Está en la página 1de 145

POETIC DEVICES IN THE SONG LYRICS OF THE LAMB LIES DOWN ON BROADWAY ALBUM BY GENESIS: A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

A Paper

Submitted to the School of Foreign Languages Tourism Foundation of Indonesia ABA Bandung as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Taking the Sarjana Degree

by

BAYU JAKA MAGISTRA Registration Number : 2005.111.143 English Department

SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TOURISM FOUNDATION OF INDONESIA ABA BANDUNG 2011

POETIC DEVICES IN THE SONG LYRICS OF THE LAMB LIES DOWN ON BROADWAY ALBUM BY GENESIS: A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
by BAYU JAKA MAGISTRA Registration Number : 2005.111.143 English Department

Approved by:

Drs. H. Mundari Muhada, Dipl. TEFL. First Supervisor

Dra. Em. Endang Sri Sulastri, M. Hum. Second Supervisor

Drs. H. Mundari Muhada, Dipl. TEFL. Dean of STBA Yapari ABA Bandung

Dra. Hj. Iim Rogayah D., M. Hum. Chairperson of English Department

Say: He is Allah, the One and Only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begetteth not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him.
(Surah Al Ikhlas)

PERNYATAAN
Dengan ini saya menyatakan bahwa skripsi ini adalah benar-benar hasil karya tulis saya sendiri. Adapun semua referensi / kutipan (baik kutipan langsung maupun tidak langsung) dari hasil karya ilmiah orang lain tiap-tiap satunya telah saya sebutkan sumbernya sesuai etika ilmiah dalam penulisan.

Bandung, Desember 2011

Bayu Jaka Magistra

ABSTRACT

This research is a stylistic analysis analyzing song lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis which are considered to be poetic. The things that make the lyrics poetic are poetic devices which are tried to be discovered via this research. Furthermore, poetic device that is mostly used in this album is also tried to be found out through this research. The writer uses descriptive and quantitative methods in this research. While in data gathering process, the writer uses agih method with its basic technique named bagi unsur langsung (BUL).The result shows that there are thirty kinds of poetic devices which cover five hundred and thirty seven data, and the poetic device that is mostly used in this album is end rhyme.

PREFACE
Gratitude is solemnly pronounced to Allah SWT, for the writer can successfully accomplish the paper entitled POETIC DEVICES IN THE SONG LYRICS
OF THE LAMB LIES DOWN ON BROADWAY ALBUM BY GENESIS: A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

which is intended to fulfill one of the academic requirements for

taking Sarjana degree examination of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation-ABA Bandung. There are no words to say except millions of Hamdallah, Alhamdulillah. Obstacles and difficulties have been the writers closest enemies during writing his paper, but Allah always helped by delegating helpers lending their hands to finish it. Hence, in this great opportunity the writer would like to express his truthful and deep thankfulness to those who have been entrusted by Allah to assist and guide him. Firstly, this thankfulness is specially given to his first and second supervisors, Drs. H. Mundari Muhada, Dipl. TEFL. and Dra. Em. Endang Sri Sulastri, M. Hum. respectively, for their never-ending patience, supports and advices. Their suggestions and criticism will always serve the writer well. Next, the writer would also like to express his thankfulness to other individuals who are involved in the process of writing this paper from the beginning to end, and they are listed as follows.

1. Drs. H. Mundari Muhada, Dipl. TEFL, as the Dean of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation ABA Bandung and as the first supervisor.
ii

2. Dra. Hj. Iim Rogayah D., M. Hum, as the Chairperson of English Department of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation ABA Bandung. 3. All lecturers of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation ABA Bandung for illuminating the writers horizon and mindset about language and other lessons of life. 4. The writers mother, grandmother, father and brothers for having given all of their loves and affections until this time, and supported the writer through praying. 5. All staffs of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation ABA Bandung for helping the writer in all processes of administration. 6. Mister Jony Wee Persib for his willing to help the writer find information about his unfinished subject matters. 7. All members of Genesis especially the progressive rock era, Peter Gabriel, Mike Rutherford, Steve Hackett, Peter Banks and Pill Collins, for having composed great and artistic works which influence the writer particularly, and all hardcore progressive rock fans generally. 8. All comrades of the writers bands, Invithor and Emperor, for introducing him to the glorious music of hard rock and heavy metal. 9. All members of Proclaro Community for their spreading endless spirit of progressive and classic rock.

iii

10. The so-called Comedian Squad of English Department Class C of 2005 for their support and keeping the writer smile from ear to ear.

Finally, the writer hopes that this paper will be helpful and beneficial for the students of the School of Foreign Languages Indonesian Tourism Foundation ABA Bandung particularly or for those who read it generally.

Bandung, December 2011

The Writer

iv

Table of contents
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................ I PREFACE ............................................................................................................. II TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................V LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................... VII LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................... VIII CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 A. B. C. D. E. Background of the Research........................................................................ 1 Research Questions ..................................................................................... 3 Aims of the Research .................................................................................. 3 Assumptions of the Study ........................................................................... 5 Limitation of the Study ............................................................................... 5

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ...................................................................... 6 A. B. C. Style, Stylistics and Stylistic Devices ......................................................... 6 Stylistic of Poetry ...................................................................................... 10 Poetic Devices ........................................................................................... 12 1. Rhymes ............................................................................................... 12 2. Figures of Speech ............................................................................... 13 Poetic Devices in Song Lyrics .................................................................. 28

D.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH ...................................................... 31 A. B. C. Research Method ....................................................................................... 31 Data Gathering Process ............................................................................. 31 Quantification ............................................................................................ 33

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................ 34 A. B. Findings ..................................................................................................... 34 Discussion ................................................................................................. 35 1. End Rhyme ......................................................................................... 35 2. Asyndeton........................................................................................... 37 3. Alliteration ......................................................................................... 38

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Internal Rhyme ................................................................................... 39 Ellipsis ................................................................................................ 40 Parallelism .......................................................................................... 40 Assonance........................................................................................... 41 Anaphora ............................................................................................ 42 Conduplicatio ..................................................................................... 43 Epizeuxis ............................................................................................ 43 Personification.................................................................................... 44 Polysyndeton ...................................................................................... 45 Antithesis ............................................................................................ 45 Simile ................................................................................................. 46 Paradox ............................................................................................... 47 Epistrophe........................................................................................... 48 Synecdoche......................................................................................... 49 Metaphor ............................................................................................ 50 Hyperbaton ......................................................................................... 51 Consonance and Onomatopoeia ......................................................... 51 Apposition and Parenthesis ................................................................ 52 Chiasmus and Antimetabole............................................................... 54 Irony and Oxymoron .......................................................................... 55 Eye Rhyme, Rhetorical Question and Polyptoton .............................. 56

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .......................................................... 58 A. B. Conclusions ............................................................................................... 58 Suggestions ................................................................................................ 59

SYNOPSIS ........................................................................................................... 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 62 APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 67

vi

List of Figures

Figure 1 Correlation between Levels of Language, Stylistic Device and Context 8

Figure 2 Efficiency Tools in the Speech of Martin Luther King, Jr.. 9

Figure 3 Correlation between Poetry Language and Poetic Devices based on the Notion of Foregrounding.. 11

Figure 4 Illustration of Chiasmus. 27

Figure 5: Illustration of Chiasmus Found in The Lamb Lies down on Broadway 54

vii

List of Tables

Table 1 Major Levels of Language in Stylistic Analysis.. 7 Table 2 Amounts and Percentages of Poetic Devices 34 Table 3 Examples of Two Rhyming Lines 36 Table 4 Example of Three Rhyming Lines. 36 Table 5 Example of Four Rhyming Lines... 36 Table 6 Example of Asyndeton between Clauses .. 37 Table 7 Examples of Asyndeton between Words and Phrases... 37 Table 8 Examples of Alliteration 38 Table 9 Examples of Internal rhyme... 39 Table 10 Examples of Ellipsis.. 40 Table 11 Examples of Parallelism... 41 Table 12 Examples of Assonance. 41 Table 13 Examples of Anaphora... 42 Table 14 Examples of Conduplicatio 43

viii

Table 15 Examples of Epizeuxis... 44 Table 16 Examples of Personification.. 44 Table 17 Example of Polysyndeton.. 45 Table 18 Examples of Antithesis.. 46 Table 19 Examples of Simile 47 Table 20 Examples of Paradox. 47 Table 21 Examples of Epistrophe. 48 Table 22 Data of Synecdoche... 49 Table 23 Data of Metaphor... 50 Table 24 Data of Hyperbaton.... 51 Table 25 Data of Consonance and Onomatopoeia........ 52 Table 26 Data of Apposition. 53 Table 27 Data of Parenthesis 53 Table 28 Data of Chiasmus... 54 Table 29 Data of Antimetabole. 55

ix

Table 30 Data of Irony.. 55 Table 31 Data of Oxymoron. 56 Table 32 Data of Eye Rhyme, Rhetorical Question and Polyptoton 56

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A.

Background of the Research A work of art has several characteristics which correspond to a certain genre

and media it belongs to, period of time when it is made, particular contexts it fits in and so forth. For instance, visual arts made in the era of Renaissance are different from those made in the 21st century. The former are made in fully artistic context with a lot of curve shapes here and there while the latter are made in postmodernism context with a lot of minimalisms in all directions. Likewise, song lyrics also have several features which relate to their context, theme, style etc. For example, lyrics of love songs are generally made for romantic, sentimental and melodramatic purposes with the usages of love-related dictions and discourses etc. This can be illustrated by some lines in Baby Im-a Want You song lyric by American rock band, Bread, which is elaborated as follows,

Your lovin' and affection Givin' me direction Like a guiding light to help me through a darkest hour Lately I'm a-prayin' That you'll always be a-stayin' beside me

The main theme of the above lines is clearly love which can be seen by the usages of love-related discourses in the first, second and last lines. Another example, lyrics of rap songs are usually made for rebellion purpose with many usages of idiomatic expressions, slangs, rhymes, swearwords etc. This can be exemplified by some lines from Eminems rap song, Without Me, which are elaborated as follows,

A-tisket a-tasket, I go tit for tat with anybody who's talkin this shit, that shit Chris Kirkpatrick, you can get your ass kicked worse than them little Limp Bizkit bastards And Moby? You can get stomped by Obie You thirty-six year old baldheaded fag, blow me

It is obvious that the above excerpt consists of a nursery rhyme (a-tisket a-tasket), an idiomatic expression (tit for that) and some swearwords (shit and bastards), which are typical in lyrics of rap songs. Clearly, song lyrics, like other works of art, have its own place, context, genre, purposes etc which are indicated by their analyzable characteristics. Genesis concept album released in 1974, The Lamb Lies down on Broadway, is well received by progressive rock fans and music critics, so that there are numbers of positive reviews about this album in the internet. Having read all the reviews about the album, the writer was curious to listen to the record and read all the lyrics. After having read and interpreted them, the writer felt that the lyrics were like a group of poems, for there were several poetic devices utilized in them. For example, the writer found some rhyming words in some

lyrics like alliteration and internal rhyme. Lines like and the lamb lies down on Broadway or Im counting out time consist of rhyming words which are alliteration and internal rhyme respectively. The writer also found some tropes like personification and oxymoron. Lines like yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face and muted melodies fill the echoing hall consist of tropes which are personification and oxymoron respectively. There are certainly other lines which consist of other techniques of poemwriting. This understanding makes the writer feel that the lyrics of the album are poetic because of the utilizations of poetic devices. As Currie (1998) states that he could probably write a novel or at least a masters thesis about this album, the writer is also encouraged to write an undergraduate thesis about this album, analyzing the lyrics which are provisionally considered to be poetic more thoroughly.

B.

Research Questions After knowing that the lyrics of the album are provisionally considered to be

poetic because of the utilizations of poetic devices, there are some questions emerged which are elaborated as follows, 1. What are the poetic devices used in the lyrics that make them poetic? 2. What is the poetic device that is majorly used?

C.

Aims of the Research Speaking of analyzing song lyrics, there are several approaches or points of

view that can be followed, and they will lead to what kind of analysis that is about
3

to conduct. Lyrics can be analyzed based on the study of semiotics which analyzes the lyrics sign process, stylistic study that deals with analyzing the lyrics linguistic signs to determine their style and content analysis which studies the lyrics content of communication. Based on the statements stated in section B above, it is obvious that this research is about style of the lyrics (poetic) and causes that make the lyrics have that particular style (poetic devices). Therefore, the writer opines that the study of stylistic is suitable for this research. Malmkjr (2002: 510) states that the purposes of stylistic analyses can be simply descriptive (e.g. scientific text is tended to use passive voice), descriptive with the explanatory (e.g. scientists utilize passive voice in order to describe general process which are independent of the individual scientist) or interpretative (by using passive voice scientist release themselves from any responsibility for their actions). The writer, however, chooses to conduct a simply descriptive stylistic analysis in order to find kinds of poetic devices used in The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album. Thus, the research purposes are elaborated as follows, 1. Looking for every poetic device found in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis. 2. Collecting every poetic device found in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis. 3. Classifying the poetic devices found in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis. 4. Quantifying the poetic devices found in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis. 5. Drawn a general conclusion.

D.

Assumptions of the Study Hypothetically, poetic devices can be defined as techniques or tools used in

poetry which improve the quality of a poetry. In other words, poetic devices make a poem sounds, looks and feels like a poem. Poetic devices have various kinds which include figures of speech (like assonance, oxymoron, synecdoche and so forth), formal elements of poetry (such as rhyme, rhythm, kinds of stanza meter etc) and other literary devices (like imagery, point of view and so forth). Although poetic devices are generally used in poetry, they can also be used in other language-based works like short stories, novels, jargons, dramas, public speaking, screenplays, song lyrics etc. However, not all poetic devices can be applied in works outside poetry. As a result, presumably there are several kinds of poetic devices used in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album, but not all of them can be found in the lyrics.

E.

Limitation of the Study Alwasilah (2008) states that in order to avoid over ambition in a research,

there should be a focus as an effort of limitation or delimitation. Therefore, the writer chooses to focus this research on poetic devices which are included in rhymes and figures of speech.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A.

Style, Stylistics and Stylistic Devices In linguistics field the correlation between a product of spoken and written

language and its context, genre, certain period of time and so on which is indicated by its characteristics is dealt by the study of stylistics. This notion is along with that stated by Malmkjr (2002: 510) who utters that stylistics is the study of style in spoken and written text. By style is meant a consistent occurrence in the text of certain items and structures, or types of items and structures, among those offered by the language as a whole. By using the point of view of stylistics it can be seen that the language of advertising, political oration, poetry, religion, individual author or the language of a time period are used particularly and belong to a particular situation. On the other hand, they all have place or are said to use particular style1. The style of a product of spoken or written language can be known by analyzing its levels of language one by one. Simpson (2004: 5) lists the major levels of language and their related technical terms in language study which can be analyzed in stylistic study and make the analysis itself more organized and principled. Thus, they are listed as follows,

Stylistics (linguistics). (2009, June 19). Retrieved July 13, 2009, from www.wikipedia.com: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/stylistics (linguistics)

Table 1 Major Levels of Language in Stylistic Analysis

No 1

Level of Language The sound of spoken language; the way words are pronounced. The patterns of written language; the shape of language on the page. The way words are constructed; words and their constituent structures. The way words combine with other words to form phrases and sentences. The words we use; the vocabulary of a language. The meaning of words and sentences The way words and sentences are used in everyday situations; the meaning of language in context

Branch of language Study Phonology; phonetics

Graphology

Morphology

4 5 6

Syntax; grammar Lexical analysis; lexicology Semantics

Pragmatics; discourse analysis

(Simpson, 2004: 5)

By analyzing those seven levels of language, the context or style owned by a spoken utterance or written text can be determined more or less. For example, the simple sentence go! can be analyzed in, say, graphology and syntax level. In graphology level the sentence is typed in Roman alphabet with bolded twelvepoint-sized Arial font. Furthermore, the exclamation point at the end of the sentence points out that it has an emphatic style of vocal delivery. While in syntax or grammar level, the sentence is in imperative mood expressing direct command or request. The sentence asks everyone who reads or hears it (the second person)

to do what it says (to go). Clearly this simple sentence can be stylistically analyzed in other levels of language which can clarify the style owned by the sentence. One, two or more levels of language may be related to one or more techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written2 called stylistic device. Stylistic devices are varied and can be seen from various points of view depending on the context or style owned by an utterance or written text. The correlation between levels of language, stylistic device and context etc may be graphically depicted as follows,
Figure 1 Correlation between Levels of Language, Stylistic Device and Context
Level of language

Stylistic Device

Level of language

Context, Style etc

Stylistic Device

Level of language Level of language

Stylistic Device

Level of language Level of language

Adapted from Smith (1980: 170)

One of the examples of the application of this correlation is the research done by Smith (ibid: 171) which analyzes the efficiency tools in the speeches of

Stylistic device. (2009, June 16). Retrieved July 15, 2009, from www.wikipedia.com: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stylistic devices

Martin Luther King Jr. focusing on syntax level. The research points out that the speeches of Dr. King are full of simple structural devices or, in other word, they are considered to have the style of efficiency. Moreover, the research shows that there are five stylistic devices used in the speeches of Dr. King in order to make them efficient i.e. inter-sentence markers, markers of relationship between markers, sequential clauses, simple sentences and potential terminal points. To sum up, Smiths research can also be graphically depicted as follows,

Figure 2 Efficiency Tools in the Speech of Martin Luther King, Jr.


Markers of Relationship between Clauses

Inter-sentence Markers

Efficiency

Syntax

Sequential Clauses

Simple Sentences

Potential Terminal Points

Smith (1980: 170)

In a nutshell there is a close relation between style, stylistic and stylistic devices, so that they cannot be separated. Moreover, this relation makes a stylistic analysis more fruitful and understandable.

B.

Stylistic of Poetry Etymologically speaking, the word poetry is derived from the Greek poeisis

() meaning a making. Not only can it mean several things but refer to many things as well. It can be theoretical, expressive, over-romantic; it can paint pictures, tell stories, entertain people or even criticize someone. Nevertheless, all of these cannot specify what poetry is, for they can also be done by other kinds of writing or speaking. Despite this particular fact, there is one definition that might make poetry distinctive i.e. language in which every component elementword and word order, sound and pause, image and echois significant, significant in that every element points toward or stands for further relationships among and beyond themselves (Wolosky, 2001). From this particular definition it can be said that poetry has not only elements which differentiate it from another but a patterned language as well. The language of poetry and literature in general, has a tendency of being different from that of the standard language, for it is highly patterned and violates the rules of standardized grammar (Malmkjr and Carter, 2002: 513). In the stylistic point of view, this is along with the notion of foregrounding which is translation from the term used by the Prague School Linguist (ibid: 440). Simpson (2004: 50) states that foregrounding refers to a form of textual patterning which is motivated specifically for literary aesthetic purposes. It involves features which disobey linguistic rules and are brought into front by means of repetition or parallelism. On the other hand, foregrounding comes in two main appearances which are deviation of the norm and more of the same (ibid).

10

The language of poetry can also be called poetic which is defined as having a quality or style characteristic of poetry according to the fourth edition of The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 3 The features, methods, techniques or devices that make a certain language work considered to be poetic are called poetic devices i.e. the intentional use or arrangement of words to produce a specific, expressive, and striking effect by departing from ordinary, usual language 4. Thus, the phenomena of poetry language or poetic which is along with the notion of foregrounding and poetic devices can be graphically depicted as follows.

