaru oonkut.

_l Sebia:p':pe~in_glmta_n :lmr.jla _rna
keperntim1i~an,! ~]1 ~~
~a.

A»Pamfik :I~uznda_kn'!la il,rmlitEpm"sabUan ASM.N· '~lemp ·di]lC:liah.m11mn~
cWi
j,

,m~Jrn

b)
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hendakn~.·did~~

'pada 'm;nin~.prpMt~d:p ~_~,~ p

:ke~lan~

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'_

danl keul1IhLm!gan. 'bersatn_Cl,.

pfBgmHlti:s ~ ~,:.. .. ~- ..
'

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a~.~·L.='-=- ..J·O:'~iini; ""'.I[lE:'C' - -.J __ 'ii'ri'ii'- ~- ;:"iI"Iffii'b.-.-~ .ti.€!:uer.d!JI:.I!iI-BW.~ .nr.(;;".-- ~Uil i;3lI:l.II:I.~~"""'I'':IUu.E.,

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em pe-t.ilag~n:gan belbas d~nsan 'mng;an ter:tuka,. Perdagangm:1. 'bebas menur:dut 'prod~pliod1Wk ~]':k1!RiLlms~ memUi:kru daya saling tin g.gw. dian mempu msnembus -'I!J!!1Ul. 'U-' .J~ .. '..·.n~~.:m~,peJn;[a.p~an. ewa.:~r 'L. t..~~ '!!.~r~O!JL ib.• ma_~. '-I8(ng~-l."','-h • I.~ iL Il~~ :pa:-sa_ra_f\'d ue~ II. ~ ;"FIi'iI£II"';;'in/L,.. :6. 11· A'"'n~;:;:~i,.. ...... .-::--A~~I\-,ih- ,"' ....b·~;;!in~; ..t'Lu· ........ :-1.a.y~~. P-ri;",
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~~ M~~iin.gbtkan. Sumber ·Da:ya. M;~nru!S'i_a(SD:NnI ~ng handnll. , b~ :Merruingkzdfka:n. WUfiW 'prOOu~rodlUik··ag,a~"mm:mpu meni!mbus 'pasaran. dWlia; ' dBlnmimli~ 'beJfsainQ. c,~ :Men~rtgkat1tM bOO~~. A.a €.Aku C'int~ .Ifido:nes:iil))I, '~a;ib;1:me~um'tMuihbn n1enm:l~tas d~ billiflgan r:~kyat ~nd!G~es_j~. .~laag~.nb.~w:ah :m~ncenQ;~h dlati dan a,ta;;, ag,M :lm!nei:lltEd. sagalii 'pl1OOuksi. dalam 'oog~_ri.
II

d~ Me:nm,g~illkan~mang:a~ []as[on~me
i1giiI'f

~g~ '~ida~t~~Muta,'arms Igln\»l1SM~ m:enverah wwk :meM:bangun

mreipbil 'moo emisa s:ii 'bllk_anJ wesmm~~:.,

I~) Meningk.aitka:n: selDanga-1 ,juanQ dan pmnmng; 'oong,sa, darn n,~~m,. !e:. A&eao
Inr

,Free Trade' AA?a (!\PTA)
'!ii~~il'l W~~l 1II~~U~5~'5i;1ii'!iJ
~v.¥U_~

,A,iI="""',~ llll"]

i

~~5'i"iin~if'Ii.

1L~!'IIIOII;I;~~!iil.l..:1 1~U_Il-~

11i.._',l""'~II!'; 1!t.!Ir~~I":ll rali.I_lIi.II~ .. [U~~ lll~LiII_ 1.·, EP~lJgl~~,i5, i!!II,.;:II~'~!!!io:L ii!'I'i5!iitu It.~'i"ii;i;..~;k' k-,;i5~i!!ii ~)Uda ~lj~ljil.~
~~II!

'n-Si!"l~f~~t:II~!r;~' l-~a~-~ll~ 1~-~~aI'~~'

,~I""ii"'IIn\i"iit'!iJ ,.i\~C'l;'h,'hJll 'uli'Ti;l;."k
~ll~,a!atW. _~ In~~I·~

;u ~_~UI'._ I! '._~_

m'P!li'm- ,'If-.-;_~!,'I\.'I.,_~.~,- ..., riili!i,..,..;ilI~""~Ii"Ii"-~n'i.......J1i.;.~_,_ _umj!ll!J;~ ~fW~ W'~I;~~'~~~.

:Pemb:e:n.tu~
ASEAN 'berlkut

AFrA, b~~bn, :~n~.ftt~M, :pat.,ilJ M~ntmEkonont1,angg!Ota padil ~Ui'l 1.9914 dl. ChianQ'Maii! iOihaihmd.
'M,ariJmen:ghasUkBlD 'tig}aJ ~eputJlJ~pernti(ng

P,el1:em~:a;n ICht~!

~bag~!

:pm1bEml:ubn :Im!wastm :~tdag~W'JJ 'b;ehas d[ifptaFceI')JJt: pe'~~~Il1~, d~i ~un, 2\010, 'IDerij@di, 200's'l' :2) JruJm!lah prodiUk yang, t'el_m rd~$eLu~u1, msW:k d;abm Qa~ftar',AFTA VndWt~T,l' Jis:t!mU d)l~,nn,'bah dan !emU2i, pmduk 'va:ng '~!!fQO~omgda~a:m ,tempera:!j/' f1lJlcll!$ibn iisttTEL iS~,1J berta.hap aikm1 mas,~k L, Sem'l1:I' prodiMik TEl diihara,pkeill. maS-til, de;lam :~l. pada tangga1 .1 J'anUiJ'n ,2000. 3) Mem_asukkan semua 'p~oo~,penam:aJ 'y~[1g beilum, m~suH, dJailHm ,sk4m~ ' C-On'1I"DOD ellecfJtte ,preifJRNlJial &n"ll [CEPl) yml,g 'tmbagi :sebagm benkut. a} ,oaf1ar. produ~"~ mgem, :t:nas,;l~,dman1, IL men}adffi imrnediBf:e induskJs .iiltllL mw!ii, 'tad~n:ya,,menja;ciU '0-9% pada ta1100 ,2'OO\3,~

ll~ sm~ifiWl,~om~

~ltOOhw~

b)

IProou~,yang memiliki,

'5ot~=,""", II~• ..J1,~~iii"'i' i\~'L'li i,~ti fl,l!!' '1dii~4ra_,1 •• i!UlIr'!;.1 ~1t!iiUK..~~, 1I:'Iil,I£IiaI~'

..:I~n""'iI"'l-

se~~~IiW;:tas, (MmsitJ'lte 1isQ, ,sepem:' 'Oems dm gul~,.
.Ji! i!lJ-Il 'Iu":li',," ;e'I,. _t:.Ii~, 3~

=m'5 '_. '" ;,~: CiEPT

.,

,e;} Pr:odUk,
,1!,;,"Tfi;r."", . ,..,.~.

da1am ka'mgrod 'TEL ak_ain me~adli! ll, :pada 'blhun. 2003,.
,AFtA den.g~n

N'~~r:a-n~~m ,Qrl19go;m ,AS'EAN'm0~gQil-gaS' m.~nabn.
IJIlJL.J~~~'!!I

11 Hl~[]jngbtJbra, p,elroa,Q1f1!fig~n d~f11 s.pe~_~U~~ ~
2_
_~

dl~:ILn.gk:un,g,m 'lma'ngg,om_an,
'9-'l"Iinn .....
~,!~'I;,;I'!W

,ASEAN',~.

:_'iI.

3l

~~'iI\S-,1-=' A'fi.lI. n__ ~~,~, 'n1~nlngka;~ra. bIW~;ltMi ,cl~hm ~gtata:n l~'!rOO~ru d~, ,ja~, ~nl'3mn9g~la
~lI9m'·ilPiftl~ ~;iL,~"",\" !!!,!i,!"",,_, __ .~~\~~l~,:!i,
_~-!,-,!_~_, ~IW"~' 'n;F.lin'!liIi'"'~.lFliQfl!!llii~' '!"'~!!;!!!~~IIO!!

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n ~: '~~~:'1j1'

AS-:-iI2'Al';;fi1

4'~ nnsnin;gkatkan m~uIm,ya, ~nv~IaS

(ffi~ri :Iuar

negafr:7a,aillggo;ta ASUN.,

It NIN!d

,Pre. Trade hea (NAFfA) K»wa~n 'b~bas, ~rd~glngan. 't1e:mya,ta, 'Hd_ak, .hm'nl~ dimiliki Qleh,rugg~,=
A~IJI
1 . .' ',. _ . ,-, '.,. -

,D~b,wasaifl AmeF.n~.a, 'U'l~r~, kesep!l)katan unwk, :merm,oolliimk kawa'saD, 'bebas, 'p~r.d~gall:1l ,juga, dl~nkan ke:biJa:kan e~oncnDi 'tersaiou:t ,NOrth; ,Ain'~aan .'Free Trade ,Area (NlAFTA)"
-

:fieg.~:f:a,angg;o,Ut ASEAN'.

N'AF1J\ djoontu'k, lob~h :ne!)arn, Ameriu, ,&rlMt ,K~cl~-, ,dM 'M,e~o .. ,K'esep~m:fi mtu:k. membenb_, :kroN~, peKlaa~~ be'ba!s ~krul, pada, 'I ,~, ,;1\, .. 'c...J.. , ' fin ii:1 .... 1".== oJ - ~,~'I 'tan;ggar 1 nSUjIUS ,1' .1:;~,~., '-N'jijmUfilj,~ pe'IajJ:\~fia:iUl :1 A ~~ ~.nr;~:ri, .oJ!!', 'IllIt- 'lPa\JI(i '~,W~l Ullm,U
'ii") fIij;;j"

'tahUfJ1

1994,.

0_
M'.' i~~ ., ~-

TtliJua:n ~g: ingm ,d&c~'~ dengan, IclfbedalkukatiflYil N~A, anltata ,latin: 'll:~ 'nlenirrl:g~lfkan keglatan ,(fkon.ori 'para an,gg;atal; 2~ me~~kaID stm1darisasru i~g-haJr:amg :ya~ '~;ipelida,SJ1nglkan~ m~~g~fka" p'el~~~, ~.3l k'pnsum!8n de_n~, m,en-sutam~ka:n, t~~k. kesemarn~n ,keooha~l~ d~n,ramah ,dengoo '[jrn1:gkuiJQ;~~ ,41~) mooga,hlir kec$ie;lm~t~11 e_lt~PQfdm ~mp:of d~, aflJtar,a, Mggptil",

!:~

j

Kajar

11m@))
t" -,~ ~~

_.
~'~ .. -. [~~

_.

.

.

;

Buatlah Mi~in9, tent~Jl
'l!.lI~(~1jj. ...iI~i;"ii .. .ll·'lMC· ,llnJ U-WJ~' r n

~nE. ·C·-! ,ii""'I.l,·II"'u'n 'i"!!!\O'..'i'l!'~' .......~""'"' ;e""!i~I' '~=il~ Jl:IIWdJ:-~'~'I, ~~~.