Figure 3 Correlation between Poetry Language and Poetic Devices based on the Notion of Foregrounding

Poetic Device

Level of language

Level of language

Poetry Language (Poetic)

Poetic Device

Level of language

Level of language Level of language

Poetic Device

Level of language

Adapted from Smith (1980: 170)

3 4

Poetic. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/poetic Wang, J. (2010, March 6). Literary and Poetic Devices . Retrieved May 1, 2011, from www.docstoc.com: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/42046149/Literary-and-Poetic-Devices.

11

C.

Poetic Devices Poetic devices have assorted kinds which include formal elements of poetry

(such as rhythm, kinds of stanza meter, rhyme scheme etc), figures of speech (like assonance, oxymoron, synecdoche etc) and other literary devices (like imagery, point of view and so forth). This research focuses on poetic devices included in rhymes and figures of speech; thus, they are elaborated as follows.

1.

Rhymes Rhyme is defined as a word that is identical to another in its terminal

sound.5 For example, the words distortion, fictive, swallow and apply rhyme with obsession, active, shallow and goodbye respectively. This particular poetic device has several types i.e. end rhyme, internal rhyme and eye rhyme among others. End rhyme refers to all rhymes occur at line ends6, and is the most common kind of rhyme. This type of rhyme can be exemplified by the excerpt of Robert Frosts poem entitled Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening which is elaborated as follows, Whose woods these are I think I know, /n/ His house is in the village, though; // Internal rhyme, on the other hand, refers to a variety of rhyming structures which have to do not with rhyming words solely at line end but line-internally (Brogan T. V., 1993: 613). Usually, it occurs in a line wherein one word located

Rhyme. (2011, April 27). Retrieved May 3, 2011, from www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/rhyme. 6 Rios, A. (2000, September 9). Glossary of Rhymes. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from www.asu.edu: http://www.public.asu.edu/~aarios/formsofverse/furtherreading/page2.html

12

in the middle of the line rhymes with another word at the end of the line; however, it generally denotes all rhymes happening in mere one line. This type of rhyme can be exemplified by the following excerpt taken from Taylor Swifts song entitled A Place In This World which is elaborated as follows.

- Ill be strong, Ill be wrong, oh but life goes on


/str/ /r/ /n/

- A singer in a smoky room, the smell of wine and cheap perfume


/rum/ /pfjum/

While rhyme in general deals with identical terminal sound of words, eye rhyme, on the contrary, deals with two (or more) words which to the eye seem to rhyme, in that their spelling is nearly identical (both begin differently but end alike), but to the ear (that is, in pronunciation) do not (Brogan T. V., 1993: 399). Some examples of this rhyme are move (/muv/) and love (/lv/), bough (/ba/) and though (//), come (/km/) and home (/hm/) etc.

2.

Figures of Speech Figures of speech have been categorized variously and in numerous ways;

however, the simplest categories are the divisions of tropes and schemes (Burton, 2007). The former refer to the use of words or expressions that are different from their literal meaning, and the latter denote ways of deviating the ordinary use and order of words to create certain effect. On the other hand, figures of speech relate

13

to the use of a language which is different from its normality; specifically, tropes are meaning-oriented, and schemes are structure-oriented.

a.

Tropes According to Burton (ibid) tropes are divided into five categories i.e.

reference to one thing as another, wordplay and puns, substitutions, overstatement or understatement and semantic Inversions. Thus these categories are elaborated as follows. 1. Reference to one thing as another a. Metaphor It is a figure of speech that creates an analogy between two concepts, and the analogy is communicated via the utilization of metaphorical or figurative words. Example: love's the funeral of hearts, and an ode for cruelty (Excerpt of HIMs song lyrics entitled Funeral of Hearts). The above example illustrates the subject love which is analogized as funeral of hearts and an ode for cruelty.

b.

Simile It is most traditionally defined as a clear association using the word like or as.

14

Example:

Human speech is

like

a cracked

cauldron on which we bang out tunes that make bears dance, when we want to move the stars to pity (Excerpt of Gustave Flauberts novel entitled

Madame Bovary).

c.

Synecdoche It is the poetic device in which an entirety is symbolized by naming one of its components, or vice versa (one component is symbolized by naming its entirety). The former is named synecdoche totum pro parte, and the latter is labeled synecdoche pars pro toto. Example: In the 2010 Winter Olympics, Canada won 14 gold medals (Synecdoche totum pro parte). Michael Schumacher is behind the wheel now (Synecdoche pars pro toto). In the first example, the subject Canada merely refers to the athletes competing in Winter Olympics, not the whole nation. In

15

the second example, on the other hand, the phrase behind the wheel refers to the whole car, not mere the mentioned parts.

d.

Personification It is defined as a figure of speech which gives human characteristics to nonhuman things, objects or concepts. Example: The wind stood up and gave a shout (Excerpt of James Stephens poem entitled The Wind). Human characteristics in the above example (stood up and gave a shout) are given to the subject wind, which is a nonhuman thing.

2.

Wordplay and Puns a. Onomatopoeia It denotes the invention of a word whose sound imitates the objects or actions it refers to. Example: The clock is ticking now.

The verb is ticking in the above example is derived from the word tick whose sound imitates the actual sound of a clocks mechanism.

16

b.

Antanaclasis It is the repetition of a single word, but with a different meaning whenever it is repeated. Example: Youre not pretty, but youre pretty ugly

The word pretty in the above example initially means beautiful or attractive, but in the second instance it means moderately.

3.

Substitutions a. Anthimeria It refers to the use of a word as if it is a member of a different part of speech. Example: The interior designer is trying to funkify this building The word funky in the above example is used as if it is a verb by adding the suffix fy.

b.

Periphrasis It refers to the use of several words or phrases to substitute a certain obvious proper name. Example: The country of the rising sun is well known its typical sword called samurai

17

The phrase the country of the rising sun in the above example actually refers to Japan. 4. Overstatement and Understatement a. Hyperbole It refers to the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. Example: Six million teardrops poured when shes sad. The above example illustrates that the speaker bombastically can count the amount of teardrops. b. Litotes It is defined as purposeful underestimation to communicate a thought by denying its opposite. Example: I am not as rich as I was.

The statement above is an understatement version of saying that the subject is actually poor.

5.

Semantic Inversion a. Rhetorical question It is generally defined as any question asked for persuasive effect, and not aimed to acquire respond or information.
18

Example:

Are you really a man?

The question above is not intended to ask whether the object you is a male or the opposite; instead, it is meant to persuade the objects masculinity.

b.

Irony It refers to the expression of contrast for the purpose of ridicule, mockery or jest. Example: You sang beautifully, and I was wearing earplugs during your performance. The singers performance in the above statement was actually bad, but the speaker states the opposite to ridicule the singers horrible performance.

c.

Oxymoron It is a figure of speech which joins two opposing elements side by side. Example: The Astronauts are doing a simulation in Virtual Reality. The word virtual in the above example refers to something that is not authentic; while reality, on the contrary, denotes the state

19

of being actual. These two words oppose one another, but are placed next to each other.

d.

Paradox It is defined as a figure of speech in which a statement appears to contradict itself. Example: The richest person in this village is the one who go everywhere on foot. The above statement contradicts by itself because of illustrating the richest person who supposedly has vehicles, but goes everywhere on foot.

b.

Schemes According to Burton (2007) tropes are divided into four categories i.e.

structures of balance, changes in word order, omission and repetition. Thus these categories are elaborated as follows.

1.

Structures of Balance a. Parallelism It refers to the repetition of similar syntactic patterns in neighboring phrases, clauses, or sentences.

20

Example:

My hobbies are playing games, listening to rock music and watching television.

In the above example, verb phrases in participial form (playing games, listening to rock music and watching television) are repeated in parallel pattern.

b.

Antithesis It is defined as placing contrast ideas simultaneously in adjacent or parallel phrases or clauses.

Examples:

It was the finest time, but it was the most horrible time.

The above statement is a paralleled structure consisting of two clauses joined by the conjunction but. However, the clauses contradict each other.

c.

Climax and Anticlimax Climax is the arrangement of words, phrases or clauses in an order from the least important to the most. Anticlimax, on the other hand, is the opposite of climax i.e. the arrangement is from the most important to the least.

21

Example:

Im ready to do my best for my family, my nation and my religion (Climax).

Firstly, you must pray to Allah, and then you do the best you can (Anticlimax).

2.

Changes in word order a. Hyperbaton This figure of speech refers to the syntactic disorder. It modifies and deviates the normal word order. Example: For five years have I studied here

The normal order of the above sentence should be I have studied here for five years.

b.

Parenthesis It refers to placing some words that interrupts a sentence. It is often indicated by the use of bracket.

Example:

Most of the rock keyboard players are capable, because of having had formal education, in playing classical music.

22

The phrase because of having had formal education in the above example actually interrupts the normal sentence most of the rock keyboard players are capable in playing classical music.

c.

Apposition It refers to the use of two coordinate elements in which the second element explains or modifies of the first. Example: My English teacher, Mr. Odo, is celebrating his 50th anniversary. The proper noun Mr. Odo in the above sentence actually explains the subject my English teacher.

3.

Omission a. Ellipsis It refers to an omission of a word or short phrase which is easily understood in context. It is done deliberately in order to shorten the sentence to avoid redundancy. Example: Travis can sing some songs, but I dont know what. The above example is the elliptical sentence for Travis can sing some songs, but I dont know what songs Travis can sing.

23

b.

Asyndeton It is defined as the omission of conjunctions between clauses. This figure of speech results some particular effects such as a hurried rhythm or vehement effect. Example: you can sing, I can dance

The above example consists of two clauses without conjunction. However, the clauses can be connected by conjunction and

4.

Repetition a. Alliteration It is defined as the repetition of consonant sound in a sequence of nearby words. More specifically the repeated consonant is in the initial position of the neighboring words first syllables. Example: Tyger, tyger burning bright,
/ta ta bn brat/

(Excerpt of William Blakes poem entitled The Tyger).

b.

Assonance It can be defined as repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and/or followed by different consonants in neighboring words. Example: This is Jill sitting with Bill.

/s z dl st w bl/

24

c.

Consonance It refers to the consecutive use of words whose consonants are similar in the same position, but their vowels are different. Example: Hes the best beast in the world
/best//bist/

d.

Anaphora Anaphora is defined as the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of consecutive phrases, clauses, sentences, or lines. Example: He is the leader who has spirit and passion. He is the leader who works day and night. He is the leader, the true leader.

e.

Epistrophe Epistrophe is defined as the repetition of words at the ends of clauses, lines, or stanzas.

Example:

I cant live without you. Life seems so mundain without you.

25

f.

Anadiplosis It is a figure of speech in which the last word of a constituent (sentence, clause or line) is repeated at the beginning of the next consecutive one. Example: The frog was a prince, the prince was a brick, the brick was an egg, the egg was a bird (Suppers Ready by Genesis).

g.

Chiasmus It refers to structure where elements are repeated in reverse, to form ABBA pattern. The first element is similar to the last, and the second one is similar to the third. The similarity can be based on meaning, parts of speech, sense and so forth.

Example:

The beginning of time, is the era of establishment.

In the above example, the word beginning is similar to the word establishment in meaning. Likewise, the word time is similar to the word era in meaning. On the other hand, the sentence is graphically depicted as follows.

26

Figure 4 Illustration of Chiasmus


The beginning
A

of

time
B

Is the

era

of

establishment

h.

Antimetabole It refers to the repetition of words in consecutive clauses, but in inverted grammatical arrangement. Example: Live to fly, fly to live.

i.

Epizeuxis It refers to the uninterrupted repetition of words in abrupt sequence, for emphasis effect. Example: My brother is very, very, very, very, very, very, very tall.

j.

Conduplicatio It refers to the repetition of word or words as a mean of specification, meaning that the repeated word or words specify the former.

27

Example:

Albert is composing a progressive rock song for his bands forthcoming album. The song talks about an epic battle.

In the above example, the word song is repeated twice. The second repeated word explains or specifies that the song which is being composed talks about an epic battle.

k.

Polysyndeton This figure of speech refers to the use of numerous conjunctions or the repetition of conjunctions (usually and). Example: And you and I walked together in the rain, but we didnt bring any umbrella or raincoat.

D.

Poetic Devices in Song Lyrics Song lyrics, or just simply lyrics, are defined as the words of a song or

other vocal music.7 Nowadays, the term is usually in plural form referring to a songs whole set of words, while the singular one denotes a part of the entirety. Lyrics give meaning and insight, and evoke emotion; these are the things that mere instrumentals cannot do effectively. A lyricist, the writer of lyrics, expresses his feelings, imaginations, things he witnesses etc via lyrics based on his own

Lyric. (2011, May 2). Retrieved May 4, 2011, from Wiktionary, A Wiki-based Open Content Dictionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/lyric

28

style indicated by his background. As a result, lyrics can have several themes like love, rebellion, politics, social, antiestablishment, criticism, joke etc. Moreover, there are several ways or technique to communicate those themes. One of the most common and important techniques in crafting song lyrics is the usage of poetic devices which is applicable in corresponding nearly all themes. Starrett (2010) states that the same virtues that make a good poemeffective imagery, compelling themes, emotional evocativeness and originalityalso make a good song lyric. Furthermore, she utters that poetry and song lyrics both benefit from well-applied poetic devises, such as metaphor, simile, alliteration, hyperbole, personification, onomatopoeia. And both rely on the effective use of descriptive imagery. This can be illustrated by rap lyrics which utilize some poetic devices like rhymes, alliteration and other forms of wordplay that are also found in classical poetry. For example, the following excerpt taken from Tupac Shakurs song entitled Young Black Male contains wordplays which is rhyme scheme; thus, the excerpt is elaborated as follows.
/fl/ // /dps/ /fl/ /hz/ /klz/ /rz/ /klz/ /hz/ /fl/ /klz/

Follow me into a flow I'm sure you know, which way to go I'm hittin em out of the dopes So slip on the slope, let's skip on the flow I'm fuckin the sluts and hoes The bigger the butts the tighter the clothes The gimminy jimminy grows Then whaddya know, it's off with some clothes Rowd when the crowd says hoe That let's me know, they know I can flow Love when they come to my shows

29

Another illustration is the epic song by Genesis entitled Suppers Ready which contains some poetic devices. It contains selected simile which is illustrated in the exemplary line we watch in reverence, as Narcissus is turned to a flower. It also contains an anadiplosis demonstrated in the line The frog was a prince, the prince was a brick, the brick was an egg, the egg was a bird. There are of course some other poetic devices utilized in the lyrics to communicate the epicness of the song. In a conclusion, poetic devices can help transform mundane lyrics to first rate ones if they are used appropriately. 8

Poetic Devices in Lyrics. (2011, May 1). Retrieved May 4, 2011, from www.musiclyricsfyi.com: http://www.musiclyricsfyi.com/poetic-devices-in-lyrics.html

30

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

A.

Research Method The writer uses descriptive and quantitative methods in this research. The

former refers to the method of research designed to gather information about conditions of tendencies while a research is being conducted. Furthermore, there is no treatment or control given to the variables in this method (Furchan, 2004). The latter refers to the research based on the measurement of quantity or amount (Kothari, 2004). The use of quantitative research is based on Nurgiyantoro (2005) who states that stylistic analysis requires quantitative method to reduce subjectivity. As a result, this research is a non-experimental research, meaning that it merely describes measured findings.

B.

Data Gathering Process In data gathering process, the writer uses agih method with its basic

technique named bagi unsur langsung (BUL) (Sudaryanto, 1993). Agih method (distributional method) refers to the method used to analyze a language based on the principles of the language itself. The determinant of this method is parts or elements of the analyzed language like phoneme (vowel, consonant, diphthong etc), word (adverb, preposition, noun etc), syntactic function (subject, verb, object, adverbial, complement etc), meaning (associative meaning, connotative

31

meaning, denotative meaning etc) and so forth. While BUL technique (segmenting immediate constituent technique) is the technique of language analysis via immediately segmenting the data into several linguistic constituents in certain linguistic levels. Results of BUL technique are categorized into certain poetic devices based on their characteristics, and considered as data. On the other hand, data (D) equal gegestand (G) plus context (C) (Sudaryanto, 1991). The term gegestand refers to the kind of poetic device owned by particular data, and context denotes the linguistic constituents having the characteristics of the intended poetic device. Furthermore, the data are numbered and presented in appendix section for the sake of simplicity. As an example, the sentence science spoils societies can be segmented phonologically by using BUL technique which is elaborated as follows.

Science Spoils societies

/s/ - /a/ - // - /n/ - /s/

/s/ - /p/ - /o/ - /l/ - /z/ /s/ - // - /s/ - /a/ - // - /t/ - // - /z/

From the above segmentation it can be said that the sentence are categorized as alliteration because of their having identical consonant in the initial position ( /s/). Thus, the sentence is considered to be one data and numbered (1).

32

C.

Quantification Since that the data are firstly in the form of words, phrases and sentences,

they are categorized as qualitative data which is defined as any information that can be captured that is not numerical in nature (Trochim, 2006) . However the data can be transformed into quantitative data via measuring their frequencies as Nurgiyantoro (ibid) states that in order to observe the distinctive style owned by a text which differs it to another, measuring the frequency of the texts linguistic signs can be performed. Furthermore, the quantitative data are presented in the form of percentage using the following formula.

N = Amount of particular poetic device = Amount of all data

For example, if the amount of metaphor is 66 and the total amounts of all data are 500, the percentage of the particular poetic device is 13.2 % based on the following operation.

Finally, from the percentages of all categories, the poetic device which is used so often can be found.

33

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A.

Findings The table below lists the poetic devices found in the song lyrics The Lamb

Lies down On Broadway album, and the amount and percentage of each poetic device. Thus the table is elaborated as follows.

Table 2 Amounts and Percentages of Poetic Devices

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 15 19 20 21 22

Poetic Device End Rhyme Asyndeton Alliteration Internal Rhyme Ellipsis Parallelism Assonance Anaphora Conduplicatio Epizeuxis Personification Polysyndeton Antithesis Simile Paradox Epistrophe Synecdoche Metaphor Hyperbaton Parenthesis Consonance Onomatopoeia

Total 165 64 62 53 34 20 17 16 13 12 10 10 10 10 8 8 4 3 3 2 2 2

Percentage 31% 12% 12% 10% 6% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0,4% 0,4% 0,4%

34

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Apposition Irony Eye Rhyme Oxymoron Chiasmus Antimetabole Rhetorical Question Polyptoton Total

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 537

0,4% 0,2% 0,2% 0,2% 0,2% 0,2% 0,2% 0,2% 100%

From the above table, it can be seen that there are thirty kinds of poetic devices used in the album, and end rhyme is the one that is mostly used. One hundred and sixty five data are identified to be categorized as end rhyme which covers thirty percent of the total five hundred thirty seven data more or less.

B.

Discussion The writer analyzes the lyrics of the album based on words, phrases,

clauses, sentences and lines to find characteristics that match the criterion of certain poetic device. The one whose attributes match a poetic device is considered as one data based on the explanation stated in chapter three previously. The followings are explanations of each poetic device found in the album.

1.

End Rhyme This poetic device is the one that is the most frequently utilized in the

album, and can be found in all song lyrics. The writer discovers that in this album, end rhyme is found in two, three and four lines. Two rhyming lines can be exemplified by the second stanzas first six lines of the first song entitled The Lamb Lies down on Broadway which are detailed as follows.
35

Table 3 Examples of Two Rhyming Lines

Number of Data 2 Early morning Manhattan,

Data /mnhtn/ /lnd/ /ndn/ /fn/ // //

Line(s) 1&2

Stanza 2

Ocean winds blow on the land. 4 6 The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go.

3&4 5&6

2 2

Next, three lines that have end rhyme can be illustrated by line five, six and seven in the second stanza of the fourth song entitled In The Cage which are elaborated as follows.
Table 4 Example of Three Rhyming Lines
Number of Data But my cynic soon returns 115 And the lifeboat burns. My spirit just never learns. Data /rtnz/ /bnz/ / lnz/ 5-7 2 Line(s) Stanza

Finally, four rhyming lines can be demonstrated by line one to four in the third stanza of the seventh song entitled Counting Out Time. Thus, the lines are detailed as follows.
Table 5 Example of Four Rhyming Lines
Number of Data Found a girl I wanted to date, 237 Thought I'd better get it straight. Went to buy a book before it's too late. Don't leave nothing to fate. Data /det/ /stret/ /let/ /let/ 1-4 3 Line(s) Stanza

36

Furthermore, all data of end rhymes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.1 in appendix III.

2.

Asyndeton Asyndeton is the second mostly used poetic device of the albums song

lyrics, and occurs between clauses, words and phrases. The omission of conjunction between clauses can be exemplified by lines in the second song entitled Fly on a Windshield which are elaborated as follows.

Table 6 Example of Asyndeton between Clauses


Number of Data 54 Data There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square. Line(s) 1&2 Stanza 1

The above lines are categorized into asyndeton because of the absence of conjunction between the clauses. The abovementioned clauses can be joined by conjunction and which become There's something solid forming in the air, And the wall of death is lowered in Times Square. Asyndeton occurring between words and phrases can be illustrated by lines in the fourth song entitled In The Cage which are elaborated as follows.
Table 7 Examples of Asyndeton between Words and Phrases
Number of Data 120 122 Data Stalactites, stalagmites Shut me in, lock me tight. Line(s) 1 2 Stanza 3 3

37

Line one in the above example illustrates two words, which are nouns, that should be joined by conjunction and. Similarly, line two shows two verb phrases explaining line one which should also be joined by conjunction and. As a result the abovementioned lines can become the following. Stalactites and stalagmites Shut me in and lock me tight. Furthermore All data of asyndetons found in the album can be seen in table A.3.2 in appendix III.

3.

Alliteration This poetic device is the third mostly used poetic device of the albums song

lyrics and covers twelve percent of the total five hundred thirty seven data more or less. To give some examples, the following lines taken from the song entitled The Lamia are categorized as alliteration because of having words whose initial consonants are similar. Thus the lines are listed as follows.

Table 8 Examples of Alliteration


Number of Data 382 393 412 414 Data From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. /frm/ /fml/ /frerns/ /flevz/ Three vermilion snakes of female face, /fimel/ /fes/ Silent sorrow in empty boats. /salnt/ /sr/ A sickly sourness fills the room, /skli/ /sans/ Line(s) 4 3 2 3 Stanza 1 4 7 7

38

Data (382) and (393) have words whose initial consonants are /f/, and data (412) and (414) have words whose initial consonants are /s/. Furthermore, all data of alliterations found in the album can be seen in table A.3.3 in appendix III.

4.

Internal Rhyme Internal rhyme is the fourth mostly used poetic device of the albums song

lyrics and covers relatively ten percent of the whole five hundred thirty seven data. The following lines taken from the song entitled Anyway are examples of internal rhyme found in the album because of having rhyming words that occur inside each line. Thus the lines are illustrated as follows.

Table 9 Examples of Internal rhyme


Number of Data 358 359 Data Feel cold and old, it's getting hard to catch my breath. /kld/ /ld/ 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy // /fl/ Line (s) 5 6 Stanza 1 1

Data (358) has words which rhyme inside the line i.e. cold and old; these words rhyme because of having similar terminal sound /ld/. Likewise, data (359) contains words that rhyme inside the line i.e. ash and flash; these words rhyme because of having identical end sound //. Moreover, all data of internal rhymes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.4 in appendix III.

39

5.

Ellipsis Ellipsis is the fourth commonly applied poetic device of the albums song

lyrics, and covers moderately six percent of the entire data. It can be exemplified by the following data taken from the song entitled Back in N.Y.C. which are elaborated as follows.
Table 10 Examples of Ellipsis
Number of Data 209 212 Data Time to shave, shave it off, it off. No time for romantic escape, Line(s) 4 5 Stanza 3 3

Both data are categorized as ellipsis because of the omission of subject and verb. In data (209), there should be a subject it and a verb is, so the complete sentence should be it is time to shave, shave it off, it off. Likewise, in data (212) there should be a subject there and a verb is, so the complete sentence should be there is no time for romantic escape. Furthermore, all data of ellipses found in the album can be seen in table A.3.5 in appendix III.

6.

Parallelism Covering relatively four percent of the entire five hundred thirty seven data,

parallelism ranks fourth in the mostly employed poetic device of the albums song lyrics. This poetic device occurs because of the reappearance of parallel syntactic patterns in neighboring phrases, clauses, or sentences. It can be exemplified by the following data taken from the song entitled The Lamia which are elaborated as follows.

40

Table 11 Examples of Parallelism


Number of Data 390 404 Data Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. Line (s) 1&2 3 Stanza 4 5

In data (390) above, the participial phrases functioned as adverbials are repeated (astonished, doubting his sight, struck by beauty, gripped in fright). In data (404), on the other hand, the verbs are repeated (test, taste and judge). Furthermore, all data of parallelisms found in the album can be seen in table A.3.6 in appendix III.

7.

Assonance The writer finds seventeen data which are categorized as assonance, and

cover relatively three percent of all data. The following exemplified data taken from the first song entitled The Lamb Lies down on Broadway are classified as assonances because of having words which contains similar vowels but different consonants, and they are elaborated as follows.
Table 12 Examples of Assonance
Number of Data 11 29 Data It seems they cannot leave their dream /simz/ /liv/ /drim/ Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face /strit//sin/ Line(s) 8 2 Stanza 2 4

The words seems, leave and dream in data (11) contain similar vowel /i/, but different consonants. Similarly, the words street and scene in data (29) have

41

identical vowel /i/, but different consonants. Moreover, all data of assonances found in the album can be seen in table A.3.7 in appendix III.

8.

Anaphora The writer finds sixteen data grouped into anaphora because of having

successive clauses, sentences, or lines whose beginning words are repeated. The perfect example for this particular poetic device is the following data taken from the last song entitled It which are elaborated as follows.

Table 13 Examples of Anaphora


Number of Data 517 it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now. it is here. it is now it is Real. it is Rael Data Line(s) Stanza

7-9

522

1-5

536

5&6

From the above data, it can be seen that the words it and is are repeated in the beginning of successive clauses and lines. Moreover, all data of anaphoras found in the album can be seen in table A.3.8 in appendix III.

42

9.

Conduplicatio Covering relatively two percent of the entire data, conduplicatio ranks ninth

in the poetic device used in the albums song lyrics. It happens because of the repetition of word or words for the purpose of specification like in the following two data taken from the songs Fly on a Windshield and The Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging correspondingly.

Table 14 Examples of Conduplicatio


Number of Data 56 Data The wind is blowing harder now, Blowing dust into my eyes. so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, Line(s) 5&6 Stanza 1

186

4&5

In data (56), the word blowing in line five is repeated in line six to specify that the wind is actually blowing dust to the subjects eyes. Likewise, the word pay in data (186) is repeated to denote that the subject should pay his way. Furthermore, all data of conduplicatios found in the album can be seen in table A.3.9 in appendix III.

10.

Epizeuxis The writer finds twelve data categorized as epizeuxis because of having

words repeated in direct and nonstop sequence. The ideal examples of this poetic device are the following data taken from the song entitled Back in N.Y.C.

43

Table 15 Examples of Epizeuxis


Number of Data 198 200 207 Data I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. Line (s) 8 1 6 Stanza 1 2 2

It is obvious that the words what I mean, who I hit and has been are repeated immediately in data (198), (200) and (217) respectively. Moreover, all data of epizeuxes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.10 in appendix III.

11.

Personification The writer finds ten data categorized as personification because of narrating

inanimate objects or abstractions which are represented to have human characteristics or qualities. To give some examples, the following are two data taken from the songs Fly on a Windshield and The Light Dies Down on Broadway respectively.

Table 16 Examples of Personification


Number of Data 63 482 Data Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: But as the skylight beckons him to leave, Line (s) 1&2 1 Stanza 2 2

In data (63), the word echoes, which are abstractions defined as mirrored sounds that are heard again, are represented to have the human ability of walking. In the

44

same way, the word skylight in data (482), which is also an abstraction, is symbolized to be able to beckon the object him to leave. Furthermore, all data of personifications found in the album can be seen in table A.3.11 in appendix III.

12.

Polysyndeton Like personification, there are also ten data categorized as polysyndeton.

This type of poetic device occurs because of making use of many conjunctions between clauses like in the below data taken from the song entitled In the Cage. Thus, the data is elaborated as follows.

Table 17 Example of Polysyndeton


Number of Data And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. Data Line(s) Stanza

117

3-6

It is obvious that in the above data, there are three conjunctions employed which are but and twice and. Furthermore, all data of polysyndetons found in the album can be seen in table A.3.12 in appendix III.

13.

Antithesis Like personification and polysyndeton, the writer finds ten data grouped

into antithesis as well. For instance, the following data taken correspondingly from the songs In the Cage and The Lamia are categorized as antithesis because of
45

having contrast words or ideas placed side by side in parallel structure. Thus the data are elaborated as follows.

Table 18 Examples of Antithesis


Number of Data Data If I could change to liquid, I could fill the cracks up in the rock. But I know that I am solid And I am my own bad luck. That glide up and down my spine. Line(s) Stanza

160

1-4

405

Data (160) illustrates contrast ideas between being liquid in fantasy and being solid in reality joined by conjunction but. The subject supposes that he could change to liquid, but in reality, he is actually solid. Data (405), on the other hand, demonstrates two contrasting words in meaning joined by conjunction and. The word up can simply mean being or leading to higher position, while the word down, in contrast, can merely denote being or leading to lower position. Furthermore, all data of antitheses found in the album can be seen in table A.3.13 in appendix III.

14.

Simile Ten data are categorized as simile because of having direct comparison

between two things by utilizing the words like and as. This particular poetic device can be exemplified by the two data respectively taken from the song entitled The Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging and The Arrival, first part of The Colony of Slippermen, which are elaborated as follows.
46

Table 19 Examples of Simile


Number of Data 178 423 Data The hall runs like clockwork I wandered lonely as a cloud, Line(s) 1 1 Stanza 4 1

Both data contain comparisons by employing the word like and as respectively. Particularly, in data (178), the subject the hall is personified to have the ability of running compared to clockwork. Similarly, the subjects lonely wandering in data (423), is compared to a cloud. Moreover, all data of similes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.14 in appendix III.

15.

Paradox The writer finds eight data categorized as paradox. While antithesis happens

because of the juxtaposition of two contrasting words or ideas in parallel structure, paradox happens because of having self contradiction. The following data correspondingly taken from the songs The Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging and Back in N.Y.C are examples of paradox found in the album.
Table 20 Examples of Paradox
Number of Data 181 194 Empty in their fullness 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. Data Line (s) 3 6 Stanza 4 1

Data (181) is considered to be paradoxical because it describes condition of being empty but in fullness state. In the same way, data (194) illustrates the subjects

47

being strong which is paradoxically compared to the weakest connection in the chain; therefore, the data is categorized as a paradox. Moreover, all data of paradoxes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.15 in appendix III.

16.

Epistrophe Like paradox, the writer also finds eight data categorized as epistrophe.

Being different from anaphora, this particular poetic device happens because of the repetition of word or words at the end of successive lines, phrases, clauses or sentences. The perfect and obvious examples for this poetic device are the following data taken from the song entitled In the Cage. Thus, the data are illustrated as follows.
Table 21 Examples of Epistrophe
Number of Data 106 Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. In the cave. Get me out of this cave! Lips are dry, throat is dry. In the cave. Get me out of this cave! In the pain Get me out of this pain. Turning around, spinning around. Data Line (s) 8&9 Stanza 1

112 125 134 157

14 & 15 3 8&9 9 & 10

1 3 3 6

163

3&4

Moreover, all data of epistrophes found in the album can be seen in table A.3.16 in appendix III.

48

17.

Synecdoche The writer finds four data which are categorized as synecdoche, covering

relatively one percent of the total data. Thus, the complete data of discovered synecdoche are elaborated as follows.
Table 22 Data of Synecdoche
Number of Data 23 42 313 385 Data The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, A magnificent chamber meets his eye. Line (s) 6 3 5 5 Stanza 3 5 3 1

Data (23) and (42) are both taken from the first song entitled The Lamb Lies down on Broadway. The former actually describes that it is the trucker who read overload, but the statement represents the whole entity of the trucker by naming one of his parts i.e. his eyes. Similarly, the latter actually illustrates that it is the cabman himself who sounds the horn, but the line represents the entire individual of the cabman by naming one of his parts i.e. his velvet gloves. Data (318) and (385) are respectively taken from the songs Chamber of 32 Doors and The Lamia. The former expresses the man who definitely works with all parts of his body by naming two parts of them i.e. his hands. Likewise, the former actually describes that it is the subject as a whole who encounters the magnificent chamber, but the statement only mentions two parts of his body i.e. his eyes.

49

18.

Metaphor The writer finds three data grouped as metaphor, covering one percent of the

whole data more or less. Thus, the following data are three examples of metaphor found in the albums song lyrics.

Table 23 Data of Metaphor


Number of Data 97 411 415 Data I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. Line 5&6 1&2 3&4 Stanza 2 7 7

The above data are categorized as metaphor because of having figurative analogies analogizing certain concepts. Data (98), which is taken from the song Cuckoo Cocoon, explains two analogies analogizing the subjects condition and the place in which he encounters. Firstly, the subject feels that he is like a prisoner in Brooklyn jail, and secondly, he thinks that he is like the Prophet Jonah swallowed by a whale. In data (411), which is taken from the song The Lamia, the words silent sorrow in empty boats analogies the previous situation i.e. each empty snakelike body floats. Likewise, in data (415), which is taken from the same song, the words the bitter harvest of a dying bloom figuratively analogies the previous situation i.e. a sickly sourness fills the room. Moreover, all data of metaphors found in the album can be seen in appendix section.

50

19.

Hyperbaton Three data are categorized as hyperbaton because of having words whose

orders are inverted, and deviate normal arrangement. Thus, the overall data which are taken from the song The Lamia are listed as follows.

Table 24 Data of Hyperbaton


Number of Data 384 401 418 Data From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, 'O Lamia, your flesh that remains I will take as my food' Line (s) 4 1 7 Stanza 1 5 7

The phrase flavours strange in data (384) is actually inverted arrangement of strange flavours. In the same principle, the phrase beauty blind in data (401) is in fact reversed order of blind beauty. Data (418), on the other hand, has word order which deviates normal grammatical rule. Considering that the phrase your flesh that remains is the object of the sentence, the correct grammatical arrangement of the sentence should be O Lamia, I will take your flesh that remains as my food.

20.

Consonance and Onomatopoeia The writer merely finds two data categorized as consonance because of

having words which have similar consonant in the same place, but different vowel. The writer also finds two data grouped as onomatopoeia due to containing words whose sounds imitating the source of the sound they describe. Thus, the data are elaborated as follows.

51

Table 25 Data of Consonance and Onomatopoeia


Number of Data 403 537 425 448 Data 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. /test/ /test/ it is Real. it is Rael /rel/ /rl/ Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, I watch his countdown timer tick...... Line (s) 3 6 4 2 Stanza 5 4 1 5

Data (403) and (537) taken correspondingly from the songs The Lamia and first part of The Colony of Slippermen are those grouped as consonance. The words test and taste in the former have different vowel, but similar consonants in the same positions i.e. /t/ and /s/. The words Real and Rael in the latter also have different vowel, but similar consonants in the same positions i.e. /r/ and /l/. On the other hand, data (425) and (448) respectively taken from the second part of The Colony of Slippermen and It are those categorized as onomatopoeia. The word squeaky in the former represents the sound of two objects rubbing together, and the word tick in the latter symbolizes the sound of a clock.

21.

Apposition and Parenthesis The writer finds two data categorized as apposition because of having two

elements placed next to each other; where the later element modifies or explains the former. Thus, the data, which are respectively taken from the songs Counting Out Time and the first part of The Colony of Slippermen are elaborated as follows.

52

Table 26 Data of Apposition


Number of Data 247 424 Data Look! I've found the hotspots, Figs 1-9. I've never seen a stranger crowd; Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Line (s) 2 3&4 Stanza 5 1

In data (247), the phrase Figs 1-9 actually explains and defines the previous noun hotspots. In the same way, the phrase Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet in data (424) specify the object stranger crowd. The writer also finds two other data categorized as parenthesis because of having insertions of word or words that interrupt standard syntactic pattern. Hence, the data, which are correspondingly taken from the songs Fly on a Windshield and Anyway, are elaborated as follows.

Table 27 Data of Parenthesis


Number of Data

Data Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil,

73 364

Line (s) 6 7&8

Stanza 2 1

In data (73), the prepositional phrase with his movies trailing interrupts the sentences normal syntax because of being placed between the subject Groucho and the verb stand. Similarly, the prepositional phrase in time in data (364) interrupts the sentences normal arrangement due to being inserted between the subject the rocks and the verb compress.

53

22.

Chiasmus and Antimetabole The writer only finds one data categorized as chiasmus. It is from line four

of the first stanza in the song entitled The Lamia. The data is considered to be chiasmus because of having repeated elements which form ABBA pattern. Thus, the data is elaborated as follows.
Table 28 Data of Chiasmus
Number of Data 370 Data From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Line (s) 4 Stanza 1

The words fragrance and flavours in the above data relatively relate to the same concept associated with senses. Similarly, the words familiar and strange also have the same idea affiliated with stage of intimacy. The aforementioned words are deliberately arranged like so in order to form chiastic ABBA pattern which is detailed as follows.
Figure 5 Illustration of Chiasmus Found in The Lamb Lies down on Broadway Album
From familiar
A

fragrance
B

To

flavours

strange

54

The writer also finds mere one data grouped as antimetabole. It is from line five and six of the second stanza in the song entitled Anyway. The data is considered to be antimetabole because of having words reservedly repeated in consecutive clauses. Hence, the data is detailed as follows.

Table 29 Data of Antimetabole


Number of Data 374 Data Line (s) 5& 6 Stanza 2

Damn it all! does earth plug a hole in heaven, Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound,

The above data obviously shows that the words earth and heaven in line five is repeated reversely in line six.

23.

Irony and Oxymoron One data is categorized as irony because of containing contrast idea as a

mean of ridicule. Thus, the data, which is taken from the song Fly on a Windshield is detailed as follows.
Table 30 Data of Irony
Number of Data 76 Data Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food Line (s) 7 Stanza 2

The subject Klu Klux Klan in the above data refers to organization in United States
which uses violence against black Americans; while the object hot soul food denotes traditional cuisine of African Americans. Therefore, the sentence is considered to be an

55

irony because of illustrating anti-African-American society which serves traditional African American food. The writer also finds another one data grouped as oxymoron because of having two contrasting constituents joined next to each other. Hence, the data, which is taken from the song The Lamia is illustrated as follows. Table 31 Data of Oxymoron
Number of Data 396 Data Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, Line (s) 5 Stanza 4

The words muted and melodies in the above data are contradictory. The former more refers to the condition without any sound; while the latter, on the other hand, denotes the situation with full of musical tones.