': Ket:]~, sam:a, bid~ngakonol':fd dJ~~m 'woop,

AY.EC:
AP,~:[~ :lii1E)'ru.paka n .kerrla,
"nUl,

Elko:r.l}om'il l'iiQ,h)nal, unhJik

:mem:ajlll.Wk:afl:lJ

pr!:rdJ~gaJngandan ~nveRa:si di :,\'smll PaSiJi~i' IC~ri~n lU''e1!'8W[I'' tentang: APEC .. ,Berd.asarka:n, pengg,aU~n inf'Oii'nl_BSi. dan, 'Iili~efa,b 'ter:se'l'tlil bua,tfah t:Digkasmlllya dan ~p~, per:iitln~nya ,AP~C b~ii Indonesia ?' ,Hasiilln~; di,presentasikain di depan k~1as dan, kemOOi'ml diikumpuJka!11ik-elpada

'..... ~'b 'g,um 'I.,~u i t ~au . -. ,~.an~, y~~-,~t

D~,Perkem_angan
Bemklhjifn~
'~'~:l.~

P'olilik, lIluni

1111

P )'Iog Dingin
~_It"I;'!!IIi~

P;erang' :Olnliia. [[ 'merl~ba'blan, A:mmka Se,rika~'dan'Urd. ,Soviet :~eill~:r:'~h~g1M 'p Mn,en aftg' 'petang] dan, .mJm'mCu[ .~ Inegar~a,adikooSa/mper
III"iift!l.1II1;!'li-'.··

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ii'!Iil!~!t'!IIO· -:; ..... '''!!!Iiii'!! ~KUllll;'" In.dUI !Lily.] IJ

~~, ,dm'WLa, set~ behlh~~: Pe.mng :Dunm II maldn. menceka:m :Bilek Ba,mt ~g dlpffimpin ole'lll A'merika, ,S!ribt den B:lQk TImur:' Jlmg dip;1n:i!pJ.n Un} Soviet Siding beNOurt '~a'ndf'DL, irl! ~...L, _.. t, k... .JI~.. ~!i h - ib;,·.'i., . - _.,.i!' ~IIUag~~ unJ~,,_"~awn ~;~;l.....:in.,. ....UJe_-,~, '1\o,~.J1 k 'L ~IL'~,~J~w '. .~~ vang~'~~ u~,' ~U()·,AJ!!.JU :km,t: dl dJl!Jn[a :PI'erbgn~ s0a,1~ p~ko'tow :m~,!:/ewlbkan, dwl~. dl.M, :SUa~~ :Per~g ,DingUrn.
I.'••

sm:mh

e-

'I.. F ktmf .."aktor

e nyeb a Pe r,iiI__ DiogJII,
1

Pasta :P'D ,II ~eil];adil~h 'per:ebutan pengatiJh, an,tara ,Am,erika Seriq't ,djengarrt 'Un] $Qwet ~aIl]Q::metlahi.f,km, P'emnQ: .rIn,gifi (Ca/d Warl:~ng disewt jUQ~, seb~'ai, ~ -~' 'I h, si .. _,_,!II i., 'per:ang Ul'a't SY!il'~aiw·. n Fe;ran,g '1F\,l,:t..l1 ,!ii'ci:aa; su~a ,uU:rlg;inl '~l:ltemili5t(h~ ,an,; p~nuu, 'I~ '" _. .JI 'b - t.." -'··:·b 'II~.... :r.Ij·'I,. ,•...:d - I _., ..... B'I_J'~ iD . ~ ~~!iL-... ~ , ,1:i!i/i!I.'eganQ':M u!e1n.enlUlJSlJna:n ,~1 a1~ l:\ul1i1!:al!1!!i, lY,GlO:og~ ,ml,~ra, ,'.mJit\i gii'iira'!L, ~rall, ~
I;

:ka,puaUs:) ,phllpl'tu~n Anu~dkEt Se:r:lkat: dan Blolk TILmur (so\SiaUs kom.un:is,) 'p,~mp~nain 'UFWi50\li.et 'ViiI'l,9' betkembaJ']~!, setelah :PeraJn:g, ,DunWa ~I b€rakbirr:. ,Dampa;k 'yang 'l~r]'adi akibat PerMg Dllm~,U xn:~gi}t [iOO5,da;i'l, ikampl~~t'ba~k, :lnenYi\Iilg'kut taI5.pek politik~ ekonomii, Sic5ia'~ mallJipu1ll, ke'!budayaalJ,., ,Amilrika~ Serika't dan Ulil~,$oviel yarns berperan be.mr.' daklm, rnengaik!h~riPemn,g' :Dmia [[
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'wnggal, dutdiEiJ.. 'UrJiwk t1u~uatner.bl!lt mere1ka n1edakukan _g., t hal" '~a;t'ap] .kedum,ya, ~eijW11 :pem~b s;~n, I_Mlg~ .beih,da:pxn daJal!n ~iT31fl_:g 'm~b..ma. :Pe~P9lM (])lIa b'kll~jtan ~dlitlay.a,dl,lmlia,'[-e~tD.rt. :m~mb~~, .Pi~~9 ,D.in~ ..
a,

Pe~ebab T~rj!ad~¥a: 'Pe~ang Dingj'll, ~ umum, :p~ :I)mgin tmjam ,akibaJt dipklll cdeh MI~ D' .J ·IO:"-.Jlli\l.:nl_~'t_j ,~ , • 1_) ,....IIL~_.J' ./ r~~aoo ~an' ~nen~I,~n ,roeCJ.iOSlJ
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litarm1~, Uu~dlln~~lni ,~.1d1~mya, ,~O:htb,=olah te~bag]m€~j~dru :B~Ci!kB~~~ ,
pem'im,:piinnya.

adalelh n~gair;a;-n~~r~ ,~[n,~!llruk'bergabiJn!: dailmm :WilompoMY". O:leh
~l1g;

.rulng mB~galab~~I,'1l,. SilLah salu cairan~,

betJP-ailham '1~ber::1)_1 'k~(p&ta!is ,de:mg~ AmefikA1 Serrnka,t seoog~ID pem~rnpinn}mr~ dHfU :B,'kik 'T~mJM:1i' yang 'b;e-rpana;ID so.sla~is ,k,omUlli:s d!el:lg~aW1 Saivi'8~ ~ba;g,al 'UDI

,Amenka, Senb't: dan, Unru SCJ\tiie't. slicnQ,'b,erusaha, ,me'nj'adi '[Jemimpm .dw;11a", Me;re]Q :m'!m:im,:p:U:>ti_1i1l. da,:pait berkuasa, da:n mem:hl1!lP~n dunia smperifi! masa :~ejayaan :~nggrisdati, 'P~ra;nds :[l3dBl :rna,sa, :~m:pe;rialls kuno" ,Namlm,- ~kuasaa:n; ~g: bJ~~,~ 'pa_daJ,:m~. hnperlailliskmo ~afJg ~udaJJ"tid_,:me'f~ :Ia'ku'krul ~It J\:m~rika, Sru'~b~' d~ 'U:nll &vhi!tooru~a 'menl~dj :pemimpin d!U!f.)la, dl~nQan eara b.am- 'misafu,~a de.n,gan 'kl2i~amn ,ekonomln~a. ,Densan de:miikmn.~ A,_ ·1.,- if:' "'1 ,_,I".;m, .• ,. b "'I ~.,. ... ·'~'n· ...:1 n_n1ermM beli1_ML nan 'U""!~ ~owe_ t 't!.amp~, ~e:~a~ " lmpGrIDaJlS ,muJUC'Il,. .• Ifl~ ,Am~rlb Seri~bt: ~ilQ~fI, :ke!kuiI,bRI,~kon.omimt~ b~~~, d ,m~r:f'fu~ngaaW[ n~-n~anl,lam, :kh~l1ya, y.ang ~:baro,mew:ebw, d\eng~, pe!k.e.t 'b~ !~Qnfi1nL ,Pemerintm" Am~r;ib Se,ril\at batanggapiJ;1l. 'beihwa, nega13, yang, m~blya, hidlMtp m~:lUl' dalpa'f: men'jadi, '~mpait 'pem~mn h:mt~l, i~'w;,m_n:Yil.. ,Sel!all:1 .i~1J.~ra~~t : ~n! In:ldopnya, '~~larh, m~lllmlur'juga, a~q" ~m;~~~uh~, dad JH~~b ,S1J-si~~is, 'kommiiEL 'Hm~ :kemiiSldn:an :~g, ff:ienjadli 'Iada~g subm: '~Qi .peri!c:embanga:f:'D. soS'ialls k,o:muE1u. SeclimQbn 'Il.Jn~Sowet: :yan~, empun,ai rkekualiarl, I~oml m 'm.pi 'tid~ ,se'bemr Amer.ma 5enka:t: j~a berusaha, 'r:nem10en!ten;g!i, negatr.a-ne:g;am . ' t.,_~ UGin-ulln e-~n,Qmj' U" ,. ~.~ "I JUl:liI 11,,,• yang '~h.. ~I""1h :msn· d a,p'a'!.I:peD!ail;..",.!I!..., W~_,!" W!lJlnya" Pi,a~_: 'i".~, t ,:n1, ~!iIl!!!L, dWbe1riilmn gurna m,em~pefba~ki, :k~am, ,~kOFllOmi :i:I€;gam----negarr.:atersebu.t, Se1.\aln :i;ru U'j:l'll S.ovIDet Jug;m beruSaihf1l mendeka.U, r~:k~id: 'yar:lg o$ed~~g: 'me,~.,uiUn pel1umgan. fI~o~a de:f:lgm 'men_~an, :prarn'tenaga, ahll dan, juga, b~bagal
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S,elw'kaiC, l~ggns:~ Prancts A~ITa~a:'ti ThmWmld~ :FU~p~nl\" ,Se1m1dffia.. 8_~m. S,e.m~ntam Un! hijJ 'komunis.eLi 'Pasifik, SelaJfan colla dI~h~m'ba!t,Am,erika, Seribt .JI L ,-, .11·'".,11-, '1:.1' .' ~""II!... . ue:nlan memumltu 'k ,rw::!fJ," sama mmBItEr :p!W\dJm nel]C!i,sama ~I; ~ ;Ganan 'd" 'n. ·[:',1•, ,:.I~,- • '! ,r,M[I'h~, S€l~ltan, dl~'but· ANlZUS 64U!itmJJs~Mlw Z~ Mt1,Uidllfid' SmleW ,den~,
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'U:nl SoWe.f berumha, Imengmban,gi ke1k!ua~, lmlllte,r ,Blo~ :Bairat

d!eng.an membenwk,

Mon~~i:)ba, 'Ohfdjs~,t ICmk:odb~ki~~tl P :B~ulglaria~ :R'Um1l'@1nl~'i' dan Jemrna:1l nmur- m.emfbeifi~uk. ,Pact tlll Mutual ASSistance' ,(J'iid' Un:~fieldCon:rmand a:lau dlLkenal dje;ngJilllI ,se'bulan ,PaIlta W __ iWiI,.
b~~m~ ,4) ,BidaD{t Ru -!fJ-1l iJngJiaSIJ .P.~l!,Ditarn, :p€~gOO1ih,~Jl,tara,AS, OOlrn9(m 'US J1J:g~,m~mn&. :paila. k~ugg,ihM temoiogJ 'moog' ,~ngkam'lel)"~h.lanJtm di 'b~has~da, .stlbbah e~bp.:1oi.tMiJ tekri,ologi
'rman;g: gkasa,., ~