24.

Eye Rhyme, Rhetorical Question and Polyptoton Each of these poetic devices is only found in one data as well. Hence, the

data of these found poetic devices, which are correspondingly taken from the songs Fly on a Windshield, Back in N.Y.C and Carpet Crawlers, are elaborated as follows.
Table 32 Data of Eye Rhyme, Rhetorical Question and Polyptoton
Number of Data 78 188 270 Poetic Device Eye Rhyme Rhetorical Question Polyptoton Data peach blossom and bitter almonde. you can bottle all you made. So you think I'm a tough kid? Is that what you heard? There is lambswool under my naked feet. The wool is soft and warm, Line (s) 9 & 11 2 1&2 Stanza 2 1 1

56

Firstly, in data (78), almonde in line nine actually refers to almond with letter e attached to the end of it. The word is written as such in order to rhyme orthographically to the end word of line eleven. Thus, the data is categorized as eye rhyme. Secondly, the questions in data (188) do not require any answer, nor does the asker want to gather information about what he asks. Instead, it is intended to show or confirm whom he asks that he is actually a tough kid. Therefore, the data is categorized as rhetorical question. Finally, in data (274), the word wool in line two is actually refers to the word lambswool in the previous line. These two words are in the same root; therefore, the data is categorized as polyptoton.

57

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A.

Conclusions This research is motivated by the writers reaction after reading the entire

lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album by Genesis. The writer understands that the lyrics are like a group of poems because of the utilization of poem-making technique. Afterwards, two research questions emerge in the writers mind questioning all kinds of poetic devices used in the album and the one that is mostly utilized. These questions are tried to be answered via stylistic analysis analyzing characteristics owned by constituents of the lyrics that match criterion of particular poetic device. After all the data are collected and categorized, each category (discovered poetic devices) are quantified and presented in percentage. Finally, based on the collected and categorized data and their quantification, the writer presents two conclusions which are elaborated as follows.

1. There are thirty kinds of poetic devices that make Genesis album entitled The Lamb Lies down on Broadway poetic i.e. end rhyme, asyndeton, alliteration, internal rhyme, ellipsis, parallelism, assonance, anaphora, conduplicatio, epizeuxis, personification, polysyndeton, antithesis, simile, metaphor, paradox, epistrophe, synecdoche

hyperbaton, parenthesis, consonance, onomatopoeia, apposition, irony,

58

eye rhyme, oxymoron, chiasmus, antimetabole, rhetorical question and polyptoton. 2. End Rhyme is the poetic device which is the most frequently used in the lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway album.

B.

Suggestions The followings are some suggestions addressed to readers in general and

specifically those who want to conduct relatively similar researches. Thus they are elaborated as follows. 1. Thorough stylistic analysis can be conducted for this album because there are other poetic devices in this album that are worth analyzing like imageries, allusions etc. 2. This album can be stylistically analyzed based on other styles like colloquialism, surrealism et cetera. 3. Remembering that The Lamb is a concept album, it can be analyzed literarily based on fiction point of view. 4. Poetic devices surely can be found in other lyrics, so analysis done in this research supposedly can be applied to them. 5. The more established notion or even theory about the relation between poetic devices and song lyrics can be developed.

59

Synopsis

Dalam penelitian ini, penulis menganalisis lirik lagu dari album grup musik Genesis yg berjudul The Lamb Lies down on Broadway dengan menggunakan prinsip prinsip analisis stilistika. Lirik lirik dalam album ini dianggap puitis karena penggunaan poetic device, dan poetic device inilah yang akan ditemukan melalui penelitian ini. Selain itu, poetic device yang paling sering digunakan dalam album ini juga akan dicari melalui proses penelitian ini. Penulis menggunakan metode deskriptif dan kuantitatif dalam penelitian ini. Metode deskriptif digunakan karena tidak adanya perlakuan pada data; penulis hanya melaporkan hasil dari analisis stilistika. Sedangkan metode kuantitatif digunakan atas dasar pendapat dari Nurgiyantoro (2005), yang mengatakan bahwa analisis stilistika memerlukan metode kuantitatif untuk mengurangi kadar subjektifitas. Dengan menggunakan dua metode penelitian tersebut, maka penelitian ini adalah penelitian non experimental yang hanya mendeskripsikan temuan temuan. Sementara dalam proses pengumpulan data, penulis menggunakan metode agih dengan teknik dasarnya yang bernama Bagi Unsur Langsung (BUL) (Sudaryanto, 1991). Metode Agih menganalisa data bahasa berdasarkan prinsip prinsip kebahasaan itu sendiri. Yang menjadi alat penentu dalam metode ini adalah elemen elemen kebahasaan yang sedang diteliti seperti fonem (vokal, konsonan, diftong dll), kata (kata keterangan, kata depan, kata benda dll), fungsi sintaksis (subjek, predikat, objek, keterangan, pelengkap dll), makna (makna

60

asosiatif, makna konotatif, makna denotative dll) dan lain lain. Sedangkan teknik BUL adalah teknik segementasi fenomena kebahasaan yang sedang diteliti menjadi elemen elemen linguistik dalam level linguistik tertentu. Contoh, fenomena kebahasaan seperti back dapat disegmentasi dalam level fonologi menjadi elemen elemen berupa fonem /b/, // dan /k/. Penggunaan metode agih dan teknik BUL ini bersifat intuitif, dengan anggapan bahwa peneliti memiliki intuisi dan kompetensi bahasa yang sedang diteliti. Hasil dari teknik BUL berdasarkan metode agih ini dikategorisasikan menjadi poetic device tertentu berdasarkan karakteristiknya, dinomori dan dinyatakan sebagai satu data. Sebagai ilustrasi, jika dalam satu lagu terdapat bait seperti I think I would, but the translations no good, maka bait tersebut dapat dikategorikan sebagai internal rhyme karena memiliki kata kata yang berima di dalam satu bait (good /ud/ dan would /wud/). Selanjutnya bait tersebut dinyatakan sebagai satu data dan dinomori sebagai data nomor (1). Tiap tiap poetic device dihitung dan disajikan dalam bentuk presentase untuk menentukan poetic device manakah yang paling sering digunakan. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga puluh jenis poetic device yang meliputi lima ratus tiga puluh tujuh data, dan poetic device yang paling sering digunakan adalah end rhyme.

61

Bibliography

Alwasilah, A. C. (2008). Pokoknya Kualitatif: Dasar - dasar Merancang dan Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta : Pustaka Jaya . Brogan, T. V. (1993). Eye Rhyme. In A. Preminger, T. V. Brogan, F. J. Wanke, O. B. Hardison, & E. Miner, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (p. 399). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Brogan, T. V. (1993). Internal Rhyme. In A. Preminger, T. V. Brogan, F. J. Wanke, O. B. Hardison, & E. Miner, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (p. 613). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Alliteration. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Anadiplosis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Anaphora. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Antanaclasis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Antimetabole. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Anthimeria. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Antithesis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Anticlimax. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Apposition. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Assonance. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/
62

Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Asyndeton. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Chiasmus. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Climax. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Conduplicatio. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Consonance. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Ellipsis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Epistrophe. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Epizeuxis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Figures of Speech. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Hyperbaton. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Hyperbole. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Irony. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Litotes. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Metaohor. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Parenthesis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Periphasis. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/

63

Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Polysyndeton. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Rhetorical Question. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Onomatopoeia . Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Oxymoron. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Paradox. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Parallelism. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Personification . Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Rhetorical Questions . Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Schemes. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Simile. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Synecdoche. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Burton, G. O. (2007, February 26). Tropes. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from The Forest of Rhetoric: Silva Rhetoricae: http://rhetoric.byu.edu/ Currie, C. (1998, February 24). Tentative Review by The Christopher Currie: Genesis - The Lamb Lies down on Broadway. Retrieved September 7, 2009, from www.tranglos.com: http://www.tranglos.com/marek/yes/tr_77.html. Furchan, A. (2004). Pengantar Penelitian Dalam Pendidikan . Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar. Kothari, C. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers. Lyric. (2011, May 2). Retrieved May 4, 2011, from Wiktionary, A Wiki-based Open Content Dictionary: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/lyric

64

Malmkjr, K. (2002). Semantics. In K. Malmkjr (Ed.), The Linguistics Encyclopedia (Second Edition ed., p. 455). London & New York: Routledge. Malmkjr, K., & Carter, R. A. (2002). Stylistics. In K. Malmkjr (Ed.), The Linguistics Encyclopedia (Second Edition ed., p. 439). London & New York: Routledge. Nurgiyantoro, B. (2005). Teori Pengkajian Fiksi . Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada University Press. Poetic. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/poetic Poetic Devices in Lyrics. (2011, May 1). Retrieved May 4, 2011, from www.musiclyricsfyi.com: http://www.musiclyricsfyi.com/poetic-devices-inlyrics.html Rhyme. (2011, April 27). Retrieved May 3, 2011, from www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/rhyme. Rios, A. (2000, September 9). Glossary of Rhymes. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from www.asu.edu: http://www.public.asu.edu/~aarios/formsofverse/furtherreading/page2.html Simpson, P. (2004). Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students . London: Routledge. Smith, M. C. (1980). Efficiency Tools in the Speeches of Matin Luther King, Jr. Washington, D.C. : Unpublished Thesis, Howard University, School of Engineering and Software Troubleshooters . Starrett, C. (2010). Similar yet Distinct Art Forms: Poetry & Song Lyrics. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from www.songlyricist.com: http://www.songlyricist.com/lyricorpoem.htm Stylistic device. (2009, June 16). Retrieved July 15, 2009, www.wikipedia.com: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stylistic devices from

Stylistics (linguistics). (2009, June 19). Retrieved July 13, 2009, from www.wikipedia.com: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/stylistics (linguistics) Sudaryanto. (1993). Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa: Pengentar Penelitian Wahan Kebudayaan secara Linguistis. Yogyakarta : Duta Wacana University Press.

65

Sudaryanto. (1991). Metode dan Aneka Teknik Pengumpulan Data dalam Rangka Linguistik: Prinsip-Prinsip Dan Konsep Dasar. In S. Sutrisno, Darusuprapta, & Sudaryanto (Eds.), Bahasa, Sastra, Budaya: Ratna Manikam Untaian Persembahan kepada Prof. Dr. P. J. Zoetmulder (p. 23). Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Trochim, W. M. (2006, October 20). Qualitative Data. Retrieved June 6, 2011, from www.socialresearchmethods.net: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualdata.php Wang, J. (2010, March 6). Literary and Poetic Devices . Retrieved May 1, 2011, from www.docstoc.com: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/42046149/Literary-and-Poetic-Devices. Warnke, F. J., Halsall, A. W., & Brogan, T. V. (1993). Oxymoron. In A. Preminger, T. V. Brogan, F. J. Wanke, O. B. Hardison, & E. Miner, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (p. 873). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Wolosky, S. (2001). The Art of Petry: How to Read a Poem. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

66

APPENDICES

67

Appendix I The lyrics of The Lamb Lies down on Broadway Album


1. The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway Line 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Stanza 1

And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Early morning Manhattan, Ocean winds blow on the land. The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go. Get out! It seems they cannot leave their dream. There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Nightime's flyers feel their pains. Drugstore takes down the chains. Metal motion comes in bursts, But the gas station can quench that thirst. Suspension cracked on unmade road The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' And out on the subway, Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid Exits into daylight, spraygun hid, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. The lamb seems right out of place, Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face. Somehow it's lying there, Brings a stillness to the air. Though man-made light, at night is very bright, There's no whitewash victim, As the neons dim, to the coat of white. Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid, Wipes his gun-he's forgotten what he did, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Suzanne tired her work all done, Thinks money-honey-be on-neon. Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn And the sawdust king spits out his scorn. Wonder women draw your blind! Don't look at me! I'm not your kind. I'm Rael! Something inside me has just begun, Lord knows what I have done, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. On BroadwayThey say the lights are always bright on Broadway. They say there's always magic in the air.

2.

Fly on a Windshield Line Stanza

There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square. No-one seems to care, They carry on as if nothing was there. The wind is blowing harder now, Blowing dust into my eyes. The dust settles on my skin, Making a crust I cannot move in And I'm hovering like a fly, waiting for the windshield on the freeway. Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food and the band plays 'In the Mood' The cheerleader waves her cyanide wand, there's a smell of peach blossom and bitter almonde. Caryl Chessman sniffs the air and leads the parade, he know in a scent, you can bottle all you made. There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes smoking Winston Cigarettes. And as the song and dance begins, the children play at home with needles; needles and pins.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

3.

Cuckoo Cocoon Line Stanza

Wrapped up in some powdered wool-I guess I'm losing touch. Don't tell me I'm dying, 'cos I ain't changed that much. The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Some kind of jam? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you?

1 2 3 4 5

There's nothing I can recognise; this is nowhere that I've known. With no sign of life at all, I guess that I'm alone, And I feel so secure that I know this can't be real but I feel good. Cuckoo cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. No-I'm still Rael and I'm stuck in some kind of cave, what could've saved me? Cuckoo cocoon have I come to, too soon for you?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4. I've got sunshine in my stomach Like I just rocked my baby to sleep. I've got sunshine in my stomach And I can't keep me from creeping sleep, Sleep, deep in the deep. Rockface moves to press my skin White liquids turn sour within Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. Must tell myself that I'm not here. I'm drowning in a liquid fear. Bottled in a strong compression, My distortion shows obsession In the cave. Get me out of this cave! If I keep my self-control, I'll be safe in my soul. And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. My spirit just never learns. Stalactites, stalagmites Shut me in, lock me tight. Lips are dry, throat is dry. Feel like burning, stomach churning, I'm dressed up in a white costume Padding out leftover room. Body stretching, feel the wretching In the cage Get me out of this cage!

In The Cage Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stanza

In the glare of a light, I see a strange kind of sight; Of cages joined to form a star Each person can't go very far; All tied to their things They are netted by their strings, Free to flutter in memories of their wasted wings. Outside the cage I see my Brother John, He turns his head so slowly round. I cry out help! before he can be gone, And he looks at me without a sound. And I shout 'John please help me!' But he does not even want to try to speak. I'm helpless in my violent rage And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. My little runaway.

In a trap, feel a strap Holding still. Pinned for kill. Chances narrow that I'll make it, In the cushioned straight-jacket. Just like 22nd Street, When they got me by my neck and feet. Pressures building, can't take any more. My headaches charge. My earaches roar. In the pain Get me out of this pain. If I could change to liquid, I could fill the cracks up in the rock. But I know that I am solid And I am my own bad luck. But outside John disappears and my cage dissolves, and without any reason my body revolves. Keep on turning, Keep on turning, Turning around, spinning around.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4

5.

The Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stanza

'The last great adventure left to mankind' -Screams a drooping lady offering her dreamdolls at less than extortionate prices, and as the notes and coins are taken out I'm taken in, to the factory floor. For the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -All ready to use the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -just need a fuse. Got people stocked in every shade, Must be doing well with trade. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. That evens out their personality. With profit potential marked by a sign, I can recognise some of the production line, No bite at all in labour bondage, Just wrinkled wrappers or human bandage. The Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -All ready to use It's the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -just need a fuse. The hall runs like clockwork Their hands mark out the time, Empty in their fullness Like a frozen pantomime. Everyone's a sales representative Wearing slogans in their shrine. Dishing out failsafe superlative, Brothere John is No. 9. For the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -All ready to use It's the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -just need a fuse. The decor on the ceiling has planned out their future day I see no sign of free will, so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, for the Grand Parade. for the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -All ready to use the Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging -just need a fuse.

6.

Back in NYC Line Stanza

I see faces and traces of home back in New York CitySo you think I'm a tough kid? Is that what you heard? Well I like to see some action and it gets into my blood. The call me the trail blazer-Rael-electric razor. I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. Let me out of Pontiac when I was just seventeen, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. But I know it's me that's hitting out and I'm not full of shit. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. This is your mess I'm stuck in, I really don't belong. When I take out my bottle, filled up high with gasoline, You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. As I cuddled the porcupine He said I had none to blame, but me. Held my heart, deep in hair, Time to shave, shave it off, it off. No time for romantic escape, When your fluffy heart is ready for rape. No! Off we go. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. Your progressive hypocrites hand out their trash, But it was mine in the first place, so I'll burn it to ash. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. Who needs illusion of love and affection When you're out walking the streets with your mainline connection? connection. As I cuddle the porcupine He said I had none to blame, but me. Held my heart, deep in hair. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. No time for romantic escape, When your fluffy heart is ready for rape. No!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6

7.

Counting Out Time Line 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stanza

I'm counting out time, Got the whole thing down by numbers. All those numbers! Give my guidance! O Lord I need that now. The day of judgement's come, And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Digesting every word the experts say. Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Found a girl I wanted to date, Thought I'd better get it straight. Went to buy a book before it's too late. Don't leave nothing to fate. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. This is Rael! I'm counting out time, hoping it goes like I planned it, 'cos I understand it. Look! I've found the hotspots, Figs 1-9. -still counting out time, got my finger on the button, 'Don't say nuttin-just lie there still And I'll get you turned on just fine.' Erongenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Touch and go with 1-6. Bit of trouble in zone No. 7. Gotta remember all of my tricks. There's heaven ahead in No. 11! Getting crucial responses with dialation of the pupils. 'Honey get hip! It's time to unzip, to unzip. Whipee!' -Move over CasanovaI'm counting out time, reaction none to happy, Please don't slap me, I'm a red blooded male and the book said I could not fail. I'm counting out time, I got unexpected distress from my mistress, I'll get my money back from the bookstore right away. Erongenous zones I question youWithout you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, mankind handkinds thru' the blues.

8.

The Carpet Crawlers Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stanza

There is lambswool under my naked feet. The wool is soft and warm, -gives off some kind of heat. A salamander scurries into flame to be destroyed. Imaginary creatures are trapped in birth on celluloid. The fleas cling to the golden fleece, Hoping they'll find peace. Each thought and gesture are caught in celluloid. There's no hiding in my memory. There's no room to void.

The crawlers cover the floor in the red ochre corridor. For my second sight of people, they've more lifeblood than before. They're moving. They're moving in time to a heavy wooden door, Where the needle's eye is winking, closing in on the poor. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out We've got to get in to get out.'

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

There's only one direction in the faces that I see; It's upward to the ceiling, where the chambers said to be. Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. They are pulled up by the magnet, believing that they're free. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out We've got to get in to get out.'

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Mild mannered supermen are held in kryptonite, And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. Through a door a harvest feast is lit by candlight; It's the bottom of a staircase that spirals out of sight. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out We've got to get in to get out.'

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The porcelain manikin with shattered skin fears attack. The eager pack lift up their pitchers- the carry all they lack. The liquid has congealed, which has seeped out through the crack, And the tickler takes his stickleback. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out We've got to get in to get out.'

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9.

Chamber of 32 Doors Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stanza

At the top of the stairs, there's hundreds of people, running around to all the doors. They try to find themselves an audience; their deductions need applause. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. They believe they can control the game, but the juggler holds another pack. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I'd rather trust a countryman than a townman, You can judge by his eyes, take a look if you can, He'll smile through his guard, Survival trains hard. I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, He looks at you once, you know he understands, Don't need any shield, When you're out in the field. But down here, I'm so alone with my fear, With everything that I hear. And every single door, that I've walked through Brings me back here again, I've got to find my own way. The priest and the magician, Singing all the chants that they have ever heard; They're all calling out my name, Even academics, searching printed word. My father to the left of me, My mother to the right, Like everyone else they'er pointing But nowhere feels quite right. And I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I'd rather trust a man who doesn't shout what he's found, There's no need to sell if you're homeward bound. If I chose a side, He won't take me for a ride. Back inside This chamber of so many doors; I've nowhere to hide. I'd give you all of my dreams, if you'd help me, Find a door That doesn't lead me back again -take me away.

10. Lilywhite Lilith Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stanza

The chamber was in confusion-all the voices shouting loud. I could only just hear, a voice quite near say, 'Please help me through the crowd' 'Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could see that she was wholly blind. But from her pale face and her pale skin, a moonlight shined. Lilywhite Lilith, She gonna take you thru' the tunnel of night. Lilywhite Lilith, She gonna lead you right. When I'd led her through the people, the angry noise began to grow. She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show you where to go.' So I followed her into a big round cave, she said 'They're coming for you, now don't be afraid.' Then she sat me down on a cold stone throne, carved in jade. Lilywhite Lilith, She gonna take you thru' the tunnel of night. Lilywhite Lilith, She gonna lead you right. She leaves me in my darkness, I have to face my fear, And the darkness closes in on me, I can hear a whirring sound growling near. I can see the corner of the tunnel, Lit up by whatever's coming here. Two golden globes float into the room And a blaze of white light fills the air.

11. Anyway Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Stanza

All the pumping's nearly over for my sweet heart, This is the one for me, Time to meet the chef, O boy! running man is out of death. Feel cold and old, it's getting hard to catch my breath. 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, enrich the soil, not everybody's goal. Anyway, they say she comes on a pale horse, But I'm sure I hear a train. O boy! I don't even feel no painI guess I must be driving myself insane. Damn it all! does earth plug a hole in heaven, Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound, when everything you are is dying underground.' I feel the pull on the rope, let me off at the rainbow. I could have been exploding in space Different orbits for my bones Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Keep the deadline open with my maker! See me stretch; for God's elastic acre The doorbell rings and it's 'Good morning Rael So sorry you had to wait. It won't be long, yeh! She's very rarely late.'

12. The Lamia Line 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 Stanza

The scent grows richer, he knows he must be near, He finds a long passageway lit by chandelier. Each step he takes, the perfumes change From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. A magnificent chamber meets his eye. Inside, a long rose-water pool is shrouded by fine mist. Stepping in the moist silence, with a warm breeze he's gently kissed. Thinking he is quite alone, He enters the room, as if it were his own, But ripples on the sweet pink water Reveal some company unthought ofRael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; Three vermilion snakes of female face, The smallest motion, filled with grace. Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, But there is no sign of warning in the siren's call: 'Rael welcome, we are the Lamia of the pool. We have been waiting for our waters to bring you cool.' Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, He slips into the nectar, leaving his shredded clothes behind. 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. They move in a series of caresses That glide up and down my spine. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Only a magic that a name would stain. With the first drop of my blood in their veins Their faces are convulsed in mortal pains. The fairest cries, 'We all have loved you Rael'.' Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. Looking for motion I know I will not find, I stroke the curls now turning pale, in which I'd lain entwined 'O Lamia, your flesh that remains I will take as my food' It is the scent of garlic that lingers on my chocolate fingers. Looking behind me, the water turns icy blue, The lights are dimmed and once again the stage is set for you.

13. The Colony Of Slippermen

a.

The Arrival Line Rael: I wandered lonely as a cloud, Till I came upon this dirty street. I've never seen a stranger crowd; Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Continually pacing, With nonchalant embracing, Each orifice disgracing And one facing me moves to say 'hellay'. His skin's all covered in slimy lumps. With lips that slide across each chin. His twisted limbs like rubber stamps Are waved in welcome say 'Please join in.' My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping And his lips keep on smiling all the time. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stanza

Slipperman: 'We like you, have tasted love. Don't be alarmed at what you see, You yourself are just the same As what you see in me.' 1 2 3 4

Rael: Me, like you? like that! 1 5

Slipperman: 'You better watch it son, your sentence has only just begun You better run and join your brother John.' 1 2 6

b.

A Visit to the Doktor Slipperman: 'You're in the colony of slippermen. There's no who? why? what? or when? You get out if you've got the gripe To see, Doktor Dyper, reformed sniperhe'll whip off your windscreenwiper Line 1 2 1 2 3 Stanza 1

Rael: John and I are able To face the Doktor and his marble table. 1 2

The Doktor: Understand Rael, it's the end of your tail. 1 4

Rael: 'Don't delay, dock the dick!' I watch his countdown timer tick...... 1 2

c.

The Raven Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 Stanza

He places the number into a tube, A yellow plastic 'shoobedoobe'. It says: 'Though your fingers may tickle You'll be safe in our pickle.' Suddenly, black cloud comes down from the sky. It's a supersize black bird that sure can fly. The raven brings on darkness and night He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He takes the tube right out of my hands Man, I've got to find out where that black bird lands. 'Look here John, I've got to run I need you now, you going to come?' He says to me.

John: 'Now can't you see Where the raven flies there's jeopardy. We've been cured on the couch Now you're sick with your grouch. I'll not risk my honey pouch Which my slouch will wear slung very low.' 1 2 1 2 3 4 4

Rael: He walks away and leaves me once again. Even though I never learn, I'd hoped he'd show just some concern. I'm in agony of Slipperpain I pray my undercarriage will sustain. The chase is on, the pace is hot But I'm running so very hard with everything I've got. He leads me down an underpass Though it narrows, he still flies very fast, When the tunnel stops I catch sight of the tube, just as it drops. I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, I see it hit the water, just in time, to watch it float away. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

14. The Light Dies Down on Broadway Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stanza

As he walks along the gorge's edge, He meets a sense of yesteryear. A window in the bank above his head Reveals his home amidst the streets. Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint The smell of acid on his gun of paint. As it carves out anger in a blood-red band, Destroyed tomorrow by an unknown hand; -My home. Is this the way out from this endless scene? Or just an entrance to another dream? And the light dies down on Broadway. But as the skylight beckons him to leave, He hears a scream from far below. Within the raging water, writhes the form Of brother John, he cries for help. The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide Between the freedom I had in the rat-race, Or to stay forever in this forsaken place; Hey John! He makes for the river and the gate is gone, Back to the void where it came from. And the light dies down on Broadway.

15. Riding The Scree Line 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 Stanza 1

Struggling down the slope, There's not much hope. I begin to try to ride the scree but the rocks are tumbling all around me. If I want John alive, I've got to ditch my fear - take a dive While I've still got my drive to survive. Evel Knievel you got nothing on me. Here I go!

16. In The Rapids Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stanza

Moving down the water John is drifting out of sight, It's only at the turning point That you find out how to fight. In the cold, feel the cold all around And the rush of crashing water Surround me with its sound. Striking out to reach you, I can't get through to the other side. When you're racing in the rapids There's only one way, that's to ride. Taken down, taken down by the undertow And I'm spiralled down the river bed, My fire is burning low. Catching hold of a rock that's firm, I'm waiting for John to be carried past. We hold together and shoot the rapids fast. And when the waters slow down The dark and the deep have no-one left to keep. Hang on John! We're out of this at last. Something's changed, that's not your face. It's mine!

17. It Lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Stanza

When it's cold, it comes slow. it is warm, just watch it grow. -all around me. it is here. it is now. Just a little bit of it can bring you up or down. Like the supper it is cooking in your hometown. it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, leaving your cocoon. it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now. Any rock can be made to roll, If you've enough of it to pay the toll. it has no home in words or goal, Not even in your favourite hole. it is the hope for the dope. When you ride the horse without a hoof. it is shaken, not stirred; Cocktails on the roof. When you eat right fruit you see everything alive, it is inside spirit, with enough grit to survive If you think it's pretentious, you've been taken for a ride. Look across the mirror, before you chose de cide it is here. it is now it is Real. it is Rael 'cos it's only knock and knowall, but I like it.

Appendix II Complete Data of the Research


No. 1 2 3 4 Poetic Device Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme Data And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Early morning Manhattan, Ocean winds blow on the land. Early morning Manhattan The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go. It seems they cannot leave their dream. There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, It seems they cannot leave their dream There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Nightime's flyers feel their pains. Drugstore takes down the chains. Nightime's flyers feel their pains. Drugstore takes down the chains. Metal motion comes in bursts, But the gas station can quench that thirst. Metal motion comes in bursts But the gas station can quench that thirst. Suspension cracked on unmade road The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' Line (s) 1 1&2 1 3&4 Stanza 1 2 2 2 Song No. 1 1 1 1

Asyndeton

3&4

6 7 8 9

End Rhyme Assonance Internal Rhyme Asyndeton

5&6 5 5 5&6

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

End Rhyme Assonance Internal Rhyme Alliteration Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration Personification End Rhyme Alliteration Alliteration End Rhyme Personification Synecdoche

8&9 8 9 9 10 1&2 1 2 3&4 3 4 5&6 6 6

2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

24

Polysyndeton

And out on the subway, Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid Exits into daylight, spraygun hid, And the lamb lies down on Broadway.

7 - 10

25

End Rhyme

Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid Exits into daylight, spraygun hid

8&9

26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration Assonance Alliteration Personification End Rhyme

And the lamb lies down on Broadway. The lamb seems right out of place, Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face. Somehow it's lying there, Brings a stillness to the air. Though man-made light, at night is very bright, As the neons dim, to the coat of white. Though man-made light, at night is very bright Though man-made light, at night is very bright, There's no whitewash victim, Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid, Wipes his gun-he's forgotten what he did,

10 1&2 2 2 2 2 3&4

3 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

33 34 35

End Rhyme Alliteration Internal Rhyme

5&7 5 5

4 4 4

1 1 1

36

End Rhyme

6, 8, 9

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Asyndeton Alliteration Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Personification Synecdoche End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme

Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid, Wipes his gun-he's forgotten what he did, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Thinks money-honey-be on-neon. Thinks money-honey-be on-neon. Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn Wonder women draw your blind! Don't look at me! I'm not your kind. Wonder women draw your blind! Something inside me has just begun, Lord knows what I have done, Something inside me has just begun, Lord knows what I have done, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. They say the lights are always bright on Broadway. They say there's always magic in the air.

8&9 10 2 2 3 3 5&6 5 8&9

4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

46 47 48 49

Asyndeton Alliteration Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme

8&9 10 12 13

5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1

50

End Rhyme

There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square. No-one seems to care, They carry on as if nothing was there.

1-4

51 52 53 54

Alliteration Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton

There's something solid forming in the air, There's something solid forming in the air, There's something solid forming in the air, There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square.

1 1 1 1&2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

55

Asyndeton

No-one seems to care, They carry on as if nothing was there. The wind is blowing harder now, Blowing dust into my eyes. Blowing dust into my eyes. The dust settles on my skin, The dust settles on my skin, Making a crust I cannot move in And I'm hovering like a fly, waiting for the windshield on the freeway. And I'm hovering like a fly, waiting for the windshield on the freeway. Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food and the band plays 'In the Mood' Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food and the band plays 'In the Mood' Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food The cheerleader waves her cyanide wand, there's a smell of peach blossom and bitter almonde. peach blossom and bitter almonde. you can bottle all you made. Caryl Chessman sniffs the air and leads the parade Caryl Chessman sniffs the air and leads the parade, he know in a scent, you can bottle all you made. There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes smoking Winston Cigarettes. There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes smoking Winston Cigarettes. There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes

3&4

56

Conduplicatio

5&6

57

Conduplicatio

6&7

58 59 60 61 62 63

End Rhyme Alliteration Simile End Rhyme Alliteration Personification

7&8 9 9 1&2 2 1&2

1 1 1 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Parallelism Alliteration Internal Rhyme End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Antithesis Internal Rhyme Parenthesis Alliteration Internal Rhyme Irony Asyndeton

3&4 3 3 4 4 5&6 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8&9

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

78 79 80

Eye Rhyme Parallelism Asyndeton

9 & 11 10 10 & 11

2 2 2

2 2 2

81

End Rhyme

12 & 13

82 83 84

Parallelism Internal Rhyme Assonance

12 & 13 12 12

2 2 2

2 2 2

85 86 87 88

Epizeuxis End Rhyme Assonance End Rhyme

with needles; needles and pins. Wrapped up in some powdered wool-I guess I'm losing touch. Don't tell me I'm dying, 'cos I ain't changed that much. Don't tell me I'm dying, 'cos I ain't changed that much. The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Some kind of jam? The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Some kind of jam? The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? There's nothing I can recognise; this is nowhere that I've known. With no sign of life at all, I guess that I'm alone, Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? I've got sunshine in my stomach Like I just rocked my baby to sleep. And I can't keep me from creeping sleep, Sleep, deep in the deep. And I can't keep me from creeping sleep, Sleep, deep in the deep. Rockface moves to press my skin White liquids turn sour within Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. Must tell myself that I'm not here. I'm drowning in a liquid fear. Must tell myself that I'm not here. Must tell myself that I'm not here. Bottled in a strong compression, My distortion shows obsession My distortion shows obsession In the cave. Get me out of this cave!

15 1&2 2 3&4

2 1 1 1

2 3 3 3

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Asyndeton Alliteration Alliteration Assonance End Rhyme Alliteration Assonance End Rhyme

3&4 3 5 5 1&2 4 4 5&6

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

97 98 99 100 101 102 103

Metaphor Alliteration Assonance Simile Assonance Assonance Conduplicatio

5&6 9 9 1&2 4 5 4&5

2 2 2 1 1 1 1

3 3 3 4 4 4 4

104

End Rhyme

6&7

105

Anaphora

8&9

106

Epistrophe

8&9

107 108 109 110 111 112

End Rhyme Alliteration Ellipsis End Rhyme Personification Epistrophe

10 & 11 10 10 12 & 13 13 14 & 15

1 1 1 1 1 1

4 4 4 4 4 4

113

End Rhyme

If I keep my self-control, I'll be safe in my soul. And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief,

1&2

114

End Rhyme

3&4

115

End Rhyme

But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. My spirit just never learns.

5-7

116

Antithesis

And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns.

3-6

117

Polysyndeton

And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns.

3-6

118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130

Alliteration Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Parallelism Asyndeton Parallelism Asyndeton Epistrophe Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Ellipsis Ellipsis Asyndeton

Stalactites, stalagmites Stalactites, stalagmites Stalactites, stalagmites Stalactites, stalagmites Shut me in, lock me tight. Shut me in, lock me tight. Lips are dry, throat is dry. Lips are dry, throat is dry. Feel like burning, stomach churning, Feel like burning, stomach churning, Feel like burning stomach churning, Feel like burning, stomach churning, I'm dressed up in a white costume Padding out leftover room. I'm dressed up in a white costume Padding out leftover room. Body stretching, feel the wretching Body stretching, feel the wretching In the cave. Get me out of this cave! In the glare of a light, I see a strange kind of sight; Of cages joined to form a star Each person can't go very far;

1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4-6

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

131 132 133 134

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Epistrophe

5&6 7 7 8&9

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

135

End Rhyme

1&2

136

End Rhyme

3&4

137

End Rhyme

All tied to their things They are netted by their strings, Free to flutter in memories of their wasted wings.

5-7

138

Asyndeton

Outside the cage I see my Brother John, He turns his head so slowly round. Outside the cage I see my Brother John, I cry out help! before he can be gone, He turns his head so slowly round. And he looks at me without a sound. And he looks at me without a sound. And I shout 'John please help me!' But he does not even want to try to speak. And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, I'm helpless in my violent rage And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. In a trap, feel a strap In a trap, feel a strap Holding still. Pinned for kill. Chances narrow that I'll make it, Holding still. Pinned for kill. Chances narrow that I'll make it, Just like 22nd Street, When they got me by my neck and feet. Just like 22nd Street, When they got me by my neck and feet. Pressures building, can't take any more. My headaches charge. My earaches roar. Pressures building, can't take any more. Pressures building can't take any more. In the pain Get me out of this pain. If I could change to liquid, But I know that I am solid I could fill the cracks up in the rock. And I am my own bad luck.

1&2

139

End Rhyme

1&3

140

End Rhyme

2&4

141

Anaphora

4&5

142

End Rhyme

6&8

143

End Rhyme

7&9

144

Anaphora

8&9

145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Polysyndeton Internal Rhyme Ellipsis End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Ellipsis End Rhyme

8&9 1 1 2&3 2 3 5&6

5 6 6 6 6 6 6

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

152

Simile

5&6

153 154 155 156 157

End Rhyme Asyndeton Ellipsis Ellipsis Epistrophe

7&8 7 7 7 9 & 10

6 6 6 6 6

4 4 4 4 4

158

End Rhyme

1&3

159

End Rhyme

2&4

160

Antithesis

If I could change to liquid, I could fill the cracks up in the rock. But I know that I am solid And I am my own bad luck.

1-4

161

Polysyndeton

But outside John disappears and my cage dissolves, and without any reason my body revolves.

5&6

162

Epizeuxis

Keep on turning, Keep on turning, Turning around, spinning around. and as the notes and coins are taken out I'm taken in, to the factory floor. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. Got people stocked in every shade, Must be doing well with trade. Must be doing well with trade. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. That evens out their personality. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. With profit potential marked by a sign, I can recognise some of the production line, With profit potential marked by a sign, No bite at all in labour bondage, Just wrinkled wrappers or human bandage. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. The hall runs like clockwork The hall runs like clockwork Their hands mark out the time, Like a frozen pantomime. Empty in their fullness Like a frozen pantomime. Empty in their fullness Everyone's a sales representative Dishing out failsafe superlative, Wearing slogans in their shrine. /ran/ Brothere John is No. 9. /nan/ -All ready to use -just need a fuse. so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, I see faces and traces of home back in New York City-

1&2

163

Epistrophe

3&4

164

Paradox

4&5

165

End Rhyme

7&9

166

End Rhyme

8 & 10

167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175

End Rhyme Ellipsis End Rhyme Ellipsis Parallelism Asyndeton End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme

1&2 2 3&4 3 3 3 5&6 5 7&8

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

176 177 178 179

End Rhyme Personification Simile End Rhyme

2&4 1 1 2&4

3 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

180 181 182

Simile Paradox End Rhyme

3&4 3 5&7

4 4 4

5 5 5

183

End Rhyme

6&8

184

End Rhyme

2&4

185

End Rhyme

4&5

186 187

Conduplicatio Internal Rhyme

4&5 1

6 1

5 6

188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196

Rhetorical Question Assonance Internal Rhyme End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Paradox Simile End Rhyme

So you think I'm a tough kid? Is that what you heard? The call me the trail blazer-Rael-electric razor. The call me the trail blazer-Rael-electric razor. I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. Let me out of Pontiac when I was just seventeen, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. Let me out of Pontiac when I was just seventeen, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. But I know it's me that's hitting out and I'm not full of shit. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. This is your mess I'm stuck in, I really don't belong. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. This is your mess I'm stuck in, I really don't belong. When I take out my bottle, filled up high with gasoline, You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. He said I had none to blame, but me. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. No time for romantic escape, When your fluffy heart is ready for rape. No! Off we go. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. Your progressive hypocrites hand out their trash, But it was mine in the first place, so I'll burn it to ash.