ker;1~ '~,

,m~jit~r pula" Pada 1!4 Mei 1955 lJ'ni' ~et

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dlIniMikt p,'er:tib~, te~bw: :5all_~h MJ'lllnya adaJah berdarmpalk:Pilda 'Iefj~n,~ :P6l',anQ, Kor.ea .. :P'er:ang :suda:raJ, dffi Ko;r.,e,a 'b,~~but :me(lj~eba,bMm1 Ml~yahn,a' rsampal saari!~n!i,m_a~jih 'mib~, alas Korea Ubin, dan, ,K;cms'Ci, &/Ia.,tm;;

a~, Koi'ea- :H'"ium, Pe.m,ag: Dunia U: KnTie'a:,iltlU. C-hamtl dam bah~
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:mpm m:iensli£ "Uzraggefl=rup_"~~irni,an Ko:r__ ,d~n. meninglmhn p~n,g~Jr.uhn,ya. :Pada, mh'IM;U1 19'1.0 Je~ng, ~betll-M~] moogJU~saii~~~h 'KoJ~ s~, '~nuh. SeperU ha1In~, bell~, kcdaniialsme '~ laiin I' Je,pang' juga: :m,d1ku'k;an e~lbUa!si 'besar:"besaraID. 'mr:haid~'p :Ko~a,.Sem,ua ,sumoor da,y,a! :Ko~ dtlma.rnfaattkain un uk,
.'Ft£l!Fllm..i(,'ll~n '-'_- ,t"~_'----" ~'!;,I!_

'yan,Q: be~ada, d[~ ,Asia, T:i'mum"" J'eparrag .sejaik 'tah,Uf;11 15,193, 'te[iah 'In!E{ngll1alr 'wJ~!lah :KareaJ,. ,N'aimtuli1, 'oo$a,t, 'banwan Oina~,k~w.gina1n Jepatl1g UU ..JI d'b=o=..l K "Ii:a'PI'€.TaLng: m'brrUI~pa'ng '~ ·6'- '_, .1,,'0 i;i-J ~~.... Ilr'L.~ J'epmng rc:. ~lo9:~'-'!I CI'gc:..\ wraN~J.1ID'~,. ~ar~t i_~~~i_u,ung;. ~:,~oo_:~, ~~ U ~. I' '
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b:~, :Korea ,$etehih ,Per.idIg' 'O'uoia, D'
ala'iam P,erang Dunia, III :pas1.!lka;n Si2lnrullJ :yan,~ b~r.did ,~tas A,m~riD, S,eri'k!Jt dan 'Utid $O\l-jiE3!t: ,s)eg:l~r~, :l:'1ilandoo!lJlklJ 'Kama. D,ang~n, alasan '1~"~'I"II'i,_.~, ,e';:~~ .~~!.e~ 'I.•_j'i~, •. ~-~"a~ m;l!i'm~
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" b (II ~ ..J,: U' figmNI' S. 7 Ph..~ lJ lliw. ~1 Utl1lfiJ dim K~.J: -J.1Lm . S,eT.ID"~~ aaru me;f't '~RL, ,~ !!l~o;~, h~gj~n ~la!tan 'pad,~bUlan, Sept'emoor ][9'45 [)~[]glan,d€mi:Wan - :FilLJW.~~.t Uu dl~~~ KGrl~a dldwWd, d1Ul~'~Q~~ ad:id~Yll.~ Amen~ Serikat: d:t se1lrlt~n dan, 'U'_l: c;: - 'd'·· ~ ..01" t..=, , ""d'I, ~i"""'1-.: I~_c .. iI~U~a!Jl.e~:..... ~tlw'a. ~-~ 'I" ~;,i:S ,m'tang, 1;:)81:1.menJfu.Jru~~ ..........'w':Ila;Y~"I'~n,g' mere,M d·i.~..;Ii".I,d: j.," "fuu~i.
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'p-f~;:~a tilnsg~'11 12 Aguws lI94lS,. Sem1enta'l"a ~ru'I' 'pa;5~ Amenka,

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Ame.rlka Serlkat~':mUla;i "la,hun '1'948 'barn,yak 'yam;g dDtarik 'pullang' ~e :n€gari~aJ. ,1H\1MJ,~ p~r.~, 'penas1M,t mmlfuter dA_hm, JijImla..h_ :ks(;il ~!I~ng d!i1in!9,~roo d~.'~e;mp~t ,Uu~ H~l Un b~rm~tafi ae:n.gan,mulal. 'te[(bera.rukfiya, 'pemef.i:ntM:~
lP~r11
'R!ept~ibUlkKan!!~, (Se~a't,a,n)1pada 'ta[Il1,~n;ia~15 Agusru~ '194,8. .Pus~~· 'pemJe;·r.:irDil:ahiinnya. dib!mpaitkaill. Cli. SeoUl,; 'PrM1d@1li panama :Republik :Korea adalah .Dr., ,Syngnum RI'E-e" U'n~. oo~et: temyata beroua.t: ~i1J 'mrhada-p vrilayelh ylin.g: dirdw:biNfJ,y.a. [iimr,al_, 1U'rm:l, .So~~'memben[uik R~'U!htlk. D€moba~ik~~t m ,Kote~ (I(ar-g Ul;~if.a)~d~. tlngg~. 1 Me~ 1!~f8" Utili] .sovliet m.engang.kat :Kir:il 1m SLmg ~b~ga!i:'pm~[den~ya .. U~ii SaVilf!i;'~ru
:me:niil11ggaJka,r:Il Korea U!ta.~a :sete!'llah lm.ena;ndatangan'i: per].ai!nJjl~an.'e'l:'dang, t iL~, • L . '.~ 'UiI-; r peffhJ!~~)nan l!!.Jooru:am ~ Janom~. mll'~ .~ '~N ~O_ogl, d;a, n!3,gl!~ ~t\e=u ~~, J,lj. t~r:~~an. :a~.... F ~ :pa. ,~QrelJJ '~jus~'N-u~rijd" :hu~gall drup1.brruttikd€ti,g~ Ci~. Dgng~ demOO~. U :ma;kin, ,Iiraalkoo, ke~oo.tm kommis di Asia,.,
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~gang :mulaID'teras8. di. Sem,enanJung :KorE,- ~t~~ pi~, Ut:am· 'ml~llS~ memprovokam dengoo ber'bag:ai ~hn;gg~ran di ~,~Ir'b~tasan padla se(kUar '~' '1 n4, ~ [) -- ~nlr.. - , 'iluk k -- 'L_t~: K' -..a! ' 1 'fa,111,Hl .-':;,,_~I,.l~n-san~S'afllt.mfLL~.me~~~~n ~"em~, ~:,or'!?ap~u;~'tangg~_~, :2 5 S~aJ
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S~l~tan,.'Tenmra,J:(,orea 5effialt~ brefi~ ~p2~~jafaatlill.ya ·ti:~!k mem~~l([afu tidiJlk, be.rba;siru menghaau tell!ta:ra 'Korl2a, Ulara.

J:uilli, 19,50 ten~m -:K'fh'ea'Um:1'l) m~lln~~ ,~ds Idem~9.dM, men~rbu,KQrloo,

De~'an K,e'aima,f},an P-B'8 :mi3I1Q,elnMkafilJ 'rrasol1lJ5i, ang: :inffi:in.Val memerifiJit:ahkan pmhak, M;,o;rrea Ut:ara, :mienmk, y Jlaru_~ya hl~gg~ 'gmis lm~g' ,3S~~ S€lakr i,to., ,~~n ·K~ma.~, PBS ,~ug;a
:D'Bwan
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P.SB ~.g'be:r~~ efi~, be1las :f1~g~, anggDta. Am erika, Serikat me;ndapat mandid Deuran Ke~niln, PBB, un,tu]k,melllImpin pasubin PBS ke K,orea., Se'b~'Q!,d :komandan puukan, PBS, rd~phlih,J'emder.a[,
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hahkan meielP~-M8~ris linJltang,3;8'OJ~ ,P'ada finlggcal. 1,9 O.kmber li9~50' pa$Ubn 'PEU3,berh8;SJilI, m}~ndtldu~ PyQf;lg~,ng, '~bi!11 kota K,or.~~, ·Um'ta ... :Langkah: lw

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dtlakUbn pasulitan :PBD'kan~na,menmut Mac ARhuf' ~a~·d] ' Seroen'amijung ,K;OlofEC'I, akan 'm1jadi alpabiJa dua nagarra :i,tu, dJisamka__n,. aoo; 'yang: ·m~li8Jjtdin.~ub!JmlYialt1.djjplom~liik. d~. H~~OO~~ rd~l1gM .[K-o:rt~~ ·Utarn.lid~ menerlma "twncl~bnp~n 'PBS,htrsebut. ena, M~efid~pi}t bah~ Uti, han:ya m,aJtegi, ,AmerilYl 'Serikat saj)r.i, Wl_Wk, merfrJ!perl!~s pefi1g}l~filwa dl. K,~. (~Ieh. :karena IHdak, 'menenma, 'llndakalin pa;sukan PBSif, ,Cina :me~g'idm kan p~m~nn!J.~ d~n 'mernb~l1:tu. :p@r~~f,1, 'paru'kaJn .Komil 'Utam,. Pad~, ta~p4 ' J'~n~rl 19.5-1 :paS'IJir;~n :PBB t.ero.~k PllS~~1l. g~bunQ~[I Ci~~~~ U't~~. '&hkam1,~ :ibu ,k~ltl mea ..sel~larn,~eoUll jabJh Ike tang,alilJ ,,~uk.a~ K S :QabunglM"l. ,i!\tas
nj'!i-n'·IiY"~lii~,
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l

Dewan ,Kea[M[lM PBS me.ngamb~l!kepu~ ba.nwa 'tinda~ Cina. m~banw .Kor~ 'Um~, adalah sai~h O;l__[l s~ba~l kn"JHiku~nmya. : dija:~;r:lkan, '~~T"~rg'~
e'kono(lmi:'tef:h~d~:pueg~r;~ {eJOO'billf..

~

te1ah. :mtln9,ans€d~d_~Um:f:lJ in oo~hasil, melr,~b:Oit d :~m'bd .kern:Soo~, :Ko~ea

:Pada b~lfngga[:12 :M~'f;d:1951

~Sllkan, ·PBS

,C'-;~r-J"i-'" .;:U~.Ilc:IIIIQI;II..

,3. IIeVil lu si 1mb II
p111~u'~g: tgr[emk di 'Teluk M~I'I l~lJlt· .Kanhia_. ,Kuba :merup,abn :negilra 'yang '~Br:ke.nail dang;an Ice;ruilUllyzll" Kuba mbe:lumny;a
:El.am,

RUM ,a~

:ide6[oW :ne'S~, ,adirlny,a. KUib~ m.eropabJnl n~aTa. ~r~iPublik.·k:Qmumspetta:m:~ : ~1lQ oo.ra_da. dllbelaihiUl 'bumi, :Baf;1l~'", utak, 'Kub~ '~rng, dle:bt ld'ens,'(;In, neg.ar,~ A'meri~ Smli:<alt 'meDja:e:H ancaman 5eJiU5 bagl A'mel1ka Serlkat

juga, &una ,memdacU jajaban Spallijhtil :~ada. :1n;2ISa Peran'Q ,D'ingin~, ,Ki;tiba ymlg le~Y'a1 .san.g~~~t~~ juga, Id~k ID~put ~~~i: d ~n~ p.~ri~n :~garuih, d~.n
i

a,~, :K-uba ,seooIUmi, ,P~j'fiUlll' D_la, 'U: :
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h

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~rika.tt membarn.lu Ku'b~,:me;n.!ii~kirbn. SparnYD1. 'WlIa_Yaih ,Kub~ sam;pw ti1Jh!!Jfl 1'9 02, :mei:1da(p~i~ pedtndll.tng~". dati ,Am€rik~
'UU~, Amerffie,
1

~mg diikilrim, urdu~, meUndLEIlgi WI~Tg~'negaPlnya di ,KuDa 'meleda]~. m.i~enu~L A'merika, Serikat R'DJ(!~ml99~,P itu. :me..rupakan aa'bolase, 'yang; mlak~ ,s,:pan;ydJ.

~e~~k. ~a~ itu ,K'ub~,'me'n~acU,I;mtonil S-~Y'''~' :P:oo~HkUar ~taihrttn, :m,B;6~ 1l8~1,8d[ 'KuOa,"llmbUl, 'Qelfalimn m,'3111U111tut k-emema~n~ !I?erang ~merdeg_ml 'tallap kmua IDUf[octIDl pada t~U!nr 896 dr!'QgaflJJ,dip[mp~,~ J~: ,Marti., Amerlka Seri~t m~ndukur,g:g~~bn ~1lijJ ~telith :kaP~i"~raHgn:yra, ,M.tpjne, ~
i

nJl •

Ser]~t. Pi,}d~ 't~hwii.],9!33 :kelgmpok revQ]usio~at' '~,g dipiimpUl ,o~h,ful~eQc[Q :8a:ti~, be rha.Sll, 'mellg;an1!bU alih '~lC!fID~~.Ujn. -d~ Kuoo,~ 'B~ti~, rnmnerin:lah 'K'III ~IL.,.-- !!,~~-'il"~ ,.~I::i~_-:it-""ii" ,r·~ D_.,!I',_ 'f"I;SIm' :q:-i.:'+ I-~""rnlne; ,_'Il.'~~'W!I'~fil"'!iJ.'".!'.'I-~,-_ ~ I~~ CltUIi
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C~~I jE:Ja, da:]am 'memJJerjuii~gka['1j, :kBi~gjnaiM,ya. Se~e:lahl :ke:iu,a/r' dar~ tPe.njarFa, Castro It\2;m,\RJU :meng'him,:p~fI1l :kekuida:n,; Gullo :me]afih :pen~ludnyaJ di ,deJo;a!~:.kom. :MBkslko~Pad~, I,ahm, 'ltSl56,,~, ,C'acS!TQ b~mml; :par.~, ~~~iW: setiau~ :kero'b~lru,bem5ah~, :1'neJn,gg,wngkan :k.Lla~ :Preside[l :Batist~~ Sl~darnl:ahami"~r'tig:a 'bhun, C~rnQ be~~ :m~bur~ k.Uli&'lftH dj, Ruoo,. Pada 't:m,UI1 1'95,9' ,BalMtit, m~ll1iinggalikan ,Kul:ra dan digantibn, C'astro~ ~',..!II III C'-" -Ib 'b .'I~ ~~ ~ H]" ti r,!Uj!!~ ".''ilStf10 SB EHlil'rrn!J\2I, usan :s-eo:r~g iI'!;"omu.nJSm , a ~tu :S0IPBIr 1 ·~etnlyaltaJ.~nwwya, ~ang :meng;at~b]1-, '~R(fJ~'5j' kltlJ' buk;;m oorwfjm~1,m:e~ralr ,mi~ktm:' l1ijau ~ltvn, ... K~i~,=:ka~ElI!~O itu :men.un]Uik 'p'Dda wam~ :~~mg;~~m ~,ngii'JJ p~'kal_ beJmm~. p,~nsntuw~ .. :Bm1n~1 C~~ ,1UQ;il m~rtgu~; :komW1liis den.gillfrl kOnSeP:['Ify,a ya;n!g, 1o,'taU~e;r~Castro juga: berU!Rilha me,mbe;l'siihkall...ill 'I~,.J!:_ d' -·...iI1 ;.JI 'Yn~2tMunya, yang, ~ --il--g;ga;p LSPOnso,n, . ~,mu..m'[_LS " we:ngm 'IIU-Brpl'uia t :0 i!Ul IU '" ",m,veml~ 'Prin_cel!;U~,~ A- -- n~ --'IP ldJa~_lO"~~fH,U~jI'~~')O ,m~n.~,ar_a._I:\i!;U,~, 1,., - ',' t" ~. . bu r r'~,_~ - - t 1'..~ ...., 'L_ ,_ '_,~.. ~;'~'mmIflL::___~m!'l~.;. __::___WII, II!,;,P-,Ia.!f.fw·a,-,
,~njiar:,a ,tida;k :membuat
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:B,~tlstta, :m,enggu.g,ah, s:ema:ngal' ,si;1;llaih ,S-eiO'fan,g, anak 'b~;figS~ unruk memperbaikin:~..Flde:l Ca_o i2Cfml:1Q 'p~n 'WM 'lawah kay.a 'raiya 'tl1d_a~, 'mhan melmat :p!:u1delita~n,~t Ku'b:a~ Padla. 'mhUIli 1953 IC}!Im,o meneeba :melakuimn kudeta:~ 'teta:pi 19i1~~~ Aki,ba,tnYai, castro dJj~tuhl huhurnan lima.bems 'mhw, penjDlm. 'N'amun,! barn :Men] raIaifUii: Ihuklif'fiBn sel-a:ma du.a. ,tahtwf.l ~ Caiib'o, 'tel~1 diOO'basbn.

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N'amuflJ." pemed~ta.h ,Arnmi~ Serlkat mtlip mam~ndlang' bah~, T'llW~usi Y~!1g: ilkoo~ d C.OI di~~n-~:.pih~k. komlulis,. :Hw: 'in] ~ba!t tim.&~ Ca.Q' yatfig bmy~. mengubah, ,ke;:hidupan, :KJub~,:yaf;~g' meradeb'ii, sibg." :k(Jmooiis! ~l:l' jf~ Mfn8 ,mfa. CamD bBlf;'a,yalk:msmban.gun sekOl\aJl dan rumah bagi, Clang, 'ya;ng:

Ke:in,gin~nU'n.i ~.el.entu, :~j~, 'me['!]d~l:)~lt: & t ~nj~gan
'~...:~...:Inm; .r.-·il~JU~Ji·lJl ,n,~_~IIl.J;'I~:S1
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d~rikmerlib, Seriut:. ...:1... i···l'.i 'K-I" '[UU_m '1 U'-ru~ ,"' I: , 8<'·'0.. ii..... ,,~-"YY11~lt u.: , i··_Y.U·~~
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antamarnl Ilang15ull1g 'terhadap ,Ameriika, Sethkialt. IDleh kamna. ~bJ :pemoe.rintah ,Am_,eribJ Senkait ~!'l, :m:~nQ~rnbim ~aila Ita;ra dan ~md.~~ Ullltuk, m~g9~g~l]wnriVY~. saJah. ~,tu, '~ndJ~~~ A.merika, Sert~t dallam, 'm~nH~ag~ 'p~ml)~nQilW'~ P~[]Qb!~ will1iriw !dWl,'fi;ldJa] Uni Sovi'et .a(latah, men-ghadiUlQ, ~U~'Il-i'
:rne~pabl1

hamp[r membawa dtm1B dalam, perang :Il~ir:.

l -. ,..I=.~l 'menuljU, !.~ .rtuua..~.,tHlru saJ~,nll~il. ... tiiie ifiJI:., ,!Il...= '"ifi'\ -

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F~ HoblL !gad P'erang Vie'tDlm -engan Perkemb ",g,an P1DLilik,-i Asia Tengg.II
'!II "'ir-lm'!;!j;'m. ,!SIi;.Jl!!llil":"·~. ~·I!!1I.·h~ ,e~b '•.niF-Jg'$'ilIfl"!i!i;.~lru'il:::Ii9'FiFliJan'!;lll'A;/i1 !f~,g ·1'i'"'"ffI~ilA'::'!Ii. ~ ~;g;~i"I' n"f~"",:,·.:Ia: .~:~'. 'v' _;_.~~w-~~ !!i.!cQ\~_-~·,1 ~~-~ _ !iilIIi:I.J~Y ~ ~~ ~-!!!-~ YL ~~!-!!!l ~-~ ~-~~jJ~'~!!! _ g N~~,~-~ 3'~"!!!~J ~~ QU Y2!
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'Unj Sowet:., ,,-\kihat 'p(!,mbU1ttm".i '[pengamJi dan pe_~]uasan ideo'fogi daid dUa, neg,ara~
ad:ida!Ja ~NmeD.~babkan,
SIIn-!b.-.I~
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~I_a,~!h. ,Asia Te]1g~:r.i!l~ Viemam. nle;m'p~ s~j~r.~h.dm: ~tan: de:ng~ ·pe!rkembangmJ. :PE!~ :Di~n. '~ng' 'b~il~la~ ,i'E'i:ma .Amenb

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dian 'tleZlim :Rep.1!J!hl:l:k, Dem,o'!ltf"aJj] 'V&emaml (Vietn~m U'fara) yang: bergaJ'bufitg denl.~, Pemerin,tah, Rm1ril~Dnerr: Vietnam, Se1lalan" '~amk ~JJ1ra~1 [h,et'Lhng
Ya'IlQ
1

didl1kunQ, 'U'ni ,So~t dan 'Ra\C disebut: Peran,'g 'Viemam,. Peran,g' :sa,w:I~r,a :i:tubeda!'i~slmg Q,li'kup lama, yaitu, sejlik. tah,1W], 1'9.50 sampai: den~, 'zhun 197',$,.