2 4 4 5&6 5 5 6 6 7&8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213

Asyndeton Epizeuxis End Rhyme Epizeuxis End Rhyme Anaphora Asyndeton Asyndeton End Rhyme Assonance Epizeuxis Ellipsis Ellipsis Conduplicatio Epizeuxis Ellipsis End Rhyme

7&8 8 1&2 1 3&4 3 3 4 5&6 6 6 2 4 4 4 5 6&7

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

214 215 216

End Rhyme Asyndeton Asyndeton

1&2 1 1&2

4 4 4

6 6 6

217

Anaphora

1&2

218

End Rhyme

3&4

219

End Rhyme

And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. Who needs illusion of love and affection When you're out walking the streets with your mainline connection? connection. When you're out walking the streets with your mainline connection? connection. He said I had none to blame, but me. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. I'm counting out time, Got the whole thing down by numbers. Got the whole thing down by numbers. All those numbers!

5&6

220

Polysyndeton

5&6

221

Anaphora

5&6

222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230

End Rhyme Epizeuxis Ellipsis Ellipsis Conduplicatio Epizeuxis Internal Rhyme Ellipsis Epistrophe

7&8 8 2 4 4 4 1 2 2&3

4 4 5 5 5 5 1 1 1

6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7

231

Conduplicatio

Got the whole thing down by numbers. All those numbers! Give my guidance!

2-4

232

End Rhyme

And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing,

2&3

233

Asyndeton

And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Digesting every word the experts say.

2-4

234

Parallelism

And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Digesting every word the experts say.

2-4

235 236

Conduplicatio Alliteration

Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do?

5&6 6

2 2

7 7

237

End Rhyme

Found a girl I wanted to date, Thought I'd better get it straight. Went to buy a book before it's too late. Don't leave nothing to fate.

1-4

238 239 240

Ellipsis Ellipsis Anaphora

Thought I'd better get it straight. Went to buy a book before it's too late. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And I have studied every line, every page in the book,

2 3 5&6

3 3 3

7 7 7

241 242 243

Polysyndeton Asyndeton Parallelism

5&6 5 5

3 3 3

7 7 7

244 245 246 247

Asyndeton Epizeuxis Internal Rhyme Apposition

And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. I'm counting out time, Look! I've found the hotspots, Figs 1-9. -still counting out time, got my finger on the button, 'Don't say nuttin-just lie there still And I'll get you turned on just fine.' -still counting out time, got my finger on the button, Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do? Touch and go with 1-6. /sks/ Gotta remember all of my tricks. /trks/ Touch and go with 1-6. Bit of trouble in zone No. 7. /sevn/ There's heaven ahead in No. 11! /levn/ Bit of trouble in zone No. 7. Gotta remember all of my tricks. 'Honey get hip! It's time to unzip, to unzip. Whipee!' I'm counting out time, I'm counting out time, reaction none to happy, Please don't slap me,

6 6 1 2

3 3 5 5

7 7 7 7

248

Asyndeton

3-5

249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260

Ellipsis Ellipsis Conduplicatio Alliteration End Rhyme Ellipsis End Rhyme Ellipsis Ellipsis Epizeuxis Internal Rhyme End Rhyme

3 3 6&7 7 1&3 1 2&4 2 3 6 1 1&2

5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

261

Asyndeton

I'm counting out time, reaction none to happy, Please don't slap me, I'm a red blooded male and the book said I could not fail. I'm a red blooded male and the book said I could not fail. I'm counting out time, I'm counting out time, I got unexpected distress from my mistress, I'll get my money back from the bookstore right away. I'm counting out time, I got unexpected distress from my mistress, Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, mankind handkinds thru' the blues. There is lambswool under my naked feet. -gives off some kind of heat. There is lambswool under my naked feet. The wool is soft and warm,

1-3

262 263 264 265 266 267 268

Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Internal Rhyme Conduplicatio Alliteration Anaphora

3 4 4&5 4 6&7 7 7&8

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

269

End Rhyme

1&3

270

Polyptoton

1&2

271

End Rhyme

A salamander scurries into flame to be destroyed. Imaginary creatures are trapped in birth on celluloid. Each thought and gesture are caught in celluloid. There's no room to void.

3, 4, 7 &9

272 273 274 275

Alliteration End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Anaphora

A salamander scurries into flame to be destroyed. The fleas cling to the golden fleece, Hoping they'll find peace. The fleas cling to the golden fleece, There's no hiding in my memory. There's no room to void.

3 5&6 5 8&9

1 1 1 1

8 8 8 8

276

End Rhyme

The crawlers cover the floor in the red ochre corridor. For my second sight of people, they've more lifeblood than before. They're moving. They're moving in time to a heavy wooden door, The crawlers cover the floor in the red ochre corridor. They're moving. They're moving in time to a heavy wooden door, The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out Where the needle's eye is winking, closing in on the poor.

1-3

277 278 279 280 281 282

Internal Rhyme Epizeuxis Internal Rhyme Alliteration Paradox Personification

1 3 5 6&7 6&7 4

2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8

283

End Rhyme

There's only one direction in the faces that I see; It's upward to the ceiling, where the chambers said to be. Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. They are pulled up by the magnet, believing that they're free.

1-4

284 285 286 287 288

Alliteration Simile Internal Rhyme Alliteration Paradox

Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out

3 3 5 6&7 6&7

3 3 3 3 3

8 8 8 8 8

289

End Rhyme

Mild mannered supermen are held in kryptonite, And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. Through a door a harvest feast is lit by candlight; It's the bottom of a staircase that spirals out of sight.

1-4

290 291 292 293 294 295 296

Alliteration Antithesis Polysyndeton Parallelism Internal Rhyme Alliteration Paradox

Mild mannered supermen are held in kryptonite, And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out

1 2 2 2 5 5 6&7

4 4 4 4 4 5 4

8 8 8 8 8 8 8

297

End Rhyme

The porcelain manikin with shattered skin fears attack. The eager pack lift up their pitchers- the carry all they lack. The liquid has congealed, which has seeped out through the crack, And the tickler takes his stickleback.

1-4

298 299 300 301

Internal Rhyme Alliteration Paradox End Rhyme

The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out running around to all the doors. their deductions need applause. The poor man behind my back. but the juggler holds another pack. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I'd rather trust a countryman than a townman, You can judge by his eyes, take a look if you can, He'll smile through his guard, Survival trains hard. I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, He looks at you once, you know he understands, I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, Don't need any shield, When you're out in the field.

5 6&7 6&7 2&4

5 5 5 1

8 8 8 9

302

End Rhyme

6&8

303

Ellipsis

5&6

304

Asyndeton

5&6

305

Ellipsis

5&6

306 307 308 309

Anaphora Conduplicatio Conduplicatio End Rhyme

5&6 1&2 1&2 1&2

1 1 1 3

9 9 9 9

310

End Rhyme

3&4

311 312 313 314

End Rhyme Alliteration Synecdoche End Rhyme

5&6 5 5 7&8

3 3 3 3

9 9 9 9

315

Asyndeton

I'd rather trust a countryman than a townman, You can judge by his eyes, take a look if you can, He'll smile through his guard, Survival trains hard.

1-4

316

Asyndeton

I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, He looks at you once, you know he understands, Don't need any shield, When you're out in the field.

5-8

317

End Rhyme

But down here, I'm so alone with my fear, With everything that I hear.

1-3

318

Asyndeton

And every single door, that I've walked through Brings me back here again, I've got to find my own way.

4-6

319

Ellipsis

The priest and the magician, Singing all the chants that they have ever heard;

1&2

320 321 322

End Rhyme Ellipsis Asyndeton

Singing all the chants that they have ever heard; Even academics, searching printed word. Even academics, searching printed word. My father to the left of me, My mother to the right, My father to the left of me, My mother to the right, My mother to the right, But nowhere feels quite right. Like everyone else they'er pointing But nowhere feels quite right. I'd rather trust a man who doesn't shout what he's found, There's no need to sell if you're homeward bound. I'd rather trust a man who doesn't shout what he's found, There's no need to sell if you're homeward bound. If I chose a side, He won't take me for a ride. The chamber was in confusion-all the voices shouting loud. through the crowd' I could only just hear, a voice quite near say, 'Please help me 'Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could 'Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could see that she was wholly blind. see that she was wholly blind. But from her pale face and her pale skin, a moonlight shined. Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, When I'd led her through the people, the angry noise began to grow. She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show you where to go.' She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show So I followed her into a big round cave, she said 'They're coming for you, now don't be afraid.' for you, now don't be afraid.' Then she sat me down on a cold stone throne, carved in jade. Then she sat me down on a cold stone throne, carved in jade. Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith,

2&4 4 1&2

5 5 6

9 9 9

323

Ellipsis

1&2

324

End Rhyme

2&4

325

Antithesis

3&4

326

End Rhyme

1&2

327

Asyndeton

1&2

328

End Rhyme

3&4

329 330 331 332 333

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Ellipsis Antithesis

1&3 2 4 4 4&5

1 1 1 1 1

10 10 10 10 10

334 335 336 337 338

End Rhyme Alliteration Assonance Alliteration Assonance

5&6 1 1 3 3

1 2 2 2 2

10 10 10 10 10

339

End Rhyme

1-3

10

340 341 342

Internal Rhyme Alliteration Asyndeton

2 2 4&5

3 3 3

10 10 10

343 344 345 346 347

End Rhyme Assonance Alliteration Assonance Alliteration

5&6 6 1 1 3

3 3 4 4 4

10 10 10 10 10

348 349 350 351

Assonance Asyndeton Personification Asyndeton

Lilywhite Lilith, She leaves me in my darkness, I have to face my fear, And the darkness closes in on me, And the darkness closes in on me, I can hear a whirring sound growling near. I can hear a whirring sound growling near. Lit up by whatever's coming here. Two golden globes float into the room And a blaze of white light fills the air.

3 1&2 3 3&4

4 5 5 5

10 10 10 10

352 353 354

End Rhyme Alliteration Internal Rhyme

4&6 7 8

5 5 5

10 10 10

355

Asyndeton

All the pumping's nearly over for my sweet heart, This is the one for me, Time to meet the chef, O boy! running man is out of death.

1-4

11

356 357 358 359 360 361

Ellipsis End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Ellipsis

Time to meet the chef, Time to meet the chef, O boy! running man is out of death. Feel cold and old, it's getting hard to catch my breath. 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy 's back to ash

3 4&5 5 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1

11 11 11 11 11 11

362

Asyndeton

The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, enrich the soil, not everybody's goal.

7 - 11

11

363

Parallelism

The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, enrich the soil,

7 - 10

11

364

Parenthesis

The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your blood to oil, enrich the soil, your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, your flesh to coal, not everybody's goal. not everybody's goal. But I'm sure I hear a train. O boy! I don't even feel no painI guess I must be driving myself insane. From familiar fragrance to flavours strange.

7&8

11

365

End Rhyme

8 & 10

11

366

Anaphora

8&9

11

367 368

End Rhyme Ellipsis

9 & 11 11

1 1

11 11

369

End Rhyme

2-4

11

370

Chiasmus

11

371 372 373

End Rhyme Asyndeton End Rhyme

Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound, when everything you are is dying underground.' I feel the pull on the rope, let me off at the rainbow. Different orbits for my bones Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Keep the deadline open with my maker! Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Keep the deadline open with my maker! See me stretch; for God's elastic acre So sorry you had to wait. She's very rarely late.' She's very rarely late.' The scent grows richer, he knows he must be near, He finds a long passageway lit by chandelier. The scent grows richer, he knows he must be near, He finds a long passageway lit by chandelier. Each step he takes, the perfumes change From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Damn it all! does earth plug a hole in heaven, Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound, From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. A magnificent chamber meets his eye. Inside, a long rose-water pool is shrouded by fine mist. Stepping in the moist silence, with a warm breeze he's gently kissed. Thinking he is quite alone, He enters the room, as if it were his own, Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; Three vermilion snakes of female face, The smallest motion, filled with grace. Three vermilion snakes of female face, Three vermilion snakes of female face, Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, But there is no sign of warning in the siren's call: Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, Muted melodies fill the echoing hall,

6&7 1 3&4

2 3 3

11 11 11

374 375 376

Asyndeton Ellipsis End Rhyme

4&5 4 5&6

3 3 3

11 11 11

377 378 379

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme End Rhyme

9 & 11 11 1&2

3 3 1

11 11 12

380

Asyndeton

1&2

12

381 382 383 384 385 386

End Rhyme Alliteration Antimetabole Hyperbaton Synecdoche End Rhyme

3&4 4 5&6 4 5 1&2

1 1 2 1 1 2

12 12 12 12 12 12

387

End Rhyme

1&2

12

388

End Rhyme

1&2

12

389

Asyndeton

1&2

12

390

Parallelism

1&2

12

391 392 393 394 395 396

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration Oxymoron

3&4 3 3 5&6 5 5

4 4 4 4 4 4

12 12 12 12 12 12

397

End Rhyme

Rael welcome, we are the Lamia of the pool. We have been waiting for our waters to bring you cool.' Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, He slips into the nectar, leaving his shredded clothes behind. Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, He slips into the nectar, leaving his shredded clothes behind. Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. That glide up and down my spine. 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. That glide up and down my spine. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Only a magic that a name would stain. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Only a magic that a name would stain. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, With the first drop of my blood in their veins Their faces are convulsed in mortal pains. Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. A sickly sourness fills the room, A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. Looking for motion I know I will not find, I stroke the curls now turning pale, in which I'd lain entwined Looking for motion I know I will not find, I stroke the curls now turning pale, in which I'd lain entwined 'O Lamia, your flesh that remains I will take as my food' It is the scent of garlic that lingers on my chocolate fingers. Looking behind me, the water turns icy blue, The lights are dimmed and once again the stage is set for you. I wandered lonely as a cloud, I've never seen a stranger crowd; Till I came upon this dirty street. Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, I wandered lonely as a cloud,

7&8

12

398

End Rhyme

1&2

12

399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406

Asyndeton Alliteration Hyperbaton End Rhyme Consonance Parallelism Antithesis End Rhyme

1&2 1 1 3&5 3 3 5 1&2

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

407 408 409

Asyndeton Paradox End Rhyme

1&2 1 3&4

6 6 6

12 12 12

410

End Rhyme

1&2

12

411 412 413 414 415

Metaphor Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration Metaphor

1&2 2 3&4 3 3&4

7 7 7 7 7

12 12 12 12 12

416

End Rhyme

5&6

12

417 418 419 420

Asyndeton Hyperbaton Internal Rhyme Asyndeton

5&6 7 8 1&2

7 7 7 8

12 12 12 12

421

End Rhyme

1&3

13, a)

422 423

End Rhyme Simile

2&4 1

1 1

13, a) 13, a)

424 425

Apposition Onomatopoeia

I've never seen a stranger crowd; Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Continually pacing, With nonchalant embracing, Each orifice disgracing

3&4 4

1 1

13, a) 13, a)

426

End Rhyme

1-3

13, a)

427

Parallelism

With nonchalant embracing, Each orifice disgracing His skin's all covered in slimy lumps. His twisted limbs like rubber stamps His twisted limbs like rubber stamps With lips that slide across each chin. Are waved in welcome say 'Please join in.'

2&3

13, a)

428 429 430

End Rhyme Simile End Rhyme

1&3 3 2&4

3 3 3

13, a) 13, a) 13, a)

431

End Rhyme

My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping

5-7

13, a)

432

Asyndeton

My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping And his lips keep on smiling all the time.

5-8

13, a)

433

Polysyndeton

My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping And his lips keep on smiling all the time.

5-8

13, a)

434

End Rhyme

Don't be alarmed at what you see, As what you see in me.' You better watch it son, your sentence has only just begun You better run and join your brother John.' You better watch it son, your sentence has only just begun You better run and join your brother John.' You better run and join your brother John.' You're in the colony of slippermen. There's no who? why? what? or when? There's no who? why? what? or when? To see, Doktor Dyper, reformed sniperhe'll whip off your windscreenwiper To see, Doktor Dyper, reformed sniperJohn and I are able To face the Doktor and his marble table. To face the Doktor and his marble table. Understand Rael, it's the end of your tail. Don't delay, dock the dick!' I watch his countdown timer tick......

2&4

13, a)

435

Anaphora

1&2

13, a)

436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445

Asyndeton Parallelism End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme End Rhyme

1&2 2 1&2 2 2&3 2 1&2 2 1 1&2

6 6 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5

13, a) 13, a) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b)

446 447 448 449

Alliteration Alliteration Onomatopoeia End Rhyme

'Don't delay, dock the dick!' I watch his countdown timer tick...... I watch his countdown timer tick...... He places the number into a tube, A yellow plastic 'shoobedoobe'. It says: 'Though your fingers may tickle You'll be safe in our pickle.' Suddenly, black cloud comes down from the sky. It's a supersize black bird that sure can fly. Suddenly, black cloud comes down from the sky. It's a supersize black bird that sure can fly. The raven brings on darkness and night He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He takes the tube right out of my hands Man, I've got to find out where that black bird lands. Man, I've got to find out where that black bird lands. Look here John, I've got to run I need you now, you going to come?' I need you now, you going to come?' I need you now, you going to come?' We've been cured on the couch Now you're sick with your grouch. I'll not risk my honey pouch

1 2 2 1&2

5 5 5 1

13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, c)

450

End Rhyme

3&4

13, c)

451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462

End Rhyme Alliteration Alliteration End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton Parallelism End Rhyme Alliteration End Rhyme Asyndeton Ellipsis

5&6 5 6 1&2 2 2 2 3&4 4 1&2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c)

463

End Rhyme

1-3

13, c)

464 465 466

End Rhyme Parallelism End Rhyme

Even though I never learn, I'd hoped he'd show just some concern. He walks away and leaves me once again. I'm in agony of Slipperpain I pray my undercarriage will sustain. The chase is on, the pace is hot But I'm running so very hard with everything I've got. The chase is on, the pace is hot The chase is on, the pace is hot He leads me down an underpass Though it narrows, he still flies very fast, When the tunnel stops I catch sight of the tube, just as it drops. I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, I see it hit the water, just in time, I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb,

2&3 1 1&2

6 6 7

13, c) 13, c) 13, c)

467 468 469 470

End Rhyme Internal Rhyme Asyndeton End Rhyme

3&4 3 3 5&6

7 7 7 7

13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c)

471

End Rhyme

7&8

13, c)

472 473 474

End Rhyme Asyndeton Parallelism

9 & 10 9 9

7 7 7

13, c) 13, c) 13, c)

475

End Rhyme

As he walks along the gorge's edge, A window in the bank above his head Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint The smell of acid on his gun of paint. Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint As it carves out anger in a blood-red band, Destroyed tomorrow by an unknown hand; Is this the way out from this endless scene? Or just an entrance to another dream? And the light dies down on Broadway. But as the skylight beckons him to leave, He hears a scream from far below. Within the raging water, writhes the form Within the raging water, writhes the form Of brother John, he cries for help. The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide

1&3

14

476 477 478 479

End Rhyme Alliteration Conduplicatio End Rhyme

5&6 5 5 7&8

1 1 1 1

14 14 14 14

480 481 482 483 484 485

End Rhyme Alliteration Personification Alliteration Alliteration Asyndeton

10 & 11 12 1 2 3 3&4

1 1 2 2 2 2

14 14 14 14 14 14

486

End Rhyme

1&2

14

487

Polysyndeton

The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide Between the freedom I had in the rat-race, Or to stay forever in this forsaken place;

1-4

14

488 489 490 491

Parallelism Antithesis Asyndeton Antithesis

The gate is fading now, but open wide, The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide Between the freedom I had in the rat-race, Or to stay forever in this forsaken place;

1 1 2 3&4

3 3 3 3

14 14 14 14

492

End Rhyme

Hey John! He makes for the river and the gate is gone, Back to the void where it came from. He makes for the river and the gate is gone, And the light dies down on Broadway. Struggling down the slope, There's not much hope. I begin to try to ride the scree but the rocks are tumbling all around me. I begin to try to ride the scree If I want John alive, I've got to ditch my fear - take a dive While I've still got my drive to survive. I've got to ditch my fear - take a dive While I've still got my drive to survive. Evel Knievel you got nothing on me.