'1 Item m sab el _ Peranl- ,0uBi- II
,I

'pertama mJ2f:1d,iEiJlr~t- t 'V:iieJtna;m ad Blilillh PIi,atlmcis. d ~d~!danlfan 'Pmnc],s,di. 'Vj~m:am ~edadi :padla. HWtar akhii:l".a,lbaa. k0"lS,., S@p€rti -!' m.... -rID- . '_:___~f:I._,;, ~ d· .n~~~ &0 -.'[mn. p'~-lI,etP;:l$~!!i!!, ,~lt::._f~ ,~_:-_:p~. _ _:____f_._n:!iI~ 'P:n - _~- '~' - -~",..a'.;an me._:__~.~_ <_:____~_ _' :_"~.ru:.~~! _·L_.e:muu;L_-_. -- -'btkulum. .kolomii~s1 '00:V]em~Iln,., "~li~,yah, Vie;M~m :~. luas dJbagi: :me-nj'adi ,ttg~.da~
N',eg;a:ra E:r'D'pa, '~ang
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:Kam1puthea; 'yaW! dib~ntut. ~da: t~hu!l '1.817.5,. :K~ru~n :protekm.rat 'iN d~wbut
i •

n . 'Bul!Ull. ,ob: '"~ -,. ..:1 6;07 F'"'aiUCIi 'I.. Kelig:a,

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,iNIa skm_aJ, V:i.emam. Pemoom\n1tabn, petbimi/l, 'pa.dil m~sa, l,doniim :I?ranc.is dj Vb!mam 'mljadi pada 'b1huf'l.19'5IO~:P~ra.p€m'beron~, ,m€lafu:a~n ,Wmini~ ~n Tankiln. N'amun.upa~ 'pem,oool1~~1 :[n]. num.galaDll. ,keg~\~n. Piememmhkrilordlal, :PranciSi :rn:rua$~h ~r~alu 'lang,guh uD,tu'k, dtk!lIJah:kaln. A:klba.t 'pembero.ra:bttkan!c b~!la'k
ib~m
,da]am, Parlal

P:arl'ilaj, N'Mb,'ln~ll I'emaml ~g ,dllillawarn dWJ,dibukum m~fl Semenb.ra: V tly,. ansi,ota, ~g tidak.'te.~ka,p 'me:rrye'bm- tmwk. 'menY'l'(~m.aJtkan diw.i:., AKibfllt :k!,:w!akwnm il_ldiwl~LS.Pa_naru NM'iorna1 Viema!m~ di kaillmgm11 m~akatt Vi\a;lnam ._- _., -lUiI 'W'CUJ~_'_ 'L . - ~JJ, . ,_·,m,WI,~ _,~am!JI1.1S '[ ..;I ..... -. - .",,J h U~~ "Jt Pb ........}{'- - • .J1uycm~'i' 'IJ~;~C
:1)Bntimpm,

1'940 J~rpM,gLmenjad~:~ng:ua~ 'bam dill V1:emiYD~ ,~ds tid~k, mampllJJ mtmpe~hanbin, ~hty,ah, Vll!blam kaimna 'r:U1Q~~ iefi.dld rd~Er-opa,
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:ma;moooo~ :negeri_n~~ 'Partaill ,K(Dmuni~, Vhtm~ '~Q! 'b~f,keff:ib~n!1pada, .h'l~! Ikc)lbniaJ ~ncis, h~m,ya;bJ ,SGllgat m.em'bend, Jre:~,g. 'Ol~h br:-ena, ltu :p~ '~O;m,1).mf:1IDS; Vlli.etm:ro,
~":=,~ ,iI:!rr.i;"',t. JftnR ,..l;;iI2'a'I\i9J."'nif'll""",,~:i il"_"I"'_ !r·1.,~'-I[lrl,}~'tfj!.·' m--1am' - ......:.[L.' ....,.,;" 'i,,'!!;!I;clIl ~ J~I~~_, 'ki()mmiis :pada,' mngga!i 1'9 'Mel 1,94,ll. di Cn'iian,gs]" 'ProWlJsi :Kwan;gsm~Pad a, awa] :~.em!OOfl1!~nya Vie~ Mllnh be Ram a 'V:ie~:NarD Doc I..ap :Don,g :M~ilh.Tuj~llya, ad'alah :mel,e;I'l,~pka!1il dom1:nasi P'rands da.n kekuasaan Jepang,. :P'em1,m:(lin 'OTglinJisas 'Viet :Minh ,adlaillah ,FIb Cili ,Minn,; 'Ra~t 'Vj!!ma1mfeb~h :m~ng;~nai[1.ya, -bag;ai ,~pak NaslOna/;.srn'e' tema1:n dsri:padai '~-(D~'oh, :komllniis:., V

bemLSilha :mem:bemttuk :suatu, 'wadab. p~~jua,ngi2tn'Dergma dengan 'kle~lompok, :na~onalis dl, ViemliMJ Iden~ natma [;fet' Min!) ah~lu 4ga! l&qe,mmn Merdelia.,
iO')V.!I'5II/FI;iiI~SIi'e; _ .~ ;~~'~~!iiII~ '_
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Po~b;~Jepan,g: da1'am :~iemng ~i~ P,a.$j:RikH~g~i,bagiarn dan :I~:m1lJila;i, 'b3mesak.. Pada bulan ,AgUBlus 1945 ,J'epcmg:ml!~~ah - ..ll iL•• U _,..l.' ;...:1 - "'11.,::_, • h, b" b-k t"-d' ,..:M. ,.~~,pa~a, ~l~)L.u~I" n.'!JiIJ£U~S:iluemlWldif.1i. JLU :mt'e!n.~e '. ','2Iln ~.' :UiuW"iidW1 ,a
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J~p;ang :~n~bn ,ke~~mn!ila ~da.:Ho 'en] ,~~M 'pad~,'~ngg~1 5 ,A~ 2 11945,.:M~tih~1 siJ~i. Jiang sanYa'Jt·~~9Uf1itung'k,an, 'bagi 'V~etM!rih :maka,'pad~ 'tan gga/I, 25 September '1945 Ho Chi, Ml~h 'memp~astikan :~emameika.a:n Vietnam deng;an nama R~pu'bLik,,DmMo(kJ"Mi, 'Vietnam,. PUsat :pemerin:mhanh,ya d1~Ha1l1~t :NI.~mun~ :M]rib, '6dak.oor'hasU di, ~~,]atoo,~ 'Viel:
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.Prallcis untluk 'be~ku~ke.m'baU d~i, V§etnmn 'tem.u sa~'a me.ruiapam: tperolaw,ana:n, dari Viet Mm:h. Akib~m!yal Vietnam, mlda~ 'mhun 1~J'46 'belP'Qlejol.ak, lag~idEnQa'fU 'be~gaii p!?ril!mp~rl ,anm~ 'Vj~t :r,,;Unh, dja;n. Prancis 'ya'lkg dliba_nru :i:nggtislr ,ltg,ar
-I

~~.l .~f

'rn;]"I[!'g;i;;Z~,

b iI!..._~~1 me~g~. ,~ l vl~i!,n:am·t.r,~'I;:'liInC!S' . .' ~~n '~~.I!:JA :me.m,eC8n b n _to .A~ _. ..iP.: h.. 'I"K. __ . • 11__ - - 'i:!:~11_ ib. ..~r~:~ll!I menja ...~~~ wl,l ,~~·dOff"~. EBJO, :D~ m~M:n b[)fiei~, J'epan,g: diilmtl1k, .~cis mefijad~ ~R!,ua;~ VI em am padla'mhu[i, 194.9. ,&0 :Da!i:m~W1iIJ~i '~n,gu~ ammaSi, V],tmam, ,Sel~ta1;1,
yal]Ql otonom. ,Pana'ta:hun 19:50 ,Amerik,a, S'eriMt. 5Gbapii ptmPinan Sek'um dan n~9~a adJid~~, baru dllWlh~):mmffim. t:edi~l~' d'a'I~m m~IWl V~~m~ Oleh, :~OO~ tiftU3;r~1 ,1?t~rn1ci:s~cla~h oo'kJ1Urtun:~." Am~"i~~ &:rii~t: metID1UbJ,skaT:i: wkJk

:we'r~ loon: banihmn,., &fiJtuan Amlflka ~rlbt
dan ~,=il:t~·~.~~li"in' d~iI!..""'''';'I~~,i''II 1::;iIiMi"ii~i'ii'!in:nl~;I!'.Of'iGli',;l,~ G_.;'I 1:;[OJ1 I~.I; ~:'~I~ll-=i' ~ IL~Jl: 1_t.\d_.;Lll _~ ~~-\;.l~; ~,~ !rii~I~U~

b~~but 'be~,

~et

ekonomi.

'n.t:iiiii'T"iiil!5i..l!iil'li, ..... ,h 'L''!:5IMiI'I' V' "·'·I~;i."."al"i"!l;'L_~I ... ·!I~·-,i'!i' , ~:~~_I;[I~~;-Jjll ~l_D_ J 1f"~li ul '..... J ;f~)ilJ; 1!C3_tllJ.~ ~~'lIlt-Urhdll~IIJ'

:~rifk. Tujtlmln~ a.g;aIf bm"lrunfi ~1tJu.DJ da'~~ dit~kai' mmk 'ffuamemngli 'Viliet hUnn yi'll1g ipom}W1l5., Densafli demooOO1~ a'pabi[a komuilljs tli 'V]eb1aim da:pat dl1abis~,~ ~mwatmr:ru ~ib~rarnkapimitislah, ya;n,g: ~kan ber~_5a,. ,~Wl'ber-arli pen;gan:ih ,Amerikct S~ri~t 't~:ha.(t!Jp:kitw~n Asia 'r~ng~ta m~~ :mBlua~~

:DukiijIf;1gaJ1, .Ju~la djda,p~&all d!a;n. negarfa, ILInl ,SoY.iet .bag~j, $8S2tma, n~Qajf,a. 1'.\A'I'¥l'il.'I'1II;;~. ,tl'!!!,I., M' iI"!i'M... ~1~--I'\Dn'~'m- - ~~;;e~' ;1:-"I~,Ii: 'il•• ,.~,t-ir~~~ _,I: 'm- ~kU"I~w~-~,_. e:I":""'-;i"!;!!liIll.,'u~'-·n e';B.'II"::lII1'lI:'n~i" .Ii\~~,~ ~IJ ,~~~-bl-I.-,I, ~~ li~ -~ :pe~~~rru Pmntil5. 'W;iI~va.b;llww.·hom ~m~ dJiku~~i, '~~j~m 'Yi~t ~t:inh,. Seme:fi~-a '~ID~ P:r:~ds hBfi~, :war;npu,~an. -dl~:ko(ta-kaw,. :K~adtmn,~~ tw. 'h~Jrllm,:.Ja ~t m,en:lbehia.~n P:r;anc:is 'pad~, :khususnya dan :kepe.1fl~mg~,
~~J!~!r.

'p.
".:' l-U~J

Se~e;nt~I]:~, :i~, Viet MLrnh p~d~ '~un, 1.949' :r.nruil~i: ~,g~t :kek-~.mrrm~a. Hal ~md~;gebabkan. VI,e;t M~nh :me_nd~pa,t' b.anwan p~3@n]a'ta~n. d.~ri l:'irna".
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:O]oik B~r:~t, 'm~!;lootut~e:r~, dill~dl~ : ee:r.tC~Jmn. SeJ'IlBla,bt dJOOJ, 'p€;tiiFDdin,g~tl~ vru€:t MiInh ~eB~m~ :mello~k penill"tah '~ut:'~m,,~~Imih. ~i mnare_ka,~n. nrleJl,Y~ Vietn~,. Namoo,~,,ak[bd',t
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M'erlisa, lu~pen.tilng~n:tl,~ '~~M~m~

Q U<;ill"ili"ll ml.iirun-,~l~-,i'II ,t"I<S!~dUII~ ·'"II~fll"'ltl~ '!II~tl"li.jl., 11,¥lIG~!i;'-h 1;,iII;;Iii' dl'.J _,_._~I~ " ,;w d~1i"'i 'U' 'ii"Ioil .. ~!~~J\C;!h;ll 'V~V$;i~ 'm!3m~nuhi, '~llntutan nu,. P,ad\a bu!a_n Febrwri ][9,54"1' ,A:r.nerika Serika~" lng_grisl~
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dan lU.pi Sovid nn~~!twlabnpertemuarl i ]kdin .. d J~~fll" ,P0ttemW1!'U :i,tu, 'meut~5'I,el1tang pen~~ m~:1lah .Pe:f.~fig;,Kor~ .n,Pe~g V]~mam. Seba~i: ~eaJ~s1nYii ' ,~n d_iS4!~ngiPir~'kan ,KQnf"ewe~s~,J~n~a;.
:~~i
j

'I:· ._alln:

Pad a, ta~al

2-() J'ub, 19S4 Kon:femMil J'en~a me!Jii'buaitl(~pu.t.usan,~anta~

a.. ,me:r:t~m ke:merdelmm ne.g.lEna,· :Kam,p1lJehel~t~, :laas~ dan 'Viemam,; b, wmm,yetuaw, b,ah1.W. 'wih~h Vietnam, tenmgl,~tas '~elnam: U~~l dM Vielnam.
selaJtan~

e. akan

se,~era, dladJ~kan 'pemw pada bdlan Julli, 1l'956 UIl,M ,mIlen,),a!tldm.n 'Vfelnawtj dffi 'bawdth :peng.aw,B$an Ko:misi :P;engt~l,was 1'memasllanaL

P~lj~lJji;an ,J1enewa temya,t~t tid~~, am.~.u mefi~i3i~j~ m 'm~h V:iemam .. 'PernjanWi,aill J'@f:1~a jushu 'mensesahkan V!;eimam, 'oo,rbagj atM, 'Vietnam, U;tara den yje~, -Sah:~~ W'!!]a~'h_Viemam Ulara, be:ma:m"~ 'RelPu'bUk,DI~m6krasi 'Viemarn d!~f1 'WilIa~h Viemam Sda!bIin, bemama ,Republlk Vi:e;mam .., .~dua ,n~arr~ '~m, :m:am,p'W1,yai. :icl;oologjj dan. perilaltIu, ~g be:rbeda" Vietnam U~~" betide61Qgibn :5G,sia'~sko.mLU1111s, ~S!edangk'a11.vru~m_~ Selat_mn belidoolcg;1lkan. libe~ k~Pt~~~L 8ekaU, ~g~'~ k~mcm!llsiiaan dan 'p!I.an.g~ran h8~.asa:J: :mimiuSia, tee1jacH akibat :pe:moogia;n '..wI3¥~~ ,Sanak sauda-r,a ,menjmi ,~i~, dan 'mJiOemi berm :Ymna 'pe:Il1MQ~n n~g~fa, 'iilu" K.~tan du~ :ru~~g~-a, ,adlid~yaberperan besar d~liliro

memeeah 'betah, 'Vl~~~,m, •.
Kep~
~l~-~·~~'" I

'Pm1~lian Jeneula
"A

Irnro'tak mmtib.--I,mjenbah, ~h He Chi :Mir1h'~
ii"J\':!i_..JI_,...:_ .. !t\~~"l

'inmn m··... . !'Il=~,_~. 'tf~ ••• 'h"~m··,,'i ~I;~!~!u., ,~ ~Jt~,~, V'~~u,\~g .,

,~~mu,.~!'mtargoo ,

dll, Vie1:nruD di1lil1 dam~,va

:id~:~

d'OO1, ,c:ar:npur' '~m1, ,asllns ~ t~bmdUf-lg' kembali d~, dl~h.;n~~~m~g~m '~~~!A\
~~.!

~1L1dK~~~1

~1~~~'hrMi,1I:IIi

d:;'~:l:I'o'9i*'l-t"'m' - '.. 1I'II"Iia-"~:-A;jm', 'V,I~!U;£tI_ ~~'~I,a~~
J!

,:'~~~1ii"!ii5i1!!'
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'~

w

,3:., Paraog litrlD II

-

P~mbag,i~n, V"iid nam menjad'i VwetniJm 'U't~'r:a dan V'ietnam: Se.;latarn 'be~damr.bn, ,keputusan, ,Pmja1f'ljis_1'\ J'en~a, :m~l1~tadika!I'l. ,illiayahtersebut: menjadj w
!g; ~,

~)"~'I1-,Cni~rnrn~~*-:::Ii{II'iI, ~ ;~~ ,L'~.~,._~~~I.'gJoil

...ml-T'i ;1_'ll.,~-L,t,i'aT'ii-' uiilill;. L.u~tlIl~ ;)' ........

,g,

ii..-"''''k---lin~--T'ii !e'Ii~-,-'I:1;i;~':Ii_ 'L_~~!I!..., ,I$~~t., 'i'"i"iI-iiU, 'm;O!il-~-,l~iIi, ,ew'I~~riIliI~ il .,.....Il"'~,!iIG', V :Ji~llII hll!l,l~ ~I ~11,~_IIiiUl,L'.L-U~ , ,1,;1 ~.a,!I.III.; J!!l>n~I' il:u:a n

~

hn't..,~,t 'H'o~'-y-~
,[
!! "

.

[r-n...:]' J;,JII~rrnii;.. ;l!.n~-,-''''' T:'l~ntf~~:~-'n N- '-g;f!;:} ...... ,... ,1 ,:~~....";t..,.,,.""_ n~I; l. 1,"1111~ l.JI~,~_~, 11L'~~~d'\!JJ(I;;I, __,. '~Wjl~·~~.1r~~11,.Il_.,\ ~~~, rl " ,,-w ·V u;~;u; ~I,
~! ••

:kOO!~T"bd~ ,kQmUAi~YIi,ke"Vi~~m"~I~tu'I,, ~in berh~l[ m~me~b.i.,~t Vi.etnam, Selm'mn 'unl1.1k menenimnQ: p-em:erii'w~aba.nnya, rsell1d!bi mer,aka jUg,a, 'berhasll 'm~m,oowi:uk, 'da:n 'm'em'bantu ,gl~rilya~n komw~ dii V~~fii1, 'G!n~ya,w~,
I'

:had P'Bijanj~lin J'en,ew2i, P,embMmkml Viie1maiM Selatiin dianggap~ya .'ba,P[, 'pe (jJjQ;halang 'ten;'\ca,paillljJiI persa'hlJan se~ur:uh 'V:i;etn,am, Ufl'ftu k ke:p,er'luan m~ghatncmla1fl, 'V:iemlll'1ll S€~amnl~,:' '0 Cn~ Minh, 'm~t'lgjrimbn, 'p~n : Vimt' :MliM;,men~p ke' ~I~'mn~ U;sah~, ~_g~~cW':~ m VI~atml Se~t~, we-rui&pat 'b~n!tmtn,dan fiesm~ kamLifiJs~'Uld oo-w'et'dan Cma, :Bt\o~ Safili :~g 'me_rag,etahu[ 'lindakm :ked_lJa, negara komLn'lls'mrmdap 'Vlm:tramn,'Utam dan, 'm~"me;mpWl{yai ,kepell1lj:!1,g~n,di V,h!;mam, S~Jabtn. juga, ber~saha mirll'l!pgrtahanun. wrul.~,y,ah. kneb1!lJt, A'p1~ti,~, Se:rikat m~m€riil1ilabkan 'p~~~bnny:a migm'b~ntu [Vm~:r:n .se;l~tQn :DieTlg,ilIn demikli!1T11", Pe~~II1JQ: iem~m :merU]:J~~~n co~oh k..@!n;kr[~t ~ V 'perrehu_tan P6'r.ig~ruih doo,. negam, adfdaya" Paner.intM Vi~tnam, U~ara sel:afin :mensffilill1 :~, ,j~:a :men~1JJ(p,ka.n

V:"';i9I1o-~'i"ii'iIl'~:••;III~;b,;;·n £....m,'Ji__~gt~; ' 'lj:'..iIl!!lll:k lIfm!!llim- , m !r'!RiF.Iilll'ili]' ... -'I'~!_il~,,,:,'''' S ~ul~;"~ 'w.gasnsm, deng;an 'balk~ ,Ban!J.aJ~['lll8'tenlara V.iefkofl:g yang; me~r menjoo\i
I.... .; lUil, '. l~~!IJI!II-~~"JM~ ~~~,,:~,

.I:'1iiOm'lWnlS'. an/~e~nam .;9l1:'iiin!~~" lIJI\::Ii:nn ,~j~,; n-,~1~'~'n, ._'~!!i.~~L,~:~~,~ u__ ~-~~~~
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,;~: .. ~ii~".')lf , ,.lit'i; m---ji:lim--;-~-A:;:Ii'~"''''_'''-niii~,~:~i .... '1~~ii!1i\lf'ii.;i;fi'j; ~jlnL~lt ~UlWIIL ~_ 1. t~~a_~]I_ 1. ;Zl~ Uill J~~~" ..~ail,[ll.
1~~rry.~D
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t:.Ji~i;~',",'i""'i"ilii'1.eJ".liI!","h .. iL~~~hi."" ,iI'I"~;R'5 m~Ii"i"'i;L:u'~lt '~"""''''''''i__''n~ii:'i ~I~~I"iIJl nah P~~;,IJ ~f~D. [ U ..~~ ~ l_ml.l_o (jallur '6hus) d~taim m€lmatahbn, perialVOOan. ,Am.erika Senkat :R'anDa!U jeba:1mn dan, dati, bam,bu, runo~ng ju;ga dlip'8,ka.1. un~tlk. :rnenQa]~.hk~TI. ,A,ml2:rik~ ;S!~riik_a.'t &b.knya.! 'J.)Mukail, ,Al'l:ten:b, Senb:t. Q,e!ngllil, pefOO~ja~~ 'mooem m,emb~Jbi,
';'~I·J1i .. _ .... , '''''l~~~~~I;'llh:I!'
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'U~.I~~I;

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S-~n

'but:al'1i11U~f:l.y~~ng;'pemhainan
~"i~""" .·'~IIt"l;gJlli

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l~~~~

'p~rn_hal[1!EmJktlmums, de;npn 'Pemboman,. JaJur :Ho .c:hii Milnh, ,ooaJaih ~ji(1an
~ I

'b~ru~~.'I:..,~m-n:h-~fti","11 ·;aa__l;-IQ
I ~lllr:I

·\Me.~png:. :p~~

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den

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!~r"I~r-~~ ,~-~I-J£-'n.IU,~,"n ,d1·~f~II!!iIIb.I" .A·' 'i"r]Iill!l~'I,~,.. ~ __-=IJ.'"~,... '~~ii"i!"'~; w-, ~IU1!1~II'll ~[dllCl, ;;"~-~~~l' JtJ~!Il ~Wl ~L L~IlJAU!1 n~ a trne ~ t,'V.-j!~~~l' ~.I ,_.€~Y€!: IU~'a.n p~!J~.IiII,=~, .it\Om1JrU5; - rrt; 11 rl:i' 'I?J..IL ~I~ .~ 1 ~O; €I
_l!iI'~~11··I.~ ~~