5-7

14

493 494 495

Parallelism Alliteration End Rhyme

6 8 1&2

3 3 1

14 14 15

496 497

End Rhyme Alliteration

3&4 3

1 1

15 15

498

End Rhyme

1-3

15

499 500 501

Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme

2 3 1

2 2 3

15 15 15

502

End Rhyme

John is drifting out of sight, That you find out how to fight.

2&4

16

503

Asyndeton

Moving down the water John is drifting out of sight, It's only at the turning point That you find out how to fight.

1-4

16

504 505 506

Epistrophe Ellipsis End Rhyme

In the cold, feel the cold In the cold, feel the cold all around Surround me with its sound. I can't get through to the other side. There's only one way, that's to ride. Taken down, taken down My fire is burning low. by the undertow And I'm spiralled down the river bed, My fire is burning low. I'm waiting for John to be carried past. We hold together and shoot the rapids fast. We hold together and shoot the rapids fast. The dark and the deep have no-one left to keep.

5 5 6&8

1 1 1

16 16 16

507 508 509

End Rhyme Epizeuxis End Rhyme

2&4 1 2&4

2 3 3

16 16 16

510

Asyndeton

3&4

16

511 512 513

End Rhyme Parallelism End Rhyme

2&3 3 2&3

4 4 5

16 16 16

514

Polysyndeton

And when the waters slow down The dark and the deep have no-one left to keep. Something's changed, that's not your face. When it's cold, it comes slow. it is warm, just watch it grow. it is here. it is now. Just a little bit of it can bring you up or down. Like the supper it is cooking in your hometown. Just a little bit of it can bring you up or down. Like the supper it is cooking in your hometown. it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs.

1-3

16

515 516 517 518 519 520 521

Asyndeton End Rhyme Anaphora End Rhyme Antithesis Simile End Rhyme

5 1&2 4 5&6 5 6 7&8

5 1 1 1 1 1 1

16 17 17 17 17 17 17

522

Anaphora

it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon,

7-9

17

523

Asyndeton

it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, leaving your cocoon.

7 - 10

17

524

End Rhyme

it is walking on the moon, leaving your cocoon.

9 & 10

17

525

End Rhyme

it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space

1-4

17

526

Internal Rhyme

it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase,

17

527

Anaphora

it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now.

1-5

17

528

Asyndeton

it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now.

2-5

17

529

End Rhyme

Any rock can be made to roll, If you've enough of it to pay the toll.

1&2

17

530

End Rhyme

it has no home in words or goal, Not even in your favourite hole. it is the hope for the dope. it is the hope for the dope. When you ride the horse without a hoof. Cocktails on the roof. When you eat right fruit you see everything alive, it is inside spirit, with enough grit to survive When you eat right fruit you see everything alive, it is inside spirit, with enough grit to survive If you think it's pretentious, you've been taken for a ride. Look across the mirror, before you chose de cide it is here. it is now it is Real. it is Rael it is Real. it is Rael

3-5

17

531 532

Internal Rhyme End Rhyme

5 6&8

3 3

17 17

533

End Rhyme

1&2

17

534

Asyndeton

1&2

17

535

End Rhyme

3&4

17

536 537

Anaphora Consonance

5&6 6

4 4

17 17

Appendix III Data of Each Poetic Device

Table A.3.1
Data of End Rhymes
Number of Data 2 4 6 10 15 18 21 25 27 32 33 36 43 45 Line (s) 1&2 3&4 5&6 8&9 1&2 3&4 5&6 8&9 1&2 3&4 5&7 6, 8, 9 5&6 8&9 Song No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Data Early morning Manhattan, Ocean winds blow on the land. The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go. It seems they cannot leave their dream. There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, Nightime's flyers feel their pains. Drugstore takes down the chains. Metal motion comes in bursts, But the gas station can quench that thirst. Suspension cracked on unmade road The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid Exits into daylight, spraygun hid The lamb seems right out of place, Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Somehow it's lying there, Brings a stillness to the air. Though man-made light, at night is very bright, As the neons dim, to the coat of white. There's no whitewash victim, Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid, Wipes his gun-he's forgotten what he did, Wonder women draw your blind! Don't look at me! I'm not your kind. Something inside me has just begun, Lord knows what I have done, There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square. No-one seems to care, They carry on as if nothing was there. The dust settles on my skin, Making a crust I cannot move in Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes smoking Winston Cigarettes. Wrapped up in some powdered wool-I guess I'm losing touch. Don't tell me I'm dying, 'cos I ain't changed that much. The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Some kind of jam?

Stanza 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5

50

1-4

58 61 64 69 81 86 88

7&8 1&2 3&4 5&6 12 & 13 1&2 3&4

1 2 2 2 2 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 3 3

93 96 104 107 110 113 114 115 131 135 136 137 139 140 142 143 148 151 153 158 159 165 166 167 169 173 175 176 179 182

There's nothing I can recognise; this is nowhere that I've known. With no sign of life at all, I guess that I'm alone, I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. Rockface moves to press my skin White liquids turn sour within Must tell myself that I'm not here. I'm drowning in a liquid fear. Bottled in a strong compression, My distortion shows obsession If I keep my self-control, I'll be safe in my soul. And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. My spirit just never learns. I'm dressed up in a white costume Padding out leftover room. In the glare of a light, I see a strange kind of sight; Of cages joined to form a star Each person can't go very far; All tied to their things They are netted by their strings, Free to flutter in memories of their wasted wings. Outside the cage I see my Brother John, I cry out help! before he can be gone, He turns his head so slowly round. And he looks at me without a sound. But he does not even want to try to speak. And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, I'm helpless in my violent rage And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. Holding still. Pinned for kill. Chances narrow that I'll make it, Just like 22nd Street, When they got me by my neck and feet. Pressures building, can't take any more. My headaches charge. My earaches roar. If I could change to liquid, But I know that I am solid I could fill the cracks up in the rock. And I am my own bad luck. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. Got people stocked in every shade, Must be doing well with trade. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. That evens out their personality. With profit potential marked by a sign, I can recognise some of the production line, No bite at all in labour bondage, Just wrinkled wrappers or human bandage. -All ready to use -just need a fuse. Their hands mark out the time, Like a frozen pantomime. Everyone's a sales representative Dishing out failsafe superlative,

1&2 5&6 6&7 10 & 11 12 & 13 1&2 3&4 5-7 5&6 1&2 3&4 5-7 1&3 2&4 6&8 7&9 2&3 5&6 7&8 1&3 2&4 7&9 8& 10 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 2&4 2&4 5&7

2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 1 6 2 2 2 2 3 4 4

3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

183 184 185 191 196 199 201 205 213 214 218 219 222 232

Wearing slogans in their shrine. /ran/ Brothere John is No. 9. /nan/ -All ready to use -just need a fuse. so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. Let me out of Pontiac when I was just seventeen, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. But I know it's me that's hitting out and I'm not full of shit. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. This is your mess I'm stuck in, I really don't belong. When I take out my bottle, filled up high with gasoline, You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. When your fluffy heart is ready for rape. No! Off we go. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. Your progressive hypocrites hand out their trash, But it was mine in the first place, so I'll burn it to ash. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. Who needs illusion of love and affection When you're out walking the streets with your mainline connection? connection. And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Found a girl I wanted to date, Thought I'd better get it straight. Went to buy a book before it's too late. Don't leave nothing to fate. Touch and go with 1-6. /sks/ Gotta remember all of my tricks. /trks/ Bit of trouble in zone No. 7. /sevn/ There's heaven ahead in No. 11! /levn/ I'm counting out time, reaction none to happy, Please don't slap me, There is lambswool under my naked feet. -gives off some kind of heat. A salamander scurries into flame to be destroyed. Imaginary creatures are trapped in birth on celluloid. Each thought and gesture are caught in celluloid. There's no room to void. The fleas cling to the golden fleece, Hoping they'll find peace. The crawlers cover the floor in the red ochre corridor. For my second sight of people, they've more lifeblood than before. They're moving. They're moving in time to a heavy wooden door, There's only one direction in the faces that I see; It's upward to the ceiling, where the chambers said to be. Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. They are pulled up by the magnet, believing that they're free. Mild mannered supermen are held in kryptonite, And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. Through a door a harvest feast is lit by candlight; It's the bottom of a staircase that spirals out of sight. The porcelain manikin with shattered skin fears attack. The eager pack lift up their pitchers- the carry all they lack. The liquid has congealed, which has seeped out through the crack, And the tickler takes his stickleback.

6&8 2&4 4&5 5&6 7&8 1&2 3&4 5&6 6&7 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 2&3

4 5 6 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 2

5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7

237

1-4

253 255 260 269

1&3 2&4 1&2 1&3 3, 4, 7 &9 5&6 1-3

6 6 7 1

7 7 7 8

271

273 276

1 2

8 8

283

1-4

289

1-4

297

1-4

301 302 309 310 311 314 317 320 324 326 328 329 334 339 343 352 357 365 367 369 371 373 376 377 379 381 386 387 388

running around to all the doors. their deductions need applause. The poor man behind my back. but the juggler holds another pack. I'd rather trust a countryman than a townman, You can judge by his eyes, take a look if you can, He'll smile through his guard, Survival trains hard. I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, He looks at you once, you know he understands, Don't need any shield, When you're out in the field. But down here, I'm so alone with my fear, With everything that I hear. Singing all the chants that they have ever heard; Even academics, searching printed word. My mother to the right, But nowhere feels quite right. I'd rather trust a man who doesn't shout what he's found, There's no need to sell if you're homeward bound. If I chose a side, He won't take me for a ride. The chamber was in confusion-all the voices shouting loud. through the crowd' see that she was wholly blind. But from her pale face and her pale skin, a moonlight shined. When I'd led her through the people, the angry noise began to grow. She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show you where to go.' for you, now don't be afraid.' Then she sat me down on a cold stone throne, carved in jade. I can hear a whirring sound growling near. Lit up by whatever's coming here. Time to meet the chef, O boy! running man is out of death. your blood to oil, enrich the soil, your flesh to coal, not everybody's goal. But I'm sure I hear a train. O boy! I don't even feel no painI guess I must be driving myself insane. Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound, when everything you are is dying underground.' Different orbits for my bones Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Keep the deadline open with my maker! See me stretch; for God's elastic acre So sorry you had to wait. She's very rarely late.' The scent grows richer, he knows he must be near, He finds a long passageway lit by chandelier. Each step he takes, the perfumes change From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Inside, a long rose-water pool is shrouded by fine mist. Stepping in the moist silence, with a warm breeze he's gently kissed. Thinking he is quite alone, He enters the room, as if it were his own, Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright;

2&4 6&8 1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 1-3 2&4 2&4 1&2 3&4 1&3 5&6 1-3 5&6 4&6 4&5 8& 10 9& 11 2-4 6&7 3&4 5&6 9& 11 1&2 3&4 1&2 1&2 1&2

1 1 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 1 1 3 3 5 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 4

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12

391 394 397 398 402 406 409 410 413 416 421 422 426 428 430 431 434 438 440 442 445 449 450 451 454 458 460 463 464

Three vermilion snakes of female face, The smallest motion, filled with grace. Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, But there is no sign of warning in the siren's call: Rael welcome, we are the Lamia of the pool. We have been waiting for our waters to bring you cool.' Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, He slips into the nectar, leaving his shredded clothes behind. With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. That glide up and down my spine. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Only a magic that a name would stain. With the first drop of my blood in their veins Their faces are convulsed in mortal pains. Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. Looking for motion I know I will not find, I stroke the curls now turning pale, in which I'd lain entwined I wandered lonely as a cloud, I've never seen a stranger crowd; Till I came upon this dirty street. Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Continually pacing, With nonchalant embracing, Each orifice disgracing His skin's all covered in slimy lumps. His twisted limbs like rubber stamps With lips that slide across each chin. Are waved in welcome say 'Please join in.' My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping Don't be alarmed at what you see, As what you see in me.' You're in the colony of slippermen. There's no who? why? what? or when? To see, Doktor Dyper, reformed sniperhe'll whip off your windscreenwiper John and I are able To face the Doktor and his marble table. Don't delay, dock the dick!' I watch his countdown timer tick...... He places the number into a tube, A yellow plastic 'shoobedoobe'. It says: 'Though your fingers may tickle You'll be safe in our pickle.' Suddenly, black cloud comes down from the sky. It's a supersize black bird that sure can fly. The raven brings on darkness and night He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He takes the tube right out of my hands Man, I've got to find out where that black bird lands. Look here John, I've got to run I need you now, you going to come?' We've been cured on the couch Now you're sick with your grouch. I'll not risk my honey pouch Even though I never learn, I'd hoped he'd show just some concern.

3&4 5&6 7&8 1&2 3&5 1&2 3&4 1&2 3&4 5&6 1&3 2&4 1-3 1&3 2&4 5-7 2&4 1&2 2&3 1&2 1&2 1&2 3&4 5&6 1&2 3&4 1&2 1-3 2&3

4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 1 1 2 2 3 5 6

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13, a) 13, a) 13, a) 13, a) 13, a) 13, a) 13, a) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c)

466 467 470 471 472 475 476 479 480 486 492 495 496 498 502 506 507 509 511 513 516 518 521 524

525

529 530 532

I'm in agony of Slipperpain I pray my undercarriage will sustain. The chase is on, the pace is hot But I'm running so very hard with everything I've got. He leads me down an underpass Though it narrows, he still flies very fast, When the tunnel stops I catch sight of the tube, just as it drops. I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, I see it hit the water, just in time, As he walks along the gorge's edge, A window in the bank above his head Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint The smell of acid on his gun of paint. As it carves out anger in a blood-red band, Destroyed tomorrow by an unknown hand; Is this the way out from this endless scene? Or just an entrance to another dream? The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide Hey John! He makes for the river and the gate is gone, Back to the void where it came from. Struggling down the slope, There's not much hope. I begin to try to ride the scree but the rocks are tumbling all around me. If I want John alive, I've got to ditch my fear - take a dive While I've still got my drive to survive. John is drifting out of sight, That you find out how to fight. all around Surround me with its sound. I can't get through to the other side. There's only one way, that's to ride. My fire is burning low. by the undertow I'm waiting for John to be carried past. We hold together and shoot the rapids fast. The dark and the deep have no-one left to keep. When it's cold, it comes slow. it is warm, just watch it grow. Just a little bit of it can bring you up or down. Like the supper it is cooking in your hometown. it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, leaving your cocoon. it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space Any rock can be made to roll, If you've enough of it to pay the toll. it has no home in words or goal, Not even in your favourite hole. it is the hope for the dope. When you ride the horse without a hoof. Cocktails on the roof.

1&2 3&4 5&6 7&8 9& 10 1&3 5&6 7&8 10 & 11 1&2 5-7 1&2 3&4 1-3 2&4 6&8 2&4 2&4 2&3 2&3 1&2 5&6 7&8 9& 10 1-4

7 7 7 7 7 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1

13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17

17

1&2 3-5 6&8

3 3 3

17 17 17

533 535

When you eat right fruit you see everything alive, it is inside spirit, with enough grit to survive If you think it's pretentious, you've been taken for a ride. Look across the mirror, before you chose de cide

1&2 3&4

4 4

17 17

Table A.3.2
Data of Asyndetons
Number of Data 5 9 37 46 54 55 77 80 89 120 122 124 127 130 133 138 154 172 193 197 203 204 215 216 233 242 244 248 Data The Movie-Palace is now undone, The all-night watchmen have had their fun. Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It's the same old ending-time to go. Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid, Wipes his gun-he's forgotten what he did, Something inside me has just begun, Lord knows what I have done, There's something solid forming in the air, The wall of death is lowered in Times Square. No-one seems to care, They carry on as if nothing was there. The cheerleader waves her cyanide wand, there's a smell of peach blossom and bitter almonde. Caryl Chessman sniffs the air and leads the parade, he know in a scent, you can bottle all you made. The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Some kind of jam? Stalactites, stalagmites Shut me in, lock me tight. Lips are dry, throat is dry. Feel like burning, stomach churning, Feel like burning, stomach churning, I'm dressed up in a white costume Padding out leftover room. Body stretching, feel the wretching Outside the cage I see my Brother John, He turns his head so slowly round. Pressures building, can't take any more. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain Let me out of Pontiac when I was just seventeen, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. This is your mess I'm stuck in, I really don't belong. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Digesting every word the experts say. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. -still counting out time, got my finger on the button, 'Don't say nuttin-just lie there still And I'll get you turned on just fine.' Line (s) 3&4 5&6 8&9 8&9 1&2 3&4 8&9 10 & 11 3&4 1 2 3 4 4-6 7 1&2 7 3 5 7&8 3 4 1 1&2 2-4 5 6 3-5 Stanza 2 2 4 5 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 6 2 1 1 2 2 4 4 2 3 3 5 Song No. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

261 264 304

315

316

318 322 327 342 349 351

355 360

362

372 374 380 389 399 407 417 420

432

436 456 461

I'm counting out time, reaction none to happy, Please don't slap me, I'm a red blooded male and the book said I could not fail. I'm counting out time, I got unexpected distress from my mistress, I'll get my money back from the bookstore right away. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. I'd rather trust a countryman than a townman, You can judge by his eyes, take a look if you can, He'll smile through his guard, Survival trains hard. I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, He looks at you once, you know he understands, Don't need any shield, When you're out in the field. And every single door, that I've walked through Brings me back here again, I've got to find my own way. My father to the left of me, My mother to the right, I'd rather trust a man who doesn't shout what he's found, There's no need to sell if you're homeward bound. So I followed her into a big round cave, she said 'They're coming for you, now don't be afraid.' She leaves me in my darkness, I have to face my fear, And the darkness closes in on me, I can hear a whirring sound growling near. All the pumping's nearly over for my sweet heart, This is the one for me, Time to meet the chef, O boy! running man is out of death. 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, enrich the soil, not everybody's goal. I feel the pull on the rope, let me off at the rainbow. Not me, just quietly buried in stones, Keep the deadline open with my maker! The scent grows richer, he knows he must be near, He finds a long passageway lit by chandelier. Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, He slips into the nectar, leaving his shredded clothes behind. As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Only a magic that a name would stain. Looking for motion I know I will not find, I stroke the curls now turning pale, in which I'd lain entwined Looking behind me, the water turns icy blue, The lights are dimmed and once again the stage is set for you. My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping And his lips keep on smiling all the time. You better watch it son, your sentence has only just begun You better run and join your brother John.' He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. I need you now, you going to come?'