.Kanl,p-uclt~,~s dimmakaD, '~~J vi'e-~-htiM~~~Pl ,ke Vie~~ Sel~lan,. Salah ~;tu pe:rRm,p~an hebm,t: 8;n:tara 'paWkaimJ Vimnam, 'Um.raJ dan 'pa~
p- -,
l=:

yang d~lj!Jat.en. ~um'f.I.~hu~n,:sep~llJa;ng:' ~erbDta~J1 'V:i,,~'m~m,Se~\atan-lao$-'

..
~_~

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~L~ ..!I k,hil~~ J!!!IU Qiiil!!par>Y.1p~l.a_ -_I_I:'Iici_fJi.~

t..l~

'i.....i..-.'nl" i
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b ~.[ 'hoii!!!'M'li;;I, -

'm· ii':iiIi'in;:o,~I~~,= .~,lfl!l)dllil Jl~ -- i~(Fin 1.,....~'Il.._=_=~,-~1_lIi ti;;l1~dU, z---,,~, ,tidak '~di'k'i~~ usaiha: 'mi3fiU:aJpaI,p!!Llmama~an :pW1 djs~&' padiJ seKimr: tahtMl, 1197[0. ,Pe:rneritntab 'V[emam 'U'araJ I' pa:mmi.rrutah Vietnam, Se!la'mn dan 'pemerima:h.
liJ'iC':iii

t.;_.J'~Iil'>l; iIl.._ .... 'I- _:1.. Tfi~!I,..,_'L - D~..;IDdb..~I'!"""in ~n m-,~~. I~ tnLI:~,.~Jl1Itu\. ) _!~~~IlJ~II:~UJJ
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M-· _,~w '"""'i'';'''''''..1,,,,,;~' _,!II~;,~

A --- "--':1~,~, ";;'''':Il~..... :me_~ _,_~~J, e :'m~~ ~-~,!M: t --- ~,~'Ir~

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A'mett~, .serib~ mengum.wmkan ba;'hw,~,'Indon esiia.) :KMad-~-, P,~:Im:l,dht1 :Hg~ati:a pada p'rln~,pnya, septa,ki.t unwk, menjadi ~n,g~w,as ~get1~atan, senjata
.•· Iii-. . d' ~ 'V'"l.SIl), ,I_allili,.

- ........... ..:iI:, -..;t):; '[p , iP-......J',~,;b,.'1i1' .:1l2:'_, - - - - ,- -" ","_.'1.. pe:~lY;!!~ung~[Th,"'U:IIans..,'_'~,'~_:,mn,- - ,l'1Do"':1'2' :p-~er:rO~n _c

j[

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:karen~, 'Minh den 'V]e:t:kong V['et: ~seciira,tiba-ftiba pada '~gpl, ,3A'J,Tdl, 191,2 n!n;~lak_Ubnmng~ ~~~an ~ dan ~am;p'l1r gJa, mei!ilg~: Sa;ig,an~[bu, ~ta iViemam, Sehtm. A:tas, 'Iind!a_kan
'Namun ~~tan,1tu, mefij~w, ber;a~
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rJ,~:S~U!€fI,

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I

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ILJ~,M

,-

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aan

:me;t'lgeL~rbn 'piTIn:ta;h"

!JI;l,timt~.

A.
'b"

nll!r:-anJau semua, 'l_a1ulintH~ 1_am ~g 111um~~'Vwetna:mlUblU; nlGlnghanoorlia:n, RmUi! Jii!lur ,immunikaii, dan 'uanspormsi, 'VlJemam, 'U'mm;,

:Latn:

'HooakBlJ_" pembers:rhan, j~rur :1~U't iemiJm, 'U't:!1~,~ V AmWiiM,S€nbt :mem'i1Dl~,!iemuta bpaJ.~slng UflJ~, :~l~:r d~, 1~I~Wl Vfte'mrun 'U~]',a". 'Tlndakan itu oabn ,tmus diililk&jiJJ~ ~pai V:i:em~m Utau:~,oo-ru]y 1:I1lielakuikan gellca:tan sen;jata dan rIl1embebasbn 'MWa;n;im 'perallg Am~rika

U,~wk ~l~b~.n~n

,M'ns~t: m011eFUlmn;gnya., ,Am,erika Sef:ilka:t ,membamlkan .,sec~a ,s:eplhatk, :niar[,melaiklikan :p@mboman, ke 'V:iemam, 'U''taira :karena ,adan~ kemiiNUlan d!alam, 'pe11:U11d:ing:aJ1il1 Pmundinpn gencaUin :~rljaIi!:a '~g' seharusn~ d~t~noot~ngani
S~ribt

Serikatt. Tirididran ,Amerika Serikait t:enm saJ~ men:im'bLdkan 'pro dan hontJa dlm~a. A'L~Sl~L~a ,Pd1piMa, yang :m",m.pab~ :s€kulu Am@im S~ri~~ ,]elas m~~dukW1g: d~n :r-etl\~aJ 'tetsebut. :Nmmun, 'Un] Scruie~ d!!U'i, 'C:in!J yang n~h~rup~bm. ]a.an, ,Ameriu,

:P~~I'

tak~-'i970 -awii~Ya -~;Ul.d~~nd~~~i
-''!!iold~~,"' IdS'I-"~m-' 'l'I~n~r" I
1Il..~;.~ . ~~ Il-~;~~~I,

p~1'S~~ualJ, diMiflliai:~~ '

'n-eillan~arnn,I~ Ir'" - '~" '
'-'~~

'Pad~~h~,1'913,:,MI~~Plttl d~1afida:tanSnni, pada 'p[idmrkn~, 'madl .OO,!l '~ad1i
'~.,r~a!j:,Il'i'r" .... ~ V'II!~~J,I~tll~
,iL' _:i'!lit-,_~1II'Iii e~:-'~:'..::

'~ u _,,_~~ew-.,a!-- k ,oJ!"' ..11 - - - "-]k 'W'~II~=:I D...~...::..iI '_ ,l1BSt'd' ~liIi N - _-su_ye;n.an Tfnr - :m,~glun~l!IrL~~n em I~Wli mmmJtL~:aN,,F!!l~U-m, Tr~n 'Van Huang sebngai peggan6nya". K~lik'H 'mel1gWldtrn~ d~ri" 'Ptes1ld!e:n :N'gu~~~~ 'Tt-lie;'-~~~g~ca,[flli'V~nP~e~idEm~A~erik~ ~Ser~~~~'~ -'N~,~n' 'k~r~~a, 'mendesailiqya menzmdla:talJg;ani IPerseWjua!l1, Paris" :Padaharu iIJU am'rt!)a '\n'smam 5e'la'tan :menyerah pacia, Vie~tDanl,Umm~ SelaiIn 'iru~ ~aberse.dlil :mmaoclda,tanganl
i

U

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il·\~¥I~,"_,I'~-'n 1t\L~1-~~! I

pe:rseluJju~n, itu

b~rjmrruJru,me:l'lgjr.,im, :r;l~~t: p~mbom, B~ 5:2, ~'bih te*dili '~bn,!Q0Lt-m111 eleh ViemiM'n U'tllif'a,. N~,UIl, ]j,y,atWl:Y8, ,AJil.u~rika: ~ Serlbt, :mangmglkarli 'hall~u~ Plelaqgg~, 'pe;~ujuan, dam~ m;aJkin sering 't~qaiU. K'om,unls: pun :makin :mmdekati k~meri~ngan."Pada 'ta~ggail, 1:8 A'pnl 1'975 'P~, peLapor :komums,d~.Bm ~im~~ mhM~ :mEOOI!'kaitll S~gon ~pai. j~ltakutN:'l9: 5 kmn,. P~qFiJ ,hamun~ t€if1JS, bgt.l9~ak 'm~ju. d~n mgnd(t~1Ii :~hu 'I,~,=,,-~, EJ",.)L •• it li;"'1I!;.-. ",--~nijJ'k d'-~ iIb-~~'L.,i ,.iI-, '"II/.:u;dl£U't 'm .... _ilL iCi' ..... 'l·i'i'bi 'in -. --,tIiLIU1. n~)!a&,y lL'Ii;;;iII!U~ ';:'~u;H,I, ,~;,u .. :au, l~iIi-'I!;:;V~Jb, ' " '~~:I.,gun,Qi;l'~I. ,~I; I_'I,JIU""",; 'B~
,,,_,;;Iio,

brn~ ,A'fnwu: ,Seribt

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,c.

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lima'buah,ka~J, mdU:k.dari"Amlad.~ 'VI ,tmrukmm,~g'ku~ PMa ~ 'temebllt. p~~, 'htnggw, SO A:pril, -975" fiesi~€n baru 'Vi€m~m,s€1i\\'tan!, DUOO!il: v~
l'

d~

keadaimJ UU, ~ak tangga[ 20! A:prill 1'975, Am~riU &ri~t 'menginmkan

:~Il[1h~ng: b~~in;J, daaln1iik milW~, 28, i,il, 1'915, m'enya:ielqn 'melru~~h 'tan,P~ ~it ke;~1 Vletkans., 'U:nUk'me~~, ke:me:nang:an iWjI 'Vil!tkCJfI1g me.--uOOh 'Il;amai,5a;Ig;01l1- 'iblll, kotl negara, Vlemam, Se'laturu 'm@njad~Flo Chi Mlnh.

,I., Dsmpa'k Keme

Vielk:ongl ~,Hnmll 'is 'Ilstn m S'eJata:n:) 'lem dap o erkl~m :_ g n Politi IIi lsi '11~n ftl[ gg
H'Dgln

~ .trt_g 'T-j,iiflll''''''''' -m-:' a -m- :: 'b..S,FII..illJU-"""nr 'n;ojl'Fi':~m-' '. ba A'':>'''''' ~1"""'FFiI'U' ,di~ A·'· 'Il!;':> Am-'- ;9"";"111-.,., e B~II," 1?!'1I!r'-~ ,K_~ K,y.~~ "tefiggratr,a 'mern]iadl l'ifu:~kin 'be:r~:~'. A,pa]~gw. m}~S'!I\a.ra,'k_at dw A'srua. 'l"re'n,gga.r,i/ ,k~~ka;1li nla~h ban,yak. yang be:radar dii baWM garis ~.m:n1skif:lan. 'Hal 'ftu
_ _, "~I~" Iy

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Sementar,al itu 'UftiW :So~~t jltg8, 'tido. meu ketimigga~an, d~n,9Jl1ri, .A:m~nbl Senkat. unruik 'mengej~Ir kemmngga1annya d~l AS"I' 'Rms'ia,'lema,tart juga se1l;~t :m!Elng~m'b~n~km:rupesawat ul~['l-S",aJ.ll!kn;ya, sendiri ~ng: I~U'beriinama .BURm'~,dan. b~ha~, :set@mpat~ang' bernm, :&dai SmJu., Taboo, l~BS\, :ll3m,MJ, ,oomil~t' ,d~UI],i,~
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d.a!lam, men~g~;p[b~ta,g 'mMoklgi, ksanmanksaanl .. &~l :pe,nQg)UInaan. ~5aiteU~ ba~ ~eoogia;n. besar nc~Q.ara,maiSih rsa:ng,a ~arang'~:1:ndofleSia .......~I~iIJ..·...... ,. ,'1_- 'Um -A - p.~~, ~:'U!l1 c__":;' ~",,-,. I _. "",~'~~,n~l!,tiliftCUT,lmn sa t8:_-, cV~, '~9 "-1..,.~I, wffl3 Pin' _~a:__:p3J,'-'': 1 - =..Jl n J" .JR" llfl""j5 .n~ :m:~l1ca'm~, ,mndonesi~, sebag~ fie,gari~ ke1Iig~,d;[ dun~: ,oo-~IM AS. d!an: C'a([lad~ ~g: m~nggun~ ,~telit lkomiiUn[~i: domestiiknya ,send~ri.,:rooon~a, J~~, ,~ah meman:Fa:attbn jasan~ untJ.lk 'm~W1cumn sateln :Pa!lapa g~m~a,sj ked!Lm,Pa~pa ,Bl,; pa,dill ':1 g, Junru ][.983. Ope:rnsi: :pe~yela(rmamn. Ri~i,t Pamp~ B)2; menyusu[, ,k~~g~'Win ~d~ p~lunc;ur~nrn!1a }1M;! jUWl dnai~l ~h :m'isi ulang-Wik, :m~'kal;,a'la. penQ,wmuimll{ya
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era 198'O-a'l1J, '~[}d:,o:ne-5j:a'bahkan :sem~pa!t. menyjia'p:kan: ,ilstrona.uEIl:va, untuk. mengil~lJ!!H ml~ uilmg-a]jik telap,j umn~ '~,errj~dibencana ICltalle$7;ge,r '-'--- "-"' di~~~'O --'-~' - '-,' --' - '-''- '. .." ....-. ". . '" . .. . "-" - m~sru'mi
tekrUllogi pero:~maml, lfidon~ia '~eTM.tatsebagai 1;1eg~. ,Kedua.d~i,Ars'~:a. . ~t:e~~h ,J8Jpang:, iyang be:rhasU meh:~ncurtaIn ro~.etn~a ~:ndiriJ .Pr,8's,tasi, :b,.i dihasmkan 'm~la1w k,aoorh~n. LA,PAN' :m,eID~noorkim roiket Kamila 1 pe,dJaJ .1,4, . ''II ,.;:...a' ~l . d'-' .. ~,J A~gu~l!.u~ nil!'!.... 'I'J!' 'L i. ,.~. ~.'.'. . 'iU~'~·k'I·· ,~a~s.·:an '~'-b . b '. '~~Fl!lS ..J. • 'D.,•. '. _, ,,lI,'SlU.!+., riJ€O€"II:~iSJ!!a::n, 1FU ,]ug~, ~~n,~YaIn. ... •.- .. nan nu'Sl~. A~, tetap~ mnd;Qn~a gag~mdakUkalll ,~li1,~,tekta.oi~~ ,Akioom,ya, 'Slilam~, le-bih dlad oop~mpa~: ~'~jid:~Jflk :mi2bJ[r:lcW~ 5al'e:Ut:P~If~~ival' ~radQnaia, h~ll.~ 'bisa,l:emndak :sebagw konmmGn. StBmentm:a '~tu, egm:il-'ll~m lam l-b"u mulai n m~TJ,yi.~pkan din u['[ituk ,mul~m, elaJ'a!li'.merug~mba'nSJmn 'Ua'b\~ogj :5a'-e[ilt: msla.l1ui b :pemhu~rta;f].OOj~Elit miru;o [mjb-o~:~".:M~d:a~~ miooln]i~ ~~ng ~~m~, t€rlMigg~ pul!uhM, tabun dao :nndio;n~a, d:affiarn p~]llmf~mn 'rekn.o'iW, ,~~e1it ~jaik, tahun 2000 'k~ be:rha,~~melitjfletlr.kanlt~Ut miikr,o:nya, :~g 'permma,. :n'fmgsM:'-l'rI ~ Ya'r1g,m'erupakan ha5i~,erja saima de~!pn 'U'nlwrdas SW1"e]I" Inggris., SernenJ_.r,l;, : •',J,)d' ;Or.ID§lal t...~.~(I) ~.".~, '" 'L.__ I' ,. ~ IL, Hi'"' ~;I .J, .. ~ lID" nIim~U ~nc-a~'''a!Il1cang: memeua t sai te-,-~mJ!t'Y:"c).n.ya paQj~
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demakm;t]~i i. :&opa nm~ d ~ ,'emrag Dunj~
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:Negara, anggatB ,ASEAN: berikut :ini, yang tidaik, 'bar-li,h,a.t dalaim SEATO adJalah .,..';'" '
D.,.
'IE" -U"" " r~.:p:l!n~.

d.. :ltndon~i~ "

b,
C'.
.41
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a,

'b,
e.

·Man.

,Dr~ Sun Vat Sell 'VUml Shffih :Kay'
Zed]OfiQ:

d,
ie,

Chmmflg Kai~shek,
,[)eng

Xla'9-,p']FlS

5"i TUijlJa;1l,'pemlmn1Wilmn Vi~t. ,Minh ada.lab i"i',. a, :mele~:pkcm ,clomm'asii. :Pr~c~s, dJj V.i~tn_.aDl b. 'm~m'bel:'litul{: 'pem!€Jl1nb:Jffi! 1fLI1 'Vlemam. ~'ng; ~i'ldirt:i. !dM, kwt C' 'm~I'~fllya:pkm11 dam[inaSi, PuUl$, dan Jepang dlli Vl~mrun d. 'me_nyjap~, !kedatatngan paiSukan ana, cU Vle1;na:m, e., 'menghmlcurikim. pa.subn Ame.nka &F.ib~,(Ii'Viema'm, Selcwtafml.
l 1

6-

b,

.MarJJallP/an' df~b~. ,;, " .... ~. .Aro:enb ,SedImJt.:~:~.d~ oo-lti~p 'sekutun~.
Pf:i~ c;
ehJnomi

!d, ~

una :kepadl~ 'Viem(.}m'l.

U,ni .samet ~~pada: ,seti,{iP ~;mU,mya PB·B,:kepada ·~egar,a.·n.rJTa sedang ber::k-em'bang
~~~m .Am€lrl~ Serikat

:q~~

nege111~~rrt~~ ..dru. 'Ell)Pa

&rat

1. 'Petidw,a
it,

z:-. ,.... J -.;~ d' LipB,-,Jf,;li'e/ CIi,

'yml,g dim_od, ae;ng;an Inski1en 'lleJIlik, Bilb.:i (The ,Bay Pig's

b,
e,

usa_~a pell1rian,
usaha

d.
_e-'J

:UlSiilha penQlgUnn,gan pemlerinta~bajr:1. 'Ku'ba, mGjla]ui. 100rang>-f)~nQ~ 'pe'litdan :1iWba ,Amedka Serlkattt usaha 'mane~r.npatka,n f:'udaJl nukIDir Un]1 So,vie;E di Kuba ,ang:

Ku'ba' km ,Aftlerika SerlJkat pe~gool.IWlllsarn,'negSltll :Ku;oo, oleh Un~ S~t,
Qf,arng"'Otmi'I,g

~,_IiI.., aki1~~"""m

oi

'menda,pa~ '~WmlM
""~iIf-'-pe"-::n~': - ;- ~!I..'O ,'. ;c:
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da:n. Ameriika S~$lml~
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,8\. ,Ame.rika, ~tb_t'dan
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'U'nm Scwe~mematf;l:f~,tbn 'ftlDng angj~I'sQl~gid aja:I1Q IUfl~Uk k,eiktlCltan se'la'ma Pera~g' Dingin, grerua, m.'"
_~ 'y,g

b,
e.

'I~.- - !'.,.:i~, d·' d ,. :m~I!l1r:anQ;'un~~. m!... '1,.,- - h,"", ,'" ,~;: IlIf:Ua_ ~~1i!,1lm!!l4J,1, ,dun~BJ. ,dtras~. :mnki]j, ~~r:n,pit untUk 6ru,f'~f~'bu~l<arn~~-d,UH. fJeg~rr~

,adid~~~; ~~
,~~

d. _sum :kese.tan :NAT'O' dan P:a!ktaW:amawa e; wUi~:nda;~!t.~m~n : n"tas~arn~t,dJooh
'~_. ':1 T ....J.-~~i,ill ....... ~:C3i, ''''IIiA'ro' ,..J~;=.,,;iIl..;~j;iI,..,~I""51i"ii -J1L ...~, w,~r~.l.lli'.bI_ftJ IJ~,~ J'~ll' .... .' I~U~Ul\_UlJ.lj " u\l-~ lil.
iii •••

untUk 'me:lilgh~l1dari,,kor1b~ :m.anusIDa

a,

b.

mel~'aSbn.p.!l1QI2iTuh giloba;Usasl 'ood~smba;~ya, ,~a1ringan, ~Jiom 1nlema.sfuooW,

d. ,D,e~ftI" :K~ammlall ,PBS,tidilk mmnpu im~~sa kdetlib~n du:ni~, e. ~eingman Ameirib Serikat: tmruk un]rum, 'ketuatan llO~ ,Asia TensgJ1m ssbagaj kawasan ~n6J be'bas d~ri. ~ oonWk ,campum'
'blng:an ']l~h :1~1f'~~U~ di!ken~ru •. , seb~~t Zap/1m' dlie:0M'~
,a"

',C:" 'm€mll~J]clUTIg:

mduasnya.

'~fJ,g~rtib,

soolwms:

komtmiS

'b.

d, 'DeJM~
. ~"

e,

KIT ,n .ASIEANd~ ,Denp~ ,~1',lj- :0',A;SfAN d1 ,Mmi~;

dlaiJmn ""',,

lKTT, ,U' ASUN d~ S&'npp,ura,

Bangkok, 967

,11]i;~,il~'II".,I'_ ~ ~

rO,

,Km.[~·~l":",l.-tm!1, p l(]i,?~ __ '~1i!:1I __ .. ~:ur '.'1 t

B[~ J 1mb pertanyilJ' berikut !5tlcara smgkat d : tepal.1 ]l,., J'eIlas.kan. lattM 'be:laka'~g'~ad~n,!1il :Pernng' Dmgm, rsl$but pw~ 'ben,tukIi...~..... ,h.~~D..r.~iin- 'nl ~~ w~y!K; ,F-~,~:~, ~'~I 'Di"'IF!I;t'iI'-" ..".'_!II ~~'lI!:J':l1

2,.,.

M'~~g~~,

AS:EJ\N' ,nten_I).~~ ,~OPAN?

3. M~a~pada:~,~DmgmmUMil,'01lI~,~,:NonBiOlk~[ 4,. M'enga:pa, n.ra:~f;1G,g~ra,'baru, ail ka.1WasaD Ais!ia, an, Afrika, ,man,yeL\e,~d

l){o~~'@rr!JrndM~, . ,A:Mb? 5~ Je&.s~n d!~ng~n. bjim!Jbny, ~m;d~rl'(3n~i,9(#a'~pe:[l~e1e~ilafl ~~l~h :
'g~~,

KampuchMJ

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