1-3 4&5 5&6

7 7 1

7 7 9

1-4

5-8

4-6 1&2 1&2 4&5 1&2 3&4

4 6 8 3 5 5

9 9 9 10 10 10

1-4 6

1 1

11 11

7 - 11

11

1 4&5 1&2 1&2 1&2 1&2 5&6 1&2

3 3 1 4 5 6 7 8

11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13, a) 13, a) 13, c) 13, c)

5-8

1&2 2 2

6 2 3

469 473 485 490 503

The chase is on, the pace is hot I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, Within the raging water, writhes the form Of brother John, he cries for help. But John is drowning, I must decide Moving down the water John is drifting out of sight, It's only at the turning point That you find out how to fight. And I'm spiralled down the river bed, My fire is burning low. Something's changed, that's not your face. it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, leaving your cocoon. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now. When you eat right fruit you see everything alive, it is inside spirit, with enough grit to survive

3 9 3&4 2 1-4

7 7 2 3 1

13, c) 13, c) 14 14 16

510 515 523

3&4 5 7 - 10

3 5 1

16 16 17

528

2-5

17

534

1&2

17

Table A.3.3
Data of Alliterations
Number of Data 1 3 13 14 16 19 20 26 28 30 34 38 44 47 51 59 62 67 74 90 Data And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Early morning Manhattan There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Nightime's flyers feel their pains. Metal motion comes in bursts But the gas station can quench that thirst. And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face Though man-made light, at night is very bright And the lamb lies down on Broadway. Wonder women draw your blind! And the lamb lies down on Broadway. There's something solid forming in the air, And I'm hovering like a fly, waiting for the windshield on the freeway. With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food and the band plays 'In the Mood' The only sound is water drops, I wonder where the hell I am, Line (s) 1 1 9 10 1 3 4 10 2 2 5 10 5 10 1 9 2 4 7 3 Stanza 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 1 1 2 2 2 1 Song No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3

91 94 98 108 118 174 236 252 267 272 280 284 287 290 295 299 312 335 337 341 345 347 353 382 393 395 400 412 414 439 441 446 447 452 453 459 477 481 483 484

Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Must tell myself that I'm not here. Stalactites, stalagmites With profit potential marked by a sign, Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, what would a poor boy do? A salamander scurries into flame to be destroyed. 'We've got to get in to get out Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. 'We've got to get in to get out Mild mannered supermen are held in kryptonite, The carpet crawlers heed their callers: 'We've got to get in to get out I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Two golden globes float into the room From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Three vermilion snakes of female face, Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, There's no who? why? what? or when? To see, Doktor Dyper, reformed sniper'Don't delay, dock the dick!' I watch his countdown timer tick...... Suddenly, black cloud comes down from the sky. It's a supersize black bird that sure can fly. Man, I've got to find out where that black bird lands. Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint And the light dies down on Broadway. He hears a scream from far below. Within the raging water, writhes the form

5 4 9 10 1 5 6 7 7 3 6&7 3 6&7 1 5 6&7 5 1 3 2 1 3 7 4 3 5 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 5 6 4 5 12 2 3

1 2 2 1 3 2 2 5 7 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 3 2 2 3 4 4 5 1 4 4 5 7 7 1 2 5 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 2

3 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, b) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 14 14 14 14

494 497

And the light dies down on Broadway. I begin to try to ride the scree

8 3

3 1

14 15

Table A.3.4
Data of Internal Rhymes
Number of Data 8 12 35 39 40 48 49 52 53 65 68 70 72 75 83 119 126 132 146 149 187 190 192 228 246 259 262 263 265 274 277 279 286 294 Data Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, There's something moving in the sidewalk steam, Though man-made light, at night is very bright, Thinks money-honey-be on-neon. Thinks money-honey-be on-neon. They say the lights are always bright on Broadway. They say there's always magic in the air. There's something solid forming in the air, There's something solid forming in the air, Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Marshall McLuhan, casual viewin', head buried in the sand. Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food and the band plays 'In the Mood' There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes Stalactites, stalagmites Feel like burning, stomach churning, Body stretching, feel the wretching In a trap, feel a strap Holding still. Pinned for kill. I see faces and traces of home back in New York CityThe call me the trail blazer-Rael-electric razor. I'm the pitcher in the chain gang, we don't believe in pain I'm counting out time, I'm counting out time, I'm counting out time, I'm a red blooded male and the book said I could not fail. I'm counting out time, I'm counting out time, I got unexpected distress from my mistress, The fleas cling to the golden fleece, The crawlers cover the floor in the red ochre corridor. The carpet crawlers heed their callers: The carpet crawlers heed their callers: The carpet crawlers heed their callers: Line 5 9 5 2 2 12 13 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 12 1 4 7 1 2 1 4 5 1 1 1 3 4 4 5 1 5 5 5 Stanza 2 2 4 5 5 5 5 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 6 6 1 1 1 1 5 7 7 7 7 1 2 2 3 4 Song No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8

298 330 331 340 354 358 359 378 392 419 443 444 455 468 499 500 501 526 531

The carpet crawlers heed their callers: I could only just hear, a voice quite near say, 'Please help me 'Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could She said 'Let me feel the way the breezes blow, and I'll show And a blaze of white light fills the air. Feel cold and old, it's getting hard to catch my breath. 's back to ash, now, you've had your flash boy She's very rarely late.' Three vermilion snakes of female face, It is the scent of garlic that lingers on my chocolate fingers. To face the Doktor and his marble table. Understand Rael, it's the end of your tail. He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. The chase is on, the pace is hot I've got to ditch my fear - take a dive While I've still got my drive to survive. Evel Knievel you got nothing on me. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is the hope for the dope.

5 2 4 2 8 5 6 11 3 8 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 5

5 1 1 3 5 1 1 3 4 7 3 4 2 7 2 2 3 2 3

8 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13, b) 13, b) 13, c) 13, c) 15 15 15 17 17

Table A.3.5
Data of Ellipses
Number of Data 109 128 129 147 150 155 156 168 170 208 209 212 224 225 229 238 Must tell myself that I'm not here. Feel like burning stomach churning, In a trap, feel a strap Chances narrow that I'll make it, Pressures building can't take any more. Must be doing well with trade. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. He said I had none to blame, but me. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. No time for romantic escape, He said I had none to blame, but me. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Got the whole thing down by numbers. Thought I'd better get it straight. Data Line 10 4 4 1 3 7 7 2 3 2 4 5 2 4 2 2 Stanza 1 3 3 6 6 6 6 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 1 3 Song No. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7

239 249 250 254 256 257 303 305

Went to buy a book before it's too late. -still counting out time, got my finger on the button, Touch and go with 1-6. Bit of trouble in zone No. 7. Gotta remember all of my tricks. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. The priest and the magician, Singing all the chants that they have ever heard; Even academics, searching printed word. My father to the left of me, My mother to the right, 'Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could Time to meet the chef, 's back to ash not everybody's goal. Not me, just quietly buried in stones, I need you now, you going to come?' In the cold, feel the cold

3 3 3 1 2 3 5&6 5&6

3 5 5 6 6 6 1 1

7 7 7 7 7 7 9 9

319 321 323 332 356 361 368 375 462 505

1&2 4 1&2 4 3 6 11 4 2 5

5 5 6 1 1 1 1 3 3 1

9 9 9 10 11 11 11 11 13, c) 16

Table A.3.6
Data of Parallelisms
Number of Data 66 79 82 121 123 171 234 243 293 Data Lenny Bruce, declares a truce and plays his other hand. Caryl Chessman sniffs the air and leads the parade There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes smoking Winston Cigarettes. Stalactites, stalagmites Shut me in, lock me tight. Stamped, addressed, in odd fatality. And you can bet that I've been resting, for this testing, Digesting every word the experts say. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. Line 3 10 12 & 13 1 2 3 2-4 5 2 Stanza 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 Song No. 2 2 2 4 4 5 7 7 8

363

The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, enrich the soil, Rael stands astonished doubting his sight, Struck by beauty, gripped in fright; 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. With nonchalant embracing, Each orifice disgracing You better run and join your brother John.' He flies right down, gives me one hell of a fright. He walks away and leaves me once again. I'm on top of a bank, to steep to climb, The gate is fading now, but open wide, He makes for the river and the gate is gone, We hold together and shoot the rapids fast.

7 - 10

11

390 404 427 437 457 465 474 488 493 512

1&2 3 2&3 2 2 1 9 1 6 3

4 5 2 6 2 6 7 3 3 4

12 12 13, a) 13, a) 13, c) 13, c) 13, c) 14 14 16

Table A.3.7
Data of Assonances
Number of Data 7 11 29 84 87 92 95 99 101 102 189 206 336 338 344 346 348 Data Sleeping cheaply on the midnight show, It seems they cannot leave their dream Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face There's Howard Hughes in blue suede shoes, smiling at the majorettes Don't tell me I'm dying, 'cos I ain't changed that much. Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? Cuckoo Cocoon have I come to, too soon for you? And I can't keep me from creeping sleep, Sleep, deep in the deep. The call me the trail blazer-Rael-electric razor. You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Then she sat me down on a cold stone throne, carved in jade. Lilywhite Lilith, Lilywhite Lilith, Line 5 8 2 12 2 5 4 9 4 5 4 6 1 3 6 1 3 Stanza 2 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 Song No. 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 6 6 10 10 10 10 10

Table A.3.8
Data of Anaphoras
Number of Data 105 141 Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. And he looks at me without a sound. And I shout 'John please help me!' And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. I don't care who I hurt, I don't care who I do wrong. You're sitting in your comfort you don't believe I'm real, You cannot buy protection from the way that I feel. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Without you, mankind handkinds thru' the blues. There's no hiding in my memory. There's no room to void. The rich man stands in front of me, The poor man behind my back. your blood to oil, your flesh to coal, You better watch it son, your sentence has only just begun You better run and join your brother John.' it is here. it is now. it is chicken, it is eggs, it is in between your legs. it is walking on the moon, it is the jigsa. it is purple haze. it never stays in one place, but it's not a passing phase, it is in the single's bar, in the distance of the face, it is in between the cages, it is always in a space it is here. it is now. it is here. it is now it is Real. it is Rael Data Line 8&9 4&5 Stanza 1 5 Song No. 4 4

144 202 217 221

8&9 3 1&2 5&6

5 2 4 4

4 6 6 6

240 268

5&6 7&8

3 7

7 7

275 306

8&9 5&6

1 1

8 9

366 435 517

8&9 1&2 4

1 6 1

11 13, a) 17

522

7-9

17

527

1-5

17

536

5&6

17

Table A.3.9
Data of Conduplicatios
Number of Data 56 57 The wind is blowing harder now, Blowing dust into my eyes. Blowing dust into my eyes. The dust settles on my skin, And I can't keep me from creeping sleep, Sleep, deep in the deep. so I guess I'll have to pay, pay my way, Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Got the whole thing down by numbers. All those numbers! Give my guidance! Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? Erogenous zones I love you. Without you, what would a poor boy do? I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. I need someone to believe in, someone to trust. Subway sounds, the sounds of complaint Data Line 5&6 6&7 Stanza 1 1 Song No. 2 2

103 186 210 226 231

4&5 4&5 4 4 2-4

1 6 3 5 1

4 5 6 6 7

235

5&6

251 266 307 308 478

6&7 6&7 1&2 1&2 5

5 7 1 1 1

7 7 9 9 14

Table A.3.10
Data of Epizeuxes
Number of Data 85 162 198 200 207 211 223 227 with needles; needles and pins. Keep on turning, Keep on turning, I had to get it out of me, if you know what I mean, what I mean. You say I must be crazy, 'cos I don't care who I hit, who I hit. You can tell by the night fires where Rael has been, has been. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. When you're out walking the streets with your mainline connection? connection. Time to shave, shave it off, it off. Data Line 15 1&2 8 1 6 4 8 4 Stanza 2 8 1 2 2 3 4 5 Song No. 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6

245 258 278 508

And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. 'Honey get hip! It's time to unzip, to unzip. Whipee!' They're moving. They're moving in time to a heavy wooden door, Taken down, taken down

6 6 3 1

3 6 2 3

7 7 8 16

Table A.3.11
Data of Personifications
Number of Data 17 22 31 41 63 111 177 282 350 482 Drugstore takes down the chains. The trucker's eyes read 'Overload' Yet the Broadway street scene finds a focus in its face. Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn Echoes of the Broadway Everglades, With her mythical madonnas still walking in their shades: My distortion shows obsession The hall runs like clockwork Where the needle's eye is winking, closing in on the poor. And the darkness closes in on me, But as the skylight beckons him to leave, Data Line 2 6 2 3 1&2 13 1 4 3 1 Stanza 3 3 4 5 2 1 4 2 5 2 Song No. 1 1 1 1 2 4 5 8 10 14

Table A.3.12
Data of Polysyndetons
Number of Data Data And out on the subway, Rael Imperial Aerosol Kid Exits into daylight, spraygun hid, And the lamb lies down on Broadway. And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. And a silent tear of blood dribbles down his cheek, And I watch him turn away and leave the cage. But outside John disappears and my cage dissolves, and without any reason my body revolves. And I've tasted all the strongest meats, And laid them down in coloured sheets. Line Stanza Song No.

24

7 - 10

117

3-6

145 161 220

8&9 5&6 5&6

5 7 4

4 4 6

241 292

And I have studied every line, every page in the book, And now I've got the real thing here, I'm gonna take a look, take a look. And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. My grip must be flipping, Cos his handshake keeps slipping, My hopes keep on dipping And his lips keep on smiling all the time. The gate is fading now, but open wide, But John is drowning, I must decide Between the freedom I had in the rat-race, Or to stay forever in this forsaken place; And when the waters slow down The dark and the deep have no-one left to keep.

5&6 2

3 4

7 8

433

5-8

13, a)

487

1-4

14

514

1-3

16

Table A.3.13
Data of Antitheses
Number of Data 71 Data Sirens on the rooftops wailing, but there's no ship sailing. And the childhood belief Brings a moment's relief, But my cynic soon returns And the lifeboat burns. If I could change to liquid, I could fill the cracks up in the rock. But I know that I am solid And I am my own bad luck. And the wise and foolish virgins giggle with their bodies glowing bright. Like everyone else they'er pointing But nowhere feels quite right. Said if I helped her thru' she could help me too, but I could see that she was wholly blind. That glide up and down my spine. The gate is fading now, but open wide, Between the freedom I had in the rat-race, Or to stay forever in this forsaken place; Just a little bit of it can bring you up or down. Line 5 Stanza 2 Song No. 2

116

3-6

160

1-4

291 325

2 3&4

4 6

8 9

333 405 489 491 519

4&5 5 1 3&4 5

1 5 3 3 1

10 12 14 14 17

Table A.3.14
Data of Similes

Number of Data 60 100

Data And I'm hovering like a fly, waiting for the windshield on the freeway. I've got sunshine in my stomach Like I just rocked my baby to sleep. Just like 22nd Street, When they got me by my neck and feet. The hall runs like clockwork Empty in their fullness Like a frozen pantomime. 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. Like the forest fight for sunlight, that takes root in every tree. I wandered lonely as a cloud, His twisted limbs like rubber stamps Like the supper it is cooking in your hometown.

Line 9 1&2

Stanza 1 1

Song No. 2 4

152 178 180 195 285 423 429 520

5&6 1 3&4 6 3 1 3 6

6 4 4 1 3 1 3 1

4 5 5 6 8 13, a) 13, a) 17

Table A.3.15
Data of Paradoxes
Number of Data 164 181 194 281 288 296 300 408 Data and as the notes and coins are taken out I'm taken in, to the factory floor. Empty in their fullness 'cos we're only as strong, as the weakest link in the chain. 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out 'We've got to get in to get out As they nibble the fruit of my flesh, I feel no pain, Line 4&5 3 6 6&7 6&7 6&7 6&7 1 Stanza 1 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Song No. 5 5 6 8 8 8 8 12

Table A.3.16
Data of Epistrophes
Number of Data 106 Turn fast-turn sour Turn sweat-turn sour. Data Line 8&9 Stanza 1 Song No. 4

112 125 134 157

In the cave. Get me out of this cave! Lips are dry, throat is dry. In the cave. Get me out of this cave! In the pain Get me out of this pain. Turning around, spinning around. Got the whole thing down by numbers. All those numbers! In the cold, feel the cold

14 & 15 3 8&9 9& 10 3&4 2&3 5

1 3 3 6

4 4 4 4

163 230 504

8 1 1

4 7 16

Table A.3.17
Data of Synecdoches

Number of Data 23 42 313 385 The trucker's eyes read 'Overload'

Data

Line 6 3 5 5

Stanza

Song No.

Cabman's velvet glove sounds the horn I'd rather trust a man who works with his hands, A magnificent chamber meets his eye.

3 5 3 1

1 1 9 12

Table A.3.18
Data of Metaphors
Number of Data 97 411 415 Data I wonder if I'm a prisoner locked up in some Brooklyn jail -or some sort of Jonah shut up inside the whale. Each empty snakelike body floats, Silent sorrow in empty boats. A sickly sourness fills the room, The bitter harvest of a dying bloom. Line 5&6 1&2 3&4 Stanza 2 7 7 Song No. 3 12 12

Table A.3.19 Data of Hyperbatons


Number of Data 384 401 418 Data From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Putting fear beside him, he trusts in beauty blind, 'O Lamia, your flesh that remains I will take as my food' Line 4 1 7 Stanza 1 5 7 Song No. 12 12 12

Table A.3.20
Data of Appositions
Number of Data 247 424 Data Look! I've found the hotspots, Figs 1-9. I've never seen a stranger crowd; Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, Line 2 3&4 Stanza 5 1 Song No. 7 13, a)

Table A.3.21
Data of Parentheses
Number of Data 73 364 Data Groucho, with his movies trailing, stands alone with his punchline failing. The rocks, in time, compress your blood to oil, Line 6 7&8 Stanza 2 1 Song No. 2 11

Table A.3.22
Data of Consonances
Number of Data 403 537 Data 'With their tongues, they test, taste and judge all that is mine. it is Real. it is Rael Line 3 6 Stanza 5 4 Song No. 12 17

Table A.3.23
Data of Onomatopoeias
Number of Data 425 448 Slubberdegullions on a squeaky feet, I watch his countdown timer tick...... Data Line 4 2 Stanza 1 5 Song No. 13, a) 13, b)

Table A.3.24
Data of Irony, Eye Rhyme, Rhetorical Question, Polyptoton, Chiasmus, Antimetabole, Oxymoron
Number of Data 76 78 188 270 370 383 396 Poetic Device Irony Eye Rhyme Rhetorical Question Polyptoton Chiasmus Antimetabole Oxymoron Data Klu Klux Klan serve hot soul food peach blossom and bitter almonde. you can bottle all you made. So you think I'm a tough kid? Is that what you heard? There is lambswool under my naked feet. The wool is soft and warm, From familiar fragrance to flavours strange. Damn it all! does earth plug a hole in heaven, Or heaven plug a hole in the earth-'how wonderful to be so profound, Muted melodies fill the echoing hall, Line 7 9& 11 2 Stanza 2 2 1 Song No. 2 2 6

1& 2
4 5&6 5

1
1 2 4

8
11 12 12

Appendix IV Gallery

The Lamb Album Front Cover

The Lamb Album Back Cover

The Lamb Album Inner Sleeve

Members of Gabriel-era Genesis Left to Right: Peter Banks (Keyboard), Peter Gabriel (Vocal, Flute), Mike Rutherford (Bass, Guitar), Steve Hackett (Guitar), Phil Collins (Drums)